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1

Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers check the lower fittings of the fairing installed around the Stardust spacecraft and upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

2

Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers begin placing the fairing around the Stardust spacecraft and upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

3

Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Stardust spacecraft waits for installation of the fairing (behind, right) that will enclose the spacecraft and the upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre- solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

4

CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

5

Ares I Upper Stage Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

Davis, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

6

Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

1981-01-01

7

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

1979-01-01

8

Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and discussed in light of the various missions. For each mission there are several trajectory options and each will be discussed in terms of delta-v required and transit duration. Each propulsion system will be modeled, sized, and judged based on their applicability to the whole range of beyond LEO missions. Criteria for scoring will include the resulting dry mass of the stage, resulting propellant required, time to destination, and an assessment of key enabling technologies. In addition to the larger metrics, this paper will present the results of several coupled sensitivity studies. The ultimate goals of these tools and studies are to provide NASA with the most mass-, technology-, and cost-effective in-space stage for its future exploration missions.

Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

2014-01-01

9

Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

10

Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test article, leading to a potential ISUS flight test in 2002.

Jaworske, Donald A.

1998-01-01

11

Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion for Spacecraft and Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The groundwork has been laid for this type of propulsion. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions (PMG, 1993). The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a 5 km bare copper tether from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4 N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of the endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. The flight experiment is a precursor to utilization of the technology on the International Space Station for reboost and the electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes, all using electrodynamic thrust. In addition, the use of this type of propulsion may be attractive for future missions at Jupiter.

Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Rnrico; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Sanmartin, Juan

1998-01-01

12

The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

13

Upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additive. These propellants increase the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other Earth-orbital transfer missions. However, using metallized propellants for planetary missions can deliver great reductions in flight time with a single-stage, upper-stage system. Tradeoff studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with nonmetallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages, launched from the STS and STS-C, are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to high altitude orbits and onto interplanetary trajectories that are unattainable with only the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C). The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the STS and STS-C launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1992-01-01

14

United States upper stages for the next decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970 s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G' was ultimately developed as the centaur upper stage for use with the Titan IV launch system. In the last two decades upper stage development decisions and requirements were driven by increased payload performance demands. As we look forward to the next decade it is apparent that the situation has changed. Significant effort is underway to downsize payloads. The best mission model projections indicate that the payload performance demands have reached a maximum with current or near-term missions, and that maximum weight requirements will generally decrease in the near future. Thus the current fleet of launch systems and upper stages are expected to be able to meet all projected performance requirements through the next one to two decades. The impetus for development of a new upper stage will have to come from somewhere other than increased performance requirements. A driving need for a new upper stage is emerging from the concept and technology development work currently underway in the U.S. on the evolved expendable vehicle (EELV) and reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The key EELV upper stage requirements are cost, operability and reliability. Clearly the EELV presents a performance challenge for a single upper stage to operate with a booster family over the complete mission model payload weight and destination range. The design requirements and trade-off considerations are quite different for a stage to operate with an RLV. In this case, manned safety and payload bay packaging become significant additional considerations which must be addressed, and reusability, with or without space basing, is an option. This paper covers the need and prospects of U.S. upper stages for the next decade by tracing the history of development and planned improvements, and identifying new requirements and challenges expected to be imposed by emerging EELV and RLV requirements. Trade-off factors, design considerations and sensitivities, as well as cost and reliability benchmarks, are highlighted through the use of representative design solutions.

Goldstein, A.; Woods, F.

15

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

SEER Program Coding and Staging Manual 2004, Revision 1 Appendix C Site-Specific Coding Modules C-299 Collaborative Staging Codes Nasal Cavity C30.0 C30.0 Nasal cavity (excludes nose, NOS C76.0) Note: Laterality must be coded for this site,

16

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's

J. P. Geddes

1983-01-01

17

Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-23

18

Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

2007-01-01

19

Second Stage (S-II) Acceptance Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows a test firing of a Saturn V second stage (S-II) on the S-IC test stand at the Propulsion Test Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana. This second stage component was used in the unmarned test flight of Apollo 4.

1960-01-01

20

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

SEER Program Coding and Staging Manual 2004, Revision 1 Appendix C Site-Specific Coding Modules C-469 SEER Site-Specific Coding Guidelines BREAST C500–C509 Primary Site C500 Nipple (areolar) Paget disease without underlying tumor C501

21

ARES I Upper Stage Subsystems Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 2005 through early 2011, NASA conducted concept definition, design, and development of the Ares I launch vehicle. The Ares I was conceived to serve as a crew launch vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit human space exploration missions as part of the Constellation Program Architecture. The vehicle was configured with a single shuttle-derived solid rocket booster first stage and a new liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage, propelled by a single, newly developed J-2X engine. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was to be mated to the forward end of the Ares I upper stage through an interface with fairings and a payload adapter. The vehicle design passed a Preliminary Design Review in August 2008, and was nearing the Critical Design Review when efforts were concluded as a result of the Constellation Program s cancellation. At NASA Glenn Research Center, four subsystems were developed for the Ares I upper stage. These were thrust vector control (TVC) for the J-2X, electrical power system (EPS), purge and hazardous gas (P&HG), and development flight instrumentation (DFI). The teams working each of these subsystems achieved 80 percent or greater design completion and extensive development testing. These efforts were extremely successful representing state-of-the-art technology and hardware advances necessary to achieve Ares I reliability, safety, availability, and performance requirements. This paper documents the designs, development test activity, and results.

Frate, David T.; Senick, Paul F.; Tolbert, Carol M.

2011-01-01

22

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

Gum, Upper.......................................................................................................................................C-47 Gum, Lower and Retromolar Area Retromolar Gingiva (Trigone) ..................................................C-55 Gum, NOS ........................................................................................................................................C-63 Floor of Mouth..................................................................................................................................C-71 Hard Palate........................................................................................................................................C-83 Soft Palate, Uvula .............................................................................................................................C-91 Other Mouth....................................................................................................................................C-101 Cheek (Buccal) Mucosa, Vestibule.................................................................................................C-109 Parotid Gland ..................................................................................................................................C-119 Submandibular Gland .....................................................................................................................C-127 Other and Unspecified Major Salivary Glands ...............................................................................C-135 Tonsil, Oropharynx .........................................................................................................................C-145 Anterior Surface of Epiglottis .........................................................................................................C-155 Nasopharynx ...................................................................................................................................C-165 Pyriform Sinus, Hypopharynx, Laryngopharynx............................................................................C-173 Pharynx, NOS, and Other Ill-Defined Oral Cavity Sites ................................................................C-181 Esophagus .......................................................................................................................................C-193 Small Intestine ................................................................................................................................C-211 Colon...............................................................................................................................................C-219 Rectosigmoid, Rectum....................................................................................................................C-231 Anus Anal Canal; Anus, NOS; Other Parts of Rectum.

23

Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

1974-01-01

24

Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

Fisher, Mark F.

1997-01-01

25

Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), a key component of NASA's blueprint for the next generation of spacecraft to take humans back to the moon, is being designed and built by engineers at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The vehicle s design is based on the results of NASA's 2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which called for development of a crew-launch system to reduce the gap between Shuttle retirement and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Initial Operating Capability, identification of key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance these reference exploration systems, and a reprioritization of near- and far-term technology investments. The Upper Stage Element (USE) of the CLV is a clean-sheet approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115' long and 216" in diameter, consisting of the following subsystems: Primary Structures (LOX Tank, LH2 Tank, Intertank, Thrust Structure, Spacecraft Payload Adaptor, Interstage, Forward and Aft Skirts), Secondary Structures (Systems Tunnel), Avionics and Software, Main Propulsion System, Reaction Control System, Thrust Vector Control, Auxiliary Power Unit, and Hydraulic Systems. The ESAS originally recommended a CEV to be launched atop a four-segment Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) CLV, utilizing an RS-25 engine-powered upper stage. However, Agency decisions to utilize fewer CLV development steps to lunar missions, reduce the overall risk for the lunar program, and provide a more balanced engine production rate requirement prompted engineers to switch to a five-segment design with a single Saturn-derived J-2X engine. This approach provides for single upper stage engine development for the CLV and an Earth Departure Stage, single Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) development for the CLV and a Cargo Launch Vehicle, and single core SSME development. While the RSRB design has changed since the CLV Project's inception, the USE design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system. Because consideration was given in the ESAS to both clean-sheet and modified USE designs, this paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and provide a detailed discussion of trades/selections made that led to the final upper stage configuration.

Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

2006-01-01

26

Oblimersen Sodium and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2012-10-11

27

Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

2014-12-23

28

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

McArthur, J. Craig

2008-01-01

29

J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

Buzzell, James C.

2009-01-01

30

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

2008-01-01

31

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

2006-01-01

32

Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

Adams, Alan M.

1995-01-01

33

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

Geddes, J. P.

34

Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

Buzzell, James C.

2010-01-01

35

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

36

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

37

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

38

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification \\/ Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested

A. Rittweger; W. Beuchel; K. Eckhardt

2002-01-01

39

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

40

Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

2010-01-01

41

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

42

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building on the heritage of the Saturn and Space Shuttle Programs for the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT and E) of avionics and software for NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I Upper Stage Element is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. The Upper Stage Element's Avionics Subsystem is actively proceeding toward its objective of delivering a flight-certified Upper Stage Avionics System for the Ares I CLV.

Nola, Charles L.; Blue, Lisa

2008-01-01

43

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overall description of the avionics and software functions of the Ares I Upper Stage Crew Launch Vehicle. The contents include: 1) IUA Team - Development Approach Roadmap; 2) Ares I US Avionics and Software Development Approach; 3) NDT Responsibilities; 4) Ares I Upper Stage Avionics Locations; 5) Ares I Overall Avionics & Software Functions; 6) Block Diagram Version of Avionics Architecture; 7) Instrument Unit Avionics Preliminary Design; and 8) Upper Stage Avionics External Interfaces.

Nola, Charles L.

2008-01-01

44

Challenges in the management of stage II colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately one-third of patients diagnosed with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC) will present with lymph node involvement (stage III) and about one-quarter with transmural bowel wall invasion but negative lymph nodes (stage II). Adjuvant chemotherapy targets micrometastatic disease to improve disease-free and overall survival. While beneficial for stage III patients, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unestablished in Stage II.

Efrat Dotan; Steven J. Cohen

45

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer

2014-12-23

46

Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

1975-01-01

47

Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

2014-01-01

48

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

1999-01-01

49

Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2014-12-23

50

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

51

IUS/SPINSIM - INERTIAL UPPER STAGE SPIN STAGE SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM SIMULATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUS/SPINSIM was written to evaluate a proposed spinning third stage for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Jupiter Mission. The third stage of the IUS was not to have altitude control during the solid motor burn for this mission. IUS was to be spun up about its principle thrust axis in the desired attitude prior to ignition of its solid motor. IUS/SPINSIM can also be used to evaluate the performance of other spinning stages that utilize a fixed burn motor. IUS/SPINSIM is a Six-Degree-of-Freedom simulation for exo-atmospheric flight of an IUS. It assumes the stage is released in orbit at or near its desired inertial attitude, and is spinning slowly. The code models three phases: a coast phase in which further spin-up may occur, a burn stage during which a solid rocket motor (SRM) burn injects the space craft into a transfer trajectory, and a final coast phase. IUS/SPINSIM takes into account the effects of the following: a reaction control system (RCS) spinning the vehicle; SRM thrust buildup, decay, and misalignment; changing mass, center of gravity, principle moments of inertia, cross products of inertia, time derivatives of inertia; jet damping moments; and an oblate gravity model. Numerical integration of the equations of motion using a Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator and small step sizes is used to track the vehicle's position, velocity, attitude and spin rates. Instead of using Euler angles or the Direction Cosine Matrix, Quarternions are used to model the attitude and spinning of the vehicle. This eliminates the renormalization difficulties associated with either of the other methods. Program input is taken from a file, and output is to a print file and a data file suitable for use in plotting. The IUS/SPINSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 9track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This program was developed in 1992.

Dauro, V. A.

1994-01-01

52

Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

53

Vorinostat, Rituximab, and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2015-03-11

54

Discrimination of behaviorally irrelevant auditory stimuli in stage II sleep  

E-print Network

Sleep 207 Discrimination of behaviorally irrelevant auditory stimuli in stage II sleep Shuang Liua-evoked potential increased linearly and significantly with intensity in wake and in stage II sleep. Pattern,b and Bhavin R. Shethb,c In sleep, the brain responds to significant stimuli such as one's own name or loud

55

Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1990-01-01

56

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

57

Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2014-12-09

58

MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

2015-03-16

59

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage. A.N. Boudewyns, P.H. Van de Heyning, W.A. De Backer. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Various sites along the upper airway (UA) are prone to narrow and collapse in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep stages may even- tually alter these sites. The present study was designed

A. N. Boudewyns; P. H. Van de Heyning; W. A. De Backer

1997-01-01

60

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

61

Reusable Agena study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [space shuttle Agena upper stage tug concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle Agena upper stage interim tug concept is based on a building block approach. These building block concepts are extensions of existing ascent Agena configurations. Several current improvements, have been used in developing the shuttle/Agena upper stage concepts. High-density acid is used as the Agena upper stage oxidizer. The baffled injector is used in the main engine. The DF-224 is a fourth generation computer currently in development and will be flight proven in the near future. The Agena upper stage building block concept uses the current Agena as a baseline, adds an 8.5-inch (21.6 cm) extension to the fuel tank for optimum mixture ratio, uses monomethyl hydrazine as fuel, exchanges a 150:1 nozzle extension for the existing 45:1, exchanges an Autonetics DF-224 for the existing Honeywell computer, and adds a star sensor for guidance update. These modifications to the current Agena provide a 5-foot (1.52m) diameter shuttle/Agena upper stage that will fly all Vandenberg Air Force Base missions in the reusable mode without resorting to a kick motor. The delta V velocity of the Agena is increased by use of a strap-on propellant tank option. This option provides a shuttle/Agena upper stage with the capability to place almost 3900 pounds (1769 kg) into geosynchronous orbit (24 hour period) without the aid of kick motors.

1974-01-01

62

Rituximab, Lenalidomide, and Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Follicular Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2015-03-10

63

New upper stage propulsion concept for future launchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure-fed system is leading to a stage easy to operate, reliable, needing no costly solutions (expander engine, boost pumps).On the other hand, many R&D programs are going on all ceramic liquid engines, engines cooled by “effusion” (DLR), Transpiration (PTAH-SOCAR from MBDA), Film or Trim (Astrium, Snecma), so very light engine may be offered on the market in the close

Max Calabro; Christophe Talbot

2008-01-01

64

Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

Carter, Robert W.

2011-01-01

65

Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-11-20

66

Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton capability boundary for the upper stage, such that if the combined first stage and boosters can achieve any one staging point on that surface, then the design is identified as feasible. With the surrogate model created, design and analysis of advanced booster concepts is streamlined, as optimization of the upper stage trajectory is no longer required in every design loop.

Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

2012-01-01

67

STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II  

SciTech Connect

TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

2002-08-29

68

Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

2003-01-01

69

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

70

Results of radiotherapy for stage I and II Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six patients with pathologically staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.

1982-06-01

71

Two technicians apply insulation to S-II second stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two technicians apply insulation to the outer surface of the S-II second stage booster for the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1964-01-01

72

Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2015-02-16

73

75 FR 74624 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: Stage II Vapor Recovery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...391-3-1-.02(2)(zz)(3) to allow mixing of equipment components under separate...Stage II vapor recovery rules; and allows mixing of Stage II equipment components under...Stage II requirements; II. allowing mixing of Stage II components when...

2010-12-01

74

Controversies in management of stages I and II testicular seminomas  

SciTech Connect

The general success in treating seminoma (Stages I and II) of the testicle has prompted questions regarding the extent of treatment that these patients require. We reviewed 79 patients treated at NYU/Bellevue Medical Center from 1965 to 1984 to establish a data base from which the controversies surrounding this disease can be viewed. Standard treatment involved a radical inguinal orchiectomy as primary therapy. Stage I patients received adjuvant radiation to para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac nodes, with additional radiation given routinely to the mediastinum of patients with Stage II disease. No major complications were observed. All Stage I patients remain free of recurrent tumor with a median follow-up of eight years. There were 4 deaths from seminoma among the Stage II patients. The use of prophylactic mediastinal radiation for Stage II patients, and observation only for Stage I patients are reviewed in light of our results and other published series. While early evidence suggests that both approaches may be reasonable, their adoption awaits confirmation by prospective trial.

Steinfeld, A.; Newall, J.

1988-03-01

75

Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan Hunter

76

NASA Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Element of NASA s Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115 long and 216" in diameter. While the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system.

Cook, Jerry R.

2006-01-01

77

Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

2010-01-01

78

Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

Burchett, Bradley T.

2008-01-01

79

Omicron space habitat—research stage II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design presented in this paper is in response to the revolution in private space activities, the increasing public interest in commercial flights to space and the utilization of structures such as space hotels or private orbital habitats. The baseline for the Omicron design concept is the Russian Salyut derived space station module. Salyut was the first space station to orbit the Earth. Its unique design and technical features were what made the development of space stations Salyut 1-7, MIR and the International Space Station (ISS) Zwezda service module possible. Due to its versatility and the reliable operating launch vehicle Proton, this space module series has the potential to be adapted for space hotel development. This paper proposes a conceptual design of the space habitat called Omicron, with particular focus on interior design for the microgravity environment. The Omicron concepts address the needs of space tourism with a strong emphasis on the safety and comfort of the spaceflight participants. The Omicron habitat supports three inhabitants in nominal conditions (e.g., two passengers and one astronaut). The habitat provides a flexible interior, facilities and spaces dynamically transforming in order to accommodate various types of activities, which will be performed in an organically formed interior supporting spatial orientation and movement in microgravity. The future development potential of Omicron is also considered. The baseline version is composed solely of one rigid module with an inverted cupola for observations. An alternative version offers more space using an inflatable structure. Finally, a combination of multiple Omicron modules enables the creation of a larger orbital habitat. The Omicron's subsystems support a few days visit by trained passengers. The transport to the habitat would be provided e.g., by the Soyuz TMA spacecraft carried by the Soyuz launch vehicle in the early stage of Omicron's development, before a fully reusable spacecraft would be available.

Doule, Ond?ej; Šálený, Vratislav; Hérin, Benoît; Rousek, Tomáš

2012-01-01

80

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine, component development, and firing tests. The test facility is also described.

Nagai, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamazaki, I.

1985-10-01

81

Validating NEXRAD MPE and Stage III precipitation products for uniform rainfall on the Upper Guadalupe  

E-print Network

models (Jayakrishnan et al., 2004). Problems with gauge rainfall measurements were documented in severalValidating NEXRAD MPE and Stage III precipitation products for uniform rainfall on the Upper-area representativeness error of gauge rainfall is a major concern in assessment of radar rainfall estimation, this study

Texas at San Antonio, University of

82

Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

Mueller, Mark

83

Individualized Treatment in Treating Patients With Stage II-IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer Based on EBV DNA  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection; Stage II Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma

2015-03-06

84

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification / Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested to validate the mathematical model of the launcher. Additionally, transfer functions were measured for Pogo investigations. Validated mathematical launcher models are the basis to predict the launcher global responses in the low frequency domain with sufficient confidence. The predicted global axial and lateral responses for selected sections at the stage represent the flight loads for these sections. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. The verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro shock) a stage separation test was performed. All the equipment was qualified separately for its dynamic (sine, random and shock excitation) and thermal environment to proof its structural and functional integrity. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine-vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electrodynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 150 Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experiences which were made - the comparison between prediction and test results shows the ability and good quality of analysis but - the advantage of combined analysis of shaker table and stage model for test prediction - local effects observed in test - the dependency of damping on the load level - the efficiency of the so called SARO-Damping Device

Rittweger, A.; Beuchel, W.; Eckhardt, K.

2002-01-01

85

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

86

Infusing Training into the Documentation and Culture of Ares I Upper Stage Design and Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 2) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can grow their own training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, and 3) possibilities for interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

87

Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

88

Overview of the Main Propulsion System for the NASA Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional overview of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage is provided. In addition to a simple overview of the key MPS functions and design philosophies, major lessons learned are discussed. The intent is to provide a technical overview with enough detail to allow engineers outside of the MPS Integrated Product Team (IPT) to develop a rough understanding of MPS operations, components, design philosophy, and lessons learned.

Quinn, Jason E.; Swanson, Luke A.

2009-01-01

89

Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2008-01-01

90

Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan H.

2010-01-01

91

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

92

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2015-03-18

93

Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to use specialized radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, J.; Horstman, M.; Papanyan, V.

2013-01-01

94

Non-toxic propulsion for spaceplane ``pop-up'' upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military spaceplane operations scenarios envision using the ``Pop-Up'' employment profile to significantly increase the payload to orbit capability of the vehicle. Previous studies have investigated a range of propulsion system and stage design options for a pop-up upper stage (Cotta 1996). Operationally it is desirable to have the upper stage and payload stored as a wooden round that is quickly loaded on the spaceplane when needed. The current study therefore focuses on non-toxic (less-toxic), storable propellant options. These are compared to the use of conventional (toxic) storable bi-propellant, Nitrogen Tetroxide/Monomethyl Hydrazine (N2O4/MMH), and cryogenic oxidizer bi-propellant, (LO2/RP1), options. The non-toxic oxidizers investigated include Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Hydroxyammonium Nitroformate (HANF). The non-toxic fuels include hydrocarbon jet fuel (JP-4), Quadricyclane (C7H8), and Methylcubane (C9H10). The impact of H2O2 purity (90% to 100%) and various fuel blends are also evaluated. The comparison includes payload delivery performance, propellant handling issues and technology development needs. The results show that there are propellant combinations that are less toxic than N2O4/MMH and yet deliver comparable payload delivery performance. However, there are propellant handling issues and technology development needs that must be addressed. These are discussed.

Eckmann, James B.; Wiswell, Robert L.; Haberman, Eugene G.

1998-01-01

95

Rituximab and Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2013-01-04

96

CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage  

SciTech Connect

Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N. G. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2006-12-15

97

Operations analysis (study 2.1): Shuttle upper stage software requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of software costs related to space shuttle upper stage operations with emphasis on the additional costs attributable to space servicing was conducted. The questions and problem areas include the following: (1) the key parameters involved with software costs; (2) historical data for extrapolation of future costs; (3) elements of the basic software development effort that are applicable to servicing functions; (4) effect of multiple servicing on complexity of the operation; and (5) are recurring software costs significant. The results address these questions and provide a foundation for estimating software costs based on the costs of similar programs and a series of empirical factors.

Wolfe, R. R.

1974-01-01

98

An electrically propelled upper stage for the launch of small satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The baseline design of an ion thruster upper stage used for launching small satellites to orbit altitudes of between 500 km and 2,000 km is described. The design philosophy of the vehicle is for a low-cost spacecraft bus which will serve the low-cost small satellite market. The ion propulsion subsystem employed uses a low-thrust orbit transfer strategy, and is considered to be at least competitive and generally better than chemical propulsion alternatives for LEO missions. Thermal control, attitude and orbit control, and power conditioning subsystems are covered, along with a communications subsystem, antenna, reaction control propellant requirements, and mission duration.

Watson, S. D.; Martin, A. R.; Latham, P. M.; Bond, A.; Preest, A. A.

1990-07-01

99

Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

2011-01-01

100

A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2002-01-01

101

Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

2006-01-01

102

The second stage of Delta II rocket is placed inside the first stage at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At pad 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Station, the second stage of a Delta II rocket is lowered into the first stage. The rocket is scheduled to be launched on Dec. 10, 1998, heading for Mars and carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 657 days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999.

1998-01-01

103

Combination Chemo, Rituximab, and Bevacizumab in Older Patients With Stage II-IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2014-05-06

104

Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

Anderson, Joel M.

2011-01-01

105

Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097, Paclitaxel, And Carboplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

2014-12-10

106

Dinoflagellates: Fossil motile-stage tests from the upper cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey coastal plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

May, F.E.

1976-01-01

107

Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

Graham, Scott R.

2014-01-01

108

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

Holland, L.E.

1986-01-01

109

Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

Kromis, Phillip A.

2010-01-01

110

The second stage of Delta II rocket arrives at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second stage of a Delta II rocket arrives at pad 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is scheduled to be launched on Dec. 10, 1998, heading for Mars and carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 657 days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999.

1998-01-01

111

The second stage of Delta II rocket arrives at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers at pad 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Station begin lifting the second stage of a Delta II rocket up the gantry . The rocket is scheduled to be launched on Dec. 10, 1998, heading for Mars and carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 657 days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999.

1998-01-01

112

The second stage of Delta II rocket arrives at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second stage of a Delta II rocket is prepared for its shift to vertical alongside the gantry at pad 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is scheduled to be launched on Dec. 10, 1998, heading for Mars and carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 657 days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999.

1998-01-01

113

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

2011-01-01

114

IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

1975-01-01

115

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

2012-01-01

116

A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2010-01-01

117

Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

2008-01-01

118

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

2004-01-01

119

Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2011-01-01

120

Attitude Dynamics of Debris Resulting From Upper Stage Fragmentation in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the analysis of the attitude dynamics of pieces of space debris that could result from the fragmentation of a spent upper stage in low Earth orbit (LEO). Up to now only whole objects of axisymmetric shape have been studied with the purpose of estimating their tumbling rates in LEO. Three shapes have been considered to be representative for the purpose of the study: a thin plate, a monocoque shell, an half conical shell and a spherical shell, and it has been assumed that they are fabricated from aluminum alloy. The motion of conducting body in a magnetic field generates eddy currents which create a torque in the opposite direction of the change in the magnetic flux and thus reduce the rotational rate of the body. The eddy currents that generate torques are described by Maxwell's equations. and the generalized Ohm's law is set up a Poisson problem with Neumann boundary conditions. The electrical potential, solution of Poisson problem and calculated by a finite element solver, defines the density current in the body and thus determines the torque applied on the debris. The results presented here can be used for the analysis of the initial propagation of a cloud of orbital debris resulting from the explosion of an upper stage or a satellite as well as for orbital debris remediation. Analysis of the attitude dynamics of space debris shows that, for a reasonable initial angular rate, the object is partially stabilized in less than 70 days for the thin plate and totally stabilized in less than 60 days for the monocoque shell, 12 days for the half conical shell, 30 days for an one fourth spherical shell and 90 days an one eighth spherical shell.

Marie, Killian

121

MIDDLE TO UPPER ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (PHASE II)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this assessment activity is to enhance the ability of decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Middle to Upper Atlantic Region who are vulnerable to land use change and climate change to access and use the best scientific information when making decisions th...

122

Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

123

Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT. PMID:25320538

Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

2014-01-01

124

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

125

Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high sinuosity stage, the secondary anabranches behave as non-developed meanders. Also, it was concluded that the planform for secondary anabranches in all main channel sinuosity stages are controlled by the main anabranch migration.

Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

2013-12-01

126

Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

1974-01-01

127

The thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, II: Energetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profiles derived from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer data in Paper I show that the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere is extremely variable. The median temperature of each vertical profile, which is approximately equal to the temperature derived by fitting the barometric equation to the N2 density profile, varied between 112 and 175 K. Here we attempt to understand the cause of the 60 K variation in temperature, as well as large local perturbations in temperature, by estimating the strength of potentially important energy sources and sinks in Titan's thermosphere including ion and electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere, Joule heating, and wave dissipation. The apparent correlation between the temperature of Titan's thermosphere and Titan's plasma environment suggest that particle precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be the most significant heat source, but we find that the energy deposited by magnetospheric sources is less than solar EUV and results from a thermal structure model indicate that magnetospheric particle precipitation only increases the temperature of Titan's thermosphere by ˜7 K; therefore, heating due to magnetospheric particle precipitation is too small to explain the largest temperature variations observed. We also estimate the energy deposited by waves in Titan's thermosphere and show that wave dissipation may be a significant source of heating or cooling in Titan's upper atmosphere.

Snowden, D.; Yelle, R. V.

2014-01-01

128

Reusable Centaur study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [development costs of Centaur launch vehicle as upper stage for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the Reusable Centaur for use as an initial upper stage with the space shuttle was conducted. The currently operative Centaur stage, with modifications for space shuttle orbiter compatibility and for improved performance, represents a cost effective development solution. The performance needs and available development funds are discussed. The main features of three Reusable Centaur configurations with increasing capability at increasing development costs are summarized.

Heald, D. A.

1974-01-01

129

Utility of palmatolepids and icriodontids in recognizing Upper Devonian Series, Stage, and possible substage boundaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conodonts are accepted internationally to define Devonian Series and Stage boundaries. Hence, the evolution and taxonomy of pelagic palmatolepids, primarily Palmatolepis and its direct ancestor Mesotaxis, and shallow-water icriodontids, Icriodus, Pelekysgnathus, and "Icriodus", are the major tools for recognizing subdivisions of the Upper Devonian. Palmatolepids are the basis for the Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation (ZIEGLER & SANDBERG 1990), whereas icriodontids are the basis for the alternative, integrated shallow-water zonation (SANDBERG & DREESEN 1984). However, an alternative palmatolepid taxonomy for some Frasnian species has been employed recently by some conodont workers using the Montagne Noire (M.N.) zonation, shape analyses of Pa elements, and multielement reconstructions of KLAPPER (1989), KLAPPER & FOSTER (1993); and KLAPPER et al. (1996). Herein, the evolution of palmatolepids and icriodontids is summarized in terms of our zonation and some of the taxonomic differences with the alternative M.N. zonation are exemplified. One of the problems in relating the Standard and M.N. zonations arises from previous errors of interpretation and drafting of the Martenberg section in Germany. This section was designated the reference section for the Frasnian transitans through jamieae Zones by ZIEGLER & SANDBERG (1990). Herein, the early and middle Frasnian zonal boundaries at Martenberg are improved by re-study of our old and recent collections from three profiles, spaced only 4 m apart. Serious problems exist with the Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), selected by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, following the paleontologic definition of the bases of the Frasnian, Famennian, and Tournaisian Stages, because of the difficulty in making global correlations from these GSSP's. Our summary of these problems should be helpful if future workers decide to relocate these GSSP's.

Ziegler, W.; Sandberg, C.A.

2000-01-01

130

Glycoprotein and Glycan in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

131

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

132

Effect of Gimbal friction modeling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper-stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

Graham, Ronald E.

1987-01-01

133

Effect of gimbal friction modelling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

Graham, Ronald E.

1987-01-01

134

Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

2000-01-01

135

Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-03-05

136

Frequency of stage II oral transport cycles in healthy human.  

PubMed

Stage II transport (St2Tr) is propulsion of triturated food into the pharynx for storage before swallowing via tongue squeeze-back against the palate. To clarify the phenomenology of St2Tr, we examined the effects of food consistency and the number of chewing cycles on the number of St2Tr cycles in a chew-swallow sequence. We recorded chew-swallow sequences in lateral projection with videofluoroscopy of 13 healthy volunteers eating 6 g of hard (shortbread cookie), and soft foods (ripe banana and tofu) with barium. We counted the number of chewing and St2Tr cycles from food intake to terminal swallow. We used the Friedman test for bivariate analyses and negative binomial regression for multivariable analyses. On bivariate analysis, food consistency had a positive association with the number of chewing cycles (P = 0.013), but not with the number of St2Tr cycles (P = 0.27). Multivariable analysis, however, revealed a greater number of St2Tr cycles with hard than soft food (P ? 0.01) and a trend toward negative correlation between the numbers of St2Tr and chewing cycles (P = 0.083). The number of chewing cycles needed to clear the mouth differs among food consistencies as demonstrated previously. Greater numbers of both St2Tr and chewing cycles were elicited with the hard than with the soft foods. Given the trend toward negative correlation, the association between the number of St2Tr cycles and that of chewing cycles deserves further study. PMID:25142241

Inokuchi, Haruhi; Brodsky, Martin B; González-Fernández, Marlís; Yoda, Mitsumasa; Hiraoka, Takashi; Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B

2014-12-01

137

Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

2011-12-07

138

Second Stage (S-II) Arrives at Marshall Space Flight Center For Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The business end of a Second Stage (S-II) slowly emerges from the shipping container as workers prepare to transport the Saturn V component to the testing facility at MSFC. The Second Stage (S-II) underwent vibration and engine firing tests. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

2004-01-01

139

NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Reaction Control System (ReCS) Cold Flow Development Test Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J2-X engine Upper Stage, is the vehicle that s been chosen to launch the Orion Crew Module, which will return humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. After First Stage booster separation, the Reaction Control System (ReCS), a monopropellant hydrazine system, will provide the Upper Stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. This paper provides an overview of the system level development testing that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle Upper Stage ReCS. The ReCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) was built as a flight representative water flow test article whose primary test objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate the integrate system performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Water is the industry standard for cold flow testing of hydrazine systems, because the densities are very close and the speeds of sound are well characterized. The completion of this development level test program was considered necessary to support the ReCS Critical Design Review. This paper will address the design approach taken in building the test article, the objectives of the test program, types of testing completed, general results, the ability of the program to meet the test objectives, and lessons learned

Dervan, Melanie; Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Sivak, Amy; Morris, Jon D.

2010-01-01

140

Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid-life Evolution (A5-ME) program track the progress of these technology developments and analyze their applicability in time for A5-ME. In order to approximate A5-ME concerned preconditions, activities are initiated aiming at harmonization of the available specifications. Hence, a look-out towards a further technology step approaching TRL6 in a subsequent phase is given, briefly addressing topics of full scale manufacture and appropriate thermo-mechanical testing of an entire sandwich common bulkhead.

Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

2012-12-01

141

Paleoethnobotanical study of Early Bronze II in the Upper Stryama Valley ( Dubene Sarovka IIB)  

E-print Network

Introduction The Early Bronze Age site of Dubene-Sarovka gives the opportunity to study the development and continued again in the Early Bronze Age (Nikolova, Zaharieva1994). The Early Bronze layers are dividedCHAPTER 41 Paleoethnobotanical study of Early Bronze II in the Upper Stryama Valley ( Dubene

Marinova, Elena

142

The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Permian of Niger --II, Preliminary description of a new pareiasaur  

E-print Network

The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Permian of Niger -- II, Preliminary description of a new, Niger Received 4 June 2003. Accepted 7 November 2003 INTRODUCTION The Beaufort Group of South Africa). Here we provide a preliminary description of an unusual new pareiasaur from the Republic of Niger

Sidor, Christian

143

Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, and Urologic Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Urethral Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Ureter Cancer

2014-11-19

144

Predictors of recurrence free survival for patients with stage II and III colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate clinico-pathologic specific predictors of recurrence for stage II/III disease. Improving recurrence prediction for resected stage II/III colon cancer patients could alter surveillance strategies, providing opportunities for more informed use of chemotherapy for high risk individuals. Methods 871 stage II and 265 stage III patients with colon cancers were included. Features studied included surgery date, age, gender, chemotherapy, tumor location, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor differentiation, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion. Time to recurrence was evaluated, using Cox’s proportional hazards models. The predictive ability of the multivariable models was evaluated using the concordance (c) index. Results For stage II cancer patients, estimated recurrence-free survival rates at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 98%, 92%, 90%, and 89%. Only T stage was significantly associated with recurrence. Estimated recurrence-free survival rates for stage III patients at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 94%, 78%, 70%, and 66%. Higher recurrence rates were seen in patients who didn’t receive chemotherapy (p?=?0.023), with a higher number of positive nodes (p?stage II model was 0.55 and 0.68 for stage III. Conclusions Current clinic-pathologic information is inadequate for prediction of colon cancer recurrence after resection for stage II and IIII patients. Identification and clinical use of molecular markers to identify the earlier stage II and III colon cancer patients at elevated risk of recurrence are needed to improve prognostication of early stage colon cancers. PMID:24886281

2014-01-01

145

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

146

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

Byrd, Thomas

2010-01-01

147

Development of the arterial pattern in the upper limb of staged human embryos: normal development and anatomic variations  

PubMed Central

A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus begins a maturation process involving the enlargement and differentiation of selected parts. This remodelling process starts in the aorta and continues in a proximal to distal sequence. By stage 15 the differentiation has reached the subclavian and axillary arteries, by stage 17 it has reached the brachial artery as far as the elbow, by stage 18 it has reached the forearm arteries except for the distal part of the radial, and finally by stage 21 the whole arterial pattern is present in its definitive morphology. This differentiation process parallels the development of the skeletal system chronologically. A number of arterial variations were observed, and classified as follows: superficial brachial (7.7%), accessory brachial (0.6%), brachioradial (14%), superficial brachioulnar (4.7%), superficial brachioulnoradial (0.7%), palmar pattern of the median (18.7%) and superficial brachiomedian (0.7%) arteries. They were observed in embryos belonging to stages 17–23 and were not related to a specific stage of development. Statistical comparison with the rates of variations reported in adults did not show significant differences. It is suggested that the variations arise through the persistence, enlargement and differentiation of parts of the initial network which would normally remain as capillaries or even regress. PMID:11693301

RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; BURTON, G. J.; DEU, J.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

2001-01-01

148

Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were discussed. The three burn transfer was found to be a viable, arguably preferable, alternative to the two burn transfer.

Williams, Craig H.

2014-01-01

149

A 20k Payload Launch Vehicle Fast Track Development Concept Using an RD-180 Engine and a Centaur Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

Toelle, Ronald (compiler)

1995-01-01

150

Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

2015-03-10

151

Proton Beam Therapy of Stage II and III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The present retrospective study assessed the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of patients with Stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer who were inoperable or ineligible for chemotherapy because of co-existing disease or refusal. Patients and Methods: Between November 2001 and July 2008, PBT was given to 35 patients (5 patients with Stage II, 12 with Stage IIIA, and 18 with Stage IIIB) whose median age was 70.3 years (range, 47.4-85.4). The median proton dose given was 78.3 Gy (range, 67.1-91.3) (relative biologic effectiveness). Results: Local progression-free survival for Stage II-III patients was 93.3% at 1 year and 65.9% at 2 years during a median observation period of 16.9 months. Four patients (11.4%) developed local recurrence, 13 (37.1%) developed regional recurrence, and 7 (20.0%) developed distant metastases. The progression-free survival rate for Stage II-III patients was 59.6% at 1 year and 29.2% at 2 years. The overall survival rate of Stage II-III patients was 81.8% at 1 year and 58.9% at 2 years. Grade 3 or greater toxicity was not observed. A total of 15 patients (42.9%) developed Grade 1 and 6 (17.1%) Grade 2 toxicity. Conclusion: PBT for Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer without chemotherapy resulted in good local control and low toxicity. PBT has a definite role in the treatment of patients with Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer who are unsuitable for surgery or chemotherapy.

Nakayama, Hidetsugu, E-mail: hnakayam@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Satoh, Hiroaki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kurishima, Koichi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishikawa, Shigemi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokuuye, Koichi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-15

152

A retrospective analysis of the use of brachytherapy in relation to early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and its relationship to second primary respiratory and upper digestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate brachytherapy for early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCO) in relation to second primary respiratory and upper digestive tract cancers (RUDT). Between 1976 and 2001, 111 previously untreated patients with stage I or II SCO were treated with Au-198 seed brachytherapy alone (36 cases) or Au-198 seed brachytherapy plus external irradiation (75 cases). Of the 111 patients, 28 patients had stage I disease and 83 patients had stage II disease. Each patient was evaluated for therapeutic efficacy, post-treatment quality of life (QOL) and a second cancer. The 5-year and 10-year cause-specific actuarial survival rates for stage I and II SCO were 87% and 86%, respectively. We found that the 5-year and 10-year survival rates for all SCOs combined with second primary RUDT cancers were 71% and 45%, respectively. 51 second primary RUDT cancers occurred successively in 41 patients following treatment for early stage oropharyngeal cancer and this was the sole prognostic factor by the multivariate analysis. Au-198 seed brachytherapy with or without ipsilateral external irradiation of up to 30 Gy was associated with fewer late complications in the oral cavity and salivary gland. We concluded that our treatment policy of brachytherapy with or without external irradiation for patients with early stage SCO was effective and acceptable from the standpoint of tumour control and post-treatment QOL. PMID:17092957

Kishino, M; Shibuya, H; Yoshimura, R; Miura, S M; Watanabe, H

2007-02-01

153

Long-term results with radiotherapy for stage I–II follicular lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the long-term results with radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage, low-grade follicular lymphomas.Methods and Materials: From 1960 to 1988, 80 patients with Stage I (n = 33) or II (n = 47), World Health Organization Grade 1 (n = 50) or 2 (n = 30) follicular lymphoma were treated with RT. The lymph nodes or spleen were involved in

Richard B Wilder; Dan Jones; Susan L Tucker; Lillian M Fuller; Chul S Ha; Peter McLaughlin; Mark A Hess; Fernando Cabanillas; James D Cox

2001-01-01

154

Evolutionary stages of a mid-Proterozoic carbonate basin as inferred from the upper marble, Adirondack Lowlands, New York  

SciTech Connect

Mineral abundances for Upper Marble protoliths, obtained through least-squares multiple regression calculations, and trace element concentrations for 112 samples from two drill cores, exhibit stratigraphic variations that are interpretable in terms of stages in the development of the original carbonate basin. Factor analysis with varimax rotation reveals three dominant factors; dolomite, calcite + Sr, and quartz; and five minor factors: clastics, anhydrite + Sr, magnesite, ore + Sr, and illite. When the factor affiliations of samples are considered with respect to their stratigraphic arrangement, the result can be interpreted in terms of a seven-stage model of basin evolution that possesses elements common to both Proterozoic and Phanerozoic carbonate basins. According to this model, stage 1 was dominated by widespread penecontemporaneous dolomitization punctuated by brief periods of increased basin restriction. Stage 2 involved increasing basin restriction during which dolomitization was progressively inhibited by increasing Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 3 was characterized by further basin restriction and episodes of anhydrite precipitation during which dolomitization resumed briefly because of lowered Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 4 and 5 involved decreasing restriction and brine concentrations which allowed large-scale dolomitization to resume during stage 5, and abundant chert was formed in these sediments subsequent to dolomitization. Stage 6 was characterized by increasing restriction and progressive inhibition of dolomitization. Finally, stage 7 saw rapid increases in aluminosilicate sedimentation that ended further carbonate deposition. Sr abundances throughout the cores reflect control by carbonate mineralogy, which was in turn controlled by the degree of basin restriction.

Hauer, K.L.; Grant, N.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

155

Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1970-01-01

156

Rituximab and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2015-03-09

157

Influence of River Stage on Shoreline Electrofishing Catches in the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of fish and fish species caught per unit of electrofishing effort along main-channel shorelines in pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River were inversely related to water level. Four species contributed predominantly to the relation between catch rate and water level: Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens; white bass Morone chrysops; and sauger Stizostedion canadense. There was

Rodney B. Pierce; Daniel W. Coble; Scott D. Corley

1985-01-01

158

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

Leslie E. Holland

1986-01-01

159

MUON EDM EXPERIMENT USING STAGE II OF THE NEUTRINO FACTORY.  

SciTech Connect

During the second stage of a future neutrino factory unprecedented numbers of bunched muons will become available. The cooled medium-energy muon beam could be used for a high sensitivity search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon with a sensitivity better than 10{sup -24}e {center_dot} cm. This will make the sensitivity of the EDM experiment to non-standard physics competitive and in many models more sensitive than the present limits on edms of the electron and nucleons. The experimental design exploits the strong motional electric field sensed by relativistic particles in a magnetic storage ring.

FERNOW,R.C.; GALLARDO,J.C.; MORSE,W.M.; SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.

2002-07-01

160

Saturn V S-II (Second) Stage at the Mississippi Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Saturn V S-II (second) stage being hoisted at the S-II-A2 test stand at the Mississippi Test Facility (MTF). When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burns out and drops away, power for the Saturn will be provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engines used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. Static test of ground test versions of the S-II stage were conducted at North American Aviation's Santa Susana, California test site. All flight stages were tested at the Mississippi Test Facility, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. MTF was renamed to the National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) in 1974 and later to the Sternis Space Center in May 1988.

1967-01-01

161

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER COWLITZ II, 7-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER COWLITZ II, 7-1 May 2004. The basin is part of WRIA 26. The upper Cowlitz basin will play key role in the recovery of salmon steelhead, and coho. Today, chinook and steelhead are listed as threatened under the ESA. Coho salmon

162

Rituximab, Combination Chemotherapy, and 90-Yttrium Ibritumomab Tiuxetan for Patients With Stage I or II Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2015-02-17

163

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2015-03-03

164

Molecular profiles and clinical outcome of stage UICC II colon cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Published multigene classifiers suggesting outcome prediction for patients with stage UICC II colon cancer have not been translated\\u000a into a clinical application so far. Therefore, we aimed at validating own and published gene expression signatures employing\\u000a methods which enable their reconstruction in routine diagnostic specimens.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Immunohistochemistry was applied to 68 stage UICC II colon cancers to determine the protein expression

Jörn Gröne; Dido Lenze; Vindi Jurinovic; Manuela Hummel; Henrik Seidel; Gabriele Leder; Georg Beckmann; Anette Sommer; Robert Grützmann; Christian Pilarsky; Ulrich Mansmann; Heinz-Johannes Buhr; Harald Stein; Michael Hummel

2011-01-01

165

Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle second stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives, facilities, articles, and results are presented of a series of battleship tank firing tests on the second stage propulsion systems of the H-II launch vehicle. The test series included 11 hot firing tests under first burn conditions, restart conditions, and idle mode conditions. Oscillatory perturbations were added to the LOX flow in some cases to obtain data concerning POGO oscillation. The results verify the functions of the second stage propulsion system.

Mori, Masahiro; Kazama, Hiroo; Nakatsuji, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Isao; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Toshihiko

166

Patterns of Pelvic Radiotherapy in Patients with Stage II/III Rectal Cancer.  

PubMed

High-level evidence supports adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer. We examined the influence of sociodemographic factors on patterns of adjuvant radiotherapy for resected Stage II/III rectal cancer. Methods. Patients undergoing surgical resection for stage II/III rectal cancer were identified in SEER registry. Results. A total of 21,683 patients were identified. Majority of patients were male (58.8%), white (83%), and with stage III (54.9%) and received radiotherapy (66%). On univariate analysis, male gender, stage III, younger age, year of diagnosis, and higher socioeconomic status (SES) were associated with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered in 84.4% of patients <50; however, only 32.8% of those are >80 years. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant increase in the use of radiotherapy in younger patients who are <50 (OR, 10.3), with stage III (OR, 1.21), males (OR, 1.18), and with higher SES. Conclusions. There is a failure to conform to standard adjuvant radiotherapy in one-third of patients, and this is associated with older age, stage II, area-level of socioeconomic deprivation, and female sex. PMID:24223589

Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zervos, Emmanuel; Wong, Jan H

2013-01-01

167

Patterns of Pelvic Radiotherapy in Patients with Stage II/III Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

High-level evidence supports adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer. We examined the influence of sociodemographic factors on patterns of adjuvant radiotherapy for resected Stage II/III rectal cancer. Methods. Patients undergoing surgical resection for stage II/III rectal cancer were identified in SEER registry. Results. A total of 21,683 patients were identified. Majority of patients were male (58.8%), white (83%), and with stage III (54.9%) and received radiotherapy (66%). On univariate analysis, male gender, stage III, younger age, year of diagnosis, and higher socioeconomic status (SES) were associated with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered in 84.4% of patients <50; however, only 32.8% of those are >80 years. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant increase in the use of radiotherapy in younger patients who are <50 (OR, 10.3), with stage III (OR, 1.21), males (OR, 1.18), and with higher SES. Conclusions. There is a failure to conform to standard adjuvant radiotherapy in one-third of patients, and this is associated with older age, stage II, area-level of socioeconomic deprivation, and female sex. PMID:24223589

Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Zervos, Emmanuel; Wong, Jan H.

2013-01-01

168

Decadal-Scale Responses in Middle and Upper Stratospheric Ozone From SAGE II Version 7 Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses in the middle and upper stratosphere for 1991 and 1992-2005 and compared with those from its previous version 6.2 (v6.2). Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of its ozone number density vs. altitude data for a range of latitudes and altitudes. The MLR models that are fit to the time series data include a periodic 11 yr term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11 yr, solar UV (Ultraviolet)-flux throughout most of the latitude/ altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Several regions that have a response that is not quite in-phase are interpreted as being affected by decadal-scale, dynamical forcings. The maximum minus minimum, solar cycle (SClike) responses for the ozone at the low latitudes are similar from the two SAGE II data versions and vary from about 5 to 2.5% from 35 to 50 km, although they are resolved better with v7. SAGE II v7 ozone is also analyzed for 1984-1998, in order to mitigate effects of end-point anomalies that bias its ozone in 1991 and the analyzed results for 1991-2005 or following the Pinatubo eruption. Its SC-like ozone response in the upper stratosphere is of the order of 4%for 1984-1998 vs. 2.5 to 3%for 1991-2005. The SAGE II v7 results are also recompared with the responses in ozone from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) that are in terms of mixing ratio vs. pressure for 1991-2005 and then for late 1992- 2005 to avoid any effects following Pinatubo. Shapes of their respective response profiles agree very well for 1992-2005. The associated linear trends of the ozone are not as negative in 1992-2005 as in 1984-1998, in accord with a leveling off of the effects of reactive chlorine on ozone. It is concluded that the SAGE II v7 ozone yields SC-like ozone responses and trends that are of better quality than those from v6.2.

Remsberg, E. E.

2014-01-01

169

Feeding ecology of canvasbacks staging on Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Foods consumed by canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria), food availability, and energetic relationships were studied on Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Canvasbacks fed primarily upon winter buds of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) and tubers of stiff arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida). In 1980, waterfowl consumed 40% of 380,160 kg of wildcelery winter buds on a portion of Pool 7 referred to as Lake Onalaska. Daily energy expenditure based on estimates from the literature suggests that individual canvasbacks require a minimum of 125 g (dry wt) of wildcelery winter buds each day. Extrapolation of use-days and the daily energy requirement suggests that 3,470 ha of wildcelery are required to support a canvasback population represented by 5 million use-days.

Korschgen, C.E.; George, L.S.; Green, W.L.

1988-01-01

170

Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a variable river stage seems to increase the amount of water exchanged between groundwater and river. Systematic biases are nevertheless found between simulated and observed mean river stage elevation. They show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. Thus, this study confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale.

Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

2013-12-01

171

Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

2010-01-01

172

Upper Stratospheric Temperature Climatology Derived from SAGE II Observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-mn observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K occurs in the subtropics in both hemispheres. The derived long-term temperature changes from 1985 to 1997 reveal a statistically significant negative trend of -2 to -2.5 K/decade in the tropical upper stratosphere and about -2 K/decade in the subtropics near the stratopause. At latitudes poleward of 50, the results show a statistically significant positive trend of about 1 K/decade in the upper stratosphere. The preliminary results also show large annual temperature oscillations in the extratropics with a maximum amplitude of approx. 8 K located at about 44 km near 50 in both hemispheres during local summer. In addition, the semiannual oscillation is found to be a maximum in the tropics with a peak amplitude of approx. 3.3 K located at about 42 km during the equinox.

Wang, P.-H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.; Chu, W. P.; Thomason, L. W.

2002-01-01

173

Bone metastasis after a resection of stage I and II primary lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we reviewed the patients who developed bone metastases after a surgical resection of primary lung cancer and evaluated their clinicopathological features. From 1992 to 1995, 177 patients with stage I and II primary lung cancer underwent a surgical resection at the Kitakyushu Municipal Medical Center. Bone metastases were detected in 14 patients (7.9%) by follow-up examinations

Takeshi Hanagiri; Mantaro Kodate; Akira Nagashima; Masakazu Sugaya; Kazuhito Dobashi; Minoru Ono; Kosei Yasumoto

2000-01-01

174

Delta II Geotail -- 1st Stage and Solid Motor Booster Erection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geotail mission's goal was to investigate the structure and dynamics of the geomagnetic tail that extends on the nightside of the Earth. The launch date was July 24, 1992. This video shows the Delta II on the pad, being prepared for the launch. The first stage and the solid motor booster are shown being moved into place on the rocket.

1992-01-01

175

78 FR 79340 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Stage II Vapor Recovery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regulations that control emissions of volatile organic...compounds (VOCs) at gasoline dispensing facilities...vehicle refueling emissions, referred to as...operation, it draws the gasoline vapors into the...on nearly all new gasoline-powered highway...Stage II and ORVR emission control...

2013-12-30

176

On prediction of re-entry time of an upper stage from GTO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of objects in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is determined by a complex interplay of atmospheric drag and luni-solar gravity. These orbits are highly eccentric (eccentricity >0.7) and have large variations in velocity and perturbations during a revolution. The periodic changes in the perigee altitudes of these orbits are mainly due to the gravitational perturbations of the Sun and the Moon. The re-entry time of the objects in such orbits is sensitive to the initial conditions. The aim of this paper is to study the re-entry time of the cryogenic stage of the Indian geo-synchronous launch vehicle, GSLV-F04/CS, which has been decaying since 2 September 2007 from initial orbit with eccentricity equal to 0.706. Two parameters, initial eccentricity and ballistic coefficient, are chosen for optimal estimation. It is known that the errors are more in eccentricity for the observations based on two line elements (TLEs). These two parameters are computed with response surface method using a genetic algorithm for the selected eight different zones, based on rough linear variation of the mean apogee altitude during 200 days orbit evolution. The study shows that the GSLV-F04/CS will re-enter between 5 December 2010 and 7 January 2011. The methodology is also applied to study the re-entry of six decayed objects (cryogenic stages of GSLV and Molniya satellites). Good agreement is noticed between the actual and the predicted re-entry times. The absolute percentage error in re-entry prediction time for all the six objects is found to be less than 7%. The present methodology is being adopted at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) to predict the re-entry time of GSLV-F04/CS.

Mutyalarao, M.; Sharma, Ram Krishan

2011-06-01

177

CD44v6 expression in patients with stage II or stage III sporadic colorectal cancer is superior to CD44 expression for predicting progression  

PubMed Central

Background: Currently, it is difficult to predict the prognosis of patients exhibiting stage II or stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) and to identify those patients most likely to benefit from aggressive treatment. The current study was performed to examine the clinicopathological significance of CD44 and CD44v6 protein expression in these patients. Study design: We retrospectively investigated 187 consecutive patients who underwent surgery with curative intent for stage II to III CRC from 2007 to 2013 in the Beijing Civil Aviation Hospital. CD44 and CD44v6 protein expression levels were determined using immunohistochemistry and compared to the clinicopathological data. Results: Using immunohistochemical detection, CD44 expression was observed in 108 (57.75%) of the CRC patients; and its detection was significantly associated with greater invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, angiolymphatic invasion, and a more advanced pathological tumor-lymph node-metastasis (TNM) stage. CD44v6 expression was observed in 135 (72.19%) of the CRC patients; and its expression was significantly associated with a poorly differentiated histology, greater invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, angiolymphatic invasion, and a more advanced pathological TNM stage. Expression of CD44v6 was higher than that of CD44 in stage II and stage III sporadic CRC. Conclusion: CD44v6 is a more useful marker for predicting a poor prognosis in stage II and stage III sporadic CRC as compared to CD44. PMID:25755763

Zhao, LH; Lin, QL; Wei, J; Huai, YL; Wang, KJ; Yan, HY

2015-01-01

178

Propulsion and aerodynamic analysis of the Beta II two-stage-to-orbit vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of a revised version of the Beta II two-stage-to-orbit vehicle has been undertaken. The goal of the study was to modify and refine critical components of the NASA/Boeing/Wright Laboratory Beta II booster design to better define a successful baseline vehicle that can provide routine access to space. The vehicle geometry was modified and corresponding aerodynamics were predicted. The propulsion system was improved by refining the nacelle design which included incorporating a variable capture area inlet, replacing the five High Speed Civil Transport derived turbine bypass turbojet engines with four variable cycle turbofan engines per nacelle, and removing the bypass duct system. The ramjet performance was adjusted for the change in airflow due to the variable capture area inlet. The second stage wing-body orbiter design was not modified for this study. The total Beta II takeoff weight which resulted was approximately 1.0 million pounds.

Davic, James R.; Midea, Anthony C.

1992-01-01

179

Computational Modelling of the Preflow Phase during Start-Up of AN Upper-Stage Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational analysis of the oxidiser preflow during start-up of a storable propellant upper-stage rocket engine is presented. To account for flash-evaporation of the superheated liquid oxidiser new physical models and numerical solution techniques are developed and implemented into the framework of an iterative Euler-Lagrange method. The computed three-dimensional two-phase flow field and spray deposit distribution in combustion chamber and nozzle extension is analysed. The influence of liquid injection temperature, initial droplet sizes and wall temperature on the preflow is assessed by detailed parametric studies. Validated by experimental data, the results are used to derive transfer functions describing the preflow dynamics on a system level.

Steelant, J.; Schmehl, R.

2005-02-01

180

An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

2003-01-01

181

Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

182

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2013-03-18

183

Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2014-06-18

184

ARIANE 5 upper-stage ignition conditions improvement, and return to operation with ''Envisat'' payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARIANE 5 experienced a flight anomaly with the 10 th model mission (F 510), having placed its both satellites in a lower orbit than the planned GTO. Only one satellite (Artemis) could be retrieved due to its own propulsion systems. Arianespace, CNES and Astrium-GmbH (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) immediately set up a recovery team, combining forces for carrying deep and schedule-driven investigations, and later qualifying recovery measures. A failure in such an important program: is immediately triggering a large "post-shock" reaction from the ARIANE community implied in the relevant business and technology. The investigation fields are summarised in the following chapters, showing how failure analysis, engineering investigations and basic research have been combined in order to have a schedule and methodic efficient approach. The combination of all available European resources in space vehicle design has been implemented, involving industry, agency technical centers and research laboratories. The investigation methodology applied has been driven by the particular situation of a flight anomaly investigation, which has to take into account the reduced amount of measurement available in flight and the necessary combination with ground test data for building a strategy to reach identification of possible failure scenario. From the investigations and from extensive sensitivity characterisation test of EPS engine (AESTUS) ignition transient, stability margins have been deeply investigated and introduced in the post-anomaly upgraded stage design. The identification and implementation of recovery measures, extended as well to - potential ignition margin reduction factors even beyond the observed flight anomaly allowed to establish a robust complementary qualification status, thus allowing resuming of operational flight, starting with the valuable "Envisat" payload of European Space Agency, dedicated to earth and climate monitoring, on flight 511, the 28/02/2002, from Kourou Spaceport.

Dutheil, J. Ph.; Langel, G.

2003-08-01

185

Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

Zachary, A. T.

1973-01-01

186

Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

187

Prognostic factors for surgically managed patients with stage II non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: To investigate the prognostic factors in surgically managed patients with stage II non-small cell lung cancer. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of surgically managed 93 patients with stage II non-small cell lung cancer in our hospital between May 2005 and November 2009 was conducted, and prognostic factors that may impact the postoperative 5-year survival rate were statistically analyzed. Results: Univariable survival analysis showed that new TNM staging, total number of dissected lymph nodes, number of dissected N1 and N2 lymph nodes and N1 lymph groups, metastasis rate of N1 lymph nodes, and 10th group of lymph nodes metastatic or not, were related to the postoperative 5-year survival rate in the patients. Multivariable survival analysis showed that the metastasis rate of N1 lymph nodes and 10th group of lymph nodes metastatic or not were independent prognostic factors for the postoperative 5-year survival rate in the patients. Conclusion: When patients with stage II non-small cell lung cancer are treated with surgery, the total number of dissected lymph nodes greater than 6, the number of dissected N1 lymph nodes over 5, N2 over 2, and the number of dissected N1 groups over 3, may improve their postoperative 5-year survival rate. The metastasis rate of N1 lymph nodes over 50%, and the metastasis of the 10th group of lymph nodes imply poor prognosis of the patients.

Wang, Liming; Liu, Yang; Xu, Shun

2015-01-01

188

Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

1987-07-01

189

Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

Le Scodan, Romuald, E-mail: lescodan@crh1.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Selz, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bollet, Marc A.; Lande, Brigitte de la; Daveau, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bruant, Sarah [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

2012-01-01

190

Radiotherapy of stage I and II Hodgkin disease with inguinal presentation  

SciTech Connect

Seventeen patients who presented with inguinal adenopathy were found to have stage I or II infradiaphragmatic Hodgkin disease. Two patients with stage IIB disease also received MOPP chemotherapy. Fifteen patients currently have no evidence of recurrence; one died of acute myelogenous leukemia 6 years after total nodal irradiation, while another died of cardiopulmonary disease but had no evidence of Hodgkin disease at autopsy. In one patient, progressive peripheral atherosclerosis developed in an irradiated inguinal area, requiring angioplasty. Patient characteristics and results of treatment are analyzed and implications for management presented.

Lanzillo, J.H.; Moylan, D.J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Kramer, S.

1985-01-01

191

Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) Ready for Static Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two workers are dwarfed by the five J-2 engines of the Saturn V second stage (S-II) as they make final inspections prior to a static test firing by North American Space Division. These five hydrogen -fueled engines produced one million pounds of thrust, and placed the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit before departing for the moon. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1965-01-01

192

Lymphatic spread in stage Ib and II cervical carcinoma: Anatomy and surgical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the frequency and topography of pelvic and para-aortic node involvement in cervical carcinoma and to identify the appropriate level for resection of the lymphatic chains.Methods: Between 1985 and 1994, 421 women with stage Ib or II cervical carcinoma were treated by surgery in combination with irradiation. Each underwent a radical hysterectomy with systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.Results:

Guy Michel; Philippe Morice; Damienne Castaigne; Marc Leblanc; Annie Rey; Pierre Duvillard

1998-01-01

193

Renoprotective Effects of Various Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers in Patients with Early-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is increasing evidence that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system provides renoprotection independent of blood pressure lowering. The aim of the present study was to determine whether various angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) affect urinary albumin excretion (UAE), urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in early-stage diabetic nephropathy patients with microalbuminuria. Methods: Sixty-eight diabetic nephropathy

Tsukasa Nakamura; Nobuharu Fujiwara; Eiichi Sato; Yoshihiko Ueda; Takeshi Sugaya; Hikaru Koide

2010-01-01

194

Adjuvant tamoxifen and chemotherapy in stage II breast cancer: Interim findings from NSABP protocol B09  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented from a prospective clinical trial in which 1,891 patients with histologically confirmed stage II breast cancer were randomized to receive adjuvant therapy consisting of 1-phenylalanine mustard and 5-fluorouracil (PF) with and without tamoxifen (T). The findings indicate that the benefit previously noted for the addition of tamoxifen at 2 and 3 years' mean follow-up is still apparent

Norman Wolmark; Bernard Fisher

1985-01-01

195

Italian Dramatic Companies and the Peruvian Stage in the 1870's. Part II.  

E-print Network

sergenti from Les Deux Sergents AUTHOR Giovanni Battista Niccolini Achule Montignani Paolo Ferrari Alexandre Dumas (fils) Carlo Roti A. Maillard/B. Daubigny SPRING 1974 79 TITLE, AS FOUND IN SOURCES Elisabetta Regina d'lnghilterra EUsabetta...SPRING 1974 69 Italian Dramatic Companies and the Peruvian Stage in the 1870's ENRICA JEMMA GLICKMAN II [Part I of this article appeared in the previous issue of the Latin American Theatre Review.] Celestina Paladini Ernesto Rossi never...

Glickman, Enrica J.

1974-04-01

196

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected. PMID:21347420

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

197

Improved Two-Stage Tests for Stratified Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Summary In a single-arm, two-stage, phase II cancer clinical trial for efficacy screening of cytotoxic agents, a common primary endpoint is a binary (yes/no) patient response to treatment. Usually, fixed decision boundaries are used in binomial tests to determine whether the study treatment is promising enough to be studied in a large-scale, randomized phase III trial. We may know in advance that the patient response distribution for a phase II clinical trial will be heterogeneous, making it advisable to stratify patients into subgroups, each with a different prognosis. In this case, fixed decision boundaries may be inappropriate. In this article, we propose two-stage tests based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma. The proposed test statistic is a linear combination of the observed number of responders in each stratum. The test allows adjustment of the decision boundaries to the observed numbers of patients in each stratum and permits sample sizes to be increased adaptively after the originally planned number of patients is observed at each of the two stages. Our numerical results show that the proposed test is more powerful than an existing test in many cases. Finally, we present an application to a Children’s Oncology Group (COG) phase II clinical trial in patients who relapsed after initial treatment for neuroblastoma. PMID:22422466

Chang, Myron N.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Hou, Wei

2013-01-01

198

FISH COMMUNITIES IN LAKE IN SUBREGION 2B (UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN) IN RELATION TO LAKE ACIDITY: VOLUME II. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Surveys of fish community status were conducted in summer 1987 in 49 lakes in Subregion 20, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, as part of Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey. Lake selection involved a variable probability sampling design. Fish communities were surveyed using gill n...

199

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

2008-01-01

200

Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

201

Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

2010-01-01

202

Study on the eddy current damping of the spin dynamics of space debris from the Ariane launcher upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the topic of damping of the spin dynamics of a spatial debris orbiting around the Earth. Such debris, which can consist of parts of heavy launchers such as the Ariane rocket under consideration in this article, are impacted by torques generated by eddy currents as their conducting non-ferromagnetic body orbits through the Earth magnetosphere. Several previous works have focused on describing this induction phenomenon and have proposed analysis of empirical observations of this particular and important effect which has attracted much attention since the number of spatial debris has emerged as a problem for the future of space programs, especially in low orbits. In this paper, we present a relatively comprehensive modeling of the induction phenomenon, by means of Maxwell's equations inside the conducting and non-ferromagnetic body. Through the generalized Ohm's law, we show how one can obtain a partial differential equation with Neumann's boundary conditions problem that, once solved, e.g. through a finite elements method, yields the values of induced currents and braking torques. The case of a depleted upper stage of a heavy launcher, having a cylindrical shape and thin walls is particularly studied. We show a methodology to estimate the decay-rate of the spinning velocity, which is proven to satisfy a first-order asymptotically stable linear dynamics. Special cases consisting of typical orbit of space debris are treated.

Praly, N.; Hillion, M.; Bonnal, C.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Petit, N.

2012-07-01

203

Morphological description of the developmental stages of Parauchenipterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae) on the floodplain of the upper Paraná River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide morphological and morphometric descriptions of the developmental stages of Parauche- nipterus galeatus, from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River. Specimens were obtained by induced spawning. The species has large adhesive eggs with a double membrane. The incubation period is long, 65 hours at 27°C. The larvae are well developed at hatching, with relatively rapid larval develop- ment.

P. V. SANCHES; K. NAKATANI; A. BIALETZKI

1999-01-01

204

Stage II Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium: Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Recurrence Patterns  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Review patterns of recurrence for Stage II endometrial cancer in a community practice. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 1985-2002. Patients were excluded for Stages I, III, or IV or treatment with preoperative pelvic radiation (external beam radiation therapy [EBRT]). Results: Eighty-six patients with a mean follow-up of 70 months are reported. Higher risk patients were selected for adjuvant radiation with no apparent differences for those receiving only EBRT compared with EBRT with brachytherapy. Five-year actuarial vaginal, pelvic sidewall/nodal, and metastatic control rates were 100% and 100%, 96.9% and 100%, and 79% and 84.2% for patients receiving EBRT or EBRT with brachytherapy. Overall survival rates were 70.5% and 75.8%, and cause-specific survival rates were 78.8% and 82.9% for those receiving EBRT or EBRT with brachytherapy. A select group was observed and experienced one vaginal recurrence with overall and cause-specific survival rates of 100%. Conclusion: In higher risk patients with Stage II, adjuvant EBRT achieves excellent vaginal and pelvic sidewall/nodal control without apparent benefit from additional brachytherapy. Select patients may not require adjuvant treatment.

Cozad, Scott C. [Therapeutic Radiologists, Inc., Liberty Radiation Oncology Clinic, Liberty, MO (United States)], E-mail: sccozad@tridocs.com

2008-05-01

205

Specimen findings and survival after preoperative 252Cf neutron brachytherapy for stage II cervical carcinoma.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven patients with operable Stage II cervical cancer with a mean diameter tumor of 8.0 cm were studied in a feasibility study using preoperative 252Cf implants plus whole-pelvis radiation to 45 Gy followed by extrafascial total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 4 to 6 weeks later. Hysterectomy specimens were studied by a set protocol. With the protocol used, 13/27 (51%) specimens and abdominal stagings were negative for residual tumor. The survival rate for the patients with negative findings was 93% at 5 years. In 14/27 (49%) patients the specimens were positive for residual tumor. In contrast, the 5-year survival rate for this group was 46% (P less than 0.001). In these patients several interrelated factors were determined to be of importance, i.e., (1) tumor size greater than 8 cm in maximum diameter, (2) positive or negative residual tumor status, and (3) total dose of radiation given. Survival was lower for larger tumors and specimens were more likely to show residual tumor. A lower treatment dose led to more positive specimens, as well as to poorer survival. While the patients with Stage II disease fared very well when negative specimens were found, further prospective studies of the appropriate treatment for those with positive tumor specimens are needed. PMID:1752495

Maruyama, Y; Donaldson, E; van Nagell, J R; Yoneda, J; Gallion, H H; Powell, D; Kryscio, R J

1991-12-01

206

Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Stage II-IV T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2015-03-30

207

Temporary Angiotensin II Blockade at the Prediabetic Stage Attenuates the Development of Renal Injury in Type 2 Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether temporary angiotensin II (AngII) blockade at the prediabetic stage attenuates renal injury in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats later in life was investigated. OLETF rats were treated with an AT1 receptor antagonist (olmesartan, 0.01% in food), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (temocapril, 0.01% in food), a combination of the two, or hydralazine (25 mg\\/kg per d) at the prediabetic stage (4

Yukiko Nagai; Li Yao; Hiroyuki Kobori; Kayoko Miyata; Yuri Ozawa; Akira Miyatake; Tokihito Yukimura; Takatomi Shokoji; Shoji Kimura; Hideyasu Kiyomoto; Masakazu Kohno; Youichi Abe; Akira Nishiyama

2005-01-01

208

Effect of 18F-FDG PET\\/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using ¹F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography (PET\\/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in

David Groheux; Jean-Luc Moretti; Georges Baillet; Marc Espie; Sylvie Giacchetti; Elif Hindie; Christophe Hennequin; Jacques-Robert Vilcoq; Caroline Cuvier; Marie-Elisabeth Toubert; Jean-Emmanuel Filmont; Farid Sarandi; Jean-Louis Misset

2008-01-01

209

Survival rates for stage II colon cancer patients treated with or without chemotherapy in a population-based setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  There is considerable uncertainty as to whether adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy provides survival benefit for colon\\u000a cancer patients with stage II disease. Consequently, the current rates of chemotherapy use for this disease are low despite\\u000a 5-year survival rates of only 70–80%. The aim of the present study is to compare the survival rate of stage II colon cancer\\u000a patients

Melinda Morris; Cameron Platell; Kieran McCaul; Michael Millward; Guy van Hazel; Evan Bayliss; James Trotter; David Ransom; Barry Iacopetta

2007-01-01

210

Performance of the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility During Altitude Firing Tests of the Delta 3 Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station was reactivated in order to conduct flight simulation ground tests of the Delta 3 cryogenic upper stage. The tests were a cooperative effort between The Boeing Company, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. They included demonstration of tanking and detanking of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and helium pressurant gas as well as 12 engine firings simulating first, second, and third burns at altitude conditions. A key to the success of these tests was the performance of the primary facility systems and their interfaces with the vehicle. These systems included the structural support of the vehicle, propellant supplies, data acquisition, facility control systems, and the altitude exhaust system. While the facility connections to the vehicle umbilical panel simulated the performance of the launch pad systems, additional purge and electrical connections were also required which were unique to ground testing of the vehicle. The altitude exhaust system permitted an approximate simulation of the boost-phase pressure profile by rapidly pumping the test chamber from 13 psia to 0.5 psia as well as maintaining altitude conditions during extended steady-state firings. The performance of the steam driven ejector exhaust system has been correlated with variations in cooling water temperature during these tests. This correlation and comparisons to limited data available from Centaur tests conducted in the facility from 1969-1971 provided insight into optimizing the operation of the exhaust system for future tests. Overall, the facility proved to be robust and flexible for vehicle space simulation engine firings and enabled all test objectives to be successfully completed within the planned schedule.

Meyer, Michael L.; Dickens, Kevin W.; Skaff, Tony F.; Cmar, Mark D.; VanMeter, Matthew J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

1998-01-01

211

Prognostic values of chromosome 18q microsatellite alterations in stage II colonic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prognostic value of chromosome 18q microsatellite alterations (MA) in stage II colon cancer. METHODS: One hundred and six patients with sporadic stage II colon cancer were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor and adjacent normal mucosal tissue samples. MA, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI), was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis and DNA sequencing at 5 microsatellite loci on chromosome 18q (D18S474, D18S55, D18S58, D18S61 and D18S64). RESULTS: Among the 102 patients eligible for MA information, the overall frequencies of LOH, high and low frequency MSI/microsatellite stable were 49.0%, 17.6% and 82.4%, respectively. The high frequency of 18q-LOH was significantly associated with the poor 5-year overall survival (OS) (P = 0.008) and disease free survival (P = 0.006). High levels of MSI were significantly associated with a longer 5-year OS (P = 0.045) while the higher frequency of 18q-LOH at the loci of D18S474 and D18S61 was significantly associated with a poorer 5-year OS (P = 0.010 and 0.005, respectively). But multivariate analysis showed that only the frequency of 18q-LOH was significantly associated with the prognosis of the disease. CONCLUSION: High frequency of 18q-LOH is an independent prognostic factor indicating poor prognosis of the patients with stage II colon cancer. PMID:21157981

Wang, Wei; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Gong; Li, Yuan-Fang; Zhang, Li-Yi; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Huang, Chun-Yu; Zhan, You-Qing; Zhou, Zhi-Wei

2010-01-01

212

Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Stage II Thymoma After Complete Tumor Resection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether patients with Masaoka stage II thymoma benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy after complete tumor resection. Methods and Materials: A total of 107 patients with stage II thymoma who underwent complete resection of their tumors between September 1964 and October 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty-six patients were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, and 41 patients received surgery alone. Results: Eight patients (7.5%) had a relapse of their disease, including two patients (4.5%) who had surgery alone, and 6 patients (9.5%) who had adjuvant radiation therapy. Disease-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.3% and 82.6%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group, and 97.6% and 93.1%, respectively, for the group that underwent surgery alone (p = 0.265). Disease-specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 96.4% and 89.3%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group and 97.5% and 97.5% for the surgery group (p = 0.973). On univariate analysis, patients with type B3 thymomas had the lowest disease-free survival rates among all subtypes (p = 0.001), and patients with large thymomas (>7 cm) had lower disease-specific survival rates than those with small tumors (<7 cm) (p = 0.017). On multivariate analysis, histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy after complete tumor resection for patients with stage II thymoma did not significantly reduce recurrence rates or improve survival rates. Histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Further investigation should be carried out using a multicenter randomized or controlled study.

Chen Yidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Feng Qinfu, E-mail: qinfufeng@yahoo.com.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Lu Haizhen [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Mao Yousheng [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhou Zongmei; Ou Guangfei; Wang Mei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhao Jun [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhang Hongxing; Xiao Zefen; Chen Dongfu; Liang Jun; Zhai Yirui; Wang Luhua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); He Jie [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China)

2010-12-01

213

A video camera is mounted on the second stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers finish mounting a video camera on the second stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch the Stardust spacecraft on Feb. 6. Looking toward Earth, the camera will record the liftoff and separation of the first stage. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

214

Combined Sabal and Urtica extract vs finasteride in BPH (Alken stage I–II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Therapeutic equivalence should be demonstrated in a randomised, reference-controlled multicentric double blind clinical trial\\u000a with PRO 160\\/120, a combination of Sabal- and Urtica-Extract, and Finasteride, respectively, in patients suffering from benign\\u000a prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, Stage I to II according to Alken). The study involved 543 patients, who were treated for 48 weeks\\u000a with two capsules of PRO 160\\/120 or

Jürgen Sökeland; J. Albrecht

1997-01-01

215

Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluoromisonidazole F 18 and Fludeoxyglucose F 18 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-06-10

216

A video camera is mounted on the second stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a worker (left) runs a wire through a mounting hole on the second stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket in order to affix an external video camera held by the worker at right. The Delta II will launch the Stardust spacecraft on Feb. 6. Looking toward Earth, the camera will record the liftoff and separation of the first stage. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

217

Dose-Escalated Robotic SBRT for Stage I–II Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the precise external delivery of very high-dose radiotherapy to targets in the body, with treatment completed in one to five fractions. SBRT should be an ideal approach for organ-confined prostate cancer because (I) dose-escalation should yield improved rates of cancer control; (II) the unique radiobiology of prostate cancer favors hypofractionation; and (III) the conformal nature of SBRT minimizes high-dose radiation delivery to immediately adjacent organs, potentially reducing complications. This approach is also more convenient for patients, and is cheaper than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Several external beam platforms are capable of delivering SBRT for early-stage prostate cancer, although most of the mature reported series have employed a robotic non-coplanar platform (i.e., CyberKnife). Several large studies report 5-year biochemical relapse rates which compare favorably to IMRT. Rates of late GU toxicity are similar to those seen with IMRT, and rates of late rectal toxicity may be less than with IMRT and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes appear similar to IMRT in the urinary domain. Bowel QOL may be less adversely affected by SBRT than with other radiation modalities. After 5?years of follow-up, SBRT delivered on a robotic platform is yielding outcomes at least as favorable as IMRT, and may be considered appropriate therapy for stage I–II prostate cancer.

Meier, Robert

2015-01-01

218

Neuroendocrine Differentiation Is a Prognostic Factor for Stage II Poorly Differentiated Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in colorectal cancer is an indistinct phenomenon and may define a new cancer subtype, especially in the poorly differentiated colorectal cancer (PDCRC). The clinical features of PDCRC with NED remain controversial, thus confusing the implementation of individualized treatment. This study included 171 patients who underwent surgery from 2000 to 2011 and had pathology-confirmed PDCRC. Each sample was examined by immunohistochemistry for the biological markers of NED, synaptophysin (Syn), and chromogranin (CgA). Patients with Syn(+) and/or CgA(+) cells were classified as NED(+); otherwise, they were NED(?). Data were collected for patients who were followed up for at least two years. NED(+) staining was present in 71 (41.5%) patients. The median survival time was 36.9 months. No survival differences existed between the NED(?) and NED(+) groups (P > 0.05). However, stage II NED(+) patients had a significantly worse prognosis than NED(?) patients (P = 0.018). For the NED(+) group, the median survival was 38.56 months, and the 5-year survival was 65%. For the NED(?) group, the median survival was 53.18 months, and the 5-year survival was 90%. NED is a common event in primary PDCRC. For stage II PDCRC, NED(+) indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:25093184

Liu, Yue; Xu, Jinghong; Jiao, Yurong; Hu, Yeting; Yi, Chenghao; Li, Qiong; Tong, Zhou; Wang, Xiaowei; Hu, Lifeng; Li, Jun; Ding, Kefeng

2014-01-01

219

Stage II endometrial carcinoma. Results and complications of a combined radiotherapeutic-surgical approach  

SciTech Connect

Since one third of the patients with Stage II endometrial carcinoma have occult extrauterine pelvic metastases at diagnosis, adequate treatment must include the pelvic lymph nodes and parametria. Eighty-three patients with Stage II endometrial carcinoma were treated between January 1964 and December 1983. Sixty-nine patients (83%) received combined whole-pelvic irradiation and surgery, five (6%) had surgery alone and nine (11%) had radiotherapy alone. Five-year actuarial survival rates were 67%, 60%, and 38%, respectively. No pelvic recurrence occurred in the 69 patients who received the combined therapy, and there was no vaginal recurrence in the 80 patients treated with intracavity radium. There was a significantly lower incidence of pelvic lymph node metastases (P = 0.03) in patients treated with preoperative irradiation. The median time to recurrence was 17 months, with 67% of the recurrences diagnosed before 2 years, and 88% within 5 years. Ten patients (12%) incurred severe complications and three died as a result. Whole-pelvic irradiation, intracavity radium, and hysterectomy are effective treatment for occult pelvic and vaginal disease.

Larson, D.M.; Copeland, L.J.; Gallager, H.S.; Kong, J.P.; Wharton, J.T.; Stringer, C.A.

1988-04-15

220

Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions.' These personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. Currently, only three spacefaring nations have this distinction, including the United States, Russia, and, more recently, China. The U.S. National Space Policy of2006 directs that NASA provide the means to travel to space, and the NASA Appropriations Act of2005 provided the initial funding to begin in earnest to replace the Shuttle after the International Space Station construction is complete in 20 IO? These and other strategic goals and objectives are documented in NASA's 2006 Strategic Plan.3 In 2005, a team of NASA aerospace experts conducted the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which recommended a two-vehicle approach to America's next space transportation system for missions to the International Space Station in the next decade and to explore the Moon and establish an outpost around the 2020 timeframe.4 Based on this extensive study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle configuration and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch vehicle (fig 1). This paper will give an overview of NASA's approach to integrating the Ares I vehicle stack using capabilities and assets that are resident in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, working in partnership with other NASA Centers and the U.S. aerospace industry. It also will provide top-level details on the progress of the in-house design of the Ares I vehicle's upper stage element.

Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

2008-01-01

221

Early stages of the recovery stroke in myosin II studied by molecular dynamics simulations  

PubMed Central

The recovery stroke is a key step in the functional cycle of muscle motor protein myosin, during which pre-recovery conformation of the protein is changed into the active post-recovery conformation, ready to exersice force. We study the microscopic details of this transition using molecular dynamics simulations of atomistic models in implicit and explicit solvent. In more than 2 ?s of aggregate simulation time, we uncover evidence that the recovery stroke is a two-step process consisting of two stages separated by a time delay. In our simulations, we directly observe the first stage at which switch II loop closes in the presence of adenosine triphosphate at the nucleotide binding site. The resulting configuration of the nucleotide binding site is identical to that detected experimentally. Distribution of inter-residue distances measured in the force generating region of myosin is in good agreement with the experimental data. The second stage of the recovery stroke structural transition, rotation of the converter domain, was not observed in our simulations. Apparently it occurs on a longer time scale. We suggest that the two parts of the recovery stroke need to be studied using separate computational models. PMID:21922589

Baumketner, Andrij; Nesmelov, Yuri

2011-01-01

222

Early stages of the recovery stroke in myosin II studied by molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

The recovery stroke is a key step in the functional cycle of muscle motor protein myosin, during which pre-recovery conformation of the protein is changed into the active post-recovery conformation, ready to exersice force. We study the microscopic details of this transition using molecular dynamics simulations of atomistic models in implicit and explicit solvent. In more than 2 ?s of aggregate simulation time, we uncover evidence that the recovery stroke is a two-step process consisting of two stages separated by a time delay. In our simulations, we directly observe the first stage at which switch II loop closes in the presence of adenosine triphosphate at the nucleotide binding site. The resulting configuration of the nucleotide binding site is identical to that detected experimentally. Distribution of inter-residue distances measured in the force generating region of myosin is in good agreement with the experimental data. The second stage of the recovery stroke structural transition, rotation of the converter domain, was not observed in our simulations. Apparently it occurs on a longer time scale. We suggest that the two parts of the recovery stroke need to be studied using separate computational models. PMID:21922589

Baumketner, Andrij; Nesmelov, Yuri

2011-12-01

223

Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

1998-11-01

224

The Impact of Delayed Chemotherapy on Its Completion and Survival Outcomes in Stage II Colon Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed chemotherapy is associated with inferior survival in stage III colon and stage II/III rectal cancer patients, but similar studies have not been performed in stage II colon cancer patients. We investigate the association between delayed and incomplete chemotherapy, and the association of delayed chemotherapy with survival in stage II colon cancer patients. Patients and Methods Patients (age ?66) diagnosed as stage II colon cancer and received chemotherapy from 1992 to 2005 were identified from the linked SEER–Medicare database. The association between delayed and incomplete chemotherapy was assessed using unconditional and conditional logistic regressions. Survival outcomes were assessed using stratified Cox regression based on propensity score matched samples. Results 4,209 stage II colon cancer patients were included, of whom 73.0% had chemotherapy initiated timely (?2 months after surgery), 14.7% had chemotherapy initiated with moderate delay (2–3 months), and 12.3% had delayed chemotherapy (?3 months). Delayed chemotherapy was associated with not completing chemotherapy (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.59) for moderately delayed group, adjusted OR: 2.60 (2.09, 3.24) for delayed group). Delayed chemotherapy was associated with worse survival outcomes (hazard ratio (HR): 1.75 (1.29, 2.37) for overall survival; HR: 4.23 (2.19, 8.20) for cancer-specific survival). Conclusion Although the benefit of chemotherapy is unclear in stage II colon cancer patients, delay in initiation of chemotherapy is associated with an incomplete chemotherapy course and poorer survival, especially cancer-specific survival. Causal inference in the association between delayed initiation of chemotherapy and inferior survival requires further investigation. PMID:25238395

Xu, Fang; Rimm, Alfred A.; Fu, Pingfu; Krishnamurthi, Smitha S.; Cooper, Gregory S.

2014-01-01

225

Test Firing of the Saturn V S-II S (Second Stage) at the Mississippi Test Facility (MTF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows a test firing of the the Saturn V S-II (second) stage at the Mississippi Test Facility's (MTF) S-II test stand. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burns out and drops away, power for the Saturn will be provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engine used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as its propellants. Static test of ground test versions of the S-II stage were conducted at North American Aviation's Santa Susana, California test site. All flight stages were tested at the Mississippi Test Facility, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The MTF was renamed to the National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) in 1974 and later to the Sternis Space Center (SSC) in May 1988.

1967-01-01

226

Test Firing of the Saturn V S-II (Second) Stage at the Mississippi Test Facility (MTF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows a test firing of the the Saturn V S-II (second) stage at the Mississippi Test Facility's (MTF) S-II test stand. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burns out and drops away, power for the Saturn will be provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engines used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. Static test of ground test versions of the S-II stage were conducted at North American Aviation's Santa Susana, California test site. All flight stages were tested at the Mississippi Test Facility, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. MTF was renamed to the National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) in 1974 and later to the Sternis Space Center in May 1988.

1967-01-01

227

The second stage of Delta II rocket is lifted up the gantry at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the second stage of a Delta II rocket is lifted up the gantry . The rocket is scheduled to be launched on Dec. 10, 1998, heading for Mars and carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 657 days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999.

1998-01-01

228

The second stage of Delta II rocket is lifted up the gantry at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers at pad 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Station maneuver the second stage of a Delta II rocket inside the gantry. The rocket is scheduled to be launched on Dec. 10, 1998, heading for Mars and carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter. The orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for 657 days. It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, which is planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999.

1998-01-01

229

A Randomized Parallel-Group Dietary Study for Stage II–IV Ovarian Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined the dietary habits of ovarian cancer survivors. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the feasibility and impact of two dietary interventions for ovarian cancer survivors. Methods In this randomized, parallel-group study, 51 women (mean age, 53 years) diagnosed with stage II–IV ovarian cancer were recruited and randomly assigned to a low fat, high fiber (LFHF) diet or a modified National Cancer Institute diet supplemented with a soy-based beverage and encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrates (FVJCs). Changes in clinical measures, serum carotenoid and tocopherol levels, dietary intake, anthropometry, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were assessed with paired t-tests. Results The recruitment rate was 25%, and the retention rate was 75% at 6 months. At baseline, 28% and 45% of women met guidelines for intake of fiber and of fruits and vegetables, respectively. After 6 months, total serum carotenoid levels and ?- and ?-carotene concentrations were significantly increased in both groups (P < 0.01); however, ?-carotene concentrations were increased more in the FVJC group. Serum ?-cryptoxanthin levels, fiber intake (+5.2 g/day), and daily servings of juice (+0.9 servings/day) and vegetables (+1.3 servings/day) were all significantly increased in the LFHF group (all P < 0.05). Serum levels of albumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, retinol, and retinyl palmitate were significantly increased in the FVJC group (all P < 0.05). No changes in cancer antigen-125, anthropometry, or HRQOL were observed. Conclusion Overall, this study supports the feasibility of designing dietary interventions for stage II–IV ovarian cancer survivors and provides preliminary evidence that a low fat high fiber diet and a diet supplemented with encapsulated FVJC may increase phytonutrients in ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:22119991

Paxton, Raheem J.; Garcia-Prieto, Celia; Berglund, Maria; Hernandez, Mike; Hejek, Richard A.; Handy, Beverly; Brown, Jubilee; Jones, Lovell A.

2011-01-01

230

Changing the facial features of patients with Treacher Collins syndrome: protocol for 3-stage treatment of hard and soft tissue hypoplasia in the upper half of the face.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is a disorder characterized by various congenital soft tissue anomalies involving hypoplasia of the zygoma, maxilla, and mandible. A variety of treatments have been reported to date. These treatments can be classified into 2 major types. The first type involves osteotomy for hard tissue such as the zygoma and mandible. The second type involves plastic surgery using bone grafting in the malar region and soft tissue repair of eyelid deformities. We devised a new treatment to comprehensively correct hard and soft tissue deformities in the upper half of the face of Treacher Collins patients. The aim was to "change facial features and make it difficult to tell that the patients have this disorder." This innovative treatment strategy consists of 3 stages: (1) placement of dermal fat graft from the lower eyelid to the malar subcutaneous area, (2) custom-made synthetic zygomatic bone grafting, and (3) Z-plasty flap transposition from the upper to the lower eyelid and superior repositioning and fixation of the lateral canthal tendon using a Mitek anchor system. This method was used on 4 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome who had moderate to severe hypoplasia of the zygomas and the lower eyelids. Facial features of these patients were markedly improved and very good results were obtained. There were no major complications intraoperatively or postoperatively in any of the patients during the series of treatments. In synthetic bone grafting in the second stage, the implant in some patients was in the way of the infraorbital nerve. Thus, the nerve was detached and then sutured under the microscope. Postoperatively, patients had almost full restoration of sensory nerve torpor within 5 to 6 months. We devised a 3-stage treatment to "change facial features" of patients with hypoplasia of the upper half of the face due to Treacher Collins syndrome. The treatment protocol provided a very effective way to treat deformities of the upper half of the face in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23511742

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Satoh, Kaneshige

2014-07-01

231

A video camera is mounted on the second stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a worker holds the video camera to be mounted on the second stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch the Stardust spacecraft on Feb. 6. His co-worker (right) makes equipment adjustments. Looking toward Earth, the camera will record the liftoff and separation of the first stage. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

232

A video camera is mounted on the second stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers check the mounting on a video camera on the second stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch the Stardust spacecraft on Feb. 6. Looking toward Earth, the camera will record the liftoff and separation of the first stage. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

233

Stages of Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... I Stage II Stage III Stage IV After colon cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find ... lung cancer . The following stages are used for colon cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Stage 0 (colon ...

234

Two-stage reconstruction for flexor tendon injuries in zone II using a silicone rod and pedicled sublimis tendon graft  

PubMed Central

We report the results of staged flexor tendon reconstruction in 12 patients (12 fingers) with neglected or failed primary repair of flexor tendon injuries in zone II. Injuries involved both flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor digitorum sublimis (FDS), with poor prognosis (Boyes grades II–IV). The procedure included placing a silicone rod and creating a loop between the FDP and FDS in the first stage and reflecting the latter as a pedicled graft through the pseudosheath created around the silicone rod in the second stage. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 12–30 months), results were assessed by clinical examination and questionnaire. The mean total active motion of these fingers was 188°. The mean power grip was 80.0% and pinch grip was 76% of the contralateral hand. The rate of excellent and good results was 75% according to the Buck-Gramcko scale. These results were better than the subjective scores given by the patients. Complications included postoperative hematoma in two, infection in one, silicone synovitis in one (after stage I) and three flexion contractures after stage II. This study confirmed the usefulness of two-stage flexor tendon reconstruction using the combined technique as a salvage procedure to restore flexor tendon function with a few complications. PMID:20924443

Abdul-Kader, Mohammed Heshmat; Amin, Mahmound A. M.

2010-01-01

235

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TELECAST PROGRAMS FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY GRADES WERE IN ART, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH UNIT WAS GIVEN, TOGETHER WITH DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY. IN THE ART SERIES, IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT PUPIL PARTICIPATION TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE TELECAST. INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY WAS…

DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

236

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold; Peter Roopnarine

2011-01-01

237

Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

1982-01-01

238

Role of Postmastectomy Radiation After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify a cohort of women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy for whom postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) may be omitted according to the projected risk of local-regional failure (LRF). Methods and Materials: Seven breast cancer physicians from University of California cancer centers created 14 hypothetical clinical case scenarios, identified, reviewed, and abstracted the available literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane databases), and formulated evidence tables with endpoints of LRF, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Using the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria methodology, appropriateness ratings for postmastectomy radiation were assigned for each scenario. Finally, an overall summary risk assessment table was developed. Results: Of 24 sources identified, 23 were retrospective studies from single institutions. Consensus on the appropriateness rating, defined as 80% agreement in a category, was achieved for 86% of the cases. Distinct LRF risk categories emerged. Clinical stage II (T1-2N0-1) patients, aged >40 years, estrogen receptor-positive subtype, with pathologic complete response or 0-3 positive nodes without lymphovascular invasion or extracapsular extension, were identified as having {<=}10% risk of LRF without radiation. Limited data support stage IIIA patients with pathologic complete response as being low risk. Conclusions: In the absence of randomized trial results, existing data can be used to guide the use of PMRT in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting. Using available studies to inform appropriateness ratings for clinical scenarios, we found a high concordance of treatment recommendations for PMRT and were able to identify a cohort of women with a low risk of LRF without radiation. These low-risk patients will form the basis for future planned studies within University of California Athena Breast Health Network.

Fowble, Barbara L., E-mail: bfowble@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Einck, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kim, Danny N. [Athena Breast Health Network, Program Management Office, San Francisco, CA (United States); McCloskey, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mayadev, Jyoti [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Yashar, Catheryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chen, Steven L. [Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hwang, E. Shelley [Department of Surgery, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2012-06-01

239

Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of the Montpellier Phase II Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We recently presented the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a reliable alternative to conventional boost radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The low crude numbers of recurrence in elderly patients led us to investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of this procedure as a sole treatment. Methods and Materials: We included 94 patients older than 65 years in this phase II trial. Among them, 42 patients presented with all the inclusion criteria, i.e., stages pT0 to pT1 and pN0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, and tumor-free margin of >2 mm. IORT was delivered using a dedicated linear accelerator. One 21-Gy fraction was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose, using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. The primary endpoint was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, and specific and overall rates of survival. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-49 months), and median age was 72 years (range, 66-80 years). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Endpoints for all but one patient corresponded to acceptable quality index criteria. Pretreatment quality-of-life scores were maximal, and no significant decrease was observed during follow-up. Cosmesis was good to excellent at 6 months. Two patients experienced recurrence but underwent salvage mastectomy. Conclusion: Our results confirm that exclusive partial-breast IORT is feasible for treating early-stage breast cancer in the elderly. IORT may be considered an alternative treatment for a selected population and offers a safe one-step treatment.

Lemanski, Claire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Azria, David, E-mail: azria@valdorel.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gourgon-Bourgade, Sophie [Biostatistics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gutowski, Marian; Rouanet, Phillippe; Saint-Aubert, Bernard [Department of Surgical and Reconstructive Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Ailleres, Norbert; Fenoglietto, Pascal [Radiophysics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Dubois, Jean-Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France)

2010-03-01

240

Kinematics of stage II fatigue crack propagation: A quantification of the plastic blunting process in one-phase metallic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the work is to carry out an experimental analysis to predict the kinetics of stage II fatigue crack growth based on the strain field around a fatigue crack tip in polycrystalline nickel as a model material. The strains ahead of the crack tip were measured by digital image correlation (DIC) with standard compact tension (CT) specimens. Cracks

Seon-Ho Choi

2005-01-01

241

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

2006-01-01

242

Validation of a modified clinical risk score to predict cancer-specific survival for stage II colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Many patients with stage II colon cancer will die of their disease despite curative surgery. Therefore, identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome after surgery for stage II colon cancer is desirable. This study aims to validate a clinical risk score to predict cancer-specific survival in patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer. Patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer in 16 hospitals in the West of Scotland between 2001 and 2004 were identified from a prospectively maintained regional clinical audit database. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates up to 5 years were calculated. A total of 871 patients were included. At 5 years, cancer-specific survival was 81.9% and overall survival was 65.6%. On multivariate analysis, age ?75 years (hazard ratio (HR) 2.11, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.57–2.85; P<0.001) and emergency presentation (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.43–2.70; P<0.001) were independently associated with cancer-specific survival. Age and mode of presentation HRs were added to form a clinical risk score of 0–2. The cancer-specific survival at 5 years for patients with a cumulative score 0 was 88.7%, 1 was 78.2% and 2 was 65.9%. These results validate a modified simple clinical risk score for patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer. The combination of these two universally documented clinical factors provides a solid foundation for the examination of the impact of additional clinicopathological and treatment factors on overall and cancer-specific survival. PMID:25487740

Oliphant, Raymond; Horgan, Paul G; Morrison, David S; McMillan, Donald C

2015-01-01

243

Dislocation mechanism based model for stage II fatigue crack propagation rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Repeated plastic deformation, which of course depends on dislocation mechanism, at or near the crack tip leads to the fatigue crack propagation. By involving the theory of thermally activated flow and the cumulative plastic strain criterion, an effort is made here to model the stage II fatigue crack propagation rate in terms of the dislocation mechanism. The model, therefore, provides capability to ascertain: (1) the dislocation mechanism (and hence the near crack tip microstructures) assisting the crack growth, (2) the relative resistance of dislocation mechanisms to the crack growth, and (3) the fracture surface characteristics and its interpretation in terms of the dislocation mechanism. The local microstructure predicted for the room temperature crack growth in copper by this model is in good agreement with the experimental results taken from the literature. With regard to the relative stability of such dislocation mechanisms as the cross-slip and the dislocation intersection, the model suggests an enhancement of crack growth rate with an ease of cross-slip which in general promotes dislocation cell formation and is common in material which has high stacking fault energy (produces wavy slips). Cross-slip apparently enhances crack growth rate by promoting slip irreversibility and fracture surface brittleness to a greater degree.

Mazumdar, P. K.

1986-01-01

244

Fundamental factors affecting upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation - part II. Predicting effectiveness.  

PubMed

Compared with increasing outdoor air ventilation rate, upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is an attractive technology for lowering the indoor concentration of airborne microorganisms and thereby reducing the risk of airborne transmission of disease. With relatively modest vertical air circulation, most of the air in a room can be irradiated in a relatively brief time period without noise or significant power consumption. The hypothesis tested in this study is that the efficacy of upper-room UVGI to inactivate or kill airborne infectious microorganisms can be determined from an index of UVGI effectiveness, a dimensionless parameter designed to characterize adequacy of vertical air circulation, amount of UVGI provided, and their interaction. This index of effectiveness, which is determined independently of microbiological testing, was found to correlate well with experimental measurements made in a room-size chamber. A comparison of two other dimensionless parameters - the irradiation number and mixing number, from which effectiveness index is calculated - provides insight into whether the quantity of UV provided to the upper room or the intensity of the vertical air circulation is the controlling factor for effective application of upper-room UVGI. The irradiation number is calculated from the UV power output of the fixture(s), a parameter that is fixture specific and much easier to measure than mean fluence rate. An equation was also developed that relates UV fixture power output to mean fluence rate in either the irradiated zone or the entire room. In addition, reductions in viable microorganism concentration due to UVGI predicted from a two-box model are compared with experimental measurements. PMID:17454503

Rudnick, Stephen N; First, Melvin W

2007-05-01

245

Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes II. Model of the upper hurricane layer  

E-print Network

This second paper of the series (see the first one in [1]) models the dynamics and structure of upper hurricane layer in adiabatic approximation. Formulation of simplified aerodynamic model allows analytically express the radial istributions of pressure and wind speed components. The vertical evolution of these distributions and hurricane structure in the layer are described by a coupled set of equations for the vertical mass flux and vertical momentum balance, averaged over the eye wall cross section. Several realistic predictions of the model are demonstrated, including the change of directions for the component of radial wind speed and angular velocity of hurricane with altitude.

Leonov, Arkady I

2008-01-01

246

Single-stage surgery combining nerve and tendon transfers for bilateral upper limb reconstruction in a tetraplegic patient: case report.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old tetraplegic patient had paralysis of elbow, thumb, and finger extension and thumb and finger flexion. We transferred axillary nerve branches to the triceps long and upper medial head motor branches, supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve, and brachioradialis tendon to the flexor pollicis longus and flexor superficialis of the index finger. Surgery was performed bilaterally 18 months after spinal cord injury. At 12 months after surgery, we performed bilateral distal radioulnar arthrodesis percutaneously. By 22 months postoperatively, we observed triceps strength scoring M3 bilaterally and full metacarpophalangeal joint extension scoring M4 bilaterally. The thumb span was 53 and 66 mm from the proximal index phalanx on the right and left sides, respectively. Pinch strength measured 1.5 kg on the left side and 2.0 kg on the right. Before surgery, the patient was incapable of grasping; after surgery, a useful grasp had been restored bilaterally. PMID:23751324

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

2013-07-01

247

Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2013-02-26

248

Galanin plays an important role in cancer invasiveness and is associated with poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Reliable predictors of tumor recurrence for patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) are needed to select patients who should receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Although galanin (GAL) is expressed in several malignant tumors and is associated with cell proliferation and tumor growth, the prognostic value of GAL expression in CRC is poorly understood. We compared GAL expression between 56 patients with stage II and III CRC who developed tumor recurrences and 56 patients who did not. The clinical and prognostic significance of GAL expression was examined using our data and independent public datasets. We also analyzed the influence of GAL expression on the proliferation and invasive activity of CRC cells. Higher expression of GAL was associated with tumor recurrence among the CRC patients (P<0.001). Stage II CRC patients who presented with high expression levels of GAL had significantly poorer prognosis than those with low expression levels of GAL [5-year overall survival: hazard ratio (HR), 7.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38–24.04; P<0.001; 5-year recurrence-free survival: HR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.61–9.44; P=0.004], but there was no association between GAL expression and survival in stage III CRC patients. These findings were supported by analysis of two public datasets. Functionally, siRNA-mediated silencing of GAL resulted in a significant decrease in the proliferative and invasive activities of CRC cells. In conclusion, high expression of GAL is associated with poor prognosis of stage II CRC patients and GAL expression may be related to the aggressive behavior of CRC. PMID:25504183

NAGAYOSHI, KINUKO; UEKI, TAKASHI; TASHIRO, KOSUKE; MIZUUCHI, YUSUKE; MANABE, TATSUYA; ARAKI, HIROMITSU; ODA, YOSHINAO; KUHARA, SATORU; TANAKA, MASAO

2015-01-01

249

2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections  

PubMed Central

Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. ?g/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 ?g/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 ?g/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 ?g/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 ?g/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty acids with these key P. falciparum enzymes. PMID:20855214

Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

2010-01-01

250

THE FUNCTION IN CATALYSIS OF THE BISULFATE DEHYDRATION STAGE OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE. Technical Report No. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanism whereby anydrous MgSOâ catalyzes the conversion of ; species such as cyclohexanol to cyclohexene is now explicable based on the ; bisulfate dehydration stage The bisulfate stage which was postulated in Technical ; Report No. 1 and is further proven in this report has essentially the same type ; of lattice as the anhydrous stage. This indicates the

J. S. Cho; F. A. Olson; M. E. Wadsworth

1962-01-01

251

Phase II Study of Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Stage II-III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: JCOG Trial (JCOG 9906)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this Phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for Stage II-III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients and Methods: Patients with clinical Stage II-III (T1N1M0 or T2-3N0-1M0) thoracic ESCC were enrolled between April 2000 and March 2002. Chemotherapy comprised two courses of protracted infusion of 5-FU (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and 8-12, and 2-h infusion of CDDP (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1 and 8; this regimen was repeated every 5 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy involved 60-Gy irradiation (30 fractions) for 8 weeks with a 2-week break. Responders received two courses of 5-FU (800 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and CDDP (80 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1. Final analysis was conducted in March 2007. Survival and late toxicities were monitored for 5 years. Results: The characteristics of the 76 patients enrolled were as follows: median age, 61 years; male/female, 68/8; performance status 0/1, 59/17 patients; Stage IIA/IIB/III, 26/12/38 patients. Of the 74 eligible patients, 46 (62.2%) achieved complete response. Median survival time was 29 months, with 3- and 5-year survival rates of 44.7% and 36.8%, respectively. Acute toxicities included Grade 3/4 esophagitis (17%), nausea (17%), hyponatremia (16%), and infection without neutropenia (12%). Late toxicities comprised Grade 3/4 esophagitis (13%), pericardial (16%) and pleural (9%) effusion, and radiation pneumonitis (4%), causing 4 deaths. Conclusions: CRT is effective for Stage II-III ESCC with manageable acute toxicities and can provide a nonsurgical treatment option. However, further improvement is required for reduction in late toxicity.

Kato, Ken, E-mail: kenkato@ncc.go.jp [Gastrointestinal Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Muro, Kei [Gastrointestinal Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Minashi, Keiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi [Division of Digestive Endoscopy and Gastrointestinal Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Ishikura, Satoshi [Clinical Trials and Practice Support Division, Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Boku, Narikazu [Division of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Takiuchi, Hiroya [Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Osaka Medical College Hospital, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Komatsu, Yoshito [Department of Cancer Chemotherapy, Hokkaido University Hospital Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Miyata, Yoshinori [Department of Internal Medicine, Saku Central Hospital, Nagano (Japan); Fukuda, Haruhiko [Clinical Trials and Practice Support Division, Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-01

252

I. Rupture properties of large subduction earthquakes. II. Broadband upper mantle structure of western North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis contains two studies, one of which employs geodetic data bearing on large subduction earthquakes to infer complexity of rupture duration, and the other is a high frequency seismological study of the upper mantle discontinuity structure under western North America and the East Pacific Rise. In the first part, we present Global Positioning System and tide gauge data which record the co-seismic deformation which accompanied the 1995 Mw8.0 Jalisco event offshore central Mexico, the 1994 Mw7.5 Sanriku event offshore Northern Honshu, Japan, and the 1995 Mw8.1 Antofagasta earthquake offshore Northern Chile. In two of the three cases we find that the mainshocks were followed by significant amounts of rapid, post-seismic deformation which is best and most easily explained by continued slip near the co-seismic rupture patch. This is the first documented case of rapid slip migration following a large earthquake, and is pertinent to earthquake prediction based on precursory deformation. As the three GPS data sets represent the best observations of large subduction earthquakes to date and two of them show significant amounts of aseismic energy release, they strongly suggest silent faulting may be common in certain types of subduction zones. This, in turn, bears on estimates of global moment release, seismic coupling, and our understanding of the natural hazards associated with convergent margins. The second part of this dissertation utilizes high frequency body waves to infer the upper mantle structure of western North America and the East Pacific Rise. An uncharacteristically large Mw5.9 earthquake located in Western Texas provided a vivid topside reflection off the 410 Km velocity discontinuity ("410"), which we model to infer the fine details of this structure. We find that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the 410 is not sharp, and our results help reconcile seismic observations of 410 structure with laboratory predictions. By analyzing differences between our structure and seismic 410 structure estimates under the nearby Gulf of California, we attempt to extract differences in temperature and mineralogy between subcontinental and suboceanic 410 structures. Extending this analysis, we utilize teleseismic events from East Pacific Rise transform faults to model multiple S upper mantle triplications. In the shallowest mantle (uppermost 75 Km), there is a strong lateral shear velocity gradient amounting to 3% over roughly 150 Km. The LID, nonexistent at the ridge crest, grows slowly in thickness beyond 150 Km from the axis. The compatible geodynamic model of these two results is that the East Pacific Rise is not fed from the local lower mantle, rather, upper mantle material must be transported laterally to supply the ridge axis spreading center, and the LID reflects the source region of the East Pacific Rise magma supply. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Melbourne, Timothy Ian

253

Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

1986-01-01

254

Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2015-03-17

255

Electron and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost in the Conservative Treatment of Stage I-II Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: To evaluate the effect of electron and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) boost on local tumor control (LTC), side effects and cosmesis after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in a prospective randomized study. Patients and Methods: 207 women with stage I-II breast cancer who underwent BCS were treated by 50 Gy irradiation to the whole breast and then randomly assigned

Csaba Polgár; János Fodor; Zsolt Orosz; Tibor Major; Zoltán Takácsi-Nagy; László Csaba Mangel; Zoltán Sulyok; András Somogyi; Miklós Kásler; György Németh

2002-01-01

256

A phase ii trial of combined chemotherapy and surgery in stage iiia non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A poor prognosis for patients with Stage IIIA clinical N2 treated by surgery alone has led clinical researchers to find a new treatment modality to improve the curative potential of surgery. Many Phase II trials have been carried out with induction chemo-or chemo-radiotherapy prior to surgery. From June 1988 to July 1991, 46 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

Samir Darwish; Vincenzo Minotti; Lucio Crinó; Riccardo Rossetti; Paolo Fiaschini; Ernesto Maranzano; Franco Checcaglini; Tommaso Todisco; Michele Giansanti; Ugo Mercati; Rino Vitali; Paolo Latini; Maurizio Tonat

1995-01-01

257

The Role of Type II Spicules in the Upper Solar Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the suggestion that most of the hot plasma in the Sun's co rona comes from type II spicule material that is heated as it is ejected from the chromosphere. This contrasts with the traditional view th at the corona is filled via chromospheric evaporation that results fr om coronal heating. We explore the observational consequences of a hy pothetical spicule dominated corona and conclude from the large discr epancy between predicted and actual observations that only a small fraction of the hot plasma can be supplied by spicules (<2% in active regions and <5% in the quiet Sun). The red- blue asymmetries of EUV spec tral lines and the ratio of lower transition region (LTR; T< or =0.1 MK) to coronal emission measures are both predicted to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Furthermore, hot spicule material would cool dramatically by adiabatic expansion as it rises into the corona, so coronal heating would be required to maintain the high temperatu res that are seen at all altitudes. The necessity of coronal heating is inescapable. Traditional coronal heating models predict far too little emission from the LTR, and we suggest that this emission comes pr imarily from the bulk of the spicule material that is heated to < or =0.1 MK and is visible in He II (304 ?A) as it falls back to the surf ace.

Klimchuk, James A.

2012-01-01

258

ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J., E-mail: g.j.m.vissers@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2013-09-01

259

Ellerman Bombs at High Resolution. II. Triggering, Visibility, and Effect on Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H? line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 Å with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 Å continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 Å SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 Å shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 Å, Fe IX 171 Å, and Fe XIV 211 Å show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H? morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.

2013-09-01

260

Ellerman Bombs at high resolution: II. Visibility, triggering and effect on upper atmosphere  

E-print Network

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer Halpha line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 854.2 nm with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs occur also in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 170 nm continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 160 nm SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 630.1 nm shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancelation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 30.4 nm, Fe IX 17.1 nm, and Fe XIV 21.1 nm show no clear effect of the E...

Vissers, Gregal J M; Rutten, Robert J

2013-01-01

261

Total body irradiation for stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: ten-year follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Between 1972 and 1977, a prospective study was conducted at the University of Florida on the role of total body irradiation (TBI) in the management of stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Forty-four consecutive de novo (DN) patients (including ten stage II, 18 stage III, and 16 stage IV), as well as 16 previously treated (PT) patients, were accrued. Twenty of the 44 DN patients were symptomatic at presentation. Complete clinical responses were obtained in 20 of the 27 DN patients with favorable histologies (FH), and six of the 17 with unfavorable histologies (UH). Partial responses were obtained in six patients with FH and 11 patients with UH; only one patient showed no response to TBI. By univariate analysis, PT patients showed a trend for decreased relapse-free survival (P = .066) and decreased survival (P = .093). Multivariate analysis identified the best predictors of response rate to be histology (P = .0146) and marrow involvement (P = .0854); of relapse-free survival, histology (P = .0035), and TBI dose (P = .002); and of absolute survival, age (P = .0012), histology (P = .012), and TBI dose (P = .029). Thirty of the 41 patients who relapsed underwent salvage treatment with either chemotherapy or radiation. Twenty-three of the 30 undergoing salvage therapy obtained a second complete clinical response. There were no treatment-related deaths. The most common complication was thrombocytopenia. The major late complications were myeloproliferative disorders in four patients, which occurred only after cumulative TBI doses in excess of 200 cGy.

Mendenhall, N.P.; Noyes, W.D.; Million, R.R.

1989-01-01

262

Organic metamorphism in the Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales-II: Soxhlet extraction.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on Soxhlet extraction (and subsequent related analyses) of 39 Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales from the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin, and analyses of 28 oils from the Basin. Because of the influence of primary petroleum migration, no increase in the relative or absolute concentrations of hydrocarbons or bitumen was observed at the threshold of intense hydrocarbon generation (TIHG), or during mainstage hydrocarbon generation in the Bakken shales. Thus, the maturation indices that have been so useful in delineating the TIHG and mainstage hydrocarbon generation in other studies were of no use in this study, where these events could clearly be identified only by Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The data of this study demonstrate that primary petroleum migration is a very efficient process. Four distinctive classes of saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatograms from the Bakken shales arose from facies, maturation, and primary migration controls. As a consequence of maturation, the % of saturated hydrocarbons increased in the shale extract at the expense of decreases in the resins and asphaltenes. Measurements involving resins and asphaltenes appear to be excellent maturation indices in the Bakken shales. Two different and distinct organic facies were present in immature Bakken shales. -from Authors

Price, L.C.; Ging, T.; Love, A.; Anders, D.

1986-01-01

263

Upper ocean fine-scale features in synthetic aperture radar imagery. Part II: Numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been able to reproduce synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signatures of freshwater plumes and sharp frontal interfaces interacting with wind stress, as well as internal waves by combining hydrodynamic simulations with a radar imaging algorithm. The numerical simulations were performed using a non-hydrostatic model, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS Fluent. We modeled the dynamics of freshwater plumes and their interaction with ambient stratification in the upper ocean as well as with wind stress. We then combined the results from the CFD model with a radar imaging algorithm to simulate the sea surface signature in SAR images. As the plume propagates into a stratified environment, a resonant interaction between the density-driven current and the ambient stratification can lead to internal waves and a fragmentation of the freshwater plume. This fragmentation can be seen as a banding pattern in the simulated radar image of the sea surface. In addition, wind stress leads to directional anisotropy of fine-scale sea surface signatures with respect to the wind direction. The numerical results are consistent with observations of freshwater plumes in the Western Equatorial Pacific during TOGA COARE and observations in the Straits of Florida reported in a companion paper (Soloviev et al., 2011). Internal waves can lead to a signal in the measured electromagnetic field in the ocean. As part of this work, we have also simulated electromagnetic signatures of freshwater plumes and internal waves in the total magnetic field, which potentially provides a link between SAR signatures of transient ocean dynamics and magnetic field fluctuations in the ocean. The novel approach of combining a CFD model with a radar imaging algorithm to investigate the dynamics of small-scale oceanic features and their sea surface signatures in SAR images can be useful for the study and interpretation of a range of near-surface processes, among them freshwater plumes and sharp frontal interfaces, as well as magnetic signatures of oceanic processes.

Matt, S.; Fujimura, A.; Soloviev, A.

2011-12-01

264

Developing a Consistent Methodology to Calculate VOC and HAP Evaporative Emissions for Stage I and Stage II Operations at Gasoline Service Stations for the 1999 NEI (DRAFT V2.0)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES) recently assisted Mr. Ron Ryan (US EPA) and the Emission Inventory and Improvement Program's (EIIP) Area Source Committee in analyzing the VOC emissions data provided in the 1999 National Emission Inventory (NEI) (draft v2.0) for Stage I and Stage II Operations at gasoline service stations. The analysis consisted of reviewing and summarizing the reported gasoline

Glenn Tracy Johnson

265

Postoperative Radiotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiotherapy in Stage I-II Endometrial Carcinoma: An Investigational and Propensity Score Matching Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the results of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Materials and Methods We analyzed a total of 64 patients with surgically staged I-II endometrial carcinoma who were treated with postoperative adjuvant RT or concurrent CRT between March 1999 and July 2013. Thirty-two patients who received postoperative RT alone were matched with those who received postoperative CRT (n=32) in accordance to age, stage, and tumor histology. Overall survival and relapse-free survival, as well as toxicity of the RT and CRT arms were evaluated and compared. Results The 5-year overall survival rate was 90.0% for the RT arm and 91.6% for the CRT arm. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the two treatment arms (p=0.798). The 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 87.2% in the RT arm and 88.0% in the CRT arm. Again, no significant difference in relapse-free survival was seen between the two arms (p=0.913). In a multivariate analysis, tumor histology was an independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (hazard ratio, 3.67; 95% of CI, 2.34 to 7.65; p=0.045). Acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities in the CRT arm were significantly higher than in the RT alone arm (6.2% vs. 31.2%, p=0.010). Conclusion Adjuvant pelvic concurrent chemoradioherapy did not show superior results in overall survival and relapse-free survival compared to RT alone in stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25544573

Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Hyo Chun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Chung, Mi Joo; Jeong, Song Mi; Lee, Sung Jong; Yoon, Joo Hee; Park, Dong Choon

2015-01-01

266

77 FR 28772 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1990s, Stage 2 gasoline vapor controls have provided substantial emissions reductions and have...method of controlling emissions from dispensing gasoline. Section 202...Vehicle Refueling Emissions at Gasoline Dispensing...

2012-05-16

267

A randomized two-stage design for phase II clinical trials based on a Bayesian predictive approach.  

PubMed

The rate of failure in phase III oncology trials is surprisingly high, partly owing to inadequate phase II studies. Recently, the use of randomized designs in phase II is being increasingly recommended, to avoid the limits of studies that use a historical control. We propose a two-arm two-stage design based on a Bayesian predictive approach. The idea is to ensure a large probability, expressed in terms of the prior predictive probability of the data, of obtaining a substantial posterior evidence in favour of the experimental treatment, under the assumption that it is actually more effective than the standard agent. This design is a randomized version of the two-stage design that has been proposed for single-arm phase II trials by Sambucini. We examine the main features of our novel design as all the parameters involved vary and compare our approach with Jung's minimax and optimal designs. An illustrative example is also provided online as a supplementary material to this article. Copyright © 2014 JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25545805

Cellamare, Matteo; Sambucini, Valeria

2015-03-15

268

Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2014-11-20

269

Stages of Anal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Anal Cancer Key Points for This Section After anal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... II Stage IIIA Stage IIIB Stage IV After anal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

270

Primary localized stages I and II non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the nasopharynx: a retrospective 17-year single institutional experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this retrospective study was to define the natural history, clinicopathological findings, prognostic factors, and\\u000a treatment outcome of 43 patients with localized stages I and II primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) of the nasopharynx, followed\\u000a up in a single institution over a 17-year period. Forty-three (13 women and 30 men) consecutive patients with localized stages\\u000a I (N?=?12) and II

Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Niloofar Ahmadloo; Mohammad Amin Nazer Mozaffari; Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei

2009-01-01

271

Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 ?g L?1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 ?g L?1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 ?g L?1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 ?g L?1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

2014-01-01

272

The CYP19 RS4646 Polymorphism IS Related to the Prognosis of Stage I–II and Operable Stage III Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Aromatase, encoded by the CYP19 gene, catalyzes the final step of the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Given the critical role of CYP19 in estrogen synthesis, the potential influence of CYP19 rs4646 polymorphism on breast cancer survival, deserves further study. Methods Genotyping for CYP19 rs4646 variants was performed on 406 Chinese women with stage I–II and operable stage III breast cancer. Associations were evaluated between CYP19 rs4646 genotypes and disease-free survival (DFS). Results In premenopausal patients, women who are homozygous for the minor allele (AA) have a longer DFS compared with those carrying the major allele (CC or AC) (87 months versus 48.7 months; Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.56, 95 % CI = 0.318-0.985, P = 0.041). These differences were further demonstrated by a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.456, 95 % CI = 0.249-0.836, P = 0.011). Conversely, the same variant (AA) was estimated to be associated with a poorer DFS in postmenopausal women (AA versus AC or CC: 13.7 months versus 56.3 months; HR = 2.758, 95 % CI = 1.432-5.313, P = 0.002). Furthermore, the differences were confirmed by the COX proportional hazards model (HR = 2.983, 95% CI =1.494-5.955, P = 0.002). Conclusions The present study indicates that CYP19 rs4646 polymorphism is related to DFS in early breast cancer and that the prognosis index of the homozygous for the minor allele (AA) may depend on menopause status. The findings are novel, if confirmed, rs4646 genotypes may provide useful information for routine management in breast cancer. PMID:25793413

Shao, Xiying; Guo, Yong; Xu, Xiaohong; Zheng, Yabing; Wang, Jiwen; Chen, Zhanhong; Huang, Jian; Huang, Ping; Cai, Jufen; Wang, Xiaojia

2015-01-01

273

J. Phys. II &ance 7 (1997) 1185-1204 SEPTEMBER1997, PAGE 1185 Late Stages of the "Pearling" Instability in Lipid Bilayers  

E-print Network

J. Phys. II &ance 7 (1997) 1185-1204 SEPTEMBER1997, PAGE 1185 Late Stages of the "Pearling as pearls on a string. We investigate the late stages of this "pearling" instability, where the pearls the surfactant is drawn) where they jam up. We model the hydrodynamics of the drifting pearls as a combination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

275

A randomized phase II trial of two schedules of topotecan for the treatment of advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a randomized phase II trial of two different schedules of topotecan in patients with advanced-stage non small lung cancer (NSCLC) without prior cytotoxic chemotherapy. All patients had histologic or cytologic confirmation of stage IV (M1) or III-B NSCLC. Patients were stratified by performance status, stage and weight loss. Patients were randomized to receive topotecan at intravenous doses of

John J Weitz; Robert F Marschke; Jeff A Sloan; Joseph P Grill; James R Jett; James A Knost; Alan K Hatfield; David W Zenk; Walter W Bate; Paul L Schaefer

2000-01-01

276

Urotensin II and Biomarkers of Endothelial Activation and Atherosclerosis in End-Stage Renal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Urotensin II (UTN), a cyclic undecapeptide widely distributed in various organs and tissues, is found in high concentration in atheromatous lesions. Because UTN accumulates in patients with chronic renal failure, the association between plasma UTN and biomarkers of atherosclerosis and endothelial activation needs to be better understood.Methods: We tested by a robust statistical approach (Holm method) the association between

Francesca Mallamaci; Sebastiano Cutrupi; Patrizia Pizzini; Giovanni Tripepi; Carmine Zoccali

2006-01-01

277

For Stage II Node-Positive Breast Cancer, is it Worthwhile to Consider Adjuvant Radiotherapy Following Mastectomy?  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), loco-regional recurrence (LRR), and toxicities for early breast-cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes, by the addition of radiotherapy to adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Patients were eligible for enrollment into the study if they had pathologically proven stages II breast cancer, with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients were assigned to one of the two groups; Group 1; adjuvant chemotherapy then radiotherapy, and group 2; adjuvant chemotherapy only. Results: Between September 2008 and August 2014, 75 patients were enrolled. Forty patients group 1, and 35 group 2. The 4-year OS for group 1, and two were 77.5 and 71.4%, respectively. The 4-year PFS for group 1 and 2 were 72.5 and 60%, respectively. During the 54?months follow-up period, 11 patients from group 1 had recurrence (three locoregional, seven metastatic, and one both), and 14 patients from group 2 had recurrence (seven locoregional, three metastatic, and four both). The distant metastasis rate was the same in the two groups. However, the metastasis sites were different in the two groups. Conclusion: The addition of radiotherapy in stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes improved the PFS, and LRR. Radiotherapy improved OS in patients with high-risk features. PMID:25478324

Osman, Mohammed A. M.; Elkady, Mohammad S.; Nasr, Khalid E.

2014-01-01

278

A comprehensive method for preliminary design optimization of axial gas turbine stages. II - Code verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present effort represents an extension of previous work wherein a calculation model for performing rapid pitchline optimization of axial gas turbine geometry, including blade profiles, is developed. The model requires no specification of geometric constraints. Output includes aerodynamic performance (adiabatic efficiency), hub-tip flow-path geometry, blade chords, and estimates of blade shape. Presented herein is a verification of the aerodynamic performance portion of the model, whereby detailed turbine test-rig data, including rig geometry, is input to the model to determine whether tested performance can be predicted. An array of seven (7) NASA single-stage axial gas turbine configurations is investigated, ranging in size from 0.6 kg/s to 63.8 kg/s mass flow and in specific work output from 153 J/g to 558 J/g at design (hot) conditions; stage loading factor ranges from 1.15 to 4.66.

Jenkins, R. M.

1983-01-01

279

Actual Recurrence Patterns and Risk Factors Influencing Recurrence After Curative Resection with Stage II Gallbladder Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the advances in imaging techniques, most patients can only be diagnosed at advanced stage: The prognosis is very poor.\\u000a Recent studies showed that aggressive radical resection for advanced gallbladder carcinoma can give an acceptable prognosis.\\u000a However, recurrence frequently remains the main problem after curative resection of advanced gallbladder carcinoma. The aim\\u000a of this study was to identify the patterns

Joon Seong Park; Dong Sup Yoon; Kyung Sik Kim; Jin Sub Choi; Woo Jung Lee; Hoon Sang Chi; Byong Ro Kim

2007-01-01

280

Combined Locoregional and Systemic Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Stage II and III Rectal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Patients with stage T3-4 and\\/or N-positive rectal cancer have a high risk for local recurrence with or without distant metastases. Despite a failure rate of approximately 50%, no standard adjuvant therapy has been defined until recently. Patients and Methods: Between May 1988 and December 1990, 62 patients who underwent potential curative surgery for adenocarcinoma of the rectum were

G. V. Kornek; D. Depisch; G. Salem; M. Karall; M. Rohrbacher; W. Scheithauer

1996-01-01

281

Diabetes mellitus negatively impacts survival of patients with colon cancer, particularly in stage II disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This retrospective study aimed to determine the effects of diabetes on overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival\\u000a (CSS) in patients with newly diagnosed colon cancers, with particular focus on the impact of diabetes on survival at each\\u000a stage of colon cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From January 1999 to January 2008, 2762 consecutive patients diagnosed with colon cancer in Taipei Veterans General Hospital\\u000a were

Yu-Chung Huang; Jen-Kou Lin; Wei-Shone Chen; Tzu-Chen Lin; Shung-Haur Yang; Jeng-Kai Jiang; Shih-Ching Chang; Yuan-Tzu Lan; Huann-Sheng Wang; Chun-Yu Liu; Ya-Wen Yang; Hao-Wei Teng

2011-01-01

282

Phase II trial of the regulatory T cell-depleting agent, denileukin diftitox, in patients with unresectable stage IV melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background We previously found that administration of an interleukin 2/diphtheria toxin conjugate (DAB/IL2; Denileukin Diftitox; ONTAK) to stage IV melanoma patients depleted CD4+CD25HIFoxp3+ regulatory T cells and expanded melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells. The goal of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of DAB/IL2 in an expanded cohort of stage IV melanoma patients. Methods In a single-center, phase II trial, DAB/IL2 (12 ?g/kg; 4 daily doses; 21 day cycles) was administered to 60 unresectable stage IV melanoma patients and response rates were assessed using a combination of 2-[18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Results After DAB/IL2 administration, 16.7% of the 60 patients had partial responses, 5% stable disease and 15% mixed responses. Importantly, 45.5% of the chemo/immuno-naïve sub-population (11/60 patients) experienced partial responses. One year survival was markedly higher in partial responders (80 ± 11.9%) relative to patients with progressive disease (23.7 ± 6.5%; p value < 0.001) and 40 ± 6.2% of the total DAB/IL2-treated population were alive at 1 year. Conclusions These data support the development of multi-center, randomized trials of DAB/IL2 as a monotherapy and in combination with other immunotherapeutic agents for the treatment of stage IV melanoma. Trial registration NCT00299689 PMID:22165955

2011-01-01

283

Mission and sizing analysis for the Beta II two-stage-to-orbit vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Lewis Research Center studied a horizontal takeoff and landing, fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle capable of launching and returning a 10,000 pound payload to low earth orbit using low-risk technology. The vehicle, called Beta 2, was derived from the USAF/Boeing Beta vehicle, a TSTO study vehicle capable of launching a 50,000 pound payload to low earth orbit. Development of the Beta 2 from the USAF/Boeing Beta vehicle occurred in a series of iterations during which the size of the vehicle was decreased to accommodate the smaller payload, the staging Mach number was decreased from 8.0 to 6.5, and the rocket propulsion system was removed from the booster. The final Beta 2 vehicle consisted of a rocket powered orbiter and an all airbreathing booster. The gross takeoff weight of the Beta 2 vehicle was approximately 1.1 million pounds. In addition to its baseline mission, the Beta 2 was capable of delivering approximately 17,500 pounds to the Space Station with the same takeoff gross weight. The mission and sizing analysis performed to arrive at the Beta 2 vehicle is discussed.

Nadell, Shari-Beth; Baumgarten, William J.; Alexander, Stephen W.

1992-02-01

284

Mission and sizing analysis for the Beta II two-stage-to-orbit vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center studied a horizontal takeoff and landing, fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle capable of launching and returning a 10,000 pound payload to low earth orbit using low-risk technology. The vehicle, called Beta 2, was derived from the USAF/Boeing Beta vehicle, a TSTO study vehicle capable of launching a 50,000 pound payload to low earth orbit. Development of the Beta 2 from the USAF/Boeing Beta vehicle occurred in a series of iterations during which the size of the vehicle was decreased to accommodate the smaller payload, the staging Mach number was decreased from 8.0 to 6.5, and the rocket propulsion system was removed from the booster. The final Beta 2 vehicle consisted of a rocket powered orbiter and an all airbreathing booster. The gross takeoff weight of the Beta 2 vehicle was approximately 1.1 million pounds. In addition to its baseline mission, the Beta 2 was capable of delivering approximately 17,500 pounds to the Space Station with the same takeoff gross weight. The mission and sizing analysis performed to arrive at the Beta 2 vehicle is discussed.

Nadell, Shari-Beth; Baumgarten, William J.; Alexander, Stephen W.

1992-01-01

285

Influence of oceanographic processes on the early life stages of the blue shrimp ( Litopenaeus stylirostris) in the Upper Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible relationship between circulation patterns and the recruitment of early stages of penaeid shrimp in the Upper Gulf of California was explored by collecting postlarvae (mesh size 0.505 mm) simultaneously in two locations, one off the coast of Sonora (Golfo de Santa Clara: 31°44'49?N-114°33'12?W) and the other off the Baja California peninsula (San Felipe: 31°11'8.3? N-114°53'13.9?W) during two complete fortnightly cycles (July 12-27, 1995 and June 30-July 16, 1996). Individuals with cephalothoracic length from 0.8 to 3.91 mm without a clear size-increasing pattern were found throughout the sampling period, suggesting continuous recruitment to the area. The circulation in the study area was simulated with a three-dimensional baroclinic model forced with tides and climatological hydrography at the mouth of the Gulf of California, and winds and heat and freshwater fluxes at the sea-air interface. Spawning stock surveys have shown that maximum concentration of mature females is near the coast of Sonora (mainland Mexico). The model predicts surface currents of about 8 cm s -1 and suggests that postlarvae found off the coast of the peninsula may come from a different reproductive unit than those found off the mainland coast. This may explain why postlarvae found in Golfo de Santa Clara (mainland) are larger (and, presumably, older) than those found in San Felipe (Baja California). Possible relationships among circulation patterns, lunar cycle, former Colorado River runoffs and time of spawning are discussed.

Calderon-Aguilera, L. E.; Marinone, S. G.; Aragón-Noriega, E. A.

2003-02-01

286

Temporally and spatially resolved flow in a two-stage axial compressor. II - Computational assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid dynamics of turbomachines are complicated due to aerodynamic interactions between rotors and stators. It is necessary to understand the aerodynamics associated with these interactions in order to design turbomachines that are both light and compact as well as reliable and efficient. The current study uses an unsteady, thin-layer Navier-Stokes zonal approach to investigate the unsteady aerodyamics of a multistage compressor. Relative motion between rotors and stators is made possible by use of systems of patched and overlaid grids. Results have been computed for a 2 1/2-stage compressor configuration. The numerical data compares well with experimental data for surface pressures and wake data. In addition, the effect of grid refinement on the solution is studied.

Gundy-Burlet, K. L.; Rai, M. M.; Stauter, R. C.; Dring, R. P.

1991-01-01

287

Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options by Stage Stage I and Stage II Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment of stage I and stage II ...

288

The influence of micrometastases on prognosis and survival in stage I-II colon cancer patients: the Enroute? Study  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of lymph node metastases remains the most reliable prognostic predictor and the gold indicator for adjuvant treatment in colon cancer (CC). In spite of a potentially curative resection, 20 to 30% of CC patients testing negative for lymph node metastases (i.e. pN0) will subsequently develop locoregional and/or systemic metastases within 5 years. The presence of occult nodal isolated tumor cells (ITCs) and/or micrometastases (MMs) at the time of resection predisposes CC patients to high risk for disease recurrence. These pN0micro+ patients harbouring occult micrometastases may benefit from adjuvant treatment. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the subset of pN0 patients with micrometastases (pN0micro+) and evaluate the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in pN0micro+ CC patients. Methods/design EnRoute+ is an open label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial. All CC patients (age above 18 years) without synchronous locoregional lymph node and/or systemic metastases (clinical stage I-II disease) and operated upon with curative intent are eligible for inclusion. All resected specimens of patients are subject to an ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping procedure (SLNM) following curative resection. The investigation for micrometastases in pN0 patients is done by extended serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin in sentinel lymph nodes which are tumour negative upon standard pathological examination. Patients with ITC/MM-positive sentinel lymph nodes (pN0micro+) are randomized for adjuvant chemotherapy following the CAPOX treatment scheme or observation. The primary endpoint is 3-year disease free survival (DFS). Discussion The EnRoute+ study is designed to improve prognosis in high-risk stage I/II pN0 micro+ CC patients by reducing disease recurrence by adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01097265 PMID:21569373

2011-01-01

289

Foot Kinematics During a Bilateral Heel Rise Test in Participants With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Experimental laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES To compare foot kinematics, using 3-dimensional tracking methods, during a bilateral heel rise between participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and participants with a normal medial longitudinal arch (MLA). BACKGROUND The bilateral heel rise test is commonly used to assess patients with PTTD; however, information about foot kinematics during the test is lacking. METHODS Forty-five individuals volunteered to participate, including 30 patients diagnosed with unilateral stage II PTTD (mean ± SD age, 59.8 ± 11.1 years; body mass index, 29.9 ± 4.8 kg/m2) and 15 controls (mean ± SD age, 56.5 ± 7.7 years; body mass index, 30.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Foot kinematic data were collected during a bilateral heel rise task from the calcaneus (hindfoot), first metatarsal, and hallux, using an Optotrak motion analysis system and Motion Monitor software. A 2-way mixed-effects analysis of variance model, with normalized heel height as a covariate, was used to test for significant differences between the normal MLA and PTTD groups. RESULTS The patients in the PTTD group exhibited significantly greater ankle plantar flexion (mean difference between groups, 7.3°; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1° to 9.5°), greater first metatarsal dorsiflexion (mean difference between groups, 9.0°; 95% CI: 3.7° to 14.4°), and less hallux dorsiflexion (mean difference, 6.7°; 95% CI: 1.7° to 11.8°) compared to controls. At peak heel rise, hindfoot inversion was similar (P = .130) between the PTTD and control groups. CONCLUSION Except for hindfoot eversion/inversion, the differences in foot kinematics in participants with stage II PTTD, when compared to the control group, mainly occur as an offset, not an alteration in shape, of the kinematic patterns. PMID:19648723

HOUCK, JEFF; NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; TOME, JOSHUA; FLEMISTER, ADOLPH

2010-01-01

290

Pathologic Factors Associated with Prognosis after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II/III Microsatellite-Unstable Colorectal Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background: Although there are controversies regarding the benefit of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer (CRC), the pathologic features affecting postchemotherapeutic prognosis in these patients have not been fully identified yet. Methods: A total of 26 histopathologic and immunohistochemical factors were comprehensively evaluated in 125 stage II or III MSI-H CRC patients who underwent curative resection followed by fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. We statistically analyzed the associations of these factors with disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Using a Kaplan- Meier analysis with log-rank test, we determined that ulceroinfiltrative gross type (p=.003), pT4 (p<.001), pN2 (p=.002), perineural invasion (p=.001), absence of peritumoral lymphoid reaction (p=.041), signet ring cell component (p=.006), and cribriform comedo component (p=.004) were significantly associated with worse DFS in patients receiving oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=45). By contrast, pT4 (p<.001) and tumor budding-positivity (p=.032) were significant predictors of poor survival in patients receiving non-oxaliplatin–based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=80). In Cox proportional hazards regression model-based univariate and multivariate analyses, pT category (pT1-3 vs pT4) was the only significant prognostic factor in patients receiving non-oxaliplatin–based adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas pT category, signet ring cell histology and cribriform comedo histology remained independent prognostic factors in patients receiving oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions: pT4 status is the most significant pathologic determinant of poor outcome after fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II/III MSI-H CRC.

Kim, Jung Ho; Bae, Jeong Mo; Oh, Hyeon Jeong; Lee, Hye Seung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

2015-01-01

291

A Phase II trial of docetaxel and carboplatin administered every two weeks as preoperative therapy for stage II or III breast cancer: NCCTG Study N0338  

PubMed Central

Objective We conducted a multicenter phase II trial to assess the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel (D) and carboplatin (C) combination as neoadjuvant therapy for stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Methods Patients received D 75 mg/m2 and C AUC 6 on day 1 followed by pegfilgrastim on day 2, every 14 days for 4 cycles, followed by definitive breast surgery. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving pathologic complete remission (pCR), defined as disappearance of all invasive and in situ tumor in the breast and axilla after chemotherapy. Results Fifty-seven women, median age 53 y were enrolled. 38 (67%) had ER+, 31 (54%) PR+, and 6 (11%) HER2+ disease; 9 had triple negative BC (TNBC). Forty-three (75%, 95%CI: 62%–86%) out of 57 eligible patients had clinical response (15 cCR, 28 cPR). Nine (16%, 90% CI :10%–28%) patients had pCR. Four of 9 (44%) pts with TNBC achieved pCR. Thrombocytopenia (5%) was the only grade 4 adverse event (AE). The most common grade 3 AE were thrombocytopenia 19%, fatigue 12%, and anemia 9%. Conclusions 4 cycles of 2-weekly D and C are feasible with acceptable toxicity and pCR rate of 16%. This regimen can be considered for neoadjuvant therapy of BC, particularly for patients not candidates for anthracycline therapy. High pCR rate of 44% noted in a subset of patients with TNBC is encouraging and needs to be validated in large prospective trial. PMID:22868240

Roy, Vivek; Pockaj, Barbara A.; Allred, Jacob B.; Apsey, Heidi; Northfelt, Donald W.; Nikcevich, Daniel; Mattar, Bassam; Perez, Edith A.

2012-01-01

292

Effect of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in this study. PET/CT was performed in addition to the initial assessment. Results: In 3 cases, PET/CT showed extra-axillary lymph node involvement that had not been demonstrated with conventional techniques. Two of these patients had hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the subpectoral and infraclavicular regions, and the third had a hypermetabolic internal mammary node. PET/CT showed distant uptake in 4 women. Of these 4 women, 1 had pleural involvement and 3 had bone metastasis. Overall, of the 39 women, the PET/CT results modified the initial stage in 7 (18%). The modified staging altered the treatment plan for 5 patients (13%). It led to radiotherapy in 4 patients (bone metastasis, pleural lesion, subpectoral lymph nodes, and internal mammary nodes) and excision of, and radiotherapy to, the infraclavicular lymph nodes in 1 patient. Conclusions: PET/CT can provide information on extra-axillary lymph node involvement and can uncover occult distant metastases in a significant percentage of patients. Therefore, initial PET/CT could enable better treatment planning for patients with Stage II and III breast cancer.

Groheux, David [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France)], E-mail: dgroheux@yahoo.fr; Moretti, Jean-Luc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Baillet, Georges [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Espie, Marc; Giacchetti, Sylvie [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Hennequin, Christophe [EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hartmann Hospital, Neuilly sur Seine (France); Cuvier, Caroline [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Sarandi, Farid [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Misset, Jean-Louis [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France)

2008-07-01

293

Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease. For disease-specific survival, recurrent disease was the only significant factor. Primary site on the lower limb had an adverse effect on locoregional control. For distant control, the only significant factor was residual disease. Conclusions: The multivariate analysis suggests chemotherapy has no effect on survival, but because of the wide confidence limits, a chemotherapy effect cannot be excluded. A study of this size is inadequately powered to detect small improvements in survival, and a larger randomized study remains the only way to truly confirm whether chemotherapy improves the results in high-risk MCC.

Poulsen, Michael G. [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia)]. E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Clinic, Melbourne (Australia); Porter, Ian [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia); Walpole, Euan [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia); Hamilton, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Tripcony, Lee [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

2006-01-01

294

Phase II clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints: Optimal two-stage designs with one-sample log-rank test  

PubMed Central

Summary Phase II clinical trials are often conducted to determine whether a new treatment is sufficiently promising to warrant a major controlled clinical evaluation against a standard therapy. We consider single-arm phase II clinical trials with right censored survival time responses where the ordinary one-sample logrank test is commonly used for testing the treatment efficacy. For planning such clinical trials this paper presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that the expected sample size is minimized if the new regimen has low efficacy subject to constraints of the type I and type II errors. Two-stage designs which minimize the maximal sample size are also determined. Optimal and minimax designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated along with examples. PMID:24338995

Kwak, Minjung; Jung, Sin-Ho

2014-01-01

295

Preoperative plasma fibrinogen predicts cervical metastasis in patients with stage I/II carcinoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels with clinico-pathological parameters and disease-free survival in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). We retrospectively studied 76 patients with OTSCC who underwent a partial glossectomy only, at a single centre, between 1996 and 2007. Among the 76 patients, 30 eventually developed cervical metastasis. Preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels were determined and correlated with clinico-pathological findings by t-test or analysis of variance methods. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association of preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels and disease-free survival. Elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen were positively related with growth type (P<0.001), differentiation (P<0.001), thickness (P<0.001), and the infiltrative growth ratio (P=0.032). Univariate analysis showed that growth type (P<0.001), differentiation (P<0.001), thickness (P<0.001), and preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels (P<0.001) were significantly correlated with disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that the plasma fibrinogen level remained an independent factor for disease-free survival after partial glossectomy for OTSCC (P=0.029). A high preoperative plasma fibrinogen level is an independent predictor of cervical metastasis after partial glossectomy for OTSCC. A conservative supraomohyoid neck dissection is appropriate in patients with stage I/II carcinoma of the tongue whose preoperative plasma fibrinogen is >300 mg/dl. PMID:24183736

Peng, P; Shen, J; Dong, J-B; Zhang, Y

2014-04-01

296

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

297

Stages of Renal Cell Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Renal Cell Cancer Key Points for This Section After renal cell cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... Stage II Stage III Stage IV After renal cell cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

298

Outcomes and Effect of Radiotherapy in Patients With Stage I or II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and the effect of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all patients diagnosed with Stage I, IE, II, or IIE DLBCL between 1988 and 2004. The analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Patients who had died or were lost to follow-up within 6 months of diagnosis were excluded. Results: A total of 13,420 patients met the search criteria. Of these, 5,547 (41%) had received RT and 7,873 (59%) had not. RT was associated with a significant DSS (hazard ratio, 0.82, p <0.0001) and OS benefit that persisted during the 15 years of follow-up. Elderly patients, defined either as those >60 or >70 years old, had significantly improved DSS and OS associated with RT. On multivariate analysis, RT was significantly associated with increased DSS and OS. The 5-year DSS outcomes were highly variable among patient subsets, defined by age, stage, and extranodal disease (range for RT-treated patients, 70% for Stage II, age >60 years to 87% for Stage I, age {<=}60 years). Conclusion: This analysis presents the largest detailed data set of Stage I-II DLBCL patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that RT is associated with a survival advantage in patients with localized DLBCL, a benefit that extends to elderly patients. Outcomes for discrete patient subsets varied greatly. The development of tailored therapy according to the relapse risk is warranted, rather than uniform treatment of all early-stage DLBCL.

Ballonoff, Ari [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: ari.ballonoff@uchsc.edu; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Schwer, Amanda; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Bassetti, Michael; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

2008-12-01

299

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

2015-04-09

300

A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. II - Electrical coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a model of global atmospheric electricity used to examine the effect of upper atmospheric generators on the global electrical circuit. The model represents thunderstorms as dipole current generators randomly distributed in areas of known thunderstorm frequency; the electrical conductivity in the model increases with altitude, and electrical effects are coupled with a passive magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. The large horizontal-scale potential differences at ionospheric heights map downward into the lower atmosphere where the perturbations in the ground electric field are superimposed on the diurnal variation. Finally, changes in the upper atmospheric conductivity due to solar flares, polar cap absorptions, and Forbush decreases are shown to alter the downward mapping of the high-latitude potential pattern and the global distribution of fields and currents.

Roble, R. G.; Hays, P. B.

1979-01-01

301

Acid mine drainage at Cerro Rico de Potosí II: severe degradation of the Upper Rio Pilcomayo watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ag, Pb, Sn and Zn ores have been intensively mined and processed at Cerro Rico de Potosí, Bolivia since 1545. Acid mine drainage\\u000a (AMD) and mineral processing plant effluent are prime sources of water contamination in the headwaters of the Upper Rio Pilcomayo\\u000a watershed. Streams receiving AMD drainage from the slopes of Cerro Rico and surrounding landscapes were sampled during

W. H. J. Strosnider; F. S. Llanos López; R. W. Nairn

302

Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... available from the NCI Web site . Stage I Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may ... available from the NCI Web site . Stage II Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage II gastric cancer may ...

303

Treatment Options by Stage (Pancreatic Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options by Stage Stages I and II Pancreatic Cancer Treatment of stage I and stage II pancreatic cancer ...

304

Poststroke upper limb recovery.  

PubMed

Upper limb recovery after a stroke is suboptimal. Only a few individuals achieve full functional use of the hemiparetic arm. Complex primary and secondary impairments may affect recovery of upper limb function in stroke survivors. In addition, multiple personal, social, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors may interact to positively or negatively influence recovery during the different stages of rehabilitation. The current management of upper limb dysfunction poststroke has become more evidence based. In this article, we review the standard of care for upper limb poststroke rehabilitation, the evidence supporting the treatment modalities that currently exist and the exciting new developments in the therapeutic pipeline. PMID:25520020

Tsu, Adelyn P; Abrams, Gary M; Byl, Nancy N

2014-11-01

305

Expression of two nonallelic type II procollagen genes during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis is characterized by stage-specific production of alternatively spliced transcripts  

PubMed Central

The pattern of type II collagen expression during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis has been established after isolating specific cDNA and genomic clones. Evidence is presented suggesting that in X. laevis there are two transcriptionally active copies of the type II procollagen gene. Both genes are activated at the beginning of neurula stage and steady-state mRNA levels progressively increase thereafter. Initially, the transcripts are localized to notochord, somites, and the dorsal region of the lateral plate mesoderm. At later stages of development and parallel to increased mRNA accumulation, collagen expression becomes progressively more confined to chondrogenic regions of the tadpole. During the early period of mRNA accumulation, there is also a transient pattern of expression in localized sites that will later not undergo chondrogenesis, such as the floor plate in the ventral neural tube. At later times and coincident with the appearance of chondrogenic tissues in the developing embryo, expression of the procollagen genes is characterized by the production of an additional, alternatively spliced transcript. The alternatively spliced sequences encode the cysteine-rich globular domain in the NH2-propeptide of the type II procollagen chain. Immunohistochemical analyses with a type II collagen monoclonal antibody documented the deposition of the protein in the extracellular matrix of the developing embryo. Type II collagen expression is therefore temporally regulated by tissue-specific transcription and splicing factors directing the synthesis of distinct molecular forms of the precursor protein in the developing Xenopus embryo. PMID:1918153

1991-01-01

306

Yoga Skills Training or Attention Control for Reducing Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms During Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II-IV Colorectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Depressive Symptoms; Fatigue; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2014-12-10

307

Anemia and long-term outcome in adjuvant and neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy of stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma: The Freiburg experience (1989-2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the long-term outcome of standard 5-FU based adjuvant or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and to identify the predictive factors, especially anemia before and after radiotherapy as well as hemoglobin increase or decrease during radiotherapy. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-six patients with Union International Contre Cancer (UICC) stage II and III rectal adenocarcinomas, who underwent resection by conventional surgical techniques

Christian Weissenberger; Michael Geissler; Florian Otto; Annette Barke; Karl Henne; Georg von Plehn; Alex Rein; Christine Müller; Susanne Bartelt; Michael Henke

308

Cyclin D1, p16 and retinoblastoma gene product expression as a predictor for prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer at stages I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of the immunohistochemical expressions of cyclin D1, p16 and the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) with the prognoses of 106 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at stages I and II after a complete resection was investigated. We used antibodies recognizing nuclear and cytoplasmic cyclin D1, p16 and pRB. In 106 tumors, the positive rates of cyclin D1,

Mulan Jin; Shoichi Inoue; Tomohiro Umemura; Jun Moriya; Mikio Arakawa; Kazuo Nagashima; Hiroyuki Kato

2001-01-01

309

Survival and risk of adverse events in older patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for resected stages II-IIIA lung cancer: observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the survival and risk of serious adverse events in older patients with stages II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer treated with or without postoperative platinum based chemotherapy.Design Observational cohort study.Setting Cases of lung cancer in Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry linked to Medicare files, 1992-2005, and follow-up data to December 2007.Participants 3324 patients aged more than 65

Juan P Wisnivesky; Cardinale B Smith; Stuart Packer; Gary M Strauss; Linda Lurslurchachai; Alex Federman; Ethan A Halm

2011-01-01

310

In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C?10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. PMID:23871080

Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

2013-12-01

311

Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: Design of Interactive Feedback for upper limb rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. Results The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. Conclusions The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time. PMID:21899779

2011-01-01

312

Motor impairments related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis Part II: abnormal upper extremity joint torque synergies  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, and the timing of brain injury may affect the resulting motor impairment. In part I of this paper series it was demonstrated that the distribution of weakness in the upper extremity depended on the timing of brain injury in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. Objective The goal of this study was to characterize how timing of brain injury impacts joint torque synergies, or losses of independent joint control. Method Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into three groups based on the timing of their injury: before birth (PRE-natal, n=8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n=8) and after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n=8). Individuals with hemiparesis, as well as 8 typically developing peers participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks while their efforts were recorded by a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell. Motor output in 4 joints of the upper extremity were concurrently measured during 8 primary torque generation tasks to quantify joint torque synergies. Results There were a number of significant coupling patterns identified in individuals with hemiparesis that differed from the typically developing group. POST-natal differences were most noted in the coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, while the PRE-natal group demonstrated significant distal joint coupling with elbow flexion. Conclusion The torque synergies measured provide indirect evidence for the use of bulbospinal pathways in the POST-natal group, while those with earlier injury may utilize relatively preserved ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways. PMID:23911972

Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J.; Dewald, Julius P.A.

2014-01-01

313

Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

2015-03-02

314

Pretreatment prognostic factors in patients with early-stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate influence of various pretreatment prognostic factors in patients with early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients were treated with tumor doses of 69.6 Gy, 1.2-Gy, twice-daily fractionation. There were 49 patients with Stage I and 67 patients with Stage II. Eighty patients had Karnofsky performance status (KPS) 90-100 and 95 patients had <5% weight loss. Peripheral tumors were observed in 57 patients. Squamous histology was observed in 70 patients and the majority of patients had concomitant disease (n = 72). Results: The median survival time for all patients was 29 months; 5-year survival was 29%. The median time to local progression and the distant metastasis were not achieved, whereas 5-year local progression-free and distant metastasis-free survivals were 50% and 72%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified KPS, weight loss, location, histology, and the reason for not undergoing surgery as prognostic factors for survival. KPS, location, and histology influenced local progression-free survival, whereas only KPS and weight loss influenced distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis identified KPS and weight loss as the most important prognostic factors of outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with hyperfractionation radiation therapy.

Jeremic, Branislav [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)]. E-mail: b.jeremic@iaea.org; Milicic, Biljana [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Dagovic, Aleksandar [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Acimovic, Ljubisa [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Milisavljevic, Slobodan [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)

2006-07-15

315

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom

Joseph N. Cannon; David E. De Lucia; William M. Jackson; James H. Porter

1984-01-01

316

Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images. II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Generation and dissipation of magnetic fields is a fundamental physical process on the Sun. In comparison to flux emergence and the initial stages of sunspot formation, the demise of sunspots still lacks a comprehensive description. Aims: The evolution of sunspots is most commonly discussed in terms of their intensity and magnetic field. Here, we present additional information about the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of sunspots towards the end of their existence. Methods: We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca ii H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT echelle H? ?656.28 nm spectra and Fe i ?630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms, in addition to the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. Results: We perform a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observe moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumbra had decayed. We also detect a superpenumbral structure around this pore. We find that MMFs follow well-defined, radial paths from the spot all the way to the border of a supergranular cell surrounding the spot. In contrast, flux emergence near the other sunspot prevents the establishment of similar well ordered flow patterns, which could be discerned around a tiny pore of merely 2 Mm diameter. After the disappearance of the sunspots/pores, a coherent patch of abnormal granulation remained at their location, which was characterized by more uniform horizontal proper motions, low divergence values, and smaller photospheric Doppler velocities. This region, thus, differs significantly from granulation and other areas covered by G-band bright points. We conclude that this peculiar flow pattern is a signature of sunspot decay and the dispersal of magnetic flux.

Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; Deng, N.; Liu, C.; Shimizu, T.; Wang, H.; Denker, C.

2012-02-01

317

Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

2014-04-21

318

Prognostic Impact of Erythropoietin Expression and Erythropoietin Receptor Expression on Locoregional Control and Survival of Patients Irradiated for Stage II/III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Prognostic factors can guide the physician in selecting the optimal treatment for an individual patient. This study investigates the prognostic value of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor (EPO-R) expression of tumor cells for locoregional control and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Fourteen factors were investigated in 62 patients irradiated for stage II/III NSCLC, as follows: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), histology, grading, TNM/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack years (average number of packages of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked), smoking during radiotherapy, hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy, EPO expression, and EPO-R expression. Additionally, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R were compared to those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and to those expressing neither EPO nor EPO-R. Results: On univariate analysis, improved locoregional control was associated with AJCC stage II cancer (p < 0.048), surgery (p < 0.042), no smoking during radiotherapy (p = 0.024), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). A trend was observed for a KPS of >70 (p = 0.08), an N stage of 0 to 1 (p = 0.07), and no EPO-R expression (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, AJCC stage II and no EPO expression remained significant. No smoking during radiotherapy was almost significant. On univariate analysis, improved survival was associated with N stage 0 to 1 (p = 0.009), surgery (p = 0.039), hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d (p = 0.016), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, N stage 0 to 1 and no EPO expression maintained significance. Hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d were almost significant. On subgroup analyses, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R had worse outcomes than those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and those expressing neither EPO nor RPO-R. Conclusions: EPO expression of tumor cells was an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control and survival in patients irradiated for NSCLC. EPO-R expression showed a trend. Patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R have an unfavorable prognosis.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Setter, Cornelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Noack, Frank [Institute of Pathology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany)

2011-06-01

319

Differential prognostic significance of extralobar and intralobar nodal metastases in patients with surgically resected stage II non–small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to determine the prognostic significance of extralobar nodal metastases versus intralobar nodal metastases in patients with lung cancer and pathologic stage N1 disease. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained lung resection database identified 230 patients with pathologic stage II, N1 non–small cell lung cancer from 1997 to 2011. The surgical pathology reports were reviewed to identify the involved N1 stations. The outcome variables included recurrence and death. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the R statistical software package. Results A total of 122 patients had extralobar nodal metastases (level 10 or 11); 108 patients were identified with intralobar nodal disease (levels 12–14). The median follow-up was 111 months. The baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. No significant differences were noted in the surgical approach, anatomic resections performed, or adjuvant therapy rates between the 2 groups. Overall, 80 patients developed recurrence during follow-up: 33 (30%) of 108 in the intralobar and 47 (38%) of 122 in the extralobar cohort. The median overall survival was 46.9 months for the intralobar cohort and 24.4 months for the extralobar cohort (P<.001). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model that included the presence of extralobar nodal disease, age, tumor size, tumor histologic type, and number of positive lymph nodes, extralobar nodal disease independently predicted both recurrence-free and overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.81; P = .001). Conclusions In patients who underwent surgical resection for stage II non–small cell lung cancer, the presence of extralobar nodal metastases at level 10 or 11 predicted significantly poorer outcomes than did nodal metastases at stations 12 to 14. This finding has prognostic importance and implications for adjuvant therapy and surveillance strategies for patients within the heterogeneous stage II (N1) category. PMID:24507984

Haney, John C.; Hanna, Jennifer M.; Berry, Mark F.; Harpole, David H.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Tong, Betty C.; Onaitis, Mark W.

2015-01-01

320

Sensitivity of a simplified forced oscillation technique for detection of upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a simplified variant of forced oscillation technique (FOT) was studied for assessment of dynamic upper airway obstruction during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The airway impedance |PFOT| was measured by FOT and the oesophageal pressure (Poes) was recorded during stable stage II sleep in 11 patients with OSA. The CPAP

Joachim H. Ficker; Gunther H. Wiest; Gerald Asshoff; Florian S. Fuchs; Alexander H. Schmelzer; Igor A. Harsch; Eckhart G. Hahn

2001-01-01

321

Heavy Chains of Inter Alpha Inhibitor (I?I) Inhibit the Human Complement System at Early Stages of the Cascade*  

PubMed Central

Inter alpha inhibitor (I?I) is an abundant serum protein consisting of three polypeptides: two heavy chains (HC1 and HC2) and bikunin, a broad-specificity Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor. The complex is covalently held together by chondroitin sulfate but during inflammation I?I may interact with TNF-stimulated gene 6 protein (TSG-6), which supports transesterification of heavy chains to hyaluronan. Recently, I?I was shown to inhibit mouse complement in vivo and to protect from complement-mediated lung injury but the mechanism of such activity was not elucidated. Using human serum depleted from I?I, we found that I?I is not an essential human complement inhibitor as was reported for mice and that such serum has unaltered hemolytic activity. However, purified human I?I inhibited classical, lectin and alternative complement pathways in vitro when added in excess to human serum. The inhibitory activity was dependent on heavy chains but not bikunin and detected at the level of initiating molecules (MBL, properdin) in the lectin/alternative pathways or C4b in the classical pathway. Furthermore, I?I affected formation and assembly of the C1 complex and prevented assembly of the classical pathway C3-convertase. Presence and putative interactions with TSG-6 did not affect the ability of I?I to inhibit complement thus implicating I?I as a potentially important complement inhibitor once enriched onto hyaluronan moieties in the course of local inflammatory processes. In support of this, we found a correlation between I?I/HC-containing proteins and hemolytic activity of synovial fluid from patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22528482

Okroj, Marcin; Holmquist, Emelie; Sjölander, Jonatan; Corrales, Leticia; Saxne, Tore; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; Blom, Anna M.

2012-01-01

322

Class II versus Class III Radical Hysterectomy in Stage IB–IIA Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the extent of the radicality in the treatment of stage IB–IIA cervical carcinoma with respect to survival, pattern of relapse, and morbidity.Methods. Two-hundred forty-three patients with cervical carcinoma (FIGO stages IB and IIa) were enrolled in a prospective randomized study comparing two types of radical hysterectomy (Piver–Rutledge–Smith class

Fabio Landoni; Andrea Maneo; Gennaro Cormio; Patrizia Perego; Rodolfo Milani; Orlando Caruso; Costantino Mangioni

2001-01-01

323

Interaction between Gastric and Upper Small Intestinal Hormones in the Regulation of Hunger and Satiety: Ghrelin and Cholecystokinin Take the Central Stage  

PubMed Central

Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in the forebrain, such as hypothalamic nuclei. So far, ghrelin is the only known hormone that is peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake, whereas the suppression of feeding seems to be much more redundantly controlled by a number of gut peptides. Cholecystokinin produced in the duodenum is a well established anorexigenic hormone that interacts with ghrelin to modulate food intake indicating a regulatory network located at the first site of contact with nutrients in the stomach and upper small intestine. In addition, a number of peptides including leptin, urocortin 2, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 interact synergistically with CCK to potentiate its satiety signaling effect. New developments have led to the identification of additional peptides in X/A-like cells either derived from the pro-ghrelin gene by alternative splicing and posttranslational processing (obestatin) or a distinct gene (nucleobindin2/nesfatin-1) which have been investigated for their influence on food intake. PMID:21428875

Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

2013-01-01

324

PAK6 increase chemoresistance and is a prognostic marker for stage II and III colon cancer patients undergoing 5-FU based chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

p21-Activated kinase 6 (PAK6) has been implicated in radiotherapy and docetaxel resistance. We have further evaluated PAK6 as a predictor of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment response in colon cancer. Here we report that in colon cancer PAK6 promotes tumor progression and chemoresistance both in vitro and in vivo. In the clinical analysis, PAK6 was overexpressed in 104 of 147 (70.75%) stage II and III patients who received 5-FU based chemotherapy after surgery. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that PAK6 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (P < 0.001). Colon cancer cell lines showed increased PAK6 expression upon 5-FU treatment. In PAK6-knockdown cells treated with 5-FU, cell viability and phosphorylation of BAD decreased, and the number of apoptotic cells, levels of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP increased compared to control cells. The opposite was observed in PAK6 overexpressing cells. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of PAK6 blocked cells in G2-M phase. Furthermore, Animal experiments results in vivo are consistent with outcomes in vitro. This study demonstrates that PAK6 is an independent prognostic factor for adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with stage II and stage III colon cancer. PMID:25426562

Yan, Dongwang; Cui, Feifei; Wang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Fudong; Xue, Yingming; Feng, Xiaodong; Wang, Jingtao; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Senlin; Yu, Yang; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

2015-01-01

325

PAK6 increase chemoresistance and is a prognostic marker for stage II and III colon cancer patients undergoing 5-FU based chemotherapy.  

PubMed

p21-Activated kinase 6 (PAK6) has been implicated in radiotherapy and docetaxel resistance. We have further evaluated PAK6 as a predictor of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment response in colon cancer. Here we report that in colon cancer PAK6 promotes tumor progression and chemoresistance both in vitro and in vivo. In the clinical analysis, PAK6 was overexpressed in 104 of 147 (70.75%) stage II and III patients who received 5-FU based chemotherapy after surgery. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that PAK6 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (P < 0.001). Colon cancer cell lines showed increased PAK6 expression upon 5-FU treatment. In PAK6-knockdown cells treated with 5-FU, cell viability and phosphorylation of BAD decreased, and the number of apoptotic cells, levels of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP increased compared to control cells. The opposite was observed in PAK6 overexpressing cells. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of PAK6 blocked cells in G2-M phase. Furthermore, Animal experiments results in vivo are consistent with outcomes in vitro. This study demonstrates that PAK6 is an independent prognostic factor for adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with stage II and stage III colon cancer. PMID:25426562

Chen, Jian; Lu, Huijun; Yan, Dongwang; Cui, Feifei; Wang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Fudong; Xue, Yingming; Feng, Xiaodong; Wang, Jingtao; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Senlin; Yu, Yang; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

2015-01-01

326

NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

Ackerman, Thomas P.

1994-01-01

327

Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation With Paclitaxel/Carboplatin for Selected Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Trimodality Phase II Protocol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate, in a Phase II trial conducted August 1998 through January 2001, the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and definitive surgery in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), Stages IIIA bulky and selected Stage IIIB. Patients and Methods: Staging of LA-NSCLC included computed tomography of cranium, thorax, and abdomen, whole-body positron emission tomography, and video mediastinoscopy. Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin was followed by hyperfractionated accelerated thoracic radiotherapy (45 Gy) with simultaneous weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. Four to six weeks after completion of induction therapy, restaging and resection of primary tumor and lymph nodes was intended. Results: A total of 59 consecutive patients were enrolled, 25% with Stage IIIA bulky disease, 65% with Stage IIIB, and 10% with Stage IV (excluded from further analysis). Forty-one patients completed induction therapy; in 52.4% a functional (positron emission tomography) downstaging was proven. Thirty-two patients (59.3%) underwent complete tumor resection, and 5 patients had an exploratory thoracotomy only. Histopathologic downstaging was proven in 59.4% and complete response in 21.9%. Hospital mortality was 5.4%. Median duration of follow-up for living patients was 62.1 months. Overall median survival was 22.6 months, 58.2 months for completely resected patients. During induction chemotherapy, Grade 3/4 granulocytopenia occurred in 8% of patients; the most common Grade 3/4 toxicity of chemoradiation was esophagitis, in 26.4% of patients. Conclusions: Induction paclitaxel/carboplatin with hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiotherapy followed by complete tumor resection demonstrates high efficacy in LA-NSCLC and offers a promising chance of long-term survival.

Hehr, Thomas, E-mail: thomashehr@vinzenz.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Friedel, Godehard; Steger, Volker [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Spengler, Werner [Department of Pneumology, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Eschmann, Susanne M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Bamberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Budach, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duesseldorf, Tuebingen (Germany)

2010-04-15

328

Survival analysis of children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors treated with surgery or surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

For children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT), the survival is good with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is limited data on surgical results for cases in which there was no imaging or pathologic evidence of residual tumor, but in which serum tumor markers either increased or failed to normalize after an appropriate period of half-life time post-surgery. To determine the use of chemotherapy for children with stage II germ cell tumors, we analyzed the outcomes (relapse rate and overall survival) of patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1990 and May 2013. Twenty-four pediatric patients with a median age of 20 months (range, 4 months to 17 years) were enrolled in this study. In 20 cases (83.3%), the tumors had yolk sac histology. For definitive treatment, 21 patients underwent surgery alone, and 3 patients received surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. No relapse was observed in the 3 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas relapse occurred in 16 of the 21 patients (76.2%) treated with surgery alone. There were a total of 2 deaths. Treatment was stopped for 1 patient, who died 3 months later due to the tumor. The other patient achieved complete response after salvage treatment, but developed lung and pelvic metastases 7 months later and died of the tumor after stopping treatment. For children treated with surgery alone and surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, the 3-year event-free survival rates were 23.8% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.042), and the 3-year overall survival rates were 90.5% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.588). These results suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy can help to reduce the recurrence rate and increase the survival rate for patients with stage II germ cell tumors. PMID:25322864

Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Qin, Zi-Ke; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Sun, Fei-Fei

2015-01-01

329

A prospective randomised phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with stage II colon cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in stage II colon cancer. Patients with stage II colon cancer were randomised to either adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU/LV (100?mg?m?2 LV+450?mg?m?2 5-FU weekly, weeks 1–6, in 8 weeks cycles × 7) or surveillance only. Five hundred patients were evaluable for analyses. After a median follow-up of 95.6 months, 55 of 252 patients (21.8%) have died in the 5-FU/LV arm and 58 of 248 patients (23.4%) in the surveillance arm. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the two treatment arms (hazard ratios, HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.61–1.27, P=0.49). The relative risk for tumour relapse was higher for patients on the surveillance arm than for those on the 5-FU/LV arm; however, this difference was not statistically significant (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.45–1.06, P=0.09). Consequently, disease-free survival (DFS) was not significantly different between the two trial arms. In conclusion, results of this trial demonstrate a trend to a lower risk for relapse in patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU/LV for stage II colon cancer. However, in this study with limited power to detect small differences between the study arms, adjuvant chemotherapy failed to significantly improve DFS and OS. PMID:17895886

Schippinger, W; Samonigg, H; Schaberl-Moser, R; Greil, R; Thödtmann, R; Tschmelitsch, J; Jagoditsch, M; Steger, G G; Jakesz, R; Herbst, F; Hofbauer, F; Rabl, H; Wohlmuth, P; Gnant, M; Thaler, J

2007-01-01

330

A prospective randomised phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with stage II colon cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in stage II colon cancer. Patients with stage II colon cancer were randomised to either adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU/LV (100 mg m(-2) LV+450 mg m(-2) 5-FU weekly, weeks 1-6, in 8 weeks cycles x 7) or surveillance only. Five hundred patients were evaluable for analyses. After a median follow-up of 95.6 months, 55 of 252 patients (21.8%) have died in the 5-FU/LV arm and 58 of 248 patients (23.4%) in the surveillance arm. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the two treatment arms (hazard ratios, HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.61-1.27, P=0.49). The relative risk for tumour relapse was higher for patients on the surveillance arm than for those on the 5-FU/LV arm; however, this difference was not statistically significant (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.45-1.06, P=0.09). Consequently, disease-free survival (DFS) was not significantly different between the two trial arms. In conclusion, results of this trial demonstrate a trend to a lower risk for relapse in patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU/LV for stage II colon cancer. However, in this study with limited power to detect small differences between the study arms, adjuvant chemotherapy failed to significantly improve DFS and OS. PMID:17895886

Schippinger, W; Samonigg, H; Schaberl-Moser, R; Greil, R; Thödtmann, R; Tschmelitsch, J; Jagoditsch, M; Steger, G G; Jakesz, R; Herbst, F; Hofbauer, F; Rabl, H; Wohlmuth, P; Gnant, M; Thaler, J

2007-10-22

331

Survival analysis of children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors treated with surgery or surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy.  

PubMed

For children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT), the survival is good with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is limited data on surgical results for cases in which there was no imaging or pathologic evidence of residual tumor, but in which serum tumor markers either increased or failed to normalize after an appropriate period of half-life time post-surgery. To determine the use of chemotherapy for children with stage II germ cell tumors, we analyzed the outcomes (relapse rate and overall survival) of patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1990 and May 2013. Twenty-four pediatric patients with a median age of 20 months (range, 4 months to 17 years) were enrolled in this study. In 20 cases (83.3%), the tumors had yolk sac histology. For definitive treatment, 21 patients underwent surgery alone, and 3 patients received surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. No relapse was observed in the 3 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas relapse occurred in 16 of the 21 patients (76.2%) treated with surgery alone. There were a total of 2 deaths. Treatment was stopped for 1 patient, who died 3 months later due to the tumor. The other patient achieved complete response after salvage treatment, but developed lung and pelvic metastases 7 months later and died of the tumor after stopping treatment. For children treated with surgery alone and surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, the 3-year event-free survival rates were 23.8% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.042), and the 3-year overall survival rates were 90.5% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.588). These results suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy can help to reduce the recurrence rate and increase the survival rate for patients with stage II germ cell tumors. PMID:25322864

Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Qin, Zi-Ke; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Sun, Fei-Fei

2015-02-01

332

Post-disposal orbital evolution of satellites and upper stages used by the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations: The long-term impact on the Medium Earth Orbit environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term evolution and environmental impact in MEO of all the abandoned spacecraft and upper stages associated with the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations were analyzed. The orbits of the disposed objects, as of 1 May 2011, were propagated for 200 years and snapshots of their evolving distribution were obtained, together with an estimation of the changing collision probability with the spacecraft of the operational navigation systems existing or planned in MEO, i.e., GLONASS, GPS, Beidou and Galileo. The probability that the abandoned objects considered will collide with the operational spacecraft of the navigation constellations is very low, even taking into account the intrinsic eccentricity instability of the disposal orbits. Assuming the present or envisaged configuration of the constellations in MEO, the probability of collision, integrated over 200 years, would be <1/300 with a GLONASS spacecraft, <1/15,000 with a GPS or Beidou spacecraft, and <1/250,000 with a Galileo spacecraft. The worst disposal strategy consists in abandoning satellites and upper stages close to the altitude of the operational constellation (GLONASS), while a re-orbiting a few hundred km away (GPS) is able to guarantee an effective long-term dilution of the collision risk, irrespective of the eccentricity instability due to geopotential and luni-solar perturbations. The disposal strategies applied so far to the GPS satellites should be able to guarantee for at least a few centuries a sustainable MEO environment free of collisions among intact objects. Consequently, there would be no need to adopt disposal schemes targeting also the optimal value of the eccentricity vector. However, it should be pointed out that the GPS disposal strategy was devised well in advance of the Beidou constellation announcement, so most of the abandoned satellites were re-orbited fairly close to the altitude of the new Chinese system. A new re-orbiting approach will be therefore needed in the future.

Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

2012-08-01

333

The Stardust spacecraft is moved in the PHSF to mate it with the 3rd stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers check the mating of the spacecraft Stardust (above) with the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket (below). Targeted for launch Feb. 6 from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard the Delta II rocket, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

334

The Stardust spacecraft is moved in the PHSF to mate it with the 3rd stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers help guide the spacecraft Stardust being lowered in order to mate it with the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch Feb. 6 from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard the Delta II rocket, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

335

An in vivo study of hindfoot 3D kinetics in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot based on weight-bearing CT scan  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the rotation and translation of each joint in the hindfoot and compare the load response in healthy feet with that in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot by analysing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image data during simulated weight-bearing. Methods CT scans of 15 healthy feet and 15 feet with stage II PTTD flatfoot were taken first in a non-weight-bearing condition, followed by a simulated full-body weight-bearing condition. The images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into 3D models. The ‘twice registration’ method in three planes was used to calculate the position of the talus relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint, the navicular relative to the talus in talonavicular joint, and the cuboid relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint. Results From non- to full-body-weight-bearing condition, the difference in the talus position relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint was 0.6° more dorsiflexed (p = 0.032), 1.4° more everted (p = 0.026), 0.9 mm more anterior (p = 0.031) and 1.0 mm more proximal (p = 0.004) in stage II PTTD flatfoot compared with that in a healthy foot. The navicular position difference relative to the talus in the talonavicular joint was 3° more everted (p = 0.012), 1.3 mm more lateral (p = 0.024), 0.8 mm more anterior (p = 0.037) and 2.1 mm more proximal (p = 0.017). The cuboid position difference relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint did not change significantly in rotation and translation (all p ? 0.08). Conclusion Referring to a previous study regarding both the cadaveric foot and the live foot, joint instability occurred in the hindfoot in simulated weight-bearing condition in patients with stage II PTTD flatfoot. The method used in this study might be applied to clinical analysis of the aetiology and evolution of PTTD flatfoot, and may inform biomechanical analyses of the effects of foot surgery in the future. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:255–63. PMID:24324193

Zhang, Y.; Xu, J.; Wang, X.; Huang, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.; Wang, C.; Ma, X.

2013-01-01

336

[Studying the regression pattern of stage II and III retinopathy of prematurity by means of morphometric analysis of retinal vessels in different terms after laser retinal photocoagulation].  

PubMed

Dynamic evaluation of the diameters of central fundus vessels, 2nd order and peripheral vessels as well as the tortuosity index of central zone arteries in stage II and III retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which showed regression after laser treatment, was performed. Obtained data can be used for estimation of the optimal follow-up period ensuring early detection of high probability for ROP progression after laser coagulation and decrease of the number of diagnostic examinations for patients whose pathologic process is resolving. PMID:25306724

Tereshchenko, A V; Bely?, Iu A; Isaev, S V; Trifanenkova, I G; Tereshenkova, M S

2014-01-01

337

Inlet flow distortion in turbomachinery. I - Comparison of theory and experiment in a transonic fan stage. II - A parameter study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present paper, a semi-actuator-disk theory is reviewed that was developed previously for the distorted inflow to a single-stage axial-flow compressor. Flow distortion occurs far upstream; it may be a distortion in stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure, or both. Losses, quasi-steady deviation angles, and reference incidence correlations are included in the analysis, and both subsonic and transonic relative Mach numbers are considered. The theory is compared with measurements made in a transonic fan stage, and a parameter study is carried out to determine the influence of solidity on the attenuation of distortions in stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature.

Seidel, B. S.; Matwey, M. D.; Adamczyk, J. J.

1980-01-01

338

Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2015-03-09

339

Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a fluorescence endoscope for the detection of early cancer is clinically evaluated. the apparatus is based on the imaging of the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of a dye which localizes in the tumor after IV injection with a higher concentration than in the surrounding normal tissue. The tests are carried out in several of the hollow organs, such as the upper aerodigestive tract, the bronchi, and the colon. In the two former cases the dye used is photofrin II, whereas in the latter case conjugates between monoclonal antibodies (Mab) directed against carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) and fluorescein molecules are injected. The fluorescence contrast between tumor and surrounding tissue is enhanced by real-time image processing which eliminates most of the tissue autofluorescence as well as the fluorescence due to the relatively small amount of dye localized in the normal tissue. This is done by recording the fluorescence image in two spectral domains, after which these two images are digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator (lookup-table). The sources of false positives and false negatives are evaluated in terms of the fluorescent dye and tissue optical properties.

Wagnieres, Georges A.; Braichotte, Daniel; Chatelain, Andre; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Calmes, J.-M.; Givel, Jean-Claude; Chapuis, G.; Folli, S.; Pelegrin, A.; Buchegger, F.; Mach, J.-P.; van den Bergh, Hubert

1991-11-01

340

Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-11-10

341

A randomised phase II trial of preoperative chemotherapy of cisplatin–docetaxel or docetaxel alone for clinical stage IB/II non-small-cell lung cancer: results of a Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG 0204)  

PubMed Central

Preoperative chemotherapy is a promising strategy in patients with early-stage resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); optimal chemotherapy remains unclear. Clinical (c-) stage IB/II NSCLC patients were randomised to receive either two cycles of docetaxel (D)–cisplatin (P) combination chemotherapy (D 60?mg?m?2 and P 80?mg?m?2 on day 1) every 3–4 weeks or three cycles of D monotherapy (70?mg?m?2) every 3weeks. Thoracotomy was performed 4–5 weeks (DP) or 3–4 weeks (D) after chemotherapy. The primary end point was 1-year disease-free survival (DFS). From October 2002 to November 2003, 80 patients were randomised. Chemotherapy toxicities were mainly haematologic and well tolerated. There were two early postoperative deaths with DP (one intraoperative bleeding and one empyema). Pathologic complete response was observed in two DP patients. Docetaxel–cisplatin was superior to D in terms of response rate (45 vs 15%) and complete resection rate (95 vs 87%). Both DFS and overall survival were better in DP. Disease-free survival at 1, 2 and 4 years were 78, 65 and 57% with DP, and were 62, 44 and 36% with D, respectively. Preoperative DP was associated with encouraging resection rate and DFS data, and phase III trials for c-stage IB/II NSCLC are warranted. PMID:18728643

Kunitoh, H; Kato, H; Tsuboi, M; Asamura, H; Tada, H; Nagai, K; Mitsudomi, T; Koike, T; Nakagawa, K; Ichinose, Y; Okada, M; Shibata, T; Saijo, N

2008-01-01

342

DROPOUT AND RETENTION RATE METHODOLOGY USED TO ESTIMATE FIRST-STAGE ELEMENTS OF THE TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES FOR DYNAMOD II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EQUATIONS FOR SYSTEM INTAKE, DROPOUT, AND RETENTION RATE CALCULATIONS ARE DERIVED FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, SECONDARY SCHOOLS, AND COLLEGES. THE PROCEDURES DESCRIBED WERE FOLLOWED IN DEVELOPING ESTIMATES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS OF THE TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES USED IN DYNAMOD II. THE PROBABILITY MATRIX CELLS ESTIMATED BY THE PROCEDURES DESCRIBED…

HUDMAN, JOHN T.; ZABROWSKI, EDWARD K.

343

Changed salt appetite and central angiotensin II-induced cellular activation in rat offspring following hypoxia during fetal stages.  

PubMed

Hypoxia in pregnancy may induce fetal growth restriction and cause functional abnormalities during development. The present study determined the long-term influence of hypoxia in fetal life on dipsogenic behavior linked to central angiotensin (Ang) network in the offspring rats. Fetal blood pO(2) and body weight were decreased by hypoxia during pregnancy, followed by a postnatal "catch-up" growth. Subcutaneous hypertonic saline or intracerebroventricular Ang II significantly increased salt intake in the offspring prenatally exposed to hypoxia, while water intake was the same between the two groups. Ang II-induced c-fos expression was detected in the paraventricular nuclei, median preoptic nuclei, supraoptic nuclei, and subfornical organ in the brain, in association with reduced forebrain AT(2) receptor protein abundance in the offspring prenatally exposed to hypoxia. Levels of central AT(1) receptor protein were not changed between the two groups. Hypoxia during pregnancy could be linked to developmental problems related to behavioral dysfunctions in body fluid regulations in later life, in association with the change in central angiotensin II-mediated neural activation and expression of the Ang II receptor in the brain. PMID:20307607

Yang, Weili; Mao, Caiping; Xia, Fei; Zheng, Jianli; Wang, Aiqing; Zhu, Liyan; He, Rui; Xu, Zhice

2010-06-01

344

Congenital upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most causes of upper airway obstruction are rare in the neonatal period and during infancy. They may, however, cause major respiratory problems either initially or during the first few weeks of life. It is important to recognise these problems at an early stage so that appropriate measures to overcome airway obstruction can be initiated, thus avoiding significant hypoxia-related complications. Specific

Robert Dinwiddie

2004-01-01

345

Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 and Anastrozole With or Without Goserelin Acetate in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2015-03-10

346

Dissection of immune gene networks in primary melanoma tumors critical for antitumor surveillance of patients with stage II-III resectable disease.  

PubMed

Patients with resected stage II-III cutaneous melanomas remain at high risk for metastasis and death. Biomarker development has been limited by the challenge of isolating high-quality RNA for transcriptome-wide profiling from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens. Using NanoString technology, RNA from 40 stage II-III FFPE primary melanomas was analyzed and a 53-immune-gene panel predictive of non-progression (area under the curve (AUC)=0.920) was defined. The signature predicted disease-specific survival (DSS P<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS P<0.001). CD2, the most differentially expressed gene in the training set, also predicted non-progression (P<0.001). Using publicly available microarray data from 46 primary human melanomas (GSE15605), a coexpression module enriched for the 53-gene panel was then identified using unbiased methods. A Bayesian network of signaling pathways based on this data identified driver genes. Finally, the proposed 53-gene panel was confirmed in an independent test population of 48 patients (AUC=0.787). The gene signature was an independent predictor of non-progression (P<0.001), RFS (P<0.001), and DSS (P=0.024) in the test population. The identified driver genes are potential therapeutic targets, and the 53-gene panel should be tested for clinical application using a larger data set annotated on the basis of prospectively gathered data. PMID:24522433

Sivendran, Shanthi; Chang, Rui; Pham, Lisa; Phelps, Robert G; Harcharik, Sara T; Hall, Lawrence D; Bernardo, Sebastian G; Moskalenko, Marina M; Sivendran, Meera; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H; Pan, Michael; Moon, Jee Young; Arora, Sonali; Cohain, Ariella; DiFeo, Analisa; Ferringer, Tammie C; Tismenetsky, Mikhail; Tsui, Cindy L; Friedlander, Philip A; Parides, Michael K; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Lebwohl, Mark G; Wolchok, Jedd D; Bhardwaj, Nina; Burakoff, Steven J; Oh, William K; Palucka, Karolina; Merad, Miriam; Schadt, Eric E; Saenger, Yvonne M

2014-08-01

347

Loss of p27 Expression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Stage I–II Pancreatic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: p27 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that prevents progression of the cell cycle from G1 phase. Postranscriptional loss of p27 correlates with poor prognosis in various solid tumors. In pancreatic cancer, the loss of p27 expression has been correlated with high tumor grade and advanced clinical stage, but data on its prognostic value are lacking. Method: In this retrospective

A. Juuti; S. Nordling; J. Louhimo; J. Lundin; K. von Boguslawski; C. Haglund

2003-01-01

348

Recovery of Resistivity of Pure and Alloyed Aluminum in Stages II and III after 2MeV Electron Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of pure aluminum and aluminum alloyed with 0.3 at.% Zn, Cu, and Ge were irradiated by 2-MeV electrons to several widely differing doses and at a variety of temperatures. Isochronal annealing studies were performed with 30-min anneals spaced 5° apart from 60°K to the conclusion of stage III. In one experiment a pure aluminum and a zinc-alloy sample were

P. B. Peters; P. E. Shearin

1968-01-01

349

Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Key Points for This Section After lip and oral cavity cancer has been diagnosed, ... I Stage II Stage III Stage IV After lip and oral cavity cancer has been diagnosed, tests ...

350

Biologic Determinants of Tumor Recurrence in Stage II Colon Cancer: Validation Study of the 12-Gene Recurrence Score in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581  

PubMed Central

Purpose A greater understanding of the biology of tumor recurrence should improve adjuvant treatment decision making. We conducted a validation study of the 12-gene recurrence score (RS), a quantitative assay integrating stromal response and cell cycle gene expression, in tumor specimens from patients enrolled onto Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581. Patients and Methods CALGB 9581 randomly assigned 1,713 patients with stage II colon cancer to treatment with edrecolomab or observation and found no survival difference. The analysis reported here included all patients with available tissue and recurrence (n = 162) and a random (approximately 1:3) selection of nonrecurring patients. RS was assessed in 690 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction by using prespecified genes and a previously validated algorithm. Association of RS and recurrence was analyzed by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Continuous RS was significantly associated with risk of recurrence (P = .013) as was mismatch repair (MMR) gene deficiency (P = .044). In multivariate analyses, RS was the strongest predictor of recurrence (P = .004), independent of T stage, MMR, number of nodes examined, grade, and lymphovascular invasion. In T3 MMR-intact (MMR-I) patients, prespecified low and high RS groups had average 5-year recurrence risks of 13% (95% CI, 10% to 16%) and 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%), respectively. Conclusion The 12-gene RS predicts recurrence in stage II colon cancer in CALGB 9581. This is consistent with the importance of stromal response and cell cycle gene expression in colon tumor recurrence. RS appears to be most discerning for patients with T3 MMR-I tumors, although markers such as grade and lymphovascular invasion did not add value in this subset of patients. PMID:23530100

Venook, Alan P.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Lopatin, Margarita; Ye, Xing; Lee, Mark; Friedman, Paula N.; Frankel, Wendy; Clark-Langone, Kim; Millward, Carl; Shak, Steven; Goldberg, Richard M.; Mahmoud, Najjia N.; Warren, Robert S.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.

2013-01-01

351

Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bleicher, Richard J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swaby, Ramona F. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldstein, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2012-11-15

352

Effect of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy in Patients <35 Years Old With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Treated With Doxorubicin-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control (LRC) in patients with high-risk features after mastectomy. Young age continues to evolve as a potentially important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of PMRT in patients <35 years old treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II-III breast cancer. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 107 consecutive breast cancer patients <35 years old with Stage IIA-IIIC disease treated at our institution with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, with or without PMRT. The treatment groups were compared in terms of LRC and overall survival. Results: Despite more advanced disease stages, the patients who received PMRT (n = 80) had greater rates of LRC (5-year rate, 88% vs. 63%, p = 0.001) and better overall survival (5-year rate, 67% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) than patients who did not receive PMRT (n = 27). Conclusion: Among breast cancer patients <35 years old at diagnosis, the use of PMRT after doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy led to a statistically greater rate of LRC and overall survival compared with patients without PMRT. The benefit seen for PMRT in young patients provides valuable data to better tailor adjuvant, age-specific treatment decisions after mastectomy.

Garg, Amit K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: joh@mdanderson.org; Oswald, Mary Jane; Huang, Eugene; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, T. Kuan; Tereffe, Welela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Meric-Bernstam, Funda [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hahn, Karin [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-12-01

353

Assessing of the relationship between renal function tests and retinopathy stage in patients with type II diabetes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Retinopathy and nephropathy are long-term diabetes complications which are associated together. Renal dysfunction is a risk factor for progression and deterioration of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes causes damage to the small blood vessels in the retina and kidney which eventually resulted in diabetic nephropathy, renal failure and blindness. Due to the high cost for treating of these complications it is better to prevent them. Objectives: We aimed to assess the patients’ kidney function and retinal status in a group of diabetic patients to find probable association between nephropathy and retinopathy hence can prevent from serious renal complications. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 253 patients with type 2 diabetes referring to ophthalmology clinics were evaluated. Eye examination was conducted by an ophthalmologist (vitreoretinal subspecialist) and disease stage was determined, then serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine tests and 24-hour urine collection for microalbuminuria were measured. Results: Mean of BUN and microalbuminuria had significant difference in three groups including proliferative retinopathy, non-proliferative retinopathy and patients without retinopathy. The mean (± SD) of serum creatinine in patients with proliferative retinopathy, non-proliferative retinopathy and patients without retinopathy had no significant difference. Conclusion: The presence or absence of retinopathy in the early stages of diabetic kidney disease has not related to renal involvement, in fact, patients without retinopathy may have renal involvement. In periodic examination, diabetic patients should be evaluated for microalbuminuria in addition to renal function test examination.

Tamadon, Mohammad-Reza; Ghorbani, Raheb; Rezaei, Samaneh; Daraei, Gholamreza

2015-01-01

354

Concomitant boost IMRT-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma: results of a phase II study  

PubMed Central

Aim This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concomitant boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) along with capecitabine and oxaliplatin, followed by a cycle of Xelox, in neoadjuvant course for locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and methods Patients with histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed, locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (cT3-T4 and/or cN+) located within 12 cm of the anal verge were included in this study. Patients received IMRT to the pelvis of 50 Gy and a concomitant boost of 5 Gy to the primary tumor in 25 fractions, and concurrent with oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 d1 weekly) and capecitabine (625 mg/m2 bid d1–5 weekly). One cycle of Xelox (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on d1 and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily d1–14) was given two weeks after the completion of chemoradiation, and radical surgery was scheduled eight weeks after chemoradiation. Tumor response was evaluated by tumor regression grade (TRG) system and acute toxicities were evaluated by NCI-CTC 3.0 criteria. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with Log-rank test. Results A total of 78 patients were included between March 2009 and May 2011 (median age 54 years; 62 male). Seventy-six patients underwent surgical resection. Twenty-eight patients underwent sphincter-sparing lower anterior resection and 18 patients (23.7%) were evaluated as pathological complete response (pCR). The incidences of grade 3 hematologic toxicity, diarrhea, and radiation dermatitis were 3.8%, 10.3%, and 17.9%, respectively. The three-year LR (local recurrence), DFS (disease-free survival) and OS (overall survival) rates were 14.6%, 63.8% and 77.4%, respectively. Initial clinical T stage and tumor regression were independent prognostic factors to DFS. Conclusion An intensified regimen of concomitant boost radiotherapy plus concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin, followed by one cycle of Xelox, can be safely administered in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, and produces a high rate of pCR. A prognostic score model is helpful to distinguish different long-term prognosis groups in early stage. PMID:24606870

2014-01-01

355

SLS Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objective: Provide an overview of SLS DUUS type capability requirements to provide context for possible International Partner collaboration. Addition of a DUUS would greatly increase exploration mission capture and performance margin for cis-Lunar and Near Earth System exploration campaigns.

Creech, Steve; Holladay, Jon; Jones, Davey

2013-01-01

356

Toroidal Tank Development for Upper-stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages, development, and fabrication of toroidal propellant tanks are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. Several images are included of independent research and development (IR&D) of toroidal propellant tanks at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Other images in the presentation give a brief overview of Thiokol conformal tank technology development. The presentation describes Thiokol's approach to continuous composite toroidal tank fabrication in detail. Images are shown of continuous and segmented toroidal tanks fabricated by Thiokol.

DeLay, Tom; Roberts, Keith

2003-01-01

357

Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

King, J. A.

1973-01-01

358

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont (TM) Vespel (R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750 F during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

359

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

360

Impact of 18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Treatment Strategy and Radiotherapy Planning for Stage I-II Hodgkin Disease: A Prospective Multicenter Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the impact of preradiotherapy 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) on treatment strategy and radiotherapy planning for patients with Stage I/II Hodgkin disease included in a large prospective multicenter study. Patients and Methods: Conventional computed tomography and FDG-PET were performed just before the planned radiotherapy. The radiotherapy plan was first elaborated under blinded conditions for FDG-PET data. Then, the medical staff was asked to confirm or not confirm the treatment strategy and, if appropriate, to modify the radiotherapy plan based on additional information from FDG-PET. Results: Between January 2004 and January 2006, 137 patients were included (124 were available for analysis) in 11 centers (108 adults, 16 children). All but 1 patient had received chemotherapy before inclusion. Prechemotherapy work-up included FDG-PET for 61 patients, and data were available for elaboration of the first radiotherapy plan. Based on preradiotherapy FDG-PET data, the radiotherapy was cancelled in 6 patients (4.8%), and treatment plan modifications occurred in 16 patients (12.9%): total dose (11 patients), CTV volume (5 patients), number of beam incidences (6 patients), and number of CTV (6 patients). The concordance between the treatment strategies with or without preradiotherapy FDG-PET was 82.3%. Concordance results were not significantly different when prechemotherapy PET-CT information was available. Conclusion: Preradiotherapy FDG-PET for treatment planning in Hodgkin lymphoma may lead to significant modification of the treatment strategy and the radiotherapy planning in patients with Stage I or II Hodgkin disease, even in those who have undergone FDG-PET as part of the prechemotherapy work-up.

Pommier, Pascal, E-mail: pommier@lyon.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Dussart, Sophie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Chabaud, Sylvie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Lagrange, Jean Leon [Department of Radiation Oncology, APHP, Henri Mondor University Hospital, Paris 12 University, Creteil (France); Nguyen, Tan Dat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Beckendorff, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Alexis Vautrin, Nancy (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Artignan, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Bondiau, Pierre Yves [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Giammarile, Francesco [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); EA 3738, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)

2011-03-01

361

Long-term follow-up of flexor digitorum longus transfer and calcaneal osteotomy for stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.  

PubMed

Flexor digitorum longus transfer and medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy is a well-recognised form of treatment for stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Although excellent short- and medium-term results have been reported, the long-term outcome is unknown. We reviewed the clinical outcome of 31 patients with a symptomatic flexible flat-foot deformity who underwent this procedure between 1994 and 1996. There were 21 women and ten men with a mean age of 54.3 years (42 to 70). The mean follow-up was 15.2 years (11.4 to 16.5). All scores improved significantly (p < 0.001). The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 48.4 pre-operatively to 90.3 (54 to 100) at the final follow-up. The mean pain component improved from 12.3 to 35.2 (20 to 40). The mean function score improved from 35.2 to 45.6 (30 to 50). The mean visual analogue score for pain improved from 7.3 to 1.3 (0 to 6). The mean Short Form-36 physical component score was 40.6 (sd 8.9), and this showed a significant correlation with the mean AOFAS score (r = 0.68, p = 0.005). A total of 27 patients (87%) were pain free and functioning well at the final follow-up. We believe that flexor digitorum longus transfer and calcaneal osteotomy provides long-term pain relief and satisfactory function in the treatment of stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:346-52. PMID:25737518

Chadwick, C; Whitehouse, S L; Saxby, T S

2015-03-01

362

Treatment of unresectable stage IV metastatic melanoma with aviscumine after anti-neoplastic treatment failure: a phase II, multi-centre study  

PubMed Central

Background Aviscumine, a recombinant plant protein, is an immune modulator that induces ribotoxic stress at the 28S ribosomal RNA subunit. In this way cytokine release and T-cell responses are enhanced. This phase II trial was conducted to test the efficacy and safety of aviscumine in patients with systemically pre-treated metastatic melanoma stage IV. Methods A total of 32 patients with progressive stage IV melanoma after failure of standard therapy were enrolled onto a single-arm, multi-centre, open-label, phase II trial. All patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received 350 ng aviscumine twice weekly by subcutaneous injection until progression. The primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Safety was assessed as adverse events (AEs). Tumor response was assessed every eight weeks and survival of patients was followed up to one year after the end of therapy. Thirty one patients (intent-to-treat population (ITT)) were assessed for efficacy; safety was assessed in the whole population. Results One patient achieved a partial response (PR) and 10 patients showed stable disease/no change (SD). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 63 days (95% CI 57–85) and median overall survival (mOS) was 335 days (95% CI 210–604). In total 210 treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded. Grade 1 or 2 AEs occurred in 72% of patients and were mostly application-site effects such as pruritus Grade 3–4 treatment-emergent drug-related adverse events occurred in 9% of patients. Conclusion These results suggest that aviscumine may have a clinical impact in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma and provide rationale for further clinical evaluation of this agent. In the light of effective new immune checkpoint blockers it might be a candidate for combinations with these agents. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00658437 PMID:25324973

2014-01-01

363

Randomized Trial of Postoperative Adjuvant Therapy in Stage II and III Rectal Cancer to Define the Optimal Sequence of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: 10-Year Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the optimal sequence of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 308 patients were randomized to early (n = 155) or late (n = 153) radiotherapy (RT). Treatment included eight cycles of chemotherapy, consisting of fluorouracil 375 mg/m{sup 2}/day and leucovorin 20 mg/m{sup 2}/day, at 4-week intervals, and pelvic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Radiotherapy started on Day 1 of the first chemotherapy cycle in the early RT arm and on Day 1 of the third chemotherapy cycle in the late RT arm. Results: At a median follow-up of 121 months for surviving patients, disease-free survival (DFS) at 10 years was not statistically significantly different between the early and late RT arms (71% vs. 63%; p = 0.162). A total of 36 patients (26.7%) in the early RT arm and 49 (35.3%) in the late RT arm experienced recurrence (p = 0.151). Overall survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. However, in patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection, the DFS rate at 10 years was significantly greater in the early RT arm than in the late RT arm (63% vs. 40%; p = 0.043). Conclusions: After the long-term follow-up duration, this study failed to show a statistically significant DFS advantage for early radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy after resection of Stage II and III rectal cancer. Our results, however, suggest that if neoadjuvant chemoradiation is not given before surgery, then early postoperative chemoradiation should be considered for patients requiring an abdominoperineal resection.

Kim, Tae-Won [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Hee [Department of Hematology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kang, Yoon-Koo [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoo-Hyung [Department of Hematology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chang-Sik [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Hoon; Ahn, Seung-Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Kun [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Cheon [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Shin, E-mail: jayslee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

364

Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the predicted and measured flight data. Future assessment will incorporate hybrid methods in VAOne analysis (i.e., boundary element methods, BEM and finite element methods, FEM). These hybrid methods will enable the ability to import NASTRAN models providing much more detailed modeling of the underlying beams and support structure of the ARES 1-X test vehicle. Measured acoustic data will be incorporated into these analyses to improve correlation for additional post flight analysis.

Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

2010-01-01

365

Taurus II Stage Test Simulations: Using Large-Scale CFD Simulations to Provide Critical Insight into Plume Induced Environments During Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the use of targeted Loci/CHEM CFD simulations to evaluate the effects of a dual-engine first-stage hot-fire test on an evolving integrated launch pad/test article design. This effort was undertaken as a part of the NESC Independent Assessment of the Taurus II Stage Test Series. The underlying conceptual model included development of a series of computational models and simulations to analyze the plume induced environments on the pad, facility structures and test article. A pathfinder simulation was first developed, capable of providing quick-turn around evaluation of plume impingement pressures on the flame deflector. Results from this simulation were available in time to provide data for an ongoing structural assessment of the deflector. The resulting recommendation was available in a timely manner and was incorporated into construction schedule for the new launch stand under construction at Wallops Flight Facility. A series of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) quasi-steady simulations representative of various key elements of the test profile was performed to identify potential concerns with the test configuration and test profile. As required, unsteady Hybrid-RANS/LES simulations were performed, to provide additional insight into critical aspects of the test sequence. Modifications to the test-specific hardware and facility structures thermal protection as well as modifications to the planned hot-fire test profile were implemented based on these simulation results.

Struzenberg, L. L.; West, J. S.

2011-01-01

366

[Part II. Scientific evidence in end-stage chronic organ failure. A position paper on shared care planning].  

PubMed

The therapeutic options related to chronic organ failure are interconnected to the variability of human biological responses and the personal history and choices of the chronically ill patient on one hand, and with the variable human answers to therapies on the other hand. All these aspects may explain the small number and low quality of studies aimed to define the clinical criteria useful in identifying end-stage chronically ill patients, as highlighted through the 2012-2013 Medline survey performed by the task force. These results prevented the grading of scientific evidence. However, taking into account the evidence based medicine definition, the task force believes the clinical reasoning and the individual experience of clinicians as well as the patients and families preferences cannot be replaced "tout court" with a strict methodological research. Accordingly, the working method selected by the task force members was to draw up a set of clinical parameters based on the available scientific literature, submitting it to a peer review process carried out by an expert panel. This paper discusses a set of clinical parameters included in the clinical decision-making algorithm and shared by nine medical societies. For each chronic organ failure these clinical parameters should be intended not as a rigid cutoff system to make a choice between two selected care options (intensive vs palliative), rather as the starting point for a joint and careful consideration regarding the opportunity to adopt the clinical decision-making algorithm care proposed in Part I. PMID:24553593

Gristina, Giuseppe R; Orsi, Luciano; Carlucci, Annalisa; Causarano, Ignazio R; Formica, Marco; Romanò, Massimo

2014-01-01

367

The Stardust spacecraft is moved in the PHSF to mate it with the 3rd stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers help guide the overhead crane lifting the Stardust spacecraft. Stardust is being moved in order to mate it with the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch Feb. 6 from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard the Delta II rocket, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre- solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

368

Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay  

E-print Network

We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period from 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca II H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT Echelle H-alpha 656.28 nm spectra and Fe I 630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms as context for the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. We have performed a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observed moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumb...

Verma, M; Deng, N; Liu, C; Shimizu, T; Wang, H; Denker, C

2011-01-01

369

Cardiac Mortality in Patients With Stage I and II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With and Without Radiation: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Standard therapy for stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of combined modality therapy with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, anti-CD20 antibody, and radiation therapy (RT). Curative approaches without RT typically utilize more intensive and/or protracted chemotherapy schedules. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens are associated with a dose-dependent risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We hypothesize that patients treated without RT, i.e., those who are treated with greater total chemotherapy cycles and hence cumulative anthracycline exposure, are at increased risk of cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: The rate of cardiac-specific mortality (CSM) was analyzed in patients with stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 by querying the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Results: A total of 15,454 patients met selection criteria; 6,021 (39%) patients received RT. The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 6-180 months). The median age was 64 years. The actuarial incidence rates of CSM at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.3%, 9.0%, and 13.8%, respectively, in patients treated with RT vs. 5.9%, 10.8% and 16.1%, respectively, in patients treated without RT (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.56). The increase in cardiac deaths for patients treated without RT persisted throughout the follow-up period. On multivariate analysis, treatment without RT remained independently associated with an increased risk of CSM (Cox hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54; p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Increased anthracycline exposure in patients treated only with chemotherapy regimens may result in an increase in cardiac deaths, detectable only through analysis of large sample sizes. Confirmatory evaluation through meta-analysis of randomized data and design of large prospective trials is warranted.

Pugh, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.pugh@ucdenver.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Ballonoff, Ari; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2010-03-01

370

Randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of wrap therapy for wound healing acceleration in patients with NPUAP stage II and III pressure ulcer  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate if ‘wrap therapy’ using food wraps, which is widely used in Japanese clinical sites, is not inferior when compared to guideline adhesion treatments. Design Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint clinical trial. Setting 15 hospitals in Japan. Patients 66 older patients with new National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel stage II or III pressure ulcers. Interventions Of these 66 patients, 31 were divided into the conventional treatment guidelines group and 35 into the wrap therapy group. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the period until the pressure ulcers were cured. The secondary end point was a comparison of the speed of change in the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing score. Results 64 of the 66 patients were analysed. The estimated mean period until healing was 57.5?days (95% CI 45.2 to 69.8) in the control group as opposed to 59.8?days (95% CI 49.7 to 69.9) in the wrap therapy group. By the extent of pressure ulcer infiltration, the mean period until healing was 16.0?days (95% CI 8.1 to 23.9) in the control group as opposed to 18.8?days (95% CI 10.3 to 27.2) in the wrap therapy group with National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel stage II ulcers, and 71.8?days (95% CI 61.4 to 82.3) as opposed to 63.2?days (95% CI 53.0 to 73.4), respectively, with stage III ulcers. There is no statistical significance in difference in Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing scores. Conclusions It might be possible to consider wrap therapy as an alternative choice in primary care settings as a simple and inexpensive dressing care. Clinical Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002658. Summary protocol is available on https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=detail&recptno=R000003235&admin=0&language=J PMID:22223842

Mizuhara, Akihiro; Oonishi, Sandai; Takeuchi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Masatsune; Akiyama, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2012-01-01

371

Collisions between Gravity-dominated Bodies. II. The Diversity of Impact Outcomes during the End Stage of Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of the stochastic end stage of planet formation typically begin with a population of embryos and planetesimals that grow into planets by merging. We analyzed the impact parameters of collisions leading to the growth of terrestrial planets from recent N-body simulations that assumed perfect merging and calculated more realistic outcomes using a new analytic collision physics model. We find that collision outcomes are diverse and span all possible regimes: hit-and-run, merging, partial accretion, partial erosion, and catastrophic disruption. The primary outcomes of giant impacts between planetary embryos are approximately evenly split between partial accretion, graze-and-merge, and hit-and-run events. To explore the cumulative effects of more realistic collision outcomes, we modeled the growth of individual planets with a Monte Carlo technique using the distribution of impact parameters from N-body simulations. We find that fewer planets reached masses >0.7 M Earth using the collision physics model compared to simulations that assumed every collision results in perfect merging. For final planets with masses >0.7 M Earth, 60% are enriched in their core-to-mantle mass fraction by >10% compared to the initial embryo composition. Fragmentation during planet formation produces significant debris (~15% of the final mass) and occurs primarily by erosion of the smaller body in partial accretion and hit-and-run events. In partial accretion events, the target body grows by preferentially accreting the iron core of the projectile and the escaping fragments are derived primarily from the silicate mantles of both bodies. Thus, the bulk composition of a planet can evolve via stochastic giant impacts.

Stewart, Sarah T.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.

2012-05-01

372

Stages of Gallbladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer is found in the wall of the gallbladder and can be completely removed by surgery . Unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic (Stage II, Stage III, ... IV) Unresectable cancer cannot be removed completely by surgery . Most ... with gallbladder cancer have unresectable cancer. Recurrent cancer is cancer ...

373

Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

no Evidence of Disease; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

2015-03-27

374

PET-Adjusted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

2015-01-14

375

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOEpatents

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01

376

Phase II trial of preoperative paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and trastuzumab combination therapy in HER2 positive stage II/III breast cancer: the Korean Cancer Study Group BR 07-01.  

PubMed

An addition of trastuzumab preoperatively to chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer improved relapse-free survival (RFS). This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and trastuzumab (PGH) combination for HER2-positive breast caner. Pathologically, proven node positive stage II/III breast cancer patients with adequate organ function and no history of anti-cancer therapy were eligible. Patients received weekly trastuzumab with paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 1,200 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. Postoperatively, patients completed trastuzumab for 1 year and hormone therapy for 5 years if indicated. All patients received postoperative radiation therapy. Of 53 enrolled patients with a median tumor of 5.3 (range, 2.0 to >12) cm; 43.4%, T3/T4; 75.4%, N2/N3; and 45.3%, positive hormone receptors. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 58.5% in both tumor and lymph nodes. Grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (32%), febrile neutropenia (0.6%), and transient elevation of AST/ALT (1.6%) during a total of 318 cycles. All patients maintained normal cardiac function. With a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year RFS rate was 84% with 91.7% distant metastasis-free survival rates. Remarkable pCR rate was obtained with non-anthracycline-based PGH therapy for HER2-positive stage II/III breast cancer. Adverse events were mild with few incidences of febrile neutropenia. PMID:22094934

Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook; Kwon, Youngmee; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Ahn, Jin Seok; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kang, Han Sung; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Noh, Dong-Young; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Sung-Bae; Im, Young Hyuck; Ha, Sung Whan

2012-04-01

377

Ovarian Ablation Using Goserelin Improves Survival of Premenopausal Patients with Stage II/III Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer without Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ovarian ablation using goserelin in premenopausal patients with stage II/III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer without chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of breast patients treated between October 1999 and November 2007 without CIA. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculation of the survival rate. Log rank method and Cox regression analysis were used for univariate and multivariate prognostic analysis. Results The median follow-up period was 61 months. Initially, 353 patients remained without CIA after chemotherapy and 98 among those who received goserelin and tamoxifen (TAM). In univariate analysis, goserelin improved locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) (98.9% vs. 94.1%, p=0.041), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (85.4% vs. 71.9%, p=0.006), disease-free survival (DFS) (85.4% vs. 71.6%, p=0.005), and overall survival (OS) (93.5% vs. 83.5%, p=0.010). In multivariate analysis, goserelin treatment was an independent factor influencing DMFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.603; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.228 to 2.092; p=0.001), DFS (HR, 1.606; 95% CI, 1.231 to 2.096; p=0.001), and OS (HR, 3.311; 95% CI, 1.416 to 7.742; p=0.006). In addition, treatment with goserelin resulted in significantly improved LRFS (p=0.039), DMFS (p=0.043), DFS (p=0.036), and OS (p=0.010) in patients aged < 40 years. In patients aged ? 40 years, goserelin only improved DMFS (p=0.028) and DFS (p=0.027). Conclusion Ovarian ablation with goserelin plus TAM resulted in significantly improved therapeutic efficacy in premenopausal patients with stage II/III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer without CIA. PMID:25187267

Zhou, Juan; Wu, San-Gang; Wang, Jun-Jie; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin; He, Zhen-Yu

2015-01-01

378

Health-related quality of life in survivors of stage I-II breast cancer: randomized trial of post-operative conventional radiotherapy and hypofractionated tomotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is a key component of clinical oncology trials. However, few breast cancer trials comparing adjuvant conventional radiotherapy (CR) and hypofractionated tomotherapy (TT) have investigated HRQOL. We compared HRQOL in stage I-II breast cancer patients who were randomized to receive either CR or TT. Tomotherapy uses an integrated computed tomography scanner to improve treatment accuracy, aiming to reduce the adverse effects of radiotherapy. Methods A total of 121 stage I–II breast cancer patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy (MA) were randomly assigned to receive either CR or TT. CR patients received 25?×?2 Gy over 5 weeks, and BCS patients also received a sequential boost of 8?×?2 Gy over 2 weeks. TT patients received 15?×?2.8 Gy over 3 weeks, and BCS patients also received a simultaneous integrated boost of 15?×?0.6 Gy over 3 weeks. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires. The mean score (± standard error) was calculated at baseline, the end of radiotherapy, and at 3 months and 1, 2, and 3 years post-radiotherapy. Data were analyzed by the 'intention-to-treat' principle. Results On the last day of radiotherapy, patients in both treatment arms had decreased global health status and functioning scores; increased fatigue (clinically meaningful in both treatment arms), nausea and vomiting, and constipation; decreased arm symptoms; clinically meaningful increased breast symptoms in CR patients and systemic side effects in TT patients; and slightly decreased body image and future perspective. At 3 months post-radiotherapy, TT patients had a clinically significant increase in role- and social-functioning scores and a clinically significant decrease in fatigue. The post-radiotherapy physical-, cognitive- and emotional-functioning scores improved faster in TT patients than CR patients. TT patients also had a better long-term recovery from fatigue than CR patients. ANOVA with the Bonferroni correction did not show any significant differences between groups in HRQOL scores. Conclusions TT patients had a better improvement in global health status and role- and cognitive-functioning, and a faster recovery from fatigue, than CR patients. These results suggest that a shorter fractionation schedule may reduce the adverse effects of treatment. PMID:23098579

2012-01-01

379

Prospective evaluation of concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for Stage II or III breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of concurrent radiation therapy and paclitaxel-based adjuvant chemotherapy, given either weekly or every 3 weeks, after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). Methods and Materials: After definitive breast surgery and AC chemotherapy, 40 patients with operable Stage II or III breast cancer received protocol-based treatment with concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy. Paclitaxel was evaluated on 2 schedules, with treatment given either weekly x 12 weeks (60 mg/m{sup 2}), or every 3 weeks x 4 cycles (135-175 mg/m{sup 2}). Radiation fields and schedules were determined by the patient's surgery and pathology. The tolerability of concurrent therapy was evaluated in cohorts of 8 patients as a phase I study. Results: Weekly paclitaxel treatment at 60 mg/m{sup 2} per week with concurrent radiation led to dose-limiting toxicity in 4 of 16 patients (25%), including 3 who developed pneumonitis (either Grade 2 [1 patient] or Grade 3 [2 patients]) requiring steroids. Efforts to eliminate this toxicity in combination with weekly paclitaxel through treatment scheduling and CT-based radiotherapy simulation were not successful. By contrast, dose-limiting toxicity was not encountered among patients receiving concurrent radiation with paclitaxel given every 3 weeks at 135-175 mg/m{sup 2}. However, Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis not requiring steroid therapy was seen in 2 of 24 patients (8%) treated in such a fashion. Excessive radiation dermatitis was not observed with either paclitaxel schedule. Conclusions: Concurrent treatment with weekly paclitaxel and radiation therapy is not feasible after adjuvant AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Concurrent treatment using a less frequent paclitaxel dosing schedule may be possible, but caution is warranted in light of the apparent possibility of pulmonary injury.

Burstein, Harold J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: hburstein@partners.org; Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Galper, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lu, H.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kuter, Irene [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Wong, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gelman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bunnell, Craig A. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Parker, Leroy M.; Garber, Judy E. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P.; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2006-02-01

380

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2-A Predictor of Outcome for Patients Irradiated for Stage II-III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The prognostic value of the tumor cell expression of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. The present study investigated the effect of tumor cell expression of FGF-2 on the outcome of 60 patients irradiated for Stage II-III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: The effect of FGF-2 expression and 13 additional factors on locoregional control (LRC), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively evaluated. These additional factors included age, gender, Karnofsky performance status, histologic type, histologic grade, T and N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack-years, smoking during radiotherapy, and hemoglobin during radiotherapy. Locoregional failure was identified by endoscopy or computed tomography. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the Wilcoxon test and multivariate analyses with the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: On univariate analysis, improved LRC was associated with surgery (p = .017), greater hemoglobin levels (p = .036), and FGF-2 negativity (p <.001). On multivariate analysis of LRC, surgery (relative risk [RR], 2.44; p = .037), and FGF-2 expression (RR, 5.06; p <.001) maintained significance. On univariate analysis, improved MFS was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (p = .020), greater hemoglobin levels (p = .007), and FGF-2 negativity (p = .001). On multivariate analysis of MFS, the hemoglobin levels (RR, 2.65; p = .019) and FGF-2 expression (RR, 3.05; p = .004) were significant. On univariate analysis, improved OS was associated with a lower N category (p = .048), greater hemoglobin levels (p <.001), and FGF-2 negativity (p <.001). On multivariate analysis of OS, greater hemoglobin levels (RR, 4.62; p = .002) and FGF-2 expression (RR, 3.25; p = .002) maintained significance. Conclusions: Tumor cell expression of FGF-2 appeared to be an independent negative predictor of LRC, MFS, and OS.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Setter, Cornelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Noack, Frank [Institute of Pathology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany)

2012-01-01

381

12/16/09 5:20 PMReaders respond to Inside Illinois survey | Inside Illinois | News Bureau | University of Illinois Page 1 of 2file:///Volumes/STAGING/news.illinois.edu/ii/09readersurvey.html  

E-print Network

12/16/09 5:20 PMReaders respond to Inside Illinois survey | Inside Illinois | News Bureau | University of Illinois Page 1 of 2file:///Volumes/STAGING/news.illinois.edu/ii/09readersurvey.html Readers respond to Inside Illinois survey INSIDE ILLINOIS, Dec. 17, 2009 | Doris K. Dahl, Editor, 217

Lewis, Jennifer

382

Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: Radiotherapy vs. Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (ORATOR) – study protocol for a randomized phase II trial  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. Methods/Design The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ?3?cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT?±?chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS?±?adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. Discussion This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized comparison of the conventional strategy of primary RT vs. the novel strategy of primary TORS. The trial is designed to provide a definitive QOL comparison between the two arms, and to inform the design of an eventual phase III trial for survival outcomes. Trial registration NCT01590355 PMID:23514246

2013-01-01

383

Assessing the Impact of Tiotropium on Lung Function and Physical Activity in GOLD Stage II COPD Patients who are Naïve to Maintenance Respiratory Therapy: A Study Protocol.  

PubMed

Physical activity status is increasingly recognized as a reliable predictor of mortality and hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The reduction in physical activity occurs earlier in the clinical course of COPD than previously appreciated, possibly arising from breathlessness, reduced exercise tolerance, and adoption of a more sedentary lifestyle. To date, no clinical trial has evaluated the impact of pharmacotherapy on both lung function and physical activity. We recently designed a study that evaluates the impact of tiotropium (a once-daily inhaled anticholinergic) on lung function and physical activity in a maintenance/treatment-naïve Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage II COPD cohort. Previous studies have demonstrated that tiotropium improves lung function and exercise tolerance; whether these benefits translate into improvements in physical activity is the focus of the current work. Here we describe the rationale and challenges in developing and implementing this study and review its unique features and novel design, including: utility of direct activity monitoring in multicenter clinical trials; importance of behavioral-modification techniques (including motivational interviewing to improve patient self-efficacy and adherence for a healthy, more active lifestyle); utility of individualized activity plans that provide an integrated approach with pharmacotherapy and behavioral modification to help patients achieve a more active lifestyle. PMID:21503263

Troosters, Thierry; Weisman, Idelle; Dobbels, Fabienne; Giardino, Nicholas; Valluri, Srinivas Rao

2011-01-01

384

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Augmentation in Patients with Stage II Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Label, Fixed Dose, Single-Blind Study  

PubMed Central

We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe) augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD). Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800?mg) for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ?7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed. PMID:23766680

Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Rapini, Gabriella; Aguglia, Eugenio; Perna, Giampaolo; Salone, Anatolia; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2013-01-01

385

A two-stage fast Bayesian spectral density approach for ambient modal analysis. Part II: Mode shape assembly and case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-stage fast Bayesian spectral density approach based on a novel variable separation technique for ambient modal analysis was formulated in the companion paper. In full-scale operational modal tests covering a number of locations, the dofs of interest are usually measured or processed separately in individual setups so that a set of local mode shapes are obtained. The difficulty on how to assemble these local mode shapes to form overall mode shapes is a problem not addressed in the companion paper that needs to be resolved properly. This study presents a theory to assemble the local mode shapes using the Bayesian statistical framework so that the data quality of different clusters can be accounted for automatically. The optimal global mode shape can be obtained by a fast iterative scheme, while the associated uncertainties can be derived analytically. The theory described in Part I and II of this work is applied to modal identification using synthetic data and field data measured from two laboratory models equipped with wireless sensors. Successful validation of the proposed method demonstrates the potential for Bayesian approaches to accommodate multiple uncertainties for ambient modal analysis.

Yan, Wang-Ji; Katafygiotis, Lambros S.

2015-03-01

386

Installation restoration program. Phase II - confirmation/quantification. Stage 1 for American Lake Garden Tract, Washington. Final report, March-July 1985  

SciTech Connect

An IRP Phase II (Stage 1) Confirmation/Quantification Investigation was performed in the American Lake Garden Tract residential community as a consequence of previously confirmed groundwater contamination by like compounds both in the Garden Tract and on McChord AFB. A similar type of groundwater problem was believed to exist at the opposite end of the residential area, and may possibly be related to Army operations on Fort Lewis. The field study was designed to identify the type, quantity, and extent of groundwater contamination by expanding the study area to include all of the Garden tract, the entire west half of McChord AFB, and the northern one-third of the Fort Lewis Logistics Center. Field investigations consisted of 58,000 lineal feet of self-potential and 24,000 lineal feet of seismic refraction surveys. Forty electrical resistance stations were established. Twenty-six two-inch-diameter monitoring wells were constructed. More than 225 water samples from more than 60 EPA, Army, and Air Force monitoring wells, plus domestic water-supply wells were characterized for volatile organic chemicals. All wells were sounded at least weekly for static water levels, and in-situ hydrochemical properties were monitored. Study results confirm independent sources of chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination exist on each military facility, and that these contaminants are migrating into different parts of the American Lake Garden Tract.

Greilling, R.W.; Peshkin, R.L.

1985-12-20

387

Assessing the Impact of Tiotropium on Lung Function and Physical Activity in GOLD Stage II COPD Patients who are Naïve to Maintenance Respiratory Therapy: A Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Physical activity status is increasingly recognized as a reliable predictor of mortality and hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The reduction in physical activity occurs earlier in the clinical course of COPD than previously appreciated, possibly arising from breathlessness, reduced exercise tolerance, and adoption of a more sedentary lifestyle. To date, no clinical trial has evaluated the impact of pharmacotherapy on both lung function and physical activity. We recently designed a study that evaluates the impact of tiotropium (a once-daily inhaled anticholinergic) on lung function and physical activity in a maintenance/treatment-naïve Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage II COPD cohort. Previous studies have demonstrated that tiotropium improves lung function and exercise tolerance; whether these benefits translate into improvements in physical activity is the focus of the current work. Here we describe the rationale and challenges in developing and implementing this study and review its unique features and novel design, including: utility of direct activity monitoring in multicenter clinical trials; importance of behavioral-modification techniques (including motivational interviewing to improve patient self-efficacy and adherence for a healthy, more active lifestyle); utility of individualized activity plans that provide an integrated approach with pharmacotherapy and behavioral modification to help patients achieve a more active lifestyle. PMID:21503263

Troosters, Thierry; Weisman, Idelle; Dobbels, Fabienne; Giardino, Nicholas; Valluri, Srinivas Rao

2011-01-01

388

Development of a parent-report computer-adaptive test to assess physical functioning in children with cerebral palsy II: upper-extremity skills.  

PubMed

The specific aims of this study were to (1) examine the psychometric properties (unidimensionality, differential item functioning, scale coverage) of an item bank of upper-extremity skills for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP); (2) evaluate a simulated computer-adaptive test (CAT) using this item bank; (3) examine the concurrent validity of the CAT with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) upper-extremity core scale; and (4) determine the discriminant validity of the simulated CAT with Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels and CP type (i.e. diplegia, hemiplegia, or quadriplegia). Parents (n=180) of children and adolescents with CP (spastic diplegia 49%, hemiplegia 22%, or quadriplegia 28%) consisting of 102 males and 78 females with a mean age of 10 years 6 months (SD 4y 1mo, range 2-21y), and MACS levels I through V participated in calibration of an item pool and completed the PODCI. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional model using 49 of the 53 upper-extremity items. Simulated CATs of 5, 10, and 15 items demonstrated excellent accuracy (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICCs] >0.93) with the full item bank, had high correlations with the PODCI upper-extremity core scale score (ICC 0.79), and discriminated among MACS levels. The simulated CATs demonstrated excellent overall content coverage over a wide age span and severity of upper-extremity involvement. The future development and refinement of CATs for parent report of physical function in children and adolescents with CP is supported by our work. PMID:19416341

Tucker, Carole A; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Dumas, Helene M; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Watson, Kyle; Gorton, George E; Ni, Pengsheng; Hambleton, Ronald K; Mulcahey, M J; Haley, Stephen M

2009-09-01

389

Psychosexual Intervention in Patients With Stage I-III Gynecologic Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Stage I Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage III Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2013-07-26

390

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Four-Year Results of a Prospective Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The 50-month results of a prospective Phase II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in medically inoperable patients are reported. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 medically inoperable patients had clinically staged T1 (34 patients) or T2 (36 patients) (<=7 cm), N0, M0, biopsy-confirmed non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and received SBRT as per our previously published reports. The SBRT treatment dose of 60-66 Gy was prescribed to the 80% isodose volume in three fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 50.2 months (range, 1.4-64.8 months). Kaplan-Meier local control at 3 years was 88.1%. Regional (nodal) and distant recurrence occurred in 6 (8.6%) and 9 (12.9%) patients, respectively. Median survival (MS) was 32.4 months and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 42.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 31.1-54.3%). Cancer-specific survival at 3 years was 81.7% (95% CI, 70.0-93.4%). For patients with T1 tumors, MS was 38.7 months (95% CI, 25.3-50.2) and for T2 tumors MS was 24.5 months (95% CI, 18.5-37.4) (p = 0.194). Tumor volume (<=5 cc, 5-10 cc, 10-20 cc, >20 cc) did not significantly impact survival: MS was 36.9 months (95% CI, 18.1-42.9), 34.0 (95% CI, 16.9-57.1), 32.8 (95% CI, 21.3-57.8), and 21.4 months (95% CI, 17.8-41.6), respectively (p = 0.712). There was no significant survival difference between patients with peripheral vs. central tumors (MS 33.2 vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.697). Grade 3 to 5 toxicity occurred in 5 of 48 patients with peripheral lung tumors (10.4%) and in 6 of 22 patients (27.3%) with central tumors (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.088). Conclusion: Based on our study results, use of SBRT results in high rates of local control in medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC.

Fakiris, Achilles J., E-mail: afakiris@iupui.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McGarry, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Yiannoutsos, Constantin T. [Division of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Williams, Mark [Division of Pulmonology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Henderson, Mark A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2009-11-01

391

Consolidative Involved-Node Proton Therapy for Stage IA-IIIB Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: Preliminary Dosimetric Outcomes From a Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose reduction to organs at risk (OARs) with proton therapy (PT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) enrolled on a Phase II study of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2009 and October 2010, 10 patients were enrolled on a University of Florida institutional review board-approved protocol for de novo 'classical' Stage IA-IIIB HL with mediastinal (bulky or nonbulky) involvement after chemotherapy. INRT was planned per European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines. Three separate optimized plans were developed for each patient: 3D-CRT, IMRT, and PT. The primary end point was a 50% reduction in the body V4 with PT compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT. Results: The median relative reduction with PT in the primary end point, body V4, was 51% compared with 3D-CRT (p = 0.0098) and 59% compared with IMRT (p = 0.0020), thus all patients were offered treatment with PT. PT provided the lowest mean dose to the heart, lungs, and breasts for all 10 patients compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. The median difference in the OAR mean dose reduction with PT compared with 3D-CRT were 10.4 Gy/CGE for heart; 5.5 Gy/CGE for lung; 0.9 Gy/CGE for breast; 8.3 Gy/CGE for esophagus; and 4.1 Gy/CGE for thyroid. The median differences for mean OAR dose reduction for PT compared with IMRT were 4.3 Gy/CGE for heart, 3.1 Gy/CGE for lung, 1.4 Gy/CGE for breast, 2.8 Gy/CGE for esophagus, and 2.7 Gy/CGE for thyroid. Conclusions: All 10 patients benefitted from dose reductions to OARs with PT compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. It is anticipated that these reductions in dose to OAR will translate into lower rates of late complications, but long-term follow-up on this Phase II INRT study is needed.

Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Su Zhong; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Latif, Naeem [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2012-05-01

392

Staging of rectal cancer by double-contrast MR imaging using the rectally administered superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent ferristene and IV gadodiamide injection: results of a multicenter phase II trial.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of double-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with rectal application of the superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent (SPIO) ferristene and IV gadodiamide for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. In a randomized phase II dose-ranging trial, 113 patients were studied preoperatively with one of four different formulations of ferristene (Abdoscan) as an enema before MRI. T1-weighted spin-echo (T1w SE) and T2w turbo spin-echo (TSE) single-contrast images were obtained as well as T1w SE and gradient-echo (GRE) double-contrast images after IV gadodiamide injection (Omniscan). Images were assessed qualitatively, and TNM tumor stage was compared with histopathology. High-viscosity ferristene formulations were superior to low-viscosity formulations in tumor staging (accuracy 90% vs 74%, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between high and low iron content ferristene. MRI had a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 50%, and accuracy of 82% for staging of rectal carcinoma higher than T2 stage. At receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, MR differentiation between T1/T2 and T3/T4 tumor stages yielded a ROC index of 0.848. Double-contrast MRI is an accurate method for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. PMID:11050634

Maier, A G; Kersting-Sommerhoff, B; Reeders, J W; Judmaier, W; Schima, W; Annweiler, A A; Meusel, M; Wallengren, N O

2000-11-01

393

Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

2014-11-17

394

Feasibility of radiotherapy after high-dose dense chemotherapy with epirubicin, preceded by dexrazoxane, and paclitaxel for patients with high-risk Stage II-III breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To verify the feasibility of, and quantify the risk of, pneumonitis from locoregional radiotherapy (RT) after high-dose dense chemotherapy with epirubicin and paclitaxel with peripheral blood progenitor cell support in patients with high-risk Stage II-III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment consisted of a mobilizing course of epirubicin 150 mg/m{sup 2}, preceded by dexrazoxane (Day 1), paclitaxel 175 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 2), and filgrastim; followed by three courses of epirubicin 150 mg/m{sup 2}, preceded by dexrazoxane (Day 1), paclitaxel 400 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 2), and peripheral blood progenitor cell support and filgrastim, every 16-19 days. After chemotherapy, patients were treated with locoregional RT, which included the whole breast or the chest wall, axilla, and supraclavicular area. Results: Overall, 64 of 69 patients were evaluable. The interval between the end of chemotherapy and the initiation of RT was at least 1.5-2 months (mean 2). No treatment-related death was reported. After a median follow-up of 27 months from RT (range 5-77 months), neither clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis nor congestive heart failure had been reported. Minor and transitory lung and cardiac toxicities were observed. Conclusion: Sequential high doses of epirubicin, preceded by dexrazoxane, and paclitaxel did not adversely affect the tolerability of locoregional RT in breast cancer patients. The risk of pneumonitis was not affected by the use of sequential paclitaxel with an interval of at least 1.5-2 months between the end of chemotherapy and the initiation of RT. Long-term follow-up is needed to define the risk of cardiotoxicity in these patients.

De Giorgi, Ugo [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy)]. E-mail: ugo_degiorgi@yahoo.com; Giannini, Massimo [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Frassineti, Luca [Department of Medical Oncology, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Kopf, Barbara [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Palazzi, Silvia [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Giovannini, Noemi [Department of Medical Oncology, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Zumaglini, Federica [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Rosti, Giovanni [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Emiliani, Ermanno [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Marangolo, Maurizio [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy)

2006-07-15

395

Quality of Life After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy or Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Stage I/II Breast Cancer Patients: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL) after surgery has been reported to improve significantly over time. Little is known about QoL recovery after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in comparison to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Methods 175 of 195 stage I/II breast cancer patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30: one day before surgery (T0) and after 6 (T1), 26 (T2), 52 (T3) and 104 (T4) weeks. Of these, 54 patients underwent SLNB, 56 SLNB+ALND and 65 ALND. General linear models and paired T-tests between T0–T4 and T1–T4 were computed. Complications, radiotherapy and systemic therapy were added to the model. Results Significant time effects were found on physical, role and emotional functioning. Physical and role functioning decreased between T0 and T1. At T4, SLNB patients’ functioning had increased to their T0 level; ALND (+/– SLNB) patients’ functioning had increased, but had not improved to T0 level. Emotional functioning increased linearly between T0 and T4. At T4, emotional functioning was significantly higher in all groups as compared with T0. No significant group or interaction (time × group) effects were found. Complications and chemotherapy had a significant negative effect on role, emotional and cognitive functioning. Complications had a significant effect on social functioning also. Effect sizes varied between 0.00 and 0.06. Conclusion Two years post surgery, breast cancer patients’ QoL is comparable to that shortly before surgery. Women rated their emotional functioning as even better. SLNB is not associated with a better QoL than ALND. However, undergoing systemic therapy and/or experiencing complications affects QoL negatively. PMID:18597146

Kootstra, Jan; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Rietman, Hans; de Vries, Jaap; Baas, Peter; Geertzen, Jan H. B.

2008-01-01

396

Phase I Study of Oxaliplatin in Combination With Capecitabine and Radiotherapy as Postoperative Treatment for Stage II and III Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A Phase I study was conducted to determine the maximal tolerated dose and the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of oxaliplatin (OXA) combined with capecitabine and radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment in patients with operable rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 21 patients with Stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma after curative surgery were treated with radiotherapy to a total dose of 50 Gy in 5 weeks. O