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1

Upper stage technology evaluation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

1972-01-01

2

Ovarian Cancer Stage II  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage II View/Download: Small: 792x324 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of ...

3

CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

4

Ariane 5 upper stage thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal protection system of the Ariane 5 upper stage tank section development program is described with special emphasis on the heat shield. The optimization process is given, beginning with material selection combined with analysis and followed by test verification. Attention is given to the storable propellant stage (SPS) thermal design, heat shield component thermal performance tests, SPS heat shield verification test results, and the manufacturing and integration approach.

Schwarz, B.; Menn, F.; Gutschmidt, K.

1991-07-01

5

Coasting Phase Propellant Management for Upper Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of European cryogenic upper stages, namely the A5ME upper stage, is expected to perform multiple engine restarts in order to enhance the mission flexibility. The management of the propellant in the upper stage tanks under g conditions is thus a major issue with respect to the handling of these phases. A number of different tasks play a major role, e.g. the coupling of the rigid body motion and the sloshing in the tanks driven by the controller of the stage. Furthermore also thermal aspects are of importance which have to be considered. Coasting phases are not a new aspect with respect to mission scenarios of upper stages as they occur during every P/L release. Main difference in case of a restart mission is however that the tank fill level is much higher compared to past P/L separations with a nearly empty tank. The coupling between rigid body motion, controller and fluid motion is thus much stronger. Astrium therefore developed a software tool, called "FIPS", which is able evaluate the coupled closed loop rigid body motion including fluid dynamics and the control algorithm. The tool couples the high sophisticated CFD software FLOW-3D with an Astrium developed closed loop rigid body dynamics simulator. The presentation discusses details concerning the propellant behaviour in coasting phases. The impact of internal equipments such as sloshing baffles will be detailed. One conclusion of the assessment is that to a major part disturbing torques are non-negligible such that a realistic propellant behaviour can only be realized in a closed loop simulation. The impact of the upper stage controller can not be neglected.

Philipp, Behruzi; Strauch, Hans; de Rose, Francesco

6

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

1979-01-01

7

Shuttle/Centaur Upper Stage Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint project to design, develop, procure, and produce Centaur upper stages for use with the Space Shuttle is discussed. A common Centaur G stage 6 meters (19.5 feet) in length is being jointly developed. A longer version designated Centaur G Prime is being developed by NASA to accomplish the Galileo and International Solar-Polar Mission flights in 1986. The Centaur G and G Prime will have the capability to place, respectively, approximately 4540 kilograms (10,000 pounds) and 5910 kilograms (13,000 pounds) into geosynchronous orbit from a standard Shuttle parking orbit of 278 kilometers (150 nautical miles) and Shuttle performance (lift) capability 29,500 kilograms (65,000 pounds). The advent of high energy upper stage capability in 1986 will permit space users and spacecraft developers to utilize spacecraft growth, stage combination concepts with storage modules, teleoperator systems, and other mission peculiar devices to satisfy complex mission demands. These capabilities should greatly enhance the usefulness of the space environment and stimulate mission planners toward conception of innovative means to meet ever increasing mission requirements.

Clark, H. J.

1984-01-01

8

Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and discussed in light of the various missions. For each mission there are several trajectory options and each will be discussed in terms of delta-v required and transit duration. Each propulsion system will be modeled, sized, and judged based on their applicability to the whole range of beyond LEO missions. Criteria for scoring will include the resulting dry mass of the stage, resulting propellant required, time to destination, and an assessment of key enabling technologies. In addition to the larger metrics, this paper will present the results of several coupled sensitivity studies. The ultimate goals of these tools and studies are to provide NASA with the most mass-, technology-, and cost-effective in-space stage for its future exploration missions.

Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

2014-01-01

9

Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

10

Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

1984-01-01

11

Upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additive. These propellants increase the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other Earth-orbital transfer missions. However, using metallized propellants for planetary missions can deliver great reductions in flight time with a single-stage, upper-stage system. Tradeoff studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with nonmetallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages, launched from the STS and STS-C, are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to high altitude orbits and onto interplanetary trajectories that are unattainable with only the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C). The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the STS and STS-C launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1992-01-01

12

United States upper stages for the next decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970 s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G' was ultimately developed as the centaur upper stage for use with the Titan IV launch system. In the last two decades upper stage development decisions and requirements were driven by increased payload performance demands. As we look forward to the next decade it is apparent that the situation has changed. Significant effort is underway to downsize payloads. The best mission model projections indicate that the payload performance demands have reached a maximum with current or near-term missions, and that maximum weight requirements will generally decrease in the near future. Thus the current fleet of launch systems and upper stages are expected to be able to meet all projected performance requirements through the next one to two decades. The impetus for development of a new upper stage will have to come from somewhere other than increased performance requirements. A driving need for a new upper stage is emerging from the concept and technology development work currently underway in the U.S. on the evolved expendable vehicle (EELV) and reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The key EELV upper stage requirements are cost, operability and reliability. Clearly the EELV presents a performance challenge for a single upper stage to operate with a booster family over the complete mission model payload weight and destination range. The design requirements and trade-off considerations are quite different for a stage to operate with an RLV. In this case, manned safety and payload bay packaging become significant additional considerations which must be addressed, and reusability, with or without space basing, is an option. This paper covers the need and prospects of U.S. upper stages for the next decade by tracing the history of development and planned improvements, and identifying new requirements and challenges expected to be imposed by emerging EELV and RLV requirements. Trade-off factors, design considerations and sensitivities, as well as cost and reliability benchmarks, are highlighted through the use of representative design solutions.

Goldstein, A.; Woods, F.

13

Overview of the Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overview begins with the bold vision for space exploration set out by President Bush in 2004. A brief description of the proposed systems architecture is presented along with an animation showing the various stages and phases of a mission. The overview concludes with latest roadmaps for the Upper Stage.

Funk, Joan G.

2006-01-01

14

Analytical study of spinning solid upper stage dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical solutions for the spinning vehicle dynamics during the burning phase in vacuum were derived. These solutions explicity incorporate the effects of thrust misalignment, gravity gradient torques, jet damping, dynamic unbalance and spin rate variations. These expressions are useful in preliminary design studies of spinning upper stages of launch vehicles. The main advantages of this approach lies in the fact that the time required to carry out detailed parametric studies is one order lower than regular 6 DOF simulations. The application of this approach for a typical Shuttle Launched Spinning Solid Upper Stage (SSUS) mission incorporating AS-05-A payload is illustrated.

Menon, K. A. P.; Sundararajan, N.

1980-11-01

15

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

SEER Program Coding and Staging Manual 2004, Revision 1 Appendix C Site-Specific Coding Modules C-299 Collaborative Staging Codes Nasal Cavity C30.0 C30.0 Nasal cavity (excludes nose, NOS C76.0) Note: Laterality must be coded for this site,

16

Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

2007-01-01

17

Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-23

18

Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

1974-01-01

19

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

Gum, Upper.......................................................................................................................................C-47 Gum, Lower and Retromolar Area Retromolar Gingiva (Trigone) ..................................................C-55 Gum, NOS ........................................................................................................................................C-63 Floor of Mouth..................................................................................................................................C-71 Hard Palate........................................................................................................................................C-83 Soft Palate, Uvula .............................................................................................................................C-91 Other Mouth....................................................................................................................................C-101 Cheek (Buccal) Mucosa, Vestibule.................................................................................................C-109 Parotid Gland ..................................................................................................................................C-119 Submandibular Gland .....................................................................................................................C-127 Other and Unspecified Major Salivary Glands ...............................................................................C-135 Tonsil, Oropharynx .........................................................................................................................C-145 Anterior Surface of Epiglottis .........................................................................................................C-155 Nasopharynx ...................................................................................................................................C-165 Pyriform Sinus, Hypopharynx, Laryngopharynx............................................................................C-173 Pharynx, NOS, and Other Ill-Defined Oral Cavity Sites ................................................................C-181 Esophagus .......................................................................................................................................C-193 Small Intestine ................................................................................................................................C-211 Colon...............................................................................................................................................C-219 Rectosigmoid, Rectum....................................................................................................................C-231 Anus Anal Canal; Anus, NOS; Other Parts of Rectum.

20

Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

2014-12-23

21

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares 1-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

Davis, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

22

J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

Buzzell, James C.

2009-01-01

23

Risk assessment in Stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

In the treatment of colon cancer today, the decision-making involved in the treatment of stage II disease is probably the most challenging aspect. The major question is whether or not these patients should receive postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Approximately 75% of stage II colon cancer is cured by surgery alone. For the remaining 25% of cases, there is great debate over whether adjuvant chemotherapy is sufficiently effective in enough patients to warrant the exposure to potentially toxic treatments. In the important QUASAR clinical trial, stage II patients were randomized to either fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy or observation. The results demonstrated an approximate 3% improvement in outcome for the 5-FU-treated patients. This leads to the assumption that treating all stage II patients with adjuvant chemotherapy is gross overtreatment, when essentially 97% of these patients will not benefit. Clearly the only way to approach this decision is through risk determination. In this article, I will describe the current state of defining high- and low-risk disease, which is mainly through histopathologic characteristics, as well as discuss emerging approaches such as molecular markers and genomic profiling. PMID:20225606

Marshall, John L

2010-01-01

24

ROCSAT II Airglow Instrument for Upper Atmospheric Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ROCSAT II is an upper atmospheric research satellite to be launched in the end of 2003. The remote sensing instrument-ISUAL include a few imaging and photometric detectors to measure the optical emissions generated by atomic and molecular species in the upper atmosphere. The instrument was designed to study the upper atmospheric lightening- the SPRITES. However, there are aurora and airglow

J. Nee

2003-01-01

25

Lenalidomide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2014-04-18

26

NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

Walker, James

2008-01-01

27

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

2006-01-01

28

Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

Buzzell, James C.

2010-01-01

29

Risk Assessment Challenges in the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently at work developing hardware and systems for the Ares I rocket that will send future astronauts into orbit. Built on cutting-edge launch technologies, evolved powerful Apollo and Space Shuttle propulsion elements, and decades of NASA spaceflight experience, Ares I is the essential core of a safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation system -- one that will carry crewed missions back to the moon, on to Mars and out into the solar system. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the vehicle's primary mission -carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit --Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to "park" payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Crew transportation to the International Space Station is planned to begin no later than 2014. The first lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe. This paper presents the challenges in designing the Ares I upper stage for reliability and safety while minimizing weight and maximizing performance.

Stott, James E.; Ring, Robert W.; Elrada, Hassan A.; Hark, Frank

2007-01-01

30

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

31

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

32

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

33

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

34

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overall description of the avionics and software functions of the Ares I Upper Stage Crew Launch Vehicle. The contents include: 1) IUA Team - Development Approach Roadmap; 2) Ares I US Avionics and Software Development Approach; 3) NDT Responsibilities; 4) Ares I Upper Stage Avionics Locations; 5) Ares I Overall Avionics & Software Functions; 6) Block Diagram Version of Avionics Architecture; 7) Instrument Unit Avionics Preliminary Design; and 8) Upper Stage Avionics External Interfaces.

Nola, Charles L.

2008-01-01

35

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

36

Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

2010-01-01

37

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

38

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer

2014-12-23

39

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

1999-01-01

40

Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

2014-01-01

41

Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

42

Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2014-12-23

43

Cost-effectiveness of common upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'Advanced Terminal Interceptor Design' code is presently used in conjunction with the 'Aerojet Interceptor Design and Evaluation' and 'Near-Earth Mission Analysis Routine' codes to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of common versus optimized upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters at equal payloads. It is thereby established that the development and production costs of a three-stage booster with common upper stages

Steve Tiwari; Mark Umansky; Steven Bryant; Gerald E. Hanson; James R. Krakus

1993-01-01

44

Vorinostat, Rituximab, and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2014-12-24

45

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

46

Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1990-01-01

47

Cost-effectiveness of common upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'Advanced Terminal Interceptor Design' code is presently used in conjunction with the 'Aerojet Interceptor Design and Evaluation' and 'Near-Earth Mission Analysis Routine' codes to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of common versus optimized upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters at equal payloads. It is thereby established that the development and production costs of a three-stage booster with common upper stages can be significantly less than an optimized booster involving three different stages, due to less design effort, less component development and qualification, and less production tooling.

Tiwari, Steve; Umansky, Mark; Bryant, Steven; Hanson, Gerald E.; Krakus, James R.

1993-02-01

48

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage. A.N. Boudewyns, P.H. Van de Heyning, W.A. De Backer. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Various sites along the upper airway (UA) are prone to narrow and collapse in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep stages may even- tually alter these sites. The present study was designed

A. N. Boudewyns; P. H. Van de Heyning; W. A. De Backer

1997-01-01

49

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

50

Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

Carter, Robert W.

2011-01-01

51

Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton capability boundary for the upper stage, such that if the combined first stage and boosters can achieve any one staging point on that surface, then the design is identified as feasible. With the surrogate model created, design and analysis of advanced booster concepts is streamlined, as optimization of the upper stage trajectory is no longer required in every design loop.

Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

2012-01-01

52

Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

2003-01-01

53

Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-11-20

54

ROCSAT II Airglow Instrument for Upper Atmospheric Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROCSAT II is an upper atmospheric research satellite to be launched in the end of 2003. The remote sensing instrument-ISUAL include a few imaging and photometric detectors to measure the optical emissions generated by atomic and molecular species in the upper atmosphere. The instrument was designed to study the upper atmospheric lightening- the SPRITES. However, there are aurora and airglow modes to be utilized for aeronomy studies . Furthermore, the Sprite involves many similar optical emissions generated as the airglow. The ROCSAT II Sprite experiment consist of a CCD imager, six-channel photometers, and a 2-channel photometer array, by using filters centered at the wavelengths 557.7, 630, 760 nm for CCD and additionally 432.7, 777.4 and 762 nm for photometer. The CCD imager will be most useful for studying the airglow globally. The following is a list of the planned airglow research: (1) The global and equatorial distributions of airglow emissions: O(1D), O(1S), and O2(b) (2) The basic physical and chemical process to generate the airglow, such as the production mechanism, (3) Measurements of atmospheric parameters and compositions including the profiles of electron, O atom, ozone. (4)The dynamics of the atmosphere including gravity waves, temperature inversion, tidal and planetary waves, (5) The long term changes of the upper atmosphere related to the cooling of the upper atmosphere due to green house effects. These studies will be compared with previous measurement such as UARS in 1992-1998. The O2 A band airglow will be used as an example.

Nee, J.

2003-12-01

55

STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II  

SciTech Connect

TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

2002-08-29

56

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

57

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2013-12-12

58

78 FR 58184 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY...18, 2009, for the purpose of removing Stage II vapor control requirement contingency...SIP revision also addresses several non-Stage II related rule changes. However,...

2013-09-23

59

Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2015-02-16

60

TROJID: A portable software package for upper-stage trajectory optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance optimization for upper-stage exoatmospheric vehicles often is performed within the framework of a full capability trajectory simulation package requiring either a large mainframe computer or powerful work-station. Since these software packages tend to include capabilities providing for high-fidelity boost and reentry simulations, the programs usually are quite large and not very portable. The program TROJID is an attempt to provide an environment for the optimization of upper-stage trajectories within a small package capable of being run on a standard desktop microcomputer. Utilizing a state-of-the-art nonlinear programming algorithm and a trajectory simulator implementing impulsive burns and an analytic coast phase propagator, TROJID is capable of producing trajectories for optimal multi-burn upper-stage orbit transfers. The package has been designed to allow full generality in definition of both the trajectory simulator and the parameter optimization problem.

Hammes, Steven M.

1990-01-01

61

Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

2013-01-15

62

Recognition and correlation of the Kapitean Stage (Upper Miocene, New Zealand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salient features of New Zealand Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene microfaunas are outlined, and criteria for recognising the Kapitean Stage are summarised. Paleoecological evidence suggests that the Kapitean Age was a time when seas were relatively shallow, that the shallowing took place in the latest part of the Tongaporutuan Age, and that deepening took place in the earliest part

J. P. Kennett

1967-01-01

63

High temperature energy conversion for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies were conducted to assess the benefits of the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) concept and key components including high temperature thermionic converters, have been tested and evaluated. Advanced radiatively coupled heat pipe cooled thermionic converters with rhenium and tungsten emitters were characterized individually for integration in a modular power unit. The converter with the tungsten emitter was performance

Mysore L. Ramalingam; Thomas R. Lamp; M. Jacox; F. Kennedy

1996-01-01

64

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine, component development, and firing tests. The test facility is also described.

Nagai, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamazaki, I.

1985-10-01

65

Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

Ahmed, Rafiq

2012-01-01

66

Discrimination of behaviorally irrelevant auditory stimuli in stage II sleep  

E-print Network

, a late latency auditory-evoked potential (AEP) is often present during nonrapid eye movement (REM) sleep that a sound could generate a P300 component in the event-related potential (ERP) during REM sleep, providedSleep 207 Discrimination of behaviorally irrelevant auditory stimuli in stage II sleep Shuang Liua

67

Individualized Treatment in Treating Patients With Stage II-IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer Based on EBV DNA  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

2014-07-10

68

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification / Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested to validate the mathematical model of the launcher. Additionally, transfer functions were measured for Pogo investigations. Validated mathematical launcher models are the basis to predict the launcher global responses in the low frequency domain with sufficient confidence. The predicted global axial and lateral responses for selected sections at the stage represent the flight loads for these sections. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. The verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro shock) a stage separation test was performed. All the equipment was qualified separately for its dynamic (sine, random and shock excitation) and thermal environment to proof its structural and functional integrity. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine-vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electrodynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 150 Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experiences which were made - the comparison between prediction and test results shows the ability and good quality of analysis but - the advantage of combined analysis of shaker table and stage model for test prediction - local effects observed in test - the dependency of damping on the load level - the efficiency of the so called SARO-Damping Device

Rittweger, A.; Beuchel, W.; Eckhardt, K.

2002-01-01

69

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

70

Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

2000-01-01

71

Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

72

Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan H.

2010-01-01

73

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

74

Management of stage II/III rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Pelvic and distant recurrences in rectal cancer can be associated with substantial morbidity, and patients with stage II and III disease are at increased risk for both local and distant failure when compared to patients with earlier stage disease. Refinement of surgical techniques have helped to reduce the risk of recurrence, and adjuvant therapies such as radiation to the tumor and regional lymph nodes and 5-fluorouracil-based systemic therapies have helped to further provide local control and may have an impact on overall survival. Numerous studies have been completed internationally in an effort to determine the optimal treatment regimen for this patient population. The importance of pre-therapy staging is of key importance as sequencing of therapy appears to significantly impact outcome. In the United States, patients with stage II/III rectal cancer are recommended to undergo preoperative concurrent pelvic radiation and chemotherapy followed by surgery several weeks later in order to maximize treatment response, which is then followed by approximately 4 months of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based systemic therapy. In Europe, there is substantial evidence supporting the use of neoadjuvant radiation therapy, however the role of concurrent chemotherapy remains a question of debate. Regardless of definitive management strategy, close follow-up in the post-treatment setting is important for early tumor detection and for managing treatment-related side-effects. PMID:22811815

Fakih, Marwan G; Yang, Gary Y

2010-01-01

75

Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

2008-01-01

76

Characterization of the 2012-044c Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to request radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, Joseph; Papanyan, Valen

2013-01-01

77

Migration and winter distributions of canvasbacks staging on the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fall and winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) staging on the upper Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin (navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Pool 19) were studied during 1973-77. Sightings and recoveries obtained from 1,488 color-marked males during 1973-75 and 3,789 banded males and females during 1973-77 suggested 2 principal migration corridors: 1 extending eastward from Pools 7 and 8 to the eastern Great Lakes and southeast to the Mid-Atlantic Region and another southward from Pools 7 and 8 to the lower Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast, and east Texas regions. These discrete populations stage concurrently on Pools 7 and 8 during the fall, but winter in different areas of the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Central flyways. Populations staging on Pool 19 were not discrete from those staging on Pools 7 and 8. A continual turnover of birds passing through these staging areas was indicated. Canvasbacks wintering in the Mississippi and Central flyways were widely dispersed among a variety of habitats, whereas canvasbacks wintering in the Atlantic Flyway were concentrated in a few traditional habitats. Canvasbacks exhibited strong fidelity to wintering areas. Distribution patterns and population attributes of canvasbacks during fall and winter may be explained by the predictability of natural foods and their ability to exploit these foods.

Serie, J.R.; Trauger, D.L.; Sharp, D.E.

1983-01-01

78

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2015-01-30

79

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-12-19

80

Aerothermodynamics calculation of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at descent in the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering calculation method has been developed for investigation of the process of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at deorbiting and descent into the Earth's atmosphere. The results of calculation of its descent trajectory and characteristics of aerodynamic heating are presented. Within the framework of the thermodynamic approach, the authors investigated the process of pressure increase in the tanks due to heating and evaporation of the liquid phase of fuel. Stresses in the shells, the height and the energy equivalent of explosive destruction of tanks were calculated depending on the degree of their filling with remains of the components of liquid fuel.

Glazunov, A. A.; Goldin, V. D.; Zverev, V. G.; Ustinov, S. N.; Finchenko, V. S.

2013-06-01

81

78 FR 28776 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise Holdings...facility from the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) Stage II vapor control requirements. The Enterprise...Stephen D. Page, entitled ``Removal of Stage II Vapor Recovery in Situations Where...

2013-05-16

82

75 FR 74673 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: Stage II Vapor Recovery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: Stage II Vapor Recovery AGENCY: Environmental...that relates to revisions to Georgia's Stage II gasoline vapor recovery rule at 391-3...from Stephen D. Page entitled Removal of Stage II Vapor Recovery in Situations Where...

2010-12-01

83

78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY...18, 2009, for the purpose of removing Stage II vapor control requirements for new and...SIP revision also addresses several non-Stage II related rule changes. However,...

2013-06-07

84

78 FR 58884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise Holdings...facility from the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) Stage II vapor control requirements. The subject...Stephen D. Page, entitled ``Removal of Stage II Vapor Recovery in Situations Where...

2013-09-25

85

Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

2006-01-01

86

A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2002-01-01

87

MRI and Mammography Before Surgery in Patients With Stage I-II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2014-10-16

88

CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage  

SciTech Connect

Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N. G. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2006-12-15

89

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware-in-the-loop. Testing expanded in 2007, accompanied by the refinement of the design through several key milestones. This paper discusses those 2007 tests and milestones, as well as updates key developments in 2008.

Byrd, THomas

2008-01-01

90

Dinoflagellates: Fossil motile-stage tests from the upper cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey coastal plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

May, F.E.

1976-01-01

91

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

Holland, L.E.

1986-01-01

92

Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

Graham, Scott R.

2014-01-01

93

Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097, Paclitaxel, And Carboplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

2014-12-10

94

IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

1975-01-01

95

A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2010-01-01

96

Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2011-01-01

97

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

2004-01-01

98

MIDDLE TO UPPER ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (PHASE II)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this assessment activity is to enhance the ability of decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Middle to Upper Atlantic Region who are vulnerable to land use change and climate change to access and use the best scientific information when making decisions th...

99

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell  

E-print Network

Background: A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings: Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa.

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold

100

Treatment of giant congenital melanocytic nevus of the left upper extremity with staged expanded flap.  

PubMed

Excision of a congenital giant nevus is advised due to the possibility of it degenerating into a malignant melanoma or for aesthetic concerns. Tissue expansion has emerged as the primary treatment of giant congenital nevi because it enables the body to produce extra skin with excellent texture, better colour match, less severe donor-site deformity and repeated usage of an expanding donor-site. We present a multi-staged expansion/local flap technique to treat a case of a circumferential nevus from the acromioclavicular joint and axillary area throughout the upper extremity excluding the hand. The affected skin was approximately 10% of the total body surface area. The patient underwent eight operations and a total of 11 rounds of tissue expansions (500 cc × 9 rounds, 600 cc × 1 round, 300 cc × 1 round) were completed over a 2-year period prior to the removal of the nevus. A good aesthetic and functional outcome in the left upper extremity was gained. It is recommended that the treatment of giant nevi is best if completed at preschool age after taking several factors into consideration. PMID:21795129

Liu, Yufeng; Huang, Jinlong; Wen, Ke; Liu, Ning; Wang, Jinming

2012-02-01

101

The long-term survival of women with surgical stage II endometrioid type endometrial cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival estimates, treatment outcomes, prognostic factors, and recurrence patterns of patients with surgical stage II endometrial cancer.Methods. Forty-eight stage II endometrial cancer patients treated between 1982 and 2000 were included. All the patients were subjected to the initial surgical staging procedure consisting of peritoneal cytology, infracolic omentectomy, abdominal hysterectomy (radical

Ali Ayhan; Cagatay Taskiran; Cetin Celik; Kunter Yuce

2004-01-01

102

Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high sinuosity stage, the secondary anabranches behave as non-developed meanders. Also, it was concluded that the planform for secondary anabranches in all main channel sinuosity stages are controlled by the main anabranch migration.

Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

2013-12-01

103

Analysis of Allelic Imbalance on Chromosome 17p13 in Stage I and Stage II Epithelial Ovarian Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.To determine whether there is evidence for allelic imbalance (AI) on chromosome 17p13 in early-stage epithelial ovarian tumors.Methods.Studies of allelic imbalance were performed on 29 stage I or stage II epithelial ovarian cancers using 5 short tandem repeat polymorphic markers (STRPs) on chromosome 17p13 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification.Results.Sixteen of 29 (55%) tumors showed AI at one or more

Donald W. Wiper; Kristine M. Zanotti; Alexander W. Kennedy; Jerome L. Belinson; Graham Casey

1998-01-01

104

Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

1974-01-01

105

The thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, II: Energetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profiles derived from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer data in Paper I show that the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere is extremely variable. The median temperature of each vertical profile, which is approximately equal to the temperature derived by fitting the barometric equation to the N2 density profile, varied between 112 and 175 K. Here we attempt to understand the cause of the 60 K variation in temperature, as well as large local perturbations in temperature, by estimating the strength of potentially important energy sources and sinks in Titan's thermosphere including ion and electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere, Joule heating, and wave dissipation. The apparent correlation between the temperature of Titan's thermosphere and Titan's plasma environment suggest that particle precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be the most significant heat source, but we find that the energy deposited by magnetospheric sources is less than solar EUV and results from a thermal structure model indicate that magnetospheric particle precipitation only increases the temperature of Titan's thermosphere by ˜7 K; therefore, heating due to magnetospheric particle precipitation is too small to explain the largest temperature variations observed. We also estimate the energy deposited by waves in Titan's thermosphere and show that wave dissipation may be a significant source of heating or cooling in Titan's upper atmosphere.

Snowden, D.; Yelle, R. V.

2014-01-01

106

Reusable Centaur study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [development costs of Centaur launch vehicle as upper stage for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the Reusable Centaur for use as an initial upper stage with the space shuttle was conducted. The currently operative Centaur stage, with modifications for space shuttle orbiter compatibility and for improved performance, represents a cost effective development solution. The performance needs and available development funds are discussed. The main features of three Reusable Centaur configurations with increasing capability at increasing development costs are summarized.

Heald, D. A.

1974-01-01

107

Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

2000-01-01

108

Glycoprotein and Glycan in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

109

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

110

Postsurgical Surveillance of Patients with FIGO Stage I\\/II Endometrial Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effect of postsurgical surveillance on survival of patients with FIGO stage I\\/II endometrial adenocarcinoma. Methods: We examined the records of 354 patients who underwent primary surgical therapy for FIGO stage I\\/II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In patients who developed recurrent disease, we determined whether symptoms or signs of disease were present at recurrence and whether there was evidence

Andrew Berchuck; Celia Anspach; Anthony C. Evans; John T. Soper; Gustavo C. Rodriguez; Richard Dodge; Stanley Robboy; Daniel L. Clarke-Pearson

1995-01-01

111

Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-03-05

112

Frequency of Stage II Oral Transport Cycles in Healthy Human.  

PubMed

Stage II transport (St2Tr) is propulsion of triturated food into the pharynx for storage before swallowing via tongue squeeze-back against the palate. To clarify the phenomenology of St2Tr, we examined the effects of food consistency and the number of chewing cycles on the number of St2Tr cycles in a chew-swallow sequence. We recorded chew-swallow sequences in lateral projection with videofluoroscopy of 13 healthy volunteers eating 6 g of hard (shortbread cookie), and soft foods (ripe banana and tofu) with barium. We counted the number of chewing and St2Tr cycles from food intake to terminal swallow. We used the Friedman test for bivariate analyses and negative binomial regression for multivariable analyses. On bivariate analysis, food consistency had a positive association with the number of chewing cycles (P = 0.013), but not with the number of St2Tr cycles (P = 0.27). Multivariable analysis, however, revealed a greater number of St2Tr cycles with hard than soft food (P ? 0.01) and a trend toward negative correlation between the numbers of St2Tr and chewing cycles (P = 0.083). The number of chewing cycles needed to clear the mouth differs among food consistencies as demonstrated previously. Greater numbers of both St2Tr and chewing cycles were elicited with the hard than with the soft foods. Given the trend toward negative correlation, the association between the number of St2Tr cycles and that of chewing cycles deserves further study. PMID:25142241

Inokuchi, Haruhi; Brodsky, Martin B; González-Fernández, Marlís; Yoda, Mitsumasa; Hiraoka, Takashi; Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B

2014-12-01

113

Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

2011-12-07

114

Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid-life Evolution (A5-ME) program track the progress of these technology developments and analyze their applicability in time for A5-ME. In order to approximate A5-ME concerned preconditions, activities are initiated aiming at harmonization of the available specifications. Hence, a look-out towards a further technology step approaching TRL6 in a subsequent phase is given, briefly addressing topics of full scale manufacture and appropriate thermo-mechanical testing of an entire sandwich common bulkhead.

Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

2012-12-01

115

Paleoethnobotanical study of Early Bronze II in the Upper Stryama Valley ( Dubene Sarovka IIB)  

E-print Network

Introduction The Early Bronze Age site of Dubene-Sarovka gives the opportunity to study the development and continued again in the Early Bronze Age (Nikolova, Zaharieva1994). The Early Bronze layers are dividedCHAPTER 41 Paleoethnobotanical study of Early Bronze II in the Upper Stryama Valley ( Dubene

Marinova, Elena

116

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

Byrd, Thomas

2010-01-01

117

Lessons learned from the dynamic identification/qualification tests on the ESC-A upper stage model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modeling approach made at the beginning of the development. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. For the low frequency domain the verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro-shock) a stage separation test was performed. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electro-dynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 100÷150Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach of how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experience accomplished.

Rittweger, Andreas; Beuchel, Werner; Andersen, Martin G.; Albus, Jochen

2005-12-01

118

An Analytical Theory for the Early Stage of the Development of Hurricanes: Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this series of papers, an analytical theory for the early stage (tropical storm stage) of hurricane development is proposed. In Part I, a linear theory and a nonlinear theory have been formulated. It was found in Part I that the linear theory, a kind of the 2D Rankine vortex, gives some unrealistic properties for hurricane development at the upper

Chanh Q. Kieu

2004-01-01

119

Predictors of recurrence free survival for patients with stage II and III colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate clinico-pathologic specific predictors of recurrence for stage II/III disease. Improving recurrence prediction for resected stage II/III colon cancer patients could alter surveillance strategies, providing opportunities for more informed use of chemotherapy for high risk individuals. Methods 871 stage II and 265 stage III patients with colon cancers were included. Features studied included surgery date, age, gender, chemotherapy, tumor location, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor differentiation, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion. Time to recurrence was evaluated, using Cox’s proportional hazards models. The predictive ability of the multivariable models was evaluated using the concordance (c) index. Results For stage II cancer patients, estimated recurrence-free survival rates at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 98%, 92%, 90%, and 89%. Only T stage was significantly associated with recurrence. Estimated recurrence-free survival rates for stage III patients at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 94%, 78%, 70%, and 66%. Higher recurrence rates were seen in patients who didn’t receive chemotherapy (p?=?0.023), with a higher number of positive nodes (p?stage II model was 0.55 and 0.68 for stage III. Conclusions Current clinic-pathologic information is inadequate for prediction of colon cancer recurrence after resection for stage II and IIII patients. Identification and clinical use of molecular markers to identify the earlier stage II and III colon cancer patients at elevated risk of recurrence are needed to improve prognostication of early stage colon cancers. PMID:24886281

2014-01-01

120

Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were discussed. The three burn transfer was found to be a viable, arguably preferable, alternative to the two burn transfer.

Williams, Craig H.

2014-01-01

121

Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

2014-09-08

122

Proton Beam Therapy of Stage II and III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The present retrospective study assessed the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of patients with Stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer who were inoperable or ineligible for chemotherapy because of co-existing disease or refusal. Patients and Methods: Between November 2001 and July 2008, PBT was given to 35 patients (5 patients with Stage II, 12 with Stage IIIA, and 18 with Stage IIIB) whose median age was 70.3 years (range, 47.4-85.4). The median proton dose given was 78.3 Gy (range, 67.1-91.3) (relative biologic effectiveness). Results: Local progression-free survival for Stage II-III patients was 93.3% at 1 year and 65.9% at 2 years during a median observation period of 16.9 months. Four patients (11.4%) developed local recurrence, 13 (37.1%) developed regional recurrence, and 7 (20.0%) developed distant metastases. The progression-free survival rate for Stage II-III patients was 59.6% at 1 year and 29.2% at 2 years. The overall survival rate of Stage II-III patients was 81.8% at 1 year and 58.9% at 2 years. Grade 3 or greater toxicity was not observed. A total of 15 patients (42.9%) developed Grade 1 and 6 (17.1%) Grade 2 toxicity. Conclusion: PBT for Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer without chemotherapy resulted in good local control and low toxicity. PBT has a definite role in the treatment of patients with Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer who are unsuitable for surgery or chemotherapy.

Nakayama, Hidetsugu, E-mail: hnakayam@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Satoh, Hiroaki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kurishima, Koichi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishikawa, Shigemi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokuuye, Koichi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-15

123

Decadal-scale responses in middle and upper stratospheric ozone from SAGE II Version 7 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses and linear trends in the middle and upper stratosphere for the two periods of 1984 to 1998 and 1991 to 2005. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of the v7 ozone number density vs. altitude data for a range of latitudes and altitudes. The MLR models that are fit to the data include a periodic 11 yr term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11-yr, solar uv-flux throughout most of the latitude/altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Max minus min, solar cycle (SC-like) responses for the SAGE II ozone at those altitudes and for the low to middle latitudes are similar for 1984-1998 and for 1991-2005 and of the order of 5 to 2.5% from 35 to 50 km. This finding is important because the associated linear trend terms are clearly different from the MLR models of those two time spans. The SAGE II results for the upper stratosphere are also compared with those of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) in terms of mixing ratio vs. pressure. The shapes of their respective, SC-like response profiles agree well for a time series from late 1992-2005, or after excluding the first 14 months of data following the Pinatubo eruption. Max minus min, SC-like responses from the SAGE II and HALOE time series vary from 2 to 4% and from 0 to 2%, respectively, and their differences in the upper stratosphere can be accounted for using the analyzed, SC-like response of the HALOE temperatures. The linear ozone trends of the upper stratosphere for 1992-2005 vary from about 0 to -4% decade-1 from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere from SAGE II, while they vary from 0 to -2% decade-1 and are more nearly symmetric about the Equator from HALOE.

Remsberg, E. E.

2013-08-01

124

Rituximab and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2015-02-09

125

Prognostic and predictive significance of MSI in stages II/III colon cancer  

PubMed Central

In colon cancer, classic disease staging remains the key prognosis and treatment determinant. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has an established role in stage III colon cancer patients, in stage II it is still a subject of controversy due to its restriction to a small subgroup of patients with high-risk histopathologic features. Patients with stage II tumors form a highly heterogeneous group, with five-year relative overall survival rates ranging from 87.5% (IIA) to 58.4% (IIC). Identifying those for whom adjuvant chemotherapy would be appropriate and necessary has been challenging, and prognostic markers which could serve in the selection of patients more likely to recur or benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy are eagerly needed. The stronger candidate in this category seems to be microsatellite instability (MSI). The recently reported European Society for Medical Oncology guidelines suggest that MSI should be evaluated in stage II colorectal cancer patients in order to contribute in treatment decision-making regarding chemotherapy administration. The hypothetical predictive role of MSI regarding its response to 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy has proven a much more difficult issue to address. Almost every possible relation between MSI and chemotherapy outcome has been described in the adjuvant colon cancer setting in the international literature, and the matter is far from being settled. In this current report we critically evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of MSI status in patients with stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:24944470

Saridaki, Zacharenia; Souglakos, John; Georgoulias, Vassilis

2014-01-01

126

Total upper eyelid reconstruction by single staged malar-cheek flap  

PubMed Central

We report a case of total upper eyelid reconstruction by a new technique after excision of an eyelid tumour. The eyelid was reconstructed by a horizontal, laterally based flap from just under the lower eyelid combined with a chondro-mucosal graft from the nasal septum. Surgical outcome was an excellent aesthetically reconstructed eyelid, which was mobile and properly gliding on the globe to achieve complete eye closure. PMID:24987215

Ahuja, Rajeev B.; Chatterjee, Pallab; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Shrivastava, Prabhat

2014-01-01

127

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER COWLITZ II, 7-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER COWLITZ II, 7-1 May 2004. The basin is part of WRIA 26. The upper Cowlitz basin will play key role in the recovery of salmon steelhead, and coho. Today, chinook and steelhead are listed as threatened under the ESA. Coho salmon

128

Inoperable localized stage I and stage II non-small-cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Early stage, medically inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer is a treatable disease. A thorough clinical work-up is necessary\\u000a to optimize management for this group of patients. Thoracic radiation therapy has been used for such patients with achievement\\u000a of durable local control and prolonged survival. To improve upon the results of standard fractionation radiation therapy,\\u000a novel approaches are needed. Dose escalation

Eric L. Gressen; Walter J. Curran

2002-01-01

129

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2015-02-03

130

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2014-12-19

131

Dentofacial and upper airway characteristics of mild and severe class II division 1 subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to assess whether mild and severe Class II division 1 subjects have craniofacial and upper airway characteristics, which relate to the severity of Class II as judged by overjet or ANB angle. The sample consisted of pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and dental casts of 131 males and 115 females (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6). Inclusion criteria were: healthy Caucasian subjects, at least ¾ Class II first molar relationship on both sides and overjet ? 4 mm. The cephalograms were traced and digitized. Distances and angular values were computed. Mild and severe Class II was defined by overjet (<10 mm/? 10 mm) or by ANB angle (<7 degrees/?7 degrees). Statistics were performed with two-sample t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis. In the two overjet groups, significant differences were mainly found for incisor inclination while the two ANB groups differed significantly in SNA, WITS, Go-Pg, SpaSpp/MGo, SN/MGo, and Ar-Gn. The shortest airway distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall was significantly correlated to the NS/Ar angle. Statistical analysis revealed several significant correlations. Patients with a large overjet or ANB angle differed significantly from patients with a small overjet or ANB angle mainly in their incisor inclination. In the present sample, the overjet and to some extent also the ANB angle is determined by soft tissue or individual tooth position rather than by skeletal background. In retrognathic patients, a tendency towards smaller airway dimensions was found. However, statistical analysis did not reveal a strong connection between upper airway and dentoskeletal parameters, but a large interindividual variation. PMID:22427406

Bollhalder, Julia; Hänggi, Michael P; Schätzle, Marc; Markic, Goran; Roos, Malgorzata; Peltomäki, Timo A

2013-08-01

132

Feeding ecology of canvasbacks staging on Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Foods consumed by canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria), food availability, and energetic relationships were studied on Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Canvasbacks fed primarily upon winter buds of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) and tubers of stiff arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida). In 1980, waterfowl consumed 40% of 380,160 kg of wildcelery winter buds on a portion of Pool 7 referred to as Lake Onalaska. Daily energy expenditure based on estimates from the literature suggests that individual canvasbacks require a minimum of 125 g (dry wt) of wildcelery winter buds each day. Extrapolation of use-days and the daily energy requirement suggests that 3,470 ha of wildcelery are required to support a canvasback population represented by 5 million use-days.

Korschgen, C.E.; George, L.S.; Green, W.L.

1988-01-01

133

Modeling and test data analysis of a tank rapid chill and fill system for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept, where a spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill. Thus the vent valve can be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept,

Robin H. Flachbart; Ali Hedayat; Kimberly A. Holt

2002-01-01

134

Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

2010-01-01

135

Upper Stratospheric Temperature Climatology Derived from SAGE II Observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-mn observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K occurs in the subtropics in both hemispheres. The derived long-term temperature changes from 1985 to 1997 reveal a statistically significant negative trend of -2 to -2.5 K/decade in the tropical upper stratosphere and about -2 K/decade in the subtropics near the stratopause. At latitudes poleward of 50, the results show a statistically significant positive trend of about 1 K/decade in the upper stratosphere. The preliminary results also show large annual temperature oscillations in the extratropics with a maximum amplitude of approx. 8 K located at about 44 km near 50 in both hemispheres during local summer. In addition, the semiannual oscillation is found to be a maximum in the tropics with a peak amplitude of approx. 3.3 K located at about 42 km during the equinox.

Wang, P.-H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.; Chu, W. P.; Thomason, L. W.

2002-01-01

136

An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

2003-01-01

137

Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

138

Lymphadenectomy in the management of endometrial carcinoma stage I and II. Retrospective study of 155 cases.  

PubMed

In our institution endometrial carcinomas Stage I and II were treated with initial uterovaginal brachytherapy 60 Gy followed by modified radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. We have studied the results in order to assess the value of lymphadenectomy in the treatment strategy. Between 1976 and 1986, 155 patients were treated (107 Stage I, 48 Stage II mean age 60.2 years). Twenty-six patients also received postoperative pelvic external beam irradiation on account of lymph node involvement and/or deep tumour invasion into the myometrium. Fourteen patients (9%) had lymph node involvement. External iliac lymph nodes were involved in 78.5% of these cases. Lymph node involvement rate was higher for stage II, grade 3 tumours and when there was deep tumour invasion of the myometrium. The rate of local (pelvic) treatment failure was 12% for node-negative patients and 36% for node-positive patients and the 5-year actuarial survival rates for the two groups were 83% and 41% respectively. As a consequence of our interpretation of the findings and influenced by the high complication rate which we attribute to lymphadenectomy and the information given by other prognostic indicators, we have changed to a policy of carrying out pelvic external radiotherapy for all Stage II, grade 2 or 3 cases and those with deep myometrial invasion. Lymphadenectomy is not performed in these cases. For patients with Stage I grade 1 tumours without deep tumour invasion only external iliac node sampling is performed. If this shows tumour, external irradiation is given in addition to vaginal vault brachytherapy. PMID:2278889

Calais, G; Descamps, P; Vitu, L; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A; Bougnoux, P; Lansac, J; Le Floch, O

1990-11-01

139

Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

Zachary, A. T.

1973-01-01

140

Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

141

Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2014-06-18

142

An Analytical Theory for the Early Stage of the Development of Hurricanes: Part II  

E-print Network

In this series of papers, an analytical theory for the early stage (tropical storm stage) of hurricane development is proposed. In Part I, a linear theory and a nonlinear theory have been formulated. It was found in Part I that the linear theory, a kind of the 2D Rankine vortex, gives some unrealistic properties for hurricane development at the upper half of the atmosphere. In the nonlinear theory, the analytical solutions agree well in many dynamical respects with observations at the tropical stage of hurricane development. Particularly, these solutions offer new insights which have not been shown before. However, this nonlinear theory has a disturbing point: a discontinuity of tangential wind and geopotential with radius. In this second Part, this discontinuity will be eliminated satisfactorily without any significant changes to the results obtained in Part I. In addition, the frictional effects will be investigated, which has not been done considered in Part I.

Takata, J; Hirotani, K

2004-01-01

143

[Large volume stage I and II epidermoid carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with primary radiotherapy and surgery].  

PubMed

Fifty-two women with stage Ib2 and II bulky squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (mean size: 5.65 +/- 0.12 cm, range: 5-8 cm) were treated between July 1982 and December 1993. The median follow-up was 73 months. Their patient's age ranged from 25 to 77 years (median: 45 years). There were 18 stage Ib2, 8 stage IIa and 26 stage IIb operable patients. External radiotherapy was delivered using photons of 6 MV to 25 MV and a four-field "box" technique (upper limit situated between L4-L5). Mean total dose at mid-plane to the whole pelvis was 38.6 Gy (range: 37.4-40.6 Gy) in 18 fractions over 30 days. A boost dose of 20 Gy was given by intracavitary brachytherapy (utero-vaginal). After a mean rest of 48 days, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Following surgery, no remaining tumor on pathological examination of uterine cervix was observed in 39 cases (75%) and positive external iliac nodes were found in 4 cases. Five- and 10-year specific survival rates were 80% and 75%, respectively. The 5- year local tumour recurrence and nodal recurrence rates were 18% and 15%, respectively. There were 7 para-aortic nodal recurrences (3 were isolated para-aortic nodal relapses). There were five late severe complications necessiting surgical intervention. A combination of preoperative radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy, and the extended dissection of common iliac and para-aortic lymph nodes or a post operative prophylactic extended field irradiation including para-aortic lymph nodes is now being attempted in order to improve the locoregional tumour and para-aortic lymph node control rates. PMID:9823696

Touboul, E; Lefranc, J P; Belkacémi, Y; Rogel, A; Deluen, F; Blondon, J; Housset, M

1998-09-01

144

Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

1987-07-01

145

Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

Le Scodan, Romuald, E-mail: lescodan@crh1.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Selz, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bollet, Marc A.; Lande, Brigitte de la; Daveau, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bruant, Sarah [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

2012-01-01

146

United States upper stages for the next decade 1 1 Paper IAF96–V. 2.01 presented at the 47th International Astronautical Congress, Beijing, China, 7–11 October 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G? was ultimately developed as the centaur

A. Goldstein; F. Woods

1997-01-01

147

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected. PMID:21347420

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

148

FISH COMMUNITIES IN LAKE IN SUBREGION 2B (UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN) IN RELATION TO LAKE ACIDITY: VOLUME II. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Surveys of fish community status were conducted in summer 1987 in 49 lakes in Subregion 20, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, as part of Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey. Lake selection involved a variable probability sampling design. Fish communities were surveyed using gill n...

149

AC133 expression associated with poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Identification of high-risk prognostic markers for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently a big challenge. CD133 is one of the most commonly used CRC stem cell markers. However, its specificity is controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated that the AC133 epitope of CD133, not the CD133 protein, is responsible for cancer stem cell identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of AC133 expression in stage II CRC. Two antibodies against CD133, including AC133 and Ab19898, were compared for their expression characteristics. AC133 was chosen for further immunohistochemical assessment on 176 stage II CRC primary tumors with at least 12 examined lymph nodes. The cutoff value for positive rate of AC133 expression was determined by ROC curve analysis. AC133 was analyzed for correlations with clinicopathological and prognostic parameters. The results indicated that AC133 was negative in adjacent noncancerous colorectal mucosa while positive in 116 cases (65.9 %) of primary tumors. AC133 expression was significantly correlated with preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level (p = 0.006) and tumor differentiation grade (p = 0.019). Furthermore, high AC133 expression was identified as a significant predictor for poor disease-free survival and overall survival at both univariate (p = 0.009, 0.013, respectively) and multivariate levels (p = 0.022, 0.026, respectively). Our data suggest that AC133 is an independent adverse prognostic factor and a potential marker for survival classification in stage II CRC patients. PMID:23322518

Ying, Xiaofang; Wu, Jiangxue; Meng, Xiangqi; Zuo, Yufang; Xia, Qing; Chen, Jinou; Feng, Yanfen; Liu, Ranyi; Li, Liren; Huang, Wenlin

2013-03-01

150

Lymphatic spread in stage Ib and II cervical carcinoma: Anatomy and surgical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the frequency and topography of pelvic and para-aortic node involvement in cervical carcinoma and to identify the appropriate level for resection of the lymphatic chains.Methods: Between 1985 and 1994, 421 women with stage Ib or II cervical carcinoma were treated by surgery in combination with irradiation. Each underwent a radical hysterectomy with systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.Results:

Guy Michel; Philippe Morice; Damienne Castaigne; Marc Leblanc; Annie Rey; Pierre Duvillard

1998-01-01

151

Prognostic Value of Stem Cell Quantification in Stage II Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of tumor cells with capacity to self-renew and generate the diverse cells that make up the tumor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of CSCs in a highly homogeneous population of stage II colon cancer. Methods One hundred stage II colon cancer patients treated by the same surgical team between 1977 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Inmunohistochemistry expression of CD133, NANOG and CK20 was scored, using four levels: <10%, 11–25%, 26–50% and >50% positivity. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log rank test were used to compare survival. Results The average patient age was 68 years (patients were between 45–92 years of age) and median follow up was 5.8 years. There was recurrent disease in 17 (17%); CD133 expression (defined by >10% positivity) was shown in 60% of the tumors, in 95% for NANOG and 78% for CK20. No correlation was found among expression levels of CD133, NANOG or CK20 and relapse-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS). However, a statistical significant correlation was found between established pathological prognostic factors and RFS and OS. Conclusions Stem Cell quantification defined by CD133 and NANOG expression has no correlation with RFS or OS in this cohort of Stage II colon cancer. PMID:24586330

Vaz, Maria Angeles; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Devesa, José Manuel; Trill, Javier Die; Abraira, Victor; Riquelme, Alejandro; Carrato, Alfredo

2014-01-01

152

Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

153

Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

2010-01-01

154

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

2008-01-01

155

Stage II Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium: Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Recurrence Patterns  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Review patterns of recurrence for Stage II endometrial cancer in a community practice. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 1985-2002. Patients were excluded for Stages I, III, or IV or treatment with preoperative pelvic radiation (external beam radiation therapy [EBRT]). Results: Eighty-six patients with a mean follow-up of 70 months are reported. Higher risk patients were selected for adjuvant radiation with no apparent differences for those receiving only EBRT compared with EBRT with brachytherapy. Five-year actuarial vaginal, pelvic sidewall/nodal, and metastatic control rates were 100% and 100%, 96.9% and 100%, and 79% and 84.2% for patients receiving EBRT or EBRT with brachytherapy. Overall survival rates were 70.5% and 75.8%, and cause-specific survival rates were 78.8% and 82.9% for those receiving EBRT or EBRT with brachytherapy. A select group was observed and experienced one vaginal recurrence with overall and cause-specific survival rates of 100%. Conclusion: In higher risk patients with Stage II, adjuvant EBRT achieves excellent vaginal and pelvic sidewall/nodal control without apparent benefit from additional brachytherapy. Select patients may not require adjuvant treatment.

Cozad, Scott C. [Therapeutic Radiologists, Inc., Liberty Radiation Oncology Clinic, Liberty, MO (United States)], E-mail: sccozad@tridocs.com

2008-05-01

156

40 CFR 51.126 - Determination of widespread use of ORVR and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline vapor recovery requirements...and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline vapor recovery requirements...Clean Air Act section 182(b)(3) for Stage II vapor recovery systems in ozone...

2013-07-01

157

40 CFR 51.126 - Determination of widespread use of ORVR and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline vapor recovery requirements...and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline vapor recovery requirements...Clean Air Act section 182(b)(3) for Stage II vapor recovery systems in ozone...

2012-07-01

158

Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Stage II-IV T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2015-02-03

159

Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Stage II-IV T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2014-12-23

160

Effect of 18F-FDG PET\\/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using ¹F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography (PET\\/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in

David Groheux; Jean-Luc Moretti; Georges Baillet; Marc Espie; Sylvie Giacchetti; Elif Hindie; Christophe Hennequin; Jacques-Robert Vilcoq; Caroline Cuvier; Marie-Elisabeth Toubert; Jean-Emmanuel Filmont; Farid Sarandi; Jean-Louis Misset

2008-01-01

161

Messenger RNAs in metaphase II oocytes correlate with successful embryo development to the blastocyst stage.  

PubMed

The mRNAs accumulated in oocytes provide support for embryo development until embryo genomic activation. We hypothesized that the maternal mRNA stock present in bovine oocytes is associated with embryo development until the blastocyst stage. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed the transcriptome of the oocyte and correlated the results with the embryo development. Our goal was to identify genes expressed in the oocyte that correlate with its ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. A fraction of oocyte cytoplasm was biopsied using micro-aspiration and stored for further expression analysis. Oocytes were activated chemically, cultured individually and classified according to their capacity to develop in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Microarray analysis was performed on mRNA extracted from the oocyte cytoplasm fractions and correlated with its ability to develop to the blastocyst stage (good quality oocyte) or arrest at the 8-16-cell stage (bad quality oocyte). The expression of 4320 annotated genes was detected in the fractions of cytoplasm that had been collected from oocytes matured in vitro. Gene ontology classification revealed that enriched gene expression of genes was associated with certain biological processes: 'RNA processing', 'translation' and 'mRNA metabolic process'. Genes that are important to the molecular functions of 'RNA binding' and 'translation factor activity, RNA binding' were also enriched in oocytes. We identified 29 genes with differential expression between the two groups of oocytes compared (good versus bad quality). The content of mRNAs expressed in metaphase II oocytes influences the activation of the embryonic genome and enables further develop to the blastocyst stage. PMID:23046986

Biase, Fernando Henrique; Everts, Robin Edward; Oliveira, Rosane; Santos-Biase, Weruska Karyna Freitas; Fonseca Merighe, Giovana Krempel; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Martelli, Lúcia; Lewin, Harris; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

2014-02-01

162

Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Stage II Thymoma After Complete Tumor Resection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether patients with Masaoka stage II thymoma benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy after complete tumor resection. Methods and Materials: A total of 107 patients with stage II thymoma who underwent complete resection of their tumors between September 1964 and October 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty-six patients were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, and 41 patients received surgery alone. Results: Eight patients (7.5%) had a relapse of their disease, including two patients (4.5%) who had surgery alone, and 6 patients (9.5%) who had adjuvant radiation therapy. Disease-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.3% and 82.6%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group, and 97.6% and 93.1%, respectively, for the group that underwent surgery alone (p = 0.265). Disease-specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 96.4% and 89.3%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group and 97.5% and 97.5% for the surgery group (p = 0.973). On univariate analysis, patients with type B3 thymomas had the lowest disease-free survival rates among all subtypes (p = 0.001), and patients with large thymomas (>7 cm) had lower disease-specific survival rates than those with small tumors (<7 cm) (p = 0.017). On multivariate analysis, histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy after complete tumor resection for patients with stage II thymoma did not significantly reduce recurrence rates or improve survival rates. Histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Further investigation should be carried out using a multicenter randomized or controlled study.

Chen Yidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Feng Qinfu, E-mail: qinfufeng@yahoo.com.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Lu Haizhen [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Mao Yousheng [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhou Zongmei; Ou Guangfei; Wang Mei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhao Jun [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhang Hongxing; Xiao Zefen; Chen Dongfu; Liang Jun; Zhai Yirui; Wang Luhua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); He Jie [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China)

2010-12-01

163

Comprehensive Approach to Pupil Planning: Stage II - Planning and Placement (Includes Planning and Placement Team Meeting Agenda). Experimental Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is Stage II of the Comprehensive Approach to Pupil Planning (CAPP) System, a three-stage model for planning educational interventions in the regular and special education classrooms and for guiding placement decisions. The guide focuses on the evaluation services performed by the Planning and Placement Team (PPT) with sections on the…

Vlasak, Frances Stetson; Kaufman, Martin J.

164

Preoperative or postoperative brachytherapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma stage I and II.  

PubMed

In endometrial carcinoma, vaginal vault brachytherapy is performed to improve the local control rate and to decrease vaginal recurrences. To assess the best chronology of this brachytherapy compared to surgery, we have retrospectively analyzed results of treatment of patients treated either with preoperative brachytherapy (60 Gy) and then radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo oophorectomy (RH-BSO) (Group 1), or with RH-BSO and then postoperative brachytherapy (60 Gy) (Group 2). There were one hundred twenty-one patients in Group 1 and 63 in Group 2. The mean age was 61.8 years in Group 1 and 64.3 in Group 2. In Group 1, 73% of the patients were Stage I, and 77.6% were in Group 2. The two groups were comparable for histological grading and depth of tumoral invasion into the myometrium. Brachytherapy was delivered with one uterine and two vaginal sources in Group 1 and with three vaginal sources in Group 2. Doses to the reference volume and to reference points were calculated according to ICRU recommendations. Brachytherapy data were similar in the two groups except reference volume, which was smaller in Group 2. Local control rate was 87% in Group 1 and 91% in Group 2. Distant metastasis occurred in 12% of patients in Group 1 and 9% in Group 2. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 84% in Group 1 and 89% in Group 2. Regarding stage, histological grading, and depth of tumoral invasion, no differences were observed between the two therapeutic groups. The only prognostic factor in the entire population was Stage. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 91% for Stage I patients and 69% for Stage II (p value less than 0.03). The late severe complication rate was 14% in Group 1 and 7.9% in Group 2, a difference which was not statistically significant. We concluded that since no differences were observed between the two techniques, vaginal brachytherapy should be performed postoperatively when surgery is the first treatment (Stage I or II, grade 1 or 2, and no deep tumoral invasion into the myometrium). PMID:2211199

Calais, G; Vitu, L; Descamps, P; Body, G; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A; Lansac, J; Bougnoux, P; Le Floch, O

1990-09-01

165

Reconstruction of central upper lip defects with the subcutaneous pedicled nasolabial island flap: a single-stage alternative to Abbe flap in the elderly male.  

PubMed

Defects in the central upper lip are difficult to close because of the unique anatomy and limited reconstructive options. Therefore, for every individual patient, reconstructive goals must be prioritized. Reconstructive priorities for an old patient with a large full-thickness oncologic defect are clearly different than those of a teenager with a residual deficiency after cleft repair. Authors aim to share their experience of 2 cases in which large central upper lip oncologic defects have been reconstructed in a single stage using subcutaneous pedicled nasolabial island flap, which provides a single-stage reconstruction by recruiting tissue from the cheek. It obsoletes the need for a lip adhesion. Lip adhesion-related feeding problems are eliminated, oral aperture circumference is maintained, and oral function is preserved. For the elderly male, a full beard is an advantage because it hides both the cheek and the lip scars. PMID:23851859

Bitik, Ozan; Uzun, Hakan

2013-07-01

166

Changes in gait associated with acute stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in gait mechanics between patients with acute stage II PTTD and healthy volunteers. Hindfoot and midfoot kinematics, plantar foot pressures and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the posterior tibialis, gastrocnemius, anterior tibialis and the peroneals were measured in five patients with acute stage II PTTD. Kinematics and kinetics were compared to a database of 20 healthy volunteers. EMG and plantar pressure data were obtained from five healthy volunteers. Hindfoot moments and powers were also calculated. The center of pressure excursion index (CPEI) was calculated from the plantar pressures. Significant differences were observed between the two groups, which confirmed clinical observations. Limited hindfoot eversion and increased midfoot external rotation occurred during the first and third rockers. The EMG data suggested that tendon dysfunction in the posterior tibialis is associated with compensatory activity, not only in its antagonists (the peroneals), but also in the anterior tibialis and the gastrocnemius. These data suggest that non-operative treatment of patients with PTTD should consider minimizing the activity of the posterior tibialis as well as the peroneals, the anterior tibialis and the gastrocnemius. PMID:16876415

Ringleb, S I; Kavros, S J; Kotajarvi, B R; Hansen, D K; Kitaoka, H B; Kaufman, K R

2007-04-01

167

An upper limit for the total energy of relativistic particles contained in the early stages of supernova explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is proposed for the emission of X-rays from supernova explosions wherein the thermal distribution of photons from a supernova photosphere is inverse Compton scattered by relativistic electrons within or near the surface of the star. Using this model, upper limits for the number of relativistic electrons and their total energy are established on the basis of upper limits to the observed X-ray luminosity of a supernova during maximum light. These upper limits, in conjunction with radio frequency upper limits obtained by Brown and Marscher, strongly suggest that supernovae do not produce significant numbers of relativistic particles until at least 70 years after the initial outburst. This, in turn, implies that young supernovae cannot account for the radio and X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

Beall, J. H.

1979-01-01

168

Test Firing of the Saturn V S-II S (Second Stage) at the Mississippi Test Facility (MTF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows a test firing of the the Saturn V S-II (second) stage at the Mississippi Test Facility's (MTF) S-II test stand. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burns out and drops away, power for the Saturn will be provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engine used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as its propellants. Static test of ground test versions of the S-II stage were conducted at North American Aviation's Santa Susana, California test site. All flight stages were tested at the Mississippi Test Facility, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The MTF was renamed to the National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) in 1974 and later to the Sternis Space Center (SSC) in May 1988.

1967-01-01

169

Test Firing of the Saturn V S-II (Second) Stage at the Mississippi Test Facility (MTF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows a test firing of the the Saturn V S-II (second) stage at the Mississippi Test Facility's (MTF) S-II test stand. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burns out and drops away, power for the Saturn will be provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engines used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. Static test of ground test versions of the S-II stage were conducted at North American Aviation's Santa Susana, California test site. All flight stages were tested at the Mississippi Test Facility, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. MTF was renamed to the National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) in 1974 and later to the Sternis Space Center in May 1988.

1967-01-01

170

Anticavitation measures used in stage-II diversion tunnel of nurek hydroelectric scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The 4-yr service period of the stage-II tunnel of the Nurek hydroelectric scheme, with velocities in the range of 35–42 m\\/sec\\u000a and discharges up to 2000 m3\\/sec, permits the following preliminary conclusions to be made.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The steel lining provides adequately reliable protection of the gate-chamber structure against cavitation, but supplementary\\u000a protection against its corrosion is required.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The cavitationally

V. F. Plyushin; F. I. Gurtovnik; R. E. Yazev

1976-01-01

171

The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of stage I-II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

The role of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of Stage I-II diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is controversial: consolidation RT improves local control, but does this translate into an overall survival benefit? The paucity of randomized clinical trials means that the debate surrounding the benefit of consolidation RT remains unresolved. To date, the published literature demonstrates that consolidation RT has dual advantages in patients stage I-II DLBCL: (1) to improve local control and progression-free survival, and (2) to spare additional cycles of chemotherapy in patient with favourable-risk disease. Critics of consolidation RT are often influenced by the profile of late toxicities that are associated with outdated RT techniques. In the current era of molecular-based targeted therapy and functional imaging, prospective randomized studies are required to answer this research question and to investigate risk-adapted treatment strategies for patients with stage I-II DLBCL. PMID:23901002

Campbell, Belinda A

2013-09-01

172

Annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II are presented, showing annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and the upper troposphere. The altitude-time cross sections of water vapor were found to exhibit annually repeatable patterns in both hemispheres, with a yearly minimum in water vapor appearing in both hemispheres at about the same time, supporting the concept of a common source for stratospheric dry air. A linear regression analysis was applied to the three-year data set to elucidate global values and variations of water vapor ratio.

Mccormick, M. P.; Chiou, E. W.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Larsen, J. C.; Rind, D.; Oltmans, S.

1993-01-01

173

Ecological continuity between Lower and Upper Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.  

PubMed

The sediments of Bed II at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, have received less scientific scrutiny than Bed I strata, likely due to the lower density of fossil hominins in the younger layers. Nevertheless, Bed II provides important contextual information about changes over time in early hominin environments. Mammal fossils from Bed II are separated into older and younger faunas by a regional disconformity under which lies an aeolian tuff, the Lemuta Member, dated to ?1.74 Ma (millions of years ago). Differences between the faunal communities above and below the Lemuta Member have been previously noted and interpreted as evidence for distinct environmental change. Here, we investigate the palaeoecological conditions that characterised the transition between older and younger Bed II sites via analysis of their mammalian community ecological niche exploitation profiles, comparing these to known modern habitats. We present a comprehensive species list for both Bed II faunas. An initial correspondence analysis points to palaeoecological differences in pre- and post-Lemuta Member assemblages, although neither is representative of a forest habitat. When taphonomic differences in body mass profiles are taken into account, however, ecological differences appear far less important. Based on a resampling procedure to generate modern locality data with body mass profiles similar to the Bed II faunas, discriminant correspondence analyses liken both fossil assemblages to modern woodland habitats, with Lower Bed II having some affinity to floodplain and marshy woodlands, likely related to the presence of the Olduvai palaeolake in this stratigraphic interval. A comparison of the Bed II faunas to each other suggests that their differences could reasonably be sampled from within a single modern habitat. Although additional evidence points to an increase in aridity subsequent to the Lemuta Member, the importance of woodland habitats throughout Bed II is clear. PMID:23566459

Kovarovic, Kris; Slepkov, Rebecca; McNulty, Kieran P

2013-06-01

174

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TELECAST PROGRAMS FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY GRADES WERE IN ART, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH UNIT WAS GIVEN, TOGETHER WITH DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY. IN THE ART SERIES, IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT PUPIL PARTICIPATION TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE TELECAST. INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY WAS…

DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

175

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold; Peter Roopnarine

2011-01-01

176

Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, reliable, affordable upper stage engine to power the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. The J-2X engine is being developed for that purpose, epitomizing NASA's philosophy of employing legacy knowledge, heritage hardware, and commonality to carry the next generation of explorers into low-Earth orbit and out into the solar system This presentation gives top-level details on accomplishments to date and discusses forward work necessary to bring the J-2X engine to the launch pad.

Byrd, Thomas D.; Kynard, Michael .

2007-01-01

177

Geochemical make-up of oceanic peridotites from NW Turkey and the multi-stage melting history of the Tethyan upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the whole-rock and the mineral chemical data for upper mantle peridotites from the Harmanc?k region in NW Turkey and discuss their petrogenetic-tectonic origin. These peridotites are part of a Tethyan ophiolite belt occurring along the ?zmir-Ankara-Ercincan suture zone in northern Turkey, and include depleted lherzolites and refractory harzburgites. The Al2O3 contents in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the depleted lherzolite are high, and the Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is low falling within the abyssal field. However, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgites have lower Al2O3 contents for a given Cr-number of spinel, and plot within the lower end of the abyssal field. The whole-rock geochemical and the mineral chemistry data imply that the Harmanc?k peridotites formed by different degrees of partial melting (~%10-27) of the mantle. The depleted lherzolite samples have higher MREE and HREE abundances than the harzburgitic peridotites, showing convex-downward patterns. These peridotites represent up to ~16 % melting residue that formed during the initial seafloor spreading stage of the Northern Neotethys. On the other hand, the more refractory harzburgites represent residues after ~4-11 % hydrous partial melting of the previously depleted MOR mantle, which was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids during the early stages of subduction. The Harmanc?k peridotites, hence, represent the fragments of upper mantle rocks that formed during different stages of the tectonic evolution of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in Northern Neotethys. We infer that the multi-stage melting history of the Harmanc?k peridotites reflect the geochemically heterogeneous character of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere currently exposed along the ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone.

Uysal, ?brahim; ?en, A. Dündar; Ersoy, E. Yalç?n; Dilek, Yildirim; Saka, Samet; Zaccarini, Federica; Escayola, Monica; Karsl?, Orhan

2014-02-01

178

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

2006-01-01

179

Integrated configuration effects of hypersonic upper body designs on Single Stage To Orbit non-circular bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of air breathing Single Stage To Orbit vehicles requires investigating configurations that integrate 'Tip to Tail' propulsion flowpaths, active aerodynamic control, and large propellant volumes. The selection of these configurations can vary from arrangements like a Conical Fuselage Wing Body to a Non-Circular Lifting Body. Specifically, the selection criterion relies on satisfying both the aeropropulsion requirements and the

Patrick F. Cassidy

1993-01-01

180

Brunnstrom Recovery Stage and Motricity Index for the Evaluation of Upper Extremity in Stroke: Analysis for Correlation and Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to find out first whether Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and motricity index (MI) were correlated with each other and second to observe whether the two assessment tools were sensitive to changes regarding the rehabilitation outcome. Forty-six stroke patients who were admitted to the Stroke Rehabilitation Unit at our…

Safaz, Ismail; Ylmaz, Bilge; Yasar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan

2009-01-01

181

Role of Postmastectomy Radiation After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify a cohort of women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy for whom postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) may be omitted according to the projected risk of local-regional failure (LRF). Methods and Materials: Seven breast cancer physicians from University of California cancer centers created 14 hypothetical clinical case scenarios, identified, reviewed, and abstracted the available literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane databases), and formulated evidence tables with endpoints of LRF, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Using the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria methodology, appropriateness ratings for postmastectomy radiation were assigned for each scenario. Finally, an overall summary risk assessment table was developed. Results: Of 24 sources identified, 23 were retrospective studies from single institutions. Consensus on the appropriateness rating, defined as 80% agreement in a category, was achieved for 86% of the cases. Distinct LRF risk categories emerged. Clinical stage II (T1-2N0-1) patients, aged >40 years, estrogen receptor-positive subtype, with pathologic complete response or 0-3 positive nodes without lymphovascular invasion or extracapsular extension, were identified as having {<=}10% risk of LRF without radiation. Limited data support stage IIIA patients with pathologic complete response as being low risk. Conclusions: In the absence of randomized trial results, existing data can be used to guide the use of PMRT in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting. Using available studies to inform appropriateness ratings for clinical scenarios, we found a high concordance of treatment recommendations for PMRT and were able to identify a cohort of women with a low risk of LRF without radiation. These low-risk patients will form the basis for future planned studies within University of California Athena Breast Health Network.

Fowble, Barbara L., E-mail: bfowble@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Einck, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kim, Danny N. [Athena Breast Health Network, Program Management Office, San Francisco, CA (United States); McCloskey, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mayadev, Jyoti [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Yashar, Catheryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chen, Steven L. [Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hwang, E. Shelley [Department of Surgery, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2012-06-01

182

Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of the Montpellier Phase II Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We recently presented the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a reliable alternative to conventional boost radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The low crude numbers of recurrence in elderly patients led us to investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of this procedure as a sole treatment. Methods and Materials: We included 94 patients older than 65 years in this phase II trial. Among them, 42 patients presented with all the inclusion criteria, i.e., stages pT0 to pT1 and pN0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, and tumor-free margin of >2 mm. IORT was delivered using a dedicated linear accelerator. One 21-Gy fraction was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose, using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. The primary endpoint was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, and specific and overall rates of survival. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-49 months), and median age was 72 years (range, 66-80 years). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Endpoints for all but one patient corresponded to acceptable quality index criteria. Pretreatment quality-of-life scores were maximal, and no significant decrease was observed during follow-up. Cosmesis was good to excellent at 6 months. Two patients experienced recurrence but underwent salvage mastectomy. Conclusion: Our results confirm that exclusive partial-breast IORT is feasible for treating early-stage breast cancer in the elderly. IORT may be considered an alternative treatment for a selected population and offers a safe one-step treatment.

Lemanski, Claire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Azria, David, E-mail: azria@valdorel.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gourgon-Bourgade, Sophie [Biostatistics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gutowski, Marian; Rouanet, Phillippe; Saint-Aubert, Bernard [Department of Surgical and Reconstructive Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Ailleres, Norbert; Fenoglietto, Pascal [Radiophysics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Dubois, Jean-Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France)

2010-03-01

183

Validation of a modified clinical risk score to predict cancer-specific survival for stage II colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Many patients with stage II colon cancer will die of their disease despite curative surgery. Therefore, identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome after surgery for stage II colon cancer is desirable. This study aims to validate a clinical risk score to predict cancer-specific survival in patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer. Patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer in 16 hospitals in the West of Scotland between 2001 and 2004 were identified from a prospectively maintained regional clinical audit database. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates up to 5 years were calculated. A total of 871 patients were included. At 5 years, cancer-specific survival was 81.9% and overall survival was 65.6%. On multivariate analysis, age ?75 years (hazard ratio (HR) 2.11, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.57–2.85; P<0.001) and emergency presentation (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.43–2.70; P<0.001) were independently associated with cancer-specific survival. Age and mode of presentation HRs were added to form a clinical risk score of 0–2. The cancer-specific survival at 5 years for patients with a cumulative score 0 was 88.7%, 1 was 78.2% and 2 was 65.9%. These results validate a modified simple clinical risk score for patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer. The combination of these two universally documented clinical factors provides a solid foundation for the examination of the impact of additional clinicopathological and treatment factors on overall and cancer-specific survival. PMID:25487740

Oliphant, Raymond; Horgan, Paul G; Morrison, David S; McMillan, Donald C

2015-01-01

184

Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes II. Model of the upper hurricane layer  

E-print Network

This second paper of the series (see the first one in [1]) models the dynamics and structure of upper hurricane layer in adiabatic approximation. Formulation of simplified aerodynamic model allows analytically express the radial istributions of pressure and wind speed components. The vertical evolution of these distributions and hurricane structure in the layer are described by a coupled set of equations for the vertical mass flux and vertical momentum balance, averaged over the eye wall cross section. Several realistic predictions of the model are demonstrated, including the change of directions for the component of radial wind speed and angular velocity of hurricane with altitude.

Leonov, Arkady I

2008-01-01

185

Single-stage surgery combining nerve and tendon transfers for bilateral upper limb reconstruction in a tetraplegic patient: case report.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old tetraplegic patient had paralysis of elbow, thumb, and finger extension and thumb and finger flexion. We transferred axillary nerve branches to the triceps long and upper medial head motor branches, supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve, and brachioradialis tendon to the flexor pollicis longus and flexor superficialis of the index finger. Surgery was performed bilaterally 18 months after spinal cord injury. At 12 months after surgery, we performed bilateral distal radioulnar arthrodesis percutaneously. By 22 months postoperatively, we observed triceps strength scoring M3 bilaterally and full metacarpophalangeal joint extension scoring M4 bilaterally. The thumb span was 53 and 66 mm from the proximal index phalanx on the right and left sides, respectively. Pinch strength measured 1.5 kg on the left side and 2.0 kg on the right. Before surgery, the patient was incapable of grasping; after surgery, a useful grasp had been restored bilaterally. PMID:23751324

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

2013-07-01

186

Survival Benefits and Trends in Use of Adjuvant Therapy Among Elderly Stage II and III Rectal Cancer Patients in the General Population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study examined elderly stage II and III rectal cancer patients’ adjuvant chemoradiation therapy adherence, trends in adherence over time, and the relation of levels of adherence to mortality. METHODS The authors studied 2886 stage II and III rectal cancer patients who had surgical resection and who appeared in 1992–1999 linked SEER-Medicare claims data. The authors compared measures of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy receipt and completion between stage II and III patients. Adjusted risk of cancer-related 5-year mortality was calculated by multivariate logistic regression for different levels of chemoradiation adherence among stage II and III patients. RESULTS Of the 2886 patients, 45.4% received both adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Stage III patients were more likely to receive chemoradiation than stage II patients. The receipt of chemoradiation by stage II patients increased significantly from 1992 to 1999. Stage III patients were more likely to complete radiation therapy (96.6%), chemotherapy (68.2%), and both modalities (67.5%) than stage II patients (91.5%, 49.8%, 47.6%, respectively). Only a complete course of both radiation and chemotherapy for both stage II (relative risk [RR] 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54, 0.97) and III (RR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65, 0.96) decreased the adjusted 5-year cancer mortality risk compared with counterparts with no adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS Even though stage II rectal cancer patients were less likely than stage III patients to receive and complete adjuvant chemoradiation, both patient groups in the general population had lower cancer-related mortality if they completed chemoradiation. These patients deserve support and encouragement to complete treatment. PMID:18189291

Dobie, Sharon A.; Warren, Joan L.; Matthews, Barbara; Schwartz, David; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Billingsley, Kevin

2011-01-01

187

Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2013-02-26

188

Galanin plays an important role in cancer invasiveness and is associated with poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Reliable predictors of tumor recurrence for patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) are needed to select patients who should receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Although galanin (GAL) is expressed in several malignant tumors and is associated with cell proliferation and tumor growth, the prognostic value of GAL expression in CRC is poorly understood. We compared GAL expression between 56 patients with stage II and III CRC who developed tumor recurrences and 56 patients who did not. The clinical and prognostic significance of GAL expression was examined using our data and independent public datasets. We also analyzed the influence of GAL expression on the proliferation and invasive activity of CRC cells. Higher expression of GAL was associated with tumor recurrence among the CRC patients (P<0.001). Stage II CRC patients who presented with high expression levels of GAL had significantly poorer prognosis than those with low expression levels of GAL [5-year overall survival: hazard ratio (HR), 7.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38-24.04; P<0.001; 5-year recurrence-free survival: HR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.61?9.44; P=0.004], but there was no association between GAL expression and survival in stage III CRC patients. These findings were supported by analysis of two public datasets. Functionally, siRNA-mediated silencing of GAL resulted in a significant decrease in the proliferative and invasive activities of CRC cells. In conclusion, high expression of GAL is associated with poor prognosis of stage II CRC patients and GAL expression may be related to the aggressive behavior of CRC. PMID:25504183

Nagayoshi, Kinuko; Ueki, Takashi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Mizuuchi, Yusuke; Manabe, Tatsuya; Araki, Hiromitsu; Oda, Yoshinao; Kuhara, Satoru; Tanaka, Masao

2015-02-01

189

Galanin plays an important role in cancer invasiveness and is associated with poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Reliable predictors of tumor recurrence for patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) are needed to select patients who should receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Although galanin (GAL) is expressed in several malignant tumors and is associated with cell proliferation and tumor growth, the prognostic value of GAL expression in CRC is poorly understood. We compared GAL expression between 56 patients with stage II and III CRC who developed tumor recurrences and 56 patients who did not. The clinical and prognostic significance of GAL expression was examined using our data and independent public datasets. We also analyzed the influence of GAL expression on the proliferation and invasive activity of CRC cells. Higher expression of GAL was associated with tumor recurrence among the CRC patients (P<0.001). Stage II CRC patients who presented with high expression levels of GAL had significantly poorer prognosis than those with low expression levels of GAL [5-year overall survival: hazard ratio (HR), 7.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38–24.04; P<0.001; 5-year recurrence-free survival: HR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.61–9.44; P=0.004], but there was no association between GAL expression and survival in stage III CRC patients. These findings were supported by analysis of two public datasets. Functionally, siRNA-mediated silencing of GAL resulted in a significant decrease in the proliferative and invasive activities of CRC cells. In conclusion, high expression of GAL is associated with poor prognosis of stage II CRC patients and GAL expression may be related to the aggressive behavior of CRC. PMID:25504183

NAGAYOSHI, KINUKO; UEKI, TAKASHI; TASHIRO, KOSUKE; MIZUUCHI, YUSUKE; MANABE, TATSUYA; ARAKI, HIROMITSU; ODA, YOSHINAO; KUHARA, SATORU; TANAKA, MASAO

2015-01-01

190

Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

1986-01-01

191

Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

1986-07-01

192

I. Rupture properties of large subduction earthquakes. II. Broadband upper mantle structure of western North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis contains two studies, one of which employs geodetic data bearing on large subduction earthquakes to infer complexity of rupture duration, and the other is a high frequency seismological study of the upper mantle discontinuity structure under western North America and the East Pacific Rise. In the first part, we present Global Positioning System and tide gauge data which record the co-seismic deformation which accompanied the 1995 Mw8.0 Jalisco event offshore central Mexico, the 1994 Mw7.5 Sanriku event offshore Northern Honshu, Japan, and the 1995 Mw8.1 Antofagasta earthquake offshore Northern Chile. In two of the three cases we find that the mainshocks were followed by significant amounts of rapid, post-seismic deformation which is best and most easily explained by continued slip near the co-seismic rupture patch. This is the first documented case of rapid slip migration following a large earthquake, and is pertinent to earthquake prediction based on precursory deformation. As the three GPS data sets represent the best observations of large subduction earthquakes to date and two of them show significant amounts of aseismic energy release, they strongly suggest silent faulting may be common in certain types of subduction zones. This, in turn, bears on estimates of global moment release, seismic coupling, and our understanding of the natural hazards associated with convergent margins. The second part of this dissertation utilizes high frequency body waves to infer the upper mantle structure of western North America and the East Pacific Rise. An uncharacteristically large Mw5.9 earthquake located in Western Texas provided a vivid topside reflection off the 410 Km velocity discontinuity ("410"), which we model to infer the fine details of this structure. We find that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the 410 is not sharp, and our results help reconcile seismic observations of 410 structure with laboratory predictions. By analyzing differences between our structure and seismic 410 structure estimates under the nearby Gulf of California, we attempt to extract differences in temperature and mineralogy between subcontinental and suboceanic 410 structures. Extending this analysis, we utilize teleseismic events from East Pacific Rise transform faults to model multiple S upper mantle triplications. In the shallowest mantle (uppermost 75 Km), there is a strong lateral shear velocity gradient amounting to 3% over roughly 150 Km. The LID, nonexistent at the ridge crest, grows slowly in thickness beyond 150 Km from the axis. The compatible geodynamic model of these two results is that the East Pacific Rise is not fed from the local lower mantle, rather, upper mantle material must be transported laterally to supply the ridge axis spreading center, and the LID reflects the source region of the East Pacific Rise magma supply. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Melbourne, Timothy Ian

193

The Reflections Under the Scottish Highlands (RUSH II) Experiment: Broadband Definition of Upper Mantle Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-four broadband seismometers (Streckeisen STS-2 sensors and REFTEK recorders) were deployed during the summer of 2001 across the Scottish Highlands to (1) determine the regional extent of major mantle reflectors beneath the mainland Scotland, and (2) examine the geometrical relationship of these upper mantle reflectors with known lithospheric-scale structures of Paleozoic age. Stations were deployed in a series of roughly rectilinear arrays with an average station spacing of 15 km, to form a 2.5-D network across the Great Glen fault. Access to the more southerly Iapetus suture was compromised by the foot and mouth epidemic in the United Kingdom. The upper mantle reflectors (Flannan and W) of northern Scotland have been clearly imaged and mapped in the offshore region of Scotland through marine seismic reflection data and marine wide-angle data but have not been reliably traced beneath the Scottish mainland. The experiment is the continuation of a pilot phase (RUSH I) conducted in 1999, which involved the deployment of a small array of nine broadband stations and analysis of existing short-period data from the United Kingdom Seismic Network. Installation of the equipment was completed in August, 2001 and recording of continuous data streams (1 and 20 samples per second) will continue for a period of two-years. Initial data recovered from the network includes teleseismic events from Northern Chile (07/24, Mw=6.3), Aegean Sea, (07/26, ME=7.0), and South Alaska, (07/28, Mw 6.6). Although our next service run is scheduled to be completed by the end of November 2001, just several weeks prior to the AGU meeting, preliminary receiver function analysis of selected teleseismic events across the array will be presented.

Asencio, E.; Knapp, J. H.; Owens, T. J.; Helffrich, G.

2001-12-01

194

Connection between Mature Stages of Deep Convection and the Vertical Transport of Aerosols in the Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective transport of aerosol has implications to aerosol-cloud interactions and is an important problem for climate studies. We use along-track Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (Calipso) vertical feature mask data, CloudSat data, and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) deep convection tracking data to study the impact of deep convection on the transport of aerosols to the upper troposphere (UT) over the South Asian region (0-40N, 70-100E). To minimize misclassification among aerosols and the clouds at UT, we have only used data having large magnitude of cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores for the period of June 2006 to June 2008 when CloudSat and Calipso overlap with the ISCCP deep convection tracking data. Preliminary results suggest that active clouds most likely transport aerosols to high altitudes, whereas decaying clouds are least likely to transport aerosols to the UT. Mature clouds act in-between the active and decaying clouds. Active clouds that transport aerosols are different than decaying clouds in terms of higher cloud water path, cloud water content at 10 km altitude, number of convective clusters, and convective fraction. The NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office wind data, projected onto the CloudSat tracks, suggests a strong updraft associated with active clouds in favor of aerosol transportation, and a low level or mid-level subsidence associated with decaying clouds.

Chakraborty, S.; Fu, R.; Massie, S. T.; Pan, L.

2011-12-01

195

2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections  

PubMed Central

Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. ?g/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 ?g/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 ?g/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 ?g/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 ?g/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty acids with these key P. falciparum enzymes. PMID:20855214

Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

2010-01-01

196

2-Octadecynoic acid as a dual life stage inhibitor of Plasmodium infections and plasmodial FAS-II enzymes.  

PubMed

The malaria parasite Plasmodium goes through two life stages in the human host, a non-symptomatic liver stage (LS) followed by a blood stage with all clinical manifestation of the disease. In this study, we investigated a series of 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) with chain lengths between 14 and 18 carbon atoms for dual in vitro activity against both life stages. 2-Octadecynoic acid (2-ODA) was identified as the best inhibitor of Plasmodium berghei parasites with ten times higher potency (IC50=0.34 ?g/ml) than the control drug. In target determination studies, the same compound inhibited three Plasmodium falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes PfFabI, PfFabZ, and PfFabG with the lowest IC50 values (0.28-0.80 ?g/ml, respectively). Molecular modeling studies provided insights into the molecular aspects underlying the inhibitory activity of this series of 2-AFAs and a likely explanation for the considerably different inhibition potentials. Blood stages of P. falciparum followed a similar trend where 2-ODA emerged as the most active compound, with 20 times less potency. The general toxicity and hepatotoxicity of 2-AFAs were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods in mammalian cell lines and zebrafish models, respectively. This study identifies 2-ODA as the most promising antiparasitic 2-AFA, particularly towards P. berghei parasites. PMID:25103602

Carballeira, Néstor M; Bwalya, Angela Gono; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Cordero-Maldonado, María Lorena; Kaiser, Marcel; Mota, Maria M; Crawford, Alexander D; Guido, Rafael V C; Tasdemir, Deniz

2014-09-01

197

Durable Long-Term Remission With Chemotherapy Alone for Stage II to IV Laryngeal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose For patients with stage II to IV laryngeal cancer, radiation therapy (RT) either alone or with concurrent chemotherapy provides the highest rate of organ preservation but can be associated with functional impairment. Thus, we studied the use of induction chemotherapy with or without conservation laryngeal surgery (CLS). Our objectives were to study the sensitivity of laryngeal cancer to platinum-based chemotherapy alone and to highlight the efficacy of CLS in this setting. Patients and Methods Thirty-one previously untreated patients with laryngeal cancer (T2-4, N0-1, M0), who were resectable with CLS, were enrolled. Patients received three to four cycles of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP) chemotherapy, and response was assessed histologically. Patients with partial response (PR) proceeded to CLS. Patients achieving pathologic complete response (pCR) received an additional three cycles of TIP and no other treatment. Results Thirty patients were assessable for response. With TIP chemotherapy alone, 11 patients (37%) achieved pCR, 10 of whom (33%) remain alive with durable disease remission and no evidence of recurrence over a median follow-up time of 5 years. Nineteen patients (63%) treated with TIP alone achieved PR. The overall laryngeal preservation (LP) rate was 83%, and only five patients (16%) required postoperative RT. No patient required a gastrostomy tube or tracheotomy. Conclusion Chemotherapy alone in selected patients with T2-4, N0-1 laryngeal cancer can provide durable disease remission at 5 years. For patients with PR, CLS provides a high rate of LP. This prospective study suggests that chemotherapy alone may cure selected patients with laryngeal cancer, warranting further prospective investigation. PMID:19289628

Holsinger, F. Christopher; Kies, Merrill S.; Diaz, Eduardo M.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Lewin, Jan S.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Garden, Adam S.; Ark, Nebil; Lin, Heather Y.; Lee, J. Jack; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ki Hong, Waun; Shin, Dong M.; Khuri, Fadlo R.

2009-01-01

198

The Role of Type II Spicules in the Upper Solar Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the suggestion that most of the hot plasma in the Sun's co rona comes from type II spicule material that is heated as it is ejected from the chromosphere. This contrasts with the traditional view th at the corona is filled via chromospheric evaporation that results fr om coronal heating. We explore the observational consequences of a hy pothetical spicule dominated corona and conclude from the large discr epancy between predicted and actual observations that only a small fraction of the hot plasma can be supplied by spicules (<2% in active regions and <5% in the quiet Sun). The red- blue asymmetries of EUV spec tral lines and the ratio of lower transition region (LTR; T< or =0.1 MK) to coronal emission measures are both predicted to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Furthermore, hot spicule material would cool dramatically by adiabatic expansion as it rises into the corona, so coronal heating would be required to maintain the high temperatu res that are seen at all altitudes. The necessity of coronal heating is inescapable. Traditional coronal heating models predict far too little emission from the LTR, and we suggest that this emission comes pr imarily from the bulk of the spicule material that is heated to < or =0.1 MK and is visible in He II (304 ?A) as it falls back to the surf ace.

Klimchuk, James A.

2012-01-01

199

Ellerman Bombs at High Resolution. II. Triggering, Visibility, and Effect on Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H? line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 Å with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 Å continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 Å SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 Å shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 Å, Fe IX 171 Å, and Fe XIV 211 Å show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H? morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.

2013-09-01

200

Ellerman Bombs at high resolution: II. Visibility, triggering and effect on upper atmosphere  

E-print Network

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer Halpha line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 854.2 nm with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs occur also in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 170 nm continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 160 nm SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 630.1 nm shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancelation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 30.4 nm, Fe IX 17.1 nm, and Fe XIV 21.1 nm show no clear effect of the E...

Vissers, Gregal J M; Rutten, Robert J

2013-01-01

201

ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J., E-mail: g.j.m.vissers@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2013-09-01

202

Phase II Study of Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Stage II-III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: JCOG Trial (JCOG 9906)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this Phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for Stage II-III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients and Methods: Patients with clinical Stage II-III (T1N1M0 or T2-3N0-1M0) thoracic ESCC were enrolled between April 2000 and March 2002. Chemotherapy comprised two courses of protracted infusion of 5-FU (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and 8-12, and 2-h infusion of CDDP (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1 and 8; this regimen was repeated every 5 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy involved 60-Gy irradiation (30 fractions) for 8 weeks with a 2-week break. Responders received two courses of 5-FU (800 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and CDDP (80 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1. Final analysis was conducted in March 2007. Survival and late toxicities were monitored for 5 years. Results: The characteristics of the 76 patients enrolled were as follows: median age, 61 years; male/female, 68/8; performance status 0/1, 59/17 patients; Stage IIA/IIB/III, 26/12/38 patients. Of the 74 eligible patients, 46 (62.2%) achieved complete response. Median survival time was 29 months, with 3- and 5-year survival rates of 44.7% and 36.8%, respectively. Acute toxicities included Grade 3/4 esophagitis (17%), nausea (17%), hyponatremia (16%), and infection without neutropenia (12%). Late toxicities comprised Grade 3/4 esophagitis (13%), pericardial (16%) and pleural (9%) effusion, and radiation pneumonitis (4%), causing 4 deaths. Conclusions: CRT is effective for Stage II-III ESCC with manageable acute toxicities and can provide a nonsurgical treatment option. However, further improvement is required for reduction in late toxicity.

Kato, Ken, E-mail: kenkato@ncc.go.jp [Gastrointestinal Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Muro, Kei [Gastrointestinal Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Minashi, Keiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi [Division of Digestive Endoscopy and Gastrointestinal Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Ishikura, Satoshi [Clinical Trials and Practice Support Division, Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Boku, Narikazu [Division of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Takiuchi, Hiroya [Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Osaka Medical College Hospital, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Komatsu, Yoshito [Department of Cancer Chemotherapy, Hokkaido University Hospital Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Miyata, Yoshinori [Department of Internal Medicine, Saku Central Hospital, Nagano (Japan); Fukuda, Haruhiko [Clinical Trials and Practice Support Division, Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-01

203

Organic metamorphism in the Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales-II: Soxhlet extraction.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on Soxhlet extraction (and subsequent related analyses) of 39 Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales from the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin, and analyses of 28 oils from the Basin. Because of the influence of primary petroleum migration, no increase in the relative or absolute concentrations of hydrocarbons or bitumen was observed at the threshold of intense hydrocarbon generation (TIHG), or during mainstage hydrocarbon generation in the Bakken shales. Thus, the maturation indices that have been so useful in delineating the TIHG and mainstage hydrocarbon generation in other studies were of no use in this study, where these events could clearly be identified only by Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The data of this study demonstrate that primary petroleum migration is a very efficient process. Four distinctive classes of saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatograms from the Bakken shales arose from facies, maturation, and primary migration controls. As a consequence of maturation, the % of saturated hydrocarbons increased in the shale extract at the expense of decreases in the resins and asphaltenes. Measurements involving resins and asphaltenes appear to be excellent maturation indices in the Bakken shales. Two different and distinct organic facies were present in immature Bakken shales. -from Authors

Price, L.C.; Ging, T.; Love, A.; Anders, D.

1986-01-01

204

ARTHROSCOPIC SUBACROMIAL DECOMPRESSION FOR ADVANCED (STAGE II) IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME : A STUDY OF 52 PATIENTS WITH FIVE YEARS FOLLOW-UP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a prospective five-year follow-up study of 52 patients who had arthroscopic subacro- mial decompression for advanced (stage II : type 1 and 2) rotator cuff disease. All patients were assessed preoperatively, at six months and at five years post- operatively using the Constant-Murley score and the revised American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. From six months

K. DOM

205

Preoperative radiochemotherapy and radical resection for stages II–IV oral and oropharyngeal cancer: outcome of 222 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyse survival and locoregional control in patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after multimodal therapy with preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) and radical surgery.We included in this analysis 222 patients who underwent multimodal therapy between 1990 and 2000. Eligible were patients with UICC disease stages II–IV (T2: 33.3%; T3: 12.6%; T4: 54.1%; N0: 45.9%; N1: 17.6%; N2:

C. Klug; A. Wutzl; C. Kermer; M. Voracek; G. Kornek; E. Selzer; C. Glaser; P. W. Poeschl; W. Millesi; R. Ewers

2005-01-01

206

Value and cost evaluation of routine follow-up for patients with clinical stage I\\/II endometrial cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the value and the costs of routine follow-up for the detection of recurrences in patients treated for endometrial cancer. Between 1986 and 1995, 390 women with clinical stage I\\/II endometrial carcinoma were treated with combined surgery–radiation therapy. After treatment, follow-up was based on the clinical examination, a systematic Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and

P Morice; C Levy-Piedbois; S Ajaj; P Pautier; C Haie-Meder; C Lhomme; P Duvillard; D Castaigne

2001-01-01

207

Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

208

Extra- and intra-cellular ice formation in Stage I and II Xenopus laevis oocytes.  

PubMed

We are currently investigating factors that influence intracellular ice formation (IIF) in mouse oocytes and oocytes of the frog Xenopus. A major reason for choosing these two species is that while their eggs normally do not possess aquaporin channels in their plasma membranes, these channels can be made to express. We wish to see whether IIF is affected by the presence of these channels. The present Xenopus study deals with control eggs not expressing aquaporins. The main factor studied has been the effect of a cryoprotective agent [ethylene glycol (EG) or glycerol] and its concentration. The general procedure was to (a) cool the oocytes on a cryostage to slightly below the temperatures at which extracellular ice formation occurs, (b) warm them to just below the melting point, and (c) then re-cool them to -50 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min. In the majority of cases, IIF occurs well into step (c), but a sizeable minority undergo IIF in steps (a) or (b). The former group we refer to as low-temperature flashers; the latter as high-temperature flashers. IIF is manifested as abrupt blackening of the egg, which we refer to as "flashing." Observations on the Linkam cryostage are restricted to Stage I and II oocytes, which have diameters of 200 300 microm. In the absence of a cryoprotective agent, that is in frog Ringers, the mean flash temperature for the low-temperature freezers is -11.4 degrees C, although a sizeable percentage flash at temperatures much closer to that of the EIF (-3.9 degrees C). When EG is present, the flash temperature for the low-temperatures freezers drops significantly to approximately -20 degrees C for EG concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The presence of 1.5 M glycerol also substantially reduces the IIF temperature of the low-temperature freezers; namely, to -29 degrees C, but 0.5 and 1 M glycerol exert little or no effect. The IIF temperatures observed using the Linkam cryostage agree well with those estimated by calorimetry [F.W. Kleinhans, J.F. Guenther, D.M. Roberts, P. Mazur, Analysis of intracellular ice nucleation in Xenopus oocytes by differential scanning calorimetry, Cryobiology 52 (2006) 128-138]. The IIF temperatures in Xenopus are substantially higher than those observed in mouse oocytes [P. Mazur, S. Seki, I.L. Pinn, F.W. Kleinhans, K. Edashige, Extra- and intracellular ice formation in mouse oocytes, Cryobiology 51 (2005) 29-53]. Perhaps that is a reflection of their much larger size. PMID:16600207

Guenther, James F; Seki, Shinsuke; Kleinhans, F W; Edashige, Keisuke; Roberts, Daniel M; Mazur, Peter

2006-06-01

209

Comparison of outcomes between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in patients with surgically treated stage I-II cervical cancer.  

PubMed

To improve our understanding of cervical adenocarcinoma (AD) and evaluate the clinical and pathological variables affecting its prognosis, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 455 patients with cervical cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I/II; 91 cases with AD and 364 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] who underwent surgery at our hospital between January, 1995 and August, 2012 and compared the characteristics and prognoses between AD and SCC cases, including age, clinical stage, histological type, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), cervical stromal invasion, parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion, corpus invasion, ovarian metastasis and tumor diameter. We used Cox regression analysis to determine independent prognostic factors. AD was found to have a significantly poorer prognosis in all the patients (P=0.001), stage I patients (P=0.001) and stage IB patients (P<0.05). The prognosis did not differ in patients who did not require postoperative treatment; however, patients who received postoperative treatment exhibited a significantly poorer prognosis (P<0.05). Patients with AD who received postoperative irradiation alone had a significantly poorer prognosis (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis identified LVSI (P=0.008), stromal invasion (P=0.024) and ovarian metastasis (P=0.032) as independent predictors of shorter survival. AD was associated with a worse prognosis compared to SCC in patients with stage IB disease, particularly in those who required postoperative treatment. Such patients may benefit from individualized postoperative treatments that differ from those applied for SCC. PMID:24940487

Yamauchi, Makoto; Fukuda, Takeshi; Wada, Takuma; Kawanishi, Masaru; Imai, Kenji; Hashiguchi, Yasunori; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Sumi, Toshiyuki

2014-07-01

210

A randomized two-stage design for phase II clinical trials based on a Bayesian predictive approach.  

PubMed

The rate of failure in phase III oncology trials is surprisingly high, partly owing to inadequate phase II studies. Recently, the use of randomized designs in phase II is being increasingly recommended, to avoid the limits of studies that use a historical control. We propose a two-arm two-stage design based on a Bayesian predictive approach. The idea is to ensure a large probability, expressed in terms of the prior predictive probability of the data, of obtaining a substantial posterior evidence in favour of the experimental treatment, under the assumption that it is actually more effective than the standard agent. This design is a randomized version of the two-stage design that has been proposed for single-arm phase II trials by Sambucini. We examine the main features of our novel design as all the parameters involved vary and compare our approach with Jung's minimax and optimal designs. An illustrative example is also provided online as a supplementary material to this article. Copyright © 2014 JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25545805

Cellamare, Matteo; Sambucini, Valeria

2015-03-15

211

Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2014-11-20

212

Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 ?g L?1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 ?g L?1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 ?g L?1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 ?g L?1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

2014-01-01

213

The vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase system: variable class II type form elucidates separate stages of enzymogenesis.  

PubMed Central

A mixed-class alcohol dehydrogenase has been characterized from avian liver. Its functional properties resemble the classical class I type enzyme in livers of humans and animals by exhibiting low Km and kcat values with alcohols (Km = 0.7 mM with ethanol) and low Ki values with 4-methylpyrazole (4 microM). These values are markedly different from corresponding parameters of class II and III enzymes. In contrast, the primary structure of this avian liver alcohol dehydrogenase reveals an overall relationship closer to class II and to some extent class III (69 and 65% residue identities, respectively) than to class I or the other classes of the human alcohol dehydrogenases (52-61%), the presence of an insertion (four positions in a segment close to position 120) as in class II but in no other class of the human enzymes, and the presence of several active site residues considered typical of the class II enzyme. Hence, the avian enzyme has mixed-class properties, being functionally similar to class I, yet structurally similar to class II, with which it also clusters in phylogenetic trees of characterized vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenases. Comparisons reveal that the class II enzyme is approximately 25% more variable than the "variable" class I enzyme, which itself is more variable than the "constant" class III enzyme. The overall extreme, and the unusual chromatographic behavior may explain why the class II enzyme has previously not been found outside mammals. The properties define a consistent pattern with apparently repeated generation of novel enzyme activities after separate gene duplications. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7479907

Hjelmqvist, L; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H

1995-01-01

214

The Effect of Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction on Deep Compartment Muscle Strength: A New Strength Test  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare isometric subtalar inversion and forefoot adduction strength in subjects with Stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) to controls. Materials and Methods Twenty four subjects with Stage II PTTD and fifteen matched controls volunteered for this study. A force transducer (Model SML-200, Interface, Scottsdale, AZ) was connected with a resistance plate and oscilloscope (TDS 410A, Tektronix, Beaverton, OR) to the foot. Via the oscilloscope, subjects were given feedback on the amount of force produced and muscle activation of the anterior tibialis (AT) muscle. Subjects were instructed to maintain a plantar flexion force while performing a maximal voluntary subtalar inversion and forefoot adduction effort. A two-way ANOVA model with the factors including, side (involved/uninvolved) and group (control/PTTD) was used. Results The PTTD group on the involved side showed significantly decreased subtalar inversion and foot adduction strength (0.70 ± 0.24 N/Kg) compared to the uninvolved side (0.94 ± 0.24 N/Kg) and controls (involved side = 0.99 ± 0.24 N/Kg, uninvolved side = 0.97 ± 0.21 N/Kg). The average AT activation was between 11–17% for both groups, however, showing considerable variability in subjects with PTTD. Conclusion These data confirm a subtalar inversion and forefoot adduction strength deficit by 20% to 30% in subjects with Stage II PTTD. Although isolating the PT muscle is difficult, a test specific to subtalar inversion and forefoot adduction demonstrated the weakness in this population. PMID:18778667

Houck, Jeff R.; Nomides, Candace; Neville, Christopher Glenn; Flemister, Adolph Samuel

2010-01-01

215

Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

216

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

2012-01-01

217

Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system, are developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design is optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance, and the resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs, and only requires approximately 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

Midea, Anthony C.

1991-01-01

218

The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer. Methods From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve. Results When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P?=?0.042 and P?=?0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P?=?0.2036) and DFS ( P?=?0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P?=?0.013). Conclusions Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects. PMID:22594580

2012-01-01

219

First-line therapy option with low-dose bisoprolol fumarate and low-dose hydrochlorothiazide in patients with stage I and stage II systemic hypertension.  

PubMed

This 30-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was designed to (1) establish that 6.25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) given once daily with 5 mg of bisoprolol fumarate can contribute to antihypertensive effectiveness in patients with stage I and stage II (mild to moderate) systemic hypertension; and (2) assess whether this formulation was more effective or possessed a safety advantage over standard monotherapy with bisoprolol or 25 mg of HCTZ. Results showed that HCTZ 6.25 mg contributed significantly to the antihypertensive effectiveness of bisoprolol 5 mg. Bisoprolol 5 mg/HCTZ 6.25 mg (B5/H6.25) produced significantly greater mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-15.8 mm Hg/-12.6 mm Hg) than bisoprolol 5 mg alone (-10.0 mm Hg/-10.5 mm Hg) and HCTZ 25 mg alone (-10.2 mm Hg/-8.5 mm Hg). A 73% response rate was achieved with the low-dose formulation compared with 61% for the bisoprolol 5 mg (B5) group and 47% for the HCTZ 25 mg (H25) group. B5/H6.25 was found to be significantly more effective than B5 or H25 in all subgroups of patients, regardless of gender, race, age, or smoking history. Antihypertensive effects were maintained during the 24-hour dosing interval. The incremental effectiveness of B5/H6.25 was not accompanied by an increase in the frequency or severity of adverse experiences; the incidence of adverse experiences in the B5/H6.25 group was comparable to that in the placebo group. B5/H6.25 was shown to provide safety advantages over H25, as shown by less hypokalemia (< 1% with B5/H6.25 versus 6.5% with H25).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7751430

Frishman, W H; Burris, J F; Mroczek, W J; Weir, M R; Alemayehu, D; Simon, J S; Chen, S Y; Bryzinski, B S

1995-02-01

220

Risk of recurrence in patients with colon cancer stage II and III: A systematic review and meta-analysis of recent literature.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Adjuvant chemotherapy is established routine therapy for colon cancer (CC) patients with radically resected stage III and 'high-risk' stage II disease. The decision on recommending adjuvant chemotherapy, however, is based on data from older patient cohorts not reflecting improvements in pre-operative staging, surgery, and pathological examination. The aim is to review the current risk of recurrence in stage II and III patients and second, to estimate the relative importance of routinely assessed clinico-pathological variables. Methods. The PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled studies and observational studies published after 1 January 2005 with patients included after January 1995 on prognosis in surgically treated stage II and III CC patients. Results. Of 2596 studies identified, 37 met the inclusion criteria and 25 provided data for meta-analysis. The total patient sample size in the 25 studies reporting either disease-free (DFS) or recurrence-free survival was 15 559 in stage II and 18 425 in stage III. Five-year DFS for stage II patients operated without subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy was 81.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 75.4-87.4; in studies with good/very good quality of reporting 82.7%, (95% CI 80.8-84.6)]. For stage II patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, the five-year DFS was 79.3% (95% CI 75.6-83.1). For stage III patients without chemotherapy, five-year DFS was 49.0% (95% CI 23.2-74.8) and for those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, 63.6% (95% CI 59.3-67.9). The prognostic impact of commonly investigated clinico-pathological parameters, (pT-stage, pN-stage, differentiation, number of lymph nodes studied, MMR-status, and emergency surgery) were confirmed. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, studies with good quality of reporting show a five-year DFS of 82.7% for stage II CC without adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas the five-year DFS is 63.8% for stage III CC with adjuvant chemotherapy. Due to insufficient reporting on treatment quality the presented DFS is likely an under-estimation of what is achieved at high-quality centers today. PMID:25430983

Böckelman, Camilla; Engelmann, Bodil E; Kaprio, Tuomas; Hansen, Torben F; Glimelius, Bengt

2015-01-01

221

A two-stage patient enrichment adaptive design in phase II oncology trials.  

PubMed

Illustrated is the use of a patient enrichment adaptive design in a randomized phase II trial which allows the evaluation of treatment benefits by the biomarker expression level and makes interim adjustment according to the pre-specified rules. The design was applied to an actual phase II metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) trial in which progression-free survival (PFS) in two biomarker-defined populations is evaluated at both interim and final analyses. As an extension, a short-term biomarker is used to predict the long-term PFS in a Bayesian model in order to improve the precision of hazard ratio (HR) estimate at the interim analysis. The characteristics of the extended design are examined in a number of scenarios via simulations. The recommended adaptive design is shown to be useful in a phase II setting. When a short-term maker which correlates with the long-term PFS is available, the design can be applied in smaller early phase trials in which PFS requires longer follow-up. In summary, the adaptive design offers flexibility in randomized phase II patient enrichment trials and should be considered in an overall personalized healthcare (PHC) strategy. PMID:24342820

Song, James X

2014-01-01

222

Sub1 and RPA associate with RNA Polymerase II at different stages of transcription  

PubMed Central

Summary Single stranded DNA binding proteins play many roles in nucleic acid metabolism, but their importance during transcription remains unclear. Quantitative proteomic analysis of RNA polymerase II (RNApII) pre-initiation complexes (PICs) identified Sub1 and the Replication Protein A complex (RPA), both of which bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Sub1, homolog of mammalian coactivator PC4, exhibits strong genetic interactions with factors necessary for promoter melting. Sub1 localizes near the transcription bubble in vitro and binds to promoters in vivo dependent upon PIC assembly. In contrast, RPA localizes to transcribed regions of active genes, strongly correlated with transcribing RNApII but independently of replication. RFA1 interacts genetically with transcription elongation factor genes. Interestingly, RPA levels increase at active promoters in cells carrying a Sub1 deletion or ssDNA binding mutant, suggesting competition for a common binding site. We propose that Sub1 and RPA interact with the non-template strand of RNApII complexes during initiation and elongation, respectively. PMID:22055186

Sikorski, Timothy W.; Ficarro, Scott B.; Holik, John; Kim, TaeSoo; Rando, Oliver J.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Buratowski, Stephen

2011-01-01

223

Management of localized seminoma, stage I-II: SIU/ICUD Consensus Meeting on Germ Cell Tumors (GCT), Shanghai 2009.  

PubMed

The treatment of patients with Stage I-II seminoma has changed considerably in the past decade, and in November 2009, an International Consensus meeting was held under the sponsorship of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU), and International Consultation on Urological Diseases (ICUD) to review recent updates in the published data and develop international consensus guidelines on the treatment of this group of patients. In Stage I disease, the consensus conference recommended that patients should be informed of all treatment options, including the potential benefits and side effects of each treatment. It was agreed that this discussion should include a review of the possible salvage treatment effects. In addition, in patients willing and able to adhere to a surveillance program, this should be considered the management option of choice (assuming facilities are available for suitable monitoring). For Stage IIA disease, the consensus conference recommended that radiotherapy should be considered the standard treatment in the absence of contraindications. For Stage IIB disease, chemotherapy or radiotherapy were considered reasonable treatment approaches, and for Stage IIC disease, chemotherapy should be considered the standard treatment approach. For patients with a residual mass after chemotherapy, the consensus conference noted that patients with masses <3 cm in diameter could likely be safely observed, and patients with residual masses >3 cm in diameter could be considered for immediate surgery or close observation. It was also noted that surgery in this setting is technically challenging and could be associated with greater morbidity than in patients with nonseminomatous tumors. PMID:21986223

Warde, P; Huddart, R; Bolton, D; Heidenreich, A; Gilligan, T; Fossa, S

2011-10-01

224

Integrated biostratigraphy, stage boundaries and Paleoclimatology of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene successions in Kharga and Dakhala Oases, Western Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene succession in the studied sections is divided into four rock units that arranged from base to top: the Dakhla, Tarawan, Esna and the Thebes formations. Detailed study of the foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils has led to the recognition of 58 and 82 species, respectively. Based on planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils 8 planktonic foraminiferal biozones (CF4, P2, P3, P4, E1, E2, E3 and E4) have been recognized as well as 8 calcareous nannofossil biozones (CC25b, NP3, NP4, NP5, NP6, NP7/8, NP9, and NP10). At Gabal Teir/Tarawan section, Kharga Oasis, the Paleocene can be divided into three stages; Danian, Selandian and Thanetian. The Danian/Selandian boundary is placed at P3a/P3b zonal boundary (LO of Igorina albeari) which corresponds to the level of LO of Lithoptychius ulii, Fasciculithus pileatus, Fasciculithus involutus and Lithoptychius janii (upper part of Zone NP4). The Selandian/Thanetian boundary, on the other hand, can be traced within the foraminiferal Zone P4 (Globanomalina pseudomenardii Zone) and between the nannofossil zones NP6 and NP7/8 (LO of Discoaster mohleri). At Gabal Ghanima section, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary is located within the lower part of the Esna Formation. It can be traced at the base of planktonic foraminiferal Zone E1 (LOs of Acarinina africana, A sibaiyaensis and Morozovella allinsoensis), and at the NP9a/NP9b subzonal boundary (LO of Rhomboaster spp). However, the lower Eocene succession seems to be condensed and punctuated by minor hiatus (absence of Subzone NP10a). The dominance of cool water nannofossil species in the late Maastrichtian and early Danian interval suggests a gradual decrease in the surface water paleotemperature. However, a slight warming condition prevailed around the Danian/Selandian transition as evidenced by the warm water nannofossil species. At the P/E boundary interval, the high abundance of warm-water taxa (e.g. Discoaster, Sphenolithus, Rhomboaster, Tribrachiatus and Pontosphaera species) indicates a warm-water paleotemperatures.

Khalil, H.; Al Sawy, S.

2014-08-01

225

Ozone variability in the midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere diagnosed from a monthly SAGE II climatology relative to the tropopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

A midlatitude (25°-65°) monthly zonal median ozone climatology in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), from 8 to 20 km with a 0.5-km vertical resolution and a 5° latitudinal resolution, is developed on the basis of version 6.2 (V6.2) ozone profile retrievals from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II measurements from October 1984 to August 2005. To

Pi-Huan Wang; Derek M. Cunnold; Charles R. Trepte; Hsiang J. Wang; Ping Jing; Jack Fishman; Vince G. Brackett; Joseph M. Zawodney; Greg E. Bodeker

2006-01-01

226

CBCT Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion with Mandibular Retrusion Using Twin Block Appliance: A Comparative Research  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB) treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n?=?30) was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. Results During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52±2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77±2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. Conclusion Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB treatment. PMID:24705466

Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Cheng, Huijuan; Han, Yanzhao; Wang, Chunling; Chen, Yu

2014-01-01

227

Effects of laser immunotherapy on late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients in a Phase II clinical trial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser immunotherapy (LIT), a novel technique with a local intervention to induce systemic antitumor effects, was developed to treat metastatic cancers. The pre-clinical studies of LIT have shown its unique characteristics in generating a specific antitumor immunity in treating metastatic tumors in rats and mice. For late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients, who were considered to be out of other available treatment options, we conducted a small Phase II clinical trial using LIT starting in 2009 in Lima, Peru. This Phase II study was closed in December of 2012, as acknowldged by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Peur letter 438-2014-OGITT/INS dated March 5th, 2014. Ten patients were enrolled and received LIT in one or multiple 4-week treatment cycles. At the study closing date, four patients were alive and two of them remained cancer free. Here, following the successful conclusion of our Phase II study, we report the clinical effects of LIT on metastatic breast cancer patients. Specifically, we present the overall status of all the patients three years after the treatment and also the outcomes of two long-term surviving patients.

Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Chen, Wei R.

2014-03-01

228

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER NORTH FORK LEWIS II, 12-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

salmon protection and restoration measures. Upper North Fork Lewis salmon and steelhead are affected, incidentally affect ESA-listed #12;DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER with the potential to both adversely affect wild salmon and steelhead populations and to assist in recovery efforts

229

Phase II trial of the regulatory T cell-depleting agent, denileukin diftitox, in patients with unresectable stage IV melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background We previously found that administration of an interleukin 2/diphtheria toxin conjugate (DAB/IL2; Denileukin Diftitox; ONTAK) to stage IV melanoma patients depleted CD4+CD25HIFoxp3+ regulatory T cells and expanded melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells. The goal of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of DAB/IL2 in an expanded cohort of stage IV melanoma patients. Methods In a single-center, phase II trial, DAB/IL2 (12 ?g/kg; 4 daily doses; 21 day cycles) was administered to 60 unresectable stage IV melanoma patients and response rates were assessed using a combination of 2-[18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Results After DAB/IL2 administration, 16.7% of the 60 patients had partial responses, 5% stable disease and 15% mixed responses. Importantly, 45.5% of the chemo/immuno-naïve sub-population (11/60 patients) experienced partial responses. One year survival was markedly higher in partial responders (80 ± 11.9%) relative to patients with progressive disease (23.7 ± 6.5%; p value < 0.001) and 40 ± 6.2% of the total DAB/IL2-treated population were alive at 1 year. Conclusions These data support the development of multi-center, randomized trials of DAB/IL2 as a monotherapy and in combination with other immunotherapeutic agents for the treatment of stage IV melanoma. Trial registration NCT00299689 PMID:22165955

2011-01-01

230

Outcome of transoral robotic surgery for stage I-II oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Traditionally T1-2N0 oropharyngeal carcinoma is treated with a single treatment modality, being either radiotherapy or surgery. Currently, minimally invasive surgery, such as transoral robotic surgery (TORS), is gaining popularity. The aim of this study is to assess whether T1-2N0 oropharyngeal cancer can be safely and effectively resected with TORS, and to determine the oncologic and functional outcomes. In addition, the long-term quality-of-life outcomes are reported. Between 2007 and 2012, 18 patients with early stage oropharyngeal cancers underwent transoral resection with the da Vinci robot system in the Netherlands Cancer Institute. All surviving patients filled out the self-report assessments of quality-of-life questionnaires. Median robot-assisted operating time was 115 min (range 43-186 min), while median estimated blood loss was 5 ml (range 0-125 ml). In three cases the exposure was insufficient to obtain clear tumor margins because of tumor extension and local anatomy. Fourteen patients had clear surgical margins. Four patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients underwent an elective unilateral neck dissection. The oropharyngeal cancer recurred in two patients. Regarding the quality of life, patients who needed postoperative radiotherapy had a worse outcome and patients treated with transoral resection only did quite well. TORS seems to be an oncologically safe surgical treatment for early stage T1-2N0 oropharyngeal cancer based on this relatively small group of patients. Selecting patients in whom sufficient surgical exposure can be obtained, should be performed with the greatest care to avoid the need for adjuvant radiotherapy. Comparing radiotherapy and TORS or CO2 laser should be the next step in finding the optimal treatment for patients with T1-2N0 oropharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:24609641

van Loon, J W L; Smeele, L E; Hilgers, F J M; van den Brekel, M W M

2015-01-01

231

Deep-Sea Research II 49 (2002) 21952230 Moored observations of upper-ocean response to the  

E-print Network

of these features. r 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. 1. Introduction The thermohaline structure of the upper de Climatologie, Paris, France. 0967-0645/02/$ - see front matter r 2002 Published by Elsevier

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

232

A Predictive Genetic Signature for Response to Fluoropyrimidine-Based Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Clinical Stage II and III Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Pre-operative chemoradiation (CRT) is currently the standard of care for patients with clinical stage II and III rectal cancer but only about 45% of patients achieve tumor downstaging and <20% of patients achieve a pathologic complete response. Better methods to stratify patients according to potential neoadjuvant treatment response are needed. We used microarray analysis to identify a genetic signature that correlates with a pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant CRT. We performed a gene network analysis to identify potential signaling pathways involved in determining response to neoadjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods: We identified 31 T3–4 N0–1 rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant fluorouracil-based CRT. Eight patients were identified to have achieved a pCR to treatment while 23 patients did not. mRNA expression was analyzed using cDNA microarrays. The correlation between mRNA expression and pCR from pre-treatment tumor biopsies was determined. Gene network analysis was performed for the genes represented by the predictive signature. Results: A genetic signature represented by expression levels of the three genes EHBP1, STAT1, and GAPDH was found to correlate with a pCR to neoadjuvant treatment. The difference in expression levels between patients who achieved a pCR and those who did not was greatest for EHBP1. Gene network analysis showed that the three genes can be connected by the gene ubiquitin C (UBC). Conclusion: This study identifies a 3-gene signature expressed in pre-treatment tumor biopsies that correlates with a pCR to neoadjuvant CRT in patients with clinical stage II and III rectal cancer. These three genes can be connected by the gene UBC, suggesting that ubiquitination is a molecular mechanism involved in determining response to treatment. Validating this genetic signature in a larger number of patients is proposed. PMID:24324931

Chan, Jason; Kinsella, Michael T.; Willis, Joseph E.; Hu, Huankai; Reynolds, Harry; Delaney, Conor; McCulla, Andrea; Deharo, Steve; Ahdesmäki, Miika; Allen, Wendy Louise; Johnston, Patrick G.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

233

Hypomethylation-Associated Up-Regulation of TCF3 Expression and Recurrence in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Transcription factor 3 (TCF3) implicates Wnt signaling pathway and regulates E-cadherin expression, which is involved in aggressiveness of tumors. This study aims to investigate the role of TCF3 in predicting prognosis of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Real-Time quantitative PCR was performed in 64 fresh CRC tissues and 6 cell lines to examine TCF3 mRNA expression. TCF3 protein expression dynamics were detected by immunohistochemistry of 118 paraffin-embedded specimens, and the clinical significance of TCF3 was assessed by clinical correlation and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Aberrant hypomethylation of TCF3 promoter was also investigated using bisulfite sequencing and methylation specific PCR. Results The up-regulation of TCF3 mRNA was frequently detected both in CRC tissues with recurrence and metastasis-derived cell lines. The expression level of TCF3 protein was significantly correlated with histological type (P?=?0.038) and disease-free survival time (P?=?0.002). Higher TCF3 expression indicated poor prognostic outcomes (P<0.05, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis also showed strong TCF3 protein expression and perineural invasion were independent adverse prognosticators in CRC (P?=?0.010, 0.000). Moreover, it was showed that promoter hypomethylation of TCF3 is associated with its up-expression. Conclusions This study highlighted the prognostic value of TCF3 in stage II and III CRC. The up-regulation of TCF3, which is mainly caused by promoter hypomethylation, is one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of CRC. PMID:25375219

Li, Chunxiang; Cai, Sanjun; Wang, Xishan; Jiang, Zheng

2014-01-01

234

Foot Kinematics During a Bilateral Heel Rise Test in Participants With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Experimental laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES To compare foot kinematics, using 3-dimensional tracking methods, during a bilateral heel rise between participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and participants with a normal medial longitudinal arch (MLA). BACKGROUND The bilateral heel rise test is commonly used to assess patients with PTTD; however, information about foot kinematics during the test is lacking. METHODS Forty-five individuals volunteered to participate, including 30 patients diagnosed with unilateral stage II PTTD (mean ± SD age, 59.8 ± 11.1 years; body mass index, 29.9 ± 4.8 kg/m2) and 15 controls (mean ± SD age, 56.5 ± 7.7 years; body mass index, 30.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Foot kinematic data were collected during a bilateral heel rise task from the calcaneus (hindfoot), first metatarsal, and hallux, using an Optotrak motion analysis system and Motion Monitor software. A 2-way mixed-effects analysis of variance model, with normalized heel height as a covariate, was used to test for significant differences between the normal MLA and PTTD groups. RESULTS The patients in the PTTD group exhibited significantly greater ankle plantar flexion (mean difference between groups, 7.3°; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1° to 9.5°), greater first metatarsal dorsiflexion (mean difference between groups, 9.0°; 95% CI: 3.7° to 14.4°), and less hallux dorsiflexion (mean difference, 6.7°; 95% CI: 1.7° to 11.8°) compared to controls. At peak heel rise, hindfoot inversion was similar (P = .130) between the PTTD and control groups. CONCLUSION Except for hindfoot eversion/inversion, the differences in foot kinematics in participants with stage II PTTD, when compared to the control group, mainly occur as an offset, not an alteration in shape, of the kinematic patterns. PMID:19648723

HOUCK, JEFF; NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; TOME, JOSHUA; FLEMISTER, ADOLPH

2010-01-01

235

Analysis of cosmetic results and complications in patients with Stage I and II breast cancer treated by biopsy and irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Between May, 1973 and December, 1980, 78 Stage I and II breast carcinomas in 76 patients were treated by biopsy and radiotherapy with curative intent. With a maximum follow-up of 10 years, a minimum of 2 1/2 years and a median follow-up of 3 1/2 years, a loco-regional control rate of 97% was obtained. Cosmetic results and treatment complications were studied. Patient characteristics, tumor size, excisional biopsy technique, axillary staging procedure and radiotherapy techniques were analyzed and all found to be important factors affecting cosmesis and complications. The most common complications included transient breast edema observed in 51% of patients, breast fibrosis (usually mild) seen in 23% of the population, axillary hematoma or seroma formation in 15%, mild arm edema in 14% and basilic vein thrombosis in 10% of patients. The causes of these and other less frequent complications are discussed. The overall cosmetic result was excellent in 78%, satisfactory in 18% and unsatisfactory in 4% of patients. Recommendations for improving cosmetic results and minimizing complications are made.

Clarke, D.; Martinez, A.; Cox, R.S.

1983-12-01

236

Single Stage Silicone Border Molded Closed Mouth Impression Technique-Part II.  

PubMed

Functioning of a complete denture depends to a great extent on the impression technique. Several impression techniques have been described in the literature since the turn of this century when Greene [Clinical courses in dental prothesis, 1916] brothers introduced the first scientific system of recording dental impression. Advocates of each technique have their own claim of superiority over the other. The introduction of elastomeric impression materials [Skinner and Cooper, J Am Dent Assoc 51:523-536, 1955] has made possible new techniques of recording impression for complete denture construction. These rubber like materials are of two types; one has a polysulfide base and is popularily known as polysulfide rubber (Thiokol and Mercaptan). The other variety has a silicone base known as silicone rubber or silicone elastomer. Silicone elastomers are available in four different consistencies; a thin easy flowing light bodied material,a creamy medium bodied material, a highly viscous heavy bodied material and a kneadable putty material. This paper describes an active closed mouth impression technique with one stage border molding using putty silicone material as a substitute for low fusing compound. PMID:22942578

Solomon, E G R

2011-09-01

237

Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations. II. Convolution method and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this second of two papers, analytical step-response functions, developed in the companion paper for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to streamstage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems in the northeastern and central United States. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties, recharge rates, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage. Analysis of the water-table aquifer adjacent to the Blackstone River in Massachusetts suggests that the very shallow depth of water table and associated thin unsaturated zone at the site cause the aquifer to behave like a confined aquifer (negligible specific yield). This finding is consistent with previous studies that have shown that the effective specific yield of an unconfined aquifer approaches zero when the capillary fringe, where sediment pores are saturated by tension, extends to land surface. Under this condition, the aquifer's response is determined by elastic storage only. Estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, and recharge for a water-table aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River in eastern Iowa, determined by the use of analytical methods, are in close agreement with those estimated by use of a more complex, multilayer numerical model of the aquifer. Streambank leakance of the semipervious streambank materials also was estimated for the site. The streambank-leakance parameter may be considered to be a general (or lumped) parameter that accounts not only for the resistance of flow at the river-aquifer boundary, but also for the effects of partial penetration of the river and other near-stream flow phenomena not included in the theoretical development of the step-response functions.Analytical step-response functions, developed for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to stream-stage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank seepage rates and bank storage.

Barlow, P.M.; DeSimone, L.A.; Moench, A.F.

2000-01-01

238

High-dose concurrent chemo-proton therapy for Stage III NSCLC: preliminary results of a Phase II study.  

PubMed

The aim of this report is to present the preliminary results of a Phase II study of high-dose (74 Gy RBE) proton beam therapy (PBT) with concurrent chemotherapy for unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients were treated with PBT and chemotherapy with monthly cisplatin (on Day 1) and vinorelbine (on Days 1 and 8). The treatment doses were 74 Gy RBE for the primary site and 66 Gy RBE for the lymph nodes without elective lymph nodes. Adapted planning was made during the treatment. A total of 15 patients with Stage III NSCLC (IIIA: 4, IIIB: 11) were evaluated in this study. The median follow-up period was 21.7 months. None of the patients experienced Grade 4 or 5 non-hematologic toxicities. Acute pneumonitis was observed in three patients (Grade 1 in one, and Grade 3 in two), but Grade 3 pneumonitis was considered to be non-proton-related. Grade 3 acute esophagitis and dermatitis were observed in one and two patients, respectively. Severe ( ? Grade 3) leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 10 patients, seven patients and one patient, respectively. Late radiation Grades 2 and 3 pneumonitis was observed in one patient each. Six patients (40%) experienced local recurrence at the primary site and were treated with 74 Gy RBE. Disease progression was observed in 11 patients. The mean survival time was 26.7 months. We concluded that high-dose PBT with concurrent chemotherapy is safe to use in the treatment of unresectable Stage III NSCLC. PMID:24864278

Oshiro, Yoshiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Kurishima, Koichi; Homma, Shinsuke; Mizumoto, Masashi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Onizuka, Masataka; Sakai, Mitsuaki; Goto, Yukinobu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Sato, Yukio; Sakurai, Hideyuki

2014-09-01

239

Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II\\/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel\\/doxorubicin chemotherapy

Bhumsuk Keam; Seock-Ah Im; Hee-Jun Kim; Do-Youn Oh; Jee Hyun Kim; Se-Hoon Lee; Eui Kyu Chie; Wonshik Han; Dong-Wan Kim; Woo Kyung Moon; Tae-You Kim; In Ae Park; Dong-Young Noh; Dae Seog Heo; Sung Whan Ha; Yung-Jue Bang

2007-01-01

240

Analysis of cosmetic results following primary radiation therapy for stages I and II carcinoma of the breast. [4 MV linear accelerator; complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 31 cases of Stages I or II carcinoma of the breast treated by primary radiation therapy, the cosmetic results were analyzed with regard to the details of treatment. Three principal treatment factors were identified which influenced the cosmetic outcome: (1) the extent and location of the biopsy procedure; (2) the time\\/dose factors of the radiation therapy; and (3) the

J. R. Harris; M. B. Levene; G. Svensson; S. Hellman

1979-01-01

241

[Results of open multicenter study of the safety of doxazosin in combination with indigal in men with stages I-II prostatic adenoma].  

PubMed

The article presents a method of conservative treatment of men with I-II stage prostatic adenoma using a combination of doxazosin and indigal, which has antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, that allowed improving urodynamic parameters and reducing the progression prostate adenoma, minimizing the adverse effects of treatment. PMID:23789362

Pavlov, V N; Komiakov, B K; Grigor'ev, M É; Sivkov, A V; Bliumberg, B I; Kazikhinoruv, A A; Izma?lov, A A; Boiarko, A V; Abzalilov, R A

2013-01-01

242

Effect of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in this study. PET/CT was performed in addition to the initial assessment. Results: In 3 cases, PET/CT showed extra-axillary lymph node involvement that had not been demonstrated with conventional techniques. Two of these patients had hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the subpectoral and infraclavicular regions, and the third had a hypermetabolic internal mammary node. PET/CT showed distant uptake in 4 women. Of these 4 women, 1 had pleural involvement and 3 had bone metastasis. Overall, of the 39 women, the PET/CT results modified the initial stage in 7 (18%). The modified staging altered the treatment plan for 5 patients (13%). It led to radiotherapy in 4 patients (bone metastasis, pleural lesion, subpectoral lymph nodes, and internal mammary nodes) and excision of, and radiotherapy to, the infraclavicular lymph nodes in 1 patient. Conclusions: PET/CT can provide information on extra-axillary lymph node involvement and can uncover occult distant metastases in a significant percentage of patients. Therefore, initial PET/CT could enable better treatment planning for patients with Stage II and III breast cancer.

Groheux, David [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France)], E-mail: dgroheux@yahoo.fr; Moretti, Jean-Luc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Baillet, Georges [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Espie, Marc; Giacchetti, Sylvie [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Hennequin, Christophe [EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hartmann Hospital, Neuilly sur Seine (France); Cuvier, Caroline [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Sarandi, Farid [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Misset, Jean-Louis [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France)

2008-07-01

243

Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease. For disease-specific survival, recurrent disease was the only significant factor. Primary site on the lower limb had an adverse effect on locoregional control. For distant control, the only significant factor was residual disease. Conclusions: The multivariate analysis suggests chemotherapy has no effect on survival, but because of the wide confidence limits, a chemotherapy effect cannot be excluded. A study of this size is inadequately powered to detect small improvements in survival, and a larger randomized study remains the only way to truly confirm whether chemotherapy improves the results in high-risk MCC.

Poulsen, Michael G. [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia)]. E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Clinic, Melbourne (Australia); Porter, Ian [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia); Walpole, Euan [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia); Hamilton, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Tripcony, Lee [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

2006-01-01

244

A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. II - Electrical coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a model of global atmospheric electricity used to examine the effect of upper atmospheric generators on the global electrical circuit. The model represents thunderstorms as dipole current generators randomly distributed in areas of known thunderstorm frequency; the electrical conductivity in the model increases with altitude, and electrical effects are coupled with a passive magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. The large horizontal-scale potential differences at ionospheric heights map downward into the lower atmosphere where the perturbations in the ground electric field are superimposed on the diurnal variation. Finally, changes in the upper atmospheric conductivity due to solar flares, polar cap absorptions, and Forbush decreases are shown to alter the downward mapping of the high-latitude potential pattern and the global distribution of fields and currents.

Roble, R. G.; Hays, P. B.

1979-01-01

245

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

246

Outcomes and Effect of Radiotherapy in Patients With Stage I or II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and the effect of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all patients diagnosed with Stage I, IE, II, or IIE DLBCL between 1988 and 2004. The analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Patients who had died or were lost to follow-up within 6 months of diagnosis were excluded. Results: A total of 13,420 patients met the search criteria. Of these, 5,547 (41%) had received RT and 7,873 (59%) had not. RT was associated with a significant DSS (hazard ratio, 0.82, p <0.0001) and OS benefit that persisted during the 15 years of follow-up. Elderly patients, defined either as those >60 or >70 years old, had significantly improved DSS and OS associated with RT. On multivariate analysis, RT was significantly associated with increased DSS and OS. The 5-year DSS outcomes were highly variable among patient subsets, defined by age, stage, and extranodal disease (range for RT-treated patients, 70% for Stage II, age >60 years to 87% for Stage I, age {<=}60 years). Conclusion: This analysis presents the largest detailed data set of Stage I-II DLBCL patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that RT is associated with a survival advantage in patients with localized DLBCL, a benefit that extends to elderly patients. Outcomes for discrete patient subsets varied greatly. The development of tailored therapy according to the relapse risk is warranted, rather than uniform treatment of all early-stage DLBCL.

Ballonoff, Ari [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: ari.ballonoff@uchsc.edu; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Schwer, Amanda; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Bassetti, Michael; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

2008-12-01

247

Study protocol of the SACURA trial: a randomized phase III trial of efficacy and safety of UFT as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer is internationally accepted as standard treatment with established efficacy, but the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer remains controversial. The major Western guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for “high-risk stage II” cancer, but this is not clearly defined and the efficacy has not been confirmed. Methods/design SACURA trial is a multicenter randomized phase III study which aims to evaluate the superiority of 1-year adjuvant treatment with UFT to observation without any adjuvant treatment after surgery for stage II colon cancer in a large population, and to identify “high-risk factors of recurrence/death” in stage II colon cancer and predictors of efficacy and adverse events of the chemotherapy. Patients aged between 20 and 80?years with curatively resected stage II colon cancer are randomly assigned to a observation group or UFT adjuvant therapy group (UFT at 500–600?mg/day as tegafur in 2 divided doses after meals for 5?days, followed by 2-day rest. This 1-week treatment cycle is repeated for 1?year). The patients are followed up for 5?years until recurrence or death. Treatment delivery and adverse events are entered into a web-based case report form system every 3?months. The target sample size is 2,000 patients. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival, and the secondary endpoints are overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and incidence and severity of adverse events. In an additional translational study, the mRNA expression of 5-FU-related enzymes, microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability, and histopathological factors including tumor budding are assessed to evaluate correlation with recurrences, survivals and adverse events. Discussion A total of 2,024 patients were enrolled from October 2006 to July 2010. The results of this study will provide important information that help to improve the therapeutic strategy for stage II colon cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00392899. PMID:22769569

2012-01-01

248

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

2015-02-10

249

[Pre- and peri-surgical chemotherapy of stage I and II resectable non-small cell lung cancers].  

PubMed

Chemotherapy (CT) combined with surgery in non-small cell lung cancers has been studied for a number of years. It can be used prior to or following surgery (adjuvant). A long rather unfruitful period ended with the meta-analysis of the Non-Small Cell Cancer Collaborative Group, published in the British Medical Journal in 1995 that suggested an increase in survival of 5% at 5 years with the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery. Since this publication, arguments have accumulated in favour of this combination. Phase II studies have shown the feasibility of pre-surgical CT. A randomised trial in France showed a near 10% improvement in survival at 5 years, approaching statistical significance, and that this beneficial effect was further enhanced in the early stages of cancer. Excess post-surgical morbidity and mortality, even though non-significant, emphasizes the need for an effective but less toxic CT than the mitomycine-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination initially selected. In the field of adjuvant CT, the arguments in favour of the association have accumulated with the positive results of 3 studies, the IALT trial, the BR10 trial of the Canadian National Cancer Institute and the 9633 trial of the CALGB, with the latter two studies presented this year at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting. Four other pre-surgery CT trials are ongoing, but their results will not be available for several years. When choosing optimal timing among the various CT administration methods, before or after surgery, the arguments are in favour of pre-surgery CT: the possibility of assessing the chemosensitivity of the tumor, permitting the early withdrawal of treatment if it fails (presently in 40% of patients), the enhanced acceptability of CT by the patients, and the increase in resectability of the tumours. Conversely, however, one must note the greater difficulty for staging and the increase in post-surgical risks, basically in N2 patients, which will gradually lead to its replacement by the use of 3rd generation CT. PMID:15536350

Depierre, A

2004-11-01

250

A Multifactorial Analysis of Melanoma: III. Prognostic Factors in Melanoma Patients with Lymph Node Metastases (Stage II)  

PubMed Central

Twelve prognostic features of melanoma were examined in a series of 185 patients with nodal metastases (Stage II), who underwent surgical treatment at our institution during the past 20 years. Forty-four per cent of the patients presented with synchronous nodal metastases (substage IIA), 44% of the patients had delayed nodal metastases (substage IIB), and 12% of the patients had nodal metastases from an unknown primary site (substage IIC). The patients with IIB (delayed) metastases had a better overall survival rate than patients with IIA (synchronous) metastases, when calculated from the time of diagnosis. These differences could be explained on the basis of tumor burden at the time of initial diagnosis (microscopic for IIB patients versus macroscopic for IIA patients). Once nodal metastases became evident in IIB patients, their survival rates were the same as for substage IIA patients, when calculated from the onset of nodal metastases. The survival rates for both subgroups was 28% at five years and 15% for ten years. Substage IIC patients (unknown 1° site) had better five-year survival rates (39%), but the sample size was small and the differences were not statistically significant. A multifactorial analysis was used to identify the dominant prognostic variables from among 12 clinical and pathologic parameters. Only two factors were found to independently influence survival rates: 1) the number of metastatic nodes (p = 0.005), and the presence or absence of ulceration (p = 0.0019). Additional factors considered that had either indirect or no influence on survival rates (p > 0.10) were: anatomic location, age, sex, remission duration, substage of disease, tumor thickness, level of invasion, pigmentation, and lymphocyte infiltration. All combinations of nodal metastases were analyzed from survival differences. The combination that showed the greatest differences was one versus two to four versus more than four nodes. Their five-year survival rates were 58%, 27% and 10%, respectively (p < 0.001). Ulceration of the primary cutaneous melanoma was associated with a <15% five-year survival rate, while nonulcerative melanomas had a 30% five-year survival rate (p < 0.001). The combination of ulceration and multiple metastatic nodes had a profound adverse effect on survival rates. While tumor thickness was the most important factor in predicting the risk of nodal metastases in Stage I patients (p < 10-8), it had no predictive value on the patient's clinical course once nodal metastases had occurred (p = 0.507). The number of metastatic nodes and the presence of ulceration are important factors to account for when comparing surgical results, and when analyzing the efficacy of adjunctive systemic treatments. PMID:7212800

Balch, Charles M.; Soong, Seng-Jaw; Murad, Tariq M.; Ingalls, Anna Lee; Maddox, William A.

1981-01-01

251

The synoptic climate controls on hydrology in the upper reaches of the Peace River Basin. Part II: Snow ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and rate of spring snowmelt in the upper reaches of the Peace River Basin control the development of large upstream spring flood waves and subsequent downstream ice-jam flooding events. Given that snowmelt is controlled by atmospheric processes, this study identified the mid-tropospheric circulation patterns that control the timing and rate of the snowmelt season on a critical tributary of the Peace River Basin.Results showed that the date of spring snowmelt initiation in the upper Peace has become significantly earlier over the study period (1963-1996). This was explained by a significant increasing (decreasing) trend in the occurrence of mid-tropospheric ridging (troughing and zonal flow) patterns, which are associated with above (below) average mean daily temperatures and available melt energy at Grande Prairie. Further analysis revealed that variances in the timing and rate of melt at Grande Prairie could be explained by variances in the local synoptic regime.Examination of the broad-scale atmospheric controls identified that the variances in the occurrence of the synoptic patterns could be explained by variances in the Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern. Although El Niño events were associated with average synoptic and snow ablation conditions, La Niña events were found to significantly impact the March synoptic regime over western Canada, and subsequently, the melt timing at Grande Prairie. Copyright

Romolo, L.; Prowse, T. D.; Blair, D.; Bonsal, B. R.; Marsh, P.; Martz, L. W.

2006-12-01

252

Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy on moderate- and high-risk stage I and II epithelian ovarian cancer patients. Long-term single institution experience and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although the optimal management of women with FIGO stages I and II epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is still controversial,\\u000a platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) is the mainstay of treatment. Suboptimal survival results have led to major efforts\\u000a to identify prognostic factors, improve surgical staging and develop adjuvant therapies to improve patients’ outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  We evaluate in a retrospective study clinical

José A. García-Sáenz; Ana Custodio; Antonio Casado; José Antonio Vidart; Pluvio J. Coronado; Miguel Martín; Sara López-Tarruella; Javier Puente; Cristina Fernández; Eduardo Díaz-Rubio

2011-01-01

253

The upper cenozoic evolution of the Duero and Ebro fluvial systems (N-Spain): part I. paleogeography; part II. geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of age dates in the terrigenous Cenozoic sediments of the Duero and the Ebro sedimentary basins has complicated tecto-stratic correlation across the two basins. We tentatively synthesize a range of existing studies and new data to construct a rough general paleogeography throughout Upper Cenozoic times. The more extensive erosion of the Ebro has been previously attributed to the earlier moment of opening. We tentatively analyse lithostratic data to conclude that the lower knick-point and different lithologies have also contributed to the deeper erosion in the Ebro Basin. We conclude from lithostratic data and field evidence that the W half of the Rioja was part of the Duero in earlier times and that the escarpment retreated westward through the Rioja in four subsequent episodes of erosion. The tilt of the NW Duero is a consequence of isostatic rebound to this erosion.

Mikeš, Daniel

2010-09-01

254

Yoga Skills Training or Attention Control for Reducing Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms During Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II-IV Colorectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Depressive Symptoms; Fatigue; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2014-12-10

255

A Phase II Study of Ifosfamide, Methotrexate, Etoposide, and Prednisolone for Previously Untreated Stage I/II Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type: A Multicenter Trial of the Korean Cancer Study Group  

PubMed Central

Background. Combination chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) was active as first-line and second-line treatment for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL). Methods. Forty-four patients with chemo-naïve stage I/II NTCL were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, phase II study and received six cycles of IMEP (ifosfamide 1.5 g/m2 on days 1–3; methotrextate 30 mg/m2 on days 3 and 10; etoposide 100 mg/m2 on days 1–3; and prednisolone 60 mg/m2 per day on days 1–5) followed by involved field radiotherapy (IFRT). Results. Overall response rates were 73% (complete remission [CR] in 11 of 41 evaluable patients [27%]) after IMEP chemotherapy and 78% (CR 18 of 27 evaluable patients [67%]) after IMEP followed by IFRT. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were documented in 33 patients (75%) and 7 patients (16%), respectively. Only 8 patients (18%) experienced febrile neutropenia. Three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66% and 56%, respectively. High Ki-67 (?70%) and Ann Arbor stage II independently reduced PFS (p = .004) and OS (p = .001), respectively. Conclusion. Due to the high rate of progression during IMEP chemotherapy, IFRT needs to be introduced earlier. Moreover, active chemotherapy including an l-asparaginase-based regimen should be use to reduce systemic treatment failure in stage I/II NTCL. PMID:25280488

Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Chung, Jooseop; Song, Hong-Suk; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hawk; Yang, Sung Hyun; Yuh, Young Jin; Bae, Sung Hwa; Hyun, Myung Soo; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Chul Woo

2014-01-01

256

Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

2015-02-18

257

Pretreatment prognostic factors in patients with early-stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate influence of various pretreatment prognostic factors in patients with early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients were treated with tumor doses of 69.6 Gy, 1.2-Gy, twice-daily fractionation. There were 49 patients with Stage I and 67 patients with Stage II. Eighty patients had Karnofsky performance status (KPS) 90-100 and 95 patients had <5% weight loss. Peripheral tumors were observed in 57 patients. Squamous histology was observed in 70 patients and the majority of patients had concomitant disease (n = 72). Results: The median survival time for all patients was 29 months; 5-year survival was 29%. The median time to local progression and the distant metastasis were not achieved, whereas 5-year local progression-free and distant metastasis-free survivals were 50% and 72%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified KPS, weight loss, location, histology, and the reason for not undergoing surgery as prognostic factors for survival. KPS, location, and histology influenced local progression-free survival, whereas only KPS and weight loss influenced distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis identified KPS and weight loss as the most important prognostic factors of outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with hyperfractionation radiation therapy.

Jeremic, Branislav [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)]. E-mail: b.jeremic@iaea.org; Milicic, Biljana [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Dagovic, Aleksandar [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Acimovic, Ljubisa [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Milisavljevic, Slobodan [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)

2006-07-15

258

Phase II evaluation of dihydroxyanthracenedione (DHAD, NSC 301739) in patients with upper gastrointestinal tumors. A preliminary report.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine patients with measurable metastatic upper gastrointestinal cancer received dihydroxyanthracenedione (DHAD, NSC 301739) on a 5-day I.V. schedule administered every 4 weeks. Good-risk patients received DHAD at the starting daily dose of 4 mg/m2, while patients who had had therapy with radiation or myelosuppressive drugs such as mitomycin C or a nitrosourea compound received an initial daily dose of 3 mg/m2. Most of the patients had disease refractory to 5-Fu-adriamycin-mitomycin-C-containing regimens. Eight of 25 patients evaluable for response had received no prior chemotherapy. There were no complete or partial remissions in this study. Stabilization of disease occurred in six of 14 patients with gastric carcinomas and five of 10 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The dose-limiting toxic effect was myelosuppression; neutropenia was more severe than thrombocytopenia. The myelosuppression was more severe in patients who had poor bone marrow reserve and liver function impairment. These results suggest that DHAD administered by the 5-day dose schedule as used in this study is not very effective against gastric and pancreatic carcinomas. PMID:6869318

Bedikian, A Y; Stroehlein, J; Korinek, J; Karlin, D; Valdivieso, M; Bodey, G P

1983-08-01

259

Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images. II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Generation and dissipation of magnetic fields is a fundamental physical process on the Sun. In comparison to flux emergence and the initial stages of sunspot formation, the demise of sunspots still lacks a comprehensive description. Aims: The evolution of sunspots is most commonly discussed in terms of their intensity and magnetic field. Here, we present additional information about the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of sunspots towards the end of their existence. Methods: We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca ii H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT echelle H? ?656.28 nm spectra and Fe i ?630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms, in addition to the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. Results: We perform a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observe moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumbra had decayed. We also detect a superpenumbral structure around this pore. We find that MMFs follow well-defined, radial paths from the spot all the way to the border of a supergranular cell surrounding the spot. In contrast, flux emergence near the other sunspot prevents the establishment of similar well ordered flow patterns, which could be discerned around a tiny pore of merely 2 Mm diameter. After the disappearance of the sunspots/pores, a coherent patch of abnormal granulation remained at their location, which was characterized by more uniform horizontal proper motions, low divergence values, and smaller photospheric Doppler velocities. This region, thus, differs significantly from granulation and other areas covered by G-band bright points. We conclude that this peculiar flow pattern is a signature of sunspot decay and the dispersal of magnetic flux.

Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; Deng, N.; Liu, C.; Shimizu, T.; Wang, H.; Denker, C.

2012-02-01

260

Sensitivity of a simplified forced oscillation technique for detection of upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a simplified variant of forced oscillation technique (FOT) was studied for assessment of dynamic upper airway obstruction during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The airway impedance |PFOT| was measured by FOT and the oesophageal pressure (Poes) was recorded during stable stage II sleep in 11 patients with OSA. The CPAP

Joachim H. Ficker; Gunther H. Wiest; Gerald Asshoff; Florian S. Fuchs; Alexander H. Schmelzer; Igor A. Harsch; Eckhart G. Hahn

2001-01-01

261

Upper crustal structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomographic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ???4.3 km and >3 km , respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ???2.4 km. Below depths of ???2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the north-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using densities inferred from the velocity model, indicates that different velocity-density relationships hold for both sedimentary and basement rocks as one crosses the San Andreas Fault. The LARSE II velocity model can now be used to improve the SCEC Community Velocity Model, which is used to calculate seismic amplitudes for large scenario earthquakes.

Lutter, W.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Okaya, D.A.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Benthien, M.L.; Godfrey, N.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Thygesen, K.; Thurber, C.H.; Simila, G.; Keller, G.R.

2004-01-01

262

RKIP phosphorylation and STAT3 activation is inhibited by oxaliplatin and camptothecin and are associated with poor prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background A major obstacle in treating colorectal cancer (CRC) is the acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. An important protein in the regulation of cancer cell death and clinical outcome is Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). In contrast, activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a protein that promotes tumor cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and has an important role in cancer progression in many of cancer types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of RKIP and STAT3 after treatment with clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents (camptothecin (CPT) and oxaliplatin (OXP)) and the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCT116 colon cancer cells as well as evaluate the association between RKIP and STAT3 with clinical outcome of Stage II colon cancer patients. Methods HCT-116 colon cancer cells were treated with CPT, OXP, and IL-6 separately or in combination in a time and dose-dependent manner and examined for phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated RKIP and STAT3 via Western blot analysis. STAT3 transcriptional activity was measured via a luciferase reporter assay in HCT116 cells treated with CPT, IL-6 or transfected with JAK 1, 2 separately or in combination. We extended these observations and determined STAT3 and RKIP/ pRKIP in tumor microarrays (TMA) in stage II colon cancer patients. Results We demonstrate IL-6-mediated activation of STAT3 occurs in conjunction with the phosphorylation of RKIP in vitro in human colon cancer cells. OXP and CPT block IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation and RKIP phosphorylation via the inhibition of the interaction of STAT3 with gp130. We determined that STAT3 and nuclear pRKIP are significantly associated with poor patient prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients. Conclusions In the analysis of tumor samples from stage II colon cancer patients and the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116, pRKIP and STAT3, 2 proteins potentially involved in the resistance to conventional treatments were detected. The phosphorylation of pRKIP and STAT3 are induced by the cytokine IL-6 and suppressed by the chemotherapeutic drugs CPT and OXP. Therefore, these results suggest that STAT3 and pRKIP may serve as prognostic biomarkers in stage II colon cancer patients and may improve chemotherapy. PMID:24098947

2013-01-01

263

Pre-chemotherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT upstages nodal stage in stage II-III breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.  

PubMed

In breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) the number of tumor-positive nodes can no longer reliably be determined. Furthermore, ultrasound (US) seems suboptimal for the detection of N3-disease. Therefore we assessed the proportion of breast cancer patients treated with NAC in which pre-chemotherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT detected ?4 axillary nodes or occult N3-disease, upstaging nodal status and changing risk estimation for locoregional recurrence (LRR). Conventional regional staging consisted of US with fine needle aspiration and/or sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients were classified as low-risk (cT2N0), intermediate-risk (cT0N1, cT1N1, cT2N1, cT3N0), or high-risk (cT3N1, cT4, cN2-3) for LRR. The presence and number of FDG-avid nodes were evaluated and the proportion of patients that would be upstaged by PET/CT, based on detection of ?4 FDG-avid axillary nodes defined as cN2(4+) or occult N3-disease, was calculated. In total, 87 of 278 patients were considered high-risk based on conventional staging. PET/CT detected occult N3-disease in 5 (11 %) of 47 low-risk patients. In 144 intermediate-risk patients, PET/CT detected ?4 FDG-avid nodes in 24 (17 %) patients and occult N3-disease in 22 (15 %) patients, thereby finally upstaging 38 (26 %) of intermediate-risk patients. Of 43 (23 %) upstaged patients, 18 were ypN0, 12 were ypN1, and 13 were ypN2-3. Pre-chemotherapy PET/CT is valuable for selection of breast cancer patients at high risk for LRR. In our population, 23 % of patients treated with NAC were upstaged to the high-risk group based on PET/CT information, potentially benefiting from regional radiotherapy. PMID:24002735

Koolen, Bas B; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Vogel, Wouter V; Vrancken Peeters, Marie Jeanne T F D; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Elkhuizen, Paula H M

2013-09-01

264

Promising clinical outcome of stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with inoperable Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in patients with Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three patients with inoperable Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer underwent treatment prospectively using the stereotactic gamma-ray whole-body therapeutic system (body gamma-knife radiosurgery) with 30 rotary conical-surface Co{sup 6} sources focused on the target volume. Low-speed computed tomography simulation was conducted, which was followed by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning. A total dose of 50 Gy was delivered at 5 Gy/fraction to the 50% isodose line covering the planning target volume, whereas a total dose of 70 Gy was delivered at 7 Gy/fraction to the gross target volume. The median follow-up duration was 27 months. Results: Three to 6 months after treatment, the complete response rate for body-gamma knife radiosurgery was 63%, and the overall response rate was 95%. The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year local control rates were all 95% in all patients. The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year overall survival rates were 100%, 91%, and 91%, respectively, in patients with Stage I disease and 73%, 64%, and 64%, respectively, in those with Stage II disease. Only 2.3% (1/43) of the patients had Grade 3 pneumonitis. Conclusion: Our highly focused stereotactic body radiotherapy method resulted in promising local control and survival with minimal toxicity.

Xia Tingyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: xiatingyi1959@21cn.com; Li Hongqi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Sun Qingxuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang Yingjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Fan Naibin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Yu Yong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Li Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org

2006-09-01

265

NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

Ackerman, Thomas P.

1994-01-01

266

Class II versus Class III Radical Hysterectomy in Stage IB–IIA Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the extent of the radicality in the treatment of stage IB–IIA cervical carcinoma with respect to survival, pattern of relapse, and morbidity.Methods. Two-hundred forty-three patients with cervical carcinoma (FIGO stages IB and IIa) were enrolled in a prospective randomized study comparing two types of radical hysterectomy (Piver–Rutledge–Smith class

Fabio Landoni; Andrea Maneo; Gennaro Cormio; Patrizia Perego; Rodolfo Milani; Orlando Caruso; Costantino Mangioni

2001-01-01

267

Origin of a classic cratonic sheet sandstone: Stratigraphy across the Sauk II-Sauk III boundary in the Upper Mississippi Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The origin of cratonic sheet sandstones of Proterozoic and early Paleozoic age has been a long-standing problem for sedimentologists. Lower Paleozoic strata in the Upper Mississippi Valley are best known for several such sandstone bodies, the regional depositional histories of which are poorly understood. We have combined outcrop and subsurface data from six states to place the Upper Cambrian Wonewoc (Ironton and Galesville) Sandstone in a well-constrained stratigraphic framework across thousands of square kilometers. This framework makes it possible for the first time to construct a regional-scale depositional model that explains the origin of this and other cratonic sheet sandstones. The Wonewoc Sandstone, although mapped as a single contiguous sheet, is a stratigraphically complex unit that was deposited during three distinct conditions of relative sea level that span parts of four trilobite zones. During a relative highstand of sea level in Crepicephalus Zone time, quartzose sandstone lithofacies aggraded more or less vertically in nearshore-marine and terrestrial environments across much of the present-day out-crop belt around the Wisconsin arch. At the same time, finer grained, feldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and shale aggraded in deeper water immediately seaward of the quartzose sand, and shale and carbonate sediment accumulated in the most distal areas. During Aphelaspis and Dunderbergia Zones time a relative fall in sea level led to the dispersal of quartzose sand into a basinward-tapering, sheet-like body across much of the Upper Mississippi Valley. During early Elvinia Zone time a major transgression led to deposition of a second sheet sandstone that is generally similar to the underlying regressive sheet. The results of this investigation also demonstrate how subtle sequence-bounding unconformities may be recognized in mature, cratonic siliciclastics. We place the Sauk II-Sauk III subsequence boundary at the base of the coarsest bed in the Wonewoc Sandstone, a lag developed through erosion that occurred during the regional regressive-transgressive event that spanned Aphelaspis to early Elvinia Zones time. Such sequence-bounding unconformities are difficult to recognize where they are contained within coarse siliciclastics of the Upper Mississippi Valley, because they separate strata that are texturally and mineralogically similar, and because erosion occurred on a loose, sandy substrate along a low, uniform gradient, and in a nonvegetated terrestrial environment. Furthermore, the ultramature mineral composition of the exposed substrate is resistant to the development of a recognizable weathering profile. The well-known sheet geometry of the Wonewoc and other units of lower Paleozoic sandstone of this area is not dependent on atypical terrestrial depositional conditions conducive to the widespread distribution of sand, as commonly believed. Sand was spread into a sheet dominantly within the marine realm in a manner similar to that inferred for many better-known sandstone bodies deposited in the North American Cretaceous Western Interior seaway and Tertiary Gulf of Mexico. The laterally extensive, thin character of the Upper Mississippi Valley sandstone bodies compared to these other sandstone bodies simply reflects deposition of a continuously abundant supply of sand on a relatively stable, nearly flat basin of slow, uniform subsidence during changes in sea level. The dearth of shale in this and other cratonic sandstones can be indirectly attributed to the same controls, which led to an uncommonly low preservation potential for fairweather deposits on the shoreface.

Runkel, A.C.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.

1998-01-01

268

Non-surgical therapy and radiologic assessment of stage I breast cancer treatment with novel enzyme-targeting radiosensitization: Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II)  

PubMed Central

The new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II), markedly enhances the radiotherapeutic effect of treatment for various types of locally advanced malignant neoplasms. Patients who had declined surgical treatment and systemic chemotherapy, as well as a total of 14 stage I breast cancer patients, were enrolled. A maximum of 6 ml of KORTUC II was injected into tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. The median observation period was 21.6 months with a range of 4–48 months, and the therapy was well tolerated. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography revealed that all primary breast tumors completely responded, and none of the subjects experienced local recurrence during the observation period. Ultrasonography depicted tumor-like findings in 2/14 cases after therapy. The intratumoral flow signal on color-Doppler sonography was positive in 4/14 cases before therapy, and the signal disappeared from all cases after therapy. The absence of a flow signal after therapy suggested that the tumor-like findings on ultrasonography were from scar tissue. Excellent local control based on accurate radiological evaluation implies that KORTUC II has the potential to replace surgery as a therapeutic option for stage I breast cancer. Precise evaluation by various radiological modalities helped to gage the success of this therapy. PMID:22993600

HITOMI, JIRO; KUBOTA, KEI; OGAWA, YASUHIRO; HAMADA, NORIHIKO; MURATA, YORIKO; NISHIOKA, AKIHITO

2010-01-01

269

Congenital upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most causes of upper airway obstruction are rare in the neonatal period and during infancy. They may, however, cause major respiratory problems either initially or during the first few weeks of life. It is important to recognise these problems at an early stage so that appropriate measures to overcome airway obstruction can be initiated, thus avoiding significant hypoxia-related complications. Specific

Robert Dinwiddie

2004-01-01

270

Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.  

PubMed

In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 ?g total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development. PMID:24595754

Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

2014-12-01

271

Mutation Profiling and Microsatellite Instability in Stage II and III Colon Cancer: An Assessment of Their Prognostic and Oxaliplatin Predictive Value  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic and oxaliplatin predictive value of mismatch repair (MMR) status and common hot spot mutations, which we previously identified in stage II and III colon cancer. Experimental Design Mutations in BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, MET, and PIK3CA were profiled in 2,299 stage II and III colon tumors from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) clinical trials C-07 (n = 1,836) and C-08 (n = 463) with Type Plex chemistry and mass spectrometry. C-07 tested the worth of adding oxaliplatin to 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin, and C-08 tested the worth of adding bevacizumab to FOLFOX. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess prognostic or oxaliplatin predictive value of mutations for tumor recurrence, overall survival (OS), and survival after recurrence (SAR). Results BRAF mutations were associated with MMR-deficient tumors (P < 0.0001), poor OS [HR, 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20–1.79; P S: 0.0002], and poor SAR (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.83–2.95; P < 0.0001). Mutations in KRAS, NRAS, MET, and PIK3CA were not associated with recurrence, OS, or SAR. MMR-deficient tumors were associated with an improved prognosis based on recurrence (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.33–0.70; P < 0.0001). Mutations and MMR status were not predictive for oxaliplatin benefit. Conclusions This study shows that BRAF mutations profiled from stage II and III colon cancer tumors were associated with poor SAR and validates and explains, at least in part, previous observations associating it with poor OS. Profiling of all of these mutations is warranted for future clinical trials testing new targeted therapies that block relevant signaling pathways. Such clinical trials are under development at NSABP. PMID:23045248

Gavin, Patrick G.; Colangelo, Linda H.; Fumagalli, Debora; Tanaka, Noriko; Remillard, Matthew Y.; Yothers, Greg; Kim, Chungyeul; Taniyama, Yusuke; Kim, Seung Il; Choi, Hyun Joo; Blackmon, Nicole L.; Lipchik, Corey; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Wolmark, Norman; Paik, Soonmyung; Pogue-Geile, Kay L.

2014-01-01

272

Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2015-02-09

273

Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-11-10

274

Changed salt appetite and central angiotensin II-induced cellular activation in rat offspring following hypoxia during fetal stages.  

PubMed

Hypoxia in pregnancy may induce fetal growth restriction and cause functional abnormalities during development. The present study determined the long-term influence of hypoxia in fetal life on dipsogenic behavior linked to central angiotensin (Ang) network in the offspring rats. Fetal blood pO(2) and body weight were decreased by hypoxia during pregnancy, followed by a postnatal "catch-up" growth. Subcutaneous hypertonic saline or intracerebroventricular Ang II significantly increased salt intake in the offspring prenatally exposed to hypoxia, while water intake was the same between the two groups. Ang II-induced c-fos expression was detected in the paraventricular nuclei, median preoptic nuclei, supraoptic nuclei, and subfornical organ in the brain, in association with reduced forebrain AT(2) receptor protein abundance in the offspring prenatally exposed to hypoxia. Levels of central AT(1) receptor protein were not changed between the two groups. Hypoxia during pregnancy could be linked to developmental problems related to behavioral dysfunctions in body fluid regulations in later life, in association with the change in central angiotensin II-mediated neural activation and expression of the Ang II receptor in the brain. PMID:20307607

Yang, Weili; Mao, Caiping; Xia, Fei; Zheng, Jianli; Wang, Aiqing; Zhu, Liyan; He, Rui; Xu, Zhice

2010-06-01

275

Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 and Anastrozole With or Without Goserelin Acetate in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-11-25

276

Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 and Anastrozole With or Without Goserelin Acetate in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2015-02-03

277

Dissection of Immune Gene Networks in Primary Melanoma Tumors Critical for Antitumor Surveillance of Patients with Stage II–III Resectable Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with resected stage II–III cutaneous melanomas remain at high risk for metastasis and death. Biomarker development has been limited by the challenge of isolating high-quality RNA for transcriptome-wide profiling from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens. Using NanoString technology, RNA from 40 stage II–III FFPE primary melanomas was analyzed and a 53-immune-gene panel predictive of non-progression (area under the curve (AUC)=0.920) was defined. The signature predicted disease-specific survival (DSS P<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS P<0.001). CD2, the most differentially expressed gene in the training set, also predicted non-progression (P<0.001). Using publicly available microarray data from 46 primary human melanomas (GSE15605), a coexpression module enriched for the 53-gene panel was then identified using unbiased methods. A Bayesian network of signaling pathways based on this data identified driver genes. Finally, the proposed 53-gene panel was confirmed in an independent test population of 48 patients (AUC=0.787). The gene signature was an independent predictor of non-progression (P<0.001), RFS (P<0.001), and DSS (P=0.024) in the test population. The identified driver genes are potential therapeutic targets, and the 53-gene panel should be tested for clinical application using a larger data set annotated on the basis of prospectively gathered data. PMID:24522433

Sivendran, Shanthi; Chang, Rui; Pham, Lisa; Phelps, Robert G.; Harcharik, Sara T.; Hall, Lawrence D.; Bernardo, Sebastian G.; Moskalenko, Marina M.; Sivendran, Meera; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H.; Pan, Michael; Moon, Jee Young; Arora, Sonali; Cohain, Ariella; DiFeo, Analisa; Ferringer, Tammie C.; Tismenetsky, Mikhail; Tsui, Cindy L.; Friedlander, Philip A.; Parides, Michael K.; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Lebwohl, Mark G.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Burakoff, Steven J.; Oh, William K.; Palucka, Karolina; Merad, Miriam; Schadt, Eric E.; Saenger, Yvonne M.

2014-01-01

278

Dissection of immune gene networks in primary melanoma tumors critical for antitumor surveillance of patients with stage II-III resectable disease.  

PubMed

Patients with resected stage II-III cutaneous melanomas remain at high risk for metastasis and death. Biomarker development has been limited by the challenge of isolating high-quality RNA for transcriptome-wide profiling from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens. Using NanoString technology, RNA from 40 stage II-III FFPE primary melanomas was analyzed and a 53-immune-gene panel predictive of non-progression (area under the curve (AUC)=0.920) was defined. The signature predicted disease-specific survival (DSS P<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS P<0.001). CD2, the most differentially expressed gene in the training set, also predicted non-progression (P<0.001). Using publicly available microarray data from 46 primary human melanomas (GSE15605), a coexpression module enriched for the 53-gene panel was then identified using unbiased methods. A Bayesian network of signaling pathways based on this data identified driver genes. Finally, the proposed 53-gene panel was confirmed in an independent test population of 48 patients (AUC=0.787). The gene signature was an independent predictor of non-progression (P<0.001), RFS (P<0.001), and DSS (P=0.024) in the test population. The identified driver genes are potential therapeutic targets, and the 53-gene panel should be tested for clinical application using a larger data set annotated on the basis of prospectively gathered data. PMID:24522433

Sivendran, Shanthi; Chang, Rui; Pham, Lisa; Phelps, Robert G; Harcharik, Sara T; Hall, Lawrence D; Bernardo, Sebastian G; Moskalenko, Marina M; Sivendran, Meera; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H; Pan, Michael; Moon, Jee Young; Arora, Sonali; Cohain, Ariella; DiFeo, Analisa; Ferringer, Tammie C; Tismenetsky, Mikhail; Tsui, Cindy L; Friedlander, Philip A; Parides, Michael K; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Lebwohl, Mark G; Wolchok, Jedd D; Bhardwaj, Nina; Burakoff, Steven J; Oh, William K; Palucka, Karolina; Merad, Miriam; Schadt, Eric E; Saenger, Yvonne M

2014-08-01

279

Biologic Determinants of Tumor Recurrence in Stage II Colon Cancer: Validation Study of the 12-Gene Recurrence Score in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581  

PubMed Central

Purpose A greater understanding of the biology of tumor recurrence should improve adjuvant treatment decision making. We conducted a validation study of the 12-gene recurrence score (RS), a quantitative assay integrating stromal response and cell cycle gene expression, in tumor specimens from patients enrolled onto Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581. Patients and Methods CALGB 9581 randomly assigned 1,713 patients with stage II colon cancer to treatment with edrecolomab or observation and found no survival difference. The analysis reported here included all patients with available tissue and recurrence (n = 162) and a random (approximately 1:3) selection of nonrecurring patients. RS was assessed in 690 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction by using prespecified genes and a previously validated algorithm. Association of RS and recurrence was analyzed by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Continuous RS was significantly associated with risk of recurrence (P = .013) as was mismatch repair (MMR) gene deficiency (P = .044). In multivariate analyses, RS was the strongest predictor of recurrence (P = .004), independent of T stage, MMR, number of nodes examined, grade, and lymphovascular invasion. In T3 MMR-intact (MMR-I) patients, prespecified low and high RS groups had average 5-year recurrence risks of 13% (95% CI, 10% to 16%) and 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%), respectively. Conclusion The 12-gene RS predicts recurrence in stage II colon cancer in CALGB 9581. This is consistent with the importance of stromal response and cell cycle gene expression in colon tumor recurrence. RS appears to be most discerning for patients with T3 MMR-I tumors, although markers such as grade and lymphovascular invasion did not add value in this subset of patients. PMID:23530100

Venook, Alan P.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Lopatin, Margarita; Ye, Xing; Lee, Mark; Friedman, Paula N.; Frankel, Wendy; Clark-Langone, Kim; Millward, Carl; Shak, Steven; Goldberg, Richard M.; Mahmoud, Najjia N.; Warren, Robert S.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.

2013-01-01

280

Molecular analysis of ras oncogenes in CIN III and in stage I and II invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the prevalence of genital type human papilloma virus (HPV) and mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 in H, Ki, and N-ras in CIN III and early invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix. METHODS: Prevalence of HPV was examined in 20 CIN III and 20 stage I and II cervical carcinomas, using non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and solution phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 were examined in H, Ki, and N-ras in these CIN III and early invasive squamous cell carcinomas, to assess the prevalence of ras gene point mutations and to define where in the pathobiology of squamous cell carcinoma such events occur. A non-isotopic PCR/RFLP assay was used to define these mutations. RESULTS: Of the 20 CIN IIIs examined, 19 contained HPV 16 DNA sequences by PCR and NISH. Dual infection was not uncovered. The 20 early (stage I and II) invasive squamous cell carcinomas showed predominant HPV 16 positivity (17/20), with one case HPV 18 positive, confirmed on PCR and NISH. Activating mutations were not identified in any of the CIN III cases. Only one stage I, HPV 16 positive carcinoma showed an activating mutation in H-ras codon 12, which was not present in adjacent normal ectocervical mucosa from the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: ras Activation does not appear to occur in conjunction with HPV infection, particularly of HPV 16 infected high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or to occur commonly in early cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The postulated model of HPV linked carcinogenesis suggests malfunctional control of viral transcription as a necessary component of neoplastic progression. It is also clear that host gene alterations are equally necessary for HPV linked carcinogenesis to occur. Images PMID:9828814

O'Leary, J J; Landers, R J; Silva, I; Uhlmann, V; Crowley, M; Healy, I; Luttich, K

1998-01-01

281

Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bleicher, Richard J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swaby, Ramona F. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldstein, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2012-11-15

282

EFFECT OF POSTMASTECTOMY RADIOTHERAPY IN PATIENTS <35 YEARS OLD WITH STAGE II–III BREAST CANCER TREATED WITH DOXORUBICIN-BASED NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY AND MASTECTOMY  

PubMed Central

Purpose Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control (LRC) in patients with high-risk features after mastectomy. Young age continues to evolve as a potentially important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of PMRT in patients <35 years old treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II–III breast cancer. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 107 consecutive breast cancer patients <35 years old with Stage IIA–IIIC disease treated at our institution with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, with or without PMRT. The treatment groups were compared in terms of LRC and overall survival. Results Despite more advanced disease stages, the patients who received PMRT (n = 80) had greater rates of LRC (5-year rate, 88% vs. 63%, p = 0.001) and better overall survival (5-year rate, 67% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) than patients who did not receive PMRT (n = 27). Conclusion Among breast cancer patients <35 years old at diagnosis, the use of PMRT after doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy led to a statistically greater rate of LRC and overall survival compared with patients without PMRT. The benefit seen for PMRT in young patients provides valuable data to better tailor adjuvant, age-specific treatment decisions after mastectomy. PMID:17855016

Garg, Amit K.; Oh, Julia L.; Oswald, Mary Jane; Huang, Eugene; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, T. Kuan; Tereffe, Welela; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hahn, Karin; Buchholz, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

283

Expression and localization of the annexins II, V, and VI in myocardium from patients with end-stage heart failure.  

PubMed

Annexins II, V, and VI belong to a family of Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that have been involved mainly in signal transduction, differentiation, membrane trafficking events, or binding to the extracellular matrix, or that might be effective as Ca(2+)-channels. They are abundant in the mammalian myocardium and might play a role in ventricular remodeling and altered calcium handling during heart failure. To test this hypothesis, we compared the expression and distribution of these annexins in nonfailing (n = 9) and failing human hearts with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 11). Northern blot and slot blot analysis were used to determine the annexin mRNA levels and Western blots were used to quantify the amounts of annexin proteins. Distribution of annexins was studied by immunohistofluorescence labeling and compared with that of a sarcolemmal marker (Na+/K(+)-ATPase) and of a myofibrillar protein (alpha-actinin). We showed that nonfailing hearts contained a higher amount of annexin VI than of annexin V or II (13.5 +/- 1.8, 3.7 +/- 0.2, and 2.5 +/- 0.5 microg/mg protein, respectively). In failing hearts, there was a parallel increase in both mRNA and protein levels of annexin II (146% and 132%, p < 0.05, respectively) and annexin V (152%, p < 0.01, 147%, p < 0.005, respectively); the protein level of annexin VI was also increased (117%, p < 0.05), whereas the increase of its mRNA level was statistically insignificant. We observed a predominant localization of annexin II in interstitium, and of annexins V and VI in cardiomyocytes at the level of the sarcolemma, T-tubules, and intercalated disks in nonfailing hearts, whereas in failing hearts enlarged interstitium contained all three annexins. Furthermore, annexin V staining at the level of cardiomyocytes almost disappeared. In conclusion, we showed that heart failure is accompanied by marked overexpression of annexins II and V, as well as translocation of annexin V from cardiomyocytes to interstitial tissue. The data suggest that annexins may contribute to ventricular remodeling and annexin V to impaired Ca2+ handling in failing heart. PMID:10701682

Benevolensky, D; Belikova, Y; Mohammadzadeh, R; Trouvé, P; Marotte, F; Russo-Marie, F; Samuel, J L; Charlemagne, D

2000-02-01

284

Delineation of Stage Specific Expression of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 by Biologically Functional Region II Monoclonal Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 binds its receptor sialic acids on glycophorin A when invading erythrocytes. The receptor-binding region (RII) contains two cysteine-rich domains with similar cysteine motifs (F1 and F2). Functional relationships between F1 and F2 domains and characterization of EBA-175 were studied using specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against these domains. Methods and Findings Five mAbs specific for F1 or F2 were generated. Three mAbs specific for F2 potently blocked binding of EBA-175 to erythrocytes, and merozoite invasion of erythrocytes (IC50 10 to 100 µg/ml IgG in growth inhibition assays). A mAb specific for F1 blocked EBA-175 binding and merozoite invasion less effectively. The difference observed between the IC50 of F1 and F2 mAbs was not due to differing association and disassociation rates as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Four of the mAbs recognized conformation-dependent epitopes within F1 or F2. Used in combination, F1 and F2 mAbs blocked the binding of native EBA-175 to erythrocytes and inhibited parasite invasion synergistically in vitro. MAb R217, the most potent, did not recognize sporozoites, 3-day hepatocyte stage parasites, nor rings, trophozoites, gametocytes, retorts, ookinetes, and oocysts but recognized 6-day hepatocyte stage parasites, and schizonts. Even though efficient at blocking binding to erythrocytes and inhibiting invasion into erythrocytes, MAb R217 did not inhibit sporozoite invasion and development in hepatocytes in vitro. Conclusions The role of the F1 and F2 domains in erythrocyte invasion and binding was elucidated with mAbs. These mAbs interfere with native EBA-175 binding to erythrocyte in a synergistic fashion. The stage specific expression of EBA-175 showed that the primary focus of activity was the merozoite stage. A recombinant RII protein vaccine consisting of both F1 and F2 domains that could induce synergistic activity should be optimal for induction of antibody responses that interfere with merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. PMID:21533224

Chattopadhyay, Rana; Ahumada, Adriana; Haynes, J. David; Fuhrmann, Steven R.; Wingard, Jennifer N.; Liang, Hong; Moch, J. Kathleen; Hoffman, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

285

SLS Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objective: Provide an overview of SLS DUUS type capability requirements to provide context for possible International Partner collaboration. Addition of a DUUS would greatly increase exploration mission capture and performance margin for cis-Lunar and Near Earth System exploration campaigns.

Creech, Steve; Holladay, Jon; Jones, Davey

2013-01-01

286

Cryogenic upper stage test bed engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vehicle system with unique characteristics will be needed in connection with the extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) and beyond. These characteristics are determined by NASA missions related to the deployment of large space structures, satellite servicing, and manned sorties to geosynchronous orbit. Advances in vehicle design and operation will be required along with significant advances in engine technologies. A versatile, well-instrumented test bed engine will be needed for the evaluation of the required technologies. Developments leading to the fabrication and assembly of the first high chamber pressure expander cycle test bed engine are discussed. The test bed engine, which is called Integrated Component Evaluator (ICE), is required for the development of an advanced, cryogenic, upperstage engine.

Pauckert, R.; Zachary, A.; Degaetano, E.; Sutton, R.

1985-01-01

287

Toroidal Tank Development for Upper-stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages, development, and fabrication of toroidal propellant tanks are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. Several images are included of independent research and development (IR&D) of toroidal propellant tanks at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Other images in the presentation give a brief overview of Thiokol conformal tank technology development. The presentation describes Thiokol's approach to continuous composite toroidal tank fabrication in detail. Images are shown of continuous and segmented toroidal tanks fabricated by Thiokol.

DeLay, Tom; Roberts, Keith

2003-01-01

288

Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

King, J. A.

1973-01-01

289

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

290

Concomitant boost IMRT-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma: results of a phase II study  

PubMed Central

Aim This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concomitant boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) along with capecitabine and oxaliplatin, followed by a cycle of Xelox, in neoadjuvant course for locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and methods Patients with histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed, locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (cT3-T4 and/or cN+) located within 12 cm of the anal verge were included in this study. Patients received IMRT to the pelvis of 50 Gy and a concomitant boost of 5 Gy to the primary tumor in 25 fractions, and concurrent with oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 d1 weekly) and capecitabine (625 mg/m2 bid d1–5 weekly). One cycle of Xelox (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on d1 and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily d1–14) was given two weeks after the completion of chemoradiation, and radical surgery was scheduled eight weeks after chemoradiation. Tumor response was evaluated by tumor regression grade (TRG) system and acute toxicities were evaluated by NCI-CTC 3.0 criteria. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with Log-rank test. Results A total of 78 patients were included between March 2009 and May 2011 (median age 54 years; 62 male). Seventy-six patients underwent surgical resection. Twenty-eight patients underwent sphincter-sparing lower anterior resection and 18 patients (23.7%) were evaluated as pathological complete response (pCR). The incidences of grade 3 hematologic toxicity, diarrhea, and radiation dermatitis were 3.8%, 10.3%, and 17.9%, respectively. The three-year LR (local recurrence), DFS (disease-free survival) and OS (overall survival) rates were 14.6%, 63.8% and 77.4%, respectively. Initial clinical T stage and tumor regression were independent prognostic factors to DFS. Conclusion An intensified regimen of concomitant boost radiotherapy plus concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin, followed by one cycle of Xelox, can be safely administered in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, and produces a high rate of pCR. A prognostic score model is helpful to distinguish different long-term prognosis groups in early stage. PMID:24606870

2014-01-01

291

Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Weekly Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Biweekly Bevacizumab Therapy in Women With Clinical Stage II or III HER2-Negative Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

This phase II trial tested the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) achieved by women with stage II–III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) breast cancer (BC) treated with neo-adjuvant nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P), carboplatin and bevacizumab. The rate of pCR was 18%, all pCRs were observed in patients with triple negative BC. Background We hypothesized that adding bevacizumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) with nab-P and carboplatin would increase the rates of pCR in BC patients and that early changes in tumor vascularity imaged by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) would predict pCR. Methods Thirty-three women with clinical stage II or III HER2-negative BC received nab-P 100 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve = 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 in combination with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 administered every 28 days. Results Six patients (18%) achieved pCR, all pCRs occurred in triple-negative BC (TNBC) (pCR = 50% for TNBC). At the end of cycle 2, the changes in relative angiogenic volume were significantly different between responders and non-responders (P = .001). The major toxicity of this NCT was myelosuppression. Conclusion NCT with weekly nab-P, carboplatin, and biweekly bevacizumab resulted in a pCR rate that was neither superior to the historical data with anthracycline- or taxane-containing NCT nor to carboplatin and taxane combinations in patients with HER2-negative BC. In patients with TNBC, the observed pCR rate was 50%. The early changes in the relative angiogenic volume imaged by DCE-MRI could predict pCR. PMID:24703985

Mrózek, Ewa; Layman, Rachel; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Lustberg, Maryam; Vecchione, Andrea; Knopp, Michael V.; Shapiro, Charles L.

2014-01-01

292

Impact of 18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Treatment Strategy and Radiotherapy Planning for Stage I-II Hodgkin Disease: A Prospective Multicenter Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the impact of preradiotherapy 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) on treatment strategy and radiotherapy planning for patients with Stage I/II Hodgkin disease included in a large prospective multicenter study. Patients and Methods: Conventional computed tomography and FDG-PET were performed just before the planned radiotherapy. The radiotherapy plan was first elaborated under blinded conditions for FDG-PET data. Then, the medical staff was asked to confirm or not confirm the treatment strategy and, if appropriate, to modify the radiotherapy plan based on additional information from FDG-PET. Results: Between January 2004 and January 2006, 137 patients were included (124 were available for analysis) in 11 centers (108 adults, 16 children). All but 1 patient had received chemotherapy before inclusion. Prechemotherapy work-up included FDG-PET for 61 patients, and data were available for elaboration of the first radiotherapy plan. Based on preradiotherapy FDG-PET data, the radiotherapy was cancelled in 6 patients (4.8%), and treatment plan modifications occurred in 16 patients (12.9%): total dose (11 patients), CTV volume (5 patients), number of beam incidences (6 patients), and number of CTV (6 patients). The concordance between the treatment strategies with or without preradiotherapy FDG-PET was 82.3%. Concordance results were not significantly different when prechemotherapy PET-CT information was available. Conclusion: Preradiotherapy FDG-PET for treatment planning in Hodgkin lymphoma may lead to significant modification of the treatment strategy and the radiotherapy planning in patients with Stage I or II Hodgkin disease, even in those who have undergone FDG-PET as part of the prechemotherapy work-up.

Pommier, Pascal, E-mail: pommier@lyon.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Dussart, Sophie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Chabaud, Sylvie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Lagrange, Jean Leon [Department of Radiation Oncology, APHP, Henri Mondor University Hospital, Paris 12 University, Creteil (France); Nguyen, Tan Dat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Beckendorff, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Alexis Vautrin, Nancy (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Artignan, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Bondiau, Pierre Yves [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Giammarile, Francesco [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); EA 3738, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)

2011-03-01

293

Analytical performance of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue-based 634-probe prognostic assay for predicting outcome of patients with stage II colon cancer.  

PubMed

A formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue-based prognostic assay to assess the risk for recurrence in stage II colon cancer has recently been clinically validated. This study describes the analytical performance and quality control measures of the assay. The reportable range was determined to be [-1.129, 1.414] in risk score units. The accuracy was evaluated with a split sample comparison within the production lab and between the production lab and a reference lab. The concordance between the replicates within the production lab was 79% (95% confidence interval, 64%-91%). There was no evidence of bias, and the concordance was 78% (95% confidence interval, 61%-90%) between the labs. The lab-to-lab concordance was further evaluated by simulating risk scores from the full reportable range. The simulation suggested a higher concordance. The sensitivity study demonstrated that the percentage of tumor tissue did not impact the risk score and that RNA concentration of 9.5 ng/?L was a conservative determination of the analyte lower limit of quantification. From the precision study, the repeatability and reproducibility estimates were 0.1267 and 0.0548 in risk score units, respectively. Furthermore, multifaceted quality control measures were implemented, such as proper tissue processing steps, high-risk and low-risk controls, nontemplate control, and a gene expression-based classifier to evaluate the cDNA amplification kit, a key reagent in the assay. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the strong analytical performance of the assay and further supports its use as an objective standardized prognostic test for stage II colon cancer. PMID:24717231

Plamadeala, Victoria; Huang, Shuguang; McCreary, Suzanne M; Reitze, Nicholas J; Ewing, Amy L; Gabrin, Michael J; Bennett, Ana E; Mulligan, Jude M; Wilson, Claire L; Wang, Dakun

2014-04-01

294

Analytical Performance of a Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Tissue-based 634-probe Prognostic Assay for Predicting Outcome of Patients With Stage II Colon Cancer.  

PubMed

A formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue-based prognostic assay to assess the risk for recurrence in stage II colon cancer has recently been clinically validated. This study describes the analytical performance and quality control measures of the assay. The reportable range was determined to be [-1.129, 1.414] in risk score units. The accuracy was evaluated with a split sample comparison within the production lab and between the production lab and a reference lab. The concordance between the replicates within the production lab was 79% (95% confidence interval, 64%-91%). There was no evidence of bias, and the concordance was 78% (95% confidence interval, 61%-90%) between the labs. The lab-to-lab concordance was further evaluated by simulating risk scores from the full reportable range. The simulation suggested a higher concordance. The sensitivity study demonstrated that the percentage of tumor tissue did not impact the risk score and that RNA concentration of 9.5 ng/?L was a conservative determination of the analyte lower limit of quantification. From the precision study, the repeatability and reproducibility estimates were 0.1267 and 0.0548 in risk score units, respectively. Furthermore, multifaceted quality control measures were implemented, such as proper tissue processing steps, high-risk and low-risk controls, nontemplate control, and a gene expression-based classifier to evaluate the cDNA amplification kit, a key reagent in the assay. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the strong analytical performance of the assay and further supports its use as an objective standardized prognostic test for stage II colon cancer. PMID:24487309

Plamadeala, Victoria; Huang, Shuguang; McCreary, Suzanne M; Reitze, Nicholas J; Ewing, Amy L; Gabrin, Michael J; Bennett, Ana E; Mulligan, Jude M; Wilson, Claire L; Wang, Dakun

2014-01-30

295

Thyroid Function in Women after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer Stage II/III: Comparison With Controls From a Population Sample  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A possible association between thyroid diseases (TD) and breast cancer (BC) has been debated. We examined prevalence and development of TD in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC compared with women from a general population. Secondarily, we explored the impact of two different radiotherapy (RT) techniques (standardized field arrangements vs. computed tomography [CT]-based dose planning) on TD in BC patients examined 35-120 months after primary BC treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 403 BC patients completed a questionnaire about TD and had blood samples taken for analyses of thyroid function. All had undergone postoperative RT with or without (2%) adjuvant systemic treatment. The results in the BC patients were compared with a cancer-free, age-matched control group from a general population (CGr). Results: There was higher prevalence of self-reported hypothyroidism in the BC patients as compared with the CGr (18% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). The raised prevalence was predominantly due to a substantial increase in the development of hypothyroidism after BC diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroidism before BC diagnosis was similar to that observed in the CGr. Patients treated with CT-based RT showed a trend for increased post-BC development of hypothyroidism as compared with those treated with standardized field arrangements (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is significantly increased in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC. Radiation to the thyroid gland may be a contributing factor. BC patients should be routinely screened for hypothyroidism.

Reinertsen, Kristin Valborg, E-mail: kvr@radiumhospitalet.n [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division the Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Cancer Center, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Cvancarova, Milada [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Wist, Erik [Cancer Center, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1130 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Bjoro, Trine [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division Rikshospitalet University Hospital, PO Box 1171, Blindern 0318 Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Alv A. [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division the Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Danielsen, Turi [Department of Medical Physics, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Fossa, Sophie D. [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division the Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway)

2009-11-01

296

Treatment of unresectable stage IV metastatic melanoma with aviscumine after anti-neoplastic treatment failure: a phase II, multi-centre study  

PubMed Central

Background Aviscumine, a recombinant plant protein, is an immune modulator that induces ribotoxic stress at the 28S ribosomal RNA subunit. In this way cytokine release and T-cell responses are enhanced. This phase II trial was conducted to test the efficacy and safety of aviscumine in patients with systemically pre-treated metastatic melanoma stage IV. Methods A total of 32 patients with progressive stage IV melanoma after failure of standard therapy were enrolled onto a single-arm, multi-centre, open-label, phase II trial. All patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received 350 ng aviscumine twice weekly by subcutaneous injection until progression. The primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Safety was assessed as adverse events (AEs). Tumor response was assessed every eight weeks and survival of patients was followed up to one year after the end of therapy. Thirty one patients (intent-to-treat population (ITT)) were assessed for efficacy; safety was assessed in the whole population. Results One patient achieved a partial response (PR) and 10 patients showed stable disease/no change (SD). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 63 days (95% CI 57–85) and median overall survival (mOS) was 335 days (95% CI 210–604). In total 210 treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded. Grade 1 or 2 AEs occurred in 72% of patients and were mostly application-site effects such as pruritus Grade 3–4 treatment-emergent drug-related adverse events occurred in 9% of patients. Conclusion These results suggest that aviscumine may have a clinical impact in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma and provide rationale for further clinical evaluation of this agent. In the light of effective new immune checkpoint blockers it might be a candidate for combinations with these agents. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00658437 PMID:25324973

2014-01-01

297

ERCC2 2251A>C genetic polymorphism was highly correlated with early relapse in high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer patients: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Early relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is attributed mainly to the higher malignant entity (such as an unfavorable genotype, deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and advance cancer stage) and poor response to chemotherapy. Several investigations have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms in drug-targeted genes, metabolizing enzymes, and DNA-repairing enzymes are all strongly correlated with inter-individual differences in the efficacy and toxicity of many treatment regimens. This preliminary study attempts to identify the correlation between genetic polymorphisms and clinicopathological features of CRC, and evaluates the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and chemotherapeutic susceptibility of Taiwanese CRC patients. To our knowledge, this study discusses, for the first time, early cancer relapse and its indication by multiple genes. Methods Six gene polymorphisms functional in drug-metabolism – GSTP1 Ile105Val, ABCB1 Ile1145Ile, MTHFR Ala222Val, TYMS double (2R) or triple (3R) tandem repeat – and DNA-repair genes – ERCC2 Lys751Gln and XRCC1 Arg399Gln – were assessed in 201 CRC patients using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and DNA sequencing. Patients were diagnosed as either high-risk stage II (T2 and 3 N0 M0) or III (any T N1 and 2 M0) and were administered adjuvant chemotherapy regimens that included 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (LV). The correlations between genetic polymorphisms and patient clinicopathological features and relapses were investigated. Results In this study, the distributions of GSTP1 (P = 0.003), ABCB1 (P = 0.001), TYMS (P < 0.0001), ERCC2 (P < 0.0001) and XRCC1 (P = 0.006) genotypes in the Asian population, with the exception of MTHFR (P = 0.081), differed significantly from their distributions in a Caucasian population. However, the unfavorable genotype ERCC2 2251A>C (P = 0.006), tumor invasion depth (P = 0.025), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.011) and cancer stage (P = 0.008) were significantly correlated with early relapse. Patients carrying the ERCC2 2251AC or2251CC genotypes had a significantly increased risk of early relapse (OR = 3.294, 95% CI, 1.272–8.532). Conclusion We suggest that ERCC2 2251A>C alleles may be genetic predictors of early CRC relapse. PMID:18267032

Huang, Ming-Yii; Fang, Wei-Yu; Lee, Su-Chen; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Lin, Shiu-Ru

2008-01-01

298

Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012)(*)  

PubMed

This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359?days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120?days (149-2325?days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103?days; 188-2010?days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056?days; 300-2340?days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40?months. PMID:23721492

Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

2013-05-31

299

Proliferation indices of phosphohistone H3 and Ki67: strong prognostic markers in a consecutive cohort with stage I/II melanoma.  

PubMed

Cellular proliferation is correlated with the progression of melanoma. Accordingly, the proliferation index of H&E-stained thin melanomas was recently included in the staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer. Yet, the immunohistochemical markers of proliferation phosphohistone H3 and Ki67 may improve such indices. To accurately quantify these markers, they should be combined with a melanocytic marker, for example, MART1 in an immunohistochemical double stain; also enabling automated quantification by image analysis. The aim of the study was to compare the prognostic impact of phosphohistone H3/MART1, Ki67/MART1, and H&E stains in primary cutaneous melanoma, and to determine the difference between indices established in hot spots and the global tumor areas. The study included 153 consecutive stage I/II melanoma-patients. The follow-up time was 8-14 years for event-free melanoma. Recurrent disease occurred in 43 patients; 37 died of melanoma. Both events occurred in only three thin melanomas. Their paraffin-embedded tissue was stained for phosphohistone H3/MART1, Ki67/MART1, and with H&E. And proliferation indices were established in 1-mm(2) hot spots and in the global tumor areas. In multivariate Cox analyses, only hot spot indices of phosphohistone H3/MART1 and Ki67/MART1 were independent prognostic markers. Phosphohistone H3/MART1 tended to be better than Ki67/MART1 with adjusted hazard ratios of 3.66 (95% CI, 1.40-9.55; P=0.008) for progression-free survival and 3.42 (95% CI, 1.29-9.04; P=0.013) for melanoma-specific death. In all stains, prognostic performance was substantially improved by using hot spots instead of the global tumor areas. In conclusion, phosphohistone H3/MART1 and Ki67/MART1 were superior to H&E stains, and hot spots superior to the global tumor areas. Given the potential for automated analysis, these double stains seem to be robust alternatives to conventional mitotic detection by H&E in stage I/II melanomas in general. This was particularly true for thick melanomas whereas no specific analyses for thin melanomas only could be performed. PMID:23174936

Nielsen, Patricia S; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Jensen, Trine O; Schmidt, Henrik; Steiniche, Torben

2013-03-01

300

Cardiac Mortality in Patients With Stage I and II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With and Without Radiation: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Standard therapy for stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of combined modality therapy with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, anti-CD20 antibody, and radiation therapy (RT). Curative approaches without RT typically utilize more intensive and/or protracted chemotherapy schedules. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens are associated with a dose-dependent risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We hypothesize that patients treated without RT, i.e., those who are treated with greater total chemotherapy cycles and hence cumulative anthracycline exposure, are at increased risk of cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: The rate of cardiac-specific mortality (CSM) was analyzed in patients with stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 by querying the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Results: A total of 15,454 patients met selection criteria; 6,021 (39%) patients received RT. The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 6-180 months). The median age was 64 years. The actuarial incidence rates of CSM at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.3%, 9.0%, and 13.8%, respectively, in patients treated with RT vs. 5.9%, 10.8% and 16.1%, respectively, in patients treated without RT (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.56). The increase in cardiac deaths for patients treated without RT persisted throughout the follow-up period. On multivariate analysis, treatment without RT remained independently associated with an increased risk of CSM (Cox hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54; p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Increased anthracycline exposure in patients treated only with chemotherapy regimens may result in an increase in cardiac deaths, detectable only through analysis of large sample sizes. Confirmatory evaluation through meta-analysis of randomized data and design of large prospective trials is warranted.

Pugh, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.pugh@ucdenver.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Ballonoff, Ari; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2010-03-01

301

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOEpatents

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01

302

PET-Adjusted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

2015-01-14

303

Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Carboplatin Followed by Surgery and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2014-12-09

304

Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

2014-09-16

305

Ovarian Ablation Using Goserelin Improves Survival of Premenopausal Patients with Stage II/III Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer without Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ovarian ablation using goserelin in premenopausal patients with stage II/III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer without chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of breast patients treated between October 1999 and November 2007 without CIA. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculation of the survival rate. Log rank method and Cox regression analysis were used for univariate and multivariate prognostic analysis. Results The median follow-up period was 61 months. Initially, 353 patients remained without CIA after chemotherapy and 98 among those who received goserelin and tamoxifen (TAM). In univariate analysis, goserelin improved locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) (98.9% vs. 94.1%, p=0.041), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (85.4% vs. 71.9%, p=0.006), disease-free survival (DFS) (85.4% vs. 71.6%, p=0.005), and overall survival (OS) (93.5% vs. 83.5%, p=0.010). In multivariate analysis, goserelin treatment was an independent factor influencing DMFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.603; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.228 to 2.092; p=0.001), DFS (HR, 1.606; 95% CI, 1.231 to 2.096; p=0.001), and OS (HR, 3.311; 95% CI, 1.416 to 7.742; p=0.006). In addition, treatment with goserelin resulted in significantly improved LRFS (p=0.039), DMFS (p=0.043), DFS (p=0.036), and OS (p=0.010) in patients aged < 40 years. In patients aged ? 40 years, goserelin only improved DMFS (p=0.028) and DFS (p=0.027). Conclusion Ovarian ablation with goserelin plus TAM resulted in significantly improved therapeutic efficacy in premenopausal patients with stage II/III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer without CIA. PMID:25187267

Zhou, Juan; Wu, San-Gang; Wang, Jun-Jie; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin; He, Zhen-Yu

2015-01-01

306

Radical radiotherapy for stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer in patients not sufficiently fit for or declining surgery (medically inoperable): a systematic review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine the effectiveness of radical radiotherapy in medically inoperable stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the extent of treatment related morbidity.?METHODS—Randomised trials were sought by electronically searching the Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and both randomised and non-randomised trials were sought by searching Medline and Excerpta Medica (Embase). Further studies were identified from references cited in those papers already identified by electronic searching. The studies included were those of patients of any age with stage I/II NSCLC receiving radiotherapy at a dose of >40 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks or its radiobiological equivalent.?RESULTS—Two randomised and 35 non-randomised studies were identified. One randomised and nine non-randomised studies did not meet the selection criteria, leaving one randomised and 26 non-randomised studies for analysis. In the randomised trial 2 year survival was higher following continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART; 37%) than following 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks (24%). An estimated 2003 patients were included in the 26 non-randomised studies; overall survival was 22-72% at 2 years, 17-55% at 3 years, and 0-42% at 5 years. Following treatment, 11-43% of patients died from causes other than cancer. Cancer specific survival was 54-93% at 2 years, 22-56% at 3 years, and 13-39% at 5 years. Complete response rates were 33-61% and local failure rates were 6-70%. Distant metastases developed in approximately 25% of patients. Better response rates and survival were seen in those with smaller tumours and in those receiving higher doses although the reasons for prescribing higher doses were not clearly stated. The outcome was worse in those with prior weight loss or poor performance status. Assessment of treatment related morbidity and effects on quality of life and symptom control were inconclusive because of the lack of prospective evaluation and paucity of data.?CONCLUSIONS—No randomised trials compared a policy of immediate radical radiotherapy with palliative radiotherapy given when patients develop symptoms. In the absence of such trials, radical radiotherapy appears to result in a better survival than might be expected had treatment not been given. A substantial, though variable, proportion of patients died during follow up from causes other than cancer. The optimal radiation dose and treatment technique (particularly with respect to mediastinal irradiation) remain uncertain.?? PMID:11462066

Rowell, N; Williams, C

2001-01-01

307

Is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy a feasible strategy for stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer? Mature results of the randomized IFCT-0101 phase II trial.  

PubMed

Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers share a risk of both local and systemic recurrence and justifies a therapeutic strategy combining focal and systemic treatment. In resectable stage IIIA-N2 tumors, peri-operative chemotherapy significantly increases survival rates. Chemoradiotherapy, which is the standard treatment of non-resectable locally advanced tumors, may have a role as an induction treatment to reduce locoregional recurrence rates. In the present phase II trial, we aimed at comparing standard induction chemotherapy (arm A: cisplatin and gemcitabine) with 2 different regimens of induction chemoradiotherapy (total dose: 46 Gy) including third-generation cytotoxic agents (arm B: cisplatin and vinorelbine; arm C: carboplatin and paclitaxel) in patients with resectable stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC, using feasibility of the whole strategy, including surgery, as a primary endpoint. A total of 46 patients were included. Response rate was significantly higher after induction chemoradiotherapy vs. chemotherapy (87% vs. 57%, p=0.049). A total of 44 patients underwent operation. The feasibility rate of the proposed therapeutic strategy was 89% for the whole cohort, 93% in arm A (induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine), 88% in arm B (induction chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine), and 87% in arm C (induction chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel) (p=0.857). Overall median, 1-year, and 3-year survival were 30 months, 87%, and 43%, respectively. Induction chemoradiotherapy with modern treatment regimens is highly feasible and may show promises in the current and future developments of multimodal therapeutic strategies in locally advanced NSCLC. PMID:19879013

Girard, Nicolas; Mornex, Françoise; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Bossard, Nadine; Quoix, Elisabeth; Beckendorf, Véronique; Grunenwald, Dominique; Amour, Elodie; Milleron, Bernard

2010-07-01

308

Conservative surgery and radiotherapy for stage I/II breast cancer using lung density correction: 10-year and 15-year results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) planning for breast cancer using lung density correction improves dose homogeneity. Its use obviates the need for a medial wedge, thus reducing scatter to the opposite breast. Although lung density correction is used at many centers in planning for early-stage breast cancer, long-term results of local control and survival have not been reported. Since 1984, we have used lung density correction for dose calculations at the University of Michigan. We now present our 10-year and 15-year results. Methods and Materials: The records of 867 patients with Stage I/II breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT with or without systemic therapy were reviewed. Tangential fields delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast calculated using lung density correction were used. A boost was added in 96.8% of patients for a total median dose of 61.8 Gy. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-18.9 years), 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial rates of in-breast tumor recurrence as only first failure were 2.2%, 3.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. With surgical salvage, the 15-year cumulative rate of local control was 99.7%. Factors that significantly predicted for increased rate of local recurrence in multivariate analysis were age {<=} 35 years, hazard ratio 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.9) p = 0.004; negative progesterone receptor status, hazard ratio 6.8 (95% CI, 2.3-20.3) p = < 0.001; negative estrogen receptor status, hazard ratio 4.0 (95% CI, 1.5-11.1) p = 0.007; and lack of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, hazard ratio 7.7 (95% CI, 1.7-33.3) p = 0.008. Relapse-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 84.6%, 70.8%, and 55.9%, respectively; breast cancer-specific survival rates were 94.4%, 90.5%, and 86.9%, respectively; and corresponding estimates for overall survival were 89.7%, 75.7%, and 61.3%. Conclusions: Use of lung density correction was associated with high rates of local control, relapse-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival compared with other reported series of breast-conserving surgery and RT in early-stage disease. These results will serve as a benchmark against which newer radiation delivery strategies such as intensity-modulated RT and partial breast RT can be compared.

Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Griffith, Kent A. [University of Michigan Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Douglas, Kathye R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lichter, Allen S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2005-04-01

309

Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage IB, II, or IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Was Completely Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

2014-12-19

310

[Compensation for disordered functions and the problems of rehabilitative treatment of disabled veterans of World War II who suffered gunshot wounds of the upper extrememities].  

PubMed

The data of dynamic observations and clincal examination of 128 invalids of the Great Patriotic War having gunshot wounds of the upper extremities after 20 years and longer evidence considerable improvement of the wounded extremity function and a reduced degree of disability in the late period due to compensatory phenomena under the influence of active labour life. PMID:324109

Degtiar', G P

1977-02-01

311

Development of a parent-report computer-adaptive test to assess physical functioning in children with cerebral palsy II: upper-extremity skills.  

PubMed

The specific aims of this study were to (1) examine the psychometric properties (unidimensionality, differential item functioning, scale coverage) of an item bank of upper-extremity skills for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP); (2) evaluate a simulated computer-adaptive test (CAT) using this item bank; (3) examine the concurrent validity of the CAT with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) upper-extremity core scale; and (4) determine the discriminant validity of the simulated CAT with Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels and CP type (i.e. diplegia, hemiplegia, or quadriplegia). Parents (n=180) of children and adolescents with CP (spastic diplegia 49%, hemiplegia 22%, or quadriplegia 28%) consisting of 102 males and 78 females with a mean age of 10 years 6 months (SD 4y 1mo, range 2-21y), and MACS levels I through V participated in calibration of an item pool and completed the PODCI. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional model using 49 of the 53 upper-extremity items. Simulated CATs of 5, 10, and 15 items demonstrated excellent accuracy (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICCs] >0.93) with the full item bank, had high correlations with the PODCI upper-extremity core scale score (ICC 0.79), and discriminated among MACS levels. The simulated CATs demonstrated excellent overall content coverage over a wide age span and severity of upper-extremity involvement. The future development and refinement of CATs for parent report of physical function in children and adolescents with CP is supported by our work. PMID:19416341

Tucker, Carole A; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Dumas, Helene M; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Watson, Kyle; Gorton, George E; Ni, Pengsheng; Hambleton, Ronald K; Mulcahey, M J; Haley, Stephen M

2009-09-01

312

Clinicopathologic Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Endorectal Brachytherapy versus Conventional Chemoradiotherapy in the Neoadjuvant Setting for Resectable Stages II and III Low Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess for differences in clinical, radiologic, and pathologic outcomes between patients with stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma treated neoadjuvantly with conventional external beam radiotherapy (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)) versus high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (EBT). Methods. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant EBT received 4 consecutive daily 6.5?Gy fractions without chemotherapy, while those undergoing 3DRT or IMRT received 28 daily 1.8?Gy fractions with concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Data was collected prospectively for 7 EBT patients and retrospectively for 25 historical 3DRT/IMRT controls. Results. Time to surgery was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher rate of pathologic CR for EBT (P = 0.06). Rates of margin and lymph node positivity at resection were similar for all groups. Acute toxicity was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P = 0.025). Overall and progression-free survival were noninferior for EBT. On MRI, EBT achieved similar complete response rate and reduction in tumor volume as 3DRT and IMRT. Histopathologic comparison showed that EBT resulted in more localized treatment effects and fewer serosal adhesions. Conclusions. EBT offers several practical benefits over conventional radiotherapy techniques and appears to be at least as effective against low rectal cancer as measured by short-term outcomes. PMID:22830003

Smith, Jessica A.; Wild, Aaron T.; Singhi, Aatur; Raman, Siva P.; Qiu, Haoming; Kumar, Rachit; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Efron, Jonathan; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Azad, Nilofer S.; Diaz, Luis A.; Le, Yi; Armour, Elwood P.; Gearhart, Susan L.; Herman, Joseph M.

2012-01-01

313

Cancer Staging  

MedlinePLUS

... is called metastasis. 2. What are the common elements of staging systems? Staging systems for cancer have ... others focus on a particular type. The common elements considered in most staging systems are as follows: ...

314

A Multicenter, Open-Label Phase II Study of Metformin With Erlotinib in Second-Line Therapy of Stage IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Treatment Rationale and Protocol Dynamics of the METAL Trial.  

PubMed

We present the rationale and study design of the METAL (METformin in Advanced Lung cancer) trial (EudraCT number: 2014-000349-59), a multicenter, open label phase II study, designed to evaluate the safety and activity of metformin combined with erlotinib as second-line therapy in patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer. This is a 2-part trial, consisting of a safety run-in part followed by a phase II part. The primary end point for the first part is the maximum tolerated dose and the identification of the recommended phase II dose of metformin in combination with erlotinib. Secondary end points are the study of pharmacokinetics and the antitumor activity evaluation of the experimental combination. The primary end point of part II is the time to disease progression with the combination, and antitumor activity as a secondary end point. Based on the statistical design, we plan to enroll approximately 60 patients. PMID:25242667

Fasano, Morena; Della Corte, Carminia Maria; Capuano, Annalisa; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Papaccio, Federica; Berrino, Liberato; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Morgillo, Floriana

2015-01-01

315

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Four-Year Results of a Prospective Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The 50-month results of a prospective Phase II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in medically inoperable patients are reported. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 medically inoperable patients had clinically staged T1 (34 patients) or T2 (36 patients) (<=7 cm), N0, M0, biopsy-confirmed non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and received SBRT as per our previously published reports. The SBRT treatment dose of 60-66 Gy was prescribed to the 80% isodose volume in three fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 50.2 months (range, 1.4-64.8 months). Kaplan-Meier local control at 3 years was 88.1%. Regional (nodal) and distant recurrence occurred in 6 (8.6%) and 9 (12.9%) patients, respectively. Median survival (MS) was 32.4 months and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 42.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 31.1-54.3%). Cancer-specific survival at 3 years was 81.7% (95% CI, 70.0-93.4%). For patients with T1 tumors, MS was 38.7 months (95% CI, 25.3-50.2) and for T2 tumors MS was 24.5 months (95% CI, 18.5-37.4) (p = 0.194). Tumor volume (<=5 cc, 5-10 cc, 10-20 cc, >20 cc) did not significantly impact survival: MS was 36.9 months (95% CI, 18.1-42.9), 34.0 (95% CI, 16.9-57.1), 32.8 (95% CI, 21.3-57.8), and 21.4 months (95% CI, 17.8-41.6), respectively (p = 0.712). There was no significant survival difference between patients with peripheral vs. central tumors (MS 33.2 vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.697). Grade 3 to 5 toxicity occurred in 5 of 48 patients with peripheral lung tumors (10.4%) and in 6 of 22 patients (27.3%) with central tumors (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.088). Conclusion: Based on our study results, use of SBRT results in high rates of local control in medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC.

Fakiris, Achilles J., E-mail: afakiris@iupui.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McGarry, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Yiannoutsos, Constantin T. [Division of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Williams, Mark [Division of Pulmonology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Henderson, Mark A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2009-11-01

316

Consolidative Involved-Node Proton Therapy for Stage IA-IIIB Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: Preliminary Dosimetric Outcomes From a Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose reduction to organs at risk (OARs) with proton therapy (PT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) enrolled on a Phase II study of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2009 and October 2010, 10 patients were enrolled on a University of Florida institutional review board-approved protocol for de novo 'classical' Stage IA-IIIB HL with mediastinal (bulky or nonbulky) involvement after chemotherapy. INRT was planned per European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines. Three separate optimized plans were developed for each patient: 3D-CRT, IMRT, and PT. The primary end point was a 50% reduction in the body V4 with PT compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT. Results: The median relative reduction with PT in the primary end point, body V4, was 51% compared with 3D-CRT (p = 0.0098) and 59% compared with IMRT (p = 0.0020), thus all patients were offered treatment with PT. PT provided the lowest mean dose to the heart, lungs, and breasts for all 10 patients compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. The median difference in the OAR mean dose reduction with PT compared with 3D-CRT were 10.4 Gy/CGE for heart; 5.5 Gy/CGE for lung; 0.9 Gy/CGE for breast; 8.3 Gy/CGE for esophagus; and 4.1 Gy/CGE for thyroid. The median differences for mean OAR dose reduction for PT compared with IMRT were 4.3 Gy/CGE for heart, 3.1 Gy/CGE for lung, 1.4 Gy/CGE for breast, 2.8 Gy/CGE for esophagus, and 2.7 Gy/CGE for thyroid. Conclusions: All 10 patients benefitted from dose reductions to OARs with PT compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. It is anticipated that these reductions in dose to OAR will translate into lower rates of late complications, but long-term follow-up on this Phase II INRT study is needed.

Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Su Zhong; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Latif, Naeem [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2012-05-01

317

Hypofractionated High-Dose Proton Beam Therapy for Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Preliminary Results of A Phase I\\/II Clinical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To present treatment outcomes of hypofractionated high-dose proton beam therapy for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with Stage I NSCLC (11 with Stage IA and 10 with Stage IB) underwent hypofractionated high-dose proton beam therapy. At the time of irradiation, patient age ranged from 51 to 85 years (median, 74 years). Nine patients

Masaharu. Hata; Koichi Tokuuye; Kenji Kagei; Shinji Sugahara; Hidetsugu Nakayama; Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu; Takayuki Hashimoto; Masashi Mizumoto; Kiyoshi Ohara; Yasuyuki Akine

2007-01-01

318

Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

2014-11-17

319

Association of Socioeconomic Status With Breslow Thickness and Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Stage I-II Primary Cutaneous Melanoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on Breslow thickness, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with stage I-II primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study consists of all consecutive patients who were diagnosed as having PCM and were treated and followed up at our hospital between November 1, 1998, and July 31, 2009. Pathologic and sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were obtained. We categorized SES into 3 levels: low (manual employees and skilled/unskilled workers, including farmers, with primary education level), middle (nonmanual employees and clerks with middle education level), and high (professionals, executives, administrators, and entrepreneurs with tertiary education). RESULTS: A total of 1443 consecutive patients were evaluated. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, sex (female vs male: odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.75), SES (high vs middle: OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.96-1.69; high vs low: OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.26-2.38), age (<60 vs ?60 years: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.03-1.78), and family context (single vs living with relatives: OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.97-1.94) were the strongest correlates of Breslow thickness. Compared with high SES, the risk of melanoma-related death, adjusted for age and sex, was 7 times higher (hazard ratio, 7.44; 95% CI, 3.27-16.93) and almost 2 times higher (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.04-3.39) in patients with low SES living alone or living with relatives, respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients with PCM, low SES is associated with thicker melanoma and a poorer clinical outcome. PMID:21282485

Mandalà, Mario; Imberti, Gian Lorenzo; Piazzalunga, Dario; Belfiglio, Maurizio; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Labianca, Roberto; Marchesi, Lorenzo; Merelli, Barbara; Robone, Silvana; Poletti, Paola; Milesi, Laura; Tondini, Carlo

2011-01-01

320

Sorafenib in Patients with Platinum Treated Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): A Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG 0435) Phase II Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor affecting pathways involved in tumor progression and angiogenesis. We conducted a phase II trial of Sorafenib in platinum-treated extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients to determine the tumor response rate, toxicity and overall survival. Methods Patients with histologically confirmed, measurable disease, Zubrod performance status 0–1 and no more than 1 prior platinum based treatment were eligible. Patients were stratified by platinum-sensitivity status: sensitive (progression >90 days after platinum) or refractory (progression during or ?90 days after platinum). Pts were treated with sorafenib 400mg PO BID continuously on a 28 day cycle. Results Of 89 pts registered; 82 were evaluable for toxicity assessment and 83 were evaluable for response There were 4 partial responses seen among the 38 patients in the platinum sensitive stratum, for an estimated response rate of 11% (95% confidence interval: 3% – 25%); and one partial response among the 45 patients in the platinum refractory stratum for an estimated response rate of 2% (95% confidence interval: 0% – 12%). The median overall survival estimates were 5.3 months (95% confidence interval: 3.3–7.5 months) and 6.7 months (95% confidence interval: 6.1–9.1 months) for the platinum-refractory and platinum-sensitive strata respectively. Nineteen patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events or side effects from therapy. Conclusions Based on the lack of disease control seen in our trial, further investigation of single-agent sorafenib in the SCLC population is not recommended. Combination trials of Sorafenib and chemotherapy are ongoing. PMID:20881645

Gitlitz, Barbara J.; Moon, James; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Reimers, H. Joachim; Bury, Martin J.; Floyd, Justin D.; Schulz, Thomas K.; Sundaram, P. Kothai; Ho, Christopher; Gandara, David R.

2010-01-01

321

Feasibility of radiotherapy after high-dose dense chemotherapy with epirubicin, preceded by dexrazoxane, and paclitaxel for patients with high-risk Stage II-III breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To verify the feasibility of, and quantify the risk of, pneumonitis from locoregional radiotherapy (RT) after high-dose dense chemotherapy with epirubicin and paclitaxel with peripheral blood progenitor cell support in patients with high-risk Stage II-III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment consisted of a mobilizing course of epirubicin 150 mg/m{sup 2}, preceded by dexrazoxane (Day 1), paclitaxel 175 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 2), and filgrastim; followed by three courses of epirubicin 150 mg/m{sup 2}, preceded by dexrazoxane (Day 1), paclitaxel 400 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 2), and peripheral blood progenitor cell support and filgrastim, every 16-19 days. After chemotherapy, patients were treated with locoregional RT, which included the whole breast or the chest wall, axilla, and supraclavicular area. Results: Overall, 64 of 69 patients were evaluable. The interval between the end of chemotherapy and the initiation of RT was at least 1.5-2 months (mean 2). No treatment-related death was reported. After a median follow-up of 27 months from RT (range 5-77 months), neither clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis nor congestive heart failure had been reported. Minor and transitory lung and cardiac toxicities were observed. Conclusion: Sequential high doses of epirubicin, preceded by dexrazoxane, and paclitaxel did not adversely affect the tolerability of locoregional RT in breast cancer patients. The risk of pneumonitis was not affected by the use of sequential paclitaxel with an interval of at least 1.5-2 months between the end of chemotherapy and the initiation of RT. Long-term follow-up is needed to define the risk of cardiotoxicity in these patients.

De Giorgi, Ugo [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy)]. E-mail: ugo_degiorgi@yahoo.com; Giannini, Massimo [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Frassineti, Luca [Department of Medical Oncology, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Kopf, Barbara [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Palazzi, Silvia [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Giovannini, Noemi [Department of Medical Oncology, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Zumaglini, Federica [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Rosti, Giovanni [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Emiliani, Ermanno [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Marangolo, Maurizio [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy)

2006-07-15

322

Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-11-19

323

Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2014-02-05

324

Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

Jones, David

2011-01-01

325

3-D multi-observable probabilistic inversion for the compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. II: General methodology and resolution analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a 3-D multi-observable probabilistic inversion method, particularly designed for high-resolution (regional) thermal and compositional mapping of the lithosphere and sub-lithospheric upper mantle that circumvents the problems associated with traditional inversion methods. The key aspects of the method are as follows: (a) it exploits the increasing amount and quality of geophysical datasets; (b) it combines multiple geophysical observables (Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves, body-wave tomography, magnetotelluric, geothermal, petrological, gravity, elevation, and geoid) with different sensitivities to deep/shallow, thermal/compositional anomalies into a single thermodynamic-geophysical framework; (c) it uses a general probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation to appraise the data; (d) no initial model is needed; (e) compositional a priori information relies on robust statistical analyses of a large database of natural mantle samples; and (f) it provides a natural platform to estimate realistic uncertainties. In addition, the modular nature of the method/algorithm allows for incorporating or isolating specific forward operators according to available data. The strengths and limitations of the method are thoroughly explored with synthetic models. It is shown that the a posteriori probability density function (i.e., solution to the inverse problem) satisfactorily captures spatial variations in bulk composition and temperature with high resolution, as well as sharp discontinuities in these fields. Our results indicate that only temperature anomalies of ?T ?150°C and large compositional anomalies of ?Mg# > 3 (or bulk ?Al2O3 > 1.5) can be expected to be resolved simultaneously when combining high-quality geophysical data. This resolving power is sufficient to explore some long-standing problems regarding the nature and evolution of the lithosphere (e.g., vertical stratification of cratonic mantle, compositional versus temperature signatures in seismic velocities, etc) and offers new opportunities for joint studies of the structure of the upper mantle with unprecedented resolution.

Afonso, J. C.; Fullea, J.; Yang, Y.; Connolly, J. A. D.; Jones, A. G.

2013-04-01

326

Dosimetric Comparison of Three Different Involved Nodal Irradiation Techniques for Stage II Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients: Conventional Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, and Three-Dimensional Proton Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose distribution to targeted and nontargeted tissues in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients using conventional radiotherapy (CRT), intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and three-dimensional proton RT (3D-PRT). Methods and Materials: CRT, IMRT, and 3D-PRT treatment plans delivering 30 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE)/Gy to an involved nodal field were created for 9 Stage II Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (n = 27 plans). The dosimetric endpoints were compared. Results: The planning target volume was adequately treated using all three techniques. The IMRT plan produced the most conformal high-dose distribution; however, the 3D-PRT plan delivered the lowest mean dose to nontarget tissues, including the breast, lung, and total body. The relative reduction in the absolute lung volume receiving doses of 4-16 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with CRT ranged from 26% to 37% (p < .05), and the relative reduction in the absolute lung volume receiving doses of 4-10 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with IMRT was 48-65% (p < .05). The relative reduction in absolute total body volume receiving 4-30 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with CRT was 47% (p < .05). The relative reduction in absolute total body volume receiving a dose of 4 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with IMRT was 63% (p = .03). The mean dose to the breast was significantly less for 3D-PRT than for either IMRT or CRT (p = .03) The mean dose and absolute volume receiving 4-30 CGE/Gy for the heart, thyroid, and salivary glands were similar for the three modalities. Conclusion: In this favorable subset of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients without disease in or below the hila, 3D-PRT significantly reduced the dose to the breast, lung, and total body. These observed dosimetric advantages might improve the clinical outcomes of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients by reducing the risk of late radiation effects related to low-to-moderate doses in nontargeted tissues.

Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Rodriguez, Christina; Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Louis, Debbie; Yeung, Daniel; Li Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.ed [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2009-11-15

327

Stages of Relaxation of Patterns and the Role of Stochasticity on the Final Stage  

E-print Network

Stages of Relaxation of Patterns and the Role of Stochasticity on the Final Stage Shaowen Hu on a vibrated layer of brass beads occurs in three distinct stages. During stage I, all lengthscales associated with moments of the disorder grow at a single universal rate, given by L(t) # t 0.5 . In stage II, pattern

Texas at Austin. University of

328

Surface wave array tomography in SE Tibet from ambient seismic noise and two-station analysis - II. Crustal and upper-mantle structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the 3-D shear wave speed variations in the crust and upper mantle in the southeastern borderland of the Tibetan Plateau, SW China, with data from 25 temporary broad-band stations and one permanent station. Interstation Rayleigh wave (phase velocity) dispersion curves were obtained at periods from 10 to 50 s from empirical Green's function (EGF) derived from (ambient noise) interferometry and from 20 to 150 s from traditional two-station (TS) analysis. Here, we use these measurements to construct phase velocity maps (from 10 to 150 s, using the average interstation dispersion from the EGF and TS methods between 20 and 50 s) and estimate from them (with the Neighbourhood Algorithm) the 3-D wave speed variations and their uncertainty. The crust structure, parametrized in three layers, can be well resolved with a horizontal resolution about of 100 km or less. Because of the possible effect of mechanically weak layers on regional deformation, of particular interest is the existence and geometry of low (shear) velocity layers (LVLs). In some regions prominent LVLs occur in the middle crust, in others they may appear in the lower crust. In some cases the lateral transition of shear wave speed coincides with major fault zones. The spatial variation in strength and depth of crustal LVLs suggests that the 3-D geometry of weak layers is complex and that unhindered crustal flow over large regions may not occur. Consideration of such complexity may be the key to a better understanding of relative block motion and patterns of seismicity.

Yao, Huajian; Beghein, Caroline; van der Hilst, Robert D.

2008-04-01

329

Investigation of two-stage air-cooled turbine suitable for flight at Mach number of 2.5 II : blade design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A blade design study is presented for a two-stage air-cooled turbine suitable for flight at a Mach number of 2.5 for which velocity diagrams have been previously obtained. The detailed procedure used in the design of the blades is given. In addition, the design blade shapes, surface velocity distributions, inner and outer wall contours, and other design data are presented. Of all the blade rows, the first-stage rotor has the highest solidity, with a value of 2.289 at the mean section. The second-stage stator also had a high mean-section solidity of 1.927, mainly because of its high inlet whirl. The second-stage rotor has the highest value of the suction-surface diffusion parameter, with a value of 0.151. All other blade rows have values for this parameter under 0.100.

Miser, James W; Stewart, Warner L

1957-01-01

330

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and double strand break genes as markers for response to radiotherapy in patients with Stage I to II head-and-neck cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes can influence response to radiotherapy. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in nine DNA repair genes in 108 patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNSCC) who had received radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 to December 2004, patients with Stage I and II histopathologically confirmed HNSCC underwent radiotherapy. DNA was obtained from paraffin-embedded tissue, and SNP analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination TaqMan assay with minor modifications. Results: Patients were 101 men (93.5%) and 7 (6.5%) women, with a median age of 64 years (range, 40 to 89 years). Of the patients, 76 (70.4%) patients were Stage I and 32 (29.6%) were Stage II. The XPF/ERCC1 SNP at codon 259 and XPG/ERCC5 at codon 46 emerged as significant predictors of progression (p 0.00005 and 0.049, respectively) and survival (p = 0.0089 and 0.0066, respectively). Similarly, when variant alleles of XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5 and XPA were examined in combination, a greater number of variant alleles was associated with shorter time to progression (p = 0.0003) and survival (p 0.0002). Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms in XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5, and XPA may significantly influence response to radiotherapy; large studies are warranted to confirm their role in HNSCC.

Carles, Joan [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jcarles@imas.imim.es; Monzo, Mariano [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Amat, Marta [Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Jansa, Sonia [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Artells, Rosa [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Navarro, Alfons [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Alameda, Francesc [Department of Pathology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gayete, Angel [Department of Radiology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gel, Bernat [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Miguel, Maribel [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Albanell, Joan [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Fabregat, Xavier [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

2006-11-15

331

MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) is a predictor of survival in two cohorts of stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin.  

PubMed

Adjuvant treatment based on fluoropyrimidines (FL) improves the prognosis of stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC). Validated predictive/prognostic biomarkers would spare therapy-related morbidity in patients with a good prognosis. We compared the impact of a set of 22 FL-related polymorphisms with the prognosis of two cohorts of CRC patients treated with adjuvant FL with or without OXA, including a total of 262 cases. 5,10-Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) polymorphism had a concordant effect: MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC genotype carriers had a worse disease free survival (DFS) in both the cohorts. In the pooled population MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC carriers had also a worse overall survival. We computed a clinical score related to DFS including MTHFR-rs1801131, tumor stage, sex and tumor location, where rs1801131 is the most detrimental factor (hazard ratio=5.3, 95% confidence interval=2.2-12.9; P-value=0.0006). MTHFR-rs1801131 is a prognostic factor that could be used as an additional criteria for the choice of the proper adjuvant regimen in stage II/III colorectal cancer patients.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 21 October 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.64. PMID:25331073

Cecchin, E; Perrone, G; Nobili, S; Polesel, J; De Mattia, E; Zanusso, C; Petreni, P; Lonardi, S; Pella, N; D'Andrea, M; Errante, D; Rizzolio, F; Mazzei, T; Landini, I; Mini, E; Toffoli, G

2014-10-21

332

Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. Methods/Design A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height2; circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. Discussion CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC RBR-7yhr4w and World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number UTN: U1111-1127-9390 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-7yhr4w/]). PMID:24103561

2013-01-01

333

Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-03-17

334

Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.

Patel, Mehul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Cote, Michele L. [Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Ali-Fehmi, Rouba [Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Buekers, Thomas; Munkarah, Adnan R. [Department of Women's Health Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

2012-05-01

335

Can radiotherapy be a viable salvage treatment option for the relapsed seminoma confined to the infra-diaphragm region recurring after primary chemotherapy for bulky stage II seminoma?  

PubMed Central

There has been a paucity of research describing a potential role of radiotherapy as salvage treatment for recurrent seminoma following primary chemotherapy for bulky stage IIC seminoma. We report a case of a bulky stage IIC seminoma relapsed in the pelvis after primary chemotherapy and surgery for post-chemotherapy residual mass, which was subsequently salvaged with radiotherapy. The patient has remained free of relapse at 3.7 years post-salvage radiotherapy. This case demonstrates that radiotherapy can be a salvage therapeutic option for recurrent seminoma following primary chemotherapy for bulky stage IIC seminoma, provided that the recurrent tumour is confined to a limited area of the infradiaphragmatic region. There is a need for further study to examine the potential role of radiotherapy as a salvage therapeutic tool for post-chemotherapy recurrent seminoma. PMID:20944793

Choo, Richard; Quevedo, Fernando; Choo, Christopher S.; Blute, Michael

2010-01-01

336

Comparison of accumulated allele loss between primary tumor and lymph node metastasis in stage II non-small cell lung carcinoma: implications for the timing of lymph node metastasis and prognostic value.  

PubMed

Although the Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most effective predictor of survival, the clinical outcome of patients at each stage is variable on an individual case basis. We tested the value of incorporating information about the tumor heterogeneity of NSCLC into microsatellite allelotyping in a cohort of 48 node-positive stage II patients (T1N1M0 and T2N1M0). Microsatellite allelotyping involved microdissection of the invasive component of primary tumor and lymph node metastasis at multiple target sites followed by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis at specific regions on chromosomes 1p, 3p, 5q, 7q, 8q, 9p, 10q, 17p, and 18q using 16 markers. All microsatellites manifested LOH ranging from 44 to 76% in primary tumor and showed various degree of heterogeneity between primary tumor and lymph node metastasis. LOH on 3p and 5q in the lymph node metastases was associated significantly with shortened survival of the patients (P = 0.033 and 0.004, respectively), whereas no single LOH in the primary tumors showed association with prognosis. For the analysis of the accumulated load of allele loss, fractional allele loss (FAL) was calculated for each sample. The maximal FAL of lymph node metastasis was significantly lower than that of primary tumor (P = 0.0015), possibly reflecting the early lymphatic spread. High maximal FAL of lymph node metastasis was significantly correlated with an adverse outcome (P = 0.012), whereas maximal FAL of primary tumor did not show any prognostic significance (P = 0.552). A composite mutational profile for each patient based on the allelotyping of the primary tumor and lymph node deposits may make a significant contribution to a more accurate prognosis of stage II NSCLC. PMID:11980668

Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Finkelstein, Sydney D; Woods, Jeffrey D; Bakker, Anke; Swalsky, Patricia A; Luketich, James D; Fernando, Hiran C; Yousem, Samuel A

2002-05-01

337

Hypofractionated High-Dose Proton Beam Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Preliminary Results of A Phase I/II Clinical Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present treatment outcomes of hypofractionated high-dose proton beam therapy for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with Stage I NSCLC (11 with Stage IA and 10 with Stage IB) underwent hypofractionated high-dose proton beam therapy. At the time of irradiation, patient age ranged from 51 to 85 years (median, 74 years). Nine patients were medically inoperable because of comorbidities, and 12 patients refused surgical resection. Histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 6 patients, adenocarcinoma in 14, and large cell carcinoma in 1. Tumor size ranged from 10 to 42 mm (median, 25 mm) in maximum diameter. Three and 18 patients received proton beam irradiation with total doses of 50 Gy and 60 Gy in 10 fractions, respectively, to primary tumor sites. Results: Of 21 patients, 2 died of cancer and 2 died of pneumonia at a median follow-up period of 25 months. The 2-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 74% and 86%, respectively. All but one of the irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period. Five patients showed recurrences 6-29 months after treatment, including local progression and new lung lesions outside of the irradiated volume in 1 and 4 patients, respectively. The local progression-free and disease-free rates were 95% and 79% at 2 years, respectively. No therapy-related toxicity of Grade {>=}3 was observed. Conclusions: Hypofractionated high-dose proton beam therapy seems feasible and effective for Stage I NSCLC. Proton beams may contribute to enhanced efficacy and lower toxicity in the treatment of patients with Stage I NSCLC.

Hata, Masaharu [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)]. E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp; Tokuuye, Koichi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kagei, Kenji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakayama, Hidetsugu [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Hashimoto, Takayuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizumoto, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohara, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Akine, Yasuyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

2007-07-01

338

The Role of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Clinical Stage II-III Breast Cancer Patients With pN0: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study (KROG 12-05)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients with pN0. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 417 clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients who achieved an ypN0 at surgery after receiving NAC between 1998 and 2009. Of these, 151 patients underwent mastectomy after NAC. The effect of PMRT on disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis including known prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log–rank test and Cox proportional regression analysis. Results: Of the 151 patients who underwent mastectomy, 105 (69.5%) received PMRT and 46 patients (30.5%) did not. At a median follow-up of 59 months, 5 patients (3.3%) developed LRR (8 sites of recurrence) and 14 patients (9.3%) developed distant metastasis. The 5-year DFS, LRRFS, and OS rates were 91.2, 98.1, and 93.3% with PMRT and 83.0%, 92.3%, and 89.9% without PMRT, respectively (all P values not significant). By univariate analysis, only age (?40 vs >40 years) was significantly associated with decreased DFS (P=.027). By multivariate analysis, age (?40 vs >40 years) and pathologic T stage (0-is vs 1 vs 2-4) were significant prognostic factors affecting DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.353, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.135-0.928, P=.035; HR 2.223, 95% CI 1.074-4.604, P=.031, respectively). PMRT showed no correlation with a difference in DFS, LRRFS, or OS by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: PMRT might not be necessary for pN0 patients after NAC, regardless of clinical stage. Prospective randomized clinical trial data are needed to assess whether PMRT can be safely omitted in pN0 patients after NAC and mastectomy for clinical stage II-III breast cancer.

Shim, Su Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won, E-mail: wonro.park@samsung.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam Kwon [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Medical Center, Korea University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Yong Bae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Su Ssan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W.; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Kyubo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Soo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA Hospital, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-01

339

Transformation of austenite in Fe-Cu alloys. II: Kinetics of a two-stage transformation of austenite in the Fe-5.5% Cu alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decomposition of austenite in the hypereutectoid Fe-5.5% Cu alloy has been considered as a complex process that includes the precipitation of ?-phase particles and a eutectoid transformation, during which particles of a granular pearlite are nucleated. The theory of the growth of particles has been considered, and the kinetic equations for each stage of the austenite transformation have been introduced.

Urtsev, V. N.; Mirzaev, D. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.

2008-04-01

340

Embryotoxic effects of thalidomide derivatives in the non-human primate Callithrix jacchus. II. Elucidation of the susceptible period and of the variability of embryonic stages.  

PubMed

Data are presented on the normal intra- and inter-litter variability of the embryonic stages in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) on day 56 of pregnancy. The embryology of the marmoset is described with respect to the susceptible period for the teratogenic action of thalidomide. PMID:3355363

Neubert, D; Heger, W; Merker, H J; Sames, K; Meister, R

1988-01-01

341

A Phase II Trial of Complete Resection for Stage IV Melanoma: Results of Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) Clinical Trial S9430  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Patients with stage IV melanoma who undergo complete resection have a favorable outcome compared to patients with disseminated stage IV disease, based on retrospective experience at individual centers. SWOG performed a prospective trial in patients with metastatic melanoma enrolled prior to complete resection of metastatic disease providing prospective outcomes in the cooperative group setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IV melanoma judged amenable to complete resection by their surgeon, based on physical examination and radiologic imaging, underwent surgery within 28 days of enrollment. All eligible patients were followed with scans (CT or PET) every 6 months until relapse and death. RESULTS 77 patients were enrolled from 18 different centers. Of those, 5 patients were ineligible; 2 had stage III disease alone and 3 had no melanoma in their surgical specimen. In addition, 8 eligible patients had incompletely resected tumor. Therefore, the primary analysis included 64 completely resected patients. Twenty (31%) patients had visceral disease. With median follow-up of 5 years, the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 5 months (95% CI 3–7 months) while median overall survival (OS) was 21 months (95% CI 16–34 months). OS at 3 and 4 years were 36% and 31%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In a prospective, multi-center setting, appropriately selected patients with stage IV melanoma can achieve prolonged OS after complete surgical resection. While median RFS was only five months, patients can still frequently undergo subsequent surgery for isolated recurrences. This patient population is appropriate for aggressive surgical therapy and for trials evaluating adjuvant therapy. PMID:21455999

Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Moon, James; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Warneke, James A.; Vetto, John T.; Redman, Bruce G.; Liu, P.Y.; Unger, Joseph M.; Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Sondak, Vernon K.

2010-01-01

342

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

343

[Indications and results of extemporaneous examination of pelvic lymph nodes in the surgical strategy of stage Ib or II cancers of the cervix uteri].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section examination of lymph nodes and its place in the surgical management of early stage cervical cancer. This study was based on 80 patients with stage Ib (n = 76) or IIa (n = 4) invasive cervical carcinoma, with tumor size < 3 cm, treated by radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy with frozen section examination of pelvic lymph nodes. A total of 718 nodes were submitted to frozen section examination. Only one case of false-negative result was found (micrometastases). The sensitivity of frozen section examination in detecting metastatic nodes was 92.3%, its specificity was 100% and its negative predictive value was 97%. Frozen section diagnosis of pelvic nodes is a reliable procedure and should be carried out on obturator, external iliac and common iliac nodes. It should, therefore be performed in patients with early cervical carcinoma to avoid routine para-aortic lymphadenectomy. PMID:10520497

Morice, P; Sabourin, J C; Pautier, P; Mercier, S; Duvillard, P; Castaigne, D

1999-01-01

344

Microsatellite Instability and Loss of Heterozygosity at Chromosomal Location 18q: Prospective Evaluation of Biomarkers for Stages II and III Colon Cancer—A Study of CALGB 9581 and 89803  

PubMed Central

Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops as a result of a series of accumulated genomic changes that produce oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene loss. These characteristics may classify CRC into subsets of distinct clinical behaviors. Patients and Methods We studied two of these genomic defects—mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) and loss of heterozygosity at chromosomal location 18q (18qLOH)—in patients enrolled onto two phase III cooperative group trials for treatment of potentially curable colon cancer. These trials included prospective secondary analyses to determine the relationship between these markers and treatment outcome. A total of 1,852 patients were tested for MMR status and 955 (excluding patients with MMR-D tumors) for 18qLOH. Results Compared with stage III, more stage II tumors were MMR-D (21.3% v 14.4%; P < .001) and were intact at 18q (24.2% v 15.1%; P = .001). For the combined cohort, patients with MMR-D tumors had better 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 0.76 v 0.67; P < .001) and overall survival (OS; 0.81 v 0.78; P = .029) than those with MMR intact (MMR-I) tumors. Among patients with MMR-I tumors, the status of 18q did not affect outcome, with 5-year values for patients with 18q intact versus 18qLOH tumors of 0.74 versus 0.65 (P = .18) for DFS and 0.81 versus 0.77 (P = .18) for OS. Conclusion We conclude that MMR-D tumor status, but not the presence of 18qLOH, has prognostic value for stages II and III colon cancer. PMID:21747089

Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Redston, Mark; Compton, Carolyn C.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Mayer, Robert J.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Colacchio, Thomas A.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Warren, Robert S.

2011-01-01

345

Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2014-12-29

346

Reflex prolongation of stage I of expiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed on anesthetized cats to test the theory that the interval between phrenic bursts is comprised of two phases, stage I and stage II of expiration. Evidence that these represent two separate neural phases of the central respiratory rhythm was provided by the extent to which stage duration is controlled individually when tested by superior laryngeal, vagus and

J. E. Remmers; D. W. Richter; D. Ballantyne; C. R. Bainton; J. P. Klein

1986-01-01

347

A phase II study of AT-101 (gossypol) in chemotherapy-sensitive recurrent extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC)  

PubMed Central

Background AT-101 is an oral inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic Bcl proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-W, and Mcl-1) and an inducer of the pro-apoptotic proteins noxa and puma. We studied the efficacy of AT-101 in patients with recurrent chemosensitive extensive stage – small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Methods Patients with recurrent “sensitive” SCLC (defined as no progression during and no disease recurrence < 2 months after completion of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy) were eligible. AT-101 was administered 20 mg orally daily for 21 out of 28 days each cycle for up to 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. Results At the time of planned interim evaluation, none of the 14 evaluable patients enrolled in the first stage had any response to therapy and the study was closed permanently for further accrual. Three patients (21 %) achieved stable disease after two cycles of therapy. Grade 3 toxicities included anorexia, fatigue, and nausea/vomiting. Conclusions AT-101 is not active in patients with recurrent chemosensitive SCLC. Supported by N01-CM62205. PMID:21918390

Baggstrom, Maria Q.; Qi, Yingwei; Koczywas, Marianna; Argiris, Athanassios; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Millward, Michael J.; Murphy, Sara C.; Erlichman, Charles; Rudin, Charles M.; Govindan, Ramaswamy

2011-01-01

348

Treatment of limited stage follicular lymphoma with Rituximab immunotherapy and involved field radiotherapy in a prospective multicenter Phase II trial-MIR trial  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal treatment of early stage follicular Lymphoma is a matter of debate. Radiation therapy has frequently been applied with a curative approach beside watchful waiting. Involved field, extended field and total nodal radiation techniques are used in various protocols, but the optimal radiation field still has to be defined. Follicular lymphoma is characterized by stable expression of the CD20 antigen on the tumour cells surface. The anti CD20 antibody Rituximab (Mabthera®) has shown to be effective in systemic therapy of FL in primary treatment, relapse and maintenance therapy. Methods/design The MIR (Mabthera® and Involved field Radiation) study is a prospective multicenter trial combining systemic treatment with the anti CD20 antibody Rituximab (Mabthera®) in combination with involved field radiotherapy (30 - 40 Gy). This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and safety with an accrual of 85 patients. Primary endpoint of the study is progression free survival. Secondary endpoints are response rate to Rituximab, complete remission rate at week 18, relapse rate, relapse pattern, relapse free survival, overall survival, toxicity and quality of life. Discussion The trial evaluates the efficacy of Rituximab to prevent out-filed recurrences in early stage nodal follicular lymphoma and the safety of the combination of Rituximab and involved field radiotherapy. It also might show additional risk factors for a later recurrence (e.g. remission state after Rituximab only). Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00509184 PMID:21352561

2011-01-01

349

Blockage of upper airway  

MedlinePLUS

Airway obstruction - acute upper ... Prevention depends on the cause of the upper airway obstruction. The following methods may help prevent an obstruction: Eat slowly and chew food completely. Do not drink too much alcohol before or while ...

350

Thoracoscopic left upper lobectomy with systematic lymph nodes dissection under left pulmonary artery clamping  

PubMed Central

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become a routine procedure for stage I and II lung cancers. However, in the presence of multiple metastasized lymph nodes invading the pulmonary artery or its major branches, the pulmonary artery have to be resected partially or sleeve resected, which could be extremely risky under thoracoscopic conditions. In order to reduce the risk of bleeding, an experienced thoracic surgeon would occlude the inflow and outflow of the pulmonary artery before anatomically dissecting the area of the pulmonary artery with tumor invasion. Different centers may use different clamping techniques and devices. Here, we report our technique of totally thoracoscopic left upper lobectomy with systematic lymph nodes dissection under pulmonary artery clamping for a 49-year-old woman with left upper lobe carcinoma. The video demonstrates our thinking and surgical process.

Dong, Yi-Nan; Sun, Nan; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Liang; Li, Ji-Jia

2014-01-01

351

Acquired upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired upper airway obstruction is a common cause of respiratory emergencies in children. Most pathologic processes that result in upper airway compromise are a consequence of infection, trauma or aspiration. Today, many of the infectious causes of upper airway obstruction have lost their threat as a result of the progress made in preventing and treating these infections. Prompt recognition and

Jürg Hammer

2004-01-01

352

Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer Or Other Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

2014-07-01

353

FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-08-04

354

Multiple angle single stage scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A scrubber for cleansing flue gases is disclosed. The scrubber includes a housing which defines a channel. The channel includes a scrubber stage wherein vertically spaced rows of deflecting members of l-shaped cross-section are disposed. In a given row of deflecting members, a plurality of flow paths are defined between horizontally adjacent deflecting members. Each deflecting member has an upper arm and a lower arm. The lowermost edge of the lower arms of the deflecting members in one row are disposed between vertical projections from the uppermost edges of upper arms of deflecting members in a row below the last mentioned row.

Ostlie, L.

1982-02-02

355

Neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal tract are generally detected by barium studies or endoscopy. Computed tomography remains the primary imaging modality for staging. Magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography may also play an increasing role in evaluating these tumors. PMID:8284355

Trenkner, S W; Halvorsen, R A; Thompson, W M

1994-01-01

356

Impact on Loco-regional Control of Radiochemotherapeutic Sequence and Time to Initiation of Adjuvant Treatment in Stage II/III Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Postoperative Concurrent Radiochemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the impact of radiochemotherapeutic sequence and time to initiation of adjuvant treatment on loco-regional control for resected stage II and III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods Treatment outcomes for rectal cancer patients from two hospitals with different sequencing strategies regarding adjuvant concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRCT) were compared retrospectively. Pelvic radiotherapy was administered concurrently on the first (early CRCT, n=180) or the third cycle of chemotherapy (late CRCT, n=180). During radiotherapy, two cycles of fluorouracil were provided to patients in both groups. In the early CRCT group, median six cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin were prescribed during the post-CRCT period. In the late CRCT group, two cycles of fluorouracil were administered in the pre- and post-CRCT periods. Results No significant differences in the 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) (92.5% vs. 95.6%, p=0.43) or overall survival and disease-free survival were observed between groups. Patients who began receiving adjuvant treatment later than five weeks after surgery had lower LRRFS than patients who received adjuvant treatment within five weeks following surgery (79% vs. 91%, p<0.01). The risk of loco-regional recurrence increased as the time to initiation of adjuvant treatment was delayed. Conclusion In the current study, treatment outcomes were not significantly influenced by the sequence of adjuvant treatment but by the delay of adjuvant treatment for more than five weeks. Timely administration of adjuvant treatment is deemed important in achieving loco-regional tumor control for stage II/III rectal cancer patients. PMID:24851106

Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Kyubo; Park, Won; Yoon, Won Sup; Huh, Seung Jae; Ha, Sung W.

2014-01-01

357

Nonresected Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Stages I Through IIIB: Accelerated, Twice-Daily, High-Dose Radiotherapy-A Prospective Phase I/II Trial With Long-Term Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Our purpose was to investigate the tolerability of accelerated, twice-daily, high-dose radiotherapy. The secondary endpoints were survival and locoregional tumor control. Methods and Materials: Thirty consecutive patients with histologically/cytologically proven non-small-cell lung cancer were enrolled. Tumor Stage I, II, IIIA, and IIIB was found in 7, 3, 12, and 8 patients, respectively. We applied a median of 84.6 Gy (range, 75.6-90.0 Gy) to the primary tumors, 63.0 Gy (range, 59.4-72.0 Gy) to lymph nodes, and 45 Gy to nodes electively (within a region of about 6 cm cranial to macroscopically involved sites). Fractional doses of 1.8 Gy twice daily, with an interval of 11 hours, were given, resulting in a median treatment time of 35 days. In the majority of patients the conformal target-splitting technique was used. In 19 patients (63%) two cycles of induction chemotherapy were given. The median follow-up time of survivors is 72 months (range, 62-74 months). Results: We found Grade 1, 2 and 3 acute esophageal toxicity in 11 patients (37%), 2 patients (7%), and 2 patients (7%), respectively. Grade 2 acute pneumonitis was seen in 2 patients (7%). No late toxicity greater than Grade 1 was observed. The actual overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years are 63% and 23%, respectively; the median overall survival, 27.7 months. In 9 patients a local failure occurred, 7 of them presenting initially with an atelectasis without availability of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography staging at that time. In 4 patients recurrence occurred regionally. Conclusions: This Phase I/II trial with long-term follow-up shows low toxicity with promising results for survival and locoregional tumor control.

Wurstbauer, Karl, E-mail: k.wurstbauer@salk.a [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); radART-Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Deutschmann, Heinz; Kopp, Peter; Kranzinger, Manfred; Merz, Florian; Nairz, Olaf [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); radART-Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Studnicka, Michael [Department of Pneumology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Sedlmayer, Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); radART-Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)

2010-08-01

358

Dose-volume histogram parameters of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for Stage I-II cervical cancer (?4cm) arising from a small-sized uterus treated with a point A dose-reduced plan.  

PubMed

We investigated the rectal dose-sparing effect and tumor control of a point A dose-reduced plan in patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (?4 cm) arising from a small-sized uterus. Between October 2008 and August 2011, 19 patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (?4 cm) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the pelvis and CT-guided brachytherapy. Seven patients were treated with brachytherapy with standard loading of source-dwell positions and a fraction dose of 6 Gy at point A (conventional brachy-plan). The other 12 patients with a small uterus close to the rectum or small intestine were treated with brachytherapy with a point A dose-reduction to match D2cc of the rectum and <6 Gy as the dose constraint ('point A dose-reduced plan') instead of the 6-Gy plan at point A ('tentative 6-Gy plan'). The total doses from EBRT and brachytherapy were added up and normalized to a biological equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2). The median doses to the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 in the conventional brachy-plan, tentative 6-Gy plan and point A dose-reduced plan were 62 GyEQD2, 80 GyEQD2 and 64 GyEQD2, respectively. The median doses of rectal D2cc in the corresponding three plans were 42 GyEQD2, 62 GyEQD2 and 51 GyEQD2, respectively. With a median follow-up period of 35 months, three patients developed Grade-1 late rectal complications and no patients developed local recurrence. Our preliminary results suggested that CT-guided brachytherapy using an individualized point A dose-reduced plan might be useful for reducing late rectal complications while maintaining primary tumor control. PMID:24566721

Nakagawa, Akiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kubo, Nobuteru; Kuwako, Keiko; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Nakano, Takashi

2014-07-01

359

Dose–volume histogram parameters of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for Stage I–II cervical cancer (?4cm) arising from a small-sized uterus treated with a point A dose-reduced plan  

PubMed Central

We investigated the rectal dose-sparing effect and tumor control of a point A dose-reduced plan in patients with Stage I–II cervical cancer (?4 cm) arising from a small-sized uterus. Between October 2008 and August 2011, 19 patients with Stage I–II cervical cancer (?4 cm) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the pelvis and CT-guided brachytherapy. Seven patients were treated with brachytherapy with standard loading of source-dwell positions and a fraction dose of 6 Gy at point A (conventional brachy-plan). The other 12 patients with a small uterus close to the rectum or small intestine were treated with brachytherapy with a point A dose-reduction to match D2cc of the rectum and <6 Gy as the dose constraint (‘point A dose-reduced plan’) instead of the 6-Gy plan at point A (‘tentative 6-Gy plan’). The total doses from EBRT and brachytherapy were added up and normalized to a biological equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2). The median doses to the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 in the conventional brachy-plan, tentative 6-Gy plan and point A dose-reduced plan were 62 GyEQD2, 80 GyEQD2 and 64 GyEQD2, respectively. The median doses of rectal D2cc in the corresponding three plans were 42 GyEQD2, 62 GyEQD2 and 51 GyEQD2, respectively. With a median follow-up period of 35 months, three patients developed Grade-1 late rectal complications and no patients developed local recurrence. Our preliminary results suggested that CT-guided brachytherapy using an individualized point A dose-reduced plan might be useful for reducing late rectal complications while maintaining primary tumor control. PMID:24566721

Nakagawa, Akiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kubo, Nobuteru; Kuwako, Keiko; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Takashi

2014-01-01

360

Patient Preferences in Making Treatment Decisions in Patients With Stage I-IVA Oropharyngeal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Tongue Cancer

2014-10-14

361

Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian rift succession, Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rift succession of the Araripe Basin can be subdivided into four depositional sequences, bounded by regional unconformities, which record different palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental contexts. Sequence I, equivalent to the Brejo Santo Formation, is composed of fluvial sheetflood and floodplain facies association, while Sequence II, correspondent to the lower portion of the Missão Velha Formation, is characterised by braided fluvial channel belt deposits. The fluvial deposits of Sequences I and II show palaeocurrents toward SE. The Sequence III, correspondent to the upper portion of Missão Velha Formation, is composed of fluvial sheetflood deposits, which are overlain by braided fluvial channel deposits displaying a palaeocurrent pattern predominantly toward SW to NW. Sequence IV, equivalent to the Abaiara Formation, is composed of fluvio-deltaic-lacustrine strata with polimodal paleocurrent pattern. The type of depositional systems, the palaeocurrent pattern and the comparison with general tectono-stratigraphic rift models led to the identification of different evolutionary stages of the Araripe Basin. Sequences I, II and III represent the record of a larger basin associated to an early rift stage. However, the difference of the fluvial palaeocurrent between sequences II and III marks a regional rearrangement of the drainage system related to tectonic activity that compartmentalised the large endorheic basin, defining more localised drainage basins separated by internal highs. Sequence IV is associated with the renewal of the landscape and implantation of half-graben systems. The high dispersion of palaeocurrents trends indicate that sedimentary influx occurs from different sectors of the half-grabens.

Marlon dos Santos Scherer, Claiton; Jardim de Sá, Emanuel Ferraz; Córdoba, Valéria Centurion; Sousa, Debora do Carmo; Aquino, Mayara Martins; Canelas Cardoso, Fátima Maria

2014-01-01

362

Assessing the robustness of passive scattering proton therapy with regard to local recurrence in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a secondary analysis of a phase II trial  

PubMed Central

Background We assessed the robustness of passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) plans for patients in a phase II trial of PSPT for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using the worst-case scenario method, and compared the worst-case dose distributions with the appearance of locally recurrent lesions. Methods Worst-case dose distributions were generated for each of 9 patients who experienced recurrence after concurrent chemotherapy and PSPT to 74 Gy(RBE) for stage III NSCLC by simulating and incorporating uncertainties associated with set-up, respiration-induced organ motion, and proton range in the planning process. The worst-case CT scans were then fused with the positron emission tomography (PET) scans to locate the recurrence. Results Although the volumes enclosed by the prescription isodose lines in the worst-case dose distributions were consistently smaller than enclosed volumes in the nominal plans, the target dose coverage was not significantly affected: only one patient had a recurrence outside the prescription isodose lines in the worst-case plan. Conclusions PSPT is a relatively robust technique. Local recurrence was not associated with target underdosage resulting from estimated uncertainties in 8 of 9 cases. PMID:24886059

2014-01-01

363

Frontostriatal cognitive staging in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment and behavioural disorders are often encountered in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). A simple PD-related frontostriatal cognitive dysfunction (PDFCD) staging is proposed. Executive dysfunction and mental fatigue (stage I), depression/anxiety (stage IIa), apathy/pain (stage IIb), and dementia (stage III) reflect a sequential process of dopamine depletion occurring in different regions of the striatum (stages I and II) and the frontal cortex (stage III). In addition to these nonmotor manifestations present in the unmedicated (OFF) state, the PDFCD model also predicts a number of complications related to dopaminergic treatment (ON state), from impulse control disorders (stages I and IIa) to hallucinations (stage IIb) and psychosis (stage III). Although the model admittedly needs further refinements, it provides a framework for hypothesis testing and may help clinicians optimize therapeutic strategies. PMID:22191070

de la Fuente-Fernández, Raúl

2012-01-01

364

Frontostriatal Cognitive Staging in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment and behavioural disorders are often encountered in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). A simple PD-related frontostriatal cognitive dysfunction (PDFCD) staging is proposed. Executive dysfunction and mental fatigue (stage I), depression/anxiety (stage IIa), apathy/pain (stage IIb), and dementia (stage III) reflect a sequential process of dopamine depletion occurring in different regions of the striatum (stages I and II) and the frontal cortex (stage III). In addition to these nonmotor manifestations present in the unmedicated (OFF) state, the PDFCD model also predicts a number of complications related to dopaminergic treatment (ON state), from impulse control disorders (stages I and IIa) to hallucinations (stage IIb) and psychosis (stage III). Although the model admittedly needs further refinements, it provides a framework for hypothesis testing and may help clinicians optimize therapeutic strategies. PMID:22191070

de la Fuente-Fernández, Raúl

2012-01-01

365

Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC in our institution between 1990 and 2004, 248 patients with clinical N0 or N1 to N2 lymph node status at diagnosis had pN0 status after NAC and BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRR-FS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: All 248 patients underwent breast irradiation, and 158 patients (63.7%) also received LNI. With a median follow-up of 88 months, the 5-year LRR-FS and OS rates were respectively 89.4% and 88.7% with LNI and 86.2% and 92% without LNI (no significant difference). Survival was poorer among patients who did not have a pathologic complete primary tumor response (hazard ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-7.99) and in patients with N1 to N2 clinical status at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.36). LNI did not significantly affect survival. Conclusions: Relative to combined breast and local lymph node irradiation, isolated breast irradiation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of locoregional relapse or death among cN0 to cN2 breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

Daveau, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Brain, Etienne [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

2010-10-01

366

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)  

SciTech Connect

The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

2006-05-29

367

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

368

Dosimetric Comparative Study of 3 Different Postoperative Radiotherapy Techniques (3D-CRT, IMRT, and RapidArc) for II-III Stage Rectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Postoperative radiotherapy is critical for reducing local relapse for advanced rectal carcinoma but has many side effects. Our study compared the dose distribution of target volumes, protection of normal organs at risk (OAR), and monitor unit (MU) for 3 radiotherapy techniques (3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy [3D-CRT], intensity-modulated radiation therapy [IMRT], and RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA)). The results advocate for the clinical application of RapidArc technique in the future.Thirty postoperative patients with rectal cancer were enrolled. The 3 radiotherapy plans mentioned above were designed for each patient. The target volume coverage indicators included average dose, conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI) of planning tumor volume (PTV). OAR included the bladder, small intestine, colon, and bilateral proximal femurs. The 30 patients were divided into 3 groups (10 cases in each group) for postoperative radiotherapy with the 3D-CRT, IMRT, or RapidArc technique, respectively.Both the IMRT and RapidArc plans have a significantly higher average PTV dose and better CI and HI (P?stage rectal cancer. PMID:25569661

Liu, Min; Liu, Bailong; Wang, Huidong; Ding, Lijuan; Shi, Yinghua; Ge, Chao; Su, Xu; Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Lihua

2015-01-01

369

Short course radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost for stage I-II breast cancer, early toxicities of a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background TomoBreast is a unicenter, non-blinded randomized trial comparing conventional radiotherapy (CR) vs. hypofractionated Tomotherapy (TT) for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of the trial is to compare whether TT can reduce heart and pulmonary toxicity. We evaluate early toxicities. Methods The trial started inclusion in May 2007 and reached its recruitment in August 2011. Women with stage T1-3N0M0 or T1-2N1M0 breast cancer completely resected by tumorectomy (BCS) or by mastectomy (MA) who consented to participate were randomized, according to a prescribed computer-generated randomization schedule, between control arm of CR 25x2 Gy/5?weeks by tangential fields on breast/chest wall, plus supraclavicular-axillary field if node-positive, and sequential boost 8x2 Gy/2?weeks if BCS (cumulative dose 66?Gy/7?weeks), versus experimental TT arm of 15x2.8?Gy/3?weeks, including nodal areas if node-positive and simultaneous integrated boost of 0.6?Gy if BCS (cumulative dose 51?Gy/3?weeks). Outcomes evaluated were the pulmonary and heart function. Comparison of proportions used one-sided Fisher's exact test. Results By May 2010, 70 patients were randomized and had more than 1?year of follow-up. Out of 69 evaluable cases, 32 were assigned to CR (21 BCS, 11 MA), 37 to TT (20 BCS, 17 MA). Skin toxicity of grade ?1 at 2?years was 60% in CR, vs. 30% in TT arm. Heart function showed no significant difference for left ventricular ejection fraction at 2?years, CR 4.8% vs. TT 4.6%. Pulmonary function tests at 2?years showed grade ?1 decline of FEV1 in 21% of CR, vs. 15% of TT and decline of DLco in 29% of CR, vs. 7% of TT (P?=?0.05). Conclusions There were no unexpected severe toxicities. Short course radiotherapy of the breast with simultaneous integrated boost over 3?weeks proved feasible without excess toxicities. Pulmonary tests showed a slight trend in favor of Tomotherapy, which will need confirmation with longer follow-up of patients. Trail registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00459628 PMID:22656865

2012-01-01

370

SolSTUS: Solar Source Thermal Upper Stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was written by members of the Utah State University (USU) Space Systems Design class, fall quarter 1993. The class is funded by NASA and administered by the University Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of the class is to give students some experience in design of space systems and as a source of original ideas for NASA. This paper is a summary of the work done by members of the Space Systems Design class during the opening phase of the course. The class was divided into groups to work on different areas of the Solar Thermal Rocket (STR) booster in order to produce a design reference mission that would identify the key design issues. The design reference mission focused upon a small satellite mission to Mars. There are several critical components in a Solar Thermal Rocket. STR's produce a very low thrust, but have a high specific impulse, meaning that they take longer to reach the desired orbit, but use a lot less fuel in doing it. The complexity of the rocket is discussed in this paper. Some of the more critical design problems discussed are: (1) the structural and optical complexity of collecting and focusing sunlight onto a specific point, (2) long term storage of fuel (liquid hydrogen), (3) attitude control while thrusting in an elliptical orbit and orienting the mirrors to collect sunlight, and (4) power and communications for the rocket and it's internal systems. The design reference mission discussed here is a very general mission to Mars. A first order trajectory design has been done and a possible basic science payload for Mars has been suggested. This paper summarizes the design reference mission (DRM) formulated by the USU students during fall quarter and identifies major design challenges that will confront the design team during the next two quarters here at USU.

371

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid\\/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical

Alain Ravex; Robin Flachbart; Barney Holt

1999-01-01

372

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

1999-01-01

373

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space, and would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray-bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray-bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger, and a spray-bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses.

Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

2001-01-01

374

SolSTUS: Solar Source Thermal Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper was written by members of the Utah State University (USU) Space Systems Design class, fall quarter 1993. The class is funded by NASA and administered by the University Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of the class is to give students some experience in design of space systems and as a source of original ideas for NASA. This paper is a summary of the work done by members of the Space Systems Design class during the opening phase of the course. The class was divided into groups to work on different areas of the Solar Thermal Rocket (STR) booster in order to produce a design reference mission that would identify the key design issues. The design reference mission focused upon a small satellite mission to Mars. There are several critical components in a Solar Thermal Rocket. STR's produce a very low thrust, but have a high specific impulse, meaning that they take longer to reach the desired orbit, but use a lot less fuel in doing it. The complexity of the rocket is discussed in this paper. Some of the more critical design problems discussed are: (1) the structural and optical complexity of collecting and focusing sunlight onto a specific point, (2) long term storage of fuel (liquid hydrogen), (3) attitude control while thrusting in an elliptical orbit and orienting the mirrors to collect sunlight, and (4) power and communications for the rocket and it's internal systems. The design reference mission discussed here is a very general mission to Mars. A first order trajectory design has been done and a possible basic science payload for Mars has been suggested. This paper summarizes the design reference mission (DRM) formulated by the USU students during fall quarter and identifies major design challenges that will confront the design team during the next two quarters here at USU.

1994-01-01

375

Upper stage flight experiment (USFE) integral structure development effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicle Directorate (AFRL\\/VS) has established a customer focused composite tankage development program that is targeted to existing and future aerospace applications. AFRL\\/VS is developing a wide range of tank concepts that include linerless cryogenic tankage, self-healing cryogenic tankage, hydrogen peroxide compatible tankage, volumetrically efficient toroidal (donut shaped) geometries, and more.This paper will summarize the

Jim Guerrero; Brent Hamilton; Randy Burton; Dave Crockett; Zach Taylor

2004-01-01

376

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6.89 kPa (1psi) band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Complete destratification of the liquid and ullage was achieved at these fill levels. The axial jet was effective in providing tank pressure control within the same pressure control band at the 90% fill level. However, at the 50% level, the system reached a point at which it was unable to extract enough energy to keep up with the heat leak into the tank. Due to a hardware problem, the recirculation pump operated well below the axial jet design flow rate. Therefore, it is likely that the performance of the axial jet would have improved had the pump operated at the proper flow rate. A CFD model is being used to determine if the desired axial jet performance would be achieved if a higher pump flow rate were available. Testing conducted thus far has demonstrated that both TVS concepts can be effective in destratifying a propellant tank, rejecting stored heat energy, and thus, controlling tank pressure.

Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

377

Low-speed inducers for cryogenic upper-stage engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-phase, low-speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers driven by electric motors and applicable to the tug engine were designed and constructed. The oxygen inducer was tested in liquid and two-phase oxygen. Its head and flow performance were approximately as designed, and it was able to accelerate to full speed in 3 seconds and produce its design flow and head. The analysis of the two-phase data indicated that the inducer was able to pump with vapor volume fractions in excess of 60 percent. The pump met all of its requirements (duration of runs and number of starts) to demonstrate its mechanical integrity.

Bissell, W. R.; Jenkins, D. S.; King, J. A.; Jackson, E. D.

1975-01-01

378

Upper Yosemite Falls  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen from the Yosemite Falls Trail. Upper Yosemite Falls has a total plunge of 1,430 ft (440 m). Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

379

Upper Yosemite Falls Detail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, a detailed view Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen from the Yosemite Falls Trail. Upper Yosemite Falls has a total plunge of 1,430 ft (440 m). Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

380

Let the Volgian stage stay in the Jurassic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the Volgian Stage was divided into the Jurassic and Cretaceous units, removed from the Geological Time Scale, and substituted by the Tithonian Stage according to the guidelines of the Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee of the Russian Federation (ISC RF). Consequently, the Upper Volgian Substage including three zones (five subzones) was placed into the Berriasian Stage (the Cretaceous) proceeding from

V. A. Zakharov; M. A. Rogov

2008-01-01

381

Long-term Survival Outcomes Following Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Results of a Large Retrospective Study With 12-Year Follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 396 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were treated with postmastectomy radiation therapy with (n=197) or without (n=199) IMNI. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. IMNI was administered at the clinical discretion of the treating physician. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45.0-59.4 Gy) in 28 fractions, with inclusion of the supraclavicular fossa in 96% of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 99.7% of the patients and endocrine therapy to 53%. Results: The median follow-up was 149 months (range, 124-202). IMNI patients had more advanced nodal stage and non-high grade tumors than those without IMNI (P<.001). Otherwise, disease and treatment characteristics were well balanced. The 10-year DFS with and without IMNI was 65% and 57%, respectively (P=.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IMNI was an independent, positive predictor of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P=.02). Benefits of IMNI in DFS were seen most apparently in N2 patients (HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.74) and inner/central tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90). The 10-year OS with and without IMNI was 72% and 66%, respectively (P=.62). The 10-year DFS and OS were 61%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Internal mammary node irradiation significantly improved DFS in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Pending long-term results from randomized trials, treatment of internal mammary nodes should be considered in postmastectomy radiation therapy.

Chang, Jee Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae, E-mail: sjhuh@smc.samsung.co.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-01

382

Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExtended neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic transformational representatives are often difficult to distinguish. For example, many hadrosaurids previously reported to represent relatively small lambeosaurine species were demonstrated to be juveniles of the larger taxa.

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Paul Sereno

2009-01-01

383

A Phase I/II Radiation Dose Escalation Study With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Inoperable Stages I to III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Phase I Results of RTOG 0117  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In preparation for a Phase III comparison of high-dose versus standard-dose radiation therapy, this Phase I/II study was initiated to establish the maximum tolerated dose of radiation therapy in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy, using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included patients with histologically proven, unresectable Stages I to III non-small-cell lung cancer. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel, 50 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin, AUC of 2, given weekly. The radiation dose was to be sequentially intensified by increasing the daily fraction size, starting from 75.25 Gy/35 fractions. Results: The Phase I portion of this study accrued 17 patients from 10 institutions and was closed in January 2004. After the initial 8 patients were accrued to cohort 1, the trial closed temporarily on September 26, 2002, due to reported toxicity. Two acute treatment-related dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported at the time: a case of grade 5 and grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. The protocol, therefore, was revised to de-escalate the radiation therapy dose (74 Gy/37 fractions). Patients in cohort 1 continued to develop toxicity, with 6/8 (75%) patients eventually developing grade >=3 events. Cohort 2 accrued 9 patients. There was one DLT, a grade 3 esophagitis, in cohort 2 in the first 5 patients (1/5 patients) and no DLTs for the next 2 patients (0/2 patients). Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 74 Gy/37 fractions (2.0 Gy per fraction) using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent paclitaxel and carboplatin therapy. This dose level in the Phase II portion has been well tolerated, with low rates of acute and late lung toxicities.

Bradley, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jbradley@wustl.ed [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [RTOG Statistical Headquarters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Phelps County Medical Center, Rolla, Missouri (United States); Byhardt, Roger [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Govindan, Ramaswamy [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Fowler, Jack [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Purdy, James A. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gore, Elizabeth [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States)

2010-06-01

384

Shakespeare's Staging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at Berkeley's English Department has undertaken the enormous task of presenting "a survey of current information, opinions and visuals about...the original nature of Shakespearean performance during his lifetime, and of its development through four centuries thereafter." Visitors can click on "Performance Galleries" at the top of the homepage to be taken to ten albums of over 900 images. Some of the topics of the albums that you can link to are "Productions from the Sixteenth through the Twentieth Century", "Productions in Britain 1960-1998", and "Unusual Representations of Shakespeare Performances". The albums contain items such as playbills, photos and drawings of performances, and photos of the rebuilt Globe Theatre. On the far left side of the homepage, visitors can click on "Videos" to view a documentary series about Elizabethan life, as well as excerpts of performances staged by the Shakespeare Program of UC Berkeley at Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. The videos can be viewed by "Latest", "Most Viewed", "Highest Rated", and "Featured". Visitors interested in other websites that explore Shakespeare performance will want to click on "Relevant Websites" on the far left side of the homepage, to access a link that has 27 Shakespeare performance related websites.