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1

Ares I Upper Stage Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

Verhage, Marc

2007-01-01

2

Upper-Stage Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

1999-01-01

3

Ovarian Cancer Stage II  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage II View/Download: Small: ... Added: 3/8/2010 Reuse Restrictions: Yes - This image is copyright protected. Any use of this image ...

4

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2006-01-01

5

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2006-01-01

6

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

7

ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

2007-01-01

8

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

2007-01-01

9

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

10

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

11

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

12

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

13

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

2006-01-01

14

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the manufacturing of aluminum panels that will be used to form the Ares I barrel. The panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

15

Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

1981-01-01

16

Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

17

Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test article, leading to a potential ISUS flight test in 2002.

Jaworske, Donald A.

1998-01-01

18

Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II #2 (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... chest X-ray shows coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II. There are diffuse, small (2 to 4 mm ... findings include simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - stage II, silico-tuberculosis, disseminated tuberculosis, metastatic lung cancer, and ...

19

The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

20

Upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additive. These propellants increase the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other Earth-orbital transfer missions. However, using metallized propellants for planetary missions can deliver great reductions in flight time with a single-stage, upper-stage system. Tradeoff studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with nonmetallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages, launched from the STS and STS-C, are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to high altitude orbits and onto interplanetary trajectories that are unattainable with only the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C). The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the STS and STS-C launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1992-01-01

21

Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

2006-01-01

22

Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

23

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

SEER Program Coding and Staging Manual 2004, Revision 1 Appendix C Site-Specific Coding Modules C-299 Collaborative Staging Codes Nasal Cavity C30.0 C30.0 Nasal cavity (excludes nose, NOS C76.0) Note: Laterality must be coded for this site,

24

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

SEER Program Coding and Staging Manual 2004, Revision 1 Appendix C Site-Specific Coding Modules C-469 SEER Site-Specific Coding Guidelines BREAST C500–C509 Primary Site C500 Nipple (areolar) Paget disease without underlying tumor C501

25

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

Gum, Upper.......................................................................................................................................C-47 Gum, Lower and Retromolar Area Retromolar Gingiva (Trigone) ..................................................C-55 Gum, NOS ........................................................................................................................................C-63 Floor of Mouth..................................................................................................................................C-71 Hard Palate........................................................................................................................................C-83 Soft Palate, Uvula .............................................................................................................................C-91 Other Mouth....................................................................................................................................C-101 Cheek (Buccal) Mucosa, Vestibule.................................................................................................C-109 Parotid Gland ..................................................................................................................................C-119 Submandibular Gland .....................................................................................................................C-127 Other and Unspecified Major Salivary Glands ...............................................................................C-135 Tonsil, Oropharynx .........................................................................................................................C-145 Anterior Surface of Epiglottis .........................................................................................................C-155 Nasopharynx ...................................................................................................................................C-165 Pyriform Sinus, Hypopharynx, Laryngopharynx............................................................................C-173 Pharynx, NOS, and Other Ill-Defined Oral Cavity Sites ................................................................C-181 Esophagus .......................................................................................................................................C-193 Small Intestine ................................................................................................................................C-211 Colon...............................................................................................................................................C-219 Rectosigmoid, Rectum....................................................................................................................C-231 Anus Anal Canal; Anus, NOS; Other Parts of Rectum.

26

ARES I Upper Stage Subsystems Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 2005 through early 2011, NASA conducted concept definition, design, and development of the Ares I launch vehicle. The Ares I was conceived to serve as a crew launch vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit human space exploration missions as part of the Constellation Program Architecture. The vehicle was configured with a single shuttle-derived solid rocket booster first stage and a new liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage, propelled by a single, newly developed J-2X engine. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was to be mated to the forward end of the Ares I upper stage through an interface with fairings and a payload adapter. The vehicle design passed a Preliminary Design Review in August 2008, and was nearing the Critical Design Review when efforts were concluded as a result of the Constellation Program s cancellation. At NASA Glenn Research Center, four subsystems were developed for the Ares I upper stage. These were thrust vector control (TVC) for the J-2X, electrical power system (EPS), purge and hazardous gas (P&HG), and development flight instrumentation (DFI). The teams working each of these subsystems achieved 80 percent or greater design completion and extensive development testing. These efforts were extremely successful representing state-of-the-art technology and hardware advances necessary to achieve Ares I reliability, safety, availability, and performance requirements. This paper documents the designs, development test activity, and results.

Frate, David T.; Senick, Paul F.; Tolbert, Carol M.

2011-01-01

27

Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

Fisher, Mark F.

1997-01-01

28

Cluster II quartet take the stage together  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the only occasion on which all four of ESA's Cluster II spacecraft will be on display together in Europe. Four Spacecraft, One Mission The unique event takes place near the end of the lengthy assembly and test programme, during which each individual spacecraft is being assembled in sequence, one after the other. Two have already completed their assembly and systems testing and are about to be stored in special containers at IABG prior to shipment to the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan next spring. In the case of the other two, flight models 5 and 8, installation of the science payloads has finished, but their exhaustive series of environmental tests at IABG have yet to begin. Following delivery to the launch site next April, the satellites will be launched in pairs in June and July 2000. Two Soyuz rockets, each with a newly designed Fregat upper stage, are being provided by the Russian-French Starsem company. This will be the first time ESA satellites have been launched from the former Soviet Union. Cluster II is a replacement for the original Cluster mission, which was lost during the maiden launch of Ariane 5 in June 1996. ESA, given the mission's importance in its overall strategy in the area of the Sun-Earth connection, decided to rebuild this unique project. ESA member states supported that proposal. On 3 April 1997, the Agency's Science Programme Committee agreed. Cluster II was born. European Teamwork Scientific institutions and industrial enterprises in almost all the 14 ESA member states and the United States are taking part in the Cluster II project. Construction of the eight Cluster / Cluster II spacecraft has been a major undertaking for European industry. Built into each 1200 kg satellite are six propellant tanks, two pressure tanks, eight thrusters, 80 metres of pipework, about 5 km of wiring, 380 connectors and more than 14 000 electrical contacts. All the spacecraft were assembled in the giant clean room at the Friedrichshafen plant of prime contractor Dornier Satellitensysteme. On completion, they were sent to IABG in Ottobrunn, near Munich, for intensive vibration, thermal, vacuum and magnetic testing. The European ground segment for the mission is just as important. A vast amount of data - equivalent to 290 million printed pages - will be returned to Earth over the mission's two-year lifetime. Signals to and from the spacecraft will be sent via a 15 metre antenna at Villafranca in Spain and processed at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) at Darmstadt, Germany. The main control room at ESOC will be used during the launch and early phases of the mission, with teams of operators working round the clock. About two weeks after the second Cluster II pair are placed in their operational orbits, mission operations will switch to a smaller, dedicated control room at ESOC. The Joint Science Operations Centre at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK will co-ordinate the scientific investigations. Its main task will be to combine all requirements from the 11 science instrument teams into an overall plan. The flow of information returned by the 44 instruments will be distributed to eight national data centres, six in Europe, one in the USA and the other in China. Solar Maximum Cluster II is part of an international programme to find out more about how the Sun influences the Earth. The four Cluster II satellites will join an armada of spacecraft from many countries, which are already studying the Sun and high speed wind of charged particles (mainly electrons and protons) which it continually blasts into space. Ulysses and SOHO, both joint ESA-NASA missions, and ESA's Cluster II , when it will be there, are the flagships of this armada. The timing of the mission is ideal, since it will take place during a period of peak activity in the Sun's 11-year cycle, when sunspots and solar radiation reach a maximum. Cluster II will measure the effects of this activity on near-Earth space as incoming energetic particles subject the magnetosphere - the region dominated by the Earth's magnetic field - to a

1999-11-01

29

Risk assessment in Stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

In the treatment of colon cancer today, the decision-making involved in the treatment of stage II disease is probably the most challenging aspect. The major question is whether or not these patients should receive postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Approximately 75% of stage II colon cancer is cured by surgery alone. For the remaining 25% of cases, there is great debate over whether adjuvant chemotherapy is sufficiently effective in enough patients to warrant the exposure to potentially toxic treatments. In the important QUASAR clinical trial, stage II patients were randomized to either fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy or observation. The results demonstrated an approximate 3% improvement in outcome for the 5-FU-treated patients. This leads to the assumption that treating all stage II patients with adjuvant chemotherapy is gross overtreatment, when essentially 97% of these patients will not benefit. Clearly the only way to approach this decision is through risk determination. In this article, I will describe the current state of defining high- and low-risk disease, which is mainly through histopathologic characteristics, as well as discuss emerging approaches such as molecular markers and genomic profiling. PMID:20225606

Marshall, John L

2010-01-01

30

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma

2014-08-06

31

Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

32

J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

Buzzell, James C.

2009-01-01

33

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

2008-01-01

34

Lenalidomide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2014-04-18

35

Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-08-08

36

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

2004-01-01

37

Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

Buzzell, James C.

2010-01-01

38

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

39

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

40

Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

2010-01-01

41

Rituximab, Lenalidomide, and Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Follicular Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2014-11-20

42

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building on the heritage of the Saturn and Space Shuttle Programs for the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT and E) of avionics and software for NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I Upper Stage Element is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. The Upper Stage Element's Avionics Subsystem is actively proceeding toward its objective of delivering a flight-certified Upper Stage Avionics System for the Ares I CLV.

Nola, Charles L.; Blue, Lisa

2008-01-01

43

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

1999-01-01

44

Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

45

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

46

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

47

New upper stage propulsion concept for future launchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure-fed system is leading to a stage easy to operate, reliable, needing no costly solutions (expander engine, boost pumps).On the other hand, many R&D programs are going on all ceramic liquid engines, engines cooled by “effusion” (DLR), Transpiration (PTAH-SOCAR from MBDA), Film or Trim (Astrium, Snecma), so very light engine may be offered on the market in the close

Max Calabro; Christophe Talbot

2008-01-01

48

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

49

Ares I Upper Stage Pressure Tests in Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

50

Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

Carter, Robert W.

2011-01-01

51

STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II  

SciTech Connect

TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

2002-08-29

52

Results of radiotherapy for stage I and II Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six patients with pathologically staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.

1982-06-01

53

Results of radiotherapy for Stage I and II Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six patients with pathologically Staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with Stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.

1982-06-01

54

Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton capability boundary for the upper stage, such that if the combined first stage and boosters can achieve any one staging point on that surface, then the design is identified as feasible. With the surrogate model created, design and analysis of advanced booster concepts is streamlined, as optimization of the upper stage trajectory is no longer required in every design loop.

Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

2012-01-01

55

Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

2003-01-01

56

NASA Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Element of NASA s Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115 long and 216" in diameter. While the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system.

Cook, Jerry R.

2006-01-01

57

Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan Hunter

58

Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

2010-01-01

59

Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

Burchett, Bradley T.

2008-01-01

60

Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

2013-01-15

61

Utilization of solid-propellant upper stages in STS payload orbital operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main purpose of this report is to discuss techniques of trajectory design, maneuver execution, and stage loading that are compatible with the use of SRM's (solid rocket motors) which, once ignited, must burn to propellant depletion. It is anticipated that some shuttle payloads will use non-IUS (interim upper stage) solid propellant kick stages; therefore this subject is also pertinent to shuttle flights other than those involving the use of the IUS. The SRM utilization techniques can be divided into two major categories: (1) those in which the stage performance is adjusted to match the velocity increment magnitude requirements of a preselected trajectory, and (2) those in which the trajectory is designed to match the velocity increment magnitude capability of the stage(s).

Wilson, S. W.

1976-01-01

62

Minimizing the drawing stages of a Bracket Assembly Upper Spring using DYNAFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work deals with the formability of sheet metal parts that depends very much on material properties, machine and process parameters, and part geometry. It provides an insight into drawing of low carbon steel axis-symmetrical cylindrical cup known as Bracket Assembly Upper Spring using DYNAFORM in order to reduce the current four draw stages. The simulation process is analyzed

Farrahshaida Mohd Salleh; Izdihar Tharazi; Abdul Rahman Omar; Roseleena Jaafar; Wan Emri Wan Abdul Rahman

2011-01-01

63

Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

Ahmed, Rafiq

2012-01-01

64

Full genome screen for Alzheimer disease: stage II analysis.  

PubMed

We performed a two-stage genome screen to search for novel risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). The first stage involved genotyping 292 affected sibling pairs using 237 markers spaced at approximately 20 cM intervals throughout the genome. In the second stage, we genotyped 451 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) with an additional 91 markers, in the 16 regions where the multipoint LOD score was greater than 1 in stage I. Ten regions maintained LOD scores in excess of 1 in stage II, on chromosomes 1 (peak B), 5, 6, 9 (peaks A and B), 10, 12, 19, 21, and X. Our strongest evidence for linkage was on chromosome 10, where we obtained a peak multipoint LOD score (MLS) of 3.9. The linked region on chromosome 10 spans approximately 44 cM from D10S1426 (59 cM) to D10S2327 (103 cM). To narrow this region, we tested for linkage disequilibrium with several of the stage II microsatellite markers. Of the seven markers we tested in family-based and case control samples, the only nominally positive association we found was with the 167 bp allele of marker D10S1217 (chi-square=7.11, P=0.045, df=1). PMID:11857588

Myers, Amanda; Wavrant De-Vrieze, Fabienne; Holmans, Peter; Hamshere, Marian; Crook, Richard; Compton, Danielle; Marshall, Helen; Meyer, David; Shears, Shantia; Booth, Jeremy; Ramic, Dzanan; Knowles, Heather; Morris, John C; Williams, Nigel; Norton, Nadine; Abraham, Richard; Kehoe, Pat; Williams, Hywel; Rudrasingham, Varuni; Rice, Francis; Giles, Peter; Tunstall, Nigel; Jones, Lesley; Lovestone, Simon; Williams, Julie; Owen, Michael J; Hardy, John; Goate, Alison

2002-03-01

65

Individualized Treatment in Treating Patients With Stage II-IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer Based on EBV DNA  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

2014-07-10

66

Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and electrical power functions to other Elements of the CLV, is included as secondary structure. The MSFC has an overall responsibility for the integrated US element as well as structural design an thermal control of the fuel tanks, intertank, interstage, avionics, main propulsion system, Reaction Control System (RCS) for both the Upper Stage and the First Stage. MSFC's Spacecraft and Vehicle Department, Structural and Analysis Design Division is developing a set of predicted mass of these elements. This paper details the methodology, criterion and tools used for the preliminary mass predictions of the upper stage structural assembly components. In general, weight of the cylindrical barrel sections are estimated using the commercial code Hypersizer, whereas, weight of the domes are developed using classical solutions. HyperSizer is software that performs automated structural analysis and sizing optimization based on aerospace methods for strength, stability, and stiffness. Analysis methods range from closed form, traditional hand calculations repeated every day in industry to more advanced panel buckling algorithms. Margin-of-safety reporting for every potential failure provides the engineer with a powerful insight into the structural problem. Optimization capabilities include finding minimum weight panel or beam concepts, material selections, cross sectional dimensions, thicknesses, and lay-ups from a library of 40 different stiffened and sandwich designs and a database of composite, metallic, honeycomb, and foam materials. Multiple different concepts (orthogrid, isogrid, and skin stiffener) were run for multiple loading combinations of ascent design load with and with out tank pressure as well as proof pressure condition. Subsequently, selected optimized concept obtained from Hypersizer runs was translated into a computer aid design (CAD) model to account for the wall thickness tolerance, weld land etc for developing the most probable weight of the components. The flow diram summarizes the analysis steps used in developing these predicted mass.

Aggarwal, Pravin

2007-01-01

67

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

SciTech Connect

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Advanced Systems and Technology Organization, South Oyster Bay Road, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

1998-01-15

68

Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

69

Overview of the Main Propulsion System for the NASA Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional overview of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage is provided. In addition to a simple overview of the key MPS functions and design philosophies, major lessons learned are discussed. The intent is to provide a technical overview with enough detail to allow engineers outside of the MPS Integrated Product Team (IPT) to develop a rough understanding of MPS operations, components, design philosophy, and lessons learned.

Quinn, Jason E.; Swanson, Luke A.

2009-01-01

70

Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2008-01-01

71

Optimal two-stage designs for phase II clinical trials.  

PubMed

The primary objective of a phase II clinical trial of a new drug or regimen is to determine whether it has sufficient biological activity against the disease under study to warrant more extensive development. Such trials are often conducted in a multi-institution setting where designs of more than two stages are difficult to manage. This paper presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that the expected sample size is minimized if the regimen has low activity subject to constraints upon the size of the type 1 and type 2 errors. Two-stage designs which minimize the maximum sample size are also determined. Optimum and "minimax" designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated. These designs can also be used for pilot studies of new regimens where toxicity is the endpoint of interest. PMID:2702835

Simon, R

1989-03-01

72

Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions  

SciTech Connect

Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B. [Sparta Inc. Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R. [Phillips Laboratory Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

1997-01-01

73

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

74

Surgical conservation planning after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and operable stage III breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was performed to investigate the extent of tumor downstaging achieved in women with operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast-conservation surgery, develop recommendations for effective surgical planning, and report local-regional recurrence rates with this approach.Methods: One hundred nine patients with stage II or III (T3N1) breast cancer were treated in three prospective trials utilizing four

Henry M Kuerer; S. Eva Singletary; Aman U Buzdar; Frederick C Ames; Vicente Valero; Thomas A Buchholz; Merrick I Ross; Lajos Pusztai; Gabriel N Hortobagyi; Kelly K Hunt

2001-01-01

75

ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

-A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the development planning aiming at a first launch of ESC-B in 2006.

Juhls, A.

2002-01-01

76

77 FR 28772 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-AQ97 Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II...SUMMARY: The EPA has determined that onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) technology...Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems C. Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery (ORVR)...

2012-05-16

77

Non-toxic propulsion for spaceplane ``pop-up'' upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military spaceplane operations scenarios envision using the ``Pop-Up'' employment profile to significantly increase the payload to orbit capability of the vehicle. Previous studies have investigated a range of propulsion system and stage design options for a pop-up upper stage (Cotta 1996). Operationally it is desirable to have the upper stage and payload stored as a wooden round that is quickly loaded on the spaceplane when needed. The current study therefore focuses on non-toxic (less-toxic), storable propellant options. These are compared to the use of conventional (toxic) storable bi-propellant, Nitrogen Tetroxide/Monomethyl Hydrazine (N2O4/MMH), and cryogenic oxidizer bi-propellant, (LO2/RP1), options. The non-toxic oxidizers investigated include Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Hydroxyammonium Nitroformate (HANF). The non-toxic fuels include hydrocarbon jet fuel (JP-4), Quadricyclane (C7H8), and Methylcubane (C9H10). The impact of H2O2 purity (90% to 100%) and various fuel blends are also evaluated. The comparison includes payload delivery performance, propellant handling issues and technology development needs. The results show that there are propellant combinations that are less toxic than N2O4/MMH and yet deliver comparable payload delivery performance. However, there are propellant handling issues and technology development needs that must be addressed. These are discussed.

Eckmann, James B.; Wiswell, Robert L.; Haberman, Eugene G.

1998-01-01

78

Radiotherapy for Stage I or II hypopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, and early-stage HPSCC is relatively rare. Because of the rarity of early-stage HPSCC, few reports have been published on the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in its treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 45 consecutive patients with Stage I and II HPSCC from May 1991 to June 2010. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age, 66 years (range, 44–90 years); male/female, 39/6; and T1/T2, 27/18. The irradiation dose ranged from 60 to 72 Gy (median: 70 Gy). Of the 45 patients, 21 underwent concurrent chemotherapy. With a median follow-up period of 62 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 81%. Local failure occurred in 5 patients, and the 5-year local control rate was 83%. All local recurrences were successfully salvaged by surgery. The 5-year functional larynx preservation rate was 92%. Acute toxicity was manageable. Grade 3 laryngeal edema and Grade 3 hypothyroidism occurred in 1 patient each. No other late adverse events of Grade 3 or greater were observed. Based on these results, RT seemed to be an effective treatment modality for early HPSCC, with favorable organ preservation and acceptable adverse events. Early detection and accurate management of local recurrence and second malignancy was deemed to be critical. PMID:22988283

Nishimura, Hideki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Kiyota, Naomi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

2012-01-01

79

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-10-30

80

Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

2011-01-01

81

Light Curve Observations of Upper Stages in the Low Earth Orbit Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active debris removal (ADR) is a potential means to remediate the orbital debris environment in low Earth orbit (LEO). Massive intact objects, including spent upper stages and retired payloads, with high collision probabilities have been suggested as potential targets for ADR. The challenges to remove such objects on a routine basis are truly monumental. A key piece of information needed for any ADR operations is the tumble motion of the targets. Rapid tumble motion (in excess of one degree per second) of a multiple-ton intact object could be a major problem for proximity and docking operations. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the general tumble motion of the potential ADR targets for future ADR planning. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has initiated an effort to identify the global tumble behavior of potential ADR targets in LEO. The activities include optical light curve observations, imaging radar data collection, and laboratory light curve simulations and modeling. This paper provides a preliminary summary of light curve data of more than 100 upper stages collected by two telescope facilities in Colorado and New Mexico between 2011 and 2012. Analyses of the data and implications for the tumble motions of the objects are also discussed in the paper.

Liou, J.-C.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Mulrooney, M.; Read, J.; Chun, F.; Dearborn, M.; Tippets, R.

2012-01-01

82

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware-in-the-loop. Testing expanded in 2007, accompanied by the refinement of the design through several key milestones. This paper discusses those 2007 tests and milestones, as well as updates key developments in 2008.

Byrd, THomas

2008-01-01

83

Combination Chemo, Rituximab, and Bevacizumab in Older Patients With Stage II-IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2014-05-06

84

MIDDLE TO UPPER ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (PHASE II)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this assessment activity is to enhance the ability of decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Middle to Upper Atlantic Region who are vulnerable to land use change and climate change to access and use the best scientific information when making decisions th...

85

Prognostic Factors and Availability of D2 Lymph Node Dissection for the Patients with Stage II Gastric Cancer: Comparative Analysis of Subgroups in Stage II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  According to the fifth edition of the UICC TNM classification, stage II gastric cancer has three subgroups: T1N2M0, T2N1M0,\\u000a and T3N0M0. This study was designed to investigate the prognosis of stage II gastric cancer according to the T and N category\\u000a to verify the accuracy of TNM staging for stage II and to determine the prognostic factors for patients with

Joong-Min Park; Jong-Han Kim; Sung-Soo Park; Seung-Joo Kim; Young-Jae Mok; Chong-Suk Kim

2008-01-01

86

The role of the upper sample size limit in two-stage bioequivalence designs.  

PubMed

Two-stage designs (TSDs) are currently recommended by the regulatory authorities for bioequivalence (BE) assessment. The TSDs presented until now rely on an assumed geometric mean ratio (GMR) value of the BE metric in stage I in order to avoid inflation of type I error. In contrast, this work proposes a more realistic TSD design where sample re-estimation relies not only on the variability of stage I, but also on the observed GMR. In these cases, an upper sample size limit (UL) is introduced in order to prevent inflation of type I error. The aim of this study is to unveil the impact of UL on two TSD bioequivalence approaches which are based entirely on the interim results. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate several different scenarios of UL levels, within-subject variability, different starting number of subjects, and GMR. The use of UL leads to no inflation of type I error. As UL values increase, the % probability of declaring BE becomes higher. The starting sample size and the variability of the study affect type I error. Increased UL levels result in higher total sample sizes of the TSD which are more pronounced for highly variable drugs. PMID:23954235

Karalis, Vangelis

2013-11-01

87

Further investigation of anomalous attitude motion of a spin-stabilized upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the nutation stability of a spacecraft is conducted in which the development of slosh motion is studied and the solutions for motion near resonance are derived. The model assumes that a rigid body containing a spherical pendulum is subjected to a thrust force, and approximate near-resonance solutions are given for two cases. Under conditions of parametric resonance the coning motion of the pendulum leads to a similar but less pronounced motion in the spacecraft. Primary resonance causes the spacecraft to lock into resonance depending upon a phase difference between the motions of the pendulum rotation angle and the sum of the angle of proper rotation and the magnitude of lateral angular momentum. The analysis is useful for understanding the nutation stability of a spin-stabilized upper stage with liquified slag trapped in the rocket motor.

Kang, J. Y.; Cochran, J. E., Jr.

1992-08-01

88

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

2011-01-01

89

Opening a new era in space. [Space Transportation System utilizing Shuttle, Spacelab and Interim Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall payload planning aimed at initial projected use of the Space Transportation System (STS) which will establish a new capability for exploring and using space through operations of the Shuttle, Spacelab, and Interim Upper Stage (IUS) in the Eighties is reviewed, and the significance of this planning for science and technology is discussed. The first payloads will fly on the STS during Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) beginning in March 1979. Primary OFT objectives include verifying flight systems and the Shuttle's ability to accomodate various types of payloads in different mission modes. The STS schedule will build up to as many as 60 flights in 1984. The STS payloads will make contributions to the management on a global scale of the interrelationship of production, consumption, population growth, and pollution.

Culbertson, P. E.; Bold, T. P.

1977-01-01

90

Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

2008-01-01

91

THE LATE STAGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK EVOLUTION: A MILLIMETER SURVEY OF UPPER SCORPIUS  

SciTech Connect

We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Jup} of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sub Jup}. The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and H{alpha} measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars.

Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96826 (United States); Menard, Francois; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe [CRNS-INSU/UJF-Grenoble 1, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Phillips, Neil, E-mail: gmathews@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-20

92

Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2011-01-01

93

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

2004-01-01

94

Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT.

Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

2014-01-01

95

Deletion of chromosome 4q predicts outcome in Stage II colon cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Around 30% of all stage II colon cancer patients will relapse and die of their disease. At present no objective parameters\\u000a to identify high-risk stage II colon cancer patients, who will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, have been established.\\u000a With traditional histopathological features definition of high-risk stage II colon cancer patients is inaccurate. Therefore\\u000a more objective and robust markers for prediction

R. P. M. Brosens; E. J. T. H. Belt; J. C. Haan; T. E. Buffart; B. Carvalho; H. Grabsch; P. Quirke; M. A. Cuesta; A. F. Engel; B. Ylstra; G. A. Meijer

2011-01-01

96

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

97

Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high sinuosity stage, the secondary anabranches behave as non-developed meanders. Also, it was concluded that the planform for secondary anabranches in all main channel sinuosity stages are controlled by the main anabranch migration.

Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

2013-12-01

98

Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

1974-01-01

99

Reusable Centaur study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [development costs of Centaur launch vehicle as upper stage for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the Reusable Centaur for use as an initial upper stage with the space shuttle was conducted. The currently operative Centaur stage, with modifications for space shuttle orbiter compatibility and for improved performance, represents a cost effective development solution. The performance needs and available development funds are discussed. The main features of three Reusable Centaur configurations with increasing capability at increasing development costs are summarized.

Heald, D. A.

1974-01-01

100

Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

2000-01-01

101

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion system concepts. SSME upper stage use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective was to determine viable methods for starting the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in an altitude environment and restarting it in an orbit environment with minimum changes in utilization of the engine system or hardware. The study concluded that the use of the SSME in an upper stage is feasible with minimal changes to the engine systems. The altitude start case requires only a change in the valve sequencing during start and reorificing of the ASI lines. Inlet pressures can be moderately low at 40 psia for the LOX and 32 psia for the H2. The orbital restart case adds the need to recirculate propellant and thermal control paint (to keep the turbomachinery inlets cold to minimize the tank pressures needed), and the need to heat two small components (to maintain acceptable mixture ratios during the early part of the start). These actions allow start anytime after approximately 120 minutes. Earlier starts (approximately one hour) are also possible but would require additional component heating for mixture ratio control during the early portion of the start sequence.

Strangeland, Eric; Levak, Daniel

1993-01-01

102

Reconstruction of columella, membranous septum, and upper lip in a single stage operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction options for columellar defects together with membranous septum, nasal base, and upper lip are restricted. We present a case successfully treated with bilateral cheek advancement flaps with upper medial, perialar skin flaps to reconstruct the upper lip, columella, nasal base and membranous septum in a single session. This method provides adequate tissue with minimal cosmetic deformity in a single

Hayati Akba?; Mustafa Keskin; Ethem Güneren; Lütfi Ero?lu; Ahmet Demir

2003-01-01

103

Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Cognitive/Functional Effects; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-08-08

104

Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-03-05

105

Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

2011-12-07

106

Thunderstorms and upper troposphere chemistry during the early stages of the 2006 North American Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied at 4 km horizontal grid spacing to study the meteorology and chemistry over the continental US and Northern Mexico region for the 15 July to 7 August 2006 period, which coincides with the early stages of the North American Monsoon. Evaluation of model results shows that WRF-Chem reasonably represents the large-scale meteorology and strong convective storms, but tends to overestimate weak convection. In the upper troposphere, the WRF-Chem model predicts ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) to within 10-20% of aircraft and sonde measurements. However, the frequency distribution from satellite data indicates that WRF-Chem is lofting too much CO from the boundary layer (BL). Because ozone mixing ratios agree well with these same satellite data, it suggests that chemical production of O3 in the model is overpredicted and compensates for the excess convective lofting of BL air. Analysis of different geographic regions (West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Central Plains, Midwest, and Gulf Coast) reveals that much of the convective transport occurs in the Rocky Mountains, while much of the UT ozone chemical production occurs over the Gulf Coast and Midwest regions where both CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are abundant in the upper troposphere and promote the production of peroxy radicals. In all regions most of the ozone chemical production occurs within 24 h of the air being lofted from the boundary layer. In addition, analysis of the anticyclone and adjacent air indicates that ozone mixing ratios within the anticyclone region associated with the North American Monsoon and just outside the anticyclone are similar. Increases of O3 within the anticyclone are strongly coincident with entrainment of stratospheric air into the anticyclone, but also are from in situ O3 chemical production. In situ O3 production is up to 17% greater within the anticyclone than just outside the anticyclone when the anticyclone is over the Southern US indicating that the enhancement of O3 is most pronounced over regions with abundant VOCs.

Barth, M. C.; Lee, J.; Hodzic, A.; Pfister, G.; Skamarock, W. C.; Worden, J.; Wong, J.; Noone, D.

2012-07-01

107

Thunderstorms and upper troposphere chemistry during the early stages of the 2006 North American Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the meteorology and chemistry that is associated with the early stages of the North American Monsoon, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied for the first time at high resolution (4 km grid spacing, allowing for explicit representation of convection) over a large region (continental US and northern Mexico) for a multi-week (15 July to 7 August 2006) integration. Evaluation of model results shows that WRF-Chem reasonably represents the large-scale meteorology and strong convective storms, but tends to overestimate weak convection. In the upper troposphere, the WRF-Chem model predicts ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) to within 10-20% of aircraft and sonde measurements. Comparison of UT O3 and CO frequency distributions between WRF-Chem and satellite data indicates that WRF-Chem is lofting CO too frequently from the boundary layer (BL). This excessive lofting should also cause biases in the WRF-Chem ozone frequency distribution; however it agrees well with satellite data suggesting that either the chemical production of O3 in the model is overpredicted or there is too much stratosphere to troposphere transport in the model. Analysis of different geographic regions (West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Central Plains, Midwest, and Gulf Coast) reveals that much of the convective transport occurs in the Rocky Mountains, while much of the UT ozone chemical production occurs over the Gulf Coast and Midwest regions where both CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are abundant in the upper troposphere and promote the production of peroxy radicals. In all regions most of the ozone chemical production occurs within 24 h of the air being lofted from the boundary layer. In addition, analysis of the anticyclone and adjacent air indicates that ozone mixing ratios within the anticyclone region associated with the North American Monsoon and just outside the anticyclone are similar. Increases of O3 within the anticyclone are strongly coincident with entrainment of stratospheric air into the anticyclone, but also are from in situ O3 chemical production. In situ O3 production is up to 17% greater within the anticyclone than just outside the anticyclone when the anticyclone is over the southern US indicating that the enhancement of O3 is most pronounced over regions with abundant VOCs.

Barth, M. C.; Lee, J.; Hodzic, A.; Pfister, G.; Skamarock, W. C.; Worden, J.; Wong, J.; Noone, D.

2012-11-01

108

Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid-life Evolution (A5-ME) program track the progress of these technology developments and analyze their applicability in time for A5-ME. In order to approximate A5-ME concerned preconditions, activities are initiated aiming at harmonization of the available specifications. Hence, a look-out towards a further technology step approaching TRL6 in a subsequent phase is given, briefly addressing topics of full scale manufacture and appropriate thermo-mechanical testing of an entire sandwich common bulkhead.

Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

2012-12-01

109

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper presents a detail description of the power management and distribution subsystem design for the ISUS ground demonstration program.

Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

1997-01-01

110

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

111

Performance of 15-Stage Experimental J71 Axial-Flow Compressor: II - Individual Stage Performance Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first four stages were found to cause a major part of the poor low-speed efficiency of this compressor. The low design-speed over-all pressure ratio at surge was caused by the first and the twelfth to fifteenth stages. The multiple over-all performance curves in the intermediate-speed range were at least partly the result of double-branched characteristic curves for the third and seventh stages.

Lucas, James G.; Filippi, Richard E.

1954-01-01

112

Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, and Urologic Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Urethral Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Ureter Cancer

2014-06-12

113

A 20k payload launch vehicle fast track development concept using an RD-180 engine and a Centaur upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

Toelle, Ronald (compiler)

1995-01-01

114

A 20k Payload Launch Vehicle Fast Track Development Concept Using an RD-180 Engine and a Centaur Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

Toelle, Ronald (compiler)

1995-01-01

115

78 FR 58884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stage II Vapor Recovery in Situations Where Widespread Use of Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery is Demonstrated.'' This action...1994, EPA promulgated regulations requiring the phase-in of onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) systems on new motor...

2013-09-25

116

75 FR 74673 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: Stage II Vapor Recovery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2006, EPA memorandum from Stephen D. Page entitled Removal of Stage II Vapor Recovery in Situations Where Widespread Use of Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery is Demonstrated. EPA is proposing to approve Georgia's SIP revisions pursuant to section 110...

2010-12-01

117

[Current status of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with p-Stage II and p-Stage III gastric cancer].  

PubMed

The results of the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer(ACTS-GC)demonstrated that postoperative chemotherapy using S-1 is a standard treatment in Japan for patients with p-Stage II and p-Stage III gastric cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy received by 47 patients with p-Stage II and p-Stage III gastric cancer between January 2007 and June 2012. Our hospital is a local university hospital with a high intensive care unit. S-1 monotherapy was administered to 32 patients(adjuvant S-1 group, 68.1%); 22 patients(68.8%)among them completed one year of therapy without any modification to the administration schedule. A total of 8 patients(25.0%)experienced grade 3 adverse events, and 9 patients required a dose reduction, a modification of the administration schedule, or termination of the therapy. S-1 was not administrated to 15 patients(no adjuvant S-1 group, 31.9%); among these patients, 12(80.0%) were not administered S-1 because of their advanced age and comorbidity. The 3-year overall survival rate was 89.3% in the adjuvant S-1 group and 77.1% in the no adjuvant S-1 group. The completion rate of S-1 and survival rate were high for patients in the adjuvant S-1 group, which was similar to the results of the ACTS-GC. However, 25 of 47 patients(53.2%) with p-Stage II and p-Stage III gastric cancer did not improve after sufficient adjuvant therapy; therefore, it is important to develop new treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:25132026

Sato, Yu; Yajima, Kazuhito; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Muneoka, Yusuke; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Takashi; Wakai, Toshifumi

2014-08-01

118

A prognostic model based on pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio for stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.  

PubMed

Patients with stage IE/IIE natural killer T (NK/T) cell lymphomas have discrepant survival outcome. This study aims to establish a prognostic model based on the pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) specifically for localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma to guide the therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 252 patients with early-stage upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The 5-year overall survival rate in 252 patients was 67.1 %. Prognostic factors for survival were female (P = 0.025; relative risk, 0.51; 95 % CI 0.28-0.92), older age (P = 0.000; relative risk, 3.34; 95 % CI 1.94-5.75), stage II(P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.79; 95 % CI 1.10-2.91), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = 0.009; relative risk, 2.00; 95 % CI 1.19-3.35), and PLR (P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.77; 95 % CI 1.10-2.87). Based on these five parameters, we identified three different risk groups: group 1(106 cases, 43.4 %), no or one adverse factor; group 2(85 cases, 34.8 %), two factors; group 3(53 cases, 21.7 %), three to five factors. Five-year overall survival was 83.3 % for group 1, 62.2 % for group 2, and 43.1 % for group 3 (P = 0.000). Compared with International Prognostic Index and Korean Prognostic Index, the new model has a better prognostic discrimination for the patients of stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The PLR-based prognosis model is useful to stratify patients with localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma into different risk groups and guide the treatment modalities selection. PMID:25377661

Wang, Ke-Feng; Chang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Pan-Pan; Wuxiao, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Su; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Xia, Zhong-Jun

2014-12-01

119

A varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design.  

PubMed

Currently, adaptive phase II/III clinical trials are typically carried out with a strict two-stage design. The first stage is a learning stage called phase II, and the second stage is a confirmatory stage called phase III. Following phase II analysis, inefficacious or harmful dose arms are dropped, then one or two promising dose arms are selected for the second stage. However, there are often situations in which researchers are in dilemma to make 'go or no-go' decision and/or to select 'best' dose arm(s), as data from the first stage may not provide sufficient information for their decision making. In this case, it is challenging to follow a strict two-stage plan. Therefore, we propose a varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design, in which we consider whether there is a need to have an intermediate stage to obtain more data, so that a more informative decision could be made. Hence, the number of further investigational stages in our design is determined on the basis of data accumulated to the interim analysis. With respect to adaptations, we consider dropping dose arm(s), switching another plausible endpoint as the primary study endpoint, re-estimating sample size, and early stopping for futility. We use an adaptive combination test to perform final analyses. By applying closed testing procedure, we control family-wise type?I error rate at the nominal level of ? in the strong sense. We delineate other essential design considerations including the threshold parameters and the proportion of alpha allocated in the two-stage versus three-stage setting. PMID:24273128

Dong, Gaohong

2014-04-15

120

Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

2014-09-08

121

BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality at three different levels\\u000a of proximity to the selected service station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) in\\u000a the background. Continuous monitoring and passive sampling were used for achieving high temporal and spatial resolution, respectively.\\u000a A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4)

Norbert Gonzalez-Flesca; Sotiris Vardoulakis; André Cicolella

2002-01-01

122

Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1970-01-01

123

Stages of Acquisition of Gateway Drug Use in Upper Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the stages of acquisition of "gateway" drug use among fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students at 11 elementary schools in Arkansas. A 109-item questionnaire, administered in the classrooms by the classroom teachers, solicited information about the stages of acquisition and the subjects' use of alcohol, smokeless tobacco,…

Kelley, R. Mark; And Others

124

Evolutionary stages of a mid-Proterozoic carbonate basin as inferred from the upper marble, Adirondack Lowlands, New York  

SciTech Connect

Mineral abundances for Upper Marble protoliths, obtained through least-squares multiple regression calculations, and trace element concentrations for 112 samples from two drill cores, exhibit stratigraphic variations that are interpretable in terms of stages in the development of the original carbonate basin. Factor analysis with varimax rotation reveals three dominant factors; dolomite, calcite + Sr, and quartz; and five minor factors: clastics, anhydrite + Sr, magnesite, ore + Sr, and illite. When the factor affiliations of samples are considered with respect to their stratigraphic arrangement, the result can be interpreted in terms of a seven-stage model of basin evolution that possesses elements common to both Proterozoic and Phanerozoic carbonate basins. According to this model, stage 1 was dominated by widespread penecontemporaneous dolomitization punctuated by brief periods of increased basin restriction. Stage 2 involved increasing basin restriction during which dolomitization was progressively inhibited by increasing Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 3 was characterized by further basin restriction and episodes of anhydrite precipitation during which dolomitization resumed briefly because of lowered Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 4 and 5 involved decreasing restriction and brine concentrations which allowed large-scale dolomitization to resume during stage 5, and abundant chert was formed in these sediments subsequent to dolomitization. Stage 6 was characterized by increasing restriction and progressive inhibition of dolomitization. Finally, stage 7 saw rapid increases in aluminosilicate sedimentation that ended further carbonate deposition. Sr abundances throughout the cores reflect control by carbonate mineralogy, which was in turn controlled by the degree of basin restriction.

Hauer, K.L.; Grant, N.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

125

Influence of River Stage on Shoreline Electrofishing Catches in the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of fish and fish species caught per unit of electrofishing effort along main-channel shorelines in pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River were inversely related to water level. Four species contributed predominantly to the relation between catch rate and water level: Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens; white bass Morone chrysops; and sauger Stizostedion canadense. There was

Rodney B. Pierce; Daniel W. Coble; Scott D. Corley

1985-01-01

126

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

Leslie E. Holland

1986-01-01

127

Rituximab and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2014-10-16

128

Thrombocytosis portends adverse prognostic significance in patients with stage II colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Thrombocytosis portends adverse prognostic significance in many types of cancers including ovarian and lung carcinoma. In this study, we determined the prevalence and prognostic significance of thrombocytosis (defined as platelet count in excess of 400 × 10 3/?l) in patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of 310 consecutive patients diagnosed at our Institution between 2004 and 2013. The patients (48.7% male and 51.3% female) had a mean age of 69.9 years (+/- 12.7 years) at diagnosis. Thrombocytosis was found in a total of 25 patients, with a higher incidence in those with stage III and IV disease (14.4% of patients). Although the mean platelet count increased with the depth of tumor invasion (pT), its values remained within normal limits in the whole patient cohort. No patient with stage I cancer (n=57) had elevated platelet count at diagnosis. By contrast, five of the 78 patients (6.4%) with stage II cancer showed thrombocytosis, and four of these patients showed early recurrence and/or metastatic disease, resulting in shortened survival (they died within one year after surgery). The incidence of thrombocytosis increased to 12.2% and 20.6%, respectively, in patients with stage III and IV disease. The overall survival rate of patients with thrombocytosis was lower than those without thrombocytosis in the stage II and III disease groups, but this difference disappeared in patients with stage IV cancer who did poorly regardless of their platelet count. We concluded that thrombocytosis at diagnosis indicates adverse clinical outcome in colorectal cancer patients with stage II or III disease. This observation is especially intriguing in stage II patients because the clinical management of these patients is controversial. If our data are confirmed in larger studies, stage II colon cancer patients with thrombocytosis may be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy.

Guo, Tianhua; Krzystanek, Marcin; Szallasi, Zoltan; Szallasi, Arpad

2014-01-01

129

Supporting collaboration through a nursing informatics curriculum stage II.  

PubMed Central

Collaboration is at the center of the process used to design, implement and evaluate an integrated informatics curriculum in a baccalaureate nursing program. This paper describes the second stage of a process to design the informatics nursing courses. The challenges to foster faculty collaborative relationships as well as to enhance the course content of all nursing informatics curriculum. A number of strategies were used to develop the collaborative efforts between the faculty and nursing staff in the clinical agencies. Information technology was incorporated into the didactic and clinical portions of courses through the use of creative teaching strategies. Therefore, the faculty have ensured a blend of information, technology, and the clinical care process throughout the curriculum. PMID:1482910

Travis, L. L.; Hoehn, B.; Spees, C.; Hribar, K.; Youngblut, J.

1992-01-01

130

Chemotherapy-radiotherapy association in Hodgkin's disease, clinical stages IA, II/sub 2/A: results of a prospective clinical trial with 166 patients. [/sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

One hundred sixty-six patients with clinical stages IA, II/sub 2/A Hodgkin's disease were treated between April 1972 and December 1976 with three courses of multiagent chemotherapy (methylchlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) followed by mantle irradiation - excluding mediastinum for those with initial upper cervical presentation and absence of mediastinal involvement - or inverted Y radiotherapy. With a follow-up of 12 to 84 months, the overall survival is 93.5% and the overall relapse-free survival 89.9%. With chemotherapy-radiotherapy sequence, staging laparotomy is not indicated. Results and side effects of this treatment strategy are compared with those of other treatment policies.

Andrieu, J.M. (Universite Paris VII, France); Montagnon, B.; Asselain, B.; Bayle-Weisgerber, C.; Chastang, C.; Teillet, F.; Bernard, J.

1980-11-15

131

Validating NEXRAD MPE and Stage III precipitation products for uniform rainfall on the Upper Guadalupe  

E-print Network

truth to evaluate radar rainfall estimation. This study proposes a new parameter probability of rain-area representativeness error of gauge rainfall is a major concern in assessment of radar rainfall estimation, this study form 7 September 2007; accepted 18 September 2007 KEYWORDS NEXRAD; Stage III; MPE; Rain gauge

Texas at San Antonio, University of

132

C/C and C/SiC Nozzle Extensions - A Breakthrough to Improve Upper and Lower Stage Engines Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to increase the payload capacity of the current launchers drives rocket engine manufacturers to seek higher thrust level, specific impulse and thrust to weight ratio. A particularly efficient way to do this is the use of increased expansion ratio nozzle extensions for upper stage engines, and using thermostructural composite materials in order to allow higher temperature material limitations and to decrease mass. The latter is applicable to both upper and lower stage engines. Up to the mid 90s, the use of composite nozzles has been limited to solid rocket nozzles, but recent developments led to flight qualification on liquid rocket engines, on the RL10-B2 engine of the DELTA III launcher. This engine is equipped with a large extendible Carbon/Carbon Novoltex Sepcarb nozzle developed by Snecma Propulsion Solide under a contract from Pratt &Whitney San Jose. This paper describes the technological background of Snecma Propulsion Solide concerning the design and manufacturing of large size composite nozzles for liquid rocket engines. It provides an up-to-date status of the demonstrations already performed on different engines (HM7, RL10-B2 in particular) and details all the recent progress on technical and manufacturing performance. The manufacturing process has also been improved and simplified in order to allow the manufacturing of larger scale nozzles, at lower cost. Finally, this paper evidences that this technology is today mature and is ready to be implemented on existing or future liquid rocket engines being developed.

Pichon, T.; /Lacombe, A.; Mercier, A.; Ferrey, A.

2002-01-01

133

SEER Data, Corpus Uteri Cancer: Treatment Trends versus Survival for FIGO Stage II, 1988–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. 1998 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data estimate an 83.1% 5-year survival rate for corpus uteri adenocarcinoma FIGO stage II. The SEER data were evaluated to determine whether primary treatment differences using simple hysterectomy or radical hysterectomy, with or without radiation, altered disease survival.Materials and Methods. SEER incidence data for FIGO II uterine corpus cancer of adenocarcinoma histology

Terri L. Cornelison; Edward L. Trimble; Carol L. Kosary

1999-01-01

134

Bayesian decision theoretic two-stage design in Phase II clinical trials with survival endpoint  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In this paper, we consider two-stage designs with failure-time endpoints in single arm phase II trials. We propose designs in which stopping rules are constructed by comparing the Bayes risk of stopping at stage one to the expected Bayes risk of continuing to stage two using both the observed data in stage one and the predicted survival data in stage two. Terminal decision rules are constructed by comparing the posterior expected loss of a rejection decision versus an acceptance decision. Simple threshold loss functions are applied to time-to-event data modelled either parametrically or non-parametrically, and the cost parameters in the loss structure are calibrated to obtain desired Type I error and power. We ran simulation studies to evaluate design properties including type I&II errors, probability of early stopping, expected sample size and expected trial duration, and compared them with the Simon two-stage designs and a design which is an extension of the Simon’s designs with time-to-event endpoints. An example based on a recently conducted phase II sarcoma trial illustrates the method. PMID:22359354

Zhao, Lili; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Schuetze, Scott M

2014-01-01

135

Adjuvant therapy in stage I and stage II epithelial ovarian cancer. Results of two prospective randomized trials  

SciTech Connect

About a third of patients with ovarian cancer present with localized disease; despite surgical resection, up to half the tumors recur. Since it has not been established whether adjuvant treatment can benefit such patients, we conducted two prospective, randomized national cooperative trials of adjuvant therapy in patients with localized ovarian carcinoma. All patients underwent surgical resection plus comprehensive staging and, 18 months later, surgical re-exploration. In the first trial, 81 patients with well-differentiated or moderately well differentiated cancers confined to the ovaries (Stages Iai and Ibi) were assigned to receive either no chemotherapy or melphalan (0.2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for five days, repeated every four to six weeks for up to 12 cycles). After a median follow-up of more than six years, there were no significant differences between the patients given no chemotherapy and those treated with melphalan with respect to either five-year disease-free survival or overall survival. In the second trial, 141 patients with poorly differentiated Stage I tumors or with cancer outside the ovaries but limited to the pelvis (Stage II) were randomly assigned to treatment with either melphalan (in the same regimen as above) or a single intraperitoneal dose of 32P (15 mCi) at the time of surgery. In this trial (median follow-up, greater than 6 years) the outcomes for the two treatment groups were similar with respect to five-year disease-free survival (80 percent in both groups) and overall survival (81 percent with melphalan vs. 78 percent with 32P; P = 0.48). We conclude that in patients with localized ovarian cancer, comprehensive staging at the time of surgical resection can serve to identify those patients (as defined by the first trial) who can be followed without adjuvant chemotherapy.

Young, R.C.; Walton, L.A.; Ellenberg, S.S.; Homesley, H.D.; Wilbanks, G.D.; Decker, D.G.; Miller, A.; Park, R.; Major, F. Jr. (Gynecologic Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1990-04-12

136

Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

2010-01-01

137

On prediction of re-entry time of an upper stage from GTO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of objects in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is determined by a complex interplay of atmospheric drag and luni-solar gravity. These orbits are highly eccentric (eccentricity >0.7) and have large variations in velocity and perturbations during a revolution. The periodic changes in the perigee altitudes of these orbits are mainly due to the gravitational perturbations of the Sun and the Moon. The re-entry time of the objects in such orbits is sensitive to the initial conditions. The aim of this paper is to study the re-entry time of the cryogenic stage of the Indian geo-synchronous launch vehicle, GSLV-F04/CS, which has been decaying since 2 September 2007 from initial orbit with eccentricity equal to 0.706. Two parameters, initial eccentricity and ballistic coefficient, are chosen for optimal estimation. It is known that the errors are more in eccentricity for the observations based on two line elements (TLEs). These two parameters are computed with response surface method using a genetic algorithm for the selected eight different zones, based on rough linear variation of the mean apogee altitude during 200 days orbit evolution. The study shows that the GSLV-F04/CS will re-enter between 5 December 2010 and 7 January 2011. The methodology is also applied to study the re-entry of six decayed objects (cryogenic stages of GSLV and Molniya satellites). Good agreement is noticed between the actual and the predicted re-entry times. The absolute percentage error in re-entry prediction time for all the six objects is found to be less than 7%. The present methodology is being adopted at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) to predict the re-entry time of GSLV-F04/CS.

Mutyalarao, M.; Sharma, Ram Krishan

2011-06-01

138

Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-10-16

139

The Outcome of Stage I–II Clinically and Surgically Staged Papillary Serous and Clear Cell Endometrial Cancers When Compared with Endometrioid Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare survival and recurrence in clinical and surgical stage I–II papillary serous (PS), clear cell (CC), and endometrioid (EM) cancers of the endometrium and examine the prognostic utility of myometrial invasion.Methods. Clinical, surgicopathologic, and survival data were retrospectively collected on 574 clinical stage I–II endometrial cancer patients, including 53 PS and 18

Frank D. Cirisano; Stanley J. Robboy; Richard K. Dodge; Rex C. Bentley; Hannah R. Krigman; Ingrid S. Synan; John T. Soper; Daniel L. Clarke-Pearson

2000-01-01

140

An adjustment for patient heterogeneity in the design of two-stage phase II trials.  

PubMed

In single-arm, two-stage phase II clinical trials to evaluate efficacy of cancer treatments using a response endpoint, one typically identifies a single reference response rate to be the null hypothesis benchmark. Patients eligible for the trial are assumed to have this response rate on average under the null hypothesis. When patients arise from subpopulations having different response rates, this single response rate reference may not be appropriate for the particular mix of patients actually enrolled on the trial. As a result, the Type I and Type II error rates conditional on the mix of enrolled patients may differ considerably from the unconditional error rates used to design the trial. We describe a method for designing two-stage Phase II studies that accounts for patient heterogeneity and effectively stabilizes conditional Type I and Type II error over the range of patient mixes that are likely to arise. Use of the design requires good estimates of the expected response rate within each population stratum as well as the stratum membership probabilities, but its properties are similar to and often preferable to the standard two-stage design even in situations where the underlying assumptions do not hold absolutely. PMID:19521973

Sposto, Richard; Gaynon, Paul S

2009-09-10

141

Combined modality treatment for stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: CVP versus BACOP chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the 5-year results of a prospective randomized study beginning in 1976 on 177 evaluable patients with pathologic Stage I-IE and II-IIE non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with diffuse histology according to the Rappaport classification. Treatment consisted of either CVP or BACOP chemotherapy (3 cycles) followed by regional radiotherapy (40 to 50 Gy) and further cycles of either combination. In both arms, complete remission at the end of combined treatment was high (CVP 93%, BACOP 98%) regardless of age, stage or bulky disease. At 5 years, the comparative freedom from first progression was 62% for CVP vs 78% for BACOP (p = 0.02), respectively. Clinically relevant differences favoring BACOP chemotherapy were essentially documented in patients with large cell lymphomas (International Working Formulation), those with Stage II having more than three involved anatomical sites, bulky disease and age over 60 years. Recurrence within radiation fields was documented in only 5% of complete responders. Combined treatment was, in general, well tolerated particularly when BACOP was used. In only 2 patients given CVP post radiation cutaneous fibrosis was documented. Second solid tumors were detected in 4 patients. One patient started on CVP died because of brain stem necrosis after 45 Gy. We conclude that in Stage I-II patients with nodal and extranodal diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, particularly large cell lymphomas, combined modality approach with primary Adriamycin and bleomycin containing regimen, such as BACOP, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy offers high chances of cure with minimal toxicity.

Bajetta, E.; Valagussa, P.; Bonadonna, G.; Lattuada, A.; Buzzoni, R.; Rilke, F.; Banfi, A.

1988-07-01

142

Expression Profiles in Stage II Colon Cancer According to APC Gene Status12  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Histoclinical staging is efficient, but combination with molecular markers may improve the classification of stage II cancers. Several tumor-suppressor genes have been associated with colorectal cancer, and the most frequent allelic losses have been extensively studied for their prognosis effect, but the results remain controversial. In a previous study, we found a possible influence of the chromosome 5 status in the development of liver metastases in stage II colon cancers. We have here investigated the role of the APC gene, located in chromosome arm 5q, in a series of 183 colon adenocarcinomas through a combined analysis of gene expression, mutation, allelic loss and promoter methylation, and metastasis occurrence. Point mutations were found in 73% of cases and allelic losses were found in 39%; 59% of tumors presented with a biallelic inactivation, with a very strong interdependence of the two APC hits (P = 2.1 x 10-9). No association was found between expression, number and type of APC alterations, and metastatic evolution. Our results show that the determination of APC status cannot help in the prediction of metastasis and cannot be used to subclassify stage II colon cancers. PMID:22496922

Birnbaum, David J; Laibe, Sophy; Ferrari, Anthony; Lagarde, Arnaud; Fabre, Aurelie J; Monges, Genevieve; Birnbaum, Daniel; Olschwang, Sylviane

2012-01-01

143

A Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program: The Life Course Interview (RDA-LCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article, a Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the qualitative…

Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ritchie, Rachel

2008-01-01

144

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2013-03-18

145

Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2014-06-18

146

Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

Le Scodan, Romuald, E-mail: lescodan@crh1.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Selz, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bollet, Marc A.; Lande, Brigitte de la; Daveau, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bruant, Sarah [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

2012-01-01

147

Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

1987-07-01

148

[Changes in the lungs in patients with lymphogranulomatosis, Stages I-II, following combination therapy].  

PubMed

Early and late pulmonary changes in 140 patients with Hodgkin's disease, Stages I-II, following combined treatment (polychemo- and radiotherapy) are analysed. Radiation pulmonitis and local paramediastinal fibrosis occur less frequently and they are less noticeable in combined therapy as compared to similar changes developing after radiation therapy only. It can be due to the fact that a course of polychemotherapy at its first stage results in a considerable decrease of the mediastinal lymph nodes (up to their complete regression) thus making it possible to shape irradiation fields of smaller sizes and to decrease the volume of pulmonary tissue to be irradiated. PMID:3838568

Ba?sogolov, G D; Afanasova, N V; Khmelevskaia, Z I; Shakhtarina, S V

1985-03-01

149

Stage II breast cancer: Differences between four coping patterns in side effects during adjuvant chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six women with stage II breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were recruited for a study evaluating and comparing coping patterns for differences in physical and psychological side effects during treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy. Cluster analyses were used to split women into confrontive, avoidant-confrontive, avoidant-resigned, and resigned coping clusters. Side-effect measurements were taken on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy infusion and

Daniel E. Shapiro; Stephen R. Boggs; James R. Rodrigue; Heather L. Urry; James J. Algina; Richard Hellman; Fay Ewen

1997-01-01

150

Improved Two-Stage Tests for Stratified Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Summary In a single-arm, two-stage, phase II cancer clinical trial for efficacy screening of cytotoxic agents, a common primary endpoint is a binary (yes/no) patient response to treatment. Usually, fixed decision boundaries are used in binomial tests to determine whether the study treatment is promising enough to be studied in a large-scale, randomized phase III trial. We may know in advance that the patient response distribution for a phase II clinical trial will be heterogeneous, making it advisable to stratify patients into subgroups, each with a different prognosis. In this case, fixed decision boundaries may be inappropriate. In this article, we propose two-stage tests based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma. The proposed test statistic is a linear combination of the observed number of responders in each stratum. The test allows adjustment of the decision boundaries to the observed numbers of patients in each stratum and permits sample sizes to be increased adaptively after the originally planned number of patients is observed at each of the two stages. Our numerical results show that the proposed test is more powerful than an existing test in many cases. Finally, we present an application to a Children’s Oncology Group (COG) phase II clinical trial in patients who relapsed after initial treatment for neuroblastoma. PMID:22422466

Chang, Myron N.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Hou, Wei

2013-01-01

151

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected. PMID:21347420

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

152

Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

153

Management of stage II colon cancer - the use of molecular biomarkers for adjuvant therapy decision  

PubMed Central

Background There is uncertainty on the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined role of clinical, pathological and molecular parameters to identify those stage II patients who better benefit from adjuvant therapy. Methods We examined 120 stage II colon cancer patients. Of these, 60 patients received adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy after surgery and the other 60 did not receive therapy. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed to evaluate the expressions of Thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), TP53 (p53), ?-catenin (CTNNB1) and CD8. For TYMS, its mRNA expression levels were also investigated by real time qRT-PCR. The entire case study was characterized by the presence of a defect in the MMR (mismatch repair) system, the presence of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-High) and for the V600E mutation in the BRAF gene. At the histo-pathological level, the depth of tumour invasion, lymphovascular invasion, invasion of large veins, host lymphocytic response and tumour border configuration were recorded. Results The presence of the V600E mutation in the BRAF gene was a poor prognostic factor for disease free and overall survival (DFS; hazard ratio [HR], 2.57; 95% CI: 1.03 -6.37; p?=?0.04 and OS; HR, 3.68; 95% CI: 1.43-9.47; p?stage II colon cancer. PMID:23446022

2013-01-01

154

Southwest Oncology Group experience: adjuvant therapy for Stage IB and II non-seminomatous testicular cancer  

SciTech Connect

During a two year period, 65 patients with Stage II non-seminomatous testis cancer were randomized to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Of the 52 evaluable patients, 23 received radiation followed by chemotherapy (sequential), and 29 received the same chemotherapy as initial treatment, but had drug treatment temporarily interrupted for radiation (sandwich). The combined treatment was well tolerated, but did not eliminate recurrence. With regard to duration of survival and disease-free survival, no statistically significant difference could be found between the sequential and sandwich approaches.

Stephens, R.L. (Univ. of Kansas, Kansas City); Eltringham, J.R.; Coltman, C.A. Jr.; Neidhart, J.; Mullins, J.; Frank, J.

1983-12-01

155

Performance of the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility During Altitude Firing Tests of the Delta 3 Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station was reactivated in order to conduct flight simulation ground tests of the Delta 3 cryogenic upper stage. The tests were a cooperative effort between The Boeing Company, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. They included demonstration of tanking and detanking of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and helium pressurant gas as well as 12 engine firings simulating first, second, and third burns at altitude conditions. A key to the success of these tests was the performance of the primary facility systems and their interfaces with the vehicle. These systems included the structural support of the vehicle, propellant supplies, data acquisition, facility control systems, and the altitude exhaust system. While the facility connections to the vehicle umbilical panel simulated the performance of the launch pad systems, additional purge and electrical connections were also required which were unique to ground testing of the vehicle. The altitude exhaust system permitted an approximate simulation of the boost-phase pressure profile by rapidly pumping the test chamber from 13 psia to 0.5 psia as well as maintaining altitude conditions during extended steady-state firings. The performance of the steam driven ejector exhaust system has been correlated with variations in cooling water temperature during these tests. This correlation and comparisons to limited data available from Centaur tests conducted in the facility from 1969-1971 provided insight into optimizing the operation of the exhaust system for future tests. Overall, the facility proved to be robust and flexible for vehicle space simulation engine firings and enabled all test objectives to be successfully completed within the planned schedule.

Meyer, Michael L.; Dickens, Kevin W.; Skaff, Tony F.; Cmar, Mark D.; VanMeter, Matthew J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

1998-01-01

156

What is stage II in high-grade primary gastric lymphoma? How to define the range of "localized disease".  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the Musshoff staging system for high-grade primary gastric lymphoma (HG-PGL), particularly in those patients with stages IE and IIE localized diseases. One hundred twenty-six patients presented with stage IE or IIE diseases were retrospectively reclassified on the basis of a pretreatment CT examination as to whether there was lymph node involvement. A positive M1 node (by AJCC staging system) on pretreatment CT scanning was associated with poor clinical outcome for localized stage I or II patients. PMID:17027954

Park, Yeon Hee; Kim, Won Seog; Bang, Soo Mee; Lee, Soon Il; Uhm, Ji Eun; Yang, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Keunchil; Ko, Young H; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol

2007-08-01

157

Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Stage II-IV T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2014-10-28

158

Neuroendocrine Differentiation Is a Prognostic Factor for Stage II Poorly Differentiated Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in colorectal cancer is an indistinct phenomenon and may define a new cancer subtype, especially in the poorly differentiated colorectal cancer (PDCRC). The clinical features of PDCRC with NED remain controversial, thus confusing the implementation of individualized treatment. This study included 171 patients who underwent surgery from 2000 to 2011 and had pathology-confirmed PDCRC. Each sample was examined by immunohistochemistry for the biological markers of NED, synaptophysin (Syn), and chromogranin (CgA). Patients with Syn(+) and/or CgA(+) cells were classified as NED(+); otherwise, they were NED(?). Data were collected for patients who were followed up for at least two years. NED(+) staining was present in 71 (41.5%) patients. The median survival time was 36.9 months. No survival differences existed between the NED(?) and NED(+) groups (P > 0.05). However, stage II NED(+) patients had a significantly worse prognosis than NED(?) patients (P = 0.018). For the NED(+) group, the median survival was 38.56 months, and the 5-year survival was 65%. For the NED(?) group, the median survival was 53.18 months, and the 5-year survival was 90%. NED is a common event in primary PDCRC. For stage II PDCRC, NED(+) indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:25093184

Liu, Yue; Xu, Jinghong; Jiao, Yurong; Hu, Yeting; Yi, Chenghao; Li, Qiong; Tong, Zhou; Wang, Xiaowei; Hu, Lifeng; Li, Jun; Ding, Kefeng

2014-01-01

159

[3-year results of the combined treatment of stage I and II lymphogranulomatosis patients].  

PubMed

The authors present the results of the combined treatment (radiotherapy combined with 6 cycles of polychemotherapy using either the COPP or CVPP scheme) of 120 patients according to 4 programs differing in the volume of irradiation and intervals, between the cycles of polychemotherapy. The results of the study were compared to those of radiotherapy (irradiation of unilateral diaphragmatic and splenic lymph nodes) of 277 patients with Hodgkin's disease, Stages I--II. The combined treatment was shown to yield in better rates of a recurrence-free course of the disease and in slightly increased 3-year survival rates. It was shown that with identical drug therapy (6 cycles of polychemotherapy) the results of treatment in the groups of patients with different volumes of irradiation (irradiation of the clinically detectable foci of lesion only or of all the lymph nodes over the diaphragm and spleen) are rather similar. The results obtained indicate the advantages of the combined method of treatment of patients with Hodgkin's disease, Stages I--II. A reduced volume of irradiation seems possible in some cases. PMID:6546966

Ba?sogolov, G D; Shakhtarina, S V

1984-04-01

160

Two-stage designs optimal under the alternative hypothesis for phase II cancer clinical trials  

PubMed Central

The Simon two-stage optimal design is often used for phase II cancer clinical trials. A study proceeds to the second stage unless the null hypothesis, that the true tumour response rate is below some specified value, is already accepted at the end of stage one. The conventional optimal design, for given type 1 and type 2 error rates, is the one which minimises the expected sample size under the null hypothesis. However, at least some new agents are active, and designs that explicitly address this possibility should be considered. We therefore investigate novel designs which are optimal under the alternative hypothesis, that the tumour response rate is higher than the null hypothesis value, and also designs which allow early stopping for efficacy. We make available, software for identifying the corresponding optimal and minimax designs. Considerable savings in expected sample sizes can be achieved if the alternative hypothesis is in fact true, without sample sizes suffering too much if the null hypothesis is true. We present an example discussing the merits of different designs in a practical context. We conclude that it is relevant to consider optimal designs under a range of hypotheses about the true response rate, and that allowing early stopping for efficacy is always advantageous in terms of expected sample size. PMID:20678585

Mander, A.P.; Thompson, S.G.

2010-01-01

161

Two-stage designs optimal under the alternative hypothesis for phase II cancer clinical trials.  

PubMed

The Simon two-stage optimal design is often used for phase II cancer clinical trials. A study proceeds to the second stage unless the null hypothesis, that the true tumour response rate is below some specified value, is already accepted at the end of stage one. The conventional optimal design, for given type 1 and type 2 error rates, is the one which minimises the expected sample size under the null hypothesis. However, at least some new agents are active, and designs that explicitly address this possibility should be considered. We therefore investigate novel designs which are optimal under the alternative hypothesis, that the tumour response rate is higher than the null hypothesis value, and also designs which allow early stopping for efficacy. We make available, software for identifying the corresponding optimal and minimax designs. Considerable savings in expected sample sizes can be achieved if the alternative hypothesis is in fact true, without sample sizes suffering too much if the null hypothesis is true. We present an example discussing the merits of different designs in a practical context. We conclude that it is relevant to consider optimal designs under a range of hypotheses about the true response rate, and that allowing early stopping for efficacy is always advantageous in terms of expected sample size. PMID:20678585

Mander, A P; Thompson, S G

2010-11-01

162

Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions.' These personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. Currently, only three spacefaring nations have this distinction, including the United States, Russia, and, more recently, China. The U.S. National Space Policy of2006 directs that NASA provide the means to travel to space, and the NASA Appropriations Act of2005 provided the initial funding to begin in earnest to replace the Shuttle after the International Space Station construction is complete in 20 IO? These and other strategic goals and objectives are documented in NASA's 2006 Strategic Plan.3 In 2005, a team of NASA aerospace experts conducted the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which recommended a two-vehicle approach to America's next space transportation system for missions to the International Space Station in the next decade and to explore the Moon and establish an outpost around the 2020 timeframe.4 Based on this extensive study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle configuration and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch vehicle (fig 1). This paper will give an overview of NASA's approach to integrating the Ares I vehicle stack using capabilities and assets that are resident in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, working in partnership with other NASA Centers and the U.S. aerospace industry. It also will provide top-level details on the progress of the in-house design of the Ares I vehicle's upper stage element.

Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

2008-01-01

163

One-stage reconstruction of the entire upper lip and the columella with a modified bilateral nasolabial flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional and cosmetic reconstruction of the upper lip after a subtotal defect is a highly demanding challenge, especially\\u000a when the columella is involved. In the majority of cases, the surgical techniques described in the literature are suitable\\u000a only for restoring the function and appearance of the upper lip but not for reconstructing adjacent areas. In this article,\\u000a we present

Kai Johannes Lorenz; Heinz Maier

2010-01-01

164

Randomized trial of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for stage I-II Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed

A total of 277 patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease, clinical stages I-II, were randomized to cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone (CVPP) alone for 6 monthly cycles or to CVPP plus radiation therapy (RT), 3,000 rad, to involved areas (CVPP plus RT). One or more of the following factors were considered as unfavorable prognosis: age greater than 45 years, more than two lymph node areas involved, or bulky disease. In the favorable group, disease-free survival (77% vs. 70%) or overall survival (92% vs. 91%) at 84 months for CVPP versus RT plus CVPP was similar. Patients with unfavorable prognosis treated with RT plus CVPP had longer disease-free survival (75% vs. 34%) (P = .001) and overall survival (84% vs. 66%) than patients treated with CVPP alone. PMID:3184196

Pavlovsky, S; Maschio, M; Santarelli, M T; Muriel, F S; Corrado, C; Garcia, I; Schwartz, L; Montero, C; Sanahuja, F L; Magnasco, O

1988-11-16

165

Investigation of Upper Stratospheric Ozone Trends and Hemispheric Asymmetries in SAGE II Version 6.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAGE II version 6.0 ozone data exhibit trends which are not significantly different from those in version 5.96 data. Here we show that there are indications of decreasing downward trends with time from 1979 to 1998. The SAGE II data also exhibit slightly larger downward trends in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. We have used a chemical

J. Li; D. M. Cunnold; H. Wang; E. Yang; M. J. Newchurch

2001-01-01

166

The Impact of Delayed Chemotherapy on Its Completion and Survival Outcomes in Stage II Colon Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed chemotherapy is associated with inferior survival in stage III colon and stage II/III rectal cancer patients, but similar studies have not been performed in stage II colon cancer patients. We investigate the association between delayed and incomplete chemotherapy, and the association of delayed chemotherapy with survival in stage II colon cancer patients. Patients and Methods Patients (age ?66) diagnosed as stage II colon cancer and received chemotherapy from 1992 to 2005 were identified from the linked SEER–Medicare database. The association between delayed and incomplete chemotherapy was assessed using unconditional and conditional logistic regressions. Survival outcomes were assessed using stratified Cox regression based on propensity score matched samples. Results 4,209 stage II colon cancer patients were included, of whom 73.0% had chemotherapy initiated timely (?2 months after surgery), 14.7% had chemotherapy initiated with moderate delay (2–3 months), and 12.3% had delayed chemotherapy (?3 months). Delayed chemotherapy was associated with not completing chemotherapy (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.59) for moderately delayed group, adjusted OR: 2.60 (2.09, 3.24) for delayed group). Delayed chemotherapy was associated with worse survival outcomes (hazard ratio (HR): 1.75 (1.29, 2.37) for overall survival; HR: 4.23 (2.19, 8.20) for cancer-specific survival). Conclusion Although the benefit of chemotherapy is unclear in stage II colon cancer patients, delay in initiation of chemotherapy is associated with an incomplete chemotherapy course and poorer survival, especially cancer-specific survival. Causal inference in the association between delayed initiation of chemotherapy and inferior survival requires further investigation.

Xu, Fang; Rimm, Alfred A.; Fu, Pingfu; Krishnamurthi, Smitha S.; Cooper, Gregory S.

2014-01-01

167

Changing the facial features of patients with treacher collins syndrome: protocol for 3-stage treatment of hard and soft tissue hypoplasia in the upper half of the face.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is a disorder characterized by various congenital soft tissue anomalies involving hypoplasia of the zygoma, maxilla, and mandible. A variety of treatments have been reported to date. These treatments can be classified into 2 major types. The first type involves osteotomy for hard tissue such as the zygoma and mandible. The second type involves plastic surgery using bone grafting in the malar region and soft tissue repair of eyelid deformities. We devised a new treatment to comprehensively correct hard and soft tissue deformities in the upper half of the face of Treacher Collins patients. The aim was to "change facial features and make it difficult to tell that the patients have this disorder." This innovative treatment strategy consists of 3 stages: (1) placement of dermal fat graft from the lower eyelid to the malar subcutaneous area, (2) custom-made synthetic zygomatic bone grafting, and (3) Z-plasty flap transposition from the upper to the lower eyelid and superior repositioning and fixation of the lateral canthal tendon using a Mitek anchor system. This method was used on 4 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome who had moderate to severe hypoplasia of the zygomas and the lower eyelids. Facial features of these patients were markedly improved and very good results were obtained. There were no major complications intraoperatively or postoperatively in any of the patients during the series of treatments. In synthetic bone grafting in the second stage, the implant in some patients was in the way of the infraorbital nerve. Thus, the nerve was detached and then sutured under the microscope. Postoperatively, patients had almost full restoration of sensory nerve torpor within 5 to 6 months. We devised a 3-stage treatment to "change facial features" of patients with hypoplasia of the upper half of the face due to Treacher Collins syndrome. The treatment protocol provided a very effective way to treat deformities of the upper half of the face in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23511742

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Satoh, Kaneshige

2014-07-01

168

Proapoptotic Bad and Bid Protein Expression Predict Survival in Stages II and III Colon Cancers  

PubMed Central

Purpose Proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bad and Bid initiate apoptosis by binding to regulatory sites on prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins to directly neutralize their function. We determined if expression of these proteins in colon cancers may account for differences in patient survival. Experimental Design Tumor-node-metastasis stages II and III primary colon carcinomas from patients treated in 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy trials were studied. Immunohistochemical analysis of Bad and Bid proteins was done in tumors (n = 379) and adjacent normal mucosa. Expression was correlated with clinicopathologic variables, disease-free survival rates (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Results High expression of the Bad protein [hazard ratio (HR), 0.64; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.43–0.96; P = 0.031] in the cytoplasm of tumor cells was significantly associated with more favorable OS in a univariate analysis. The combined Bad and Bid variable was prognostic for DFS (P = 0.027) and OS (P = 0.006). Stage and histologic grade, but not DNA mismatch repair status, were also prognostic for OS. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that high expression of Bad (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.97; P = 0.027) and Bid (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49–0.97; P = 0.034) were independent predictors of OS after adjustment for stage, grade, age, treatment, and study. The combined variable of Bad + Bid was independently associated with DFS (P = 0.020) and OS (P = 0.004). Conclusion Proapoptotic Bad and Bid proteins are independent prognostic variables in colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant treatment. If validated, Bad and Bid expression may assist in risk stratification and selection of patients to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:18593990

Sinicrope, Frank A.; Rego, Rafaela L.; Foster, Nathan R.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Alberts, Steven R.; Windschitl, Harold E.; Sargent, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

169

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TELECAST PROGRAMS FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY GRADES WERE IN ART, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH UNIT WAS GIVEN, TOGETHER WITH DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY. IN THE ART SERIES, IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT PUPIL PARTICIPATION TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE TELECAST. INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY WAS…

DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

170

Stability of upper incisor inclination changes in Class II division 2 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in incisor inclination following orthodontic treatment in Class II division 2 patients, and to assess the long-term stability after retention. Dental casts and cephalograms of 61 Class II division 2 patients (31 males and 30 females, mean age 13.4 years) with a closed lip seal were available before (T1), at

H. Devreese; G. de Pauw; G. van Maele; A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman; L. Dermaut

2007-01-01

171

A Three Dimensional Study of Upper Airway in Adult Skeletal Class II Patients with Different Vertical Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

Objective The study was performed to compare the 3D pharyngeal airway dimensions in adult skeletal Class II patients with different vertical growth patterns (low, normal, and high angle) and to investigate whether the upper airway dimensions of untreated skeletal Class II adults were affected by vertical skeletal variables. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) records of 64 untreated adult skeletal Class II patients (34 male and 30 female) were collected to evaluate the pharyngeal airway dimensions. Subjects were divided into three subgroups according to the GoGn-SN angle (low angle, normal angle or high angle). All subgroups were matched for sex. ANOVA and SNK - q tests were used to identify differences within and among groups (p<0.05). Coefficient of product-moment correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) was used to analyze the association between pharyngeal airway dimensions and vertical growth patterns. Results The results showed that pharyngeal airway measurements were statistically significantly less (p<0.05) in high angle group as compared to normal angle or low angle group. Conclusions Adult skeletal Class II subjects with vertical growth patterns have significantly narrower pharyngeal airways than those with normal or horizontal growth patterns, confirming an association between pharyngeal airway measurements and a vertical skeletal pattern. PMID:24755893

Yang, Fang; Zhang, Mingye; Zhao, Jinlong; Chen, Jinwu; Li, Yongming

2014-01-01

172

Adjuvant therapy in stage I and stage II epithelial ovarian cancer. Results of two prospective randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

About a third of patients with ovarian cancer present with localized disease; despite surgical resection, up to half the tumors recur. Since it has not been established whether adjuvant treatment can benefit such patients, we conducted two prospective, randomized national cooperative trials of adjuvant therapy in patients with localized ovarian carcinoma. All patients underwent surgical resection plus comprehensive staging and,

Robert C. Young; Leslie A. Walton; Susan S. Ellenberg; Howard D. Homesley; George D. Wilbanks; David G. Decker; Alexander Miller; Robert Park; Francis Major

1990-01-01

173

Variability in Foraging Behavior and Implications for Diet Breadth among Semipalmated Sandpipers Staging in the Upper Bay of Fundy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During its fall migration stopover on mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) is thought to feed primarily on the amphipod Corophium volutator (mudshrimp). Semipalmated Sandpipers typically use a peck-probe foraging strategy and, until recently, there had been little evidence of variability or opportunism in their foraging habits during this stopover. From 2006 to

Elizabeth C. MacDonald; Matthew G. Ginn; Diana J. Hamilton

2012-01-01

174

Radiotherapy for primary localized (stage I and II) non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of primary localized (Stage I: 24 cases and Stage II: 13 cases) non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) of the oral cavity.Methods and Materials: In total, 37 patients (27 male, 10 female) with primary localized NHL of the oral cavity have been treated with radiotherapy alone (23 cases) or radiation with chemotherapy

Kohji Sunaba; Hitoshi Shibuya; Norihiko Okada; Teruo Amagasa; Shoji Enomoto; Seiji Kishimoto

2000-01-01

175

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

2006-01-01

176

Two-stage reconstruction for flexor tendon injuries in zone II using a silicone rod and pedicled sublimis tendon graft  

PubMed Central

We report the results of staged flexor tendon reconstruction in 12 patients (12 fingers) with neglected or failed primary repair of flexor tendon injuries in zone II. Injuries involved both flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor digitorum sublimis (FDS), with poor prognosis (Boyes grades II–IV). The procedure included placing a silicone rod and creating a loop between the FDP and FDS in the first stage and reflecting the latter as a pedicled graft through the pseudosheath created around the silicone rod in the second stage. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 12–30 months), results were assessed by clinical examination and questionnaire. The mean total active motion of these fingers was 188°. The mean power grip was 80.0% and pinch grip was 76% of the contralateral hand. The rate of excellent and good results was 75% according to the Buck-Gramcko scale. These results were better than the subjective scores given by the patients. Complications included postoperative hematoma in two, infection in one, silicone synovitis in one (after stage I) and three flexion contractures after stage II. This study confirmed the usefulness of two-stage flexor tendon reconstruction using the combined technique as a salvage procedure to restore flexor tendon function with a few complications. PMID:20924443

Abdul-Kader, Mohammed Heshmat; Amin, Mahmound A. M.

2010-01-01

177

A Simple Ocean Data Assimilation Analysis of the Global Upper Ocean 1950 95. Part II: Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore the accuracy of a comprehensive 46-year retrospective analysis of upper-ocean temper- ature, salinity, and currents. The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) analysis is global, spanning the latitude range 628S-628N. The SODA analysis has been constructed using optimal interpolation data assimilation combining numerical model forecasts with temperature and salinity profiles (MBT, XBT, CTD, and station), sea surface temperature,

James A. Carton; Gennady Chepurin; Xianhe Cao

2000-01-01

178

Role of Postmastectomy Radiation After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify a cohort of women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy for whom postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) may be omitted according to the projected risk of local-regional failure (LRF). Methods and Materials: Seven breast cancer physicians from University of California cancer centers created 14 hypothetical clinical case scenarios, identified, reviewed, and abstracted the available literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane databases), and formulated evidence tables with endpoints of LRF, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Using the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria methodology, appropriateness ratings for postmastectomy radiation were assigned for each scenario. Finally, an overall summary risk assessment table was developed. Results: Of 24 sources identified, 23 were retrospective studies from single institutions. Consensus on the appropriateness rating, defined as 80% agreement in a category, was achieved for 86% of the cases. Distinct LRF risk categories emerged. Clinical stage II (T1-2N0-1) patients, aged >40 years, estrogen receptor-positive subtype, with pathologic complete response or 0-3 positive nodes without lymphovascular invasion or extracapsular extension, were identified as having {<=}10% risk of LRF without radiation. Limited data support stage IIIA patients with pathologic complete response as being low risk. Conclusions: In the absence of randomized trial results, existing data can be used to guide the use of PMRT in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting. Using available studies to inform appropriateness ratings for clinical scenarios, we found a high concordance of treatment recommendations for PMRT and were able to identify a cohort of women with a low risk of LRF without radiation. These low-risk patients will form the basis for future planned studies within University of California Athena Breast Health Network.

Fowble, Barbara L., E-mail: bfowble@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Einck, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kim, Danny N. [Athena Breast Health Network, Program Management Office, San Francisco, CA (United States); McCloskey, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mayadev, Jyoti [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Yashar, Catheryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chen, Steven L. [Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hwang, E. Shelley [Department of Surgery, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2012-06-01

179

Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes II. Model of the upper hurricane layer  

E-print Network

This second paper of the series (see the first one in [1]) models the dynamics and structure of upper hurricane layer in adiabatic approximation. Formulation of simplified aerodynamic model allows analytically express the radial istributions of pressure and wind speed components. The vertical evolution of these distributions and hurricane structure in the layer are described by a coupled set of equations for the vertical mass flux and vertical momentum balance, averaged over the eye wall cross section. Several realistic predictions of the model are demonstrated, including the change of directions for the component of radial wind speed and angular velocity of hurricane with altitude.

Leonov, Arkady I

2008-01-01

180

Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, reliable, affordable upper stage engine to power the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. The J-2X engine is being developed for that purpose, epitomizing NASA's philosophy of employing legacy knowledge, heritage hardware, and commonality to carry the next generation of explorers into low-Earth orbit and out into the solar system This presentation gives top-level details on accomplishments to date and discusses forward work necessary to bring the J-2X engine to the launch pad.

Byrd, Thomas D.; Kynard, Michael .

2007-01-01

181

Streets and stages: urban renewal and the arts after World War II.  

PubMed

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place. PMID:21197807

Foulkes, Julia L

2010-01-01

182

Is There a Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Completely Resected Stage I/II Thymic Epithelial Tumor?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retrospective analyses of patients with stage I-II thymic epithelial tumors (TET) who were treated with either surgery alone (S) or surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy (SRT) were conducted to evaluate the role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods A total of 110 stage I-II TET patients following complete resection were included in this study. Postoperative radiation therapy was recommended for those with aggressive histologic type and/or invasive features according to the surgeons' judgment during the operation. A median dose of 54.0 Gy (range, 44 to 60 Gy) focused on the primary tumor bed was administered to 57 patients (51.8%). Results In all patients, the rates of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival at 10 years were 91.7%, 97.1%, and 95.8%, respectively. No significant differences in disease-specific survival (100% in the S group and 93.5% in the SRT group at 10 years, p=0.12) and disease-free survival (98.1% in the S group and 94.5% in the SRT group at 10 years, p=0.41) were observed between the treatment groups, although a significantly larger number of World Health Organization (WHO)-type B2-C (p<0.001) and Masaoka stage II (p=0.03) tumors were observed in the SRT group than in the S group. No local recurrence was observed in the SRT group. No grade 2 or greater RT-related toxicities were observed in the SRT group. Conclusion Excellent outcomes were achieved in patients with stage I-II TET who underwent complete resection. Considering excellent local control and low morbidity, adjuvant RT may be considered in high risk patients with WHO-type B2-C histology and Masaoka stage II. PMID:23091442

Oh, Dongryul; Kim, Kwhanmien; Kim, Jhingook; Shim, Young Mog; Han, Jungho

2012-01-01

183

Efficacy of computed tomography of the thorax and upper abdomen and whole-body gallium scintigraphy for staging of lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

To assess the efficacy of performing both computed tomography (CT) of the thorax and upper abdomen and whole-body gallium scintigraphy for staging lung cancer, the results of each test were compared with those obtained by chest radiography and clinical examination in 100 patients. Clinical efficacy was defined in terms of accuracy in staging the tumor based either on surgery, biopsy, or clinical and radiologic follow-up. The CT provided significantly superior accuracy in 27 patients and minor additional staging information in 17 patients compared with the gallium scan. Whole-body gallium scintigraphy provided important additional information in nine patients and minor additional information in a further eight. The diagnostic yield of CT and gallium scanning was considered equivalent in 39 cases. Of the nine cases in which gallium was significantly superior to CT, clinical findings which suggested the presence of metastases had been noted before the scan in four cases. The authors' results confirm the utility of CT for staging lung cancer and indicate that the additional yield from gallium scintigraphy is relatively low provided a thorough history and physical examination have been performed.

MacMahon, H.; Scott, W.; Ryan, J.W.; Montner, S.M.; Little, A.G.; Hoffman, P.C.; Ferguson, M.K.; Golomb, H.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-10-01

184

Treatment of stage i and ii mediastinal Hodgkin disease: a comparison of involved fields, extended fields, and involved fields followed by MOPP in patients stage by laparotomy  

SciTech Connect

Three treatment programs for Stage I and II mediastinal Hodgkin disease (established by laparotomy) were compared. Involved-field radiotherapy + MOPP gave a disease-free survival rate of 97%, significantly different from 62% and 55% for involved and extended fields, respectively. Corresponding survival figures of 97%, 88%, and 84% were not signiticantly different statistically due to salvage with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Among patients given radiotherapy alone, the survival figure of 94% for limited mediastinal disease was significantly better than 63% for extensive mediastinal and hilar disease; corresponding disease-free figures of 72% and 35% were also significantly different. Constitutional symptoms were an important prognostic factor in disease-free survival following the use of involved fields; hilar disease was important only with large mediastinal masses. Most relapses were intrathoracic; MOPP alone salvaged only 47%. Treatment of State I and II Hodgkin disease should be based on symptoms, extent of mediastinal disease, and hilar involvement.

Hagemeister, F.B.; Fuller, L.M.; Sullivan, J.A.; North, L.; Velasquez, W.; Conrad, F.G.; McLaughlin, P.; Butter, J.J.; Shullenberger, C.C.

1981-12-01

185

Cancer Stem Cell Gene Profile as Predictor of Relapse in High Risk Stage II and Stage III, Radically Resected Colon Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Clinical data indicate that prognostic stratification of radically resected colorectal cancer based on disease stage only may not be always be adequate. Preclinical findings suggest that cancer stem cells may influence the biological behaviour of colorectal cancer independently from stage: objective of the study was to assess whether a panel of stemness markers were correlated with clinical outcome in resected stage II and III colon cancer patients. A panel of 66 markers of stemness were analysed and thus patients were divided into two groups (A and B) with most patients clustering in a manner consistent with different time to relapse by using a statistical algorithm. A total of 62 patients were analysed. Thirty-six (58%) relapsed during the follow-up period (range 1.63–86.5 months). Twelve (19%) and 50 (81%) patients were allocated into group A and B, respectively. A significantly different median relapse-free survival was observed between the 2 groups (22.18 vs 42.85 months, p?=?0.0296). Among of all genes tested, those with the higher “weight” in determining different prognosis were CD44, ALCAM, DTX2, HSPA9, CCNA2, PDX1, MYST1, COL1A1 and ABCG2. This analysis supports the idea that, other than stage, biological variables, such as expression levels of colon cancer stem cell genes, may be relevant in determining an increased risk of relapse in resected colorectal cancer patients. PMID:24023782

Giampieri, Riccardo; Scartozzi, Mario; Loretelli, Cristian; Piva, Francesco; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Lezoche, Giovanni; Prete, Michela Del; Bittoni, Alessandro; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Cecchini, Luca; Guerrieri, Mario; Bearzi, Italo; Cascinu, Stefano

2013-01-01

186

Non-muscle myosin II takes centre stage in cell adhesion and migration  

PubMed Central

Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) is an actin-binding protein that has actin cross-linking and contractile properties and is regulated by the phosphorylation of its light and heavy chains. The three mammalian NM II isoforms have both overlapping and unique properties. Owing to its position downstream of convergent signalling pathways, NM II is central in the control of cell adhesion, cell migration and tissue architecture. Recent insight into the role of NM II in these processes has been gained from loss-of-function and mutant approaches, methods that quantitatively measure actin and adhesion dynamics and the discovery of NM II mutations that cause monogenic diseases. PMID:19851336

Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.; Horwitz, Alan Rick

2010-01-01

187

Diagnostic accuracy of the neurological upper limb examination II: Relation to symptoms of patterns of findings  

PubMed Central

Background In a sample of patients in clinical occupational medicine we have demonstrated that an upper limb neurological examination can reliably identify patterns of findings suggesting upper limb focal neuropathies. This further study aimed at approaching the diagnostic accuracy of the examination. Methods 82 limbs were semi-quantitatively assessed by two blinded examiners (strength in 14 individual muscles, sensibility in 7 homonymous territories, and mechanosensitivity at 10 locations along nerves). Based on the topography of nerves and their muscular and sensory innervation we defined 10 neurological patterns each suggesting a localized nerve affliction. Information on complaints (pain, weakness and/or numbness/tingling) collected by others served as a reference for comparison. The relation between the presence of pattern(s) and complaints was assessed by ?-statistics. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values were calculated, and pre-test odds were compared to post-test probability. Results The two examiners identified pattern(s) suggesting focal neuropathy in 34/36 out of 38 symptomatic limbs, respectively (? = 0.70/0.75), with agreement in 28 limbs. Out of 44 non-symptomatic limbs the examiners agreed on absence of any pattern in 38 limbs. With concordance between the examiners with regard to the presence or absence of any pattern, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.73, 0.86, 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. While the pre-test odds for a limb to be symptomatic amounted to 0.46 the post-test probability was 0.81. For each examiner the post-test probability was 0.87 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusion The improved diagnostic confidence is an indication of one aspect of construct validity of the physical examination. For determination of clinical feasibility of the examination further studies are required, most importantly 1) studies of validity by means of comparison with additional references and 2) studies of the potential benefit that can be attained from its use. PMID:16504144

Jepsen, J?rgen R; Laursen, Lise H; Hagert, Carl-Goran; Kreiner, Svend; Larsen, Anders I

2006-01-01

188

Staged esophageal lengthening with internal and subsequent external traction sutures leads to primary repair of an ultralong gap esophageal atresia with upper pouch tracheoesophagel fistula.  

PubMed

Primary repair of very long gap esophageal atresia (EA) with almost complete absence of thoracic esophagus has usually been thought impossible. Thus, esophageal replacement with colon or gastric interposition seemed inevitable. In contrast, J. Foker described a technique of lengthening the pouches with traction sutures and making primary repair possible. To contribute clinical experience to this discussion, we report about esophageal elongation in a child with long gap EA and an upper pouch tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). The patient presented as a preterm baby with a long gap EA of almost 9 vertebral bodies (7 cm) and additionally TEF on the upper pouch. Initially, he was treated with a gastrostomy and replogle suction of the upper pouch. Tracheoesophageal fistula was repaired, and the upper pouch brought from the neck into the thoracic inlet. At the same time thoracotomy was performed, and the lower esophageal segment mobilized and fixed to the prevertebral fascia under moderate tension. The tension reduced the gap between both pouches to about 3.5 cm. After 4 weeks, both pouches were mobilized further. However, the remaining gap did not allow primary anastomosis at that time, so the traction sutures were reconfigured and brought out externally through the skin above and below the incision. Daily increases in tension resulted in the ends virtually touching within 10 days. Now a contrast study showed the two lumens within 5 mm of each other, and primary anastomosis was completed without difficulty. Postoperative diagnosed gastroesophageal reflux and anastomotic stricture were controlled by a Thal hemifundoplication and dilatations. In conclusion, staged esophageal lengthening may be considered for a primary repair of EA even in cases with ultralong gap and TEF. PMID:18558163

Till, Holger; Muensterer, Oliver J; Rolle, Udo; Foker, John

2008-06-01

189

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Protein Expression in a Cohort of Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients With Characterized Tumor Budding and Mismatch Repair Protein Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The relationship between tumor budding, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) protein expression, and survival has not been closely examined in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to assess proteins implicated in EMT and to correlate their expression with tumor budding, microsatellite status, and survival. Methods: A total of 258 stage II CRCs were identified (tumor budding characterized in 122

David Kevans; Lai Mun Wang; Kieran Sheahan; John Hyland; Diarmuid O’Donoghue; Hugh Mulcahy; Jacintha O’Sullivan

2011-01-01

190

Survival Benefits and Trends in Use of Adjuvant Therapy Among Elderly Stage II and III Rectal Cancer Patients in the General Population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study examined elderly stage II and III rectal cancer patients’ adjuvant chemoradiation therapy adherence, trends in adherence over time, and the relation of levels of adherence to mortality. METHODS The authors studied 2886 stage II and III rectal cancer patients who had surgical resection and who appeared in 1992–1999 linked SEER-Medicare claims data. The authors compared measures of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy receipt and completion between stage II and III patients. Adjusted risk of cancer-related 5-year mortality was calculated by multivariate logistic regression for different levels of chemoradiation adherence among stage II and III patients. RESULTS Of the 2886 patients, 45.4% received both adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Stage III patients were more likely to receive chemoradiation than stage II patients. The receipt of chemoradiation by stage II patients increased significantly from 1992 to 1999. Stage III patients were more likely to complete radiation therapy (96.6%), chemotherapy (68.2%), and both modalities (67.5%) than stage II patients (91.5%, 49.8%, 47.6%, respectively). Only a complete course of both radiation and chemotherapy for both stage II (relative risk [RR] 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54, 0.97) and III (RR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65, 0.96) decreased the adjusted 5-year cancer mortality risk compared with counterparts with no adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS Even though stage II rectal cancer patients were less likely than stage III patients to receive and complete adjuvant chemoradiation, both patient groups in the general population had lower cancer-related mortality if they completed chemoradiation. These patients deserve support and encouragement to complete treatment. PMID:18189291

Dobie, Sharon A.; Warren, Joan L.; Matthews, Barbara; Schwartz, David; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Billingsley, Kevin

2011-01-01

191

Expression of PAT and NPT II proteins during the developmental stages of a genetically modified pepper developed in Korea.  

PubMed

Estimation of the protein levels introduced in a biotechnology-derived product is conducted as part of an overall safety assessment. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) protein expression in a genetically modified (GM) pepper plant developed in Korea. PAT and NPT II expression levels, based on both dry weight and fresh weight, were variable among different plant generations and plant sections from isolated genetically modified organism (GMO) fields at four developmental stages. PAT expression was highest in leaves at anthesis (11.44 ?g/gdw and 2.17 ?g/gfw) and lowest in roots (0.12 ?g/gdw and 0.01 ?g/gfw). NPT II expression was also highest in leaves at anthesis (17.31 ?g/gdw and 3.41 ?g/gfw) and lowest in red pepper (0.65 ?g/gdw and 0.12 ?g/gfw). In pollen, PAT expression was 0.59-0.62 ?g/gdw, while NPT II was not detected. Both PAT and NPT II showed a general pattern of decreased expression with progression of the growing season. As expected, PAT and NPT II protein expression was not detectable in control pepper plants. PMID:20873787

Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Si Myung; Kim, Jae Kwang; Ryu, Tae Hun; Suh, Seok Cheol; Cho, Hyun Suk

2010-10-27

192

2-Octadecynoic acid as a dual life stage inhibitor of Plasmodium infections and plasmodial FAS-II enzymes.  

PubMed

The malaria parasite Plasmodium goes through two life stages in the human host, a non-symptomatic liver stage (LS) followed by a blood stage with all clinical manifestation of the disease. In this study, we investigated a series of 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) with chain lengths between 14 and 18 carbon atoms for dual in vitro activity against both life stages. 2-Octadecynoic acid (2-ODA) was identified as the best inhibitor of Plasmodium berghei parasites with ten times higher potency (IC50=0.34?g/ml) than the control drug. In target determination studies, the same compound inhibited three Plasmodium falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes PfFabI, PfFabZ, and PfFabG with the lowest IC50 values (0.28-0.80?g/ml, respectively). Molecular modeling studies provided insights into the molecular aspects underlying the inhibitory activity of this series of 2-AFAs and a likely explanation for the considerably different inhibition potentials. Blood stages of P. falciparum followed a similar trend where 2-ODA emerged as the most active compound, with 20 times less potency. The general toxicity and hepatotoxicity of 2-AFAs were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods in mammalian cell lines and zebrafish models, respectively. This study identifies 2-ODA as the most promising antiparasitic 2-AFA, particularly towards P. berghei parasites. PMID:25103602

Carballeira, Néstor M; Bwalya, Angela Gono; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Cordero-Maldonado, María Lorena; Kaiser, Marcel; Mota, Maria M; Crawford, Alexander D; Guido, Rafael V C; Tasdemir, Deniz

2014-09-01

193

Integrating stereotactic body radiation therapy in stage II/III non-small cell lung cancer: is local control important?  

PubMed

Local control for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a significant problem with chemoradiation local failure rates in the chest of 30-50%. Despite attempts at dose escalation with conventional radiation therapy techniques, toxicities limit the amount of radiation that can be delivered. For stage I NSCLC, mounting evidence supports the use of hypofractionated radiation therapy (SBRT) to gain high local control rates with acceptable toxicity. For healthy patients with stage II/III NSCLC, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines suggest surgery is the preferred standard of care for patients with stage III patients, but toxicity remains problematic. It follows that with improvements in imaging and delivery of radiotherapy, dose escalation with SBRT incorporation may improve local control in stage II/III NSCLC for medically inoperable patients. The rationale for dose escalation and some of the considerations for incorporation of SBRT dose escalation in stage III lung cancer are reviewed here. PMID:25155973

McGarry, Ronald C

2014-12-01

194

Upper ocean fine-scale features in synthetic aperture radar imagery. Part II: Numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been able to reproduce synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signatures of freshwater plumes and sharp frontal interfaces interacting with wind stress, as well as internal waves by combining hydrodynamic simulations with a radar imaging algorithm. The numerical simulations were performed using a non-hydrostatic model, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS Fluent. We modeled the dynamics of freshwater plumes and their interaction with ambient stratification in the upper ocean as well as with wind stress. We then combined the results from the CFD model with a radar imaging algorithm to simulate the sea surface signature in SAR images. As the plume propagates into a stratified environment, a resonant interaction between the density-driven current and the ambient stratification can lead to internal waves and a fragmentation of the freshwater plume. This fragmentation can be seen as a banding pattern in the simulated radar image of the sea surface. In addition, wind stress leads to directional anisotropy of fine-scale sea surface signatures with respect to the wind direction. The numerical results are consistent with observations of freshwater plumes in the Western Equatorial Pacific during TOGA COARE and observations in the Straits of Florida reported in a companion paper (Soloviev et al., 2011). Internal waves can lead to a signal in the measured electromagnetic field in the ocean. As part of this work, we have also simulated electromagnetic signatures of freshwater plumes and internal waves in the total magnetic field, which potentially provides a link between SAR signatures of transient ocean dynamics and magnetic field fluctuations in the ocean. The novel approach of combining a CFD model with a radar imaging algorithm to investigate the dynamics of small-scale oceanic features and their sea surface signatures in SAR images can be useful for the study and interpretation of a range of near-surface processes, among them freshwater plumes and sharp frontal interfaces, as well as magnetic signatures of oceanic processes.

Matt, S.; Fujimura, A.; Soloviev, A.

2011-12-01

195

Electron and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost in the Conservative Treatment of Stage I-II Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: To evaluate the effect of electron and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) boost on local tumor control (LTC), side effects and cosmesis after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in a prospective randomized study. Patients and Methods: 207 women with stage I-II breast cancer who underwent BCS were treated by 50 Gy irradiation to the whole breast and then randomly assigned

Csaba Polgár; János Fodor; Zsolt Orosz; Tibor Major; Zoltán Takácsi-Nagy; László Csaba Mangel; Zoltán Sulyok; András Somogyi; Miklós Kásler; György Németh

2002-01-01

196

Epirubicin versus CMF as adjuvant therapy for stage I and II breast cancer: a prospective randomised study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared a relatively short regimen of monochemotherapy with epirubicin versus polychemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) as adjuvant treatment for stage I and II breast cancer patients. 348 patients with oestrogen receptor negative (ER?) node negative and ER? or ER+ node-positive with <10 nodes were accrued. CMF was given intravenously (i.v.) on days 1 and 8, every 4 weeks,

M Colozza; G Bisagni; A. M Mosconi; S Gori; C Boni; R Sabbatini; A Frassoldati; R Passalacqua; A. Rosa Bian; C Rodinò; E Rondini; R Algeri; S Di Sarra; V De Angelis; G Cocconi; M Tonato

2002-01-01

197

Hypofractionated radical radiotherapy in elderly patients with medically inoperable stage I–II non-small-cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We described the results of a hypofractionated regimen (HFRT) in a cohort of elderly patients (36 subjects) with stage I–II non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC), tumor size?3cm and ineligible for surgery. HFRT was delivered in 20 daily fractions of 3Gy per fraction with a total dose of 60Gy. The median PTV was 145cm3. The primary purpose of study was to estimate the

Pierluigi Bonfili; Mario Di Staso; Giovanni Luca Gravina; Pietro Franzese; Sergio Buonopane; Francesca Soldà; Claudio Festuccia; Vincenzo Tombolini

2010-01-01

198

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for stage I-II natural killer/T-cell lymphoma nasal type: dosimetric and clinical results  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to compare radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment outcomes following three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in stage I-II natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma. Methods The cases of 94 patients with stage I-II NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type in the upper aerodigestive tract who treated between May 2005 and Dec 2008 were reviewed. These patients received radiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy. Definitive radiotherapy was conducted using 3DCRT in 47 patients and IMRT in the other 47 patients with a regional field and a total dose of 50 Gy. Dosimetric pmeters of radiation treatment plans, local control probability (LCP), overall survival (OS), and toxicities were analyzed and compared between 3DCRT and IMRT. Results From the dosimetric analysis, IMRT demonstrated significantly better dose coverage and homogeneity than 3DCRT. However, after a median follow-up of 46 months, IMRT was not associated with improvements in 4y-OS (80.9% for 3DCRT vs. 82.7% for IMRT, p=0.87) or 4y-LCP (86.3% for 3DCRT vs. 88.9% for IMR p=0.85). Of the 18 patients who received cervical lymph node irradiation, those in the IMRT group received a lower mean parotid dose. Furthermore, at-risk organs were strictly kept within the safe dose range in both groups, and no severe late toxicity was observed. Conclusions IMRT provided better dose coverage than 3DCRT, although it failed to provide LCP and OS benefits. Definitive radiotherapy with a regional field and a total dose of 50 Gy is efficient and safe for NK/T-cell lymphoma using either IMRT or 3DCRT. However, IMRT may have the potential to reduce parotid gland hypofunction following cervical irradiation. PMID:23800149

2013-01-01

199

An Upper Mass Limit on a Red Supergiant Progenitor for the Type II-Plateau Supernova SN 2006my  

E-print Network

We analyze two pre-supernova (SN) and three post-SN high-resolution images of the site of the Type II-Plateau supernova SN 2006my in an effort to either detect the progenitor star or to constrain its properties. Following image registration, we find that an isolated stellar object is not detected at the location of SN 2006my in either of the two pre-SN images. In the first, an I-band image obtained with the Wide-Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the offset between the SN 2006my location and a detected source ("Source 1") is too large: > 0.08", which corresponds to a confidence level of non-association of 96% from our most liberal estimates of the transformation and measurement uncertainties. In the second, a similarly obtained V-band image, a source is detected ("Source 2") that has overlap with the SN 2006my location but is definitively an extended object. Through artificial star tests carried out on the precise location of SN 2006my in the images, we derive a 3-sigma upper bound on the luminosity of a red supergiant that could have remained undetected in our pre-SN images of log L/L_Sun = 5.10, which translates to an upper bound on such a star's initial mass of 15 M_Sun from the STARS stellar evolutionary models. Although considered unlikely, we can not rule out the possibility that part of the light comprising Source 1, which exhibits a slight extension relative to other point sources in the image, or part of the light contributing to the extended Source 2, may be due to the progenitor of SN 2006my. Only additional, high-resolution observations of the site taken after SN 2006my has faded beyond detection can confirm or reject these possibilities.

Douglas C. Leonard; Avishay Gal-Yam; Derek B. Fox; P. B. Cameron; Erik M. Johansson; Adam L. Kraus; David Le Mignant; Marcos A. van Dam

2008-09-10

200

Total body irradiation for stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: ten-year follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Between 1972 and 1977, a prospective study was conducted at the University of Florida on the role of total body irradiation (TBI) in the management of stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Forty-four consecutive de novo (DN) patients (including ten stage II, 18 stage III, and 16 stage IV), as well as 16 previously treated (PT) patients, were accrued. Twenty of the 44 DN patients were symptomatic at presentation. Complete clinical responses were obtained in 20 of the 27 DN patients with favorable histologies (FH), and six of the 17 with unfavorable histologies (UH). Partial responses were obtained in six patients with FH and 11 patients with UH; only one patient showed no response to TBI. By univariate analysis, PT patients showed a trend for decreased relapse-free survival (P = .066) and decreased survival (P = .093). Multivariate analysis identified the best predictors of response rate to be histology (P = .0146) and marrow involvement (P = .0854); of relapse-free survival, histology (P = .0035), and TBI dose (P = .002); and of absolute survival, age (P = .0012), histology (P = .012), and TBI dose (P = .029). Thirty of the 41 patients who relapsed underwent salvage treatment with either chemotherapy or radiation. Twenty-three of the 30 undergoing salvage therapy obtained a second complete clinical response. There were no treatment-related deaths. The most common complication was thrombocytopenia. The major late complications were myeloproliferative disorders in four patients, which occurred only after cumulative TBI doses in excess of 200 cGy.

Mendenhall, N.P.; Noyes, W.D.; Million, R.R.

1989-01-01

201

Significance of ? 34S and evaluation of its imprint on sedimentary sulfur rich organic matter II: Thermal changes of kerogens type II-S catagenetic stage controlled mechanisms. A study and conceptual overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kerogens of type II-S are rich in sulfur, containing up to 10–12% organically bound sulfur. Most of this sulfur is thermally unstable due to the presence of catanated poly-S-S linkages. The ?34S values for these kerogens carry the imprint of the pore water polysulfides introduced into the organic matter at the diagenetic stage as described in the previous review (Part

Zeev Aizenshtat; Alon Amrani

2004-01-01

202

Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

203

Evaluation of an inflammation-based prognostic score for the identification of patients requiring postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) to aid in the prediction of postoperative outcome in colorectal cancer patients. However, whether GPS predicts poor prognosis in curative colorectal cancer patients has yet to be ascertained. Furthermore, there is no information on the association between GPS and adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II or III colorectal cancer patients. A total of 219 patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer were included in this trial. The modified GPS (mGPS) defined in this study was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: patients with an elevated level of both C-reactive protein (0.5 mg/dl) and hypoalbuminemia (Alb <3.5 mg/dl) were allocated a score of 2, and patients showing 1 or none of these blood chemistry abnormalities were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively. The association between the mGPS and clinicopathological findings and survival was retrospectively assessed. The mGPS was significantly higher in patients with an advanced age, serosal invasion, advanced stage cancer and pre-operative high CEA levels. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that a higher GPS predicted a higher risk of postoperative mortality in stage II and/or III colorectal cancer patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that the mGPS was the most sensitive predictor of postoperative mortality in stage II/III or stage II, respectively. The prognosis of stage II patients with a higher mGPS was as favorable as that of patients with a lower mGPS when adjuvant chemotherapy was undertaken. Pre-operative mGPS is considered to be a useful predictor of postoperative mortality in patients with stage II and/or III colorectal cancer, independently of the CEA test or TNM system. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy may be recommended for stage II colorectal cancer patients with a high mGPS. PMID:22977476

Toiyama, Yuji; Miki, Chikao; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Koji; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

2011-01-01

204

Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2014-09-09

205

A large scale, high resolution, automated system for rat sleep staging. II. Validation and application.  

PubMed

An automated rat sleep staging system was used to describe sleep-waking behaviour in a large number of rats. The computer scorings were validated by visual analysis of a limited set of data by two human raters and the agreement varied between 82 and 100% for homogeneous segments of the different sleep-waking stages. The automated system proved to be very consistent in view of the small variation in placebo values over 110 experiments. The data show that classification of rat sleep waking behaviour into 6 different stages is both advisable and feasible. The experiments further show that rat age (over a range from 0.5 to 2 years) does not greatly affect rat sleep-waking behaviour. PMID:2472953

Ruigt, G S; Van Proosdij, J N; Van Wezenbeek, L A

1989-07-01

206

Peritoneal elastic lamina invasion: limitations in its use as a prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Peritoneal involvement in colorectal cancer (CRC) is an adverse prognostic feature, which may prompt consideration of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II disease. Controversies and challenges surrounding its assessment have led to consideration of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) as an alternative marker of advanced local spread. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the prognostic significance of peritoneal ELI in stage II CRC and (2) to determine the feasibility of ELI assessment in routine practice with the use of an elastic stain. Two hundred seventeen patients with stage II CRC (186, pT3; 31, pT4) were assessed for ELI and other established adverse histologic features. Of the pT3 tumors, 31 (16.7%) were ELI positive, 121 (65%) were ELI negative, and 34 (18.3%) lacked an identifiable elastic lamina. There were no significant differences in disease-free survival between pT3 ELI-negative and ELI-positive tumors (P = .517). The disease-free survival of pT4 tumors was significantly lower than that of pT3 ELI-negative tumors (P = .024) and pT3 ELI-positive tumors (P = .026), respectively. The elastic lamina was detected less frequently in right-sided pT3 tumors compared with left-sided tumors (65/91 [71.4%] versus 87/95 [91.6%], P < .001). Right-sided tumors were also associated with a reduction in the staining intensity of the elastic lamina (P < .001). In conclusion, peritoneal ELI was not an adverse prognostic factor in this study. The frequent absence of an identifiable elastic lamina, particularly in right-sided tumors, may limit the use of ELI as a prognostic marker in CRC. PMID:24074534

Grin, Andrea; Messenger, David E; Cook, Megan; O'Connor, Brenda I; Hafezi, Sara; El-Zimaity, Hala; Kirsch, Richard

2013-12-01

207

The efficiency of different combined treatment programs (combination chemotherapy-radiotherapy) used for stage I-II Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed

This study presents the analysis of results obtained in 237 Hodgkin's disease patients, stages I and II, treated with combined modality therapy. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 5 years were 96.6 and 85.2%, respectively. The study has demonstrated the superiority of the following treatment program: one cycle of combination chemotherapy + radiation therapy + 5 cycles of combination chemotherapy. It has been found possible to reduce the number of radiation fields in combined modality therapy: for patients with stage IA-IIA lymphocyte predominant or nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease it was sufficient only to treat clinically involved sites. Short- and long-term consequences of combined modality therapy have been analysed. PMID:3562890

Baysogolov, G D; Shakhtarina, S V

1987-02-01

208

The second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted for mating at the launch tower, Vandenberg AFB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the launch tower, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted to vertical. The Titan will power the launch of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate.

211

Upper stages utilizing electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload characteristics of geocentric missions which utilize electron bombardment ion thruster systems are discussed. A baseline LEO to GEO orbit transfer mission was selected to describe the payload capabilities. The impacts on payloads of both mission parameters and electric propulsion technology options were evaluated. The characteristics of the electric propulsion thrust system and the power requirements were specified in order to predict payload mass. This was completed by utilizing a previously developed methodology which provides a detailed thrust system description after the final mass on orbit, the thrusting time, and the specific impulse are specified. The impact on payloads of total mass in LEO, thrusting time, propellant type, specific impulse, and power source characteristics was evaluated.

Byers, D. C.

1980-01-01

212

Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 ?g L?1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 ?g L?1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 ?g L?1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 ?g L?1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

2014-01-01

213

CBCT Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion with Mandibular Retrusion Using Twin Block Appliance: A Comparative Research  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB) treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n?=?30) was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. Results During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52±2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77±2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. Conclusion Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB treatment. PMID:24705466

Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Cheng, Huijuan; Han, Yanzhao; Wang, Chunling; Chen, Yu

2014-01-01

214

Increased Upper and Lower Tract Urothelial Carcinoma in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan during 1997-2008  

PubMed Central

Background. Urothelial cancer (UC) is the leading cancer of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Taiwan. The aims of this study were to explore the time trends of UC incidences and propose possible etiologic factors. Methods. Abstracting from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), there were 90,477 newly diagnosed cases of ESRD between 1997 and 2008 covering the patients aged 40–85. Among them, 2,708 had developed UC after diagnosis of ESRD. The CIR40–85 (cumulative incidence rate) of upper tract UC (UTUC) and lower tract UC (LTUC) were calculated for ESRD patients and general population, as well as SIR40–85 (standardized incidence ratio) for comparison. Results. Female ESRD patients were found to have 9–18 times of elevated risks of UC, while those of males were increased up to 4–14 times. The time trends of CIR40–84 and SIR40–84 of UTUC in females appear to decline after calendar year 2000. These trends may be related to AA associated herbal products after 1998. Conclusions. Patients with ESRD are at increased risks for both LTUC and UTUC in Taiwan. We hypothesize that the time trends associate with the consumption of aristolochic acid in Chinese herbal products (female predominant). PMID:25025033

Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Jung-Der

2014-01-01

215

Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

216

A comprehensive method for preliminary design optimization of axial gas turbine stages. II - Code verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present effort represents an extension of previous work wherein a calculation model for performing rapid pitchline optimization of axial gas turbine geometry, including blade profiles, is developed. The model requires no specification of geometric constraints. Output includes aerodynamic performance (adiabatic efficiency), hub-tip flow-path geometry, blade chords, and estimates of blade shape. Presented herein is a verification of the aerodynamic performance portion of the model, whereby detailed turbine test-rig data, including rig geometry, is input to the model to determine whether tested performance can be predicted. An array of seven (7) NASA single-stage axial gas turbine configurations is investigated, ranging in size from 0.6 kg/s to 63.8 kg/s mass flow and in specific work output from 153 J/g to 558 J/g at design (hot) conditions; stage loading factor ranges from 1.15 to 4.66.

Jenkins, R. M.

1983-01-01

217

Mathematical modeling of the heat treatment and combustion of a coal particle. II. drying stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a continuation of the previous article in which, with the aid of mathematical modeling, the regime of radiative-convective\\u000a heating of a coal particle was studied in detail and which was devoted to an analysis of the stage of coal drying, very important\\u000a in the general picture of coal combustion. The process of coal drying is formulated as

Kh. Enkhzhargal; V. V. Salomatov

2011-01-01

218

The expression ratio of Map7/B2M is prognostic for survival in patients with stage II colon cancer.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the United States. To determine whether certain molecular markers might be prognostic for survival, we measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR the expression levels of 15 previously studied genes that are known to be up-regulated or down-regulated in the progression of epithelial cancers. The tumor samples were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from patients with Stage II CRC who developed disease recurrence within two years (n=10), or were disease-free for at least 4 years (n=12). We were able to determine, by AUC curve analysis, that the ratio of microtubule associated protein 7 (Map7)/B2M was predictive of outcome in our sample set. Further, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we observed significantly different curves as a function of marker positivity for the Map7/B2M (p=0.0001; HR=11) expression ratio. This suggests that the expression ratio of Map7/B2M may serve as a valuable prognostic marker in patients with Stage II colon cancer, and potentially guide therapeutic decision making. PMID:18695889

Blum, Craig; Graham, Amanda; Yousefzadeh, Matt; Shrout, Jessica; Benjamin, Katie; Krishna, Murli; Hoda, Raza; Hoda, Rana; Cole, David J; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Reed, Carolyn; Wallace, Michael; Mitas, Michael

2008-09-01

219

The expression ratio of Map7/B2M is prognostic for survival in patients with stage II colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the United States. To determine whether certain molecular markers might be prognostic for survival, we measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR the expression levels of 15 previously studied genes that are known to be up-regulated or down-regulated in the progression of epithelial cancers. The tumor samples were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from patients with Stage II CRC who developed disease recurrence within two years (n=10), or were disease-free for at least 4 years (n=12). We were able to determine, by AUC curve analysis, that the ratio of microtubule associated protein 7 (Map7)/B2M was predictive of outcome in our sample set. Further, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we observed significantly different curves as a function of marker positivity for the Map7/B2M (p=0.0001; HR=11) expression ratio. This suggests that the expression ratio of Map7/B2M may serve as a valuable prognostic marker in patients with Stage II colon cancer, and potentially guide therapeutic decision making. PMID:18695889

BLUM, CRAIG; GRAHAM, AMANDA; YOUSEFZADEH, MATT; SHROUT, JESSICA; BENJAMIN, KATIE; KRISHNA, MURLI; HODA, RAZA; HODA, RANA; COLE, DAVID J.; GARRETT-MAYER, ELIZABETH; REED, CAROLYN; WALLACE, MICHAEL; MITAS, MICHAEL

2012-01-01

220

Improved five year survival after combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy for Stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the prognosis of patients with localized non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) who are treated with radiotherapy (RT), a prospective controlled study utilizing a combined modality approach was carried out in patients with pathologic Stage I-II NHL. After treatment with regional RT, patients in complete remission were randomized to receive either no further therapy or 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (CVP). At 5 years from completion of irradiation, the relapse-free survival was 46.3% after RT and 72.1% after RT plus CVP (P=0.005). The corresponding findings for the overall survival calculated from the beginning of irradiation were 55.8 and 82.8% respectively (P=0.03). The favorable effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival were statistically significant only in the subgroup with diffuse histology. In patients who relapsed after RT alone, the salvage therapy failed to induce a high incidence of second durable remission. Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated to improve the curve rate in pathologic stage I-II NHL with diffuse histology when regional RT is utilized.

Monfardini, S.; Banfi, A.; Bonadonna, G.; Rilke, F.; Milani, F.; Valagussa, P.; Lattuada, A.

1980-02-01

221

DNA methylation status of cyp17-II gene correlated with its expression pattern and reproductive endocrinology during ovarian development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450c17-II (cyp17-II, 17?-hydroxylase) is responsible for the production of steroid hormones during oocyte maturation in vertebrates. The comparative expression pattern of cyp17-II gene during the gonadal development stages will provide important insights into its function of gonadal development. In addition, epigenetic modification especially DNA methylation plays a vital role in regulation of gene expression. The adult female Japanese flounder at different ovarian development stage (from stages II to V) was obtained in this experiment. The expression of cyp17-II gene in the ovary of Japanese flounder during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Reproductive traits included gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T) were also measured. Moreover, whole CpG dinucleotides methylation status of the two CpG rich regions in cyp17-II coding region was detected by bisulfate sequencing. In the ovary, the cyp17-II gene had the lowest mRNA expression at the early ovarian development stage, but then increased afterward. The variation trends of T and E2 level were consistent with the cyp17-II expression pattern in ovary. In contrast, the whole methylation levels of each CpG rich region (exon 4 and 6) in cyp17-II coding region were declined from stages II to IV, then increased at stage V. The methylation levels of whole CpG sites in each CpG rich region were inversely correlated with the values of ovarian cyp17-II gene expression, T and E2 level, and GSI. Based on the present study, we proposed that cyp17-II may regulate the level of steroid hormone, and then stimulate the oocyte growth and maturation. The cyp17-II gene transcriptional activity was possibly affected by the methylation level of CpG rich regions in coding region. These findings will help in the study of the molecular mechanism of fish reproduction and endocrine physiology. PMID:23747405

Ding, YuXia; He, Feng; Wen, HaiShen; Li, JiFang; Ni, Meng; Chi, MeiLi; Qian, Kun; Bu, Yan; Zhang, DongQian; Si, YuFeng; Zhao, JunLi

2013-09-15

222

Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process. CASE DESCRIPTION A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used. OUTCOMES In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with no change, and the custom articulated orthosis was associated with forefoot adduction. DISCUSSION Based on gait analysis, the higher-cost custom articulated orthosis was chosen as optimal for the patient. This custom articulated orthosis was associated with the greatest change in flatfoot deformity, assessed using gait analysis. The patient felt it produced the greatest correction in foot deformity. Reducing flatfoot deformity while allowing ankle movement may limit progression of stage II PTTD. PMID:19881002

NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; HOUCK, JEFF

2010-01-01

223

Declining Use of Radiotherapy in Stage I and II Hodgkin's Disease and Its Effect on Survival and Secondary Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Concerns regarding long-term toxicities have led some to withhold radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of Stage I and II Hodgkin's disease (HD). The present study was undertaken to assess the use of RT for HD and its effect on overall survival and the development of secondary malignancies. Methods and Materials: The present study included data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from patients aged {>=}20 years who had been diagnosed with Stage I or II HD between 1988 and 2006. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox multivariate regression model was used to analyze trends. Results: A total of 12,247 patients were selected, and 51.5% had received RT. The median follow-up for the present cohort was 4.9 years, with 21% of the cohort having >10 years of follow-up. Between 1988 and 1991, 62.9% had undergone RT, but between 2004 and 2006, only 43.7% had undergone RT (p < .001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 76% for patients who had not received RT and 87% for those who had (p < .001). The hazard ratio adjusted for other variables in the regression model showed that patients who had not undergone RT (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-2.02) was associated with significantly worse survival compared with patients who had received RT. The actuarial rate of developing a second malignancy was 14.6% vs. 15.0% at 15 years for those who had and had not undergone RT, respectively (p = .089). Conclusions: The present study is one of the largest studies to examine the role of RT for Stage I and II HD. Our results revealed a survival benefit with the addition of RT with no increase in the development of secondary malignancies compared with patients who had not received RT. Furthermore, the present nationwide study revealed a >20% absolute decrease in the use of RT from 1988 to 2006.

Koshy, Matthew, E-mail: mkoshy@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rich, Shayna E. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kwok, Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2012-02-01

224

Relationship between type of treatment and degree of wound healing among institutionalized geriatric patients with stage II pressure ulcers.  

PubMed

The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers has always been of paramount concern to geriatric health care providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between two types of treatments and the degree of wound healing among status post-cerebral vascular accident (CVA) institutionalized geriatric patients with stage II pressure ulcers. Wound dressings were evaluated according to the National Pressure Advisory Panels Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (NPUAP, 1997). Fifty long-term care residents were recruited for the study in Queens, New York. A convenience sample was randomly assigned to either of the treatment protocols: polymeric membrane dressing (polymem) or the antibiotic ointment and dry clean dressing (DCD). The findings from the study revealed a significant difference in wound healing scores in the polymeric membrane-dressing group. These findings are limited due to the small sample size and they cannot be generalized to other populations. As this is an initial study, further research is recommended PMID:16294574

Yastrub, Diane J

2004-01-01

225

[Status of the heart during a combined method of treating patients with stage I to II lymphogranulomatosis].  

PubMed

The effects of combined therapy (polychemotherapy and radiotherapy) of 162 patients with stage I-II Hodgkin's disease were studied. A retrospective analysis of x-ray findings led to the detection of exudate in the pericardial cavity unrecognized in hospital in 7.7% of the patients. Combined therapy caused its reverse development into adhesive pericarditis. X-ray assessment of the cardiac state during a follow-up (3-5 yrs.) revealed various postradiation complications: limited pleuropericardial adhesions (17%), extensive pleuropericardial adhesions revealing the right spinal contour (12.7%), exudative pericarditis (0.7%), and adhesive pericarditis (12.7%). A low rate and degree of postradiation injuries of the pericardium could be accounted for by preliminary polychemotherapy making it possible to reduce radiation fields in subsequent irradiation. PMID:3398753

Astapov, B M; Shakhtarina, S V

1988-07-01

226

[The polychemotherapy and combined treatment of patients with stage-I and -II lymphogranulomatosis and unfavorable prognosis].  

PubMed

As many as 104 patients with lymphogranulomatosis, clinical stages I-II, having an unfavourable prognosis were examined for the efficacy of polychemotherapy and combined treatment. Polychemotherapy was received by 47 patients, combined treatment (chemo- plus radiotherapy) by 57 patients. Complete remissions were attained significantly more often in patients given combined treatment (92%) as compared to patients on polychemotherapy alone (64%). After complete remissions relapses occurred in 60% of the patients on polychemotherapy and in 13% of the patients receiving combined treatment. The 7-year survival without any relapses was significantly higher (85%) in patients on combined therapy as compared to patients given polychemotherapy (36%). However, the 10-year survival appeared the same in both the groups (87 and 88%). Splenectomy affected neither the rate of relapses in both the groups nor the immediate treatment efficacy or survival. PMID:2251669

Demina, E A; Kaverzneva, M M; Kondrat'eva, N F; Agafonov, V A

1990-01-01

227

A Predictive Genetic Signature for Response to Fluoropyrimidine-Based Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Clinical Stage II and III Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Pre-operative chemoradiation (CRT) is currently the standard of care for patients with clinical stage II and III rectal cancer but only about 45% of patients achieve tumor downstaging and <20% of patients achieve a pathologic complete response. Better methods to stratify patients according to potential neoadjuvant treatment response are needed. We used microarray analysis to identify a genetic signature that correlates with a pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant CRT. We performed a gene network analysis to identify potential signaling pathways involved in determining response to neoadjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods: We identified 31 T3–4 N0–1 rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant fluorouracil-based CRT. Eight patients were identified to have achieved a pCR to treatment while 23 patients did not. mRNA expression was analyzed using cDNA microarrays. The correlation between mRNA expression and pCR from pre-treatment tumor biopsies was determined. Gene network analysis was performed for the genes represented by the predictive signature. Results: A genetic signature represented by expression levels of the three genes EHBP1, STAT1, and GAPDH was found to correlate with a pCR to neoadjuvant treatment. The difference in expression levels between patients who achieved a pCR and those who did not was greatest for EHBP1. Gene network analysis showed that the three genes can be connected by the gene ubiquitin C (UBC). Conclusion: This study identifies a 3-gene signature expressed in pre-treatment tumor biopsies that correlates with a pCR to neoadjuvant CRT in patients with clinical stage II and III rectal cancer. These three genes can be connected by the gene UBC, suggesting that ubiquitination is a molecular mechanism involved in determining response to treatment. Validating this genetic signature in a larger number of patients is proposed. PMID:24324931

Chan, Jason; Kinsella, Michael T.; Willis, Joseph E.; Hu, Huankai; Reynolds, Harry; Delaney, Conor; McCulla, Andrea; Deharo, Steve; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Allen, Wendy Louise; Johnston, Patrick G.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

228

Hypomethylation-Associated Up-Regulation of TCF3 Expression and Recurrence in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Transcription factor 3 (TCF3) implicates Wnt signaling pathway and regulates E-cadherin expression, which is involved in aggressiveness of tumors. This study aims to investigate the role of TCF3 in predicting prognosis of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Real-Time quantitative PCR was performed in 64 fresh CRC tissues and 6 cell lines to examine TCF3 mRNA expression. TCF3 protein expression dynamics were detected by immunohistochemistry of 118 paraffin-embedded specimens, and the clinical significance of TCF3 was assessed by clinical correlation and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Aberrant hypomethylation of TCF3 promoter was also investigated using bisulfite sequencing and methylation specific PCR. Results The up-regulation of TCF3 mRNA was frequently detected both in CRC tissues with recurrence and metastasis-derived cell lines. The expression level of TCF3 protein was significantly correlated with histological type (P?=?0.038) and disease-free survival time (P?=?0.002). Higher TCF3 expression indicated poor prognostic outcomes (P<0.05, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis also showed strong TCF3 protein expression and perineural invasion were independent adverse prognosticators in CRC (P?=?0.010, 0.000). Moreover, it was showed that promoter hypomethylation of TCF3 is associated with its up-expression. Conclusions This study highlighted the prognostic value of TCF3 in stage II and III CRC. The up-regulation of TCF3, which is mainly caused by promoter hypomethylation, is one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of CRC. PMID:25375219

Li, Chunxiang; Cai, Sanjun; Wang, Xishan; Jiang, Zheng

2014-01-01

229

Single Stage Silicone Border Molded Closed Mouth Impression Technique-Part II.  

PubMed

Functioning of a complete denture depends to a great extent on the impression technique. Several impression techniques have been described in the literature since the turn of this century when Greene [Clinical courses in dental prothesis, 1916] brothers introduced the first scientific system of recording dental impression. Advocates of each technique have their own claim of superiority over the other. The introduction of elastomeric impression materials [Skinner and Cooper, J Am Dent Assoc 51:523-536, 1955] has made possible new techniques of recording impression for complete denture construction. These rubber like materials are of two types; one has a polysulfide base and is popularily known as polysulfide rubber (Thiokol and Mercaptan). The other variety has a silicone base known as silicone rubber or silicone elastomer. Silicone elastomers are available in four different consistencies; a thin easy flowing light bodied material,a creamy medium bodied material, a highly viscous heavy bodied material and a kneadable putty material. This paper describes an active closed mouth impression technique with one stage border molding using putty silicone material as a substitute for low fusing compound. PMID:22942578

Solomon, E G R

2011-09-01

230

Addressing stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: biomechanically repairing the osseous structures without the need of performing the flexor digitorum longus transfer.  

PubMed

The clinical presentation of adult flatfoot can range from a flexible deformity with normal joint integrity to a rigid, arthritic flat foot. Debate still exists regarding the surgical management of stage II deformities, especially in the presence of medial column instability. This article reviews and discusses various surgical options for the correction of stage II flatfoot reconstructive procedures. The authors discuss their opinion that is not always necessary to transfer the flexor digitorum longus tendon to provide relief and stability in this patient population. The anatomy, diagnosis, and current treatments of flexible flatfoot deformity are discussed. PMID:24980929

DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Thomas, Zachary M; Fahim, Ramy

2014-07-01

231

Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations. II. Convolution method and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this second of two papers, analytical step-response functions, developed in the companion paper for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to streamstage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems in the northeastern and central United States. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties, recharge rates, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage. Analysis of the water-table aquifer adjacent to the Blackstone River in Massachusetts suggests that the very shallow depth of water table and associated thin unsaturated zone at the site cause the aquifer to behave like a confined aquifer (negligible specific yield). This finding is consistent with previous studies that have shown that the effective specific yield of an unconfined aquifer approaches zero when the capillary fringe, where sediment pores are saturated by tension, extends to land surface. Under this condition, the aquifer's response is determined by elastic storage only. Estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, and recharge for a water-table aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River in eastern Iowa, determined by the use of analytical methods, are in close agreement with those estimated by use of a more complex, multilayer numerical model of the aquifer. Streambank leakance of the semipervious streambank materials also was estimated for the site. The streambank-leakance parameter may be considered to be a general (or lumped) parameter that accounts not only for the resistance of flow at the river-aquifer boundary, but also for the effects of partial penetration of the river and other near-stream flow phenomena not included in the theoretical development of the step-response functions.Analytical step-response functions, developed for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to stream-stage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank seepage rates and bank storage.

Barlow, P.M.; DeSimone, L.A.; Moench, A.F.

2000-01-01

232

Evolution of magnetic fields in stars across the upper main sequence: II. Observed distribution of the magnetic field geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-discuss the evolutionary state of upper main sequence magnetic stars using a sample of Ap and Bp stars with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes and definitely determined longitudinal magnetic fields. We confirm our previous results obtained from the study of Ap and Bp stars with accurate measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus and mean quadratic magnetic fields that magnetic stars

S. Hubrig; P. North; M. Schöller

2007-01-01

233

Preoperative serum CA 72.4 as prognostic factor of recurrence and death, especially at TNM stage II, for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays, evaluation of colorectal cancer prognosis and decision-making for treatment continues to be based primarily on TNM tumour stage. Administration of adjuvant chemotherapy is especially challenging for stage II patients that can have very different disease-related outcomes. Therefore, more reliable prognostic markers need to be developed to improve the selection of stage II patients at high risk for recurrence. Our purpose is to assess the prognostic value of preoperative serum CA 72.4 to improve the risk stratification of CRC patients. Methods Preoperative sera collected from 71 unselected patients between January 1994 and February 1997 was assayed for CA 72.4 and CEA levels. Patients were followed-up for at least 30 months or until relapse. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the prognostic value was determined using Log-Rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results Preoperative CA 72.4 levels above 7 U/mL correlate with a worse prognosis, with associated recurrence and death percentages exceeding the displayed by CEA. In a multivariate analysis, its combination with CEA proved the most important independent factor predicting survival. Remarkably, at stage II CA 72.4 also discriminates better than CEA those patients that will relapse or die from those with a favourable prognosis; however, CEA has not a negligible effect on survival. Conclusions The most outstanding finding of the present work is the correct classification of nearly every patient with bad prognosis (relapse or death) at TNM stage II when CEA and CA 72.4 are used altogether. This could improve the decision-making involved in the treatment of stage II colon cancer. Certainly further large-scale studies must be performed to determine whether CA 72.4 can be effectively used in the clinical setting. PMID:24215576

2013-01-01

234

High-dose concurrent chemo-proton therapy for Stage III NSCLC: preliminary results of a Phase II study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this report is to present the preliminary results of a Phase II study of high-dose (74 Gy RBE) proton beam therapy (PBT) with concurrent chemotherapy for unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients were treated with PBT and chemotherapy with monthly cisplatin (on Day 1) and vinorelbine (on Days 1 and 8). The treatment doses were 74 Gy RBE for the primary site and 66 Gy RBE for the lymph nodes without elective lymph nodes. Adapted planning was made during the treatment. A total of 15 patients with Stage III NSCLC (IIIA: 4, IIIB: 11) were evaluated in this study. The median follow-up period was 21.7 months. None of the patients experienced Grade 4 or 5 non-hematologic toxicities. Acute pneumonitis was observed in three patients (Grade 1 in one, and Grade 3 in two), but Grade 3 pneumonitis was considered to be non-proton-related. Grade 3 acute esophagitis and dermatitis were observed in one and two patients, respectively. Severe ( ? Grade 3) leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 10 patients, seven patients and one patient, respectively. Late radiation Grades 2 and 3 pneumonitis was observed in one patient each. Six patients (40%) experienced local recurrence at the primary site and were treated with 74 Gy RBE. Disease progression was observed in 11 patients. The mean survival time was 26.7 months. We concluded that high-dose PBT with concurrent chemotherapy is safe to use in the treatment of unresectable Stage III NSCLC. PMID:24864278

Oshiro, Yoshiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Kurishima, Koichi; Homma, Shinsuke; Mizumoto, Masashi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Onizuka, Masataka; Sakai, Mitsuaki; Goto, Yukinobu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Sato, Yukio; Sakurai, Hideyuki

2014-01-01

235

High-dose concurrent chemo-proton therapy for Stage III NSCLC: preliminary results of a Phase II study.  

PubMed

The aim of this report is to present the preliminary results of a Phase II study of high-dose (74 Gy RBE) proton beam therapy (PBT) with concurrent chemotherapy for unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients were treated with PBT and chemotherapy with monthly cisplatin (on Day 1) and vinorelbine (on Days 1 and 8). The treatment doses were 74 Gy RBE for the primary site and 66 Gy RBE for the lymph nodes without elective lymph nodes. Adapted planning was made during the treatment. A total of 15 patients with Stage III NSCLC (IIIA: 4, IIIB: 11) were evaluated in this study. The median follow-up period was 21.7 months. None of the patients experienced Grade 4 or 5 non-hematologic toxicities. Acute pneumonitis was observed in three patients (Grade 1 in one, and Grade 3 in two), but Grade 3 pneumonitis was considered to be non-proton-related. Grade 3 acute esophagitis and dermatitis were observed in one and two patients, respectively. Severe ( ? Grade 3) leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 10 patients, seven patients and one patient, respectively. Late radiation Grades 2 and 3 pneumonitis was observed in one patient each. Six patients (40%) experienced local recurrence at the primary site and were treated with 74 Gy RBE. Disease progression was observed in 11 patients. The mean survival time was 26.7 months. We concluded that high-dose PBT with concurrent chemotherapy is safe to use in the treatment of unresectable Stage III NSCLC. PMID:24864278

Oshiro, Yoshiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Kurishima, Koichi; Homma, Shinsuke; Mizumoto, Masashi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Onizuka, Masataka; Sakai, Mitsuaki; Goto, Yukinobu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Sato, Yukio; Sakurai, Hideyuki

2014-09-01

236

Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease. For disease-specific survival, recurrent disease was the only significant factor. Primary site on the lower limb had an adverse effect on locoregional control. For distant control, the only significant factor was residual disease. Conclusions: The multivariate analysis suggests chemotherapy has no effect on survival, but because of the wide confidence limits, a chemotherapy effect cannot be excluded. A study of this size is inadequately powered to detect small improvements in survival, and a larger randomized study remains the only way to truly confirm whether chemotherapy improves the results in high-risk MCC.

Poulsen, Michael G. [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia)]. E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Clinic, Melbourne (Australia); Porter, Ian [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia); Walpole, Euan [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia); Hamilton, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Tripcony, Lee [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

2006-01-01

237

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

238

Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II\\/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel\\/doxorubicin chemotherapy

Bhumsuk Keam; Seock-Ah Im; Hee-Jun Kim; Do-Youn Oh; Jee Hyun Kim; Se-Hoon Lee; Eui Kyu Chie; Wonshik Han; Dong-Wan Kim; Woo Kyung Moon; Tae-You Kim; In Ae Park; Dong-Young Noh; Dae Seog Heo; Sung Whan Ha; Yung-Jue Bang

2007-01-01

239

Phase II clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints: optimal two-stage designs with one-sample log-rank test.  

PubMed

Phase II clinical trials are often conducted to determine whether a new treatment is sufficiently promising to warrant a major controlled clinical evaluation against a standard therapy. We consider single-arm phase II clinical trials with right censored survival time responses where the ordinary one-sample logrank test is commonly used for testing the treatment efficacy. For planning such clinical trials, this paper presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that the expected sample size is minimized if the new regimen has low efficacy subject to constraints of the type I and type II errors. Two-stage designs, which minimize the maximal sample size, are also determined. Optimal and minimax designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated along with examples. PMID:24338995

Kwak, Minjung; Jung, Sin-Ho

2014-05-30

240

Phase II clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints: Optimal two-stage designs with one-sample log-rank test  

PubMed Central

Summary Phase II clinical trials are often conducted to determine whether a new treatment is sufficiently promising to warrant a major controlled clinical evaluation against a standard therapy. We consider single-arm phase II clinical trials with right censored survival time responses where the ordinary one-sample logrank test is commonly used for testing the treatment efficacy. For planning such clinical trials this paper presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that the expected sample size is minimized if the new regimen has low efficacy subject to constraints of the type I and type II errors. Two-stage designs which minimize the maximal sample size are also determined. Optimal and minimax designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated along with examples. PMID:24338995

Kwak, Minjung; Jung, Sin-Ho

2014-01-01

241

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

242

A Large-Area Search for Low-Mass Objects in Upper Scorpius II: Age and Mass Distributions  

E-print Network

We present continued results from a wide-field, ~150 deg^2, optical photometric and spectroscopic survey of the northern part of the ~5 Myr-old Upper Scorpius OB Association. Photometry and spectral types were used to derive effective temperatures and luminosities and place newly identified association members onto a theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From our survey, we have discovered 145 new low mass members of the association, and determined ~10% of these objects to be actively accreting material from a surrounding circumstellar disk. Based on comparison of the spatial distributions of low and high mass association members, we find no evidence for spatial segregation by mass within the northern portion of the association. Measured data are combined with pre-main sequence evolutionary models to derive a mass and age for each star. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that, taking into account known observational uncertainties, the observed age dispersion for the low mass population in USco is consistent with all stars forming in a single burst ~5 Myr ago, and place an upper limit of +/-3 Myr on the age spread if the star formation rate has been constant in time. We derive the first spectroscopic mass function for USco that extends into the substellar regime, and compare these results to those for three other young clusters and associations.

Catherine L. Slesnick; Lynne A. Hillenbrand; John M. Carpenter

2008-09-08

243

Dispersion properties of a magnetoactive plasma-filled waveguide in the vicinity of the upper hybrid frequency. Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersion properties of a magnetoactive plasma-filled waveguide in the vicinity of the upper hybrid frequency ?1 = (?{/p 2} + ?{/B 2})1/2 (?1 - ? < ? < ?1) are studied. It is shown that, in this frequency range, the eigenmodes of the plasma-filled waveguide are represented by the families of EH and cyclotron HE modes, the interaction between which is weak everywhere except for the vicinities of certain points in the (?, k z ) plane. The equations describing the behavior of the dispersion curves in these vicinities are derived. It is shown that, as a result of the interaction, the high-frequency branches of EH modes acquire the cutoff frequencies corresponding to the high-order propagating HE modes. It is established that the anisotropic HE+ l mode can also interact with cyclotron HE modes. In this case, its dispersion curve enters the lower half-vicinity of the upper hybrid frequency, where it is modified due to the interaction, and then leaves it.

Shcherbinin, V. I.; Tkachenko, V. I.; Zaginaylov, G. I.; Schuenemann, K.

2014-04-01

244

Upper Crustal Structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic Results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earth- quake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150- km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Si- erra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins

W. J. Lutter; G. S. Fuis; T. Ryberg; D. A. Okaya; R. W. Clayton; P. M. Davis; C. Prodehl; J. M. Murphy; V. E. Langenheim; M. L. Benthien; N. J. Godfrey; N. I. Christensen; K. Thygesen; C. H. Thurber; G. Simila; G. R. Keller

2004-01-01

245

Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Study of a Falling-Stage Delta Complex in the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, South-Central Utah, USA.  

E-print Network

??The character and distribution of lithofacies in falling-stage deltas are incompletely documented. This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphic evaluation of a superbly-exposed interval of… (more)

Alaboud, Fares

2014-01-01

246

Doxorubicin, vinblastine, and gemcitabine (CALGB 50203) for stage I/II nonbulky Hodgkin lymphoma: pretreatment prognostic factors and interim PET  

PubMed Central

To reduce doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine toxicity, the Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a phase 2 trial of doxorubicin, vinblastine, and gemcitabine for newly diagnosed, nonbulky stages I and II Hodgkin lymphoma. Ninety-nine assessable patients received 6 cycles of doxorubicin 25 mg/m2, vinblastine 6 mg/m2, and gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 (1000 mg/m2 in first 6) on days 1 and 15 every 28 days. Computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed before and after 2 and 6 cycles. Complete remission (CR)/CR unconfirmed was achieved in 72 of 99 patients (72.7%) and partial remission in 24 of 99 patients (24.2%). The CR rate was 81% when using PET criteria. Two patients have died of Hodgkin lymphoma progression. Median follow-up for nonprogressing patients is 3.3 years. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 years was 77% (95% confidence interval, 68%-84%). The relapse rate was less than 10% for patients with favorable prognostic factors. The 2-year PFS for cycle 2 PET-negative and -positive patients was 88% and 54%, respectively (P = .0009), compared with 89% and 27% for cycle 6 PET-negative and -positive patients (P = .0001). Although the CR rate and PFS were lower than anticipated, patients with favorable prognostic features had a low rate of relapse. Cycle 2 PET and cycle 6 PET were predictive of PFS. This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00086801. PMID:21355087

Johnson, Jeffrey L.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Kostakoglu, Lale; Hsi, Eric D.; Schoder, Heiko; Hall, Nathan C.; Jung, Sin-Ho; Canellos, George P.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Takvorian, Ronald W.; Juweid, Malik E.; Cheson, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

247

The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on the feasibility of optimal dose adjuvant CMF chemotheraphy in stage II breast carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The impact of a number of variables upon the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy given to 87 patients with Stage II breast carcinoma was retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF). Drugs were given in optimal doses (85% or more of the planned dose) to 17% of the patients; in intermediate doses (66 to 84% of the planned dose) to 50% of the patients; and in low doses (65% or less of the planned dose) to 33% of the patients. Myelosuppression was the main reason for giving intermediate or low doses. At a median follow-up of three years, 84% of all patients remain alive. Radiation therapy preceding chemotherapy was given to 70% of the patients, concomitant irradation and chemotherapy to 15%, and 13 patients (15%) received chemotheapy only. Of the 14 patients who received optimal doses of CMF, 12 (86%) also received radiation therapy. Disease-free survival at three years is similar for irradiated and nonirradiated patients, but the latter have a higher incidence of local recurrence (5% vs. 15%), although the difference is not statistically significant. Delay in the intiation of chemotherapy, mostly because of the administration of postoperative irradiation, adversely affected the probability and duration of disease-free survival, particulararly in premenopausal women in whom chemotherapy was started within more than 90 days of mastectomy. The administration of optimal doses of adjuvant chemotherapy should follow the primary treatment to the breast tumor as closely as possible. If radiation therapy is indicated as well, it should be delivered concomitantly with chemotherapy, given the feasibility of administering both modalities simultaneously, as demonstrated in this study.

Sulkes, A.; Brufman, G.; Rizel, S.; Weshler, Z.; Biran, S.; Fuks, Z.

1983-01-01

248

Radiation therapy treatment of Stage I and II extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the head and neck. [Efficacy and complications  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed the records of 76 patients with Stage I or II extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who were referred to the Division of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, during the years 1964 through 1974. The histologic slides were reviewed in the 67 cases in which they were available. Forty-three percent of Ann Arbor Stage I and II patients relapsed after primary radiation treatment. Seventy-three percent of these failed in sites distant from the irradiated volume. Failures in the treated volume were infrequent (7%) except in those patients presenting with primary lesions of the brain (4/5). Those patients presenting with lesions of Waldeyer's ring experienced a decrease in survival with increasing tumor size. Because of the high rate of failure in distant sites with tumors in the lingual and palatine tonsils, we are recommending the study of adjuvant chemotherapy in these cases, after primary radiation treatment.

Mill, W.B.; Lee, F.A.; Franssila, K.O.

1980-02-15

249

Survival and risk of adverse events in older patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for resected stages II-IIIA lung cancer: observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the survival and risk of serious adverse events in older patients with stages II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer treated with or without postoperative platinum based chemotherapy.Design Observational cohort study.Setting Cases of lung cancer in Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry linked to Medicare files, 1992-2005, and follow-up data to December 2007.Participants 3324 patients aged more than 65

Juan P Wisnivesky; Cardinale B Smith; Stuart Packer; Gary M Strauss; Linda Lurslurchachai; Alex Federman; Ethan A Halm

2011-01-01

250

Study of initial stages of Al–Mg alloy corrosion in water, chloride and Cu(II) environment by a scanning Kelvin probe and XPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion product layers formed during initial corrosion stages on Al–Mg alloy in water, 3.5% NaCl solution and 3.5% NaCl containing 50 ppm Cu(II) have been studied by scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SKP spatio-temporal images reconstructed the solution–air boundary on corroded samples. The SKP sensitivity to detect the corrosion products layer on Al–Mg alloy was

Eimutis Juzeli?nas; Aloyzas Sudavi?ius; Klaus Jüttner; Wolfram Fürbeth

2003-01-01

251

Yoga Skills Training or Attention Control for Reducing Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms During Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II-IV Colorectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Depressive Symptoms; Fatigue; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2014-05-22

252

Effect of temperature, NaCl concentration and aeration of solutions on the survivability of II stage larvae of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964.  

PubMed

Determinations were carried out for the effect of temperature, NaCl concentration and aeration of solutions on the survivability of stage II larvae of Contracaecum rudolphii nematode. Stage II larvae hatched from egg shells were placed in tap water as well as in 1% and 3% solutions of NaCl. Part of the culture was run on Petri dishes and aerated each day. The second part was transferred into high beakers and left non-aerated. All cultures were run in three replications at temperatures of 4, 10, 20 and 30 degrees C. Microscopic observations of the survivability and activity of the larvae were conducted every day in all samples. The larvae incubated for 30 days at a temperature of 4 degrees C were viable and non-motile. The longest life span was noted in the case of the larvae incubated in the aerated 1% solution of NaCl at a temperature of 10 degrees C, which also recorded the lowest mobility. The shortest life span was reported for the larvae incubated in the non-aerated 3% solution of NaCl at a temperature of 30 degrees C. The results obtained in this study indicate that the II stage larvae of C. rudolphii may live both in both fresh and salt waters and a significant factor determining their life span is water saturation with oxygen. PMID:20450007

Dzieko?ska-Rynko, Janina; Rokicki, Jerzy

2010-01-01

253

Prognosis and Prognostic Factors of the Micropapillary Pattern in Patients Treated for Stage II and III Serous Borderline Tumors of the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Background. To determine the prognosis of a micropapillary (MP) pattern in patients with stage II and stage III serous borderline tumor of the ovary (SBOT). Methods. Review of patients with stage II and stage III SBOT treated or referred to our institution with characterization of an MP pattern and its clinical impact. Results. In 1969–2006, 168 patients were reviewed. Fifty-six patients had SBOT-MP. The rate of conservative surgery was lower in the SBOT-MP group than in the typical SBOT group, but the rate of patients with more than three peritoneal sites with implants was higher in the SBOT-MP group. The rate of invasive implants was not statistically different between the two groups. Eighteen recurrences were observed (six of them in the form of invasive disease) in the SBOT-MP group. Only one death was observed. The overall survival times and recurrence-free intervals were similar in both groups. The only prognostic factor for recurrence in the SBOT-MP group was the use of conservative surgery. Conclusions. In the present series, an MP pattern doesn't appear to signify a poor prognosis. The only prognostic factor for recurrence in SBOT-MP was the use of conservative surgery. Further studies on the MP pattern are needed to evaluate prognosis and the results of conservative surgery. PMID:21273510

Uzan, Catherine; Kane, Aminata; Rey, Annie; Gouy, Sebastien; Camatte, Sophie; Pautier, Patricia; Lhomme, Catherine; Haie-Meder, Christine; Duvillard, Pierre

2011-01-01

254

Evolution of magnetic fields in stars across the upper main sequence: II. Observed distribution of the magnetic field geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-discuss the evolutionary state of upper main sequence magnetic stars using a sample of Ap and Bp stars with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes and definitely determined longitudinal magnetic fields. We confirm our previous results obtained from the study of Ap and Bp stars with accurate measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus and mean quadratic magnetic fields that magnetic stars of mass {M}<3 M_? are concentrated towards the centre of the main-sequence band. In contrast, stars with masses {M}>3 M_? seem to be concentrated closer to the ZAMS. The study of a few known members of nearby open clusters with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes confirms these conclusions. Stronger magnetic fields tend to be found in hotter, younger and more massive stars, as well as in stars with shorter rotation periods. The longest rotation periods are found only in stars which spent already more than 40% of their main sequence life, in the mass domain between 1.8 and 3 M_? and with log g values ranging from 3.80 to 4.13. No evidence is found for any loss of angular momentum during the main-sequence life. The magnetic flux remains constant over the stellar life time on the main sequence. An excess of stars with large obliquities ? is detected in both higher and lower mass stars. It is quite possible that the angle ? becomes close to 0o in slower rotating stars of mass {M}>3 M_? too, analog to the behaviour of angles ? in slowly rotating stars of {M}<3 M_?. The obliquity angle distribution as inferred from the distribution of r-values appears random at the time magnetic stars become observable on the H-R diagram. After quite a short time spent on the main sequence, the obliquity angle ? tends to reach values close to either 90o or 0o for {M}<3 M_?. The evolution of the obliquity angle ? seems to be somewhat different for low and high mass stars. While we find a strong hint for an increase of ? with the elapsed time on the main sequence for stars with {M}>3 M_?, no similar trend is found for stars with {M}<3 M_?. However, the predominance of high values of ? at advanced ages in these stars is notable. As the physics governing the processes taking place in magnetised atmospheres remains poorly understood, magnetic field properties have to be considered in the framework of dynamo or fossil field theories.

Hubrig, S.; North, P.; Schöller, M.

2007-07-01

255

Immunodetection of Collagen Types I, II, III, and IV for Differentiation of Liver Fibrosis Stages in Patients with Chronic HCV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is aimed at evaluating serum collagens and other serum biochemical markers as useful, non?invasive markers of hepatic fibrosis associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Collagen types I, II, III, and IV were detected in serum using ELISA and Western blot techniques. The ELISA levels of collagen I, II, III, and IV increased significantly with the progression

Abdelfattah M. Attallah; Tamer E. Mosa; Mohamed M. Omran; Yehia M. Shaker

2007-01-01

256

A phase II study on stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purposeThe outcome of stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with conventional radiotherapy is inferior to that of patients treated surgically. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of stage I NSCLC.

Masashi Koto; Yoshihiro Takai; Yoshihiro Ogawa; Haruo Matsushita; Ken Takeda; Chiaki Takahashi; Keith R. Britton; Kei-ichi Jingu; Kenji Takai; Masatoshi Mitsuya; Kenji Nemoto; Shogo Yamada

2007-01-01

257

Prognostic Impact of Erythropoietin Expression and Erythropoietin Receptor Expression on Locoregional Control and Survival of Patients Irradiated for Stage II/III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Prognostic factors can guide the physician in selecting the optimal treatment for an individual patient. This study investigates the prognostic value of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor (EPO-R) expression of tumor cells for locoregional control and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Fourteen factors were investigated in 62 patients irradiated for stage II/III NSCLC, as follows: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), histology, grading, TNM/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack years (average number of packages of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked), smoking during radiotherapy, hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy, EPO expression, and EPO-R expression. Additionally, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R were compared to those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and to those expressing neither EPO nor EPO-R. Results: On univariate analysis, improved locoregional control was associated with AJCC stage II cancer (p < 0.048), surgery (p < 0.042), no smoking during radiotherapy (p = 0.024), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). A trend was observed for a KPS of >70 (p = 0.08), an N stage of 0 to 1 (p = 0.07), and no EPO-R expression (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, AJCC stage II and no EPO expression remained significant. No smoking during radiotherapy was almost significant. On univariate analysis, improved survival was associated with N stage 0 to 1 (p = 0.009), surgery (p = 0.039), hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d (p = 0.016), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, N stage 0 to 1 and no EPO expression maintained significance. Hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d were almost significant. On subgroup analyses, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R had worse outcomes than those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and those expressing neither EPO nor RPO-R. Conclusions: EPO expression of tumor cells was an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control and survival in patients irradiated for NSCLC. EPO-R expression showed a trend. Patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R have an unfavorable prognosis.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Setter, Cornelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Noack, Frank [Institute of Pathology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany)

2011-06-01

258

CT and MR Imaging Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Part II. Extracellular Agents, Hepatobiliary Agents, and Ancillary Imaging Features.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play critical roles in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The second article of this two-part review discusses basic concepts of diagnosis and staging, reviews the diagnostic performance of CT and MR imaging with extracellular contrast agents and of MR imaging with hepatobiliary contrast agents, and examines in depth the major and ancillary imaging features used in the diagnosis and characterization of HCC. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25247563

Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Jeong-Min; Sirlin, Claude B

2014-10-01

259

Galectin Expression Profiling Identifies Galectin-1 and Galectin-9?5 as Prognostic Factors in Stage I/II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30–40% of the patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will present with recurrent disease within two years of resection. Here, we performed extensive galectin expression profiling in a retrospective study using frozen and paraffin embedded tumor tissues from 87 stage I/II NSCLC patients. Our data show that galectin mRNA expression in NSCLC is confined to galectin-1, -3, -4, -7, -8, and -9. Next to stage, univariable Cox regression analysis identified galectin-1, galectin-9FL and galectin-9?5 as possible prognostic markers. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed that overall survival was significantly shorter in patients that express galectin-1 above median levels, i.e., 23.0 (2.9–43.1) vs. 59.9 (47.7–72.1) months (p?=?0.020) as well as in patients that express galectin-9?5 or galectin-9FL below the median, resp. 59.9 (41.9–75.9) vs. 32.8 (8.7–56.9) months (p?=?0.014) or 23.2 (?0.4–46.8) vs. 58.9 (42.9–74.9) months (p?=?0.042). All three galectins were also prognostic for disease free survival. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that for OS, the most significant prognostic model included stage, age, gal-1 and gal-9?5 while the model for DFS included stage, age and gal-9?5. In conclusion, the current study confirms the prognostic value of galectin-1 and identifies galectin-9?5 as novel potential prognostic markers in early stage NSCLC. These findings could help to identify early stage NSCLC patients that might benefit most from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25259711

van den Boogaart, Vivian; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Thijssen, Victor L.

2014-01-01

260

Sensitivity of a simplified forced oscillation technique for detection of upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a simplified variant of forced oscillation technique (FOT) was studied for assessment of dynamic upper airway obstruction during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The airway impedance |PFOT| was measured by FOT and the oesophageal pressure (Poes) was recorded during stable stage II sleep in 11 patients with OSA. The CPAP

Joachim H. Ficker; Gunther H. Wiest; Gerald Asshoff; Florian S. Fuchs; Alexander H. Schmelzer; Igor A. Harsch; Eckhart G. Hahn

2001-01-01

261

Interaction between Gastric and Upper Small Intestinal Hormones in the Regulation of Hunger and Satiety: Ghrelin and Cholecystokinin Take the Central Stage  

PubMed Central

Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in the forebrain, such as hypothalamic nuclei. So far, ghrelin is the only known hormone that is peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake, whereas the suppression of feeding seems to be much more redundantly controlled by a number of gut peptides. Cholecystokinin produced in the duodenum is a well established anorexigenic hormone that interacts with ghrelin to modulate food intake indicating a regulatory network located at the first site of contact with nutrients in the stomach and upper small intestine. In addition, a number of peptides including leptin, urocortin 2, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 interact synergistically with CCK to potentiate its satiety signaling effect. New developments have led to the identification of additional peptides in X/A-like cells either derived from the pro-ghrelin gene by alternative splicing and posttranslational processing (obestatin) or a distinct gene (nucleobindin2/nesfatin-1) which have been investigated for their influence on food intake. PMID:21428875

Stengel, Andreas; Tache, Yvette

2013-01-01

262

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma With Proliferating Activity; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2014-11-17

263

Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

2014-04-21

264

Involvement of Difference in Decrease of Hemoglobin Level in Poor Prognosis of Stage I and II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Implication in Outcome of Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the difference in its decrease during treatment on outcome of radiotherapy (RT) alone for patients with Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 572 patients with Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RT alone between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, tumor variables, and Hb level, including pre-RT Hb, mid-RT Hb, and dynamic change of Hb between pre- and post- RT and its difference in decrease ( White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb) were subjected to univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors that predict disease-specific survival (DSS), local regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastases-free survival (MFS). Results: The 5-year DSS was poorer in the Hb continuous decrease group than in the Hb noncontinuous decrease group (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.008). There was poorer 5-year DSS in patients with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of >11.5 g/L than in those with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of {<=}11.5 g/L (82% vs. 89%; p = 0.001), and poorer LRFS (79% vs. 83%; p = 0.035). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that Hb decrease difference with greater than 11.5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and LRFS. Conclusions: The difference in decrease of Hb level during the course of radiation treatment appeared as a poor prognostic factor in Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

Gao Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Anhui provincial hospital, Hefei (China); Tao Yalan; Li Guo; Yi Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xia Yunfei, E-mail: xiayf@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2012-03-15

265

Inlet flow distortion in turbomachinery. I - Comparison of theory and experiment in a transonic fan stage. II - A parameter study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present paper, a semi-actuator-disk theory is reviewed that was developed previously for the distorted inflow to a single-stage axial-flow compressor. Flow distortion occurs far upstream; it may be a distortion in stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure, or both. Losses, quasi-steady deviation angles, and reference incidence correlations are included in the analysis, and both subsonic and transonic relative Mach numbers are considered. The theory is compared with measurements made in a transonic fan stage, and a parameter study is carried out to determine the influence of solidity on the attenuation of distortions in stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature.

Seidel, B. S.; Matwey, M. D.; Adamczyk, J. J.

1980-01-01

266

Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation With Paclitaxel/Carboplatin for Selected Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Trimodality Phase II Protocol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate, in a Phase II trial conducted August 1998 through January 2001, the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and definitive surgery in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), Stages IIIA bulky and selected Stage IIIB. Patients and Methods: Staging of LA-NSCLC included computed tomography of cranium, thorax, and abdomen, whole-body positron emission tomography, and video mediastinoscopy. Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin was followed by hyperfractionated accelerated thoracic radiotherapy (45 Gy) with simultaneous weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. Four to six weeks after completion of induction therapy, restaging and resection of primary tumor and lymph nodes was intended. Results: A total of 59 consecutive patients were enrolled, 25% with Stage IIIA bulky disease, 65% with Stage IIIB, and 10% with Stage IV (excluded from further analysis). Forty-one patients completed induction therapy; in 52.4% a functional (positron emission tomography) downstaging was proven. Thirty-two patients (59.3%) underwent complete tumor resection, and 5 patients had an exploratory thoracotomy only. Histopathologic downstaging was proven in 59.4% and complete response in 21.9%. Hospital mortality was 5.4%. Median duration of follow-up for living patients was 62.1 months. Overall median survival was 22.6 months, 58.2 months for completely resected patients. During induction chemotherapy, Grade 3/4 granulocytopenia occurred in 8% of patients; the most common Grade 3/4 toxicity of chemoradiation was esophagitis, in 26.4% of patients. Conclusions: Induction paclitaxel/carboplatin with hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiotherapy followed by complete tumor resection demonstrates high efficacy in LA-NSCLC and offers a promising chance of long-term survival.

Hehr, Thomas, E-mail: thomashehr@vinzenz.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Friedel, Godehard; Steger, Volker [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Spengler, Werner [Department of Pneumology, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Eschmann, Susanne M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Bamberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Budach, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duesseldorf, Tuebingen (Germany)

2010-04-15

267

[Studying the regression pattern of stage II and III retinopathy of prematurity by means of morphometric analysis of retinal vessels in different terms after laser retinal photocoagulation].  

PubMed

Dynamic evaluation of the diameters of central fundus vessels, 2nd order and peripheral vessels as well as the tortuosity index of central zone arteries in stage II and III retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which showed regression after laser treatment, was performed. Obtained data can be used for estimation of the optimal follow-up period ensuring early detection of high probability for ROP progression after laser coagulation and decrease of the number of diagnostic examinations for patients whose pathologic process is resolving. PMID:25306724

2014-01-01

268

An in vivo study of hindfoot 3D kinetics in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot based on weight-bearing CT scan  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the rotation and translation of each joint in the hindfoot and compare the load response in healthy feet with that in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot by analysing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image data during simulated weight-bearing. Methods CT scans of 15 healthy feet and 15 feet with stage II PTTD flatfoot were taken first in a non-weight-bearing condition, followed by a simulated full-body weight-bearing condition. The images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into 3D models. The ‘twice registration’ method in three planes was used to calculate the position of the talus relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint, the navicular relative to the talus in talonavicular joint, and the cuboid relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint. Results From non- to full-body-weight-bearing condition, the difference in the talus position relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint was 0.6° more dorsiflexed (p = 0.032), 1.4° more everted (p = 0.026), 0.9 mm more anterior (p = 0.031) and 1.0 mm more proximal (p = 0.004) in stage II PTTD flatfoot compared with that in a healthy foot. The navicular position difference relative to the talus in the talonavicular joint was 3° more everted (p = 0.012), 1.3 mm more lateral (p = 0.024), 0.8 mm more anterior (p = 0.037) and 2.1 mm more proximal (p = 0.017). The cuboid position difference relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint did not change significantly in rotation and translation (all p ? 0.08). Conclusion Referring to a previous study regarding both the cadaveric foot and the live foot, joint instability occurred in the hindfoot in simulated weight-bearing condition in patients with stage II PTTD flatfoot. The method used in this study might be applied to clinical analysis of the aetiology and evolution of PTTD flatfoot, and may inform biomechanical analyses of the effects of foot surgery in the future. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:255–63. PMID:24324193

Zhang, Y.; Xu, J.; Wang, X.; Huang, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.; Wang, C.; Ma, X.

2013-01-01

269

IDEC-C2B8 (Rituximab) anti-CD20 antibody treatment in relapsed advanced-stage follicular lymphomas: results of a phase-II study of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:   The current study was initiated to assess the clinical efficacy and side effects of rituximab in patients with relapsed advanced\\u000a stage follicular lymphoma. Patients and methods: The study was performed as an open-label non-randomized multicenter phase-II trial and included patients older than 18?years\\u000a of age with relapsed advanced-stage follicular lymphomas (FL) grades I and II, according to the REAL

M. Feuring-Buske; M. Kneba; M. Unterhalt; A. Engert; M. Gramatzki; E. Hiller; L. Trümper; W. Brugger; H. Ostermann; J. Atzpodien; M. Hallek; E. Aulitzky; W. Hiddemann

2000-01-01

270

Congenital upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most causes of upper airway obstruction are rare in the neonatal period and during infancy. They may, however, cause major respiratory problems either initially or during the first few weeks of life. It is important to recognise these problems at an early stage so that appropriate measures to overcome airway obstruction can be initiated, thus avoiding significant hypoxia-related complications. Specific

Robert Dinwiddie

2004-01-01

271

Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-06-18

272

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-11-03

273

Phase I\\/II Trial of Hyperfractionated Radiation and Chemotherapy Followed by Surgery in Stage III Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We have previously demonstrated that high-dose chemoradiotherapy followed by resection for patients selected on the basis of mediastinal sterilization was feasible and resulted in excellent outcomes. This study was designed to determine the ability to intensify our prior approach utilizing hyperfractionated radiation and more aggressive consolidative chemotherapy. Methods. Patients with documented stage IIIA\\/B non- small-cell lung cancer, performance status

Martin J. Edelman; Mohan Suntharalingam; Whitney Burrows; King F. Kwong; Neha Mitra; Ziv Gamliel; Michelle Riley; Lindsay B. Cooper; Nancy L. Kennedy; Susan Buskirk; Petr Hausner; L. Austin Doyle; Mark J. Krasna

274

Dissection of immune gene networks in primary melanoma tumors critical for antitumor surveillance of patients with stage II-III resectable disease.  

PubMed

Patients with resected stage II-III cutaneous melanomas remain at high risk for metastasis and death. Biomarker development has been limited by the challenge of isolating high-quality RNA for transcriptome-wide profiling from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens. Using NanoString technology, RNA from 40 stage II-III FFPE primary melanomas was analyzed and a 53-immune-gene panel predictive of non-progression (area under the curve (AUC)=0.920) was defined. The signature predicted disease-specific survival (DSS P<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS P<0.001). CD2, the most differentially expressed gene in the training set, also predicted non-progression (P<0.001). Using publicly available microarray data from 46 primary human melanomas (GSE15605), a coexpression module enriched for the 53-gene panel was then identified using unbiased methods. A Bayesian network of signaling pathways based on this data identified driver genes. Finally, the proposed 53-gene panel was confirmed in an independent test population of 48 patients (AUC=0.787). The gene signature was an independent predictor of non-progression (P<0.001), RFS (P<0.001), and DSS (P=0.024) in the test population. The identified driver genes are potential therapeutic targets, and the 53-gene panel should be tested for clinical application using a larger data set annotated on the basis of prospectively gathered data. PMID:24522433

Sivendran, Shanthi; Chang, Rui; Pham, Lisa; Phelps, Robert G; Harcharik, Sara T; Hall, Lawrence D; Bernardo, Sebastian G; Moskalenko, Marina M; Sivendran, Meera; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H; Pan, Michael; Moon, Jee Young; Arora, Sonali; Cohain, Ariella; DiFeo, Analisa; Ferringer, Tammie C; Tismenetsky, Mikhail; Tsui, Cindy L; Friedlander, Philip A; Parides, Michael K; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Lebwohl, Mark G; Wolchok, Jedd D; Bhardwaj, Nina; Burakoff, Steven J; Oh, William K; Palucka, Karolina; Merad, Miriam; Schadt, Eric E; Saenger, Yvonne M

2014-08-01

275

Bone scintigraphy in patients with operable breast cancer stages I and II. Final conclusion after five-year follow-up.  

PubMed

A 5-yr follow-up study was performed in 90 patients with stage I and II breast cancer who had a routine preoperative bone scan. The percentage of positive preoperative scans was 3.4%. Twenty-four of the 90 patients died within 5 yr. In all patients except five a follow-up scan was obtained. The results of our first study were confirmed. In only one of the three patients with a positive preoperative scan suspicious for bone metastases did bone metastases develop in this 5-yr follow-up study. One patient with an equivocal preoperative scan developed bone metastases. In 14 of the 16 patients with bone metastases and a positive scan in the follow-up period the preoperative scan was negative. From the preoperative and follow-up scan results we conclude that in stage I and II breast cancer there is no value in preoperative bone scanning. Routine bone scanning in the follow-up period appears to have little value in the asymptomatic patient. PMID:6540189

Butzelaar, R M; van Dongen, J A; de Graaf, P W; van der Schoot, J B

1984-07-01

276

Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 and Anastrozole With or Without Goserelin Acetate in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-09-23

277

Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bleicher, Richard J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swaby, Ramona F. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldstein, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2012-11-15

278

Mastectomy With Immediate Expander-Implant Reconstruction, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation for Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Treatment Intervals and Clinical Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine intervals between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients treated with mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, and to evaluate locoregional and distant control and overall survival in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between May 1996 and March 2004, 104 patients with Stage II-III breast cancer were routinely treated at our institution under the following algorithm: (1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement, (2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy, (3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant, (4) radiation. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Twenty-six percent of patients were Stage II and 74% Stage III. All received adjuvant chemotherapy. Estrogen receptor staining was positive in 77%, and 78% received hormone therapy. Radiation was delivered to the chest wall with daily 0.5-cm bolus and to the supraclavicular fossa. Median dose was 5040 cGy. Median interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 5 weeks, from completion of chemotherapy to exchange 4 weeks, and from exchange to radiation 4 weeks. Median interval from completion of chemotherapy to start of radiation was 8 weeks. Median follow-up was 64 months from date of mastectomy. The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%. Conclusions: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.

Wright, Jean L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Ben-Porat, Leah [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Van Zee, Kimberly J. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hudis, Clifford [Department of Medicine, Solid Tumor Division, Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Beal, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: mccormib@mskcc.org

2008-01-01

279

Biologic Determinants of Tumor Recurrence in Stage II Colon Cancer: Validation Study of the 12-Gene Recurrence Score in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581  

PubMed Central

Purpose A greater understanding of the biology of tumor recurrence should improve adjuvant treatment decision making. We conducted a validation study of the 12-gene recurrence score (RS), a quantitative assay integrating stromal response and cell cycle gene expression, in tumor specimens from patients enrolled onto Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581. Patients and Methods CALGB 9581 randomly assigned 1,713 patients with stage II colon cancer to treatment with edrecolomab or observation and found no survival difference. The analysis reported here included all patients with available tissue and recurrence (n = 162) and a random (approximately 1:3) selection of nonrecurring patients. RS was assessed in 690 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction by using prespecified genes and a previously validated algorithm. Association of RS and recurrence was analyzed by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Continuous RS was significantly associated with risk of recurrence (P = .013) as was mismatch repair (MMR) gene deficiency (P = .044). In multivariate analyses, RS was the strongest predictor of recurrence (P = .004), independent of T stage, MMR, number of nodes examined, grade, and lymphovascular invasion. In T3 MMR-intact (MMR-I) patients, prespecified low and high RS groups had average 5-year recurrence risks of 13% (95% CI, 10% to 16%) and 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%), respectively. Conclusion The 12-gene RS predicts recurrence in stage II colon cancer in CALGB 9581. This is consistent with the importance of stromal response and cell cycle gene expression in colon tumor recurrence. RS appears to be most discerning for patients with T3 MMR-I tumors, although markers such as grade and lymphovascular invasion did not add value in this subset of patients. PMID:23530100

Venook, Alan P.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Lopatin, Margarita; Ye, Xing; Lee, Mark; Friedman, Paula N.; Frankel, Wendy; Clark-Langone, Kim; Millward, Carl; Shak, Steven; Goldberg, Richard M.; Mahmoud, Najjia N.; Warren, Robert S.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.

2013-01-01

280

Effect of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy in Patients <35 Years Old With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Treated With Doxorubicin-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control (LRC) in patients with high-risk features after mastectomy. Young age continues to evolve as a potentially important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of PMRT in patients <35 years old treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II-III breast cancer. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 107 consecutive breast cancer patients <35 years old with Stage IIA-IIIC disease treated at our institution with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, with or without PMRT. The treatment groups were compared in terms of LRC and overall survival. Results: Despite more advanced disease stages, the patients who received PMRT (n = 80) had greater rates of LRC (5-year rate, 88% vs. 63%, p = 0.001) and better overall survival (5-year rate, 67% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) than patients who did not receive PMRT (n = 27). Conclusion: Among breast cancer patients <35 years old at diagnosis, the use of PMRT after doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy led to a statistically greater rate of LRC and overall survival compared with patients without PMRT. The benefit seen for PMRT in young patients provides valuable data to better tailor adjuvant, age-specific treatment decisions after mastectomy.

Garg, Amit K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: joh@mdanderson.org; Oswald, Mary Jane; Huang, Eugene; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, T. Kuan; Tereffe, Welela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Meric-Bernstam, Funda [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hahn, Karin [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-12-01

281

COX-1 and COX-2 expression in stage I and II invasive cervical carcinoma: relationship to disease relapse and long-term survival.  

PubMed

COX-1 and COX-2 are members of the cyclooxygenase (COX) family, which influence tumor invasion and apoptosis. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between COX-1 and COX-2 expression in early-stage disease and subsequent disease relapse and long-term survival. Women with FIGO stage I and II cervical carcinoma, younger than 50 years, treated between 1981 and 1990 were included. COX-1 and COX-2 expressions in the tumors were assessed by immunohistochemistry. COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in 61% (17/28) and 57% (16/28) of tumors, respectively. COX-1 nonexpressers showed an improved overall survival compared to expressers (log-rank test, P= 0.09). There was no significant difference in the overall survival in COX-2 nonexpressers compared to expressers (P= 0.6). Out of eight women with disease relapse, COX-1 or COX-2 expression was noted in six of eight tumors, and both were expressed in five of eight tumors. Our preliminary data suggest an adverse prognosis with COX-1 expression in early-stage cervical carcinoma and a trend toward COX-1 expression in disease relapse. The association between COX-2 expression and a worse prognosis was not proven in this study. PMID:16803521

Athavale, R; Clooney, K; O'Hagan, J; Shawki, H; Clark, A H; Green, J A

2006-01-01

282

Delineation of Stage Specific Expression of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 by Biologically Functional Region II Monoclonal Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 binds its receptor sialic acids on glycophorin A when invading erythrocytes. The receptor-binding region (RII) contains two cysteine-rich domains with similar cysteine motifs (F1 and F2). Functional relationships between F1 and F2 domains and characterization of EBA-175 were studied using specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against these domains. Methods and Findings Five mAbs specific for F1 or F2 were generated. Three mAbs specific for F2 potently blocked binding of EBA-175 to erythrocytes, and merozoite invasion of erythrocytes (IC50 10 to 100 µg/ml IgG in growth inhibition assays). A mAb specific for F1 blocked EBA-175 binding and merozoite invasion less effectively. The difference observed between the IC50 of F1 and F2 mAbs was not due to differing association and disassociation rates as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Four of the mAbs recognized conformation-dependent epitopes within F1 or F2. Used in combination, F1 and F2 mAbs blocked the binding of native EBA-175 to erythrocytes and inhibited parasite invasion synergistically in vitro. MAb R217, the most potent, did not recognize sporozoites, 3-day hepatocyte stage parasites, nor rings, trophozoites, gametocytes, retorts, ookinetes, and oocysts but recognized 6-day hepatocyte stage parasites, and schizonts. Even though efficient at blocking binding to erythrocytes and inhibiting invasion into erythrocytes, MAb R217 did not inhibit sporozoite invasion and development in hepatocytes in vitro. Conclusions The role of the F1 and F2 domains in erythrocyte invasion and binding was elucidated with mAbs. These mAbs interfere with native EBA-175 binding to erythrocyte in a synergistic fashion. The stage specific expression of EBA-175 showed that the primary focus of activity was the merozoite stage. A recombinant RII protein vaccine consisting of both F1 and F2 domains that could induce synergistic activity should be optimal for induction of antibody responses that interfere with merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. PMID:21533224

Chattopadhyay, Rana; Ahumada, Adriana; Haynes, J. David; Fuhrmann, Steven R.; Wingard, Jennifer N.; Liang, Hong; Moch, J. Kathleen; Hoffman, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

283

The Declining Utilization of Radiation Therapy in Stage I and II Hodgkin's Disease and its Impact on Survival and Secondary Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Concerns regarding long-term toxicities have led some to withhold radiation therapy (RT) for the treatment of stage I and II Hodgkin's disease (HD). This study was undertaken to assess the utilization of RT in HD and its impact on overall survival (OS) and secondary malignancies. Materials This was a study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database that included patients who were 20 years and older who had been diagnosed with stage I or II HD diagnosed from 1988–2006. OS was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox multivariable Regression model was used to analyze trends. Results A total of 12,247 patients were selected and 51.5% received RT. The median follow up for this cohort was 4.9 years, with 21% of the cohort with > 10 years of follow-up. In 1988–1991, 62.9% received RT whereas in 2004–2006 only 43.7% received RT (p < 0.001). Among this cohort the 5 year OS was 76% for patients who did not receive RT and 87% for those that did receive RT (p < 0.001). The hazard ratio adjusted for other variables in regression model showed that patients who did not receive RT (HR – 1.72, 95% CI – 1.72–2.02) was associated with significantly worse survival when compared to patients who received RT. The actuarial rate of developing a second malignancy was 14.6% vs 15.0% at 15 years for patients who received RT vs. those with no RT (p = 0.089). Conclusions This is one of the largest studies to examine the role of RT in stage I and II HD and revealed a survival benefit with the addition of RT with no increase in secondary malignancies compared to patients who did not receive radiation therapy. Furthermore, this nationwide study revealed an over 20% absolute decrease in the utilization of RT from 1988–2006. PMID:22251881

Koshy, Matthew; Rich, Shayna E.; Mahmood, Usama; Kwok, Young

2010-01-01

284

Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-09-15

285

Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Weekly Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Biweekly Bevacizumab Therapy in Women With Clinical Stage II or III HER2-Negative Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

This phase II trial tested the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) achieved by women with stage II–III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) breast cancer (BC) treated with neo-adjuvant nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P), carboplatin and bevacizumab. The rate of pCR was 18%, all pCRs were observed in patients with triple negative BC. Background We hypothesized that adding bevacizumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) with nab-P and carboplatin would increase the rates of pCR in BC patients and that early changes in tumor vascularity imaged by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) would predict pCR. Methods Thirty-three women with clinical stage II or III HER2-negative BC received nab-P 100 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve = 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 in combination with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 administered every 28 days. Results Six patients (18%) achieved pCR, all pCRs occurred in triple-negative BC (TNBC) (pCR = 50% for TNBC). At the end of cycle 2, the changes in relative angiogenic volume were significantly different between responders and non-responders (P = .001). The major toxicity of this NCT was myelosuppression. Conclusion NCT with weekly nab-P, carboplatin, and biweekly bevacizumab resulted in a pCR rate that was neither superior to the historical data with anthracycline- or taxane-containing NCT nor to carboplatin and taxane combinations in patients with HER2-negative BC. In patients with TNBC, the observed pCR rate was 50%. The early changes in the relative angiogenic volume imaged by DCE-MRI could predict pCR. PMID:24703985

Mrozek, Ewa; Layman, Rachel; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Lustberg, Maryam; Vecchione, Andrea; Knopp, Michael V.; Shapiro, Charles L.

2014-01-01

286

Thyroid Function in Women after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer Stage II/III: Comparison With Controls From a Population Sample  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A possible association between thyroid diseases (TD) and breast cancer (BC) has been debated. We examined prevalence and development of TD in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC compared with women from a general population. Secondarily, we explored the impact of two different radiotherapy (RT) techniques (standardized field arrangements vs. computed tomography [CT]-based dose planning) on TD in BC patients examined 35-120 months after primary BC treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 403 BC patients completed a questionnaire about TD and had blood samples taken for analyses of thyroid function. All had undergone postoperative RT with or without (2%) adjuvant systemic treatment. The results in the BC patients were compared with a cancer-free, age-matched control group from a general population (CGr). Results: There was higher prevalence of self-reported hypothyroidism in the BC patients as compared with the CGr (18% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). The raised prevalence was predominantly due to a substantial increase in the development of hypothyroidism after BC diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroidism before BC diagnosis was similar to that observed in the CGr. Patients treated with CT-based RT showed a trend for increased post-BC development of hypothyroidism as compared with those treated with standardized field arrangements (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is significantly increased in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC. Radiation to the thyroid gland may be a contributing factor. BC patients should be routinely screened for hypothyroidism.

Reinertsen, Kristin Valborg, E-mail: kvr@radiumhospitalet.n [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division the Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Cancer Center, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Cvancarova, Milada [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Wist, Erik [Cancer Center, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1130 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Bjoro, Trine [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division Rikshospitalet University Hospital, PO Box 1171, Blindern 0318 Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Alv A. [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division the Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Danielsen, Turi [Department of Medical Physics, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Fossa, Sophie D. [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Faculty Division the Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway)

2009-11-01

287

Impact of 18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Treatment Strategy and Radiotherapy Planning for Stage I-II Hodgkin Disease: A Prospective Multicenter Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the impact of preradiotherapy 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) on treatment strategy and radiotherapy planning for patients with Stage I/II Hodgkin disease included in a large prospective multicenter study. Patients and Methods: Conventional computed tomography and FDG-PET were performed just before the planned radiotherapy. The radiotherapy plan was first elaborated under blinded conditions for FDG-PET data. Then, the medical staff was asked to confirm or not confirm the treatment strategy and, if appropriate, to modify the radiotherapy plan based on additional information from FDG-PET. Results: Between January 2004 and January 2006, 137 patients were included (124 were available for analysis) in 11 centers (108 adults, 16 children). All but 1 patient had received chemotherapy before inclusion. Prechemotherapy work-up included FDG-PET for 61 patients, and data were available for elaboration of the first radiotherapy plan. Based on preradiotherapy FDG-PET data, the radiotherapy was cancelled in 6 patients (4.8%), and treatment plan modifications occurred in 16 patients (12.9%): total dose (11 patients), CTV volume (5 patients), number of beam incidences (6 patients), and number of CTV (6 patients). The concordance between the treatment strategies with or without preradiotherapy FDG-PET was 82.3%. Concordance results were not significantly different when prechemotherapy PET-CT information was available. Conclusion: Preradiotherapy FDG-PET for treatment planning in Hodgkin lymphoma may lead to significant modification of the treatment strategy and the radiotherapy planning in patients with Stage I or II Hodgkin disease, even in those who have undergone FDG-PET as part of the prechemotherapy work-up.

Pommier, Pascal, E-mail: pommier@lyon.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Dussart, Sophie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Chabaud, Sylvie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Lagrange, Jean Leon [Department of Radiation Oncology, APHP, Henri Mondor University Hospital, Paris 12 University, Creteil (France); Nguyen, Tan Dat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Beckendorff, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Alexis Vautrin, Nancy (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Artignan, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Bondiau, Pierre Yves [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Giammarile, Francesco [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); EA 3738, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)

2011-03-01

288

Treatment of unresectable stage IV metastatic melanoma with aviscumine after anti-neoplastic treatment failure: a phase II, multi-centre study  

PubMed Central

Background Aviscumine, a recombinant plant protein, is an immune modulator that induces ribotoxic stress at the 28S ribosomal RNA subunit. In this way cytokine release and T-cell responses are enhanced. This phase II trial was conducted to test the efficacy and safety of aviscumine in patients with systemically pre-treated metastatic melanoma stage IV. Methods A total of 32 patients with progressive stage IV melanoma after failure of standard therapy were enrolled onto a single-arm, multi-centre, open-label, phase II trial. All patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received 350 ng aviscumine twice weekly by subcutaneous injection until progression. The primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Safety was assessed as adverse events (AEs). Tumor response was assessed every eight weeks and survival of patients was followed up to one year after the end of therapy. Thirty one patients (intent-to-treat population (ITT)) were assessed for efficacy; safety was assessed in the whole population. Results One patient achieved a partial response (PR) and 10 patients showed stable disease/no change (SD). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 63 days (95% CI 57–85) and median overall survival (mOS) was 335 days (95% CI 210–604). In total 210 treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded. Grade 1 or 2 AEs occurred in 72% of patients and were mostly application-site effects such as pruritus Grade 3–4 treatment-emergent drug-related adverse events occurred in 9% of patients. Conclusion These results suggest that aviscumine may have a clinical impact in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma and provide rationale for further clinical evaluation of this agent. In the light of effective new immune checkpoint blockers it might be a candidate for combinations with these agents. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00658437

2014-01-01

289

[Part II. Scientific evidence in end-stage chronic organ failure. A position paper on shared care planning].  

PubMed

The therapeutic options related to chronic organ failure are interconnected to the variability of human biological responses and the personal history and choices of the chronically ill patient on one hand, and with the variable human answers to therapies on the other hand. All these aspects may explain the small number and low quality of studies aimed to define the clinical criteria useful in identifying end-stage chronically ill patients, as highlighted through the 2012-2013 Medline survey performed by the task force. These results prevented the grading of scientific evidence. However, taking into account the evidence based medicine definition, the task force believes the clinical reasoning and the individual experience of clinicians as well as the patients and families preferences cannot be replaced "tout court" with a strict methodological research. Accordingly, the working method selected by the task force members was to draw up a set of clinical parameters based on the available scientific literature, submitting it to a peer review process carried out by an expert panel. This paper discusses a set of clinical parameters included in the clinical decision-making algorithm and shared by nine medical societies. For each chronic organ failure these clinical parameters should be intended not as a rigid cutoff system to make a choice between two selected care options (intensive vs palliative), rather as the starting point for a joint and careful consideration regarding the opportunity to adopt the clinical decision-making algorithm care proposed in Part I. PMID:24553593

Gristina, Giuseppe R; Orsi, Luciano; Carlucci, Annalisa; Causarano, Ignazio R; Formica, Marco; Romanò, Massimo

2014-01-01

290

Taurus II Stage Test Simulations: Using Large-Scale CFD Simulations to Provide Critical Insight into Plume Induced Environments During Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the use of targeted Loci/CHEM CFD simulations to evaluate the effects of a dual-engine first-stage hot-fire test on an evolving integrated launch pad/test article design. This effort was undertaken as a part of the NESC Independent Assessment of the Taurus II Stage Test Series. The underlying conceptual model included development of a series of computational models and simulations to analyze the plume induced environments on the pad, facility structures and test article. A pathfinder simulation was first developed, capable of providing quick-turn around evaluation of plume impingement pressures on the flame deflector. Results from this simulation were available in time to provide data for an ongoing structural assessment of the deflector. The resulting recommendation was available in a timely manner and was incorporated into construction schedule for the new launch stand under construction at Wallops Flight Facility. A series of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) quasi-steady simulations representative of various key elements of the test profile was performed to identify potential concerns with the test configuration and test profile. As required, unsteady Hybrid-RANS/LES simulations were performed, to provide additional insight into critical aspects of the test sequence. Modifications to the test-specific hardware and facility structures thermal protection as well as modifications to the planned hot-fire test profile were implemented based on these simulation results.

Struzenberg, L. L.; West, J. S.

2011-01-01

291

COLLISIONS BETWEEN GRAVITY-DOMINATED BODIES. II. THE DIVERSITY OF IMPACT OUTCOMES DURING THE END STAGE OF PLANET FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of the stochastic end stage of planet formation typically begin with a population of embryos and planetesimals that grow into planets by merging. We analyzed the impact parameters of collisions leading to the growth of terrestrial planets from recent N-body simulations that assumed perfect merging and calculated more realistic outcomes using a new analytic collision physics model. We find that collision outcomes are diverse and span all possible regimes: hit-and-run, merging, partial accretion, partial erosion, and catastrophic disruption. The primary outcomes of giant impacts between planetary embryos are approximately evenly split between partial accretion, graze-and-merge, and hit-and-run events. To explore the cumulative effects of more realistic collision outcomes, we modeled the growth of individual planets with a Monte Carlo technique using the distribution of impact parameters from N-body simulations. We find that fewer planets reached masses >0.7 M{sub Earth} using the collision physics model compared to simulations that assumed every collision results in perfect merging. For final planets with masses >0.7 M{sub Earth}, 60% are enriched in their core-to-mantle mass fraction by >10% compared to the initial embryo composition. Fragmentation during planet formation produces significant debris ({approx}15% of the final mass) and occurs primarily by erosion of the smaller body in partial accretion and hit-and-run events. In partial accretion events, the target body grows by preferentially accreting the iron core of the projectile and the escaping fragments are derived primarily from the silicate mantles of both bodies. Thus, the bulk composition of a planet can evolve via stochastic giant impacts.

Stewart, Sarah T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Leinhardt, Zoee M., E-mail: sstewart@eps.harvard.edu, E-mail: zoe.leinhardt@bristol.ac.uk [School of Physics, University of Bristol, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

2012-05-20

292

Treatment factors affecting breast cancer-related lymphedema after systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy in stage II/III breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether the sequence or regimen of systemic chemotherapy could be a risk factor for breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE). We retrospectively analyzed 848 patients with stage II/III breast cancer who underwent curative surgery with adequate systemic therapy from 2004 to 2009. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 552 patients (65.1 %) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in 296 (34.9 %). We evaluated the incidence of LE based on clinicopathological factors and treatments. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 358 patients (42.2 %) had experienced LE and 243 (28.7 %) had retained (persistent LE) [120/552 (21.7 %) with ACT vs. 123/296 (41.6 %) with NAC; P < 0.001]. The incidence of LE in patients with taxane was greater than in those without taxane [233/704 (33.1 %) vs. 10/144 (6.9 %); P < 0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that NAC [hazard ratio (HR), 1.63 in LE event; P < 0.001; HR, 1.39 in persistent LE; P = 0.02] and RT including supraclavicular area (SCRT) (HR 1.55; P = 0.02; HR 1.93; P = 0.006), number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs) >10 (HR, 1.37; P = 0.01; HR, 1.71; P = 0.001), advanced stage (HR, 1.31; P = 0.03; HR, 1.60; P = 0.002), and taxane (HR, 1.69; P = 0.03; HR, 2.07; P = 0.04) were independent risk factors for the LE occurrence. In addition to advanced stage, N-ALNs and SCRT, NAC, and taxane were shown to increase the risk of LE, which could help clinicians identify patients at risk for LE. PMID:25253173

Jung, So-Youn; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Myungsoo; Chung, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Kwon, Youngmee; Lee, Keun Seok; Park, In Hae; Ro, Jungsil

2014-11-01

293

Randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of wrap therapy for wound healing acceleration in patients with NPUAP stage II and III pressure ulcer  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate if ‘wrap therapy’ using food wraps, which is widely used in Japanese clinical sites, is not inferior when compared to guideline adhesion treatments. Design Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint clinical trial. Setting 15 hospitals in Japan. Patients 66 older patients with new National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel stage II or III pressure ulcers. Interventions Of these 66 patients, 31 were divided into the conventional treatment guidelines group and 35 into the wrap therapy group. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the period until the pressure ulcers were cured. The secondary end point was a comparison of the speed of change in the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing score. Results 64 of the 66 patients were analysed. The estimated mean period until healing was 57.5?days (95% CI 45.2 to 69.8) in the control group as opposed to 59.8?days (95% CI 49.7 to 69.9) in the wrap therapy group. By the extent of pressure ulcer infiltration, the mean period until healing was 16.0?days (95% CI 8.1 to 23.9) in the control group as opposed to 18.8?days (95% CI 10.3 to 27.2) in the wrap therapy group with National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel stage II ulcers, and 71.8?days (95% CI 61.4 to 82.3) as opposed to 63.2?days (95% CI 53.0 to 73.4), respectively, with stage III ulcers. There is no statistical significance in difference in Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing scores. Conclusions It might be possible to consider wrap therapy as an alternative choice in primary care settings as a simple and inexpensive dressing care. Clinical Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002658. Summary protocol is available on https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=detail&recptno=R000003235&admin=0&language=J PMID:22223842

Mizuhara, Akihiro; Oonishi, Sandai; Takeuchi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Masatsune; Akiyama, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2012-01-01

294

Stage-specific isoforms of Ascaris suum complex II: the fumarate reductase of the parasitic adult and the succinate dehydrogenase of free-living larvae share a common iron–sulfur subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex II of adult Ascaris suum muscle exhibits high fumarate reductase (FRD) activity and plays a key role in anaerobic electron-transport during adaptation to their microaerobic habitat. In contrast, larval (L2) complex II shows a much lower FRD activity than the adult enzyme, and functions as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in aerobic respiration. We have reported the stage-specific isoforms of complex

Hisako Amino; Hua Wang; Hiroko Hirawake; Fumiko Saruta; Daisuke Mizuchi; Reiko Mineki; Noriko Shindo; Kimie Murayama; Shinzaburo Takamiya; Takashi Aoki; Somei Kojima; Kiyoshi Kita

2000-01-01

295

PET-Adjusted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

2014-06-06

296

Health-related quality of life in survivors of stage I-II breast cancer: randomized trial of post-operative conventional radiotherapy and hypofractionated tomotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is a key component of clinical oncology trials. However, few breast cancer trials comparing adjuvant conventional radiotherapy (CR) and hypofractionated tomotherapy (TT) have investigated HRQOL. We compared HRQOL in stage I-II breast cancer patients who were randomized to receive either CR or TT. Tomotherapy uses an integrated computed tomography scanner to improve treatment accuracy, aiming to reduce the adverse effects of radiotherapy. Methods A total of 121 stage I–II breast cancer patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy (MA) were randomly assigned to receive either CR or TT. CR patients received 25?×?2 Gy over 5 weeks, and BCS patients also received a sequential boost of 8?×?2 Gy over 2 weeks. TT patients received 15?×?2.8 Gy over 3 weeks, and BCS patients also received a simultaneous integrated boost of 15?×?0.6 Gy over 3 weeks. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires. The mean score (± standard error) was calculated at baseline, the end of radiotherapy, and at 3 months and 1, 2, and 3 years post-radiotherapy. Data were analyzed by the 'intention-to-treat' principle. Results On the last day of radiotherapy, patients in both treatment arms had decreased global health status and functioning scores; increased fatigue (clinically meaningful in both treatment arms), nausea and vomiting, and constipation; decreased arm symptoms; clinically meaningful increased breast symptoms in CR patients and systemic side effects in TT patients; and slightly decreased body image and future perspective. At 3 months post-radiotherapy, TT patients had a clinically significant increase in role- and social-functioning scores and a clinically significant decrease in fatigue. The post-radiotherapy physical-, cognitive- and emotional-functioning scores improved faster in TT patients than CR patients. TT patients also had a better long-term recovery from fatigue than CR patients. ANOVA with the Bonferroni correction did not show any significant differences between groups in HRQOL scores. Conclusions TT patients had a better improvement in global health status and role- and cognitive-functioning, and a faster recovery from fatigue, than CR patients. These results suggest that a shorter fractionation schedule may reduce the adverse effects of treatment. PMID:23098579

2012-01-01

297

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2-A Predictor of Outcome for Patients Irradiated for Stage II-III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The prognostic value of the tumor cell expression of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. The present study investigated the effect of tumor cell expression of FGF-2 on the outcome of 60 patients irradiated for Stage II-III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: The effect of FGF-2 expression and 13 additional factors on locoregional control (LRC), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively evaluated. These additional factors included age, gender, Karnofsky performance status, histologic type, histologic grade, T and N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack-years, smoking during radiotherapy, and hemoglobin during radiotherapy. Locoregional failure was identified by endoscopy or computed tomography. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the Wilcoxon test and multivariate analyses with the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: On univariate analysis, improved LRC was associated with surgery (p = .017), greater hemoglobin levels (p = .036), and FGF-2 negativity (p <.001). On multivariate analysis of LRC, surgery (relative risk [RR], 2.44; p = .037), and FGF-2 expression (RR, 5.06; p <.001) maintained significance. On univariate analysis, improved MFS was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (p = .020), greater hemoglobin levels (p = .007), and FGF-2 negativity (p = .001). On multivariate analysis of MFS, the hemoglobin levels (RR, 2.65; p = .019) and FGF-2 expression (RR, 3.05; p = .004) were significant. On univariate analysis, improved OS was associated with a lower N category (p = .048), greater hemoglobin levels (p <.001), and FGF-2 negativity (p <.001). On multivariate analysis of OS, greater hemoglobin levels (RR, 4.62; p = .002) and FGF-2 expression (RR, 3.25; p = .002) maintained significance. Conclusions: Tumor cell expression of FGF-2 appeared to be an independent negative predictor of LRC, MFS, and OS.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Setter, Cornelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Noack, Frank [Institute of Pathology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany)

2012-01-01

298

Preliminary findings of a study of the upper reaches of the Tamar Estuary, UK, throughout a complete tidal cycle: Part II: In-situ floc spectra observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of field experiments funded by the Natural Environmental Research Council were conducted in the upper reaches of the Tamar estuary (UK), which placed the measurements within the tidal trajectory of the turbidity maximum. The aim of the study was to examine how the distribution of floc characteristics evolved with respect to changes in the turbulent shear stress, suspended

S. J. Bass; K. R. Dyer

2007-01-01

299

Conservative surgery and radiotherapy for stage I/II breast cancer using lung density correction: 10-year and 15-year results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) planning for breast cancer using lung density correction improves dose homogeneity. Its use obviates the need for a medial wedge, thus reducing scatter to the opposite breast. Although lung density correction is used at many centers in planning for early-stage breast cancer, long-term results of local control and survival have not been reported. Since 1984, we have used lung density correction for dose calculations at the University of Michigan. We now present our 10-year and 15-year results. Methods and Materials: The records of 867 patients with Stage I/II breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT with or without systemic therapy were reviewed. Tangential fields delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast calculated using lung density correction were used. A boost was added in 96.8% of patients for a total median dose of 61.8 Gy. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-18.9 years), 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial rates of in-breast tumor recurrence as only first failure were 2.2%, 3.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. With surgical salvage, the 15-year cumulative rate of local control was 99.7%. Factors that significantly predicted for increased rate of local recurrence in multivariate analysis were age {<=} 35 years, hazard ratio 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.9) p = 0.004; negative progesterone receptor status, hazard ratio 6.8 (95% CI, 2.3-20.3) p = < 0.001; negative estrogen receptor status, hazard ratio 4.0 (95% CI, 1.5-11.1) p = 0.007; and lack of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, hazard ratio 7.7 (95% CI, 1.7-33.3) p = 0.008. Relapse-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 84.6%, 70.8%, and 55.9%, respectively; breast cancer-specific survival rates were 94.4%, 90.5%, and 86.9%, respectively; and corresponding estimates for overall survival were 89.7%, 75.7%, and 61.3%. Conclusions: Use of lung density correction was associated with high rates of local control, relapse-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival compared with other reported series of breast-conserving surgery and RT in early-stage disease. These results will serve as a benchmark against which newer radiation delivery strategies such as intensity-modulated RT and partial breast RT can be compared.

Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Griffith, Kent A. [University of Michigan Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Douglas, Kathye R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lichter, Allen S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2005-04-01

300

Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: Radiotherapy vs. Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (ORATOR) - study protocol for a randomized phase II trial  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. Methods/Design The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ?3?cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT?±?chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS?±?adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. Discussion This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized comparison of the conventional strategy of primary RT vs. the novel strategy of primary TORS. The trial is designed to provide a definitive QOL comparison between the two arms, and to inform the design of an eventual phase III trial for survival outcomes. Trial registration NCT01590355 PMID:23514246

2013-01-01

301

Adjuvant treatment of high-risk stage II breast cancer with doxorubicin followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation: a single-institution experience with 132 consecutive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown conflicting results with the use of intensive consolidation chemotherapy for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy, feasibility and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support in patients with high-risk stage II breast cancer. From February 1994 to November 1998, 132 consecutive patients with multinode positive breast cancer were

S M Stemmer; I Hardan; H Raz; A K Adamou; M Inbar; M Gottfried; Y Merrick; Y Cohen; A Sulkes; N Ben-Baruch; R P Pfeffer; H J Brenner; S Rizel

2003-01-01

302

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for medically inoperable patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer – A first report of toxicity related to COPD\\/CVD in a non-randomized prospective phase II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimsIn a retrospective study using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in medically inoperable patients with stage I NSCLC we previously reported a local control rate of 88% utilizing a median dose of 15Gy×3. This report records the toxicity encountered in a prospective phase II trial, and its relation to coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardio vascular disease

Pia Baumann; Jan Nyman; Morten Hoyer; Giovanna Gagliardi; Ingmar Lax; Berit Wennberg; Ninni Drugge; Lars Ekberg; Signe Friesland; Karl-Axel Johansson; Jo-Åsmund Lund; Elisabeth Morhed; Kristina Nilsson; Nina Levin; Merete Paludan; Christer Sederholm; Anders Traberg; Lena Wittgren; Rolf Lewensohn

2008-01-01

303

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOEpatents

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01

304

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Augmentation in Patients with Stage II Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Label, Fixed Dose, Single-Blind Study  

PubMed Central

We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe) augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD). Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800?mg) for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ?7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed. PMID:23766680

Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Rapini, Gabriella; Aguglia, Eugenio; Perna, Giampaolo; Salone, Anatolia; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2013-01-01

305

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine augmentation in patients with stage II treatment-resistant major depressive disorder: an open label, fixed dose, single-blind study.  

PubMed

We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe) augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD). Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800?mg) for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ?7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed. PMID:23766680

De Berardis, Domenico; Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Rapini, Gabriella; Iasevoli, Felice; Valchera, Alessandro; Signorelli, Maria; Aguglia, Eugenio; Perna, Giampaolo; Salone, Anatolia; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2013-01-01

306

[The combined therapy of stage-II lymphogranulomatosis: the effect of splenectomy and the time period for achieving full remission on treatment efficacy].  

PubMed

In 1982-1986, 72 patients with stage II lymphogranulomatosis received combined treatment according to the following program: 3 cycles of polychemotherapy in accordance with the CVPP scheme plus radiation of all the lymphatic collectors above the diaphragm up to the total radiation dose 35 Gy plus 3 cycles according to the CVPP. Splenectomy was provided to 45 patients; spleen impairment was revealed in 13. The median observation period reached 67 months. Both short- and long-term results of the treatment were analyzed. Neither splenectomy nor specific impairment thereof exerted any effect on the treatment results of this patients' group. The predominance of a number of "favourable" prognostic factors in splenectomized patients produced no effect on the treatment efficacy. It is concluded that in this patients' group, splenectomy is not advisable. A significant relationship was discovered between both survival and duration of the relapse-free course and the times of complete remission attainment. In patients, in whom complete remission was ascertained after 3 cycles of polychemotherapy and before radiotherapy onset, the 7-year survival amounted to 100% whereas the 7-year relapse-free course was recorded in 98% of cases, which is significantly higher than in patients, in whom only partial remission was attained by that time--78 and 68%, respectively (p less than 0.05). PMID:1788806

Demina, E A; Kondrat'eva, N F; Pirogova, N A

1991-01-01

307

Clinicopathologic Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Endorectal Brachytherapy versus Conventional Chemoradiotherapy in the Neoadjuvant Setting for Resectable Stages II and III Low Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess for differences in clinical, radiologic, and pathologic outcomes between patients with stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma treated neoadjuvantly with conventional external beam radiotherapy (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)) versus high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (EBT). Methods. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant EBT received 4 consecutive daily 6.5?Gy fractions without chemotherapy, while those undergoing 3DRT or IMRT received 28 daily 1.8?Gy fractions with concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Data was collected prospectively for 7 EBT patients and retrospectively for 25 historical 3DRT/IMRT controls. Results. Time to surgery was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher rate of pathologic CR for EBT (P = 0.06). Rates of margin and lymph node positivity at resection were similar for all groups. Acute toxicity was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P = 0.025). Overall and progression-free survival were noninferior for EBT. On MRI, EBT achieved similar complete response rate and reduction in tumor volume as 3DRT and IMRT. Histopathologic comparison showed that EBT resulted in more localized treatment effects and fewer serosal adhesions. Conclusions. EBT offers several practical benefits over conventional radiotherapy techniques and appears to be at least as effective against low rectal cancer as measured by short-term outcomes. PMID:22830003

Smith, Jessica A.; Wild, Aaron T.; Singhi, Aatur; Raman, Siva P.; Qiu, Haoming; Kumar, Rachit; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Efron, Jonathan; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Azad, Nilofer S.; Diaz, Luis A.; Le, Yi; Armour, Elwood P.; Gearhart, Susan L.; Herman, Joseph M.

2012-01-01

308

Revised Upper Limits of the Diffuse Tev Gamma Rays from the Galactic Planes with the Tibet II and III Air Shower Arrays  

E-print Network

The flux upper limits of the diffuse gamma rays, from the inner and outer Galactic planes, are revised by factors of 4.0$\\sim$3.7 for mode energies 3$\\sim$10 TeV, respectively, by using the simulation results of the effective area ratios for gamma-ray induced showers and cosmic-ray induced ones in the Tibet air shower array. In our previous work, (Amenomori et al., ApJ, 580, 887, 2002) the flux upper limits were deduced only from the flux ratio of air showers generated by gamma rays versus cosmic rays. The details of the simulation are given in the paper (Amenomori et al., Advances in Space Research, 37, 1932, 2006). The present result using the same data as in ApJ suggests that the spectral index of source electrons is steeper than 2.2 and 2.1 for the inner and outer Galactic planes, respectively.

Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng Cun Feng; Zhaoyang Feng; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y Q; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Yi Zhang Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X X; al, et

2006-01-01

309

Revised Upper Limits of the Diffuse Tev Gamma Rays from the Galactic Planes with the Tibet II and III Air Shower Arrays  

E-print Network

The flux upper limits of the diffuse gamma rays, from the inner and outer Galactic planes, are revised by factors of 4.0$\\sim$3.7 for mode energies 3$\\sim$10 TeV, respectively, by using the simulation results of the effective area ratios for gamma-ray induced showers and cosmic-ray induced ones in the Tibet air shower array. In our previous work, (Amenomori et al., ApJ, 580, 887, 2002) the flux upper limits were deduced only from the flux ratio of air showers generated by gamma rays versus cosmic rays. The details of the simulation are given in the paper (Amenomori et al., Advances in Space Research, 37, 1932, 2006). The present result using the same data as in ApJ suggests that the spectral index of source electrons is steeper than 2.2 and 2.1 for the inner and outer Galactic planes, respectively.

The Tibet AS Gamma Collaboration; M. Amenomori

2006-11-10

310

Australasian Edgewise Study Group: Three case reports. Case report no. 2: Non-extraction treatment of a Class II malocclusion including upper cuspid exclusion.  

PubMed

Currently, more emphasis is being placed on non-extraction orthodontic treatment, thereby increasing the possibility of mild dental bimaxillary protrusion post-treatment. This adds to the potential for the return of mild anterior dental irregularity post-retention. For this patient, a comprehensive treatment plan including modification of facial growth has proved that a non-extraction approach for the correction of upper anterior crowding can produce good results without necessarily compromising long term stability. PMID:8975649

Pedley, R J

1994-10-01

311

Consolidative Involved-Node Proton Therapy for Stage IA-IIIB Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: Preliminary Dosimetric Outcomes From a Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose reduction to organs at risk (OARs) with proton therapy (PT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) enrolled on a Phase II study of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2009 and October 2010, 10 patients were enrolled on a University of Florida institutional review board-approved protocol for de novo 'classical' Stage IA-IIIB HL with mediastinal (bulky or nonbulky) involvement after chemotherapy. INRT was planned per European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines. Three separate optimized plans were developed for each patient: 3D-CRT, IMRT, and PT. The primary end point was a 50% reduction in the body V4 with PT compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT. Results: The median relative reduction with PT in the primary end point, body V4, was 51% compared with 3D-CRT (p = 0.0098) and 59% compared with IMRT (p = 0.0020), thus all patients were offered treatment with PT. PT provided the lowest mean dose to the heart, lungs, and breasts for all 10 patients compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. The median difference in the OAR mean dose reduction with PT compared with 3D-CRT were 10.4 Gy/CGE for heart; 5.5 Gy/CGE for lung; 0.9 Gy/CGE for breast; 8.3 Gy/CGE for esophagus; and 4.1 Gy/CGE for thyroid. The median differences for mean OAR dose reduction for PT compared with IMRT were 4.3 Gy/CGE for heart, 3.1 Gy/CGE for lung, 1.4 Gy/CGE for breast, 2.8 Gy/CGE for esophagus, and 2.7 Gy/CGE for thyroid. Conclusions: All 10 patients benefitted from dose reductions to OARs with PT compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. It is anticipated that these reductions in dose to OAR will translate into lower rates of late complications, but long-term follow-up on this Phase II INRT study is needed.

Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Su Zhong; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Latif, Naeem [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2012-05-01

312

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Four-Year Results of a Prospective Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The 50-month results of a prospective Phase II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in medically inoperable patients are reported. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 medically inoperable patients had clinically staged T1 (34 patients) or T2 (36 patients) (<=7 cm), N0, M0, biopsy-confirmed non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and received SBRT as per our previously published reports. The SBRT treatment dose of 60-66 Gy was prescribed to the 80% isodose volume in three fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 50.2 months (range, 1.4-64.8 months). Kaplan-Meier local control at 3 years was 88.1%. Regional (nodal) and distant recurrence occurred in 6 (8.6%) and 9 (12.9%) patients, respectively. Median survival (MS) was 32.4 months and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 42.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 31.1-54.3%). Cancer-specific survival at 3 years was 81.7% (95% CI, 70.0-93.4%). For patients with T1 tumors, MS was 38.7 months (95% CI, 25.3-50.2) and for T2 tumors MS was 24.5 months (95% CI, 18.5-37.4) (p = 0.194). Tumor volume (<=5 cc, 5-10 cc, 10-20 cc, >20 cc) did not significantly impact survival: MS was 36.9 months (95% CI, 18.1-42.9), 34.0 (95% CI, 16.9-57.1), 32.8 (95% CI, 21.3-57.8), and 21.4 months (95% CI, 17.8-41.6), respectively (p = 0.712). There was no significant survival difference between patients with peripheral vs. central tumors (MS 33.2 vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.697). Grade 3 to 5 toxicity occurred in 5 of 48 patients with peripheral lung tumors (10.4%) and in 6 of 22 patients (27.3%) with central tumors (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.088). Conclusion: Based on our study results, use of SBRT results in high rates of local control in medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC.

Fakiris, Achilles J., E-mail: afakiris@iupui.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McGarry, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Yiannoutsos, Constantin T. [Division of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Williams, Mark [Division of Pulmonology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Henderson, Mark A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2009-11-01

313

Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Using Carboplatin, Tegafur-Uracil and Leucovorin for Stage III and IV Head-and-Neck Cancer: Results of GORTEC Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment of locally advanced, nonresectable, head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the optimal chemotherapy regimen is still controversial. The objective of this Phase II study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant treatment using tegafur-uracil, leucovorin, carboplatin, and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 77 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma Stage III and IVA were enrolled between October 2003 and July 2005. Of the 77 patients, 72 were eligible. They were treated with tegafur-uracil (300 mg/m{sup 2}/d) and leucovorin (75 mg/d) from Days 1 to 19 and from Days 29 to 47 and carboplatin (70 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously for 4 consecutive days), in three cycles every 21 days. Conventional radiotherapy was delivered to a total dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Results: With a mean follow-up of 22.8 months, the 3-year locoregional control, overall survival and disease-free survival actuarial rate was 33.1%, 41.9%, and 27.2%, respectively. The compliance of the treatment was correct. The main acute toxicity was mucositis, with 62% Grade 3-4. Three patients (4.2%) died of acute toxicity. The incidence and severity of late toxicity was acceptable, with 32% Grade 3 and no Grade 4 toxicity. Conclusion: The protocol of concomitant chemoradiotherapy using tegafur-uracil, leucovorin, and carboplatin for locally advanced unresectable head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma is feasible. The compliance was correct. The incidence and severity of the acute and late toxicities were acceptable, but not improved. The efficacy of this regimen seems equivalent to the main protocols of concurrent chemoradiotherapy. It represents a possible alternative for patients without an intravenous catheter.

Fesneau, Melanie; Pointreau, Yoann; Chapet, Sophie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Kaplan Center, Tours (France); Martin, Laurent [Department of Radiation Oncology, Guillaume le Conquerant Center, Le Havre (France); Pommier, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leon Berard Center, Lyon (France); Alfonsi, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sainte Catherine Center, Avignon (France); Laguerre, Brigitte [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eugene Marquis Center, Rennes (France); Feham, Nasreddine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Louis Pas43teur Hospital, Colmar (France); Berger, Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint Jean Center, Saint-Doulchard (France); Garaud, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Henry Kaplan Center, Tours (France); Calais, Gilles, E-mail: calais@med.univ-tours.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Kaplan Center, Tours (France)

2010-01-15

314

Stereotactic body radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy extends survival of patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer: a single-center prospective phase II study.  

PubMed

We carried out a prospective phase II study of patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) assigned to receive stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) concurrently with cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimen with OS and PFS as the primary study endpoints. Patients with pathologically proven LS-SCLC received 4-6 cycles of cisplatin 75 mg/(m(2)/day) given intravenously on day 1 and etoposide 80 mg/(m(2)/day) given intravenously on days 1-5, both at 3 weekly intervals. SBRT at a dose of 4,000-4,500 cGy in ten fractions was given concurrently with chemotherapy starting on day 1. The Kaplan-Meier curve and life tables were used to describe survival data. Adverse events were evaluated according to the common terminology criteria for adverse events version of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG). Twenty-nine patients were included and followed up for a median duration of 19 (range 10-85) months. The median OS was 27 (95 % CI 20.2-33.8) months. The median PFS was 12 (95 % CI 4.2-19.8) months. No grade 4 adverse events were observed. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in only 5 (13.8 %, 5/29) patients. Neutropenia of any grade was observed in 6 (15 %, 6/29) patients, with grade 3 neutropenia only seen in one (3.4 %, 1/29) patient. The combination of chemotherapy and early concurrent SBRT could be a safe and effective treatment for LS-SCLC patients. Our study confirmed that SBRT with concurrent chemotherapy is another new treatment option for LS-SCLC patients. PMID:25416052

Li, Chongyi; Xiong, Yanli; Zhou, Zejun; Peng, Yu; Huang, Huan; Xu, Mingfang; Kang, Houyi; Peng, Bo; Wang, Dong; Yang, Xueqin

2014-12-01

315

Feasibility of radiotherapy after high-dose dense chemotherapy with epirubicin, preceded by dexrazoxane, and paclitaxel for patients with high-risk Stage II-III breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To verify the feasibility of, and quantify the risk of, pneumonitis from locoregional radiotherapy (RT) after high-dose dense chemotherapy with epirubicin and paclitaxel with peripheral blood progenitor cell support in patients with high-risk Stage II-III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment consisted of a mobilizing course of epirubicin 150 mg/m{sup 2}, preceded by dexrazoxane (Day 1), paclitaxel 175 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 2), and filgrastim; followed by three courses of epirubicin 150 mg/m{sup 2}, preceded by dexrazoxane (Day 1), paclitaxel 400 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 2), and peripheral blood progenitor cell support and filgrastim, every 16-19 days. After chemotherapy, patients were treated with locoregional RT, which included the whole breast or the chest wall, axilla, and supraclavicular area. Results: Overall, 64 of 69 patients were evaluable. The interval between the end of chemotherapy and the initiation of RT was at least 1.5-2 months (mean 2). No treatment-related death was reported. After a median follow-up of 27 months from RT (range 5-77 months), neither clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis nor congestive heart failure had been reported. Minor and transitory lung and cardiac toxicities were observed. Conclusion: Sequential high doses of epirubicin, preceded by dexrazoxane, and paclitaxel did not adversely affect the tolerability of locoregional RT in breast cancer patients. The risk of pneumonitis was not affected by the use of sequential paclitaxel with an interval of at least 1.5-2 months between the end of chemotherapy and the initiation of RT. Long-term follow-up is needed to define the risk of cardiotoxicity in these patients.

De Giorgi, Ugo [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy)]. E-mail: ugo_degiorgi@yahoo.com; Giannini, Massimo [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Frassineti, Luca [Department of Medical Oncology, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Kopf, Barbara [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Palazzi, Silvia [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Giovannini, Noemi [Department of Medical Oncology, Pierantoni Hospital, Forli (Italy); Zumaglini, Federica [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Rosti, Giovanni [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Emiliani, Ermanno [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Radiotherapy, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy); Marangolo, Maurizio [Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Department of Medical Oncology, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna (Italy)

2006-07-15

316

Flux upper limits of diffuse TeV gamma rays from the Galactic plane using the effective area of the Tibet-II and -III arrays  

E-print Network

We obtained new upper limits on the diffuse gamma rays from the inner Galactic (IG) and outer Galactic (OG) planes in 3.10 TeV region, using the Tibet air shower data and new Monte Carlo simulation results. A difference of the effective area of the air-shower array for observing gamma rays and cosmic rays was carefully taken into account in this analysis, resulting in that the flux upper limits of the diffuse TeV gamma rays were reduced by factors of 4.0.3.7 for 3.10 TeV than those in our previous results (Amenomori, M., Ayabe, S., Cui, S.W., et al. Observation of multi-TeV diffuse gamma rays from the Galactic plane with the Tibet air shower array. Astrophys. J. 580, 887.895, 2002.). This new result suggests that the inverse power index of the energy spectrum of source electrons responsible for generating diffuse TeV gamma rays through inverse Compton effect should be steeper than 2.2 and 2.1 for IG and OG planes, respectively, with 99%C.L.

Amenomori, M; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng Cun Feng; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Izumi, M; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, J Y; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Sakata, M; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Utsugi, T; Wang, B S; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhaxi Sang Zhu; Zhou, X X

2005-01-01

317

Flux upper limits of diffuse TeV gamma rays from the Galactic plane using the effective area of the Tibet-II and -III arrays  

E-print Network

We obtained new upper limits on the diffuse gamma rays from the inner Galactic (IG) and outer Galactic (OG) planes in 3.10 TeV region, using the Tibet air shower data and new Monte Carlo simulation results. A difference of the effective area of the air-shower array for observing gamma rays and cosmic rays was carefully taken into account in this analysis, resulting in that the flux upper limits of the diffuse TeV gamma rays were reduced by factors of 4.0.3.7 for 3.10 TeV than those in our previous results (Amenomori, M., Ayabe, S., Cui, S.W., et al. Observation of multi-TeV diffuse gamma rays from the Galactic plane with the Tibet air shower array. Astrophys. J. 580, 887.895, 2002.). This new result suggests that the inverse power index of the energy spectrum of source electrons responsible for generating diffuse TeV gamma rays through inverse Compton effect should be steeper than 2.2 and 2.1 for IG and OG planes, respectively, with 99%C.L.

The Tibet AS Gamma Collaboration; M. Amenomori

2005-11-17

318

Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

2014-03-06

319

XUV-Exposed, Non-Hydrostatic Hydrogen-Rich Upper Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. Part II: Hydrogen Coronae and Ion Escape  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a “super-Earth” with a radius of 2 REarth and a mass of 10 MEarth, located within the habitable zone at ?0.24?AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ?1.0×1025 s?1 to ?5.3×1030 s?1, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ?0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EOH) to <3 EOH and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates. Key Words: Stellar activity—Low-mass stars—Early atmospheres—Earth-like exoplanets—Energetic neutral atoms—Ion escape—Habitability. Astrobiology 13, 1030–1048. PMID:24283926

Lammer, Helmut; Holmstrom, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Gudel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

2013-01-01

320

Cancer Staging  

MedlinePLUS

... is called metastasis. 2. What are the common elements of staging systems? Staging systems for cancer have ... others focus on a particular type. The common elements considered in most staging systems are as follows: ...

321

Surgical approaches for stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis: feasibility of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) thymectomy in comparison with trans-sternal resection  

PubMed Central

Complete resection could be achieved in virtually all myasthenic patients with Masaoka stage I and II thymoma using the trans-sternal technique. Whether this is appropriate for minimally invasive approach is not yet clear. We evaluated the feasibility of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) thymectomy for the treatment of Masaoka stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis, compared to conventional trans-sternal thymectomy. We summarized 33 patients with Masaoka stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis between April 2006 and September 2011. Of these, 15 patients underwent right-sided complete VATS (the VATS group) by using adjuvant pneuomomediastinum, comparing with 18 patients using the trans-sternal approach (the T3b group). No intraoperative death was found and no VATS case required conversion to median sternotomy. Significant differences between the two groups regarding duration of surgery and volume of intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) were observed. Postoperative morbidities were 26.7% and 33.3% for the VATS and T3b groups, respectively. All 33 patients were followed up for 12 to 61 months in the study. The cumulative probabilities of reaching complete stable remission and effective rate were 26.7% (4/15) and 93.3% (14/15) in the VATS group, which had a significantly higher complete stable remission and effective rate than those in the T3b group (P = 0.026 and P = 0.000, respectively). We conclude that VATS thymectomy utilizing adjuvant pneuomomediastinum for the treatment of stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis is technically feasible but deserves further investigation in a large series with long-term follow-up. PMID:23554796

He, Zhicheng; Zhu, Quan; Wen, Wei; Chen, Liang; Xu, Hai; Li, Hai

2013-01-01

322

High-dose conformal radiotherapy for treatment of stage IIIA\\/IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer: technical issues and results of a phase I\\/II trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We completed a Phase I\\/II clinical trial (Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center 9603), in which we treated 62 Stage IIIA\\/IIIB inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with two cycles of induction carboplatin\\/paclitaxel chemotherapy, followed by concurrent weekly carboplatin\\/paclitaxel with radiation doses escalated from 60 to 74 Gy. The median survival of 24 months, 3-year survival rate of 38%, and the

Julian G Rosenman; Jan S Halle; Mark A Socinski; Katharin Deschesne; Dominic T Moore; Harold Johnson; Robert Fraser; David E Morris

2002-01-01

323

Uracil-tegafur and tamoxifen vs cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil, and tamoxifen in post-operative adjuvant therapy for stage I, II, or IIIA lymph node-positive breast cancer: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:It has been reported that treatment with uracil-tegafur (UFT) has shown significantly better survival and relapse-free survival (RFS) than surgery alone. Therefore, we compared UFT with a combination therapy of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) in patients who had undergone curative surgery for axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer.Methods:A total of 377 node-positive patients with stage I, II, or IIIA disease

K Okamura; S Mitsuyama; T Saito; J Koh; S Kyono; K Higaki; M Ogita; T Asaga; H Inaji; H Komichi; N Kohno; K Yamazaki; F Tanaka; T Ito; H Nishikawa; A Osaki; H Koyama; T Suzuki

2009-01-01

324

Dosimetric Comparison of Three Different Involved Nodal Irradiation Techniques for Stage II Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients: Conventional Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, and Three-Dimensional Proton Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose distribution to targeted and nontargeted tissues in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients using conventional radiotherapy (CRT), intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and three-dimensional proton RT (3D-PRT). Methods and Materials: CRT, IMRT, and 3D-PRT treatment plans delivering 30 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE)/Gy to an involved nodal field were created for 9 Stage II Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (n = 27 plans). The dosimetric endpoints were compared. Results: The planning target volume was adequately treated using all three techniques. The IMRT plan produced the most conformal high-dose distribution; however, the 3D-PRT plan delivered the lowest mean dose to nontarget tissues, including the breast, lung, and total body. The relative reduction in the absolute lung volume receiving doses of 4-16 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with CRT ranged from 26% to 37% (p < .05), and the relative reduction in the absolute lung volume receiving doses of 4-10 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with IMRT was 48-65% (p < .05). The relative reduction in absolute total body volume receiving 4-30 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with CRT was 47% (p < .05). The relative reduction in absolute total body volume receiving a dose of 4 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with IMRT was 63% (p = .03). The mean dose to the breast was significantly less for 3D-PRT than for either IMRT or CRT (p = .03) The mean dose and absolute volume receiving 4-30 CGE/Gy for the heart, thyroid, and salivary glands were similar for the three modalities. Conclusion: In this favorable subset of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients without disease in or below the hila, 3D-PRT significantly reduced the dose to the breast, lung, and total body. These observed dosimetric advantages might improve the clinical outcomes of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients by reducing the risk of late radiation effects related to low-to-moderate doses in nontargeted tissues.

Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Rodriguez, Christina; Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Louis, Debbie; Yeung, Daniel; Li Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.ed [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2009-11-15

325

Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas of upper digestive and respiratory tracts  

SciTech Connect

The history of 102 patients with primary Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the upper digestive and respiratory tract is reviewed. An analysis is presented of the histopathologic, clinical and prognostic features of these patients, who presented to the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in Amsterdam between 1958-1976. The histological slides were reviewed in 91 patients. Ilio-lumbar lymphography and bone marrow examination were performed in 44 and 66 patients respectively: 4 lymphograms and 4 bone marrows were found to be abnormal. Of 82 patients with Stage I and II disease, there were 72 remissions with locoregional irradiation. Among these patients 36 suffered a relapse, 27 (75%) during the first year after treatment. The median survival was 14 months for all stages. The survival at 5 years was 28% for Stage I and 12% for Stage II patients. Prognosis was influenced by follicular cb/cc lymphomas, histiocytic poorly differentiated cell type, stage, size of primary tumor, and the radiation dose. We recommend adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage I and II patients after primary radiation treatment because of the high rate of primary relapse in distant sites.

Plantenga, K.F.; Hart, G.; Van Heerde, P.; Tierie, A.H.

1981-10-01

326

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

2012-04-01

327

Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

Jones, David

2011-01-01

328

Estimating the Urban Bias of Surface Shelter Temperatures Using Upper-Air and Satellite Data. Part II: Estimation of the Urban Bias.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology is presented for estimating the urban bias of surface shelter temperatures due to the effect of the urban heat island. Multiple regression techniques were used to predict surface shelter temperatures based on the time period 1986 89 using upper-air data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts to represent the background climate, site-specific data to represent the local landscape, and satellite-derived data—the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) nighttime brightness data—to represent the urban and rural landscape. Local NDVI and DMSP values were calculated for each station using the mean NDVI and DMSP values from a 3 km × 3 km area centered over the given station. Regional NDVI and DMSP values were calculated to represent a typical rural value for each station using the mean NDVI and DMSP values from a 1° × 1° latitude longitude area in which the given station was located. Models for the United States were then developed for monthly maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures using data from over 1000 stations in the U.S. Cooperative Network and for monthly mean temperatures with data from over 1150 stations in the Global Historical Climate Network. Local biases, or the differences between the model predictions using the observed NDVI and DMSP values, and the predictions using the background regional values were calculated and compared with the results of other research. The local or urban bias of U.S. temperatures, as derived from all U.S. stations (urban and rural) used in the models, averaged near 0.40°C for monthly minimum temperatures, near 0.25°C for monthly mean temperatures, and near 0.10°C for monthly maximum temperatures. The biases of monthly minimum temperatures for individual stations ranged from near 1.1°C for rural stations to 2.4°C for stations from the largest urban areas. There are some regions of the United States where a regional NDVI value based on a 1° × 1° latitude longitude area will not represent a typical `rural' NDVI value for the given region, Thus, for some regions of the United States, the urban bias of this study may underestimate the actual current urban bias. The results of this study indicate minimal problems for global application once global NDVI and DMSP data become available. It is anticipated that results from global application will provide insights into the urban bias of the global temperature record.

Epperson, David L.; Davis, Jerry M.; Bloomfield, Peter; Karl, Thomas R.; McNab, Alan L.; Gallo, Kevin P.

1995-02-01

329

Results from the Upper Limb International Spasticity Study-II (ULIS-II): a large, international, prospective cohort study investigating practice and goal attainment following treatment with botulinum toxin A in real-life clinical management  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe real-life practice and person-centred outcomes in the treatment of poststroke upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). Design Observational, prospective study. Setting 84 secondary care centres in 22 countries. Participants 456 adults (?18?years) with poststroke upper limb spasticity treated with one cycle of BoNT-A. Methods/outcomes Muscle selection, BoNT-A preparation, injection technique and timing of follow-up were conducted according to routine practice for each centre. Primary outcome: achievement of the patient's primary goal for treatment using goal-attainment scaling (GAS). Measurements of spasticity, standardised outcome measures and global benefits were also recorded. Results The median number of injected muscles was 5 (range 1–15) and the most frequently injected muscles were the long finger flexors, followed by biceps and brachioradialis. The median (range) follow-up time was 14 (2.6 to 32.3) weeks. The common primary treatment goals were passive function (132 (28.9%)), active function (104 (22.8%)), pain (61 (13.4%)), impairment (105 (23%)), involuntary movement (41 (9%)) and mobility (10 (2.2%)). Overall, 363 (79.6%) (95% CI 75.6% to 83.2%) patients achieved (or overachieved) their primary goal and 355 (75.4%) (95% CI 71.2% to 79.2%) achieved their secondary goal. Mean (SD) change from baseline in GAS T-scores was 17.6 (11.0) (95% CI 16.4 to 18.8; p<0.001). GAS T-scores were strongly correlated with global benefit and other standard measures (correlations of 0.38 and 0.63, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions BoNT-A demonstrated a clinically significant effect on goal attainment for the real-life management of upper-limb spasticity following stroke. The study confirms the feasibility of a common international data set to collect systematic prospective data, and of using GAS to capture person-centred outcomes relating to passive and active functions and to pain. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01020500 PMID:23794582

Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal

2013-01-01

330

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and double strand break genes as markers for response to radiotherapy in patients with Stage I to II head-and-neck cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes can influence response to radiotherapy. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in nine DNA repair genes in 108 patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNSCC) who had received radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 to December 2004, patients with Stage I and II histopathologically confirmed HNSCC underwent radiotherapy. DNA was obtained from paraffin-embedded tissue, and SNP analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination TaqMan assay with minor modifications. Results: Patients were 101 men (93.5%) and 7 (6.5%) women, with a median age of 64 years (range, 40 to 89 years). Of the patients, 76 (70.4%) patients were Stage I and 32 (29.6%) were Stage II. The XPF/ERCC1 SNP at codon 259 and XPG/ERCC5 at codon 46 emerged as significant predictors of progression (p 0.00005 and 0.049, respectively) and survival (p = 0.0089 and 0.0066, respectively). Similarly, when variant alleles of XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5 and XPA were examined in combination, a greater number of variant alleles was associated with shorter time to progression (p = 0.0003) and survival (p 0.0002). Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms in XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5, and XPA may significantly influence response to radiotherapy; large studies are warranted to confirm their role in HNSCC.

Carles, Joan [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jcarles@imas.imim.es; Monzo, Mariano [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Amat, Marta [Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Jansa, Sonia [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Artells, Rosa [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Navarro, Alfons [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Alameda, Francesc [Department of Pathology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gayete, Angel [Department of Radiology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gel, Bernat [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Miguel, Maribel [Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Albanell, Joan [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Fabregat, Xavier [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital del Mar, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

2006-11-15

331

The Role of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Clinical Stage II-III Breast Cancer Patients With pN0: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study (KROG 12-05)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients with pN0. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 417 clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients who achieved an ypN0 at surgery after receiving NAC between 1998 and 2009. Of these, 151 patients underwent mastectomy after NAC. The effect of PMRT on disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis including known prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log–rank test and Cox proportional regression analysis. Results: Of the 151 patients who underwent mastectomy, 105 (69.5%) received PMRT and 46 patients (30.5%) did not. At a median follow-up of 59 months, 5 patients (3.3%) developed LRR (8 sites of recurrence) and 14 patients (9.3%) developed distant metastasis. The 5-year DFS, LRRFS, and OS rates were 91.2, 98.1, and 93.3% with PMRT and 83.0%, 92.3%, and 89.9% without PMRT, respectively (all P values not significant). By univariate analysis, only age (?40 vs >40 years) was significantly associated with decreased DFS (P=.027). By multivariate analysis, age (?40 vs >40 years) and pathologic T stage (0-is vs 1 vs 2-4) were significant prognostic factors affecting DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.353, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.135-0.928, P=.035; HR 2.223, 95% CI 1.074-4.604, P=.031, respectively). PMRT showed no correlation with a difference in DFS, LRRFS, or OS by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: PMRT might not be necessary for pN0 patients after NAC, regardless of clinical stage. Prospective randomized clinical trial data are needed to assess whether PMRT can be safely omitted in pN0 patients after NAC and mastectomy for clinical stage II-III breast cancer.

Shim, Su Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won, E-mail: wonro.park@samsung.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam Kwon [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Medical Center, Korea University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Yong Bae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Su Ssan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W.; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Kyubo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Soo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA Hospital, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-01

332

Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on cosmesis and complications in Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast treated by biopsy and radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmesis and complication rates were examined in patients with early stage carcinoma of the breast treated by biopsy and radiation therapy with and without adjuvant chemotherapy in an attempt to determine the effect of chemotherapy upon these parameters. Between April 1, l975 and June 1, 1980, 51 patients were treated with radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (XRT + ACT) and

Gordon R. Ray; Victor J. Fish; Jane B. Marmor; William Rogoway; Paula Kushlan; Charles Arnold; R. Hewlett Lee; Francis Marzoni

1984-01-01

333

Evolution of massive close binaries. II - The POST X-ray binary stage: Origin of run-away and binary pulsars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The further evolution of a massive X-ray binary consisting of a compact object and an OB supergiant is outlined. The supergiant exceeds its critical Roche lobe and a second stage of mass transfer starts. The remnant of the mass losing star - a pure helium star - develops a collapsing iron core and finally undergoes a supernova explosion. If the

C. De Loore; J. P. De Greve; J. P. de Cuyper

1975-01-01

334

Propellant line waterhammer analysis during staging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steps taken to analyze the Atlas II propellant feedline waterhammer transient during staging are described. It is shown how unexpectedly large feedline pressures can occur during staging, and how a unique approach was used to model the staging process. The model developed for Atlas II was able to peak predicted surge pressures below the design limits. A perspective is offered on waterhammer occurrences during the staging process, which may have applications to future launch vehicles such as the National Launch System.

Walters, T. W.; Walker, J. D.

1992-07-01

335

Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC

Caroline Daveau; Denise Stevens; Etienne Brain; Oscar Berges; Sylviane Villette; Patricia Moisson; Miriam Gardner; Brigitte De la Lande; Serge Lasry; Alain Labib; Romuald Le Scodan

2010-01-01

336

Prospective, Risk-Adapted Strategy of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a Phase II Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Validation of a prospective, risk-adapted strategy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with a T1-3N0M0 (American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition) NSCLC were accrued. Using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group definition, patients were treated to a total dose of 60,Gy in three fractions for peripherally located lesions

Samuel Bral; Thierry Gevaert; Nadine Linthout; Harijati Versmessen; Christine Collen; Benedikt Engels; Douwe Verdries; Hendrik Everaert; Nicolas Christian; Mark De Ridder; Guy Storme

2011-01-01

337

A prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of a modern foam dressing versus a traditional saline gauze dressing in the treatment of stage II pressure ulcers.  

PubMed

Modern dressings such as hydrocolloids, gels, and foams are typically more expensive than traditional dressings such as gauze. However, if modern dressings require fewer changes, the overall cost of treatment may be lower despite the higher initial purchase price. If healing rates are comparable or better, modern dressings also may be cost-effective. A 4-week, prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess differences in treatment costs and cost-effectiveness between a modern foam dressing and saline-soaked gauze was conducted among 36 patients (22 men, 14 women, mean age 72.8 years) with a Stage II pressure ulcer (mean duration 35 weeks) at five centers in the United States. Participants were randomized to treatment with a self-adhesive polyurethane foam (n = 20) or saline-soaked gauze dressing (n = 16). No difference in time to wound closure was observed (P = 0.817). Patients in the foam group had less frequent dressing changes (P <0.001). Total cost over the study period was lower by $466 per patient (P = 0.055) and spending on dressings was lower by $92 per patient in the foam group (P = 0.025). Cost per ulcer healed was lower by $1,517 and cost per ulcer-free day was lower by $80 for patients in the foam group. On the evidence of this study, the foam dressing is a more cost-effective treatment than saline-soaked gauze for the treatment of Stage II pressure ulcers. PMID:19246785

Payne, Wyatt G; Posnett, John; Alvarez, Oscar; Brown-Etris, Marie; Jameson, Gayle; Wolcott, Randall; Dharma, Hussein; Hartwell, Samantha; Ochs, Diane

2009-02-01

338

Phase II Trial of Combined Modality Therapy With Concurrent Topotecan Plus Radiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy for Unresectable Stage III and Selected Stage IV Non-Small-Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The optimal combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) and the role of consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown. Topotecan is active against NSCLC, can safely be combined with RT at effective systemic doses, and can be given by continuous infusion, making it an attractive study agent against locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: In this pilot study, 20 patients were treated with infusion topotecan 0.4 mg/m{sup 2}/d with three-dimensional conformal RT to 63 Gy both delivered Monday through Friday for 7 weeks. Patients without progression underwent consolidation chemotherapy with etoposide and a platinum agent for one cycle followed by two cycles of docetaxel. The study endpoints were treatment response, time to progression, survival, and toxicity. Results: Of the 20 patients, 19 completed induction chemoradiotherapy and 13 completed consolidation. Of the 20 patients, 18 had a partial response and 1 had stable disease after induction chemoradiotherapy. The 3-year overall survival rate was 32% (median, 18 months). The local and distant progression-free survival rate was 30% (median, 21 months) and 58% (median, not reached), respectively. Three patients developed central nervous system metastases, 1 within 228 days, 1 within 252 days, and 1 within 588 days. Three patients had pulmonary emboli. Therapy was well tolerated with 1 of 20 developing Grade 4 lymphopenia. Grade 3 hematologic toxicity was seen in 17 of 20 patients but was not clinically significant. Other Grade 3 toxicities included esophagitis in 3, esophageal stricture in 2, fatigue in 8, and weight loss in 1. Grade 3 pneumonitis occurred in 6 of 20 patients. Conclusion: Continuous infusion topotecan with RT was well tolerated and active in the treatment of poor-risk patients with unresectable Stage III NSCLC.

Seung, Steven K. [Oregon Clinic, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Portland, OR (United States)], E-mail: steven.seung@providence.org; Ross, Helen J. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2009-03-01

339

Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-03-17

340

Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-08-18

341

Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-06-02

342

Three-stage biochemical selection: cloning of prototype class IIS/IIC/IIG restriction endonuclease-methyltransferase TsoI from the thermophile Thermus scotoductus  

PubMed Central

Background In continuing our research into the new family of bifunctional restriction endonucleases (REases), we describe the cloning of the tsoIRM gene. Currently, the family includes six thermostable enzymes: TaqII, Tth111II, TthHB27I, TspGWI, TspDTI, TsoI, isolated from various Thermus sp. and two thermolabile enzymes: RpaI and CchII, isolated from mesophilic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Chlorobium chlorochromatii, respectively. The enzymes have several properties in common. They are large proteins (molecular size app. 120 kDa), coded by fused genes, with the REase and methyltransferase (MTase) in a single polypeptide, where both activities are affected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). They recognize similar asymmetric cognate sites and cleave at a distance of 11/9 nt from the recognition site. Thus far, we have cloned and characterised TaqII, Tth111II, TthHB27I, TspGWI and TspDTI. Results TsoI REase, which originate from thermophilic Thermus scotoductus RFL4 (T. scotoductus), was cloned in Escherichia coli (E. coli) using two rounds of biochemical selection of the T. scotoductus genomic library for the TsoI methylation phenotype. DNA sequencing of restriction-resistant clones revealed the common open reading frame (ORF) of 3348 bp, coding for a large polypeptide of 1116 aminoacid (aa) residues, which exhibited a high level of similarity to Tth111II (50% identity, 60% similarity). The ORF was PCR-amplified, subcloned into a pET21 derivative under the control of a T7 promoter and was subjected to the third round of biochemical selection in order to isolate error-free clones. Induction experiments resulted in synthesis of an app. 125 kDa protein, exhibiting TsoI-specific DNA cleavage. Also, the wild-type (wt) protein was purified and reaction optima were determined. Conclusions Previously we identified and cloned the Thermus family RM genes using a specially developed method based on partial proteolysis of thermostable REases. In the case of TsoI the classic biochemical selection method was successful, probably because of the substantially lower optimal reaction temperature of TsoI (app. 10-15°C). That allowed for sufficient MTase activity in vivo in recombinant E. coli. Interestingly, TsoI originates from bacteria with a high optimum growth temperature of 67°C, which indicates that not all bacterial enzymes match an organism’s thermophilic nature, and yet remain functional cell components. Besides basic research advances, the cloning and characterisation of the new prototype REase from the Thermus sp. family enzymes is also of practical importance in gene manipulation technology, as it extends the range of available DNA cleavage specificities. PMID:23919831

2013-01-01

343

Third Stage  

NASA Video Gallery

Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

344

Intertonguing of the Lower Part of the Uinta Formation with the Upper Part of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin During the Late Stages of Lake Uinta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During most of middle Eocene time, a 1,500-mi2 area between the Colorado and White Rivers in northwestern Colorado was occupied by the Piceance lobe of Lake Uinta. This initially freshwater lake became increasingly saline throughout its history. Sediments accumulating in the lake produced mostly clay shale, limestone, and dolomite containing varying concentrations of organic matter. At the time of the maximum extent of the lake, the organic-rich Mahogany bed of the Green River Formation was deposited throughout the area. Shortly after its deposition, stream deposits began infilling the lake from the north through a series of contractions interspersed with minor expansions. This fluctuation of the shoreline resulted in the intertonguing of the stream sediments of the lower part of the overlying Uinta Formation with the lacustrine sediments of the upper part of the Green River over a distance of about 40 mi; construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections show the pattern of intertonguing in considerable detail. The data utilized in this study, which covered parts of Rio Blanco, Garfield, and Mesa counties, was derived from (1) geologic mapping of thirty-four 7 1/2-minute quadrangles and stratigraphic studies by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey, and (2) shale-oil assay information from numerous cores. As a result of this previous work and the additional effort involved in the compilation here presented, more than a dozen Green River Formation tongues have been named, some formally, others informally. Middle Eocene strata above the Mahogany bed in the northern part of the study area are dominantly coarse clastics of the Uinta Formation. The sedimentary sequence becomes more calcareous and organic-rich to the south where, in a 400-mi2 area, a 250 ft-thick sequence of oil shale above the Mahogany bed contains an average of 16 gallons of oil per ton of shale and is estimated to contain 73 billion barrels of oil.

Donnell, John R.

2009-01-01

345

A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

Isobe, Koichi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: isobeko@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Higuchi, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Gunma Prefecture Cancer Center, Gunma (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakazawa, Masanori [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Fukuda, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nihei, Keiji [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Kana [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsuno, Yoshihiro [Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiologic Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2007-11-15

346

Successful Treatment of Postpeak Stage Patients with Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Using Non-extraction and Multiloop Edgewise Archwire Therapy: A Report on 16 Cases  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine cephalometrically the mechanism of the treatment effects of non-extraction and multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) technique on postpeak Class II Division 1 patients. Methodology In this retrospective study, 16 postpeak Class II Division 1 patients successfully corrected using a non-extraction and MEAW technique were cephalometrically evaluated and compared with 16 matched control subjects treated using an extraction technique. Using CorelDRAW® software, standardized digital cephalograms pre- and post-active treatments were traced and a reference grid was set up. The superimpositions were based on the cranial base, the mandibular and the maxilla regions,and skeletal and dental changes were measured. Changes following treatment were evaluated using the paired-sample t-test. Student's t-test for unpaired samples was used to assess the differences in changes between the MEAW and the extraction control groups. Results The correction of the molar relationships comprised 54% skeletal change (mainly the advancement of the mandible) and 46% dental change. Correction of the anterior teeth relationships comprised 30% skeletal change and 70% dental change. Conclusion The MEAW technique can produce the desired vertical and sagittal movement of the tooth segment and then effectively stimulate mandibular advancement by utilizing the residual growth potential of the condyle. PMID:20690424

Liu, Jun; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Zhi-he; Welburn, Neala; Yang, Pu; Tang, Tian; Li, Yu

2009-01-01

347

Acquired upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired upper airway obstruction is a common cause of respiratory emergencies in children. Most pathologic processes that result in upper airway compromise are a consequence of infection, trauma or aspiration. Today, many of the infectious causes of upper airway obstruction have lost their threat as a result of the progress made in preventing and treating these infections. Prompt recognition and

Jürg Hammer

2004-01-01

348

Nonresected Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Stages I Through IIIB: Accelerated, Twice-Daily, High-Dose Radiotherapy-A Prospective Phase I/II Trial With Long-Term Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Our purpose was to investigate the tolerability of accelerated, twice-daily, high-dose radiotherapy. The secondary endpoints were survival and locoregional tumor control. Methods and Materials: Thirty consecutive patients with histologically/cytologically proven non-small-cell lung cancer were enrolled. Tumor Stage I, II, IIIA, and IIIB was found in 7, 3, 12, and 8 patients, respectively. We applied a median of 84.6 Gy (range, 75.6-90.0 Gy) to the primary tumors, 63.0 Gy (range, 59.4-72.0 Gy) to lymph nodes, and 45 Gy to nodes electively (within a region of about 6 cm cranial to macroscopically involved sites). Fractional doses of 1.8 Gy twice daily, with an interval of 11 hours, were given, resulting in a median treatment time of 35 days. In the majority of patients the conformal target-splitting technique was used. In 19 patients (63%) two cycles of induction chemotherapy were given. The median follow-up time of survivors is 72 months (range, 62-74 months). Results: We found Grade 1, 2 and 3 acute esophageal toxicity in 11 patients (37%), 2 patients (7%), and 2 patients (7%), respectively. Grade 2 acute pneumonitis was seen in 2 patients (7%). No late toxicity greater than Grade 1 was observed. The actual overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years are 63% and 23%, respectively; the median overall survival, 27.7 months. In 9 patients a local failure occurred, 7 of them presenting initially with an atelectasis without availability of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography staging at that time. In 4 patients recurrence occurred regionally. Conclusions: This Phase I/II trial with long-term follow-up shows low toxicity with promising results for survival and locoregional tumor control.

Wurstbauer, Karl, E-mail: k.wurstbauer@salk.a [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); radART-Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Deutschmann, Heinz; Kopp, Peter; Kranzinger, Manfred; Merz, Florian; Nairz, Olaf [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); radART-Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Studnicka, Michael [Department of Pneumology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Sedlmayer, Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); radART-Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)

2010-08-01

349

Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy's questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from using antiperspirants during their treatment, and the decision to use an antiperspirant or not in this setting should be left to the discretion of the patient.

Watson, Linda C., E-mail: Linda.watson@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Interdisciplinary Practice, Community Oncology, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gies, Donna [Department of Radiation Oncology Nursing, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thompson, Emmanuel [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary Faculty of Science, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thomas, Bejoy [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Department of Psychosocial Oncology, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2012-05-01

350

Relationship Between Tumor Gene Expression and Recurrence in Four Independent Studies of Patients With Stage II/III Colon Cancer Treated With Surgery Alone or Surgery Plus Adjuvant Fluorouracil Plus Leucovorin  

PubMed Central

Purpose These studies were conducted to determine the relationship between quantitative tumor gene expression and risk of cancer recurrence in patients with stage II or III colon cancer treated with surgery alone or surgery plus fluorouracil (FU) and leucovorin (LV) to develop multigene algorithms to quantify the risk of recurrence as well as the likelihood of differential treatment benefit of FU/LV adjuvant chemotherapy for individual patients. Patients and Methods We performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on RNA extracted from fixed, paraffin-embedded (FPE) tumor blocks from patients with stage II or III colon cancer who were treated with surgery alone (n = 270 from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project [NSABP] C-01/C-02 and n = 765 from Cleveland Clinic [CC]) or surgery plus FU/LV (n = 308 from NSABP C-04 and n = 508 from NSABP C-06). Overall, 761 candidate genes were studied in C-01/C-02 and C-04, and a subset of 375 genes was studied in CC/C-06. Results A combined analysis of the four studies identified 48 genes significantly associated with risk of recurrence and 66 genes significantly associated with FU/LV benefit (with four genes in common). Seven recurrence-risk genes, six FU/LV-benefit genes, and five reference genes were selected, and algorithms were developed to identify groups of patients with low, intermediate, and high likelihood of recurrence and benefit from FU/LV. Conclusion RT-qPCR of FPE colon cancer tissue applied to four large independent populations has been used to develop multigene algorithms for estimating recurrence risk and benefit from FU/LV. These algorithms are being independently validated, and their clinical utility is being evaluated in the Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) study. PMID:20679606

O'Connell, Michael J.; Lavery, Ian; Yothers, Greg; Paik, Soonmyung; Clark-Langone, Kim M.; Lopatin, Margarita; Watson, Drew; Baehner, Frederick L.; Shak, Steven; Baker, Joffre; Cowens, J. Wayne; Wolmark, Norman

2010-01-01

351

Expression of kisspeptins and their receptors, gnrh-1/gnrhr-II-1a and gonadotropin genes in the brain of adult male and female European sea bass during different gonadal stages.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins play a critical role in the control of hypothalamic-gonadotropic function and puberty onset in mammals. Studies in fish have all supported the hypothesis that they might play similar roles in the reproduction of this animal group, however, their physiological relevance in the occurrence of key reproductive events still remains to be determined. This study examines the relative mRNA expression profiles of the duplicate kisspeptin system (kiss1, kiss2, gpr54-1b, and gpr54-2b) in the hypothalamus and pituitary of adult male and female sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during different gonadal stages using qRT-PCR. We also report the changes in the expression levels of gnrh-1, gnrhr-II-1a, fsh?, and lh? and the relationships observed between both kisspeptin and GnRH systems. Our data show clear sex differences in the dynamics of kisspeptin and kisspeptin receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus of sea bass during gonadal development. Overall, all four kisspeptin system genes increased either before or during the advanced stages of oogenesis and declined during atresia, exhibiting profiles that are identical to those observed for gnrhr-II-1a, fsh?, lh?, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI). While the situation was not as clear in males, the high kiss2 expression levels observed in the hypothalamus during mid recrudescence suggest that it might be playing a role in the neuroendocrine signaling that regulates germ cell proliferation at the testicular level. In this sense, the proposed role attributed to kisspeptins as key factors in the onset of reproduction in fish receives an additional support from the data obtained in the present work. Nevertheless, further research is required to clarify their precise role in sea bass. PMID:23583767

Alvarado, M V; Carrillo, M; Felip, A

2013-06-15

352

[Hemodynamic effects of a single intravenous administration of prostaglandin E1 in a patient sample with chronic NYHA-stage II/III heart failure].  

PubMed

We investigated the hemodynamic effects of a single infusion of PGE1 (60 micrograms infused over a period of 2 h--this is the single dose used in courses of treatment for peripheral occlusive arterial disease) in patients with chronic heart failure NYHA class II-III. The ejection fraction of these patients was < 55%, their average age was 58.4 years (standard deviation 10 years), and their condition was stable. Nineteen of the patients had coronary heart disease and one patient had myocarditis. The hemodynamic data were obtained invasively by catheterization of the right and left heart. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured manually. Intravenous infusion of 60 micrograms PGE1 over a period of 2 hours did not significantly alter contractility or hemodynamics. Dp/dtmax, dp/dtmax/p, and dp/dt DP40, which are parameters of left ventricular contractility, determined with the aid of a catheter-tip manometer, did not differ significantly over time from those in the placebo control group. Similarly, the other data furnished no evidence that administration of PGE1 had any hemodynamic or myocardial effects. Hence, it is reasonable to state that it is safe to administer PGE1 to patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease. PMID:9816650

Schrader, N; Erbel, R; Gschossmann, J; Rink, C; Fuchs, J B; Dagres, N; Wittlich, N; Banaie, M; Mohr-Kahaly, S; Meyer, J

1998-09-01

353

A phase I/II study of dose-intense paclitaxel with cisplatin and cyclophosphamide as initial therapy of poor-prognosis advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Epithelial ovarian cancer patients with bulky residual tumor have a poor response to therapy and limited survival. We investigated the addition of dose-intense paclitaxel to cisplatin and cyclophosphamide for patients with FIGO III/IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel dose was intensified from 135 to 250 mg/m2 and administered in combination with cisplatin at > or = 75 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide at 750 mg/m2. Thirty-one of 36 patients (86%) and 25 (70%) had > or = 2 and > or = 3 cm residual disease after surgery, respectively. One-third had stage IV disease, and 80% had grade 3 tumors. The maximally tolerated doses (MTD) were paclitaxel at 250 mg/m2, cisplatin at 75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide at 750 mg/m2 on a 21-day cycle with G-CSF, 10 micrograms/kg/day. Administered dose intensity at the MTD was > or = 86%. Reversible grade 3 peripheral neuropathy occurred in 28% of patients and fever during neutropenia in 2/352 cycles (0.5%). The pathologic response rate is 36% with an additional 25% having minimal microscopic disease. Median progression-free and overall survivals for patients receiving paclitaxel at 250 mg/m2 at a median potential follow-up of 22 months have not been reached for the cohort nor for the > or = 3-cm subgroup. This regimen should be evaluated in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. PMID:8751547

Kohn, E C; Sarosy, G A; Davis, P; Christian, M; Link, C E; Ognibene, F P; Sindelar, W F; Jacob, J; Steinberg, S M; Premkumar, A; Reed, E

1996-08-01

354

Admissible two-stage designs for phase II cancer clinical trials that incorporate the expected sample size under the alternative hypothesis.  

PubMed

Two-stage studies may be chosen optimally by minimising a single characteristic like the maximum sample size. However, given that an investigator will initially select a null treatment e?ect and the clinically relevant di?erence, it is better to choose a design that also considers the expected sample size for each of these values. The maximum sample size and the two expected sample sizes are here combined to produce an expected loss function to ?nd designs that are admissible. Given the prior odds of success and the importance of the total sample size, minimising the expected loss gives the optimal design for this situation. A novel triangular graph to represent the admissible designs helps guide the decision-making process. The H?-optimal, H?-optimal, H?-minimax and H?-minimax designs are all particular cases of admissible designs. The commonly used H?-optimal design is rarely good when allowing stopping for e?cacy. Additionally, the ?-minimax design, which minimises the maximum expected sample size, is sometimes admissible under the loss function. However, the results can be varied and each situation will require the evaluation of all the admissible designs. Software to do this is provided. PMID:22232071

Mander, Adrian P; Wason, James M S; Sweeting, Michael J; Thompson, Simon G

2012-01-01

355

Assessing the robustness of passive scattering proton therapy with regard to local recurrence in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a secondary analysis of a phase II trial  

PubMed Central

Background We assessed the robustness of passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) plans for patients in a phase II trial of PSPT for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using the worst-case scenario method, and compared the worst-case dose distributions with the appearance of locally recurrent lesions. Methods Worst-case dose distributions were generated for each of 9 patients who experienced recurrence after concurrent chemotherapy and PSPT to 74 Gy(RBE) for stage III NSCLC by simulating and incorporating uncertainties associated with set-up, respiration-induced organ motion, and proton range in the planning process. The worst-case CT scans were then fused with the positron emission tomography (PET) scans to locate the recurrence. Results Although the volumes enclosed by the prescription isodose lines in the worst-case dose distributions were consistently smaller than enclosed volumes in the nominal plans, the target dose coverage was not significantly affected: only one patient had a recurrence outside the prescription isodose lines in the worst-case plan. Conclusions PSPT is a relatively robust technique. Local recurrence was not associated with target underdosage resulting from estimated uncertainties in 8 of 9 cases. PMID:24886059

2014-01-01

356

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)  

SciTech Connect

The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

2006-05-29

357

Multiple angle single stage scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A scrubber for cleansing flue gases is disclosed. The scrubber includes a housing which defines a channel. The channel includes a scrubber stage wherein vertically spaced rows of deflecting members of l-shaped cross-section are disposed. In a given row of deflecting members, a plurality of flow paths are defined between horizontally adjacent deflecting members. Each deflecting member has an upper arm and a lower arm. The lowermost edge of the lower arms of the deflecting members in one row are disposed between vertical projections from the uppermost edges of upper arms of deflecting members in a row below the last mentioned row.

Ostlie, L.

1982-02-02

358

Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian rift succession, Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rift succession of the Araripe Basin can be subdivided into four depositional sequences, bounded by regional unconformities, which record different palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental contexts. Sequence I, equivalent to the Brejo Santo Formation, is composed of fluvial sheetflood and floodplain facies association, while Sequence II, correspondent to the lower portion of the Missão Velha Formation, is characterised by braided fluvial channel belt deposits. The fluvial deposits of Sequences I and II show palaeocurrents toward SE. The Sequence III, correspondent to the upper portion of Missão Velha Formation, is composed of fluvial sheetflood deposits, which are overlain by braided fluvial channel deposits displaying a palaeocurrent pattern predominantly toward SW to NW. Sequence IV, equivalent to the Abaiara Formation, is composed of fluvio-deltaic-lacustrine strata with polimodal paleocurrent pattern. The type of depositional systems, the palaeocurrent pattern and the comparison with general tectono-stratigraphic rift models led to the identification of different evolutionary stages of the Araripe Basin. Sequences I, II and III represent the record of a larger basin associated to an early rift stage. However, the difference of the fluvial palaeocurrent between sequences II and III marks a regional rearrangement of the drainage system related to tectonic activity that compartmentalised the large endorheic basin, defining more localised drainage basins separated by internal highs. Sequence IV is associated with the renewal of the landscape and implantation of half-graben systems. The high dispersion of palaeocurrents trends indicate that sedimentary influx occurs from different sectors of the half-grabens.

Marlon dos Santos Scherer, Claiton; Jardim de Sá, Emanuel Ferraz; Córdoba, Valéria Centurion; Sousa, Debora do Carmo; Aquino, Mayara Martins; Canelas Cardoso, Fátima Maria

2014-01-01

359

Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Ares I Vehicle First Stage Separation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the aerodynamic analysis and database development for the first stage separation of the Ares I A106 Crew Launch Vehicle configuration. Separate databases were created for the first stage and upper stage. Each database consists of three...

B. N. Pamadi, G. H. Klopfer, J. Pei, J. T. Pinier, P. F. Covell, S. D. Holland

2012-01-01

360

Classification of lymphoscintigraphy and relevance to surgical indication for lymphaticovenous anastomosis in upper limb lymphedema.  

PubMed

Upper limb lymphedema that develops after breast cancer surgery causes physical discomfort and psychological distress, and it can require both conservative and surgical treatment. Lymphaticovenous anastomosis has been reported to be an effective treatment; however the disease severity criteria that define indications for this treatment remain unclear. Here, we examined lymphoscintigraphic findings in 78 patients with secondary upper limb lymphedema and classified them into 5 major types (Type I-V) and 3 subtypes (Subtype E, L, and 0). Results revealed that this classification is related to the clinical stage scale of the International Society of Lymphology. Based on intraoperative examination findings in 20 of the 78 patients, lymphatic pressure is likely to be further elevated in Type II-V cases which are characterized by the presence of dermal back flow. Therefore, lymphaticovenous anastomosis should be considered as a treatment option for lymphedema in Type II-V cases. Furthermore, there are only limited lymph vessel sites usable for lymphaticovenous anastomosis in more severe lymphedema types [Types IV and Type V (which is characterized by dermal backflow only in the hand)]. The findings in Type IV-V cases suggest that therapeutic strategies for severe upper limb lymphedema need further consideration. PMID:22458117

Mikami, T; Hosono, M; Yabuki, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Yasumura, K; Sawada, H; Shizukuishi, K; Maegawa, J

2011-12-01

361

Designing An Adaptor To Connect Rocket Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes design of light-weight truss structure to serve as adaptor to connect two rocket stages. Larger stage is Centaur rocket, on which provided eight attachment points arranged in circle. Smaller stage is Thiokol Star 48b rocket, which includes round attachment flange. For mating with attachment flange, design provides for grooved slats at upper ends of struts. Weight of truss structure less than corresponding stiffened conical shell.

Gann, Lisa L.; Hicks, Michael T.

1995-01-01

362

Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer Or Other Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

2014-07-01

363

Patient Preferences in Making Treatment Decisions in Patients With Stage I-IVA Oropharyngeal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Tongue Cancer

2014-10-14

364

FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2014-08-04

365

J STAGE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), J-STAGE (The Japan Science and Technology Aggregator, Electronic) is a recently launched electronic journal center that publishes and disseminates Japanese electronic scientific journals. At present, the site hosts four journals (one of which is Japanese only), but expects to add over a hundred in the near future. The three available English-language journals include the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, the Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, and SHIGEN-TO-SOZAI, a journal of the Mining and Materials Processing Institute of Japan. The full-text articles are available free of charge with searchable back issues also available.

2005-12-06

366

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

367

Phase II MOR00208 in Combination With Lenalidomide for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory CLL, SLL or PLL or Older Patients With Untreated CLL, SLL or PLL  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

2014-07-18

368

[Tumors of the upper urinary tract. Apropos 35 cases].  

PubMed

Thirty-five cases of upper urinary tract tumors treated by the authors in an interval of 10 years (1979-1988) are presented. After a detailed analysis of the cases some general considerations on the anatomopathologic forms of upper urinary tract tumors, stage classification, symptoms and clinical and laboratory diagnosis, therapeutical indications are made. PMID:1823437

Filimon, C; Novac, C; Dorneanu, G H; Gheorghiu, V; Suditu, N; Cordun-T?r?bu??, G; R?dulescu, D; Mihailovici, S; Roznovanu, S; G?le?anu, M R

1991-01-01

369

Adjuvant whole abdominal intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for high risk stage FIGO III patients with ovarian cancer (OVAR-IMRT-01) - Pilot trial of a phase I/II study: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The prognosis for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer remains poor despite aggressive surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy. More than 60% of patients will develop recurrent disease, principally intraperitoneal, and die within 5 years. The use of whole abdominal irradiation (WAI) as consolidation therapy would appear to be a logical strategy given its ability to sterilize small tumour volumes. Despite the clinically proven efficacy of whole abdominal irradiation, the use of radiotherapy in ovarian cancer has profoundly decreased mainly due to high treatment-related toxicity. Modern intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) could allow to spare kidneys, liver, and bone marrow while still adequately covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose. Methods/Design The OVAR-IMRT-01 study is a single center pilot trial of a phase I/II study. Patients with advanced ovarian cancer stage FIGO III (R1 or R2< 1 cm) after surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy will be treated with whole abdomen irradiation as consolidation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions. A total of 8 patients will be included in this trial. For treatment planning bone marrow, kidneys, liver, spinal cord, vertebral bodies and pelvic bones are defined as organs at risk. The planning target volume includes the entire peritoneal cavity plus pelvic and para-aortic node regions. Discussion The primary endpoint of the study is the evaluation of the feasibility of intensity-modulated WAI and the evaluation of the study protocol. Secondary endpoint is evaluation of the toxicity of intensity modulated WAI before continuing with the phase I/II study. The aim is to explore the potential of IMRT as a new method for WAI to decrease the dose to kidneys, liver, bone marrow while covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose, and to implement whole abdominal intensity-modulated radiotherapy into the adjuvant multimodal treatment concept of advanced ovarian cancer FIGO stage III. PMID:18093313

Rochet, Nathalie; Jensen, Alexandra D; Sterzing, Florian; Munter, Marc W; Eichbaum, Michael H; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

370

A Phase I/II Radiation Dose Escalation Study With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Inoperable Stages I to III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Phase I Results of RTOG 0117  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In preparation for a Phase III comparison of high-dose versus standard-dose radiation therapy, this Phase I/II study was initiated to establish the maximum tolerated dose of radiation therapy in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy, using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included patients with histologically proven, unresectable Stages I to III non-small-cell lung cancer. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel, 50 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin, AUC of 2, given weekly. The radiation dose was to be sequentially intensified by increasing the daily fraction size, starting from 75.25 Gy/35 fractions. Results: The Phase I portion of this study accrued 17 patients from 10 institutions and was closed in January 2004. After the initial 8 patients were accrued to cohort 1, the trial closed temporarily on September 26, 2002, due to reported toxicity. Two acute treatment-related dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported at the time: a case of grade 5 and grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. The protocol, therefore, was revised to de-escalate the radiation therapy dose (74 Gy/37 fractions). Patients in cohort 1 continued to develop toxicity, with 6/8 (75%) patients eventually developing grade >=3 events. Cohort 2 accrued 9 patients. There was one DLT, a grade 3 esophagitis, in cohort 2 in the first 5 patients (1/5 patients) and no DLTs for the next 2 patients (0/2 patients). Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 74 Gy/37 fractions (2.0 Gy per fraction) using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent paclitaxel and carboplatin therapy. This dose level in the Phase II portion has been well tolerated, with low rates of acute and late lung toxicities.

Bradley, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jbradley@wustl.ed [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [RTOG Statistical Headquarters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Phelps County Medical Center, Rolla, Missouri (United States); Byhardt, Roger [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Govindan, Ramaswamy [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Fowler, Jack [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Purdy, James A. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gore, Elizabeth [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States)

2010-06-01

371

Randomized phase II trial of non-platinum induction or consolidation chemotherapy plus concomitant chemoradiation in stage III NSCLC patients: mature results of the Spanish Lung Cancer Group 0008 study.  

PubMed

The optimal schedule and regimen of chemotherapy (CT) in association with chemoradiation has not been established in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have compared three schedules of non-platinum-based CT plus either radiotherapy or chemoradiation. From May 2001 to June 2006, 158 patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC were enrolled in a randomized phase II trial with overall response rate (ORR) as the primary endpoint. The initial design included three arms: sequential CT followed by thoracic radiation (TRT); concurrent CT/TRT followed by consolidation CT; and induction CT followed by concurrent CT/TRT. However, based on the preliminary results of the RTOG 9410 trial, the sequential arm was closed when 19 patients had been enrolled. All patients received two cycles of docetaxel 40 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8 plus gemcitabine 1200 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8, as either induction or consolidation therapy. Concurrent CT/TRT consisted of docetaxel 20 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC 2 weekly plus 60 Gy TRT. No differences were found in ORR between the two arms (56% and 57%). Hematological toxicity was mild but significantly superior with consolidation CT; the esophagitis rate was similar in both arms (16% and 15%). With a median follow-up of 57 months, no differences were found in median survival (13.07 and 13.8 months) or 5-year survival (16.4% and 22%). This regimen cannot be recommended as an alternative to platinum-based CT/TRT although it has an acceptable toxicity profile and encouraging long-term survival data (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01652820). PMID:23611405

Garrido, Pilar; Rosell, Rafael; Arellano, Antonio; Andreu, Francisco; Dómine, Manuel; Perez-Casas, Ana; Cardenal, Felipe; Arnaiz, María Del Mar; Morán, Teresa; Morera, Rosa; Isla, Dolores; Valencia, Javier; Cobo, Manuel; Delgado, Raquel; García-Gómez, Ramón; Calvo, Felipe; Zamora, Javier; Ramos, Alfredo; Massutí, Bartomeu

2013-07-01