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1

Centaur upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the design features of the LOX/LH2-fueled Centaur upper stage engine and fuel cryotankage, in order to serve as a basis for understanding the Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) system instituted. MECO follows the instant of spacecraft separation from the upper stage. The planetary launch program during 1966-1978 involved 23 Centaur launches and led to no upper stage reentry; LEO missions for HEAO and OAO satellite lofting in 1963-1979 involved nine Centaur launches and led to five reentries. GEO satellite launches in 1969-1986 saw 32 launches and three known reentries.

Groesbeck, W.

2

CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

3

Upper-Stage Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

1999-01-01

4

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

5

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

2007-01-01

6

Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

7

Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

1981-01-01

8

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion\\/power systems were identified as key technologies in the operational effectiveness and cost comparison study (OECS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory (PL). These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions. The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by PL represents

P. Frye

1996-01-01

9

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion\\/power systems were identified as key technologies by the Operational Effectiveness and Cost Comparison Study. These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions (Feuchter 1996). The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by Phillips Laboratory represents development of one

Patrick Frye

1997-01-01

10

Inertial Upper Stage booster in VPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Vertical Processing Facility oversee and control the lowering of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster into a workstand for preflight processing. The IUS will be attached to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), which will be deployed by the Space Shuttle Discovery on Mission STS-70. The IUS is scheduled to be mated to the TDRS satellite later in April. Liftoff of STS-70 is slated for no earlier than June 8.

1995-01-01

11

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

1979-01-01

12

Staging or upper stage reignition for GEO missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostationary orbit will remain in the near and far future one of the most frequently used for several applications including, mainly, telecommunications. For the time being the GEO satcoms are injected by intermediate, heavy or super heavy class launch vehicles, LV, using quasi standard procedures: low altitude injection on a geostationary transfer orbit, ballistic phase of at least five and a half hour, followed by an apogee manoeuvre (or boost) to reach GEO. Apogee boost is most of the time provided by the propulsive system of the satellite, if this one uses liquid propellant in an integrated system performing final injection and house-keeping for the whole life (up to 15 years) of the satellite. The current launch vehicle features generally a cryogenic (LOX/LH2) or semi-cryogenic (LOX/Kerosene) upper stage having a better Isp than the Isp of the satellite propulsive system: The possibility to provide the apogee boost by the LV upper stage seems attractive. Another possibility is to put on the top of the upper stage an other small stage, or module having the function of kick-stage, as it was done earlier when solid propellant stages were used for this apogee manoeuvre. This presentation will describe the pros and cons of this various choices for single but also dual launches in GTO/GEO, and also will address future new injection scheme, providing new transportation services to satellites featuring advanced propulsive systems such as electric, plasmic or thermo-solar thrusters, requiring other transfer orbits like MEO, GTO+ and super GTO+.

Duret, François

2002-07-01

13

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion/power systems were identified as key technologies by the Operational Effectiveness and Cost Comparison Study. These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions (Feuchter 1996). The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by Phillips Laboratory represents development of one such solar thermal propulsion/power system. This paper presents conceptual designs, mission analysis results, and trade study results for a system evaluation of ISUS for future military payloads. These payloads primarily include high power communication satellites for geo-synchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) applications.

Frye, Patrick

1997-01-01

14

Delta interim upper stage system study. Volume 2: Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle System will require an upper stage (Space Tug, or OOS - Orbit-to-Orbit Shuttle) to achieve maximum effectiveness. A reusable upper stage, although highly desirable, requires a greater initial cash outlay, which would compete for early Shuttle development program funds. Hence, an expendable upper stage, to be used in the interim, has been the subject of various government

R. P. Dawson; J. F. Meyers; R. C. Doiron; R. G. Monger

1975-01-01

15

Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and discussed in light of the various missions. For each mission there are several trajectory options and each will be discussed in terms of delta-v required and transit duration. Each propulsion system will be modeled, sized, and judged based on their applicability to the whole range of beyond LEO missions. Criteria for scoring will include the resulting dry mass of the stage, resulting propellant required, time to destination, and an assessment of key enabling technologies. In addition to the larger metrics, this paper will present the results of several coupled sensitivity studies. The ultimate goals of these tools and studies are to provide NASA with the most mass-, technology-, and cost-effective in-space stage for its future exploration missions.

Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

2014-01-01

16

Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

1984-01-01

17

Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test article, leading to a potential ISUS flight test in 2002.

Jaworske, Donald A.

1998-01-01

18

Guidance and controls for an interim upper stage \\/IUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptability of the Titan Transtage (the upper stage of the Titan IIIC launch vehicle) as a low risk interim upper stage (IUS) in the Space Transportation System is examined. The object of the study is to determine whether the Titan Transtage is compatible with the Shuttle and to provide operational data for the design of a new Space Tug.

R. B. Schroer

1975-01-01

19

The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

20

Stage II Seminoma and Advanced Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Laguna Chapter Stage II SeminomaThe vast majority patients with testicular seminoma present with early stage disease (Stage\\u000a I) and only 15-20% of patients have infradiaphragmatic lymph node involvement on radiologic investigation at diagnosis (stage\\u000a II disease). Postorchidectomy treatment options in patients with stage II seminoma include RT, chemotherapy and in rare cases\\u000a retroperiteonal node dissection. RT is the treatment of

Padraig R. Warde; Alan Horwich

21

Upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additive. These propellants increase the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other Earth-orbital transfer missions. However, using metallized propellants for planetary missions can deliver great reductions in flight time with a single-stage, upper-stage system. Tradeoff studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with nonmetallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages, launched from the STS and STS-C, are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to high altitude orbits and onto interplanetary trajectories that are unattainable with only the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C). The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the STS and STS-C launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1992-01-01

22

Which way to Shuttle upper stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitable approaches for obtaining a cost-efficient space transportation system which in supplementing the Space Shuttle will permit payload insertion into high-altitude orbits are discussed. Attention is given to a low-cost geosynchronous payload deployment\\/retrieval propulsion system. The system comprises two expendable solid-rocket stages, one for the perigee and one for the apogee kick. It is pointed out that the perigee and

A. O. Tischler

1975-01-01

23

IUS (Inertial Upper Stage)/SRM-2 Nozzle Thermal Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the space shuttle mission (STS-6) on April 5, 1983, the inertial upper stage/tracking data relay satellite-A payload experienced a loss of control at approximately 85 seconds into the planned 105 second burn of the second stage. The anomaly was rev...

K. E. McCoy J. L. Vaniman

1984-01-01

24

Overview of the Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overview begins with the bold vision for space exploration set out by President Bush in 2004. A brief description of the proposed systems architecture is presented along with an animation showing the various stages and phases of a mission. The overview concludes with latest roadmaps for the Upper Stage.

Funk, Joan G.

2006-01-01

25

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics incluse: 1) What is NASA s Mission.; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line.; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologie...

J. C. McArthur

2008-01-01

26

Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This chest x-ray shows stage II coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP). There are diffuse, small light areas on both sides of the lungs. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include simple silicosis, disseminated tuberculosis, ...

27

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

SEER Program Coding and Staging Manual 2004, Revision 1 Appendix C Site-Specific Coding Modules C-469 SEER Site-Specific Coding Guidelines BREAST C500–C509 Primary Site C500 Nipple (areolar) Paget disease without underlying tumor C501

28

Collaborative Stage Manual Part II  

Cancer.gov

Gum, Upper.......................................................................................................................................C-47 Gum, Lower and Retromolar Area Retromolar Gingiva (Trigone) ..................................................C-55 Gum, NOS ........................................................................................................................................C-63 Floor of Mouth..................................................................................................................................C-71 Hard Palate........................................................................................................................................C-83 Soft Palate, Uvula .............................................................................................................................C-91 Other Mouth....................................................................................................................................C-101 Cheek (Buccal) Mucosa, Vestibule.................................................................................................C-109 Parotid Gland ..................................................................................................................................C-119 Submandibular Gland .....................................................................................................................C-127 Other and Unspecified Major Salivary Glands ...............................................................................C-135 Tonsil, Oropharynx .........................................................................................................................C-145 Anterior Surface of Epiglottis .........................................................................................................C-155 Nasopharynx ...................................................................................................................................C-165 Pyriform Sinus, Hypopharynx, Laryngopharynx............................................................................C-173 Pharynx, NOS, and Other Ill-Defined Oral Cavity Sites ................................................................C-181 Esophagus .......................................................................................................................................C-193 Small Intestine ................................................................................................................................C-211 Colon...............................................................................................................................................C-219 Rectosigmoid, Rectum....................................................................................................................C-231 Anus Anal Canal; Anus, NOS; Other Parts of Rectum.

29

Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

1974-01-01

30

Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-04-15

31

Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

Fisher, Mark F.

1997-01-01

32

The Malemute development program. [rocket upper stage engine design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Malemute vehicle systems are two-stage systems based on utilizing a new high performance upper stage motor with two existing military boosters. The Malmute development program is described relative to program structure, preliminary design, vehicle subsystems, and the Malemute motor. Two vehicle systems, the Nike-Malemute and Terrier-Malemute, were developed which are capable of transporting comparatively large diameter (16 in.) 200-lb payloads to altitudes of 500 and 700 km, respectively. These vehicles provide relatively low-cost transportation with two-stage reliability and launch simplicity. Flight tests of both vehicle systems revealed their performance capabilities, with the Terrier-Malemute system involving a unique Malemute motor spin sensitivity problem. It is suggested that the vehicles can be successfully flown by lowering the burnout spin rate.

Bolster, W. J.; Hoekstra, P. W.

1976-01-01

33

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

McArthur, J. Craig

2008-01-01

34

Risk assessment in Stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

In the treatment of colon cancer today, the decision-making involved in the treatment of stage II disease is probably the most challenging aspect. The major question is whether or not these patients should receive postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Approximately 75% of stage II colon cancer is cured by surgery alone. For the remaining 25% of cases, there is great debate over whether adjuvant chemotherapy is sufficiently effective in enough patients to warrant the exposure to potentially toxic treatments. In the important QUASAR clinical trial, stage II patients were randomized to either fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy or observation. The results demonstrated an approximate 3% improvement in outcome for the 5-FU-treated patients. This leads to the assumption that treating all stage II patients with adjuvant chemotherapy is gross overtreatment, when essentially 97% of these patients will not benefit. Clearly the only way to approach this decision is through risk determination. In this article, I will describe the current state of defining high- and low-risk disease, which is mainly through histopathologic characteristics, as well as discuss emerging approaches such as molecular markers and genomic profiling. PMID:20225606

Marshall, John L

2010-01-01

35

J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

Buzzell, James C.

2009-01-01

36

NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

Walker, James

2008-01-01

37

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

2008-01-01

38

Lenalidomide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2014-04-18

39

Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-03-25

40

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

2006-01-01

41

Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

Buzzell, James C.

2010-01-01

42

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

43

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

44

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

45

New upper stage propulsion concept for future launchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pressure-fed system is leading to a stage easy to operate, reliable, needing no costly solutions (expander engine, boost pumps). On the other hand, many R&D programs are going on all ceramic liquid engines, engines cooled by "effusion" (DLR), Transpiration (PTAH-SOCAR from MBDA), Film or Trim (Astrium, Snecma), so very light engine may be offered on the market in the close future. Operating to relatively low pressure the specific impulse is slightly lower than a conventional one with a turbomachine (expander type or other) and the structural index lightly less interesting: a concept with the LOX tank nested inside the fuel tank with a scrolling common bulkhead appears easily usable for LOX/methane stage due to the fact that the two propellants are liquids in the same range of temperature and may lead to an interesting mass saving. Even if such an upper stage may lead to a dramatic increase of the performance of a small launch vehicle such as Vega (replacement of Z9 and AVUM), the aim of this presentation is mainly to show the interest of special tools to make the very first evaluation of the interest of a new solution. The Inner Arch developed for the CNES DLA two softwares: One dedicated to solid propulsion projects: APSOL. One dedicated to liquid propulsion projects: ELIS. A third one, PERFOL, is used to optimize the trajectory and the propulsion parameters. The paper will describe the main software used for this study and illustrate the interest of the approach.

Calabro, Max; Talbot, Christophe

2008-07-01

46

Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

2010-01-01

47

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

48

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

49

Hosted non-deployed payloads on upper stages for enhanced space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the growing market of “ hosted payloads” on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, the capability exists to leverage the excess performance on existing upper stages to provide similar or enhanced opportunities for science experiments or low TRL instruments. Leveraging the capabilities of the Atlas V Centaur and Delta IV upper stages, Special Aerospace Services (SAS) and United Launch Alliance (ULA) are investigating hosting non-deployed systems on these existing upper stages.

Bulk, T. A.; Lindas, K.; Pitchford, B.; Szatkowski, J.

50

Rituximab, Lenalidomide, and Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Follicular Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2014-06-09

51

STS spin-stabilized upper stage study (study 2.6). Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spinning solid propellant upper stage rocket engines designed for geosynchronous satellite payloads are investigated. Factors considered include: impact of the spinning stages on the payloads; applicability to 1981-1991 NASA mission model; and cost effectiveness.

1975-01-01

52

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

1999-01-01

53

[Preoperative diagnosis for stage II endometrial carcinoma using endocervical conization].  

PubMed

It is generally difficult to identify stage II endometrial carcinoma correctly. To differentiate cervical involvement, endocervical conization was performed on 31 patients with endometrial cancer between May 1982 and September 1983. The preoperative diagnosis of stage II endometrial carcinoma was confirmed by postoperative histologic examination. In stage I patients, there was no microscopic cervical involvement after the operation. Fractional curettage and hysteroscopy are commonly used to detect stage II endometrial carcinoma. However, these examinations may overlook cervical stromal invasion. Endocervical conization is a simple procedure and highly useful to detect cervical stromal involvement. We recommend the of endocervical conization combined with hysteroscopy to diagnose stage II endometrial carcinoma. PMID:6471397

Fukuda, K; Masubuchi, S; Masubuchi, K

1984-07-01

54

Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

1975-01-01

55

IUS/SPINSIM - INERTIAL UPPER STAGE SPIN STAGE SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM SIMULATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUS/SPINSIM was written to evaluate a proposed spinning third stage for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Jupiter Mission. The third stage of the IUS was not to have altitude control during the solid motor burn for this mission. IUS was to be spun up about its principle thrust axis in the desired attitude prior to ignition of its solid motor. IUS/SPINSIM can also be used to evaluate the performance of other spinning stages that utilize a fixed burn motor. IUS/SPINSIM is a Six-Degree-of-Freedom simulation for exo-atmospheric flight of an IUS. It assumes the stage is released in orbit at or near its desired inertial attitude, and is spinning slowly. The code models three phases: a coast phase in which further spin-up may occur, a burn stage during which a solid rocket motor (SRM) burn injects the space craft into a transfer trajectory, and a final coast phase. IUS/SPINSIM takes into account the effects of the following: a reaction control system (RCS) spinning the vehicle; SRM thrust buildup, decay, and misalignment; changing mass, center of gravity, principle moments of inertia, cross products of inertia, time derivatives of inertia; jet damping moments; and an oblate gravity model. Numerical integration of the equations of motion using a Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator and small step sizes is used to track the vehicle's position, velocity, attitude and spin rates. Instead of using Euler angles or the Direction Cosine Matrix, Quarternions are used to model the attitude and spinning of the vehicle. This eliminates the renormalization difficulties associated with either of the other methods. Program input is taken from a file, and output is to a print file and a data file suitable for use in plotting. The IUS/SPINSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 9track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This program was developed in 1992.

Dauro, V. A.

1994-01-01

56

Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

57

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

58

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

59

Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1990-01-01

60

Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle “pop-up” missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400%) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this “Pop-Up” Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and

James B. Eckmann; Roy B. Cotta; Leo W. Matuszak; David R. Perkins

1997-01-01

61

Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle ``pop-up'' missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400%) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this ``Pop-Up'' Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and

James B. Eckmann; Roy B. Cotta; Leo W. Matuszak; David R. Perkins

1997-01-01

62

Reusable Agena study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [space shuttle Agena upper stage tug concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle Agena upper stage interim tug concept is based on a building block approach. These building block concepts are extensions of existing ascent Agena configurations. Several current improvements, have been used in developing the shuttle/Agena upper stage concepts. High-density acid is used as the Agena upper stage oxidizer. The baffled injector is used in the main engine. The DF-224 is a fourth generation computer currently in development and will be flight proven in the near future. The Agena upper stage building block concept uses the current Agena as a baseline, adds an 8.5-inch (21.6 cm) extension to the fuel tank for optimum mixture ratio, uses monomethyl hydrazine as fuel, exchanges a 150:1 nozzle extension for the existing 45:1, exchanges an Autonetics DF-224 for the existing Honeywell computer, and adds a star sensor for guidance update. These modifications to the current Agena provide a 5-foot (1.52m) diameter shuttle/Agena upper stage that will fly all Vandenberg Air Force Base missions in the reusable mode without resorting to a kick motor. The delta V velocity of the Agena is increased by use of a strap-on propellant tank option. This option provides a shuttle/Agena upper stage with the capability to place almost 3900 pounds (1769 kg) into geosynchronous orbit (24 hour period) without the aid of kick motors.

1974-01-01

63

Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

Carter, Robert W.

2011-01-01

64

Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton capability boundary for the upper stage, such that if the combined first stage and boosters can achieve any one staging point on that surface, then the design is identified as feasible. With the surrogate model created, design and analysis of advanced booster concepts is streamlined, as optimization of the upper stage trajectory is no longer required in every design loop.

Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

2012-01-01

65

Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

2003-01-01

66

Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400%) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and

J. B. Eckmann; R. B. Cotta; L. W. Matuszak; D. R. Perkins

1997-01-01

67

STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II  

SciTech Connect

TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

2002-08-29

68

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2013-12-12

69

GRACE: the problem specification stage. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we continue and complete the description of the problem specification stage of the Graphical R-matrix Atomic Collision Environment (G RACE). In particular we describe that part of the graphical user interface which controls the construction and editing of the input data required by a new outer region package FA RM. The corresponding event-driven software system, which can be used as a stand alone GUI for FA RM, is also published and described.

Scott, N. S.; Johnston, J.; Burke, V. M.; Noble, C. J.; Busby, D. W.

1994-11-01

70

STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II  

Microsoft Academic Search

TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects

Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

2002-01-01

71

Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2014-03-27

72

NASA Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Element of NASA s Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115 long and 216" in diameter. While the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system.

Cook, Jerry R.

2006-01-01

73

TROJID: A portable software package for upper-stage trajectory optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance optimization for upper-stage exoatmospheric vehicles often is performed within the framework of a full capability trajectory simulation package requiring either a large mainframe computer or powerful work-station. Since these software packages tend to include capabilities providing for high-fidelity boost and reentry simulations, the programs usually are quite large and not very portable. The program TROJID is an attempt to provide an environment for the optimization of upper-stage trajectories within a small package capable of being run on a standard desktop microcomputer. Utilizing a state-of-the-art nonlinear programming algorithm and a trajectory simulator implementing impulsive burns and an analytic coast phase propagator, TROJID is capable of producing trajectories for optimal multi-burn upper-stage orbit transfers. The package has been designed to allow full generality in definition of both the trajectory simulator and the parameter optimization problem.

Hammes, Steven M.

1990-01-01

74

Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

Burchett, Bradley T.

2008-01-01

75

Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

2010-01-01

76

Utilization of solid-propellant upper stages in STS payload orbital operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main purpose of this report is to discuss techniques of trajectory design, maneuver execution, and stage loading that are compatible with the use of SRM's (solid rocket motors) which, once ignited, must burn to propellant depletion. It is anticipated that some shuttle payloads will use non-IUS (interim upper stage) solid propellant kick stages; therefore this subject is also pertinent to shuttle flights other than those involving the use of the IUS. The SRM utilization techniques can be divided into two major categories: (1) those in which the stage performance is adjusted to match the velocity increment magnitude requirements of a preselected trajectory, and (2) those in which the trajectory is designed to match the velocity increment magnitude capability of the stage(s).

Wilson, S. W.

1976-01-01

77

Omicron space habitat—research stage II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design presented in this paper is in response to the revolution in private space activities, the increasing public interest in commercial flights to space and the utilization of structures such as space hotels or private orbital habitats. The baseline for the Omicron design concept is the Russian Salyut derived space station module. Salyut was the first space station to orbit the Earth. Its unique design and technical features were what made the development of space stations Salyut 1-7, MIR and the International Space Station (ISS) Zwezda service module possible. Due to its versatility and the reliable operating launch vehicle Proton, this space module series has the potential to be adapted for space hotel development. This paper proposes a conceptual design of the space habitat called Omicron, with particular focus on interior design for the microgravity environment. The Omicron concepts address the needs of space tourism with a strong emphasis on the safety and comfort of the spaceflight participants. The Omicron habitat supports three inhabitants in nominal conditions (e.g., two passengers and one astronaut). The habitat provides a flexible interior, facilities and spaces dynamically transforming in order to accommodate various types of activities, which will be performed in an organically formed interior supporting spatial orientation and movement in microgravity. The future development potential of Omicron is also considered. The baseline version is composed solely of one rigid module with an inverted cupola for observations. An alternative version offers more space using an inflatable structure. Finally, a combination of multiple Omicron modules enables the creation of a larger orbital habitat. The Omicron's subsystems support a few days visit by trained passengers. The transport to the habitat would be provided e.g., by the Soyuz TMA spacecraft carried by the Soyuz launch vehicle in the early stage of Omicron's development, before a fully reusable spacecraft would be available.

Doule, Ond?ej; Šálený, Vratislav; Hérin, Benoît; Rousek, Tomáš

2012-01-01

78

Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

2013-01-15

79

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX\\/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine,

H. Nagai; H. Taniguchi; A. Suzuki; I. Yamazaki

1985-01-01

80

Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

Mueller, Mark

81

Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

Ahmed, Rafiq

2012-01-01

82

Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and electrical power functions to other Elements of the CLV, is included as secondary structure. The MSFC has an overall responsibility for the integrated US element as well as structural design an thermal control of the fuel tanks, intertank, interstage, avionics, main propulsion system, Reaction Control System (RCS) for both the Upper Stage and the First Stage. MSFC's Spacecraft and Vehicle Department, Structural and Analysis Design Division is developing a set of predicted mass of these elements. This paper details the methodology, criterion and tools used for the preliminary mass predictions of the upper stage structural assembly components. In general, weight of the cylindrical barrel sections are estimated using the commercial code Hypersizer, whereas, weight of the domes are developed using classical solutions. HyperSizer is software that performs automated structural analysis and sizing optimization based on aerospace methods for strength, stability, and stiffness. Analysis methods range from closed form, traditional hand calculations repeated every day in industry to more advanced panel buckling algorithms. Margin-of-safety reporting for every potential failure provides the engineer with a powerful insight into the structural problem. Optimization capabilities include finding minimum weight panel or beam concepts, material selections, cross sectional dimensions, thicknesses, and lay-ups from a library of 40 different stiffened and sandwich designs and a database of composite, metallic, honeycomb, and foam materials. Multiple different concepts (orthogrid, isogrid, and skin stiffener) were run for multiple loading combinations of ascent design load with and with out tank pressure as well as proof pressure condition. Subsequently, selected optimized concept obtained from Hypersizer runs was translated into a computer aid design (CAD) model to account for the wall thickness tolerance, weld land etc for developing the most probable weight of the components. The flow diram summarizes the analysis steps used in developing these predicted mass.

Aggarwal, Pravin

2007-01-01

83

Individualized Treatment in Treating Patients With Stage II-IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer Based on EBV DNA  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

2014-05-08

84

Individualized Treatment in Treating Patients With Stage II-IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer Based on EBV DNA  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

2014-06-27

85

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification / Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested to validate the mathematical model of the launcher. Additionally, transfer functions were measured for Pogo investigations. Validated mathematical launcher models are the basis to predict the launcher global responses in the low frequency domain with sufficient confidence. The predicted global axial and lateral responses for selected sections at the stage represent the flight loads for these sections. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. The verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro shock) a stage separation test was performed. All the equipment was qualified separately for its dynamic (sine, random and shock excitation) and thermal environment to proof its structural and functional integrity. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine-vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electrodynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 150 Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experiences which were made - the comparison between prediction and test results shows the ability and good quality of analysis but - the advantage of combined analysis of shaker table and stage model for test prediction - local effects observed in test - the dependency of damping on the load level - the efficiency of the so called SARO-Damping Device

Rittweger, A.; Beuchel, W.; Eckhardt, K.

2002-01-01

86

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

87

Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

2000-01-01

88

Infusing Training into the Documentation and Culture of Ares I Upper Stage Design and Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 2) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can grow their own training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, and 3) possibilities for interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

89

Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

90

Aging and Surveillance Program MINUTEMAN II/III Stage II Program Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This semiannual report provides results of tests conducted between 15 March 1985 and 31 August 1985 in support of the Aging and Surveillance program for the Minuteman II and III Stage II motors. The primary objectives of the program are to provide assuran...

1985-01-01

91

Overview of the Main Propulsion System for the NASA Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional overview of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage is provided. In addition to a simple overview of the key MPS functions and design philosophies, major lessons learned are discussed. The intent is to provide a technical overview with enough detail to allow engineers outside of the MPS Integrated Product Team (IPT) to develop a rough understanding of MPS operations, components, design philosophy, and lessons learned.

Quinn, Jason E.; Swanson, Luke A.

2009-01-01

92

Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan H.

2010-01-01

93

Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2008-01-01

94

Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions  

SciTech Connect

Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B. [Sparta Inc. Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R. [Phillips Laboratory Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

1997-01-01

95

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

96

The Inertial Upper Stage - A space transportation system element nearing first flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) developed by the USAF and NASA is a highly reliable, cost-effective solid propellant upper stage, with inherent flexibility and adaptability for integration with the Space Shuttle. The propulsion system is simple, utilizing safe, solid rocket motors with extremely light-weight nonmetallic cases and nozzles. The IUS can deliver 2268 kg from the Shuttle to geosynchronous altitude; it consists of a 9700 kg propellant weight first stage, an interstage structure, a 2720 kg propellant weight second stage, and an equipment support section. The avionics system includes the electronic and electrical hardware used to perform all signal conditioning, data processing, and software formatting associated with navigation, guidance, control, data management, and redundancy management. The generic thermal design of the IUS is suited to a wide range of thermal environments; the software design provides for selectable thermal maneuvers (rotisserie, reciprocating, toasting, space facing, sun facing) to satisfy different payload thermal requirements. A 1982 launch with the Titan 34D and a 1983 launch with the Shuttle Orbiter are planned.

Rohrbaugh, D. J.; Redd, F. J.; Van Rensselaer, F.

1981-01-01

97

The surgical management of stage I and stage II lung cancer.  

PubMed

There have been recent advances in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Surgical resection remains the cornerstone in the treatment of patients with stages I and II NSCLC. Anatomic lobectomy combined with hilar and mediastinal lymphadenectomy constitutes the oncologic basis of surgical resection. The surgical data favor video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy over open lobectomy and have established VATS lobectomy as a gold standard in the surgical resection of early-stage NSCLC. However, the role of sublobar pulmonary resection, either anatomic segmentectomy or nonanatomic wedge resection, in patients with subcentimeter nodules may become important. PMID:21986267

Gorenstein, Lyall A; Sonett, Joshua R

2011-10-01

98

Status and capability of the TOS and AMS upper stage family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 1986, the development of the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) is to be completed. TOS represents a new upper stage for the Space Transportation System (STS). It can place payloads in the weight range from 2,490 to 6,080 kg into Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) and deliver spacecraft to planetary and other high-energy trajectories. Aspects of design approach and reliability are considered along with structures and mechanisms, the main propulsion system with its solid rocket motor, the reaction control system, the avionics system, the airborne support equipment, performance capabilities, qualification testing, production schedule, acceptance testing, the Apogee and Maneuvering Stage (AMS) capabilities, and an AMS system description. Attention is also given to TOS/AMS capabilities, a TOS/AMS system description, and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) application.

White, R. C.

1986-03-01

99

Waterhammer Testing and Modeling of the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ares I rocket is the agency's first step in completing the goals of the Constellation Program, which plans to deliver a new generation of space explorers into low earth orbit for future missions to the International Space Station, the moon, and other destinations within the solar system. Ares I is a two-stage rocket topped by the Orion crew capsule and its service module. The launch vehicle's First Stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), derived from the Space Shuttle Program's four segment RSRB. The vehicle's Upper Stage, being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is propelled by a single J-2X Main Engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During active Upper Stage flight of the Ares I launch vehicle, the Upper Stage Reaction Control System (US ReCS) will perform attitude control operations for the vehicle. The US ReCS will provide three-axis attitude control capability (roll, pitch, and yaw) for the Upper Stage while the J-2X is not firing and roll control capability while the engine is firing. Because of the requirements imposed upon the system, the design must accommodate rapid pulsing of multiple thrusters simultaneously to maintain attitude control. In support of these design activities and in preparation for Critical Design Review, analytical models of the US ReCS propellant feed system have been developed using the Thermal Hydraulic Library of MSC.EASY5 v.2008, herein referred to as EASY5. EASY5 is a commercially available fluid system modeling package with significant history of modeling space propulsion systems. In Fall 2009, a series of development tests were conducted at MSFC on a cold-flow test article for the US ReCS, herein referred to as System Development Test Article (SDTA). A subset of those tests performed were aimed at examining the effects of waterhammer on a flight-representative system and to ensure that those effects could be quantified with analytical models and incorporated into the design of the flight system. This paper presents an overview of the test article and the test approach, along with a discussion of the analytical modeling methodology. In addition, the results of that subset of development tests, along with analytical model pre-test predictions and post-test model correlations, will also be discussed in detail.

Williams, J. Hunter; Holt, Kimberly A.

2010-01-01

100

Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

2008-01-01

101

77 FR 28772 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirement for states to implement Stage II gasoline vapor recovery systems at gasoline dispensing facilities in nonattainment areas...Purpose of Regulatory Action Since 1990, Stage II gasoline vapor recovery systems have been a...

2012-05-16

102

75 FR 74624 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: Stage II Vapor Recovery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to revisions to Georgia's Stage II gasoline vapor recovery rule at 391-3-1...to revisions to Georgia's Stage II gasoline vapor recovery rule at 391-3- 1...CAA and Georgia SIP Provisions A. Gasoline Vapor Recovery Provisions...

2010-12-01

103

Migration and winter distributions of canvasbacks staging on the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fall and winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) staging on the upper Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin (navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Pool 19) were studied during 1973-77. Sightings and recoveries obtained from 1,488 color-marked males during 1973-75 and 3,789 banded males and females during 1973-77 suggested 2 principal migration corridors: 1 extending eastward from Pools 7 and 8 to the eastern Great Lakes and southeast to the Mid-Atlantic Region and another southward from Pools 7 and 8 to the lower Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast, and east Texas regions. These discrete populations stage concurrently on Pools 7 and 8 during the fall, but winter in different areas of the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Central flyways. Populations staging on Pool 19 were not discrete from those staging on Pools 7 and 8. A continual turnover of birds passing through these staging areas was indicated. Canvasbacks wintering in the Mississippi and Central flyways were widely dispersed among a variety of habitats, whereas canvasbacks wintering in the Atlantic Flyway were concentrated in a few traditional habitats. Canvasbacks exhibited strong fidelity to wintering areas. Distribution patterns and population attributes of canvasbacks during fall and winter may be explained by the predictability of natural foods and their ability to exploit these foods.

Serie, J. R.; Trauger, D. L.; Sharp, D. E.

1983-01-01

104

Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

2011-01-01

105

Visualizing group II intron catalysis through the stages of splicing  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Group II introns are self-splicing ribozymes that share a reaction mechanism and a common ancestor with the eukaryotic spliceosome, thereby providing a model system for understanding the chemistry of pre-mRNA splicing. Here we report fourteen crystal structures of a group II intron at different stages of catalysis. We provide a detailed mechanism for the first step of splicing, we describe a reversible conformational change between the first and the second steps of splicing, and we present the ligand-free intron structure after splicing, in an active state that corresponds to the retrotransposable form of the intron. During each reaction, the reactants are aligned and activated by a heteronuclear four-metal-ion center that contains a metal cluster and obligate monovalent cations, adopting a structural arrangement similar to that of protein endonucleases. Based on our data, we propose a model for the splicing cycle and show that it is applicable to the eukaryotic spliceosome.

Marcia, Marco; Pyle, Anna Marie

2012-01-01

106

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-05-30

107

MRI and Mammography Before Surgery in Patients With Stage I-II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2014-03-24

108

Rituximab and Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2013-01-04

109

Light Curve Observations of Upper Stages in the Low Earth Orbit Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active debris removal (ADR) is a potential means to remediate the orbital debris environment in low Earth orbit (LEO). Massive intact objects, including spent upper stages and retired payloads, with high collision probabilities have been suggested as potential targets for ADR. The challenges to remove such objects on a routine basis are truly monumental. A key piece of information needed for any ADR operations is the tumble motion of the targets. Rapid tumble motion (in excess of one degree per second) of a multiple-ton intact object could be a major problem for proximity and docking operations. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the general tumble motion of the potential ADR targets for future ADR planning. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has initiated an effort to identify the global tumble behavior of potential ADR targets in LEO. The activities include optical light curve observations, imaging radar data collection, and laboratory light curve simulations and modeling. This paper provides a preliminary summary of light curve data of more than 100 upper stages collected by two telescope facilities in Colorado and New Mexico between 2011 and 2012. Analyses of the data and implications for the tumble motions of the objects are also discussed in the paper.

Liou, J.-C.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Mulrooney, M.; Read, J.; Chun, F.; Dearborn, M.; Tippets, R.

2012-01-01

110

Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

Anderson, Joel M.

2011-01-01

111

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware-in-the-loop. Testing expanded in 2007, accompanied by the refinement of the design through several key milestones. This paper discusses those 2007 tests and milestones, as well as updates key developments in 2008.

Byrd, THomas

2008-01-01

112

Meteorological instrumentation II: routine instruments for upper air observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account is given of the history of upper air observations followed by a statement of the uses to which these are put and of the accuracy called for. The problems to be faced and present methods of solution are discussed for the three parameters, temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Then follows a description of the main telemetry systems

A H Hooper

1968-01-01

113

MIDDLE TO UPPER ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (PHASE II)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this assessment activity is to enhance the ability of decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Middle to Upper Atlantic Region who are vulnerable to land use change and climate change to access and use the best scientific information when making decisions th...

114

The role of the upper sample size limit in two-stage bioequivalence designs.  

PubMed

Two-stage designs (TSDs) are currently recommended by the regulatory authorities for bioequivalence (BE) assessment. The TSDs presented until now rely on an assumed geometric mean ratio (GMR) value of the BE metric in stage I in order to avoid inflation of type I error. In contrast, this work proposes a more realistic TSD design where sample re-estimation relies not only on the variability of stage I, but also on the observed GMR. In these cases, an upper sample size limit (UL) is introduced in order to prevent inflation of type I error. The aim of this study is to unveil the impact of UL on two TSD bioequivalence approaches which are based entirely on the interim results. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate several different scenarios of UL levels, within-subject variability, different starting number of subjects, and GMR. The use of UL leads to no inflation of type I error. As UL values increase, the % probability of declaring BE becomes higher. The starting sample size and the variability of the study affect type I error. Increased UL levels result in higher total sample sizes of the TSD which are more pronounced for highly variable drugs. PMID:23954235

Karalis, Vangelis

2013-11-01

115

Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

Kromis, Phillip A.

2010-01-01

116

Experimental approach on the pyrotechnical shock reduction of Ariane-5 upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation of the upper stage of the Ariane 5 launcher is to be achieved by means of a Pyrotechnical Expansive Tube (PET) installed in the Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB) structure. When the pyrotechnical device is activated, severe shock levels are transmitted to the structural components and electronic equipment located near the separation section. These shock inputs could affect the operational performances of the above mentioned components during and after separation. An experimental research project to verify that VEB equipment will not be damaged, to achieve a deeper knowledge of the nature and consequences of the event, and to improve existing theoretical models, was undertaken. A specification was identified for the equipment platform, and a campaign of technological tests were started in order to select a damping material and its layout to obtain the highest shock reduction without compromising the VEB structural integrity and stiffness.

Uribarri, I.; Tejero, P.; Rivaillon, B.; Laviron, B.

1991-10-01

117

IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

1975-01-01

118

Inertial Upper Stage for the Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives in VPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster is moved toward a workstand in Kennedy Space Center's Vertical Processing Facility. The IUS will be mated with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and then undergo testing to validate the IUS/Chandra connections and check the orbiter avionics interfaces. Following that, an end-to-end test (ETE) will be conducted to verify the communications path to Chandra, commanding it as if it were in space. With the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 22 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

1999-01-01

119

STS-93 crew members look over the Inertial Upper Stage booster at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Solid Motor Assembly Building, Cape Canaveral Air Station, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley look over the Inertial Upper Stage booster being readied for their mission. Other crew members (not shown) are Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). STS-93, scheduled to launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, has the primary mission of the deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

1999-01-01

120

Inertial Upper Stage for the Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives in VPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster (right) is lifted out of its container after arriving at Kennedy Space Center's Vertical Processing Facility. The IUS will be mated with the Chandra X-ray Observatory (at left) and then undergo testing to validate the IUS/Chandra connections and check the orbiter avionics interfaces. Following that, an end-to-end test (ETE) will be conducted to verify the communications path to Chandra, commanding it as if it were in space. With the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 22 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

1999-01-01

121

Inertial Upper Stage for the Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives in VPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Vertical Processing Facility, the Chandra X-ray Observatory is lifted from its workstand in order to move it to the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) nearby. After being mated, the two components will then undergo testing to validate the IUS/Chandra connections and check the orbiter avionics interfaces. Following that, an end-to-end test (ETE) will be conducted to verify the communications path to Chandra, commanding it as if it were in space. With the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 22 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

1999-01-01

122

Inertial Upper Stage for the Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives in VPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster is lowered toward a workstand in Kennedy Space Center's Vertical Processing Facility. The IUS will be mated with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and then undergo testing to validate the IUS/Chandra connections and check the orbiter avionics interfaces. Following that, an end-to-end test (ETE) will be conducted to verify the communications path to Chandra, commanding it as if it were in space. With the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 22 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

1999-01-01

123

STS-93 crew members look over the Inertial Upper Stage booster at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Solid Motor Assembly Building, Cape Canaveral Air Station, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman kneels next to the Inertial Upper Stage booster being readied for the mission. Other crew members (not shown) are Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). STS-93, scheduled to launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, has the primary mission of the deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

1999-01-01

124

Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

2008-01-01

125

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

2012-01-01

126

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

2011-01-01

127

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

2004-01-01

128

BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station.  

PubMed

A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality at three different levels of proximity to the selected service station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) in the background. Continuous monitoring and passive sampling were used for achieving high temporal and spatial resolution, respectively. A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4) was used for assessing the road traffic contribution to the local concentrations under different meteorological conditions. It was established that Stage 2 vapour recovery reduces BTX concentrations not only near the pumps, but also in their surrounding environment. However, there is evidence that the efficiency of the system is wind speed dependent. The modelling simulation of the worst case wind scenario revealed the significance of local traffic emissions. It was shown that the traffic contribution even from a single road in the vicinity of the station can, under certain conditions, be higher than the contribution of the station itself to the local BTX levels. Finally, after comparison with previous studies, the concentrations measured near the service station (which was situated in a rural environment) appear to be lower than those observed in busy street canyons in city centres. It can be concluded, although Stage 2 recovery system effectively reduces working VOC losses in service stations, that it will only have a limited positive impact on local air quality if the service station is located in a heavily polluted area. PMID:12094529

Gonzalez-Flesca, Norbert; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Cicolella, André

2002-01-01

129

The thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, II: Energetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profiles derived from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer data in Paper I show that the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere is extremely variable. The median temperature of each vertical profile, which is approximately equal to the temperature derived by fitting the barometric equation to the N2 density profile, varied between 112 and 175 K. Here we attempt to understand the cause of the 60 K variation in temperature, as well as large local perturbations in temperature, by estimating the strength of potentially important energy sources and sinks in Titan's thermosphere including ion and electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere, Joule heating, and wave dissipation. The apparent correlation between the temperature of Titan's thermosphere and Titan's plasma environment suggest that particle precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be the most significant heat source, but we find that the energy deposited by magnetospheric sources is less than solar EUV and results from a thermal structure model indicate that magnetospheric particle precipitation only increases the temperature of Titan's thermosphere by ˜7 K; therefore, heating due to magnetospheric particle precipitation is too small to explain the largest temperature variations observed. We also estimate the energy deposited by waves in Titan's thermosphere and show that wave dissipation may be a significant source of heating or cooling in Titan's upper atmosphere.

Snowden, D.; Yelle, R. V.

2014-01-01

130

Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high sinuosity stage, the secondary anabranches behave as non-developed meanders. Also, it was concluded that the planform for secondary anabranches in all main channel sinuosity stages are controlled by the main anabranch migration.

Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

2013-12-01

131

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

132

Performance test of the upper head injection system at the ROSA-II test facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate upper head injection system (UHIS) performance during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), ten UHIS tests were conducted at the ROSA-II test facility. The experimental results were different from the expected UHIS performance in the following points. First, flashing took place in the upper head and a mixture level was formed before UHIS

K. Tasaka; H. Adachi; M. Sobajima; K. Soda; M. Suzuki; M. Okazaki; M. Shiba

1979-01-01

133

Global distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity derived from SAGE II observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity derived from the archived SAGE II water vapor data set are presented. For both summer and winter months, vertical profiles of zonal mean relative humidity are derived for each of the six 20-deg latitude bands covering 60 deg N - 60 deg S. Some examples of global maps of upper tropospheric relative humidity are shown to illustrate the relationship between moist areas and convective activity.

Chiou, E. W.; Larsen, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Rind, D.

1992-01-01

134

Deletion of chromosome 4q predicts outcome in Stage II colon cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Around 30% of all stage II colon cancer patients will relapse and die of their disease. At present no objective parameters\\u000a to identify high-risk stage II colon cancer patients, who will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, have been established.\\u000a With traditional histopathological features definition of high-risk stage II colon cancer patients is inaccurate. Therefore\\u000a more objective and robust markers for prediction

R. P. M. Brosens; E. J. T. H. Belt; J. C. Haan; T. E. Buffart; B. Carvalho; H. Grabsch; P. Quirke; M. A. Cuesta; A. F. Engel; B. Ylstra; G. A. Meijer

2011-01-01

135

Analysis of Allelic Imbalance on Chromosome 17p13 in Stage I and Stage II Epithelial Ovarian Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.To determine whether there is evidence for allelic imbalance (AI) on chromosome 17p13 in early-stage epithelial ovarian tumors.Methods.Studies of allelic imbalance were performed on 29 stage I or stage II epithelial ovarian cancers using 5 short tandem repeat polymorphic markers (STRPs) on chromosome 17p13 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification.Results.Sixteen of 29 (55%) tumors showed AI at one or more

Donald W. Wiper; Kristine M. Zanotti; Alexander W. Kennedy; Jerome L. Belinson; Graham Casey

1998-01-01

136

Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

1974-01-01

137

Shuttle program standard maneuver sequences for orbiter/upper-stage separation SSUS-A, SSUS-D, and IUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descriptions of standard post-ejection maneuver sequences for the deployment of IUS, SSUS-A, and SSUS-D upper stages from the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The sequences were designed to satisfy requirements for limiting the damage inflicted on the orbiter by upper-stage exhaust particles, subject to a further requirement for minimizing the impingement of orbiter thruster plumes on the deployed payload. In all cases it was assumed that the orbital maneuvering system engines would be used to apply the orbiter's major separation velocity increment.

Wilson, S. W.

1980-01-01

138

Was Breast Conserving Surgery Underutilized for Early Stage Breast Cancer? Instrumental Variables Evidence for Stage II Patients from Iowa  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the average survival effects of breast conserving surgery plus irradiation relative to mastectomy for marginal stage II breast cancer patients in Iowa from 1989–1994. Data Sources/Data Setting Secondary linked Iowa SEER Cancer Registry—Iowa Hospital Association discharge abstract data for women in Iowa with stage II breast cancer from 1989–1994. Study Design Observational instrumental variables (IV) analysis. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Women with stage II breast cancer from the Iowa SEER Cancer Registry 1989–1994 who received all of their inpatient care in Iowa were linked with their respective hospital discharge abstracts. Principal Findings Breast conserving surgery plus irradiation decreased survival relative to mastectomy for marginal stage II breast cancer patients in Iowa during the early 1990s. In this study marginal patients were those whose surgery choices were affected by differences in area treatment rates and access to radiation facilities. Conclusions If marginal patients are representative of patients whose treatment choices would be affected by changes in treatment rates, an increase in the breast conserving surgery plus irradiation rate for stage II early stage breast cancer patients would have decreased survival in Iowa during the early 1990s. Further research with newer data and broader samples is needed to make more current and specific assessments.

Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Scott, Shane D; Chen-Hardee, Shari S

2003-01-01

139

Utility of palmatolepids and icriodontids in recognizing Upper Devonian Series, Stage, and possible substage boundaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conodonts are accepted internationally to define Devonian Series and Stage boundaries. Hence, the evolution and taxonomy of pelagic palmatolepids, primarily Palmatolepis and its direct ancestor Mesotaxis, and shallow-water icriodontids, Icriodus, Pelekysgnathus, and "Icriodus", are the major tools for recognizing subdivisions of the Upper Devonian. Palmatolepids are the basis for the Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation (ZIEGLER & SANDBERG 1990), whereas icriodontids are the basis for the alternative, integrated shallow-water zonation (SANDBERG & DREESEN 1984). However, an alternative palmatolepid taxonomy for some Frasnian species has been employed recently by some conodont workers using the Montagne Noire (M.N.) zonation, shape analyses of Pa elements, and multielement reconstructions of KLAPPER (1989), KLAPPER & FOSTER (1993); and KLAPPER et al. (1996). Herein, the evolution of palmatolepids and icriodontids is summarized in terms of our zonation and some of the taxonomic differences with the alternative M.N. zonation are exemplified. One of the problems in relating the Standard and M.N. zonations arises from previous errors of interpretation and drafting of the Martenberg section in Germany. This section was designated the reference section for the Frasnian transitans through jamieae Zones by ZIEGLER & SANDBERG (1990). Herein, the early and middle Frasnian zonal boundaries at Martenberg are improved by re-study of our old and recent collections from three profiles, spaced only 4 m apart. Serious problems exist with the Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), selected by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, following the paleontologic definition of the bases of the Frasnian, Famennian, and Tournaisian Stages, because of the difficulty in making global correlations from these GSSP's. Our summary of these problems should be helpful if future workers decide to relocate these GSSP's.

Ziegler, W.; Sandberg, C. A.

2000-01-01

140

Reusable Centaur study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [development costs of Centaur launch vehicle as upper stage for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the Reusable Centaur for use as an initial upper stage with the space shuttle was conducted. The currently operative Centaur stage, with modifications for space shuttle orbiter compatibility and for improved performance, represents a cost effective development solution. The performance needs and available development funds are discussed. The main features of three Reusable Centaur configurations with increasing capability at increasing development costs are summarized.

Heald, D. A.

1974-01-01

141

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion system concepts. SSME upper stage use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective was to determine viable methods for starting the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in an altitude environment and restarting it in an orbit environment with minimum changes in utilization of the engine system or hardware. The study concluded that the use of the SSME in an upper stage is feasible with minimal changes to the engine systems. The altitude start case requires only a change in the valve sequencing during start and reorificing of the ASI lines. Inlet pressures can be moderately low at 40 psia for the LOX and 32 psia for the H2. The orbital restart case adds the need to recirculate propellant and thermal control paint (to keep the turbomachinery inlets cold to minimize the tank pressures needed), and the need to heat two small components (to maintain acceptable mixture ratios during the early part of the start). These actions allow start anytime after approximately 120 minutes. Earlier starts (approximately one hour) are also possible but would require additional component heating for mixture ratio control during the early portion of the start sequence.

Strangeland, Eric; Levak, Daniel

1993-01-01

142

STS-93 crew members look over the Inertial Upper Stage booster at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Solid Motor Assembly Building, Cape Canaveral Air Station, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (left) lifts the protective covering to look at the avionics box on the Inertial Upper Stage booster. Next to her are Eric Herrburger (center), with Boeing, and crew member Mission Specialist Michel Tognini (right) of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). STS-93 is scheduled to launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia and has the primary mission of the deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Other STS-93 crew members are Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley.

1999-01-01

143

Flight Results of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

2000-01-01

144

STS-93 crew members look over the Inertial Upper Stage booster at CCAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Solid Motor Assembly Building, Cape Canaveral Air Station, looking over the Inertial Upper Stage booster being readied for their mission are (left to right) STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Michel Tognini, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and Steven A. Hawley. On the far right is Eric Herrburger, with Boeing. Other crew members (not shown) are Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman. STS-93, scheduled to launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, has the primary mission of the deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Formerly called the Advanced X- ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

1999-01-01

145

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion system concepts. SSME upper stage use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective was to determine viable methods for starting the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in an altitude environment and restarting it in an orbit environment with minimum changes in utilization of the engine system or hardware. The study concluded that the use of the SSME in an upper stage is feasible with minimal changes to the engine systems. The altitude start case requires only a change in the valve sequencing during start and reorificing of the ASI lines. Inlet pressures can be moderately low at 40 psia for the LOX and 32 psia for the H2. The orbital restart case adds the need to recirculate propellant and thermal control paint (to keep the turbomachinery inlets cold to minimize the tank pressures needed), and the need to heat two small components (to maintain acceptable mixture ratios during the early part of the start). These actions allow start anytime after approximately 120 minutes. Earlier starts (approximately one hour) are also possible but would require additional component heating for mixture ratio control during the early portion of the start sequence.

Strangeland, Eric; Levak, Daniel

1993-04-01

146

Improved outcome in patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy for pathologic stage I II endometrial cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate prognostic factors and treatment outcome for high risk pathological Stage I and II endometrial cancer patients treated with consistent postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in a single institution and to compare these results to series where RT was variably applied.Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 1993, 98 pathologic Stage I and II endometrial cancer patients received postoperative RT

Ö. Algan; T. Tabesh; A. Hanlon; W. M. Hogan; M. Boente; R. M. Lanciano

1996-01-01

147

Analysis of fracture failure of fir-tree serrations of stage II turbine disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of fracture failure of fir-tree serrations in stage II turbine disks in a certain type of engine. On the basis of statistical analysis, basic fracture features and fracture mechanisms of stage II turbine disk serrations have been summarized. The reasons for the serration fracture failure are: (a) the first order bending resonance k=5 in the

M. L Xie; P. D Zhong; N. S Xi; Y Zhang; C. H Tao

2000-01-01

148

The Postoperative Adjuvant Radiation Therapy and Radiochemotherapy for UICC Stage II and III Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This analysis was undertaken to review the outcome and toxicity of postoperative adjuvant therapy for Stage II and III rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 112 patients treated with radiotherapy (44 patients) and radiochemotherapy (68 patients) after potentially curative (R0) surgery for rectal cancer (UICC Stages II and III), between 1983 and 1994 at the University Clinic of

Athanasios Bagatzounis; Jochen Willner; Ulrich Oppitz; Michael Flentje

2000-01-01

149

Prognostic factors for local and distant recurrence in Stage I and II cervical carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The effects of tumor size, parametrial involvement, and other variables on treatment outcome for patients with Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obsterique (FIGO) Stage I or II cervical carcinoma, as well as treatment complications, were analyzed retrospectively.Methods and Materials: Records of 125 patients with FIGO Stage I or II carcinoma of the uterine cervix selected for curative radiotherapy between

Maria Werner-Wasik; Christopher H. Schmid; Linda Bornstein; Harrison G. Ball; Donna M. Smith; Hywel Madoc-Jones

1995-01-01

150

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer With Poor Prognostic Features  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adjuvant chemotherapy is typically considered for patients with stage II colon cancer characterized by poor prognostic features, including obstruction, perforation, emergent admission, T4 stage, resection of fewer than 12 lymph nodes, and poor histology. Despite frequent use, the survival advantage conferred on patients with stage II disease by chemotherapy is yet unproven. We sought to determine the overall survival benefit of chemotherapy among patients with stage II colon cancer having poor prognostic features. Patients and Methods A total of 43,032 Medicare beneficiaries who underwent colectomy for stage II and III primary colon adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 1992 to 2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) –Medicare database. ?2 and two-way analysis of variance were used to assess differences in patient- and disease-related characteristics. Five-year overall survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression with propensity score weighting. Results Of the 24,847 patients with stage II cancer, 75% had one or more poor prognostic features. Adjuvant chemotherapy was received by 20% of patients with stage II disease and 57% of patients with stage III disease. After adjustment, 5-year survival benefit from chemotherapy was observed only for patients with stage III disease (hazard ratio[HR], 0.64; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.67). No survival benefit was observed for patients with stage II cancer with no poor prognostic features (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.25) or stage II cancer with any poor prognostic features (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13). Conclusion Among Medicare patients identified with stage II colon cancer, either with or without poor prognostic features, adjuvant chemotherapy did not substantially improve overall survival. This lack of benefit must be considered in treatment decisions for similar older adults with colon cancer.

O'Connor, Erin S.; Greenblatt, David Yu; LoConte, Noelle K.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Liou, Jinn-Ing; Heise, Charles P.; Smith, Maureen A.

2011-01-01

151

One-stage reconstruction of the entire upper lip and the columella with a modified bilateral nasolabial flap.  

PubMed

The functional and cosmetic reconstruction of the upper lip after a subtotal defect is a highly demanding challenge, especially when the columella is involved. In the majority of cases, the surgical techniques described in the literature are suitable only for restoring the function and appearance of the upper lip but not for reconstructing adjacent areas. In this article, we present the case of an 85-year-old female patient with an extensive, aggressive and highly invasive basal cell carcinoma of the upper lip and the columella. We describe a modification of the nasolabial flap technique using cheek tissue for the reconstruction of the defect. The modified flap is used for both the full-thickness reconstruction of the subtotal upper-lip defect and the restoration of the function and appearance of the columella. This technique allows excellent cosmetic and functional results to be obtained in a single-stage procedure. PMID:19771441

Lorenz, Kai Johannes; Maier, Heinz

2010-06-01

152

NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Reaction Control System (ReCS) Cold Flow Development Test Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J2-X engine Upper Stage, is the vehicle that s been chosen to launch the Orion Crew Module, which will return humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. After First Stage booster separation, the Reaction Control System (ReCS), a monopropellant hydrazine system, will provide the Upper Stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. This paper provides an overview of the system level development testing that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle Upper Stage ReCS. The ReCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) was built as a flight representative water flow test article whose primary test objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate the integrate system performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Water is the industry standard for cold flow testing of hydrazine systems, because the densities are very close and the speeds of sound are well characterized. The completion of this development level test program was considered necessary to support the ReCS Critical Design Review. This paper will address the design approach taken in building the test article, the objectives of the test program, types of testing completed, general results, the ability of the program to meet the test objectives, and lessons learned

Dervan, Melanie; Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Sivak, Amy; Morris, Jon D.

2010-01-01

153

Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid-life Evolution (A5-ME) program track the progress of these technology developments and analyze their applicability in time for A5-ME. In order to approximate A5-ME concerned preconditions, activities are initiated aiming at harmonization of the available specifications. Hence, a look-out towards a further technology step approaching TRL6 in a subsequent phase is given, briefly addressing topics of full scale manufacture and appropriate thermo-mechanical testing of an entire sandwich common bulkhead.

Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

2012-12-01

154

Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

2011-12-07

155

Second Stage (S-II) Arrives at Marshall Space Flight Center For Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The business end of a Second Stage (S-II) slowly emerges from the shipping container as workers prepare to transport the Saturn V component to the testing facility at MSFC. The Second Stage (S-II) underwent vibration and engine firing tests. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

2004-01-01

156

Predictors of recurrence free survival for patients with stage II and III colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate clinico-pathologic specific predictors of recurrence for stage II/III disease. Improving recurrence prediction for resected stage II/III colon cancer patients could alter surveillance strategies, providing opportunities for more informed use of chemotherapy for high risk individuals. Methods 871 stage II and 265 stage III patients with colon cancers were included. Features studied included surgery date, age, gender, chemotherapy, tumor location, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor differentiation, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion. Time to recurrence was evaluated, using Cox’s proportional hazards models. The predictive ability of the multivariable models was evaluated using the concordance (c) index. Results For stage II cancer patients, estimated recurrence-free survival rates at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 98%, 92%, 90%, and 89%. Only T stage was significantly associated with recurrence. Estimated recurrence-free survival rates for stage III patients at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 94%, 78%, 70%, and 66%. Higher recurrence rates were seen in patients who didn’t receive chemotherapy (p?=?0.023), with a higher number of positive nodes (p?stage II model was 0.55 and 0.68 for stage III. Conclusions Current clinic-pathologic information is inadequate for prediction of colon cancer recurrence after resection for stage II and IIII patients. Identification and clinical use of molecular markers to identify the earlier stage II and III colon cancer patients at elevated risk of recurrence are needed to improve prognostication of early stage colon cancers.

2014-01-01

157

Reconstructing Northern Hemisphere upper-level fields during World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly mean fields of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from 700 to 100 hPa were statistically reconstructed for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere for the World War II period. The reconstruction was based on several hundred predictor variables, comprising temperature series from meteorological stations and gridded sea level pressure data (1939-1947) as well as a large amount of historical upper-air data

S. Brönnimann; J. Luterbacher

2004-01-01

158

Rituximab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Yttrium Y 90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan in Treating Patients With Stage I or Stage II Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2013-07-15

159

A 20k payload launch vehicle fast track development concept using an RD-180 engine and a Centaur upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

Toelle, Ronald (compiler)

1995-01-01

160

77 FR 35279 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude ``E85'' AGENCY: Environmental...compound emissions from the transfer of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle...

2012-06-13

161

76 FR 61062 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude ``E85'' AGENCY: Environmental...compound emissions from the transfer of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle...

2011-10-03

162

76 FR 41731 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirements for states to implement Stage II gasoline vapor recovery systems at gasoline dispensing facilities in areas classified...NAAQS. Individuals and companies that operate gasoline dispensing facilities may be indirectly...

2011-07-15

163

78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY: Environmental...control requirements for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State...Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks. In addition, rule...

2013-06-07

164

75 FR 74673 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: Stage II Vapor Recovery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards. EPA has preliminarily determined that these revisions are consistent with the December 12, 2006, EPA memorandum from Stephen D. Page entitled Removal of Stage II Vapor Recovery in Situations Where Widespread Use of Onboard Refueling Vapor...

2010-12-01

165

78 FR 58884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Kentucky. EPA's approval of this revision to Kentucky's SIP is based on the December 12, 2006, EPA policy memorandum from Stephen D. Page, entitled ``Removal of Stage II Vapor Recovery in Situations Where Widespread Use of Onboard Refueling Vapor...

2013-09-25

166

Adjuvant therapy of stage II colorectal cancer – who will benefit from treatment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Adjuvant treatment of stage II colon cancer remains an issue of controversy. Though there is evidence indicating that adjuvant\\u000a therapy is associated with a limited survival benefit, large clinical trials published so far did not provide enough evidence\\u000a to regard adjuvant therapy of stage II colon cancer as standard of care. The ultimate clinical decision should be based on\\u000a the

H. Zwierzina

2008-01-01

167

Proton Beam Therapy of Stage II and III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The present retrospective study assessed the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of patients with Stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer who were inoperable or ineligible for chemotherapy because of co-existing disease or refusal. Patients and Methods: Between November 2001 and July 2008, PBT was given to 35 patients (5 patients with Stage II, 12 with Stage IIIA, and 18 with Stage IIIB) whose median age was 70.3 years (range, 47.4-85.4). The median proton dose given was 78.3 Gy (range, 67.1-91.3) (relative biologic effectiveness). Results: Local progression-free survival for Stage II-III patients was 93.3% at 1 year and 65.9% at 2 years during a median observation period of 16.9 months. Four patients (11.4%) developed local recurrence, 13 (37.1%) developed regional recurrence, and 7 (20.0%) developed distant metastases. The progression-free survival rate for Stage II-III patients was 59.6% at 1 year and 29.2% at 2 years. The overall survival rate of Stage II-III patients was 81.8% at 1 year and 58.9% at 2 years. Grade 3 or greater toxicity was not observed. A total of 15 patients (42.9%) developed Grade 1 and 6 (17.1%) Grade 2 toxicity. Conclusion: PBT for Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer without chemotherapy resulted in good local control and low toxicity. PBT has a definite role in the treatment of patients with Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer who are unsuitable for surgery or chemotherapy.

Nakayama, Hidetsugu, E-mail: hnakayam@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Satoh, Hiroaki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kurishima, Koichi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishikawa, Shigemi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokuuye, Koichi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-15

168

Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

2014-02-26

169

Evolutionary stages of a mid-Proterozoic carbonate basin as inferred from the upper marble, Adirondack Lowlands, New York  

SciTech Connect

Mineral abundances for Upper Marble protoliths, obtained through least-squares multiple regression calculations, and trace element concentrations for 112 samples from two drill cores, exhibit stratigraphic variations that are interpretable in terms of stages in the development of the original carbonate basin. Factor analysis with varimax rotation reveals three dominant factors; dolomite, calcite + Sr, and quartz; and five minor factors: clastics, anhydrite + Sr, magnesite, ore + Sr, and illite. When the factor affiliations of samples are considered with respect to their stratigraphic arrangement, the result can be interpreted in terms of a seven-stage model of basin evolution that possesses elements common to both Proterozoic and Phanerozoic carbonate basins. According to this model, stage 1 was dominated by widespread penecontemporaneous dolomitization punctuated by brief periods of increased basin restriction. Stage 2 involved increasing basin restriction during which dolomitization was progressively inhibited by increasing Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 3 was characterized by further basin restriction and episodes of anhydrite precipitation during which dolomitization resumed briefly because of lowered Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 4 and 5 involved decreasing restriction and brine concentrations which allowed large-scale dolomitization to resume during stage 5, and abundant chert was formed in these sediments subsequent to dolomitization. Stage 6 was characterized by increasing restriction and progressive inhibition of dolomitization. Finally, stage 7 saw rapid increases in aluminosilicate sedimentation that ended further carbonate deposition. Sr abundances throughout the cores reflect control by carbonate mineralogy, which was in turn controlled by the degree of basin restriction.

Hauer, K.L.; Grant, N.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

170

Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097, Paclitaxel, And Carboplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2014-06-30

171

Long-term results with radiotherapy for stage I–II follicular lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the long-term results with radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage, low-grade follicular lymphomas.Methods and Materials: From 1960 to 1988, 80 patients with Stage I (n = 33) or II (n = 47), World Health Organization Grade 1 (n = 50) or 2 (n = 30) follicular lymphoma were treated with RT. The lymph nodes or spleen were involved in

Richard B Wilder; Dan Jones; Susan L Tucker; Lillian M Fuller; Chul S Ha; Peter McLaughlin; Mark A Hess; Fernando Cabanillas; James D Cox

2001-01-01

172

BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality at three different levels\\u000a of proximity to the selected service station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) in\\u000a the background. Continuous monitoring and passive sampling were used for achieving high temporal and spatial resolution, respectively.\\u000a A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4)

Norbert Gonzalez-Flesca; Sotiris Vardoulakis; André Cicolella

2002-01-01

173

Rituximab and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

2014-06-02

174

Prognostic and predictive significance of MSI in stages II/III colon cancer  

PubMed Central

In colon cancer, classic disease staging remains the key prognosis and treatment determinant. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has an established role in stage III colon cancer patients, in stage II it is still a subject of controversy due to its restriction to a small subgroup of patients with high-risk histopathologic features. Patients with stage II tumors form a highly heterogeneous group, with five-year relative overall survival rates ranging from 87.5% (IIA) to 58.4% (IIC). Identifying those for whom adjuvant chemotherapy would be appropriate and necessary has been challenging, and prognostic markers which could serve in the selection of patients more likely to recur or benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy are eagerly needed. The stronger candidate in this category seems to be microsatellite instability (MSI). The recently reported European Society for Medical Oncology guidelines suggest that MSI should be evaluated in stage II colorectal cancer patients in order to contribute in treatment decision-making regarding chemotherapy administration. The hypothetical predictive role of MSI regarding its response to 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy has proven a much more difficult issue to address. Almost every possible relation between MSI and chemotherapy outcome has been described in the adjuvant colon cancer setting in the international literature, and the matter is far from being settled. In this current report we critically evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of MSI status in patients with stage II and stage III colon cancer patients.

Saridaki, Zacharenia; Souglakos, John; Georgoulias, Vassilis

2014-01-01

175

Bilateral slipping of the upper femoral epiphysis in end-stage renal failure. A report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two cases of bilateral slipping of the upper femoral epiphysis in boys with end-stage renal failure due to megacystis and mega-ureter with severe renal osteodystrophy are reported. In one patient the lesion emerged after a dystonic reaction to drugs and in the other after bilateral nephro-ureterectomy. Neither showed marked elevation of growth hormone levels, but both had evidence of renal rickets with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Both had a satisfactory response to bilateral internal fixation. The complication should be borne in mind in all young patients with renal osteodystrophy. PMID:7351429

Nixon, J R; Douglas, J F

1980-02-01

176

Large Scale Testing of a Foam/Multilayer Insulation Thermal Control System (TCS) for Cryogenic Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of high energy cryogenic upper stages is essential for the efficient delivery of large payloads to various destinations envisioned in future programs. A key element in such upper stages is cryogenic fluid management (CFM) advanced development/technology. Due to the cost of and limited opportunities for orbital experiments, ground testing must be employed to the fullest extent possible. Therefore, a system level test bed termed the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is representative in size and shape (3 meter diameter by 3 meter long with a volume of 18 cubic meters) of a fully integrated space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank has been established. To date, upper stage studies have often baselined the foam/multilayer insulation (FMLI) combination concept; however, hardware experience with the concept is minimal and was therefore selected for the MHTB. The foam element (isofoam SS-1 171 with an average thickness of 3.5 centimeters) is designed to protect against ground hold/ascent flight environments, and allows for the use of a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required with MLI in cryogenic applications. The MLI (45 layers of Double Aluminized Mylar with Dacron spacers) provides protection in the vacuum environment of space and is designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Several unique features were incorporated in the MLI concept and included: variable density MLI (reduces weight and radiation losses by changing the layer density), larger but fewer DAM perforations for venting during ascent to orbit (reduces radiation losses), and roll wrap installation of the MLI with a commercially established process to lower assembly man-hours and reduce seam heat leak. Thermal performance testing of the MHTB TCS was conducted during three test series conducted between September 1995 and May 1996. Results for the ground hold portion of the tests were as expected producing an average heat leak of 63 WattS/M2 at an average foam surface temperature of 170 K. The results of the simulated orbit hold test interval produced heat leaks ranging from 0.085 to 0.22 Watts/squareM at warm boundary temperatures of 164K and 305K, respectively. When compared to the performance for a traditional MLI system, a 60% reduction in orbital heat leak or boiloff was measured. Overall, the MHTB TCS demonstrated satisfactory performance for all mission phases required of a cryogenic upper stage.

Hastings, Leon; Martin, James

1998-01-01

177

Feeding ecology of canvasbacks staging on Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Foods consumed by canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria), food availability, and energetic relationships were studied on Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Canvasbacks fed primarily upon winter buds of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) and tubers of stiff arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida). In 1980, waterfowl consumed 40% of 380,160 kg of wildcelery winter buds on a portion of Pool 7 referred to as Lake Onalaska. Daily energy expenditure based on estimates from the literature suggests that individual canvasbacks require a minimum of 125 g (dry wt) of wildcelery winter buds each day. Extrapolation of use-days and the daily energy requirement suggests that 3,470 ha of wildcelery are required to support a canvasback population represented by 5 million use-days.

Korschgen, C. E.; George, L. S.; Green, W. L.

1988-01-01

178

Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

2010-01-01

179

Prognostic factors in resected pathological N1-stage II nonsmall cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Stage II nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been redefined in the seventh edition of tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer. Stages IIa and IIb both contain node-negative (N0) and node-positive (N1) subgroups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with resected N1-stage II NSCLC. Between January 1992 and December 2010, we retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 163 N1-stage II (T1a-T2bN1M0) NSCLC in patients undergoing curative resection as primary treatment. Median follow-up time was 37.2 months. The 1-, 3- and 5-yr overall survival rates were 85.3%, 62.1% and 43.5%, respectively. Tumour involvement of the hilar/interlobar nodal zone and poorly differentiated histological grade were significant predictors for worse overall survival using multivariate analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.015, respectively). There were trends toward worse overall survival in older patients and those with larger tumour size (p = 0.063 and p = 0.075, respectively). In resected N1-stage II NSCLC, hilar/interlobar nodal involvement and poorly differentiated histological grade were significant predictors of worse overall survival. The differences in survival between these subgroups of patients may lead to the use of different adjuvant therapies or post-surgical follow-up strategies. PMID:22835612

Liu, Chao-Yu; Hung, Jung-Jyh; Wang, Bing-Yen; Hsu, Wen-Hu; Wu, Yu-Chung

2013-03-01

180

Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a variable river stage seems to increase the amount of water exchanged between groundwater and river. Systematic biases are nevertheless found between simulated and observed mean river stage elevation. They show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. Thus, this study confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale.

Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

2013-12-01

181

On prediction of re-entry time of an upper stage from GTO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of objects in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is determined by a complex interplay of atmospheric drag and luni-solar gravity. These orbits are highly eccentric (eccentricity >0.7) and have large variations in velocity and perturbations during a revolution. The periodic changes in the perigee altitudes of these orbits are mainly due to the gravitational perturbations of the Sun and the Moon. The re-entry time of the objects in such orbits is sensitive to the initial conditions. The aim of this paper is to study the re-entry time of the cryogenic stage of the Indian geo-synchronous launch vehicle, GSLV-F04/CS, which has been decaying since 2 September 2007 from initial orbit with eccentricity equal to 0.706. Two parameters, initial eccentricity and ballistic coefficient, are chosen for optimal estimation. It is known that the errors are more in eccentricity for the observations based on two line elements (TLEs). These two parameters are computed with response surface method using a genetic algorithm for the selected eight different zones, based on rough linear variation of the mean apogee altitude during 200 days orbit evolution. The study shows that the GSLV-F04/CS will re-enter between 5 December 2010 and 7 January 2011. The methodology is also applied to study the re-entry of six decayed objects (cryogenic stages of GSLV and Molniya satellites). Good agreement is noticed between the actual and the predicted re-entry times. The absolute percentage error in re-entry prediction time for all the six objects is found to be less than 7%. The present methodology is being adopted at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) to predict the re-entry time of GSLV-F04/CS.

Mutyalarao, M.; Sharma, Ram Krishan

2011-06-01

182

Research-Based Course Materials and Assessments for Upper-Division Electrodynamics (E&M II)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Favorable outcomes from ongoing research at the University of Colorado Boulder on student learning in junior-level electrostatics (E&M I) have led us to extend this work to upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II). We describe here our development of a set of research-based instructional materials designed to actively engage students during lecture (including clicker questions and other in-class activities); and an instrument for assessing whether our faculty-consensus learning goals are being met. We also discuss preliminary results from several recent implementations of our transformed curriculum, plans for the dissemination and further refinement of these materials, and offer some insights into student difficulties in advanced undergraduate electromagnetism.

Baily, Charles; Dubson, Michael; Pollock, Steven J.

2013-05-28

183

Stage II/III cancer of the rectosigmoid junction: an independent tumor type?  

PubMed

The 5-year relapse-free survival rate (5Y-RFS) and 5-year overall survival rate (5Y-OS) were investigated in 766 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC). The Stage II group included 283 patients with colon cancer (CC), 40 patients with rectosigmoid junction cancer (RSC), and 74 patients with rectal cancer (RC), while the Stage III group comprised 226 patients with CC, 52 patients with RSC, and 91 patients with RC. Stage III patients with RC were further divided into 68 patients with Ra cancer (Ra, rectum/above the peritoneal reflection) and 23 patients with Rb cancer (Rb, rectum/below the peritoneal reflection). Then the 5Y-RFS and 5Y-OS were calculated for each category or subcategory. The 5Y-RFS/5Y-OS was 80.3/80.6% for Stage II patients and 63.7% (p<0.001)/66.2% (p<0.001) for Stage III patients. In the Stage II group, the survival rates were 82.9/81.2% for CC, 77.6/74.8% for RSC, and 72.9/80.5% for RC, with no significant differences between each category. In the Stage III group, the survival rates were 69.3/72.8% for CC, 71.6/77.7% for RSC, and 46.5/46.2% for RC. There was no significant difference of survival for CC vs. RSC, but significant differences were noted for CC vs. RC (p<0.001/p<0.001) and RSC vs. RC (p=0.008/p=0.007). In the Stage III group, survival rates were 71.6/77.7% for RSC, 47.6/44.8% for Ra, and 45.7/51.3% for Rb, with significant differences for RSC vs. Ra (p=0.013/p=0.005) and RSC vs. Rb (p=0.026/p=0.180), but not for Ra vs. Rb. These results suggest that Stage II/III RS cancer should be classified as colon cancer and should not be considered an independent tumor type. PMID:21667035

Mukai, Masaya; Kishima, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Masashi; Aoki, Hiromichi; Izumi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Tajima, Takayuki; Tobita, Kousuke; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Yasuda, Seiei; Ogoshi, Kyoji

2011-09-01

184

Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass–spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass–spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

185

An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

2003-01-01

186

78 FR 58184 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY: Environmental...contingency measures for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State...Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks, and 15A NCAC 02D.0954...

2013-09-23

187

American Society of Clinical Oncology Recommendations on Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To address whether all medically fit patients with curatively resected stage II colon cancer should be offered adjuvant chemotherapy as part of routine clinical practice, to identify patients with poor prognosis characteristics, and to describe strategies for oncologists to use to discuss adjuvant chemotherapy in practice.

Al B. Benson; Deborah Schrag; Mark R. Somerfield; Alfred M. Cohen; Alvaro T. Figueredo; Patrick J. Flynn; Monika K. Krzyzanowska; Jean Maroun; Pamela McAllister; Eric Van Cutsem; Melissa Brouwers; Manya Charette; Daniel G. Haller

2004-01-01

188

ARIANE 5 upper-stage ignition conditions improvement, and return to operation with ''Envisat'' payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARIANE 5 experienced a flight anomaly with the 10 th model mission (F 510), having placed its both satellites in a lower orbit than the planned GTO. Only one satellite (Artemis) could be retrieved due to its own propulsion systems. Arianespace, CNES and Astrium-GmbH (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) immediately set up a recovery team, combining forces for carrying deep and schedule-driven investigations, and later qualifying recovery measures. A failure in such an important program: is immediately triggering a large "post-shock" reaction from the ARIANE community implied in the relevant business and technology. The investigation fields are summarised in the following chapters, showing how failure analysis, engineering investigations and basic research have been combined in order to have a schedule and methodic efficient approach. The combination of all available European resources in space vehicle design has been implemented, involving industry, agency technical centers and research laboratories. The investigation methodology applied has been driven by the particular situation of a flight anomaly investigation, which has to take into account the reduced amount of measurement available in flight and the necessary combination with ground test data for building a strategy to reach identification of possible failure scenario. From the investigations and from extensive sensitivity characterisation test of EPS engine (AESTUS) ignition transient, stability margins have been deeply investigated and introduced in the post-anomaly upgraded stage design. The identification and implementation of recovery measures, extended as well to - potential ignition margin reduction factors even beyond the observed flight anomaly allowed to establish a robust complementary qualification status, thus allowing resuming of operational flight, starting with the valuable "Envisat" payload of European Space Agency, dedicated to earth and climate monitoring, on flight 511, the 28/02/2002, from Kourou Spaceport.

Dutheil, J. Ph.; Langel, G.

2003-08-01

189

Propulsion and aerodynamic analysis of the Beta II two-stage-to-orbit vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of a revised version of the Beta II two-stage-to-orbit vehicle has been undertaken. The goal of the study was to modify and refine critical components of the NASA/Boeing/Wright Laboratory Beta II booster design to better define a successful baseline vehicle that can provide routine access to space. The vehicle geometry was modified and corresponding aerodynamics were predicted. The propulsion system was improved by refining the nacelle design which included incorporating a variable capture area inlet, replacing the five High Speed Civil Transport derived turbine bypass turbojet engines with four variable cycle turbofan engines per nacelle, and removing the bypass duct system. The ramjet performance was adjusted for the change in airflow due to the variable capture area inlet. The second stage wing-body orbiter design was not modified for this study. The total Beta II takeoff weight which resulted was approximately 1.0 million pounds.

Davic, James R.; Midea, Anthony C.

1992-08-01

190

Promoter CpG island methylation of RET predicts poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients.  

PubMed

Improved prognostic stratification of patients with TNM stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is desired, since 20-30% of high-risk stage II patients may die within five years of diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene promoter CpG island methylation as a possible prognostic marker for TNM stage II CRC patients. The utility of RET promoter CpG island methylation in tumors of stage II CRC patients as a prognostic biomarker for CRC related death was studied in three independent series (including 233, 231, and 294 TNM stage II patients, respectively) by using MSP and pyrosequencing. The prognostic value of RET promoter CpG island methylation was analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. In the first series, analyzed by MSP, CRC stage II patients (n = 233) with RET methylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival as compared to those with unmethylated tumors (HRmultivariable = 2.51, 95%-CI: 1.42-4.43). Despite a significant prognostic effect of RET methylation in stage III patients of a second series, analyzed by MSP, the prognostic effect in stage II patients (n = 231) was not statistically significant (HRmultivariable = 1.16, 95%-CI 0.71-1.92). The third series (n = 294), analyzed by pyrosequencing, confirmed a statistically significant association between RET methylation and poor overall survival in stage II patients (HRmultivariable = 1.91, 95%-CI: 1.04-3.53). Our results show that RET promoter CpG island methylation, analyzed by two different techniques, is associated with a poor prognosis in stage II CRC in two independent series and a poor prognosis in stage III CRC in one series. RET methylation may serve as a useful and robust tool for clinical practice to identify high-risk stage II CRC patients with a poor prognosis. This merits further investigation. PMID:24560444

Draht, Muriel X G; Smits, Kim M; Tournier, Benjamin; Jooste, Valerie; Chapusot, Caroline; Carvalho, Beatriz; Cleven, Arjen H G; Derks, Sarah; Wouters, Kim A D; Belt, Eric J T; Stockmann, Hein B A C; Bril, Herman; Weijenberg, Matty P; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Herman, James G; Meijer, Gerrit A; Piard, Françoise; Melotte, Veerle; van Engeland, Manon

2014-05-01

191

Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-07-11

192

Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

Zachary, A. T.

1973-01-01

193

Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

194

Overview of the Beta II Two-Stage-To-Orbit vehicle design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of a near-term, low risk two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle was undertaken. The goal of the study was to assess a fully reusable TSTO vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing capability that could deliver 10,000 pounds to a 120 nm polar orbit. The configuration analysis was based on the Beta vehicle design. A cooperative study was performed to redesign and refine the Beta concept to meet the mission requirements. The vehicle resulting from this study was named Beta II. It has an all-airbreathing first stage and a staging Mach number of 6.5. The second stage is a conventional wing-body configuration with a single SSME.

Plencner, Robert M.

1991-01-01

195

An adjustment for patient heterogeneity in the design of two-stage phase II trials.  

PubMed

In single-arm, two-stage phase II clinical trials to evaluate efficacy of cancer treatments using a response endpoint, one typically identifies a single reference response rate to be the null hypothesis benchmark. Patients eligible for the trial are assumed to have this response rate on average under the null hypothesis. When patients arise from subpopulations having different response rates, this single response rate reference may not be appropriate for the particular mix of patients actually enrolled on the trial. As a result, the Type I and Type II error rates conditional on the mix of enrolled patients may differ considerably from the unconditional error rates used to design the trial. We describe a method for designing two-stage Phase II studies that accounts for patient heterogeneity and effectively stabilizes conditional Type I and Type II error over the range of patient mixes that are likely to arise. Use of the design requires good estimates of the expected response rate within each population stratum as well as the stratum membership probabilities, but its properties are similar to and often preferable to the standard two-stage design even in situations where the underlying assumptions do not hold absolutely. PMID:19521973

Sposto, Richard; Gaynon, Paul S

2009-09-10

196

Excisional biopsy, auxillary node dissection and definitive radiotherapy for Stages I and II breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

From 1977 to 1982, 189 patients with clinical Stage I and II breast cancer underwent excisional biopsy and auxillary node dissection followed by definitive radiotherapy at the University of Pennsylvania. One hundred and nine patients had T/sub 1/ lesions and 80 had T/sub 2/ lesions. Histologically negative nodes were found in 136 patients (72%) and histologically positive nodes in 53 patients. Median follow-up from the completion of radiotherapy was 26 months. The four year actuarial disease free survival is 82% for pathologic Stage I and 70% for pathologic Stage II. Cosmesis was judged to be good to excellent in 90% and fair in 9%. Complications included arm edema (7%), symptomatic pneumonitis (1%), rib fractures (1%), pericarditis (1%) and pleural effusion (1%). Primary radiotherapy for Stages I and II breast cancer produces a local-regional control rate of 95% and good to excellent cosmesis in 90% of the patients. While these results are preliminary, they compare favorably with other reported series.

Danoff, B.F.; Pajak, T.F.; Solin, L.J.; Goodman, R.L.

1985-03-01

197

Combined modality treatment for stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: CVP versus BACOP chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the 5-year results of a prospective randomized study beginning in 1976 on 177 evaluable patients with pathologic Stage I-IE and II-IIE non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with diffuse histology according to the Rappaport classification. Treatment consisted of either CVP or BACOP chemotherapy (3 cycles) followed by regional radiotherapy (40 to 50 Gy) and further cycles of either combination. In both arms, complete remission at the end of combined treatment was high (CVP 93%, BACOP 98%) regardless of age, stage or bulky disease. At 5 years, the comparative freedom from first progression was 62% for CVP vs 78% for BACOP (p = 0.02), respectively. Clinically relevant differences favoring BACOP chemotherapy were essentially documented in patients with large cell lymphomas (International Working Formulation), those with Stage II having more than three involved anatomical sites, bulky disease and age over 60 years. Recurrence within radiation fields was documented in only 5% of complete responders. Combined treatment was, in general, well tolerated particularly when BACOP was used. In only 2 patients given CVP post radiation cutaneous fibrosis was documented. Second solid tumors were detected in 4 patients. One patient started on CVP died because of brain stem necrosis after 45 Gy. We conclude that in Stage I-II patients with nodal and extranodal diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, particularly large cell lymphomas, combined modality approach with primary Adriamycin and bleomycin containing regimen, such as BACOP, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy offers high chances of cure with minimal toxicity.

Bajetta, E.; Valagussa, P.; Bonadonna, G.; Lattuada, A.; Buzzoni, R.; Rilke, F.; Banfi, A.

1988-07-01

198

Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2013-03-18

199

A Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program: The Life Course Interview (RDA-LCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article, a Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the qualitative…

Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ritchie, Rachel

2008-01-01

200

FISH COMMUNITIES IN LAKE IN SUBREGION 2B (UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN) IN RELATION TO LAKE ACIDITY: VOLUME II. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Surveys of fish community status were conducted in summer 1987 in 49 lakes in Subregion 20, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, as part of Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey. Lake selection involved a variable probability sampling design. Fish communities were surveyed using gill n...

201

Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

1987-07-01

202

Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

Le Scodan, Romuald, E-mail: lescodan@crh1.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Selz, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bollet, Marc A.; Lande, Brigitte de la; Daveau, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bruant, Sarah [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

2012-01-01

203

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected.

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

204

Radiotherapy of stage I and II Hodgkin disease with inguinal presentation  

SciTech Connect

Seventeen patients who presented with inguinal adenopathy were found to have stage I or II infradiaphragmatic Hodgkin disease. Two patients with stage IIB disease also received MOPP chemotherapy. Fifteen patients currently have no evidence of recurrence; one died of acute myelogenous leukemia 6 years after total nodal irradiation, while another died of cardiopulmonary disease but had no evidence of Hodgkin disease at autopsy. In one patient, progressive peripheral atherosclerosis developed in an irradiated inguinal area, requiring angioplasty. Patient characteristics and results of treatment are analyzed and implications for management presented.

Lanzillo, J.H.; Moylan, D.J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Kramer, S.

1985-01-01

205

Upper stage affair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three fundamental requirements must be satisfied by NASA's next-generation OTV: (1) the delivery of payloads at low acceleration levels; (2) ease of operational interface with the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its support infrastructure; and (3) the achievement of a LEO-to-GEO round-trip range capability. Propulsive efficiency is identified as the key factor in man-rated OTV effectiveness; cryogenic rather than solid, storable

Donald Robertson

1988-01-01

206

United States upper stages for the next decade 1 1 Paper IAF96–V. 2.01 presented at the 47th International Astronautical Congress, Beijing, China, 7–11 October 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G? was ultimately developed as the centaur

A. Goldstein; F. Woods

1997-01-01

207

Brunnstrom recovery stage and motricity index for the evaluation of upper extremity in stroke: analysis for correlation and responsiveness.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find out first whether Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and motricity index (MI) were correlated with each other and second to observe whether the two assessment tools were sensitive to changes regarding the rehabilitation outcome. Forty-six stroke patients who were admitted to the Stroke Rehabilitation Unit at our Rehabilitation Centre were recruited. All measurements were made within the first 72 h of admission and on the last day of discharge. A physiotherapist performed all MI evaluations and a physiatrist blind to the results performed all BRS evaluations. Both upper extremity (UE) and hand BRS scores were found to be positively correlated with those of UE-MI; moreover, correlations between the discharge values were stronger than those between the admission values. The responsiveness of both the total scores of the BRS and UE-MI were strong (effect size d = 0.97, Wilcoxon Z=5.33, P<0.001 for the UE-BRS; d=0.81, Z=5.09, P<0.001 for the hand BRS; d=0.91, Z=5.45, P<0.001 for the UE-MI). BRS and MI scores were found to be increased on discharge when compared with those of admission and the differences in between were statistically significant (P<0.001). BRS and MI seem to be well correlated and responsive concerning the evaluation of UEs in early stage stroke patients. Being convenient tests, they may easily be applied repetitively for close follow-up during rehabilitation. PMID:19339892

Safaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Bilge; Ya?ar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan

2009-09-01

208

Role of dislocation density in raising the stage II work-hardening rate of Alloy 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the general work-hardening (WH) behavior of a polycrystalline fcc material, increase in the work-hardening rate is observed in Alloy 625 following precipitation of Ni2(Cr,Mo) and ?? phases. A typical stage II WH behavior of an fcc single crystal is seen in this alloy, before and after the precipitation. Appearance of such WH behavior is attributed to the

J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; U. D. Kulkarni; G. K. Dey

2009-01-01

209

[Functional results after proximal row carpectomy (PRC) in patients with SNAC-/SLAC-wrist stage II].  

PubMed

The proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a motion preserving procedure which creates a new joint without arthrosis. It is a frequently used procedure in stage II of a posttraumatic degenerative arthrosis of the wrist after scaphoid nonunion or scapholunate ligament instability (SNAC-/SLAC-wrist). In this retrospective analysis the functional postoperative results of this operation are compared in light of a homogenous indication (SNAC-/SLAC-wrist stage II). In 38 patients PRC was performed for a stage II SNAC- (n = 29) or SLAC-wrist (n = 9) between June 1994 and March 2002. Postoperative examination included range of motion and grip strength. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS 0 - 100). The DASH questionnaire (disability of the arm, shoulder and hand) was used to evaluate the disabilities in activities of daily living (ADL). Thirty patients (79 %) with a mean age of 39 years (23 - 59) were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 27 months (6 - 100). Mean extension and flexion of the wrist reached 75 degree which was 57 % of the contralateral hand. Mean radial and ulnar deviation was 33 degree corresponding with 52 % of the contralateral hand. The average grip strength was 50 % of the unaffected side. The postoperative DASH score was 27.4. Pain with strenuous activity was reduced by 40 %, resting pain by 77 %. Three patients showed radiological signs of a radiocapitate arthrosis, one patient needed conversion into a complete wrist arthrodesis. Our results are in concordance with the literature. However, our follow-up time is relatively short and we cannot make any conclusion about the long-term outcome. PRC is a technically straightforward procedure for treatment of carpal collapse. For stage II of the SNAC-/SLAC-wrist we consider the resection of the proximal carpal row an alternative procedure to the midcarpal arthrodesis particularly in patients who require less grip strength and when a shorter postoperative immobilization is reasonable. PMID:15877271

Baumeister, S; Germann, G; Dragu, A; Tränkle, M; Sauerbier, M

2005-04-01

210

Prognosis of Stage II Colon Cancer by Non-Neoplastic Mucosa Gene Expresssion Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Aims. This study assessed the possibility to build a prognosis predictor, based on non-neoplastic mucosa microarray gene expression measures, in stage II colon cancer patients. Materials and Methods. Non-neoplastic colonic mucosa,mRNA samples from 24 patients (10 with a metachronous metastasis, 14 with no recur- rence) were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133A GeneChip. The k-nearest neighbor method,was used for prognosis

Alain Barrier; Sandrine Dudoity

2005-01-01

211

Diagnostic and Prognostic MicroRNAs in Stage II Colon Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small noncoding RNAs with important posttranscriptional regulatory functions. Recent data suggest that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many human cancers and that they may play significant roles in carcinogenesis. Here, we used microarrays to profile the expression of 315 human miRNAs in 10 normal mucosa samples and 49 stage II colon cancers differing with

Troels Schepeler; Jørgen T. Reinert; Marie S. Ostenfeld; Lise L. Christensen; Asli N. Silahtaroglu; Carsten Wiuf; Frank J. Sørensen; Mogens Kruhøffer; Søren Laurberg; Sakari Kauppinen; Torben F. Ørntoft; Claus L. Andersen

2008-01-01

212

A prospective study of surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for primary gastric lymphoma stage II.  

PubMed Central

The standard management of primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) (stage II) has not been established despite the use of various treatment modalities. The present prospective trial of combined surgery and chemotherapy for the treatment of PGL (stage II) included 25 consecutive patients treated between July 1978 and December 1993. Twenty-one patients were treated with total gastrectomy and four with partial gastrectomy; this was followed by post-operative chemotherapy with m-VEPA (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisolone and doxorubicin), followed by consolidation chemotherapy with VEMP (vindesine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and prednisolone) or VQEP (vindesine, carbazilquinone, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone). Twenty-one of the 25 patients who completed post-operative chemotherapy were free of relapse 26-203 (median 94) months after the gastrectomy. Of the four patients who did not complete the projected chemotherapy, two relapsed and died of lymphoma. Another patient with recurrent lymphoma died in an accident, and the fourth patient was in remission at 54 months after surgery. The post-operative overall and disease-free survival rates at 10 years for the 25 evaluable patients were 81.6% and 92.0% respectively. Major surgical complications and treatment-related death after chemotherapy were not observed. PGL (stage II) appears to be curable when treated with gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Images Figure 1

Takenaka, T.; Maruyama, K.; Kinoshita, T.; Sasako, M.; Sano, T.; Katai, H.; Matsuno, Y.

1997-01-01

213

Improved Two-Stage Tests for Stratified Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Summary In a single-arm, two-stage, phase II cancer clinical trial for efficacy screening of cytotoxic agents, a common primary endpoint is a binary (yes/no) patient response to treatment. Usually, fixed decision boundaries are used in binomial tests to determine whether the study treatment is promising enough to be studied in a large-scale, randomized phase III trial. We may know in advance that the patient response distribution for a phase II clinical trial will be heterogeneous, making it advisable to stratify patients into subgroups, each with a different prognosis. In this case, fixed decision boundaries may be inappropriate. In this article, we propose two-stage tests based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma. The proposed test statistic is a linear combination of the observed number of responders in each stratum. The test allows adjustment of the decision boundaries to the observed numbers of patients in each stratum and permits sample sizes to be increased adaptively after the originally planned number of patients is observed at each of the two stages. Our numerical results show that the proposed test is more powerful than an existing test in many cases. Finally, we present an application to a Children’s Oncology Group (COG) phase II clinical trial in patients who relapsed after initial treatment for neuroblastoma.

Chang, Myron N.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Hou, Wei

2013-01-01

214

Atlantic overturning circulation and Agulhas leakage influences on southeast Atlantic upper ocean hydrography during marine isotope stage 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate dynamics during the marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 interglacial may provide information about how the climate system will evolve under the conditions of low-amplitude orbital forcing that are also found during the late Holocene. New stable isotope and alkenone data are presented from southeast Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 1085, providing detailed information on interglacial climate evolution and the impacts of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and Agulhas leakage on the regional upper ocean hydrography. The data suggest that although warm surface ocean conditions were maintained at approximate Holocene levels for 40,000 years during MIS 11, subsurface temperature and salinity recorded by deeper-dwelling planktonic foraminifera species were maintained at their highest values for only 7000-8000 years. Surface water temperature and salinity data suggest that the interocean exchange of warm, salty waters into the southeast Atlantic Ocean was directly related to changes in the activity of the MOC during the study interval. Specifically, transient regional warming events during periods of weakened overturning circulation may have been amplified by the continuous interocean exchange of warm, salty Indian Ocean waters that primed the MOC for abrupt resumptions into a vigorous mode of operation. Conversely, a peak in interocean exchange at the end of the MIS 11 interglacial optimum may reflect enhanced trade wind forcing of surface waters whose export to the North Atlantic Ocean could have contributed to renewed ice sheet buildup during the MIS 11 to 10 glacial inception.

Dickson, Alexander J.; Leng, Melanie J.; Maslin, Mark A.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Green, Joanne; Bendle, James A.; McClymont, Erin L.; Pancost, Richard D.

2010-08-01

215

Controlled Re-Entry of the H-IIB Launch Vehicle Upper Stage with the Use of the Re-Entry Safety System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On January 22, 2011, during flight No. 2 of the H-IIB launch vehicle, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) succeeded in performing a controlled re-entry experiment for the upper stage. This is the first time this has been done for the upper stage of a Japanese launch vehicle. For flight No. 1, the upper stage performed a random re- entry. With a view to avoiding debris generation and debris-related impact accidents, JAXA resolved to develop a more refined re-entry process. Consequently, the "Re-entry Safety System" was developed in order to achieve controlled re-entry with certainty. After one orbit, while executing controlled re-entry, the Re-entry Safety System monitored the upper stage's function and orbit. Subsequently, a command disengaging the lockout of the deorbit manoeuvre was issued from ground and re-entry commenced. The details of the Re-entry Safety System, which facilitated the controlled re-entry, are described herein.

Ida, K.; Mori, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Ikeda, S.; Sato, T.; Kawabata, H.

2012-01-01

216

Adjuvant Therapy for Stage II and III Colon Cancer: Consensus Report of the International Society of Gastrointestinal Oncology  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy agents available for the treatment of stage II and stage III colon cancer have changed substantially since the 1992 National Institutes of Health consensus report recommended that all stage III patients routinely receive adjuvant treatment with 5-fluorouracil/levamisole. Subsequent trials demonstrated superiority of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin over 5-fluorouracil/levamisole in the adjuvant setting, and the recent addition of oxaliplatin to this regimen has further improved disease-free survival. While stage III colon cancer patients are routinely treated, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II disease is still a subject of debate. Many trials that are assessing the potential role of biologics in the adjuvant setting will soon be completed. However, identifying molecular prognostic markers that accurately select patients with stage II or III cancers who are at risk of recurrence would be essential to select and individualize therapy.

Marshall, John L.; Haller, Daniel G.; de Gramont, Aimery; Hochster, Howard S.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Goldberg, Richard M.

2007-01-01

217

Extracorporeal spread and its prognostic impact in stages I and II (FIGO) endometrial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Prognostic risk factors were statistically analyzed from the histopathologic data obtained from 90 Japanese women with stages I and II endometrial carcinoma treated surgically, including systemic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, between June 1979 and June 1989. In stage Ia endometrial carcinoma, pelvic and paraaortic nodes metastasis were seen in 13.8(4/29)% and 0.0(0/19)% of patients, respectively. In stage Ib, the incidence of pelvic and paraaortic node metastasis was 25.6(11/43)% and 9.7(3/31)%, respectively. In stage II, the incidence was 38.9(7/18)% and 13.3(2/15)%, respectively. Prognosis of patients even with deep myometrial invasion (greater than or equal to 2/3) or G3 tumor was fairly good (5-year survival rate: 87.5% and 85.7%, respectively) if the disease was histologically confined to the uterine corpus. Once the tumor spread outside the corpus uteri, the survival rate of patients was strongly affected by the grade of the tumor, moderate to marked lymph-vascular space invasion of tumor cells, or tumor invading middle or outer third of myometrium (P less than 0.05 for each factor). In summary, endometrial cancer frequently metastasize to pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes even in the early stages, and lymph node metastasis and other extracorporeal spread of disease have a serious impact on patient survival. Prognosis of patients with extracorporeal spread of disease seems to be determined by the high grade of tumor and lymph-vascular space invasion. These results suggest that surgical exploration including paraaortic lymph node dissection to accurately evaluate the extent of the disease is essential to estimate the patient's prognostic risk and to individualize the treatment schedule. PMID:1953428

Sakuragi, N; Tanaka, T; Satoh, C; Nishiya, M; Ohkouchi, T; Tsumura, N; Takeda, N; Hirahatake, K; Sagawa, T; Ohkubo, H

1991-09-01

218

Annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a description of the annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and the upper troposphere derived from observations of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II). The altitude-time cross sections exhibit annually repeatable patterns in both hemispheres. The appearance of a yearly minimum in water vapor in both hemispheres at approximately the same time supports the idea of a common source(s) for stratospheric dry air. Annual patterns observed at northern mid-latitudes, like the appearance of a hygropause in winter and the weakening and upward shifting of the hygropause from January to May, agree with in situ balloon observations previously obtained over Boulder and Washington, DC. An increase in water vapor with altitude in the tropics is consistent with methane oxidation in the upper stratosphere to lower mesosphere as a source for water vapor. A poleward gradient is also shown as expected based on a Lagrangian mean circulation. A linear regression analysis using SAGE II data from January 1986 to December 1988 shows that little annual variation occurs in the middle and upper stratosphere with the region of large annual variability near the tropopause. The semi-annual variability is relatively marked at altitudes of 24 and 40 km in the tropics. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

McCormick, M.P.; McMaster, L.R.; Chu, W.P. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)); Chiou, E.W.; Larsen, J.C. (Hughes STX Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)); Rind, D. (NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)); Oltmans, S. (NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Lab., Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-03-20

219

Expression of Cux-1 and Cux-2 in the subventricular zone and upper layers II-IV of the cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

Little is known about how neurons in the different layers of the mammalian cerebral cortex are specified at the molecular level. Expression of two homologues of the Drosophila homeobox Cut gene, Cux-1 and Cux-2, is strikingly specific to the pyramidal neurons of the upper layers (II-IV) of the murine cortex, suggesting that they may define the molecular identity of these neurons. An antibody against Cux-1 labels the nucleus of most of the postmitotic upper layer neurons but does not label parvoalbumin-positive cortical interneurons that derive from the medial ganglionic eminence. Cux-1 and Cux-2 represent early markers of neuronal differentiation; both genes are expressed in postmitotic cortical neurons from embryonic stages to adulthood and in the proliferative regions of the developing cortex. In precursors cells, Cux-1 immunoreactivity is weak and diffuse in the cytoplasm and nucleus of ventricular zone (VZ) cells, whereas it is nuclear in the majority of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive subventricular zone (SVZ) dividing cells, suggesting that Cux-1 function is first activated in SVZ cells. Cux-2 mRNA expression is also found in the embryonic SVZ, overlapping with BrdU-positive dividing precursors, but it is not expressed in the VZ. A null mutation in Pax-6 disrupts Cux-2 expression in the SVZ and Cux-1 and Cux-2 expression in the postmigratory cortical neurons. Thus, these data support the existence of an intermediate neuronal precursor in the SVZ dedicated to the generation of upper layer neurons, marked specifically by Cux-2. The patterns of expression of Cux genes suggest potential roles as determinants of the neuronal fate of the upper cortical layer neurons. PMID:15452856

Nieto, Marta; Monuki, Edwin S; Tang, Hua; Imitola, Jaime; Haubst, Nicole; Khoury, Samia J; Cunningham, Jim; Gotz, Magdalena; Walsh, Christopher A

2004-11-01

220

Monitoring the bovine fetus during stage II of parturition using pulse oximetry.  

PubMed

Measurement of oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is an established method of continuous monitoring of the well-being of the human fetus during parturition. In veterinary medicine, pulse oximetry has been used almost exclusively in intensive care and anesthesiology. The goal of the present study was to investigate the physiological changes in oxygen saturation of the bovine fetus during stage II of parturition and to determine whether the findings can be used to predict postnatal acidosis. The correlation between the oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) measured via pulse oximetry and the oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) of arterial blood measured via blood gas analysis was determined in 23 newborn calves. In addition, the oxygen saturation was monitored continuously via pulse oximetry (FSpO(2)) in 33 bovine fetuses during stage II of parturition. Correlations between the FSpO(2) values during the last 30 and 5min of stage II of parturition and the postpartum values for pH, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, bicarbonate concentration, BE, SaO(2) and lactate concentration in arterial blood were determined. There was a high correlation between SpO(2) and SaO(2) postpartum (r=0.923). The FSpO(2) values correlated moderately with the pH and BE and weakly with the lactate concentration postpartum; calves with a pH<7.2, a BE<-3mM/L or a lactate concentration of >5.4mM/L had significantly lower FSpO(2) values than non-acidotic calves. FSpO(2) values <30% for a period of at least 2min had the highest predictive value for a calf born with a pH<7.2. Pulse oximetry is a novel method of monitoring the bovine fetus during parturition; however, technical modifications are required to improve its usefulness. PMID:17977591

Bleul, U; Kähn, W

2008-02-01

221

Messenger RNAs in metaphase II oocytes correlate with successful embryo development to the blastocyst stage.  

PubMed

The mRNAs accumulated in oocytes provide support for embryo development until embryo genomic activation. We hypothesized that the maternal mRNA stock present in bovine oocytes is associated with embryo development until the blastocyst stage. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed the transcriptome of the oocyte and correlated the results with the embryo development. Our goal was to identify genes expressed in the oocyte that correlate with its ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. A fraction of oocyte cytoplasm was biopsied using micro-aspiration and stored for further expression analysis. Oocytes were activated chemically, cultured individually and classified according to their capacity to develop in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Microarray analysis was performed on mRNA extracted from the oocyte cytoplasm fractions and correlated with its ability to develop to the blastocyst stage (good quality oocyte) or arrest at the 8-16-cell stage (bad quality oocyte). The expression of 4320 annotated genes was detected in the fractions of cytoplasm that had been collected from oocytes matured in vitro. Gene ontology classification revealed that enriched gene expression of genes was associated with certain biological processes: 'RNA processing', 'translation' and 'mRNA metabolic process'. Genes that are important to the molecular functions of 'RNA binding' and 'translation factor activity, RNA binding' were also enriched in oocytes. We identified 29 genes with differential expression between the two groups of oocytes compared (good versus bad quality). The content of mRNAs expressed in metaphase II oocytes influences the activation of the embryonic genome and enables further develop to the blastocyst stage. PMID:23046986

Biase, Fernando Henrique; Everts, Robin Edward; Oliveira, Rosane; Santos-Biase, Weruska Karyna Freitas; Fonseca Merighe, Giovana Krempel; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Martelli, Lúcia; Lewin, Harris; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

2014-02-01

222

Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Stage II-IV T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2014-06-30

223

Comprehensive Approach to Pupil Planning: Stage II - Planning and Placement (Includes Planning and Placement Team Meeting Agenda). Experimental Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is Stage II of the Comprehensive Approach to Pupil Planning (CAPP) System, a three-stage model for planning educational interventions in the regular and special education classrooms and for guiding placement decisions. The guide focuses on the evaluation services performed by the Planning and Placement Team (PPT) with sections on the…

Vlasak, Frances Stetson; Kaufman, Martin J.

224

Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions.' These personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. Currently, only three spacefaring nations have this distinction, including the United States, Russia, and, more recently, China. The U.S. National Space Policy of2006 directs that NASA provide the means to travel to space, and the NASA Appropriations Act of2005 provided the initial funding to begin in earnest to replace the Shuttle after the International Space Station construction is complete in 20 IO? These and other strategic goals and objectives are documented in NASA's 2006 Strategic Plan.3 In 2005, a team of NASA aerospace experts conducted the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which recommended a two-vehicle approach to America's next space transportation system for missions to the International Space Station in the next decade and to explore the Moon and establish an outpost around the 2020 timeframe.4 Based on this extensive study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle configuration and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch vehicle (fig 1). This paper will give an overview of NASA's approach to integrating the Ares I vehicle stack using capabilities and assets that are resident in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, working in partnership with other NASA Centers and the U.S. aerospace industry. It also will provide top-level details on the progress of the in-house design of the Ares I vehicle's upper stage element.

Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

2008-01-01

225

Changes in gait associated with acute stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in gait mechanics between patients with acute stage II PTTD and healthy volunteers. Hindfoot and midfoot kinematics, plantar foot pressures and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the posterior tibialis, gastrocnemius, anterior tibialis and the peroneals were measured in five patients with acute stage II PTTD. Kinematics and kinetics were compared to a database of 20 healthy volunteers. EMG and plantar pressure data were obtained from five healthy volunteers. Hindfoot moments and powers were also calculated. The center of pressure excursion index (CPEI) was calculated from the plantar pressures. Significant differences were observed between the two groups, which confirmed clinical observations. Limited hindfoot eversion and increased midfoot external rotation occurred during the first and third rockers. The EMG data suggested that tendon dysfunction in the posterior tibialis is associated with compensatory activity, not only in its antagonists (the peroneals), but also in the anterior tibialis and the gastrocnemius. These data suggest that non-operative treatment of patients with PTTD should consider minimizing the activity of the posterior tibialis as well as the peroneals, the anterior tibialis and the gastrocnemius. PMID:16876415

Ringleb, S I; Kavros, S J; Kotajarvi, B R; Hansen, D K; Kitaoka, H B; Kaufman, K R

2007-04-01

226

Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluoromisonidazole F 18 and Fludeoxyglucose F 18 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-06-10

227

Physical workload in various types of work: Part II. Neck, shoulder and upper arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the correlation between, and the variation in, various measures of exposure to potential risk factors for work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UE-WMSDs), physical workload was measured in 43 types of work (713 individuals), using inclinometry for the head and upper arms, and electromyography (EMG) for the trapezius muscles.Many exposure measures were highly correlated. Head flexion (90th percentile), extension

Gert-Åke Hansson; Istvan Balogh; Kerstina Ohlsson; Lothy Granqvist; Catarina Nordander; Inger Arvidsson; Ingrid Åkesson; Jeannette Unge; Ralf Rittner; Ulf Strömberg; Staffan Skerfving

2010-01-01

228

Characteristic phenotypes associated with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (type II) manifest at different stages of erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II is an autosomally recessive form of hereditary anemia caused by SEC23B gene mutations. Patients exhibit characteristic phenotypes including multinucleate erythroblasts, erythrocytes with hypoglycosylated membrane proteins and an apparent double plasma membrane. Despite ubiquitous expression of SEC23B, the effects of mutations in this gene are confined to the erythroid lineage and the basis of this erythroid specificity remains to be defined. In addition, little is known regarding the stage at which the disparate phenotypes of this disease manifest during erythropoiesis. We employ an in vitro culture system to monitor the appearance of the defining phenotypes associated with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II during terminal differentiation of erythroblasts derived from small volumes of patient peripheral blood. Membrane protein hypoglycosylation was detected by the basophilic stage, preceding the onset of multinuclearity in orthochromatic erythroblasts that occurs coincident with the loss of secretory pathway proteins including SEC23A during erythropoiesis. Endoplasmic reticulum remnants were observed in nascent reticulocytes of both diseased and healthy donor cultures but were lost upon further maturation of normal reticulocytes, implicating a defect of ER clearance during reticulocyte maturation in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II. We also demonstrate distinct isoform and species-specific expression profiles of SEC23 during terminal erythroid differentiation and identify a prolonged expression of SEC23A in murine erythropoiesis compared to humans. We propose that SEC23A is able to compensate for the absence of SEC23B in mouse erythroblasts, providing a basis for the absence of phenotype within the erythroid lineage of a recently described SEC23B knockout mouse. PMID:23935019

Satchwell, Timothy J; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Bianchi, Paola; Hawley, Bethan R; Gampel, Alexandra; Mordue, Kathryn E; Budnik, Annika; Fermo, Elisa; Barcellini, Wilma; Stephens, David J; van den Akker, Emile; Toye, Ashley M

2013-11-01

229

Characteristic phenotypes associated with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (type II) manifest at different stages of erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II is an autosomally recessive form of hereditary anemia caused by SEC23B gene mutations. Patients exhibit characteristic phenotypes including multinucleate erythroblasts, erythrocytes with hypoglycosylated membrane proteins and an apparent double plasma membrane. Despite ubiquitous expression of SEC23B, the effects of mutations in this gene are confined to the erythroid lineage and the basis of this erythroid specificity remains to be defined. In addition, little is known regarding the stage at which the disparate phenotypes of this disease manifest during erythropoiesis. We employ an in vitro culture system to monitor the appearance of the defining phenotypes associated with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II during terminal differentiation of erythroblasts derived from small volumes of patient peripheral blood. Membrane protein hypoglycosylation was detected by the basophilic stage, preceding the onset of multinuclearity in orthochromatic erythroblasts that occurs coincident with the loss of secretory pathway proteins including SEC23A during erythropoiesis. Endoplasmic reticulum remnants were observed in nascent reticulocytes of both diseased and healthy donor cultures but were lost upon further maturation of normal reticulocytes, implicating a defect of ER clearance during reticulocyte maturation in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II. We also demonstrate distinct isoform and species-specific expression profiles of SEC23 during terminal erythroid differentiation and identify a prolonged expression of SEC23A in murine erythropoiesis compared to humans. We propose that SEC23A is able to compensate for the absence of SEC23B in mouse erythroblasts, providing a basis for the absence of phenotype within the erythroid lineage of a recently described SEC23B knockout mouse.

Satchwell, Timothy J.; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Bianchi, Paola; Hawley, Bethan R.; Gampel, Alexandra; Mordue, Kathryn E.; Budnik, Annika; Fermo, Elisa; Barcellini, Wilma; Stephens, David J.; van den Akker, Emile; Toye, Ashley M.

2013-01-01

230

Early stages of the recovery stroke in myosin II studied by molecular dynamics simulations  

PubMed Central

The recovery stroke is a key step in the functional cycle of muscle motor protein myosin, during which pre-recovery conformation of the protein is changed into the active post-recovery conformation, ready to exersice force. We study the microscopic details of this transition using molecular dynamics simulations of atomistic models in implicit and explicit solvent. In more than 2 ?s of aggregate simulation time, we uncover evidence that the recovery stroke is a two-step process consisting of two stages separated by a time delay. In our simulations, we directly observe the first stage at which switch II loop closes in the presence of adenosine triphosphate at the nucleotide binding site. The resulting configuration of the nucleotide binding site is identical to that detected experimentally. Distribution of inter-residue distances measured in the force generating region of myosin is in good agreement with the experimental data. The second stage of the recovery stroke structural transition, rotation of the converter domain, was not observed in our simulations. Apparently it occurs on a longer time scale. We suggest that the two parts of the recovery stroke need to be studied using separate computational models.

Baumketner, Andrij; Nesmelov, Yuri

2011-01-01

231

ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Hodgkin's lymphoma: favorable prognosis stage I and II.  

PubMed

The treatment for favorable-prognosis stage I and II Hodgkin's lymphoma has evolved over the past several years. Studies have attempted to reduce long-term treatment-related side effects, such as second malignancies and cardiac toxicity, through reduced chemotherapy or reduced radiotherapy. Randomized trials have compared radiation therapy alone with combined-modality therapy (chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiotherapy). Recent and ongoing trials have evaluated the optimal regimen and number of cycles of chemotherapy and the optimal radiotherapy dose and field size as part of combined-modality therapy, as well as the elimination of radiation therapy. Combined-modality therapy represents the current standard of care for most patients with favorable-prognosis early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Chemotherapy alone could also be an option for selected patients who are at low risk for relapse and high risk for late effects from radiotherapy. This article reviews recent and ongoing studies on treatment for favorable-prognosis early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Representative clinical cases are presented, with treatment recommendations from an expert panel of radiation oncologists and medical oncologists. PMID:18812149

Das, Prajnan; Ng, Andrea; Constine, Louis S; Hodgson, David C; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Morris, David Eric; Yunes, Michael J; Chauvenet, Allen R; Hudson, Melissa M; Winter, Jane N

2008-10-01

232

Traumatic and trauma-related amputations: Part II: Upper extremity and future directions.  

PubMed

Trauma is the most common reason for amputation of the upper extremity. The morphologic and functional distinctions between the upper and lower extremities render the surgical techniques and decision-making different in many key respects. Acceptance of the prosthesis and the outcomes are improved by performing a transradial rather than a more proximal amputation. Substantial efforts, including free tissue transfers when necessary, should be made to salvage the elbow. Careful management of the peripheral nerves is critical to minimize painful neuroma formation while preserving options for possible future utilization in targeted muscle reinnervation and use of a myoelectric prosthesis. Rapid developments with targeted muscle reinnervation, myoelectric prostheses, and composite tissue allotransplantation may dramatically alter surgical treatment algorithms in the near future for patients with severe upper-extremity trauma. PMID:21159994

Tintle, Scott M; Baechler, Martin F; Nanos, George P; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Potter, Benjamin K

2010-12-15

233

Annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II are presented, showing annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and the upper troposphere. The altitude-time cross sections of water vapor were found to exhibit annually repeatable patterns in both hemispheres, with a yearly minimum in water vapor appearing in both hemispheres at about the same time, supporting the concept of a common source for stratospheric dry air. A linear regression analysis was applied to the three-year data set to elucidate global values and variations of water vapor ratio.

Mccormick, M. P.; Chiou, E. W.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Larsen, J. C.; Rind, D.; Oltmans, S.

1993-01-01

234

Changing the facial features of patients with treacher collins syndrome: protocol for 3-stage treatment of hard and soft tissue hypoplasia in the upper half of the face.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is a disorder characterized by various congenital soft tissue anomalies involving hypoplasia of the zygoma, maxilla, and mandible. A variety of treatments have been reported to date. These treatments can be classified into 2 major types. The first type involves osteotomy for hard tissue such as the zygoma and mandible. The second type involves plastic surgery using bone grafting in the malar region and soft tissue repair of eyelid deformities. We devised a new treatment to comprehensively correct hard and soft tissue deformities in the upper half of the face of Treacher Collins patients. The aim was to "change facial features and make it difficult to tell that the patients have this disorder." This innovative treatment strategy consists of 3 stages: (1) placement of dermal fat graft from the lower eyelid to the malar subcutaneous area, (2) custom-made synthetic zygomatic bone grafting, and (3) Z-plasty flap transposition from the upper to the lower eyelid and superior repositioning and fixation of the lateral canthal tendon using a Mitek anchor system. This method was used on 4 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome who had moderate to severe hypoplasia of the zygomas and the lower eyelids. Facial features of these patients were markedly improved and very good results were obtained. There were no major complications intraoperatively or postoperatively in any of the patients during the series of treatments. In synthetic bone grafting in the second stage, the implant in some patients was in the way of the infraorbital nerve. Thus, the nerve was detached and then sutured under the microscope. Postoperatively, patients had almost full restoration of sensory nerve torpor within 5 to 6 months. We devised a 3-stage treatment to "change facial features" of patients with hypoplasia of the upper half of the face due to Treacher Collins syndrome. The treatment protocol provided a very effective way to treat deformities of the upper half of the face in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23511742

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Satoh, Kaneshige

2014-07-01

235

Ecological continuity between Lower and Upper Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.  

PubMed

The sediments of Bed II at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, have received less scientific scrutiny than Bed I strata, likely due to the lower density of fossil hominins in the younger layers. Nevertheless, Bed II provides important contextual information about changes over time in early hominin environments. Mammal fossils from Bed II are separated into older and younger faunas by a regional disconformity under which lies an aeolian tuff, the Lemuta Member, dated to ?1.74 Ma (millions of years ago). Differences between the faunal communities above and below the Lemuta Member have been previously noted and interpreted as evidence for distinct environmental change. Here, we investigate the palaeoecological conditions that characterised the transition between older and younger Bed II sites via analysis of their mammalian community ecological niche exploitation profiles, comparing these to known modern habitats. We present a comprehensive species list for both Bed II faunas. An initial correspondence analysis points to palaeoecological differences in pre- and post-Lemuta Member assemblages, although neither is representative of a forest habitat. When taphonomic differences in body mass profiles are taken into account, however, ecological differences appear far less important. Based on a resampling procedure to generate modern locality data with body mass profiles similar to the Bed II faunas, discriminant correspondence analyses liken both fossil assemblages to modern woodland habitats, with Lower Bed II having some affinity to floodplain and marshy woodlands, likely related to the presence of the Olduvai palaeolake in this stratigraphic interval. A comparison of the Bed II faunas to each other suggests that their differences could reasonably be sampled from within a single modern habitat. Although additional evidence points to an increase in aridity subsequent to the Lemuta Member, the importance of woodland habitats throughout Bed II is clear. PMID:23566459

Kovarovic, Kris; Slepkov, Rebecca; McNulty, Kieran P

2013-06-01

236

Randomized trial of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for stage I-II Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed

A total of 277 patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease, clinical stages I-II, were randomized to cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone (CVPP) alone for 6 monthly cycles or to CVPP plus radiation therapy (RT), 3,000 rad, to involved areas (CVPP plus RT). One or more of the following factors were considered as unfavorable prognosis: age greater than 45 years, more than two lymph node areas involved, or bulky disease. In the favorable group, disease-free survival (77% vs. 70%) or overall survival (92% vs. 91%) at 84 months for CVPP versus RT plus CVPP was similar. Patients with unfavorable prognosis treated with RT plus CVPP had longer disease-free survival (75% vs. 34%) (P = .001) and overall survival (84% vs. 66%) than patients treated with CVPP alone. PMID:3184196

Pavlovsky, S; Maschio, M; Santarelli, M T; Muriel, F S; Corrado, C; Garcia, I; Schwartz, L; Montero, C; Sanahuja, F L; Magnasco, O

1988-11-16

237

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TELECAST PROGRAMS FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY GRADES WERE IN ART, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH UNIT WAS GIVEN, TOGETHER WITH DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY. IN THE ART SERIES, IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT PUPIL PARTICIPATION TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE TELECAST. INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY WAS…

DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

238

Deep Posterior Compartment Strength and Foot Kinematics in Subjects With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Tibialis posterior muscle weakness has been documented in subjects with Stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) but the effect of weakness on foot structure remains unclear. The association between strength and flatfoot kinematics may guide treatment such as the use of strengthening programs targeting the tibialis posterior muscle. Materials and Methods Thirty Stage II PTTD subjects (age; 58.1 ± 10.5 years, BMI 30.6 ± 5.4) and 15 matched controls (age; 56.5 ± 7.7 years, BMI 30.6 ± 3.6) volunteered for this study. Deep Posterior Compartment strength was measured from both legs of each subject and the strength ratio was used to compare each subject’s involved side to their uninvolved side. A 20% deficit was defined, a priori, to define two groups of subjects with PTTD. The strength ratio for each group averaged; 1.06 ± 0.1 (range 0.87 to 1.36) for controls, 1.06 ± 0.1 (range, 0.89 to 1.25), for the PTTD strong group, and 0.64 ± 0.2 (range 0.42 to 0.76) for the PTTD weak group. Across four phases of stance, kinematic measures of flatfoot were compared between the three groups using a two-way mixed effect ANOVA model repeated for each kinematic variable. Results Subjects with PTTD regardless of group demonstrated significantly greater hindfoot eversion compared to controls. Subjects with PTTD who were weak demonstrated greater hindfoot eversion compared to subjects with PTTD who were strong. For forefoot abduction and MLA angles the differences between groups depended on the phase of stance with significant differences between each group observed at the pre-swing phase of stance. Conclusion Strength was associated with the degree of flatfoot deformity observed during walking, however, flatfoot deformity may also occur without strength deficits.

Neville, Christopher; Flemister, Adolph S.; Houck, Jeff R.

2010-01-01

239

Management of stage II Hodgkin's disease with a large mediastinal mass: a prospective program emphasizing irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Between October 1980 and July 1983, 13 patients with clinical Stage II Hodgkin's disease who had a large mediastinal mass were entered into a prospective treatment program emphasizing irradiation. Careful clinical staging, including CT scanning, was completed in order to define precisely the extent of disease in the chest. The range of MMR was .34 to .56. By the time mantle irradiation was completed the MMR ranged from .21 to .35. Twelve patients underwent laparotomy after adequate reduction of the mediastinal mass size, but only two had subdiaphgragmatic disease detected. One patient had disease extension into the lung during mantle irradiation and one patient failed in a rib six months after completion of irradiation. Both have been treated successfully with salvage chemotherapy. All the remaining patients received prophylactic irradiation below the diaphragm and all are doing well with a median follow up of 21 months. The 2 year actuarial freedom from relapse of the entire group of 13 patients is 83%. These early results are very encouraging for this unfavorable group of patients with large mediastinal masses. Careful monitoring of tumor response and use of a shrinking field technique has helped to keep complications to a minimum.

Hoppe, R.T.

1985-02-01

240

The possible influence of upstream upper-level baroclinic processes on the development of the QE II storm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the QE II storm of September 9-11, 1978 presents evidence for the existence of upper-level baroclinic processes upstream of the rapidly developing cyclone. The analysis shows that a deepening shortwave trough was located 400 to 500 km upstream of the site of the storm 12 h prior to rapid cyclogenesis. The trough was associated with: (1) a polar jet marked by 65 m/s winds in its core and significant vertical and horizontal wind shear, (2) positive vorticity advection and divergence at the 300 mb level, and (3) an intense frontal zone that extended from 300 mb down to the surface. It also appears that a tropopause fold likely extruded stratospheric air down to the 700-800 mb level, 400-500 km upstream of the surface low and 12 h prior to the explosive development phase of the cyclone. These findings raise questions about Gyakum's (1983) assertion that the QE II storm developed in an area in which the baroclinic support was confined to the lower troposphere and the related assertion by Anthes et al. (1983) that upper-level forcing upstream of the area of rapid cyclogenesis was weak and apparently not important in this case.

Uccellini, L. W.

1986-01-01

241

Orbital upper critical field of type-II superconductors with pair breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbital upper critical field Hc2 is evaluated for isotropic materials with arbitrary transport and pair-breaking scattering rates. It is shown that unlike transport scattering which enhances Hc2, the pair breaking suppresses the upper critical field and reduces the dimensionless ratio h*(0)=Hc2(0)/Tc(dHc2/dT)Tc from the Helfand-Werthamer value of ?0.7 to 0.5 for a strong pair breaking. h*(T) is evaluated for arbitrary transport and pair-breaking scattering. A phenomenological model for the pair-breaking suppression by magnetic fields is introduced. It shows qualitative features such as a positive curvature of Hc2(T) and the low temperature upturn usually associated with multiband superconductivity.

Kogan, V. G.; Prozorov, R.

2013-07-01

242

A Simple Ocean Data Assimilation Analysis of the Global Upper Ocean 1950 95. Part II: Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore the accuracy of a comprehensive 46-year retrospective analysis of upper-ocean temper- ature, salinity, and currents. The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) analysis is global, spanning the latitude range 628S-628N. The SODA analysis has been constructed using optimal interpolation data assimilation combining numerical model forecasts with temperature and salinity profiles (MBT, XBT, CTD, and station), sea surface temperature,

James A. Carton; Gennady Chepurin; Xianhe Cao

2000-01-01

243

Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

1982-01-01

244

Effect of preoperative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio on the surgical outcomes of stage II colon cancer patients who do not receive adjuvant chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  Selection of appropriate stage II colon cancer patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is critical for improving survival outcome.\\u000a With the aim of identifying more high risk factors for stage II colon cancer, this study aimed to determine whether the neutrophil–lymphocyte\\u000a ratio (NLR) is a predictor of surgical outcomes in patients with stage II colon cancer who do not receive

Hsin-Yuan Hung; Jinn-Shiun Chen; Chien Yuh Yeh; Chung-Rong Changchien; Reiping Tang; Pao-Shiu Hsieh; Wen-Sy Tasi; Jeng-Fu You; Yau-Tong You; Chung-Wei Fan; Jeng-Yi Wang; Jy-Ming Chiang

245

Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy (VAT-T) with lateral thoracotomy for stage II and III thymoma.  

PubMed

Thymoma has malignant potential and is the most common anterior mediastinal tumor. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which is less invasive surgical procedure, is a good option for resecting Masaoka stage I tumors. Whether VATS is appropriate, depends on the surgeon's judgment and accurate imaging diagnosis. We introduce a technique involving a combination of video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy (VAT-T) and lateral thoracotomy for stage II and some stage III thymomas that have locally invaded the lung and/or pericardium. PMID:22850091

Hirai, Kyoji; Ibi, Takayuki; Bessho, Ryuzo; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Kazuo

2013-02-20

246

Atlantic overturning circulation and Agulhas leakage influences on southeast Atlantic upper ocean hydrography during marine isotope stage 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate dynamics during the marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 interglacial may provide information about how the climate system will evolve under the conditions of low-amplitude orbital forcing that are also found during the late Holocene. New stable isotope and alkenone data are presented from southeast Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 1085, providing detailed information on interglacial climate evolution and the

Alexander J. Dickson; Melanie J. Leng; Mark A. Maslin; Hilary J. Sloane; Joanne Green; James A. Bendle; Erin L. McClymont; Richard D. Pancost

2010-01-01

247

Integrated configuration effects of hypersonic upper body designs on Single Stage To Orbit non-circular bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of air breathing Single Stage To Orbit vehicles requires investigating configurations that integrate 'Tip to Tail' propulsion flowpaths, active aerodynamic control, and large propellant volumes. The selection of these configurations can vary from arrangements like a Conical Fuselage Wing Body to a Non-Circular Lifting Body. Specifically, the selection criterion relies on satisfying both the aeropropulsion requirements and the

Patrick F. Cassidy

1993-01-01

248

Geochemical make-up of oceanic peridotites from NW Turkey and the multi-stage melting history of the Tethyan upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the whole-rock and the mineral chemical data for upper mantle peridotites from the Harmanc?k region in NW Turkey and discuss their petrogenetic-tectonic origin. These peridotites are part of a Tethyan ophiolite belt occurring along the ?zmir-Ankara-Ercincan suture zone in northern Turkey, and include depleted lherzolites and refractory harzburgites. The Al2O3 contents in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the depleted lherzolite are high, and the Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is low falling within the abyssal field. However, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgites have lower Al2O3 contents for a given Cr-number of spinel, and plot within the lower end of the abyssal field. The whole-rock geochemical and the mineral chemistry data imply that the Harmanc?k peridotites formed by different degrees of partial melting (~%10-27) of the mantle. The depleted lherzolite samples have higher MREE and HREE abundances than the harzburgitic peridotites, showing convex-downward patterns. These peridotites represent up to ~16 % melting residue that formed during the initial seafloor spreading stage of the Northern Neotethys. On the other hand, the more refractory harzburgites represent residues after ~4-11 % hydrous partial melting of the previously depleted MOR mantle, which was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids during the early stages of subduction. The Harmanc?k peridotites, hence, represent the fragments of upper mantle rocks that formed during different stages of the tectonic evolution of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in Northern Neotethys. We infer that the multi-stage melting history of the Harmanc?k peridotites reflect the geochemically heterogeneous character of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere currently exposed along the ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone.

Uysal, ?brahim; ?en, A. Dündar; Ersoy, E. Yalç?n; Dilek, Yildirim; Saka, Samet; Zaccarini, Federica; Escayola, Monica; Karsl?, Orhan

2014-02-01

249

Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of the Montpellier Phase II Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We recently presented the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a reliable alternative to conventional boost radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The low crude numbers of recurrence in elderly patients led us to investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of this procedure as a sole treatment. Methods and Materials: We included 94 patients older than 65 years in this phase II trial. Among them, 42 patients presented with all the inclusion criteria, i.e., stages pT0 to pT1 and pN0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, and tumor-free margin of >2 mm. IORT was delivered using a dedicated linear accelerator. One 21-Gy fraction was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose, using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. The primary endpoint was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, and specific and overall rates of survival. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-49 months), and median age was 72 years (range, 66-80 years). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Endpoints for all but one patient corresponded to acceptable quality index criteria. Pretreatment quality-of-life scores were maximal, and no significant decrease was observed during follow-up. Cosmesis was good to excellent at 6 months. Two patients experienced recurrence but underwent salvage mastectomy. Conclusion: Our results confirm that exclusive partial-breast IORT is feasible for treating early-stage breast cancer in the elderly. IORT may be considered an alternative treatment for a selected population and offers a safe one-step treatment.

Lemanski, Claire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Azria, David, E-mail: azria@valdorel.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gourgon-Bourgade, Sophie [Biostatistics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gutowski, Marian; Rouanet, Phillippe; Saint-Aubert, Bernard [Department of Surgical and Reconstructive Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Ailleres, Norbert; Fenoglietto, Pascal [Radiophysics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Dubois, Jean-Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France)

2010-03-01

250

Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of postoperative adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate the survival outcomes, relapse patterns, prognostic factors and complications of postoperative adjuvant MVP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The study involved some 96 patients who had undergone curative resection of stage II and III NSCLC between 1991

Sang-wook Lee; Eun Kyung Choi; Weon Kuu Chung; Kyung Hwan Shin; Seung Do Ahn; Jong Hoon Kim; Sang-We Kim; Cheolwon Suh; Jung Shin Lee; Woo Sung Kim; Dong Soon Kim; Dong Kwan Kim; Seung Il Park; Kwang-Hyun Sohn

2002-01-01

251

[Effect of PSK on recurrence of stage II/III gastric cancer].  

PubMed

Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that PSK has antitumor properties. In Japan, PSK has been used as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug against gastric cancer. However, there is little evidence about the effectiveness of PSK in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PSK on postoperative recurrence in patients with gastric cancer. The patients with Stage II/III gastric cancer who underwent a surgical curative resection between 1999 and 2008 at the Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University were included in this retrospective study. All patients received oral fluorinated pyrimidine anti-metabolites with or without PSK after surgical operation. We analyzed clinicopathological features and evaluated the impact of PSK on postoperative recurrence. One hundred thirty eight patients received oral anti-metabolized alone (control group) and 116 patients received PSK (PSK group). No significant difference between control and PSK group in relapse free survival was detected. In PSK group, venous invasion was an independent factor for postoperative recurrence (p=0. 004, HR 1. 538, 95% CI 1. 152 to 2.054). Our results suggested that a population with venous infiltration of primary lesion should be at risk of recurrence after surgery even if PSK was administered as postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:21224540

Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Kubo, Naoshi; Amano, Ryosuke; Noda, Eiji; Yamada, Nobuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Sawada, Tetsuji; Ohira, Masaichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuro; Hirakawa, Kosei

2010-11-01

252

Dislocation mechanism based model for stage II fatigue crack propagation rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Repeated plastic deformation, which of course depends on dislocation mechanism, at or near the crack tip leads to the fatigue crack propagation. By involving the theory of thermally activated flow and the cumulative plastic strain criterion, an effort is made here to model the stage II fatigue crack propagation rate in terms of the dislocation mechanism. The model, therefore, provides capability to ascertain: (1) the dislocation mechanism (and hence the near crack tip microstructures) assisting the crack growth, (2) the relative resistance of dislocation mechanisms to the crack growth, and (3) the fracture surface characteristics and its interpretation in terms of the dislocation mechanism. The local microstructure predicted for the room temperature crack growth in copper by this model is in good agreement with the experimental results taken from the literature. With regard to the relative stability of such dislocation mechanisms as the cross-slip and the dislocation intersection, the model suggests an enhancement of crack growth rate with an ease of cross-slip which in general promotes dislocation cell formation and is common in material which has high stacking fault energy (produces wavy slips). Cross-slip apparently enhances crack growth rate by promoting slip irreversibility and fracture surface brittleness to a greater degree.

Mazumdar, P. K.

1986-01-01

253

Arthroscopic surgery compared with supervised exercises in patients with rotator cuff disease (stage II impingement syndrome)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the effectiveness of arthroscopic surgery, a supervised exercise regimen, and placebo soft laser treatment in patients with rotator cuff disease (stage II impingement syndrome). DESIGN--Randomised clinical trial. SETTING--Hospital departments of orthopaedics and of physical medicine and rehabilitation. PATIENTS--125 patients aged 18-66 who had had rotator cuff disease for at least three months and whose condition was resistant to treatment. INTERVENTIONS--Arthroscopic subacromial decompression performed by two experienced surgeons; exercise regimen over three to six months supervised by one experienced physiotherapist; or 12 sessions of detuned soft laser treatment over six weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Change in the overall Neer shoulder score (pain during previous week and blinded evaluation of function and range of movement by one clinician) after six months. RESULTS--No differences were found between the three groups in duration of sick leave and daily intake of analgesics. After six months the difference in improvement in overall Neer score between surgery and supervised exercises was 4.0 (95% confidence interval -2 to 11) and 2.0 (-1.4 to 5.4) after adjustment for sex. The condition improved significantly compared with placebo in both groups given the active treatments. Treatment costs were higher for those given surgery (720 pounds v 390 pounds). CONCLUSIONS--Surgery or a supervised exercise regimen significantly, and equally, improved rotator cuff disease compared with placebo.

Brox, J I; Staff, P H; Ljunggren, A E; Brevik, J I

1993-01-01

254

Ellerman Bombs at High Resolution. II. Triggering, Visibility, and Effect on Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H? line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 Å with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 Å continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 Å SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 Å shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 Å, Fe IX 171 Å, and Fe XIV 211 Å show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H? morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.

2013-09-01

255

ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect

We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J., E-mail: g.j.m.vissers@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2013-09-01

256

The Role of Type II Spicules in the Upper Solar Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the suggestion that most of the hot plasma in the Sun's co rona comes from type II spicule material that is heated as it is ejected from the chromosphere. This contrasts with the traditional view th at the corona is filled via chromospheric evaporation that results fr om coronal heating. We explore the observational consequences of a hy pothetical spicule dominated corona and conclude from the large discr epancy between predicted and actual observations that only a small fraction of the hot plasma can be supplied by spicules (<2% in active regions and <5% in the quiet Sun). The red- blue asymmetries of EUV spec tral lines and the ratio of lower transition region (LTR; T< or =0.1 MK) to coronal emission measures are both predicted to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Furthermore, hot spicule material would cool dramatically by adiabatic expansion as it rises into the corona, so coronal heating would be required to maintain the high temperatu res that are seen at all altitudes. The necessity of coronal heating is inescapable. Traditional coronal heating models predict far too little emission from the LTR, and we suggest that this emission comes pr imarily from the bulk of the spicule material that is heated to < or =0.1 MK and is visible in He II (304 ?A) as it falls back to the surf ace.

Klimchuk, James A.

2012-01-01

257

Cancer Stem Cell Gene Profile as Predictor of Relapse in High Risk Stage II and Stage III, Radically Resected Colon Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Clinical data indicate that prognostic stratification of radically resected colorectal cancer based on disease stage only may not be always be adequate. Preclinical findings suggest that cancer stem cells may influence the biological behaviour of colorectal cancer independently from stage: objective of the study was to assess whether a panel of stemness markers were correlated with clinical outcome in resected stage II and III colon cancer patients. A panel of 66 markers of stemness were analysed and thus patients were divided into two groups (A and B) with most patients clustering in a manner consistent with different time to relapse by using a statistical algorithm. A total of 62 patients were analysed. Thirty-six (58%) relapsed during the follow-up period (range 1.63–86.5 months). Twelve (19%) and 50 (81%) patients were allocated into group A and B, respectively. A significantly different median relapse-free survival was observed between the 2 groups (22.18 vs 42.85 months, p?=?0.0296). Among of all genes tested, those with the higher “weight” in determining different prognosis were CD44, ALCAM, DTX2, HSPA9, CCNA2, PDX1, MYST1, COL1A1 and ABCG2. This analysis supports the idea that, other than stage, biological variables, such as expression levels of colon cancer stem cell genes, may be relevant in determining an increased risk of relapse in resected colorectal cancer patients.

Giampieri, Riccardo; Scartozzi, Mario; Loretelli, Cristian; Piva, Francesco; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Lezoche, Giovanni; Prete, Michela Del; Bittoni, Alessandro; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Cecchini, Luca; Guerrieri, Mario; Bearzi, Italo; Cascinu, Stefano

2013-01-01

258

Characteristics of Wave Packets in the Upper Troposphere. Part II: Seasonal and Hemispheric Variations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gridded 300-hPa meridional wind data produced by the ECMWF reanalysis project were analyzed to document the seasonal and hemispheric variations in the properties of upper-tropospheric wave packets. The properties of the wave packets are mainly illustrated using time-lagged one-point correlation maps performed on . Based on indices that show the coherence of wave propagation, as well as examination of correlation maps, schematic waveguides were constructed for the summer and winter seasons of both hemispheres along which waves preferentially propagate with greatest coherence. In the summers, the waveguides basically follow the position of the midlatitude jets. In the Northern Hemisphere winter, the primary waveguide follows the subtropical jet over southern Asia into the Pacific, but there is a secondary branch running across Russia, joining the primary waveguide near the entrance to the Pacific storm track. Over the Atlantic, the waveguide passes east-southeastward toward North Africa, then back to southern Asia. During the Southern Hemisphere winter, the primary waveguide splits in two around 70°E, with the primary (more coherent) branch deviating equatorward to join up with the subtropical waveguide, and a secondary branch spiraling poleward along with the subpolar jet and storm track maxima. Wave packet envelopes were also defined and group velocities of wave packets were computed based on correlations performed on packet envelopes. These group velocities were found to agree qualitatively with those defined previously based on wave activity fluxes.By examining the wave coherence indices, as well as individual correlation maps and Hovmöller diagrams of correlations computed along the primary waveguides, it was concluded that wave propagation is least coherent in Northern Hemisphere summer, and that waves in Southern Hemisphere summer are not necessarily more coherent than those in Southern Hemisphere winter. Data from a GCM experiment were also analyzed and showed that wave packets in the GCM also display such a seasonal variation in coherence. Results from experiments using an idealized model suggest that coherence of wave packets depends not only on the baroclinicity of the large-scale flow, but also on the intensity of the Hadley circulation, which acts to tighten the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity gradient.

Chang, Edmund K. M.

1999-06-01

259

Postoperative nomogram for disease recurrence and cancer-specific death for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: comparison to american joint committee on cancer staging classification.  

PubMed

Purpose: We sought to develop prognostic models to predict disease recurrence and cancerspecific mortality in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Materials and Methods: Data on 253 patients treated with RNU between 1995 and 2008 at a single high-volume tertiary referral center were analyzed. Statistically and clinically significant patient and tumor characteristics were identified in a univariate analysis and incorporated into a multivariable Cox regression model. The model was compared to the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging classification using the concordance index (c-index), corrected for statistical optimism using bootstrap methods. Results: Five-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI): 66-79%)] and 78% (95% CI: 71-84%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, higher preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was associated with better CSS [hazard ratio (HR) per 1 mL/min/m2 increase in GFR for CSS: 0.74; P = .002)], while higher pathologic stage (HR for pT2: 2.99 and for ? pT3: 7.34; P < .001) and lymph node involvement (HR: 3.75; P < .001) were associated with worse CSS; results were similar for RFS. The ability of the final models, which included preoperative GFR, lymph node status, pathologic grade, and stage, to predict RFS and CSS (c-index 0.82 and 0.83, respectively) was similar to that of the 2010 AJCC staging classification (c-index 0.80 and 0.81, respectively). Conclusion: Given the data-dependent selection of variables in this single institution cohort, it is unlikely that the marginal improvement found with these prediction models would importantly impact clinical decision-making or improve patient care. The 2010 AJCC staging classification alone is very accurate and should continue to guide follow-up after RNU.  PMID:24807756

Ehdaie, Behfar; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Savage, Caroline; Coleman, Jonathan; Dalbagni, Guido

2014-01-01

260

Connection between Mature Stages of Deep Convection and the Vertical Transport of Aerosols in the Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective transport of aerosol has implications to aerosol-cloud interactions and is an important problem for climate studies. We use along-track Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (Calipso) vertical feature mask data, CloudSat data, and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) deep convection tracking data to study the impact of deep convection on the transport of aerosols to the upper troposphere (UT) over the South Asian region (0-40N, 70-100E). To minimize misclassification among aerosols and the clouds at UT, we have only used data having large magnitude of cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores for the period of June 2006 to June 2008 when CloudSat and Calipso overlap with the ISCCP deep convection tracking data. Preliminary results suggest that active clouds most likely transport aerosols to high altitudes, whereas decaying clouds are least likely to transport aerosols to the UT. Mature clouds act in-between the active and decaying clouds. Active clouds that transport aerosols are different than decaying clouds in terms of higher cloud water path, cloud water content at 10 km altitude, number of convective clusters, and convective fraction. The NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office wind data, projected onto the CloudSat tracks, suggests a strong updraft associated with active clouds in favor of aerosol transportation, and a low level or mid-level subsidence associated with decaying clouds.

Chakraborty, S.; Fu, R.; Massie, S. T.; Pan, L.

2011-12-01

261

2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections  

PubMed Central

Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. ?g/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 ?g/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 ?g/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 ?g/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 ?g/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty acids with these key P. falciparum enzymes.

Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Nestor M.

2010-01-01

262

Phase II Study of Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Stage II-III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: JCOG Trial (JCOG 9906)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this Phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for Stage II-III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients and Methods: Patients with clinical Stage II-III (T1N1M0 or T2-3N0-1M0) thoracic ESCC were enrolled between April 2000 and March 2002. Chemotherapy comprised two courses of protracted infusion of 5-FU (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and 8-12, and 2-h infusion of CDDP (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1 and 8; this regimen was repeated every 5 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy involved 60-Gy irradiation (30 fractions) for 8 weeks with a 2-week break. Responders received two courses of 5-FU (800 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and CDDP (80 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1. Final analysis was conducted in March 2007. Survival and late toxicities were monitored for 5 years. Results: The characteristics of the 76 patients enrolled were as follows: median age, 61 years; male/female, 68/8; performance status 0/1, 59/17 patients; Stage IIA/IIB/III, 26/12/38 patients. Of the 74 eligible patients, 46 (62.2%) achieved complete response. Median survival time was 29 months, with 3- and 5-year survival rates of 44.7% and 36.8%, respectively. Acute toxicities included Grade 3/4 esophagitis (17%), nausea (17%), hyponatremia (16%), and infection without neutropenia (12%). Late toxicities comprised Grade 3/4 esophagitis (13%), pericardial (16%) and pleural (9%) effusion, and radiation pneumonitis (4%), causing 4 deaths. Conclusions: CRT is effective for Stage II-III ESCC with manageable acute toxicities and can provide a nonsurgical treatment option. However, further improvement is required for reduction in late toxicity.

Kato, Ken, E-mail: kenkato@ncc.go.jp [Gastrointestinal Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Muro, Kei [Gastrointestinal Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Minashi, Keiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi [Division of Digestive Endoscopy and Gastrointestinal Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Ishikura, Satoshi [Clinical Trials and Practice Support Division, Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Boku, Narikazu [Division of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Takiuchi, Hiroya [Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Osaka Medical College Hospital, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Komatsu, Yoshito [Department of Cancer Chemotherapy, Hokkaido University Hospital Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Miyata, Yoshinori [Department of Internal Medicine, Saku Central Hospital, Nagano (Japan); Fukuda, Haruhiko [Clinical Trials and Practice Support Division, Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-01

263

Fe?As sludge stability and effluent quality for a two?stage As?contaminated water treatment with Fe(II) and aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two?stage (I and II) lab?scale treatment system has been studied for arsenic removal from water using Fe(II) and lignosulphonates with aeration. In stage I, using an Fe\\/As mole ratio of 1.5–2.5 at a pH of around 6.5–7.5, the dissolved arsenic can be reduced with Fe(II) oxidation?precipitation from an initial 72 mg L to <2 mg L. The generated sludge

J. Ming Zhuang; Evan Hobenshield; Tony Walsh

2009-01-01

264

Expression of Cux-1 and Cux-2 in the subventricular zone and upper layers II-IV of the cerebral cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how neurons in the different layers of the mammalian cerebral cortex are specified at the molecular level. Expression of two homologues of the Drosophila homeobox Cut gene, Cux-1 and Cux-2, is strikingly specific to the pyramidal neurons of the upper layers (II-IV) of the murine cortex, suggesting that they may define the molecular identity of these

Marta Nieto; Edwin S. Monuki; Hua Tang; Jaime Imitola; Nicole Haubst; Samia J. Khoury; Jim Cunningham; Magdalena Gotz; Christopher A. Walsh

2004-01-01

265

Clinical significance of microsatellite instability for stage II or III colorectal cancer following adjuvant therapy with doxifluridine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular marker that can provide valuable prognostic information for colorectal cancer\\u000a (CRC). However, the predictive role of the MSI status remains less clear than its role in prognostication due to mixed results\\u000a from previous studies. Therefore, this study investigated the usefulness of the MSI status as a predictive factor for stage\\u000a II or III CRC

Byung Woog Kang; Jong Gwang Kim; Soo Jung Lee; Yee Soo Chae; Joon Ho Moon; Sang Kyun Sohn; Seong Woo Jeon; Min Kyu Jung; Kyoung-Hoon Lim; You Seok Jang; Jun Seok Park; Soo Han Jun; Gyu-Seog Choi

266

Total body irradiation for stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: ten-year follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Between 1972 and 1977, a prospective study was conducted at the University of Florida on the role of total body irradiation (TBI) in the management of stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Forty-four consecutive de novo (DN) patients (including ten stage II, 18 stage III, and 16 stage IV), as well as 16 previously treated (PT) patients, were accrued. Twenty of the 44 DN patients were symptomatic at presentation. Complete clinical responses were obtained in 20 of the 27 DN patients with favorable histologies (FH), and six of the 17 with unfavorable histologies (UH). Partial responses were obtained in six patients with FH and 11 patients with UH; only one patient showed no response to TBI. By univariate analysis, PT patients showed a trend for decreased relapse-free survival (P = .066) and decreased survival (P = .093). Multivariate analysis identified the best predictors of response rate to be histology (P = .0146) and marrow involvement (P = .0854); of relapse-free survival, histology (P = .0035), and TBI dose (P = .002); and of absolute survival, age (P = .0012), histology (P = .012), and TBI dose (P = .029). Thirty of the 41 patients who relapsed underwent salvage treatment with either chemotherapy or radiation. Twenty-three of the 30 undergoing salvage therapy obtained a second complete clinical response. There were no treatment-related deaths. The most common complication was thrombocytopenia. The major late complications were myeloproliferative disorders in four patients, which occurred only after cumulative TBI doses in excess of 200 cGy.

Mendenhall, N.P.; Noyes, W.D.; Million, R.R.

1989-01-01

267

Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

268

Comparison of outcomes between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in patients with surgically treated stage I-II cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

To improve our understanding of cervical adenocarcinoma (AD) and evaluate the clinical and pathological variables affecting its prognosis, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 455 patients with cervical cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I/II; 91 cases with AD and 364 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] who underwent surgery at our hospital between January, 1995 and August, 2012 and compared the characteristics and prognoses between AD and SCC cases, including age, clinical stage, histological type, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), cervical stromal invasion, parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion, corpus invasion, ovarian metastasis and tumor diameter. We used Cox regression analysis to determine independent prognostic factors. AD was found to have a significantly poorer prognosis in all the patients (P=0.001), stage I patients (P=0.001) and stage IB patients (P<0.05). The prognosis did not differ in patients who did not require postoperative treatment; however, patients who received postoperative treatment exhibited a significantly poorer prognosis (P<0.05). Patients with AD who received postoperative irradiation alone had a significantly poorer prognosis (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis identified LVSI (P=0.008), stromal invasion (P=0.024) and ovarian metastasis (P=0.032) as independent predictors of shorter survival. AD was associated with a worse prognosis compared to SCC in patients with stage IB disease, particularly in those who required postoperative treatment. Such patients may benefit from individualized postoperative treatments that differ from those applied for SCC.

YAMAUCHI, MAKOTO; FUKUDA, TAKESHI; WADA, TAKUMA; KAWANISHI, MASARU; IMAI, KENJI; HASHIGUCHI, YASUNORI; ICHIMURA, TOMOYUKI; YASUI, TOMOYO; SUMI, TOSHIYUKI

2014-01-01

269

Reduction of NOx Through Staged Combustion in Combined Cycle Supplemental Boilers. Volume II. Experimental Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the experimental program and results of an investigation of staged combustion in combined cycle (steam-gas turbine) electric power generation for the reduction of NOx in the exhaust gases. Several burner configurations were tested, an...

1975-01-01

270

Aggressive multimodality therapy for stage III esophageal cancer: a phase I\\/II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Stage III advanced locoregional esophageal carcinoma is frequently unresectable and inconsistently represented in therapeutic trials of esophageal cancer.Methods. From 1992 to 1998, 34 of 131 total esophageal cancer patients were designated stage III (16 T3N1, 9 T4N0, 9 T4N1) and medically fit to enter a combined modality protocol with continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (CI5-FU, 300 to 600 mg\\/m2\\/day), high-dose external

E. Pendleton Alexander; Timothy Lipman; John Harmon; Robert Wadleigh

2000-01-01

271

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Resected Stage II and III Colon Cancer: Comparison of Two Widely Used Prognostic Calculators  

PubMed Central

Two Web-based prognostic calculators (Adjuvant! and Numeracy) are widely used to individualize decisions regarding adjuvant therapy among patients with resected stage II and III colon cancer. However, these tools have not been directly compared. Hypothetical scenarios were formulated for the Numeracy calculator based on all potential combinations of age, lymph nodes status, tumor stage, and grade of tumor. These were then applied to three postsurgical therapy choices: observation, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), or FOLFOX (5-FU, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin chemotherapy) to obtain the predicted 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the numerical predictions between the Adjuvant! and Numeracy calculators for each combination. A total of 192 hypothetical patient scenarios were obtained. For these patients, DFS and OS predictions from Adjuvant! were statistically significantly different than Numeracy (P <.05), except for four of 144 categories. While the estimated benefit in DFS and OS for 5-FU compared to surgery obtained from Adjuvant! and Numeracy were similar, the benefit in DFS and OS for FOLFOX over 5-FU, obtained from the Adjuvant! tool was slightly lower than that estimated from Numeracy. Among patients with resected stage II and III colon cancer, the DFS and OS estimates obtained from Numeracy and Adjuvant!, regarding the benefit of 5-FU over surgery, are similar, but the benefits of FOLFOX over 5-FU differ. Validation studies are needed to clarify the discrepancy and to assess the accuracy of these tools for predicting actual patient outcomes.

Bardia, Aditya; Loprinzi, Charles; Grothey, Axel; Nelson, Garth; Alberts, Steven; Menon, Smitha; Thome, Stephan; Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Dan

2010-01-01

272

Occult neoplastic cells in lymph node sinuses and recurrence/metastasis of stage II/III gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated the correlation between the presence of occult neoplastic cells (ONCs) in lymph node sinuses and recurrence/metastasis of stage II/III gastric cancer in 164 patients who underwent radical curative resection. We calculated the five-year relapse-free survival rate (5Y-RFS) and five-year overall survival rate (5Y-OS) of the ONC(+) and ONC(?) groups. The 5Y-RFS was 71.4% in the ONC(?) group and 47.5% in the ONC(+) group (P=0.003). The 5Y-OS was 68.8 and 48.4%, respectively (P=0.008). ONCs were found in 34.8% of stage II patients and were also detected in 66.7% of stage III patients. For distinguishing between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups, the sensitivity of ONC(+) was 64.5% (40/62; P=0.003), the positive predictive value (PPV) was 49.4% (40/81), the specificity was 59.8% (61/102) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 73.5% (61/83). This high sensitivity indicates that ONC positivity may be a significant indicator for high-risk patients in the early postoperative period, and a lack of ONCs may be a useful indicator for identifying low-risk patients, as patients without ONCs had a high NPV.

SEKIDO, YASUTOMO; MUKAI, MASAYA; YAMAZAKI, MASASHI; TAJIMA, TAKAYUKI; YAMAMOTO, SOUICHIROU; HASEGAWA, SAYURI; KISHIMA, KYOKO; TAJIRI, TAKUMA; NAKAMURA, NAOYA

2014-01-01

273

Japanese multicenter phase II study of CHOP followed by radiotherapy in stage I-II, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach.  

PubMed

CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) followed by radiotherapy is regarded as standard care for localized aggressive lymphoma; however, prospective confirmation of its applicability to localized primary gastric lymphoma is inadequate, and most patients in Japan have been initially treated with gastrectomy. We conducted a multicenter phase II study to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the non-surgical treatment. Eligibility criteria required primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, stage I-II(1), age 20-75, performance status 0-1 and adequate organ function. Treatment consisted of three cycles of CHOP followed by radiotherapy 40.5 Gy. Fifty-five patients were enrolled between December 1999 and February 2003, and 52 eligible patients were analyzed. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age, 61 years; 28 men, 24 women; 36 with stage I, 16 with stage II(1); 47 with a low International Prognostic Index (IPI) and five with a low-intermediate IPI. All but one patient completed planned treatment. No serious complications including massive hemorrhage or perforation were observed. A complete response was achieved in 48 of the 52 patients (92%, 95% confidence interval: 82-98%) and progressive disease in three. Two patients underwent salvage gastrectomy due to disease persistence or recurrence. With a median follow-up period of 28 months, 2-year progression-free and overall survivals were 88 and 94%, respectively. CHOP followed by radiotherapy is safe and highly effective in localized gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This organ-preserving treatment should be considered as a very reasonable therapeutic option. PMID:15958057

Ishikura, Satoshi; Tobinai, Kensei; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Yoshino, Tadashi; Oda, Ichiro; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Mera, Kiyomi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Kuniaki; Tamaki, Yoshio; Suzumiya, Junji; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro

2005-06-01

274

Multimodel ensemble predictions of river stages computed in real time: application of the HydroProg system in the upper Nysa K?odzka basin (SW Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel system for computing predictions of river stages in real time, based on the concept of multimodelling, has been recently designed and built at the University of Wroc?aw, Poland. The system, known as HydroProg, has been launched in August 2013, and its first experimental basin is the upper Nysa K?odzka basin (SW Poland) above the outlet in the town of Bardo, with the catchment area of 1744 square kilometres. The study area, which includes a large and flood-prone intramontane basin with the surrounding mountains, has been chosen in order to connect the HydroProg system to the existing real-time hydrometeorological observational network, namely the Local System for Flood Monitoring in K?odzko County. This network offers a high temporal resolution of observations, as the length of the sampling interval is equal to 15 minutes. Multiple external hydrologic prediction models - those which enable rapid recalibration every quarter of an hour - can be plugged in to HydroProg, and the latter keeps calculating multimodel ensemble forecasts of river stages with weights updated along with the 15-minute update of the entire system. The initial results - based on a few data-based hydrologic models and the following two types of predictions: (1) 15 minute update and lead time of 3h and (2) 6 hour update and lead time of 2 days - clearly show that both normal and peak flow water levels can be successfully predicted. The paper discusses the maximal prediction horizons, at 11 hydrologic gauges under scrutiny, for which Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency judges the predictions as reasonable. Along with the discussion of scientific results, the dedicated real-time web map service, presenting both the current predictions and their statistics in the online mode, is shown.

Niedzielski, Tomasz; Mizi?ski, Bart?omiej; Kryza, Maciej; Netzel, Pawe?; Wieczorek, Ma?gorzata; Spallek, Waldemar; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Migo?, Piotr; Kasprzak, Marek; Witek, Matylda; Jeziorska, Justyna; Kosek, Wies?aw

2014-05-01

275

Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and ABT-888 in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-05-19

276

The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer. Methods From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve. Results When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P?=?0.042 and P?=?0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P?=?0.2036) and DFS ( P?=?0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P?=?0.013). Conclusions Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.

2012-01-01

277

A prospective randomised phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with stage II colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in stage II colon cancer. Patients with stage II colon cancer were randomised to either adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU\\/LV (100 mg m?2 LV+450 mg m?2 5-FU weekly, weeks 1–6, in 8 weeks cycles × 7) or surveillance only. Five hundred patients

W Schippinger; H Samonigg; R Schaberl-Moser; R Greil; R Thödtmann; J Tschmelitsch; M Jagoditsch; G G Steger; R Jakesz; F Herbst; F Hofbauer; H Rabl; P Wohlmuth; M Gnant; J Thaler

2007-01-01

278

A randomized trial of postoperative UFT therapy in p stage I, II non-small cell lung cancer: North-east Japan Study Group for Lung Cancer Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A prospective randomized trial was performed to investigate the prognostic advantage of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resected stage I–II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: From March 1992 to December 1994, 221 patients with completely resected stage I–II primary NSCLC were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups, as follows: 2-year oral administration of Uracil

Chiaki Endo; Yasuki Saito; Hiroshi Iwanami; Takao Tsushima; Tadashi Imai; Mitsuo Kawamura; Takashi Kondo; Kaoru Koike; Masashi Handa; Ryuzo Kanno; Shigefumi Fujimura

2003-01-01

279

Factors associated with weight loss during radiotherapy in patients with stage I or II head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of the study was to identify factors associated with weight loss during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with stage\\u000a I or II head and neck (HN) cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study was conducted as part of a phase III chemoprevention trial. A total of 540 patients were randomized. The patients\\u000a were weighed before and after RT. Patients’ characteristics, dietary intake, health-related

Alice Nourissat; Isabelle Bairati; André Fortin; Michel Gélinas; Abdenour Nabid; François Brochet; Bernard Têtu; François Meyer

280

Prognostic Model of Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by a Discriminant Analysis of the Immunohistochemical Protein Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We aimed to identify the key proteins that influence the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using protein expression\\u000a profiles of previously known prognostic markers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-one cases of Stage II NSCLC with 5-year follow-up data were selected. Tissue microarrays (TMA) and immunohistochemistry\\u000a were used to make protein expression profiles of 18 previously reported immunohistochemical prognostic markers and their value

Takayuki Kohri; Masayuki Sugano; Osamu Kawashima; Ryusei Saito; Shinji Sakurai; Takaaki Sano; Takashi Nakajima

2006-01-01

281

Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

282

Increased Upper and Lower Tract Urothelial Carcinoma in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan during 1997-2008  

PubMed Central

Background. Urothelial cancer (UC) is the leading cancer of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Taiwan. The aims of this study were to explore the time trends of UC incidences and propose possible etiologic factors. Methods. Abstracting from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), there were 90,477 newly diagnosed cases of ESRD between 1997 and 2008 covering the patients aged 40–85. Among them, 2,708 had developed UC after diagnosis of ESRD. The CIR40–85 (cumulative incidence rate) of upper tract UC (UTUC) and lower tract UC (LTUC) were calculated for ESRD patients and general population, as well as SIR40–85 (standardized incidence ratio) for comparison. Results. Female ESRD patients were found to have 9–18 times of elevated risks of UC, while those of males were increased up to 4–14 times. The time trends of CIR40–84 and SIR40–84 of UTUC in females appear to decline after calendar year 2000. These trends may be related to AA associated herbal products after 1998. Conclusions. Patients with ESRD are at increased risks for both LTUC and UTUC in Taiwan. We hypothesize that the time trends associate with the consumption of aristolochic acid in Chinese herbal products (female predominant).

Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Jung-Der

2014-01-01

283

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Haddix, T. M.; Holte, L. D.; Wilson, R. H.; Bartron, M. L.; Kalie, J. A.; DeHaan, P. W.; Ardren, W. R.; Holm, R. J.; Jaeger, M. E.

2012-01-01

284

CBCT Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion with Mandibular Retrusion Using Twin Block Appliance: A Comparative Research  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB) treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n?=?30) was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. Results During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52±2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77±2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. Conclusion Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB treatment.

Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Cheng, Huijuan; Han, Yanzhao; Wang, Chunling; Chen, Yu

2014-01-01

285

A two-stage patient enrichment adaptive design in phase II oncology trials.  

PubMed

Illustrated is the use of a patient enrichment adaptive design in a randomized phase II trial which allows the evaluation of treatment benefits by the biomarker expression level and makes interim adjustment according to the pre-specified rules. The design was applied to an actual phase II metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) trial in which progression-free survival (PFS) in two biomarker-defined populations is evaluated at both interim and final analyses. As an extension, a short-term biomarker is used to predict the long-term PFS in a Bayesian model in order to improve the precision of hazard ratio (HR) estimate at the interim analysis. The characteristics of the extended design are examined in a number of scenarios via simulations. The recommended adaptive design is shown to be useful in a phase II setting. When a short-term maker which correlates with the long-term PFS is available, the design can be applied in smaller early phase trials in which PFS requires longer follow-up. In summary, the adaptive design offers flexibility in randomized phase II patient enrichment trials and should be considered in an overall personalized healthcare (PHC) strategy. PMID:24342820

Song, James X

2014-01-01

286

Wet treatment of low-quality coal. II stage. Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At this second stage, the project was aimed at determining the appropriate operating conditions which permit the use of slack with a high ratio of inert materials after a treatment by means of wet oxidation at thigh pressure as well as carrying out an eco...

1999-01-01

287

Outcomes Among Black Patients With Stage II and III Colon Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy: An Analysis of ACCENT Adjuvant Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Among patients with resected colon cancer, black patients have worse survival than whites. We investigated whether disparities in survival and related endpoints would persist when patients were treated with identical therapies in controlled clinical trials. Methods We assessed 14?611 patients (1218 black and 13?393 white) who received standardized adjuvant treatment in 12 randomized controlled clinical trials conducted in North America for resected stage II and stage III colon cancer between 1977 and 2002. Individual patient data on covariates and outcomes were extracted from the Adjuvant Colon Cancer ENdpoinTs (ACCENT) database. The endpoints examined in this meta-analysis were overall survival (time to death), recurrence-free survival (time to recurrence or death), and recurrence-free interval (time to recurrence). Cox models were stratified by study and controlled for sex, stage, age, and treatment to determine the effect of race. Kaplan–Meier estimates were adjusted for similar covariates to control for confounding. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Black patients were younger than whites (median age, 58 vs 61 years, respectively; P < .001) and more likely to be female (55% vs 45%, respectively; P < .001). Overall survival was worse in black patients than whites (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 1.34, P < .001). Five-year overall survival rates for blacks and whites were 68.2% and 72.8%, respectively. When subsets defined by sex, stage, and age were analyzed, overall survival was consistently worse in black patients. Recurrence-free survival was worse in black patients than whites (HR of recurrence or death = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.24, P = .0045). Three-year recurrence-free survival rates in blacks and whites were 68.4% and 72.1%, respectively. In contrast, recurrence-free interval was similar in black and white patients (HR of recurrence = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.97 to 1.19, P = .15). Three-year recurrence-free interval rates in blacks and whites were 71.3% and 74.2%, respectively. Conclusions Black patients with resected stage II and stage III colon cancer who were treated with the same therapy as white patients experienced worse overall and recurrence-free survival, but similar recurrence-free interval, compared with white patients. The differences in survival may be mostly because of factors unrelated to the patients’ adjuvant colon cancer treatment.

Sargent, Daniel J.; Wolmark, Norman; Goldberg, Richard M.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Benedetti, Jacqueline K.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Dignam, James J.; Blackstock, A. William

2011-01-01

288

Stages of Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the body. The following stages are used for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Stage 0 (High-grade Dysplasia) Stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus Stage II squamous cell carcinoma ...

289

Tolerability of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 after curative resection in patients with stage II/III gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The results of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial demonstrated that adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for stage II/III gastric cancer is effective and suggested that this therapy should be adopted as the standard treatment following curative D2 gastric dissection. We reviewed treatment outcomes in 58 consecutive patients who received adjuvant therapy with S-1 for stage II/III gastric cancer following curative D2 dissection; the standard dosage used was determined on the basis of the patient body surface area. Twenty-four patients (41.3%) discontinued treatment before 12 months. Patients who completed 12 months of adjuvant therapy with S-1 were younger and more frequently treated by senior doctors (>15 years of experience) than those who did not. However, no differences existed in pathological features and surgical procedures between groups. Overall survival and relapse-free survival were better in patients who completed 12 months of adjuvant therapy with S-1. Fatigue and nausea were associated with discontinuation of S-1 treatment. In conclusion, immediately after surgery, fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms of ? grade 2 may have a major impact on treatment compliance. Prior to the commencement of S-1 administration, both patients and doctors should be made completely aware of the toxicity, compliance and efficacy issues associated with this adjuvant therapy.

TSUJIMOTO, HIRONORI; HORIGUCHI, HIROYUKI; HIRAKI, SHUICHI; YAGUCHI, YOSHIHISA; TAKAHATA, RISA; KUMANO, ISAO; YOSHIDA, KAZUMICHI; MATSUMOTO, YUSUKE; ONO, SATOSHI; YAMAMOTO, JUNJI; HASE, KAZUO

2012-01-01

290

Improved five year survival after combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy for Stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the prognosis of patients with localized non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) who are treated with radiotherapy (RT), a prospective controlled study utilizing a combined modality approach was carried out in patients with pathologic Stage I-II NHL. After treatment with regional RT, patients in complete remission were randomized to receive either no further therapy or 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (CVP). At 5 years from completion of irradiation, the relapse-free survival was 46.3% after RT and 72.1% after RT plus CVP (P=0.005). The corresponding findings for the overall survival calculated from the beginning of irradiation were 55.8 and 82.8% respectively (P=0.03). The favorable effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival were statistically significant only in the subgroup with diffuse histology. In patients who relapsed after RT alone, the salvage therapy failed to induce a high incidence of second durable remission. Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated to improve the curve rate in pathologic stage I-II NHL with diffuse histology when regional RT is utilized.

Monfardini, S.; Banfi, A.; Bonadonna, G.; Rilke, F.; Milani, F.; Valagussa, P.; Lattuada, A.

1980-02-01

291

DNA methylation status of cyp17-II gene correlated with its expression pattern and reproductive endocrinology during ovarian development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450c17-II (cyp17-II, 17?-hydroxylase) is responsible for the production of steroid hormones during oocyte maturation in vertebrates. The comparative expression pattern of cyp17-II gene during the gonadal development stages will provide important insights into its function of gonadal development. In addition, epigenetic modification especially DNA methylation plays a vital role in regulation of gene expression. The adult female Japanese flounder at different ovarian development stage (from stages II to V) was obtained in this experiment. The expression of cyp17-II gene in the ovary of Japanese flounder during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Reproductive traits included gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T) were also measured. Moreover, whole CpG dinucleotides methylation status of the two CpG rich regions in cyp17-II coding region was detected by bisulfate sequencing. In the ovary, the cyp17-II gene had the lowest mRNA expression at the early ovarian development stage, but then increased afterward. The variation trends of T and E2 level were consistent with the cyp17-II expression pattern in ovary. In contrast, the whole methylation levels of each CpG rich region (exon 4 and 6) in cyp17-II coding region were declined from stages II to IV, then increased at stage V. The methylation levels of whole CpG sites in each CpG rich region were inversely correlated with the values of ovarian cyp17-II gene expression, T and E2 level, and GSI. Based on the present study, we proposed that cyp17-II may regulate the level of steroid hormone, and then stimulate the oocyte growth and maturation. The cyp17-II gene transcriptional activity was possibly affected by the methylation level of CpG rich regions in coding region. These findings will help in the study of the molecular mechanism of fish reproduction and endocrine physiology. PMID:23747405

Ding, YuXia; He, Feng; Wen, HaiShen; Li, JiFang; Ni, Meng; Chi, MeiLi; Qian, Kun; Bu, Yan; Zhang, DongQian; Si, YuFeng; Zhao, JunLi

2013-09-15

292

Effects of laser immunotherapy on late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients in a Phase II clinical trial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser immunotherapy (LIT), a novel technique with a local intervention to induce systemic antitumor effects, was developed to treat metastatic cancers. The pre-clinical studies of LIT have shown its unique characteristics in generating a specific antitumor immunity in treating metastatic tumors in rats and mice. For late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients, who were considered to be out of other available treatment options, we conducted a small Phase II clinical trial using LIT starting in 2009 in Lima, Peru. This Phase II study was closed in December of 2012, as acknowldged by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Peur letter 438-2014-OGITT/INS dated March 5th, 2014. Ten patients were enrolled and received LIT in one or multiple 4-week treatment cycles. At the study closing date, four patients were alive and two of them remained cancer free. Here, following the successful conclusion of our Phase II study, we report the clinical effects of LIT on metastatic breast cancer patients. Specifically, we present the overall status of all the patients three years after the treatment and also the outcomes of two long-term surviving patients.

Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Chen, Wei R.

2014-03-01

293

hERG1 Channels and Glut-1 as Independent Prognostic Indicators of Worse Outcome in Stage I and II Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify new markers to assess recurrence risk in early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We explored the prognostic impact of ether-a-gò-gò-related gene 1 channels and some hypoxia markers, in patients with nonmetastatic (stage I, II, and III) CRC. METHODS: The expression of hERG1, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), glucose transporter 1, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), and p53 was tested by immunohistochemistry in 135 patients. The median follow-up was 35 months. Clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival were evaluated. RESULTS: hERG1 displayed a statistically significant association with Glut-1, VEGF-A, CA-IX, and EGF-R; p53 with VEGF-A and CA-IX; Glut-1 with the age of the patients; and EGF-R with TNM and mucin content. TNM and CA-IX were prognostic factors at the univariate analysis; TNM, hERG1, and Glut-1, at the multivariate analysis. Risk scores calculated from the final multivariate model allowed to stratify patients into four different risk groups: A) stage I–II, Glut-1 positivity, any hERG1; B) stage I–II, Glut-1 and hERG1 negativity; C) stage I–II, Glut-1 negativity, hERG1 positivity; D) stage III, any Glut-1 and any hERG1. CONCLUSIONS: hERG1 positivity with Glut-1 negativity identifies a patient group with poor prognosis within stage I–II CRC. The possibility that these patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy, independently from the TNM stage, is discussed. IMPACT: More robust prognostic and predictive markers, supplementing standard clinical and pathologic staging, are needed for node-negative patients.

Lastraioli, Elena; Bencini, Lapo; Bianchini, Elisa; Romoli, Maria Raffaella; Crociani, Olivia; Giommoni, Elisa; Messerini, Luca; Gasperoni, Silvia; Moretti, Renato; Di Costanzo, Francesco; Boni, Luca; Arcangeli, Annarosa

2012-01-01

294

Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process. CASE DESCRIPTION A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used. OUTCOMES In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with no change, and the custom articulated orthosis was associated with forefoot adduction. DISCUSSION Based on gait analysis, the higher-cost custom articulated orthosis was chosen as optimal for the patient. This custom articulated orthosis was associated with the greatest change in flatfoot deformity, assessed using gait analysis. The patient felt it produced the greatest correction in foot deformity. Reducing flatfoot deformity while allowing ankle movement may limit progression of stage II PTTD.

NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; HOUCK, JEFF

2010-01-01

295

Clinical significance of microRNA-148a in patients with early relapse of stage II stage and III colorectal cancer after curative resection.  

PubMed

Development of robust prognostic/predictive biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is imperative for advancing treatment strategies for this disease. We aimed to determine whether expression status of microRNAs might be a simple and reliable biomarker to detect postoperative early relapse in patients with CRC after radical resection. We used microRNA arrays and identified that microRNA-148a (miRNA-148a) had substantially different expression levels in early and nonearly relapsed stage II and III CRC tissues. The validation study, which included 55 early relapsed patients and 55 nonearly relapsed patients, further confirmed overexpression of miRNA-148a in nonearly relapsed samples. Subsequently, we explored whether the serum level of miRNA-148a can be used to predict early CRC recurrence. The in vitro and in vivo effects of miRNA-148a were examined by cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as cell cycles, and xenograft in null mice. Last, miRNA-148a was investigated as a potential biomarker for identifying early relapse. Cellular studies demonstrated that the overexpression of miRNA-148a inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation and migration but not invasion. The cell cycle studies also revealed that miRNA-148a caused an accumulation of the G2 population. Moreover, lower levels of miRNA-148a expression were associated with significantly shorter disease-free survival rates and poorer overall survival rates. This study showed that miRNA-148a can inhibit tumorigenesis and reduce the early recurrence of CRC. These findings suggest that miRNA-148a may have potential clinical applications for predicting the early relapse of patients with CRC after radical resection. PMID:23933284

Tsai, Hsiang-Lin; Yang, I-Ping; Huang, Ching-Wen; Ma, Cheng-Jen; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Lu, Chien-Yu; Juo, Suh-Hang; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

2013-10-01

296

Temporally and spatially resolved flow in a two-stage axial compressor. II - Computational assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid dynamics of turbomachines are complicated due to aerodynamic interactions between rotors and stators. It is necessary to understand the aerodynamics associated with these interactions in order to design turbomachines that are both light and compact as well as reliable and efficient. The current study uses an unsteady, thin-layer Navier-Stokes zonal approach to investigate the unsteady aerodyamics of a multistage compressor. Relative motion between rotors and stators is made possible by use of systems of patched and overlaid grids. Results have been computed for a 2 1/2-stage compressor configuration. The numerical data compares well with experimental data for surface pressures and wake data. In addition, the effect of grid refinement on the solution is studied.

Gundy-Burlet, K. L.; Rai, M. M.; Stauter, R. C.; Dring, R. P.

1991-01-01

297

The non-isothermal stage of magnetic star formation - II. Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper we formulated the problem of the formation and evolution of fragments (or cores) in magnetically supported, self-gravitating molecular clouds in axisymmetric geometry, accounting for the effects of ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation, grain chemistry and dynamics, and radiative transfer. Here, we present results of star formation simulations that accurately track the evolution of a protostellar fragment over 11 orders of magnitude in density (from 300 to ~ 1014 cm-3), i.e. from the early ambipolar-diffusion-initiated fragmentation phase, through the magnetically supercritical, dynamical-contraction phase and the subsequent magnetic decoupling stage, to the formation of a protostellar core in near hydrostatic equilibrium. As found by Fiedler & Mouschovias, gravitationally-driven ambipolar diffusion leads to the formation and subsequent dynamic contraction of a magnetically supercritical core. Moreover, we find that ambipolar diffusion, not Ohmic dissipation, is responsible for decoupling all the species except the electrons from the magnetic field, by a density of ~ 3 × 1012 cm-3. Magnetic decoupling precedes the formation of a central stellar object and ultimately gives rise to a concentration of magnetic flux (a `magnetic wall') outside the hydrostatic core - as also found by Tassis & Mouschovias through a different approach. At approximately the same density at which Ohmic dissipation becomes more important than ambipolar diffusion (>rsim 7 × 1012 cm-3), the grains carry most of the electric charge as well as the electric current. The prestellar core remains disc like down to radii ~ 10 au, inside which thermal pressure becomes important. The magnetic flux problem of star formation is resolved for at least strongly magnetic newborn stars by this stage of the evolution, i.e. by a central density ~ 1014 cm-3. The hydrostatic core has radius ~ 2 au, density ~ 1014 cm-3, temperature ~ 300 K, magnetic field strength ~ 0.2 G, magnetic flux ~ 5 × 1026 Mx, luminosity ~ 10-3 Lsolar and mass ~ 10-2 Msolar.

Kunz, Matthew W.; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

2010-10-01

298

Study protocol of the SACURA trial: a randomized phase III trial of efficacy and safety of UFT as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer is internationally accepted as standard treatment with established efficacy, but the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer remains controversial. The major Western guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for “high-risk stage II” cancer, but this is not clearly defined and the efficacy has not been confirmed. Methods/design SACURA trial is a multicenter randomized phase III study which aims to evaluate the superiority of 1-year adjuvant treatment with UFT to observation without any adjuvant treatment after surgery for stage II colon cancer in a large population, and to identify “high-risk factors of recurrence/death” in stage II colon cancer and predictors of efficacy and adverse events of the chemotherapy. Patients aged between 20 and 80?years with curatively resected stage II colon cancer are randomly assigned to a observation group or UFT adjuvant therapy group (UFT at 500–600?mg/day as tegafur in 2 divided doses after meals for 5?days, followed by 2-day rest. This 1-week treatment cycle is repeated for 1?year). The patients are followed up for 5?years until recurrence or death. Treatment delivery and adverse events are entered into a web-based case report form system every 3?months. The target sample size is 2,000 patients. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival, and the secondary endpoints are overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and incidence and severity of adverse events. In an additional translational study, the mRNA expression of 5-FU-related enzymes, microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability, and histopathological factors including tumor budding are assessed to evaluate correlation with recurrences, survivals and adverse events. Discussion A total of 2,024 patients were enrolled from October 2006 to July 2010. The results of this study will provide important information that help to improve the therapeutic strategy for stage II colon cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00392899.

2012-01-01

299

Unraveling hominin behavior at another anthropogenic site from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania): new archaeological and taphonomic research at BK, Upper Bed II.  

PubMed

New archaeological excavations and research at BK, Upper Bed II (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) have yielded a rich and unbiased collection of fossil bones. These new excavations show that BK is a stratified deposit formed in a riverine setting close to an alluvial plain. The present taphonomic study reveals the second-largest collection of hominin-modified bones from Olduvai, with abundant cut marks found on most of the anatomical areas preserved. Meat and marrow exploitation is reconstructed using the taphonomic signatures left on the bones by hominins. Highly cut-marked long limb shafts, especially those of upper limb bones, suggest that hominins at BK were actively engaged in acquiring small and middle-sized animals using strategies other than passive scavenging. The exploitation of large-sized game (Pelorovis) by Lower Pleistocene hominins, as suggested by previous researchers, is supported by the present study. PMID:19632702

Domínguez-Rodrigo, M; Mabulla, A; Bunn, H T; Barba, R; Diez-Martín, F; Egeland, C P; Espílez, E; Egeland, A; Yravedra, J; Sánchez, P

2009-09-01

300

pT4 stage II and III colon cancers carry the worst prognosis in a nationwide survival analysis. Shepherd's local peritoneal involvement revisited.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to clarify the prognostic importance of several well-known but still debated pathological variables related to the survival of colon cancer patients. The study focuses on the definition and survival carried by the pT4 category and stage II where the presence of high-risk variables may determine whether or not adjuvant chemotherapy is administered. A retrospective nationwide study was carried out including all colon cancer patients that underwent resection in Iceland between 1990 and 2004 (n?=?889). All histopathology was reassessed. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival were analysed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. In stage II, the five-year CSS for pT4 was 50% (95% CI, 32-69%), which was the lowest survival observed in that stage. In stage III the five-year CSS was 30% (95% CI, 18-41%) and 37% (95% CI, 26-48%) for pT4 and pN2 tumors, respectively. Lymphatic invasion and differentiation had no prognostic value in stage II. The survival associated with pT4a versus pT4b depends on how these categories are defined with regard to Shepherd's local peritoneal involvement (LPI). In the present series, pT4 is a major indicator of poor prognosis in patients with stage II and III colon carcinoma. Four-tiered TNM or Dukes staging systems are insufficient by not taking this variable into account. Only Shepherd's LPI4 and a subgroup of LPI3 (i.e., borderline LPI3/LPI4) should qualify for the pT4a subcategory. The results do not support lymphatic invasion or poor differentiation as high-risk stage II variables. PMID:24347179

Snaebjornsson, P; Coupe, V M H; Jonasson, L; Meijer, G A; van Grieken, N C; Jonasson, J G

2014-07-15

301

Loss of LRIG1 locus increases risk of early and late relapse of stage I/II breast cancer.  

PubMed

Gains and losses at chromosome 3p12-21 are common in breast tumors and associated with patient outcomes. We hypothesized that the LRIG1 gene at 3p14.1, whose product functions in ErbB-family member degradation, is a critical tumor modifier at this locus. We analyzed 971 stage I/II breast tumors using Affymetrix Oncoscan molecular inversion probe arrays that include 12 probes located within LRIG1. Copy number results were validated against gene expression data available in the public database. By partitioning the LRIG1 probes nearest exon 12/13, we confirm a breakpoint in the gene and show that gains and losses in the subregions differ by tumor and patient characteristics including race/ethnicity. In analyses adjusted for known prognostic factors, loss of LRIG1 was independently associated with risk of any relapse (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.32-2.73), relapse?5 years (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.31-4.36), and death (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.11-2.16). Analyses of copy number across chromosome 3, as well as expression data from pooled, publicly available datasets, corroborated the hypothesis of an elevated and persistent risk among cases with loss of or low LRIG1. We concluded that loss/low expression of LRIG1 is an independent risk factor for breast cancer metastasis and death in stage I/II patients. Increased hazard in patients with loss/low LRIG1 persists years after diagnosis, suggesting that LRIG1 is acting as a critical suppressor of tumor metastasis and is an early clinical indicator of risk for late recurrences in otherwise low-risk patients. PMID:24879564

Thompson, Patricia A; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Tsavachidis, Spyros; Brewster, Abenaa; Sahin, Aysegul; Hedman, Håkan; Henriksson, Roger; Bondy, Melissa L; Melin, Beatrice S

2014-06-01

302

Foot Kinematics During a Bilateral Heel Rise Test in Participants With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Experimental laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES To compare foot kinematics, using 3-dimensional tracking methods, during a bilateral heel rise between participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and participants with a normal medial longitudinal arch (MLA). BACKGROUND The bilateral heel rise test is commonly used to assess patients with PTTD; however, information about foot kinematics during the test is lacking. METHODS Forty-five individuals volunteered to participate, including 30 patients diagnosed with unilateral stage II PTTD (mean ± SD age, 59.8 ± 11.1 years; body mass index, 29.9 ± 4.8 kg/m2) and 15 controls (mean ± SD age, 56.5 ± 7.7 years; body mass index, 30.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Foot kinematic data were collected during a bilateral heel rise task from the calcaneus (hindfoot), first metatarsal, and hallux, using an Optotrak motion analysis system and Motion Monitor software. A 2-way mixed-effects analysis of variance model, with normalized heel height as a covariate, was used to test for significant differences between the normal MLA and PTTD groups. RESULTS The patients in the PTTD group exhibited significantly greater ankle plantar flexion (mean difference between groups, 7.3°; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1° to 9.5°), greater first metatarsal dorsiflexion (mean difference between groups, 9.0°; 95% CI: 3.7° to 14.4°), and less hallux dorsiflexion (mean difference, 6.7°; 95% CI: 1.7° to 11.8°) compared to controls. At peak heel rise, hindfoot inversion was similar (P = .130) between the PTTD and control groups. CONCLUSION Except for hindfoot eversion/inversion, the differences in foot kinematics in participants with stage II PTTD, when compared to the control group, mainly occur as an offset, not an alteration in shape, of the kinematic patterns.

HOUCK, JEFF; NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; TOME, JOSHUA; FLEMISTER, ADOLPH

2010-01-01

303

The influence of micrometastases on prognosis and survival in stage I-II colon cancer patients: the Enroute? Study  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of lymph node metastases remains the most reliable prognostic predictor and the gold indicator for adjuvant treatment in colon cancer (CC). In spite of a potentially curative resection, 20 to 30% of CC patients testing negative for lymph node metastases (i.e. pN0) will subsequently develop locoregional and/or systemic metastases within 5 years. The presence of occult nodal isolated tumor cells (ITCs) and/or micrometastases (MMs) at the time of resection predisposes CC patients to high risk for disease recurrence. These pN0micro+ patients harbouring occult micrometastases may benefit from adjuvant treatment. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the subset of pN0 patients with micrometastases (pN0micro+) and evaluate the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in pN0micro+ CC patients. Methods/design EnRoute+ is an open label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial. All CC patients (age above 18 years) without synchronous locoregional lymph node and/or systemic metastases (clinical stage I-II disease) and operated upon with curative intent are eligible for inclusion. All resected specimens of patients are subject to an ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping procedure (SLNM) following curative resection. The investigation for micrometastases in pN0 patients is done by extended serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin in sentinel lymph nodes which are tumour negative upon standard pathological examination. Patients with ITC/MM-positive sentinel lymph nodes (pN0micro+) are randomized for adjuvant chemotherapy following the CAPOX treatment scheme or observation. The primary endpoint is 3-year disease free survival (DFS). Discussion The EnRoute+ study is designed to improve prognosis in high-risk stage I/II pN0 micro+ CC patients by reducing disease recurrence by adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01097265

2011-01-01

304

Recurrence and 5-FU sensitivity of stage II/III node-positive gastric cancer with occult neoplastic cells in lymph node sinuses.  

PubMed

The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for patients without occult neoplastic cells (ONCs) were 43.0% in stage II (n=15), 52.2% in stage III (n=23), and 48.5% for stages II and III combined (n=38). For ONC-positive patients, the 5-year OS rates were 44.4% in stage II (n=7; p=0.88322), 11.3% in stage III (n=30; p=0.0006), and 17.5% for stages II and III combined (n=37; p=0.0019). Among the ONC(+) recurrence group (75.7%, 28/37), 42.9% (12/28) showed high TS expression in metastatic lymph nodes and 57.1% (16/28) showed low TS expression. In the case of DPD expression, 32.1% (9/28) showed high expression and 67.9% (19/28) showed low expression. Among the ONC(+) non-recurrence group (24.3%, 9/37), 66.7% (6/9) showed high TS expression and 33.3% (3/9) showed low TS expression, while high and low DPD expression was seen in 22.2% (2/9) and 77.8% (7/9), respectively. A combination of high TS and low DPD expression was found in 32.1% (9/28) of the recurrence group vs. 66.7% (6/9) of the non-recurrence group (p=0.070). These results suggest that ONCs are associated with OS. Unlike the non-recurrence group, the ONC(+) patients with recurrence of stage II/III node-positive gastric cancer are unlikely to respond to treatment with 5-FU + LV and may need combination chemotherapy based on L-OHP and/or CPT-11. PMID:16273246

Mukai, Masaya; Tajima, Takayuki; Sato, Shinkichi; Ninomiya, Hiromi; Wakui, Kanako; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Tsuchiya, Kazutoshi; Nakasaki, Hisao; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

2005-12-01

305

Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations. II. Convolution method and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this second of two papers, analytical step-response functions, developed in the companion paper for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to streamstage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems in the northeastern and central United States. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties, recharge rates, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage. Analysis of the water-table aquifer adjacent to the Blackstone River in Massachusetts suggests that the very shallow depth of water table and associated thin unsaturated zone at the site cause the aquifer to behave like a confined aquifer (negligible specific yield). This finding is consistent with previous studies that have shown that the effective specific yield of an unconfined aquifer approaches zero when the capillary fringe, where sediment pores are saturated by tension, extends to land surface. Under this condition, the aquifer's response is determined by elastic storage only. Estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, and recharge for a water-table aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River in eastern Iowa, determined by the use of analytical methods, are in close agreement with those estimated by use of a more complex, multilayer numerical model of the aquifer. Streambank leakance of the semipervious streambank materials also was estimated for the site. The streambank-leakance parameter may be considered to be a general (or lumped) parameter that accounts not only for the resistance of flow at the river-aquifer boundary, but also for the effects of partial penetration of the river and other near-stream flow phenomena not included in the theoretical development of the step-response functions.Analytical step-response functions, developed for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to stream-stage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank seepage rates and bank storage.

Barlow, P. M.; Desimone, L. A.; Moench, A. F.

2000-01-01

306

A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. II - Electrical coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a model of global atmospheric electricity used to examine the effect of upper atmospheric generators on the global electrical circuit. The model represents thunderstorms as dipole current generators randomly distributed in areas of known thunderstorm frequency; the electrical conductivity in the model increases with altitude, and electrical effects are coupled with a passive magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. The large horizontal-scale potential differences at ionospheric heights map downward into the lower atmosphere where the perturbations in the ground electric field are superimposed on the diurnal variation. Finally, changes in the upper atmospheric conductivity due to solar flares, polar cap absorptions, and Forbush decreases are shown to alter the downward mapping of the high-latitude potential pattern and the global distribution of fields and currents.

Roble, R. G.; Hays, P. B.

1979-01-01

307

A three-dimensional slope stability analysis method using the upper bound theorem Part II: numerical approaches, applications and extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second part of this paper provides the numerical procedures that implement the three-dimensional upper-bound slope stability analysis method described in Part I. A three-dimensional failure surface is generated by elliptical lines based on the slip surface in the neutral plane and extended in the z direction. This failure surface is mathematically represented by a series of variables including the

Zuyu Chen; Jian Wang; Yujie Wang; Jian-Hua Yin; Chris Haberfield

2001-01-01

308

Operable Stages IB and II cervical carcinomas: a retrospective study comparing preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy and postoperative radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate our data concerning prognostic factors and treatment toxicity in a series of operable cervical carcinomas.Methods and Materials: Between May 1972 and January 1994, 414 patients with cervical carcinoma, staged according to the 1995 FIGO staging system (286 Stage IB1, 38 Stage IB2, 56 Stage IIA, and 34 Stage IIB with 1\\/3 proximal parametrial involvement), underwent radical hysterectomy

Dan Atlan; Emmanuel Touboul; Elisabeth Deniaud-Alexandre; Jean-Pierre Lefranc; Jean-Marie Antoine; Denis Jannet; Pierre Lhuillier; Michèle Uzan; Judith Huart; Catherine Genestie; Martine Antoine; Myriam Jamali; Valérie Ganansia; Jacques Milliez; Serge Uzan; Jean Blondon

2002-01-01

309

Primary localized stages I and II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the nasopharynx: a retrospective 17-year single institutional experience.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to define the natural history, clinicopathological findings, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome of 43 patients with localized stages I and II primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the nasopharynx, followed up in a single institution over a 17-year period. Forty-three (13 women and 30 men) consecutive patients with localized stages I (N = 12) and II (N = 31) primary nasopharyngeal NHL were treated in our institution between 1990 and 2007. The pathologic reports were classified according to the International Working Formulation (N = 22) or Revised European-American Lymphoma classification (N = 21). The vast majority of patients (88%) were managed with a sequential combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Chemotherapy mainly consisted of 4-8 (median 6) cycles of CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone). Involved-field radiation therapy with a median dose of 44 Gy was delivered to the primary site and entire cervical lymph nodes. The median age of the patients was 53 years (range, 6 to 86 years). The majority of the patients (70%) had high-grade histology. B-cell types represented 67% of the cases, among which diffuse large B cell was the most common histological subtype. After a median follow-up of 70 months, the 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 58.8% and 70.6%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age less than or equal to 30 years (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.69-16.76), elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level (HR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.43-9.51), and modified International Prognostic Index with more than or equal to two risk factors (HR = 17.99, 95% CI = 2.32-139.30) retained statistical significance. Our limited data suggest that primary nasopharyngeal NHL tends to have aggressive histology and unfavorable clinical course with poor outcome, despite a considerably localized disease at the time of presentation and high frequency of complete initial response rates. Combined modality therapy should be considered for the majority of patients with primary localized nasopharyngeal NHL. PMID:18931844

Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Mozaffari, Mohammad Amin Nazer; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad

2009-05-01

310

Interstitial brachytherapy for stage I and II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: factors influencing local control and soft tissue complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Our aim was to study the treatment parameters that influence local control and soft tissue complications (STC) in a series of 207 Stage I and II squamous cell carcinomas of the oral tongue treated by interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) alone (127 patients), or by a combination using external beam irradiation (EBI) (80 patients) between 1980 and 1993.Methods and Materials: The

Minoru Fujita; Yutaka Hirokawa; Kouzo Kashiwado; Yukio Akagi; Kazuki Kashimoto; Hiroshi Kiriu; Kanji Matsuura; Katsuhide Ito

1999-01-01

311

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

312

Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II\\/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel\\/doxorubicin chemotherapy

Bhumsuk Keam; Seock-Ah Im; Hee-Jun Kim; Do-Youn Oh; Jee Hyun Kim; Se-Hoon Lee; Eui Kyu Chie; Wonshik Han; Dong-Wan Kim; Woo Kyung Moon; Tae-You Kim; In Ae Park; Dong-Young Noh; Dae Seog Heo; Sung Whan Ha; Yung-Jue Bang

2007-01-01

313

Results of Hysterectomy in Patients With Bulky Residual Disease at the End of Chemoradiotherapy for Stage IB2\\/II Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We assessed the clinical outcome after hysterectomy in patients with bulky residual disease after chemoradiotherapy for stage IB2\\/II cervical carcinoma. Methods: Subjects were 10 patients who had bulky (>2 cm) residual disease in the cervix after external radiotherapy (45 Gy) combined with concomitant chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg\\/m 2 \\/week) and uterovaginal brachytherapy (15 Gy). Results: Extrafascial hysterectomy was performed

Elie Azria; Philippe Morice; Christine Haie-Meder; Anne Thoury; Patricia Pautier; Catherine Lhomme; Pierre Duvillard; Damienne Castaigne

2005-01-01

314

Phase II clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints: optimal two-stage designs with one-sample log-rank test.  

PubMed

Phase II clinical trials are often conducted to determine whether a new treatment is sufficiently promising to warrant a major controlled clinical evaluation against a standard therapy. We consider single-arm phase II clinical trials with right censored survival time responses where the ordinary one-sample logrank test is commonly used for testing the treatment efficacy. For planning such clinical trials, this paper presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that the expected sample size is minimized if the new regimen has low efficacy subject to constraints of the type I and type II errors. Two-stage designs, which minimize the maximal sample size, are also determined. Optimal and minimax designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated along with examples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24338995

Kwak, Minjung; Jung, Sin-Ho

2014-05-30

315

Prognostic value of c-FLIPL/s, HIF-1?, and NF-?? in stage II and III rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is associated with a 25 % rate of metastases. The prognostic and predictive relevances of the expression of five proteins (c-FLIPL/s, HIF-1?, ?-catenin, p65, and p105/p50 NF-??) were assessed. This is a retrospective study. From 1998 to 2009, 152 patients with stage II/III rectal cancer were treated with radio-chemotherapy. TMAs constructed with tumor and normal tissue from the diagnostic endoscopic biopsy and the surgical specimen after chemoradiotherapy were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results were correlated with clinical and pathological data, including progression-free survival (PFS). Four different IHC conditions were independent prognostic parameters for PFS: (1) cytoplasmic c-FLIPL/s (p?=?0.007), (2) nuclear HIF-1? (p?=?0.020), (3) a change in the cytoplasmic p65 between the diagnostic biopsy and the post-treatment specimen (p?=?0.004), and (4) a change in the cytoplasmic c-FLIPL/s between the diagnostic biopsy and the post-treatment specimen (p?=?0.021). Three different protein expression profiles, combining biomarkers, showed prognostic significance. IHC evaluation of these biomarkers in our three protein expression profiles may help to identify patients with worse prognosis and design more effective therapeutic strategies to personalize the treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:24711168

Novell, Anna; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Mira, Moises; Tarragona, Jordi; Salud, Antonieta; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

2014-06-01

316

Global water vapor distributions in the stratosphere and upper troposphere derived from 5.5 years of SAGE II observations (1986-1991)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global distributions of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are presented on the basis of ˜5.5 years (January 1986 to May 1991) of observations from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). Tabulations are included for seasonal zonal mean water vapor mixing ratios (in parts per million by volume) with 1-km vertical resolution and an altitude range from 6 to 40 km. Several climatological features identified in a previous study [McCormick et al., 1993], based on 3 years of observations, have been confirmed by this study: (1) the existence of a region of minimum water vapor (the hygropause) at all latitude bands; (2) the increase in the distance between the tropopause and the hygropause from 1 km at low latitudes to 4 km at high latitudes; and (3) the appearance of a positive poleward gradient throughout all seasons for fixed altitudes between 20 km and 40 km. The latitudinal variation of water vapor mixing ratio at 20 km is characterized by a symmetric pattern with a minimum occurring at the equator. However, the corresponding variations at 25 and 30 km indicate a shift of the minimum toward the summer hemisphere. For the latitude zones 0°-20° and 20°-40° in both hemispheres, the seasonal variations of the hygropause reveal that the altitude as well as the value of the minimum water vapor mixing ratio remain essentially unchanged from December, January, and February to March, April, and May. During September, October, and November the weakening of the hygropause and the spreading of the region of minimum water vapor to a wider altitude range are identified throughout these low-latitude and midlatitude zones. For the upper troposphere the clear-sky relative humidities at 300 mbar show a typical range of 5-60%, which is consistent with previous findings based on Meteosat 6.3 ?m measurements. In addition, the unique capability of SAGE II observations has provided us with unprecedented vertically resolved moisture information for the upper troposphere. For example, the integrated column water vapor content for the 300- to 100-mbar layer ranges from 0.002 to 0.01 g/cm2 with larger longitudinal variability in the tropics. The integrated column water vapor content from 500 to 100 mbar is found to be significantly larger in the eastern hemisphere than in the western hemisphere. The corresponding integrated water vapor content at high latitudes increases by a factor of 6 from winter to summer (0.02 g/cm2 compared with 0.13 g/cm2).

Chiou, E. W.; McCormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

1997-08-01

317

Dispersion properties of a magnetoactive plasma-filled waveguide in the vicinity of the upper hybrid frequency. Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersion properties of a magnetoactive plasma-filled waveguide in the vicinity of the upper hybrid frequency ?1 = (?{/p 2} + ?{/B 2})1/2 (?1 - ? < ? < ?1) are studied. It is shown that, in this frequency range, the eigenmodes of the plasma-filled waveguide are represented by the families of EH and cyclotron HE modes, the interaction between which is weak everywhere except for the vicinities of certain points in the (?, k z ) plane. The equations describing the behavior of the dispersion curves in these vicinities are derived. It is shown that, as a result of the interaction, the high-frequency branches of EH modes acquire the cutoff frequencies corresponding to the high-order propagating HE modes. It is established that the anisotropic HE+ l mode can also interact with cyclotron HE modes. In this case, its dispersion curve enters the lower half-vicinity of the upper hybrid frequency, where it is modified due to the interaction, and then leaves it.

Shcherbinin, V. I.; Tkachenko, V. I.; Zaginaylov, G. I.; Schuenemann, K.

2014-04-01

318

Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2005-11-15

319

Ovarian Cancer Stage II  

MedlinePLUS

... uterus and colon. An inset shows cancer cells floating in the peritoneal fluid surrounding abdominal organs. Also ... broken open, or (c) cancer cells are found floating in the peritoneal fluid surrounding ab Topics/Categories: ...

320

An Upper Mass Limit on a Red Supergiant Progenitor for the Type II-Plateau Supernova SN 2006my  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze two pre-supernova (SN) and three post-SN high-resolution images of the site of the Type II-Plateau supernova SN 2006my in an effort to either detect the progenitor star or to constrain its properties. Following image registration, we find that an isolated stellar object is not detected at the location of SN 2006my in either of the two pre-SN images.

Douglas C. Leonard; Avishay Gal-Yam; Derek B. Fox; P. B. Cameron; Erik M. Johansson; Adam L. Kraus; David Le Mignant; Marcos A. van Dam

2008-01-01

321

Outcomes and Effect of Radiotherapy in Patients With Stage I or II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and the effect of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all patients diagnosed with Stage I, IE, II, or IIE DLBCL between 1988 and 2004. The analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Patients who had died or were lost to follow-up within 6 months of diagnosis were excluded. Results: A total of 13,420 patients met the search criteria. Of these, 5,547 (41%) had received RT and 7,873 (59%) had not. RT was associated with a significant DSS (hazard ratio, 0.82, p <0.0001) and OS benefit that persisted during the 15 years of follow-up. Elderly patients, defined either as those >60 or >70 years old, had significantly improved DSS and OS associated with RT. On multivariate analysis, RT was significantly associated with increased DSS and OS. The 5-year DSS outcomes were highly variable among patient subsets, defined by age, stage, and extranodal disease (range for RT-treated patients, 70% for Stage II, age >60 years to 87% for Stage I, age {<=}60 years). Conclusion: This analysis presents the largest detailed data set of Stage I-II DLBCL patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that RT is associated with a survival advantage in patients with localized DLBCL, a benefit that extends to elderly patients. Outcomes for discrete patient subsets varied greatly. The development of tailored therapy according to the relapse risk is warranted, rather than uniform treatment of all early-stage DLBCL.

Ballonoff, Ari [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: ari.ballonoff@uchsc.edu; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Schwer, Amanda; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Bassetti, Michael; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

2008-12-01

322

In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C?10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. PMID:23871080

Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

2013-12-01

323

Wetting observed by evanescent-wave-generated fluorescence spectroscopy II. Selective excitation: methylcyclohexane + perfluoromethyl cyclohexane at the upper critical endpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetting at the solid (SF4 glass)-liquid interface of the binary liquid mixture methylcyclohexane + perfluoromethylcyclohexane is studied using evanescent-wave-generated fluorescence spectroscopy (EWGFS). The fluorescent probe, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) is used to discriminate between the two coexisting liquid phases by means of selective excitation of DPH in the methylcyclo-hexane-rich phase using a laser operating at 371 nm. A wetting transition is observed beginning at ?32°C with a wetting layer apparently attaining maximum thickness at ?38°C in relation to an upper critical solution temperature TUCS ? 46°C, but more specific information regarding the order and position of the transition cannot be established until a number of experimental design changes are implemented.

Williamson, Ann-Marie; McLure, Ian A.

1996-02-01

324

Icehouse, cool-water carbonate ramps: the case of the Upper Pliocene Capodarso Fm (Sicily): role of trace fossils in the reconstruction of growth stages of prograding wedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach, based on the use of trace fossils combined with analysis of physical and biogenic structures, identification\\u000a of key surfaces, and reconstruction of stratigraphic architecture, proved to be of critical value in defining the depositional\\u000a environments, elucidating the dynamics of progradation, and characterizing the various systems tracts of Upper Pliocene progradational\\u000a wedges (Capodarso area, Sicily) generated by cool-water

Francesco Massari; Assunta D’Alessandro

2010-01-01

325

Comparative study of Botox® injection treatment for upper eyelid retraction with 6-month follow-up in patients with thyroid eye disease in the congestive or fibrotic stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo compare morphometric data of the eyelid fissure and the levator muscle function (LF) before and up to 6 months after transcutaneous injection with five units of Botox® in patients with upper lid retraction (ULR) from congestive or fibrotic thyroid eye disease (TED).MethodsTwenty-four patients with ULR from TED were submitted to transcutaneous injection of 5 units (0.1 ml) of Botox

P G Costa; F P Saraiva; I C Pereira; M L R Monteiro; S Matayoshi; MLR Monteiro

2009-01-01

326

Resonance line transfer with partial redistribution. IV - A generalized formulation for lines with common upper states. V - The solar Ca II lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized formulation is given for treating partial redistribution effects in transfer problems in resonance lines with common upper states. The formulation allows explicitly for the possibility that several spectral lines may arise in transitions from a given upper level to several sharp lower levels, including, for example, the ground state and metastable states. Line profiles for the Ca II H and K lines have been calculated, accounting for the partial frequency coherence of scattered photons. These profiles are compared with calculations made with identical atomic and atmospheric models but assuming complete redistribution. Very significant differences between the profiles obtained using these two different physical descriptions of the scattering process are found, and it is now apparent that the assumption of complete redistribution is a serious oversimplification of the actual physical situation. The results question the validity of equating brightness temperatures observed at K(sub 1) in stellar spectra with minimum temperatures in stellar chromospheres; it appears likely that such a procedure will systematically underestimate the value of T-min.

Milkey, R. W.; Shine, R. A.; Mihalas, D.

1975-01-01

327

Postoperative adjuvant randomised trial comparing chemoendocrine therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy for patients with stage II breast cancer: 5-year results from the nishinihon cooperative study group of adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer (ACETBC) of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1985 and 1988, the effect of using ftorafur (FT) or PSK (an immunotherapy agent) in combination with the conventional postoperative adjuvant therapy using mitomycin (MMC) plus tamoxifen (TAM) was assessed in stage II, oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients. Furthermore, in ER- breast cancer stage II patients, the effects of postoperative adjuvant therapy using MMC plus FT were compared

T. Morimoto; M. Ogawa; K. Orita; K. Sugimachi; T. Toge; K. Dohi; Y. Nomura; Y. Monden; N. Ogawa

1996-01-01

328

An Upper Mass Limit on a Red Supergiant Progenitor for the Type II-Plateau Supernova SN 2006my  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze two pre-supernova (SN) and three post-SN high-resolution images of\\u000athe site of the Type II-Plateau supernova SN 2006my in an effort to either\\u000adetect the progenitor star or to constrain its properties. Following image\\u000aregistration, we find that an isolated stellar object is not detected at the\\u000alocation of SN 2006my in either of the two pre-SN images.

Douglas C. Leonard; Avishay Gal-Yam; Derek B. Fox; P. B. Cameron; Erik M. Johansson; Adam L. Kraus; David Le Mignant; Marcos A. van Dam

2008-01-01

329

Angiotensin II receptor type 1 mRNA is upregulated in atria of patients with end-stage heart failure.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that pathological changes in the myocardium during chronic heart failure (CHF) are partly regulated through the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), an effect mediated by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). We examined the expression of cardiac AT1R mRNA in normal (atria, n=7; ventricle, n=3) and end-stage CHF human hearts (atria, n=8; ventricle, n=14). Tissue was snap-frozen immediately after explantation during orthotopic cardiac transplantation; control specimens were obtained from healthy donor hearts rejected for technical reasons. Northern blots of purified total mRNA from each tissue were hybridized with a random primed radiolabeled probe for the coding sequence of AT1R. Stringent conditions were used for both hybridization (5X SSC, 65 degrees C) and washing (0.5X SSC, 0.1% SDS, 65 degrees C) of the membrane. Left and right atrial tissue showed low levels of AT1R mRNA expression in the controls, with statistically significant upregulation of expression in tissue from pathological hearts; CHF atria 1.28+/-0.86 optical density (OD) units, control atria 0.56+/-0.31 OD units, P=0.05 (mean+/-s.d.). There were undetectable levels in ventricles from either control (2/2) or dilated hearts (7/7). The results were independent of the etiology of the heart failure and suggest that increased levels of atrial AT1R mRNA may occur in response to elevated atrial pressures in heart failure. PMID:9281460

Kaprielian, R R; Dupont, E; Hafizi, S; Poole-Wilson, P A; Khaghani, A; Yacoub, M H; Severs, N J

1997-08-01

330

Evaluation of Changes in Tumor Shadows and Microcalcifications on Mammography Following KORTUC II, a New Radiosensitization Treatment without any Surgical Procedure for Elderly Patients with Stage I and II Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

We introduced non-surgical therapy with a novel enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II) into early stages breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in tumor shadows and microcalcifications on mammography (MMG) following KORTUC II for elderly patients with breast cancer. We also sought to determine whether MMG was useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of KORTUC II. In addition to MMG, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was performed to detect both metastasis and local recurrence. In all 10 patients, tumor shadows on MMG completely disappeared in several months following the KORTUC II treatment. The concomitant microcalcifications also disappeared or markedly decreased in number. Disappearance of the tumors was also confirmed by the profile curve of tumor density on MMG following KORTUC II treatment; density fell and eventually approached that of the peripheral mammary tissue. These 10 patients have so far have also shown neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis on PET-CT with a mean follow-up period of approximately 27 months at the end of September, 2010. We conclude that breast-conservation treatment using KORTUC II, followed by aromatase inhibitor, is a promising therapeutic method for elderly patients with breast cancer, in terms of avoiding any surgical procedure. Moreover, MMG is considered to be useful for evaluating the efficacy of KORTUC II.

Tsuzuki, Akira; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Tokuhiro, Shiho; Akima, Ryo; Yaogawa, Shin; Itoh, Kenji; Yamada, Yoko; Sasaki, Toshikazu; Onogawa, Masahide; Yamanishi, Tomoaki; Kariya, Shinji; Nogami, Munenobu; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

2011-01-01

331

Upper crustal structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomographic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ???4.3 km and >3 km , respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ???2.4 km. Below depths of ???2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the north-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using densities inferred from the velocity model, indicates that different velocity-density relationships hold for both sedimentary and basement rocks as one crosses the San Andreas Fault. The LARSE II velocity model can now be used to improve the SCEC Community Velocity Model, which is used to calculate seismic amplitudes for large scenario earthquakes.

Lutter, W. J.; Fuis, G. S.; Ryberg, T.; Okaya, D. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Davis, P. M.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J. M.; Langenheim, V. E.; Benthien, M. L.; Godfrey, N. J.; Christensen, N. I.; Thygesen, K.; Thurber, C. H.; Simila, G.; Keller, G. R.

2004-01-01

332

Meta-analysis of the second collaborative study of adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer (acetbc) in patients with stage ii, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second 5-year study of postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with breast cancer between 1985 and 1988 was performed\\u000a by the Study Group for Adjuvant Chemoendocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer (ACETBC). This report describes the results of a\\u000a meta-analysis of the outcome. A total of 3012 patients with stage II, estrogen-receptor-positive primary breast cancer who\\u000a underwent radical surgery (total mastectomy

Minoru Yoshida; Osahiko Abe; Junichi Uchino; Kaneo Kikuchi; Rikiya Abe; Kohji Enomoto; Takeshi Tominaga; Atsuo Fukami; Keizo Sugimachi; Yasuo Nomura; Takao Hattori; Nobuya Ogawa

1997-01-01

333

Anemia and long-term outcome in adjuvant and neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy of stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma: The Freiburg experience (1989-2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the long-term outcome of standard 5-FU based adjuvant or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and to identify the predictive factors, especially anemia before and after radiotherapy as well as hemoglobin increase or decrease during radiotherapy. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-six patients with Union International Contre Cancer (UICC) stage II and III rectal adenocarcinomas, who underwent resection by conventional surgical techniques

Christian Weissenberger; Michael Geissler; Florian Otto; Annette Barke; Karl Henne; Georg von Plehn; Alex Rein; Christine Müller; Susanne Bartelt; Michael Henke

334

Significance of CEA and CA19-9 Combination as a Prognostic Indicator and for Recurrence Monitoring in Patients with Stage II Colorectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the combination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels as a prognostic indicator and for monitoring for recurrence and metastasis after potentially curative surgery for patients with stage II colorectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 238 patients with stage II colorectal cancer who underwent potentially curative surgery were enrolled in the study. A high CEA level was defined as a level exceeding 5 ng/ml and a high CA19-9 level was defined as a level exceeding 37 U/ml. Results: Out of these 238 patients, 92 (38.7%) patients had high CEA levels, 23 (9.7%) patients had high CA19-9 levels and 15 (6.3%) patients had both high CEA and CA19-9 levels. The disease-free and overall survival rates were significantly worse in patients with both a high CEA level and high CA19-9 level. Tumor marker(s) elevated before the operation tended to be elevated again at the time of relapse. Conclusion: The combination of preoperative CEA and CA19-9 levels was useful for predicting the prognosis and for monitoring recurrence and metastasis after potentially curative surgery in patents with stage II colorectal cancer. PMID:24982398

Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

2014-07-01

335

Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images. II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Generation and dissipation of magnetic fields is a fundamental physical process on the Sun. In comparison to flux emergence and the initial stages of sunspot formation, the demise of sunspots still lacks a comprehensive description. Aims: The evolution of sunspots is most commonly discussed in terms of their intensity and magnetic field. Here, we present additional information about the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of sunspots towards the end of their existence. Methods: We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca ii H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT echelle H? ?656.28 nm spectra and Fe i ?630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms, in addition to the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. Results: We perform a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observe moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumbra had decayed. We also detect a superpenumbral structure around this pore. We find that MMFs follow well-defined, radial paths from the spot all the way to the border of a supergranular cell surrounding the spot. In contrast, flux emergence near the other sunspot prevents the establishment of similar well ordered flow patterns, which could be discerned around a tiny pore of merely 2 Mm diameter. After the disappearance of the sunspots/pores, a coherent patch of abnormal granulation remained at their location, which was characterized by more uniform horizontal proper motions, low divergence values, and smaller photospheric Doppler velocities. This region, thus, differs significantly from granulation and other areas covered by G-band bright points. We conclude that this peculiar flow pattern is a signature of sunspot decay and the dispersal of magnetic flux.

Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; Deng, N.; Liu, C.; Shimizu, T.; Wang, H.; Denker, C.

2012-02-01

336

Pretreatment prognostic factors in patients with early-stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate influence of various pretreatment prognostic factors in patients with early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients were treated with tumor doses of 69.6 Gy, 1.2-Gy, twice-daily fractionation. There were 49 patients with Stage I and 67 patients with Stage II. Eighty patients had Karnofsky performance status (KPS) 90-100 and 95 patients had <5% weight loss. Peripheral tumors were observed in 57 patients. Squamous histology was observed in 70 patients and the majority of patients had concomitant disease (n = 72). Results: The median survival time for all patients was 29 months; 5-year survival was 29%. The median time to local progression and the distant metastasis were not achieved, whereas 5-year local progression-free and distant metastasis-free survivals were 50% and 72%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified KPS, weight loss, location, histology, and the reason for not undergoing surgery as prognostic factors for survival. KPS, location, and histology influenced local progression-free survival, whereas only KPS and weight loss influenced distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis identified KPS and weight loss as the most important prognostic factors of outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with hyperfractionation radiation therapy.

Jeremic, Branislav [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)]. E-mail: b.jeremic@iaea.org; Milicic, Biljana [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Dagovic, Aleksandar [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Acimovic, Ljubisa [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Milisavljevic, Slobodan [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)

2006-07-15

337

Immunodetection of Collagen Types I, II, III, and IV for Differentiation of Liver Fibrosis Stages in Patients with Chronic HCV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is aimed at evaluating serum collagens and other serum biochemical markers as useful, non?invasive markers of hepatic fibrosis associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Collagen types I, II, III, and IV were detected in serum using ELISA and Western blot techniques. The ELISA levels of collagen I, II, III, and IV increased significantly with the progression

Abdelfattah M. Attallah; Tamer E. Mosa; Mohamed M. Omran; Yehia M. Shaker

2007-01-01

338

RKIP phosphorylation and STAT3 activation is inhibited by oxaliplatin and camptothecin and are associated with poor prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background A major obstacle in treating colorectal cancer (CRC) is the acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. An important protein in the regulation of cancer cell death and clinical outcome is Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). In contrast, activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a protein that promotes tumor cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and has an important role in cancer progression in many of cancer types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of RKIP and STAT3 after treatment with clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents (camptothecin (CPT) and oxaliplatin (OXP)) and the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCT116 colon cancer cells as well as evaluate the association between RKIP and STAT3 with clinical outcome of Stage II colon cancer patients. Methods HCT-116 colon cancer cells were treated with CPT, OXP, and IL-6 separately or in combination in a time and dose-dependent manner and examined for phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated RKIP and STAT3 via Western blot analysis. STAT3 transcriptional activity was measured via a luciferase reporter assay in HCT116 cells treated with CPT, IL-6 or transfected with JAK 1, 2 separately or in combination. We extended these observations and determined STAT3 and RKIP/ pRKIP in tumor microarrays (TMA) in stage II colon cancer patients. Results We demonstrate IL-6-mediated activation of STAT3 occurs in conjunction with the phosphorylation of RKIP in vitro in human colon cancer cells. OXP and CPT block IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation and RKIP phosphorylation via the inhibition of the interaction of STAT3 with gp130. We determined that STAT3 and nuclear pRKIP are significantly associated with poor patient prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients. Conclusions In the analysis of tumor samples from stage II colon cancer patients and the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116, pRKIP and STAT3, 2 proteins potentially involved in the resistance to conventional treatments were detected. The phosphorylation of pRKIP and STAT3 are induced by the cytokine IL-6 and suppressed by the chemotherapeutic drugs CPT and OXP. Therefore, these results suggest that STAT3 and pRKIP may serve as prognostic biomarkers in stage II colon cancer patients and may improve chemotherapy.

2013-01-01

339

Phase 2 Trial of Daily, Oral Polyphenon E in Patients with Asymptomatic, Rai Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia(CLL)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To follow-up the results of phase I testing by evaluating the clinical efficacy of the green tea extract Polyphenon E for patients with early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia(CLL). METHODS Previously untreated patients with asymptomatic, Rai stage 0-II CLL and an absolute lymphocyte count(ALC) ?10 ×109/L were eligible for this phase II trial. Polyphenon E with a standardized dose of epigallocatechin-3-gallate(2000 mg per dose) was administered twice daily. RESULTS Forty-two patients received Polyphenon E 2000 mg twice daily for up to 6 months. Among these, 29 (69%) had Rai stage I-II disease. Patients received a median of 6 cycles of treatment(range: 1-6). The most common grade 3 side effects were transaminitis (n=1), abdominal pain(n=1) and fatigue(n=1). Clinical activity was observed with 13(31%) patients experiencing a sustained ?20% reduction in ALC and 20 of 29(69%) patients with palpable adenopathy experiencing at least a 50% reduction in the sum of the products of all nodal areas. EGCG plasma levels after 1 month of therapy correlated with reductions in lymphadenopathy (correlation 0.44; p=0.02). Overall, 29(69%) patients fulfilled the criteria for a biologic response with either a sustained ?20% decline in ALC and/or a ?30% reduction in the sum of the products of all nodal areas at some point during the 6 months of active treatment. CONCLUSION Daily oral EGCG in the Polyphenon E preparation was well tolerated by CLL patients in this phase II trial. Durable declines in ALC and/or lymphadenopathy were observed in the majority of patients.

Shanafelt, Tait D.; Call, Tim G.; Zent, Clive S.; Leis, Jose F.; LaPlant, Betsy; Bowen, Deborah A.; Roos, Michelle; Laumann, Kristina; Ghosh, Asish K.; Lesnick, Connie; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S.; Jelinek, Diane F.; Erlichman, Charles; Kay, Neil E.

2014-01-01

340

Heavy Chains of Inter Alpha Inhibitor (I?I) Inhibit the Human Complement System at Early Stages of the Cascade*  

PubMed Central

Inter alpha inhibitor (I?I) is an abundant serum protein consisting of three polypeptides: two heavy chains (HC1 and HC2) and bikunin, a broad-specificity Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor. The complex is covalently held together by chondroitin sulfate but during inflammation I?I may interact with TNF-stimulated gene 6 protein (TSG-6), which supports transesterification of heavy chains to hyaluronan. Recently, I?I was shown to inhibit mouse complement in vivo and to protect from complement-mediated lung injury but the mechanism of such activity was not elucidated. Using human serum depleted from I?I, we found that I?I is not an essential human complement inhibitor as was reported for mice and that such serum has unaltered hemolytic activity. However, purified human I?I inhibited classical, lectin and alternative complement pathways in vitro when added in excess to human serum. The inhibitory activity was dependent on heavy chains but not bikunin and detected at the level of initiating molecules (MBL, properdin) in the lectin/alternative pathways or C4b in the classical pathway. Furthermore, I?I affected formation and assembly of the C1 complex and prevented assembly of the classical pathway C3-convertase. Presence and putative interactions with TSG-6 did not affect the ability of I?I to inhibit complement thus implicating I?I as a potentially important complement inhibitor once enriched onto hyaluronan moieties in the course of local inflammatory processes. In support of this, we found a correlation between I?I/HC-containing proteins and hemolytic activity of synovial fluid from patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

Okroj, Marcin; Holmquist, Emelie; Sjolander, Jonatan; Corrales, Leticia; Saxne, Tore; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; Blom, Anna M.

2012-01-01

341

Special senescence stages in chloroplast ultrastructure of radish seedlings induced by the photosystem II-herbicide bentazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The photoSystem II-herbicide bentazon strongly affects the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in developing seedlings. In most of the plants it induces a shade-type modification of the photosynthetic apparatus as seen from extensive grana formation.

D. Meier; H. K. Lichtenthaler

1982-01-01

342

Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

2014-04-21

343

Microsatellite instability has a positive prognostic impact on stage II colorectal cancer after complete resection: results from a large, consecutive Norwegian series  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite instability (MSI) was suggested as a marker for good prognosis in colorectal cancer in 1993 and a systematic review from 2005 and a meta-analysis from 2010 support the initial observation. We here assess the prognostic impact and prevalence of MSI in different stages in a consecutive, population-based series from a single hospital in Oslo, Norway. Patients and methods Of 1274 patients, 952 underwent major resection of which 805 were included in analyses of MSI prevalence and 613 with complete resection in analyses of outcome. Formalin-fixed tumor tissue was used for PCR-based MSI analyses. Results The overall prevalence of MSI was 14%, highest in females (19%) and in proximal colon cancer (29%). Five-year relapse-free survival (5-year RFS) was 67% and 55% (P = 0.030) in patients with MSI and MSS tumors, respectively, with the hazard ratio (HR) equal to 1.60 (P = 0.045) in multivariate analysis. The improved outcome was confined to stage II patients who had 5-year RFS of 74% and 56% respectively (P = 0.010), HR = 2.02 (P = 0.040). Examination of 12 or more lymph nodes was significantly associated with proximal tumor location (P < 0.001). Conclusions MSI has an independent positive prognostic impact on stage II colorectal cancer patients after complete resection.

Merok, M. A.; Ahlquist, T.; R?yrvik, E. C.; Tufteland, K. F.; Hektoen, M.; Sjo, O. H.; Mala, T.; Svindland, A.; Lothe, R. A.; Nesbakken, A.

2013-01-01

344

Efficient reduction of loco-regional recurrences but no effect on mortality twenty years after postmastectomy radiation in premenopausal women with stage II breast cancer – A randomized trial from the South Sweden Breast Cancer Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo study long term loco-regional and distant recurrence rate and survival after post-mastectomy radiotherapy in combination with oral cyclophosphamide in premenopausal women with stage II breast cancer.

Fredrika Killander; Harald Anderson; Stefan Rydén; Torgil Möller; L. O. Hafström; Per Malmström

2009-01-01

345

Molecular detection of persistent postoperative circulating tumour cells in stages II and III colon cancer patients via multiple blood sampling: prognostic significance of detection for early relapse  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to detect postoperative persistent circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in stages II and III colon cancer patients undergoing curative resection and so identify a subgroup of patients who are at high risk for early relapse. Methods: Four mRNA molecular markers including human telomerase reverse transcriptase, cytokeratin-19, cytokeratin-20, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA were used to detect CTCs in 141 stages II and III colon cancer patients undergoing curative resection to determine the significance of CTCs in postoperative early relapse. Results: Out of 141 patients, postoperative early relapse and non-early relapse/no relapse was found in 48 (34.0%) patients and 93 (66.0%) patients, respectively. Univariately, postoperative early relapse was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.025), vascular invasion (P=0.002), perineural invasion (P=0.001), laparoscopic surgery (P=0.019), high postoperative serum CEA levels (P=0.001), and presence of persistent postoperative CTCs (P<0.001). Using a multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis, the presence of perineural invasion (P=0.034; HR, 1.974; 95% CI: 1.290–3.861), high postoperative serum CEA levels (P=0.020; HR, 2.377; 95% CI: 1.273–4.255), and the presence of persistent postoperative CTCs (P<0.001; HR, 11.035; 95% CI: 4.396–32.190), were demonstrated to be independent predictors for postoperative early relapse. Furthermore, the presence of persistent postoperative CTCs was strongly correlated with a poorer disease-free and overall survival (both P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that molecular detection of persistent postoperative CTCs is a prognostic predictor of early relapse in UICC stage II/III colon cancer patients, and thus could help to define patients with this tumour entity for an enhanced follow-up and therapeutic program.

Lu, C-Y; Uen, Y-H; Tsai, H-L; Chuang, S-C; Hou, M-F; Wu, D-C; Hank Juo, S-H; Lin, S-R; Wang, J-Y

2011-01-01

346

Involvement of Difference in Decrease of Hemoglobin Level in Poor Prognosis of Stage I and II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Implication in Outcome of Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the difference in its decrease during treatment on outcome of radiotherapy (RT) alone for patients with Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 572 patients with Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RT alone between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, tumor variables, and Hb level, including pre-RT Hb, mid-RT Hb, and dynamic change of Hb between pre- and post- RT and its difference in decrease ( White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb) were subjected to univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors that predict disease-specific survival (DSS), local regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastases-free survival (MFS). Results: The 5-year DSS was poorer in the Hb continuous decrease group than in the Hb noncontinuous decrease group (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.008). There was poorer 5-year DSS in patients with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of >11.5 g/L than in those with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of {<=}11.5 g/L (82% vs. 89%; p = 0.001), and poorer LRFS (79% vs. 83%; p = 0.035). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that Hb decrease difference with greater than 11.5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and LRFS. Conclusions: The difference in decrease of Hb level during the course of radiation treatment appeared as a poor prognostic factor in Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

Gao Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Anhui provincial hospital, Hefei (China); Tao Yalan; Li Guo; Yi Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xia Yunfei, E-mail: xiayf@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2012-03-15

347

Sequential chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage I/II extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this report is to summarize our clinical experience of patients with stage I/II extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, treated using sequential chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (SCRT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods Forty-three patients with stage I/II extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, who received SCRT (16 patients) or CCRT (27 patients) were included in the present analysis. Results The median follow-up time was 39 months (range, 4-171 months) for all patients, 77 months (range, 4-171 months) for the SCRT group, and 31 months (range, 6-132 months) for the CCRT group. There were no statistically significant differences between the SCRT and CCRT groups with regard to the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) (56% vs. 41%, P=0.823) and 3-year overall survival (OS) (75% vs. 59%, P=0.670). Univariate analysis revealed that patients with tumors confined to the nasal cavity and patients achieved complete remission had better PFS and OS rates, regardless of the treatment sequence. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with tumors confined to the nasal cavity and patients aged ?60 years had better OS rates. Conclusion The effect of SCRT and CCRT are similar in terms of survival outcomes of patients with stage I/II extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. Our results show that tumors confined to the nasal cavity and an age ?60 years were associated with a better prognosis.

Lee, Jieun; Park, Young Je; Lee, Nam Kwon

2013-01-01

348

The Stardust spacecraft is moved in the PHSF to mate it with the 3rd stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers check the mating of the spacecraft Stardust (above) with the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket (below). Targeted for launch Feb. 6 from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard the Delta II rocket, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

349

The Stardust spacecraft is moved in the PHSF to mate it with the 3rd stage of a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers help guide the spacecraft Stardust being lowered in order to mate it with the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch Feb. 6 from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard the Delta II rocket, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

350

IDEC-C2B8 (Rituximab) anti-CD20 antibody treatment in relapsed advanced-stage follicular lymphomas: results of a phase-II study of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:   The current study was initiated to assess the clinical efficacy and side effects of rituximab in patients with relapsed advanced\\u000a stage follicular lymphoma. Patients and methods: The study was performed as an open-label non-randomized multicenter phase-II trial and included patients older than 18?years\\u000a of age with relapsed advanced-stage follicular lymphomas (FL) grades I and II, according to the REAL

M. Feuring-Buske; M. Kneba; M. Unterhalt; A. Engert; M. Gramatzki; E. Hiller; L. Trümper; W. Brugger; H. Ostermann; J. Atzpodien; M. Hallek; E. Aulitzky; W. Hiddemann

2000-01-01

351

Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation With Paclitaxel/Carboplatin for Selected Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Trimodality Phase II Protocol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate, in a Phase II trial conducted August 1998 through January 2001, the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and definitive surgery in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), Stages IIIA bulky and selected Stage IIIB. Patients and Methods: Staging of LA-NSCLC included computed tomography of cranium, thorax, and abdomen, whole-body positron emission tomography, and video mediastinoscopy. Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin was followed by hyperfractionated accelerated thoracic radiotherapy (45 Gy) with simultaneous weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. Four to six weeks after completion of induction therapy, restaging and resection of primary tumor and lymph nodes was intended. Results: A total of 59 consecutive patients were enrolled, 25% with Stage IIIA bulky disease, 65% with Stage IIIB, and 10% with Stage IV (excluded from further analysis). Forty-one patients completed induction therapy; in 52.4% a functional (positron emission tomography) downstaging was proven. Thirty-two patients (59.3%) underwent complete tumor resection, and 5 patients had an exploratory thoracotomy only. Histopathologic downstaging was proven in 59.4% and complete response in 21.9%. Hospital mortality was 5.4%. Median duration of follow-up for living patients was 62.1 months. Overall median survival was 22.6 months, 58.2 months for completely resected patients. During induction chemotherapy, Grade 3/4 granulocytopenia occurred in 8% of patients; the most common Grade 3/4 toxicity of chemoradiation was esophagitis, in 26.4% of patients. Conclusions: Induction paclitaxel/carboplatin with hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiotherapy followed by complete tumor resection demonstrates high efficacy in LA-NSCLC and offers a promising chance of long-term survival.

Hehr, Thomas, E-mail: thomashehr@vinzenz.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Friedel, Godehard; Steger, Volker [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Spengler, Werner [Department of Pneumology, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Eschmann, Susanne M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Bamberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Budach, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duesseldorf, Tuebingen (Germany)

2010-04-15

352

Methods of Detection of First Recurrence in Patients with Stage I\\/II Primary Cutaneous Melanoma After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  An understanding of the methods of detection of recurrent melanoma after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is essential for\\u000a the coordination of a rational plan of follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Clinical stage I\\/II melanoma patients who underwent SLNB from 1991 to 2004 were identified from a prospectively maintained\\u000a single-institution database. Detection of recurrence by self (awareness of symptoms or abnormal physical findings) or

Kimberly Moore Dalal; Qin Zhou; Katherine S. Panageas; Mary S. Brady; David P. Jaques; Daniel G. Coit

2008-01-01

353

An in vivo study of hindfoot 3D kinetics in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot based on weight-bearing CT scan  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the rotation and translation of each joint in the hindfoot and compare the load response in healthy feet with that in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot by analysing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image data during simulated weight-bearing. Methods CT scans of 15 healthy feet and 15 feet with stage II PTTD flatfoot were taken first in a non-weight-bearing condition, followed by a simulated full-body weight-bearing condition. The images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into 3D models. The ‘twice registration’ method in three planes was used to calculate the position of the talus relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint, the navicular relative to the talus in talonavicular joint, and the cuboid relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint. Results From non- to full-body-weight-bearing condition, the difference in the talus position relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint was 0.6° more dorsiflexed (p = 0.032), 1.4° more everted (p = 0.026), 0.9 mm more anterior (p = 0.031) and 1.0 mm more proximal (p = 0.004) in stage II PTTD flatfoot compared with that in a healthy foot. The navicular position difference relative to the talus in the talonavicular joint was 3° more everted (p = 0.012), 1.3 mm more lateral (p = 0.024), 0.8 mm more anterior (p = 0.037) and 2.1 mm more proximal (p = 0.017). The cuboid position difference relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint did not change significantly in rotation and translation (all p ? 0.08). Conclusion Referring to a previous study regarding both the cadaveric foot and the live foot, joint instability occurred in the hindfoot in simulated weight-bearing condition in patients with stage II PTTD flatfoot. The method used in this study might be applied to clinical analysis of the aetiology and evolution of PTTD flatfoot, and may inform biomechanical analyses of the effects of foot surgery in the future. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:255–63.

Zhang, Y.; Xu, J.; Wang, X.; Huang, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.; Wang, C.; Ma, X.

2013-01-01

354

[Postoperative radiotherapy after complete resection of stage II (N1) non-small-cell lung cancer: reasons for not proposing it].  

PubMed

Postoperative external radiation in non-small-cell lung cancer has remained a topic of debate since the first randomized study examining the potential contribution of postoperative radiotherapy published more than 35 years ago and despite a recent meta-analysis published in 1998 that included 9 randomized prospective studies. Among the 4 eligible randomized studies including non-small-cell lung cancer patients in complete remission of stage II (N1) disease, none demonstrated a significant advantage on survival. In addition, some of these studies disclosed an apparently deleterious effect after postoperative radiotherpy. Although the modalities and the technical quality of radiotherapy and surgical resection were different for the different studies or within a given study, or in some of the older studies even obsolete, and although the precision of the outcome evaluation can be criticized, there is currently no argument for proposing postoperative radiotherapy as a routine systematic practice with conventional methods of bidimensional dosimetric planification after complete surgical resection with good quality mediastinal node dissection for non-small-cell lung cancer patients with stage II (N1) disease. However, the contribution of postoperative radiotherpy with sufficient means for performing tridimensional conformational radiotherapy with individual optimization of computerized dosimetric planification taking into account the residual respiratory function after surgery remains to be evaluated in randomized prospective studies with rigorous control of the technical quality of the surgical resection and the radiotherapy and a precise statistical analysis of the locoregional and distant events in case of incomplete surgical resection and in more advanced stage disease (parietal T3, N0, stage III N2). PMID:11139758

Touboul, E; Deniaud-Alexandre, E; Pereira, R; Deluen, F

2000-11-01

355

A ngiotensin II type 1 receptor participates in extracellular matrix production in the late stage of remodeling after vascular injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation is important in restenosis after angioplasty. Underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated, especially in vivo. We investigated expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1) in a rat model for up to 24 weeks after vascular injury, and also the effect of an ATR1 antagonist on neointimal thickening and ECM production. Methods and Results:

Hideyuki Eto; Sadatoshi Biro; Masaaki Miyata; Hiroshi Kaieda; Hachiro Obata; Takashi Kihara; Koji Orihara; Chuwa Tei

356

DROPOUT AND RETENTION RATE METHODOLOGY USED TO ESTIMATE FIRST-STAGE ELEMENTS OF THE TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES FOR DYNAMOD II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EQUATIONS FOR SYSTEM INTAKE, DROPOUT, AND RETENTION RATE CALCULATIONS ARE DERIVED FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, SECONDARY SCHOOLS, AND COLLEGES. THE PROCEDURES DESCRIBED WERE FOLLOWED IN DEVELOPING ESTIMATES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS OF THE TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES USED IN DYNAMOD II. THE PROBABILITY MATRIX CELLS ESTIMATED BY THE PROCEDURES DESCRIBED…

HUDMAN, JOHN T.; ZABROWSKI, EDWARD K.

357

Saints or Sinners? The Image of Social Workers From American Stage and Cinema Before World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films and plays produced before World War II portrayed young social workers as fallen angels and older social workers as spinsters or misguided-mother types—images influenced more by political ideology, the audience factor, and attitudes toward women than by any actual knowledge of the profession. A deconstruction of the archetypes, which linger today, can help the profession enhance its identity and

Catherine Hiersteiner

1998-01-01

358

Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-06-18

359

Dissection of Immune Gene Networks in Primary Melanoma Tumors Critical for Antitumor Surveillance of Patients with Stage II-III Resectable Disease.  

PubMed

Patients with resected stage II-III cutaneous melanomas remain at high risk for metastasis and death. Biomarker development has been limited by the challenge of isolating high-quality RNA for transcriptome-wide profiling from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens. Using NanoString technology, RNA from 40 stage II-III FFPE primary melanomas was analyzed and a 53-immune-gene panel predictive of non-progression (area under the curve (AUC)=0.920) was defined. The signature predicted disease-specific survival (DSS P<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS P<0.001). CD2, the most differentially expressed gene in the training set, also predicted non-progression (P<0.001). Using publicly available microarray data from 46 primary human melanomas (GSE15605), a coexpression module enriched for the 53-gene panel was then identified using unbiased methods. A Bayesian network of signaling pathways based on this data identified driver genes. Finally, the proposed 53-gene panel was confirmed in an independent test population of 48 patients (AUC=0.787). The gene signature was an independent predictor of non-progression (P<0.001), RFS (P<0.001), and DSS (P=0.024) in the test population. The identified driver genes are potential therapeutic targets, and the 53-gene panel should be tested for clinical application using a larger data set annotated on the basis of prospectively gathered data. PMID:24522433

Sivendran, Shanthi; Chang, Rui; Pham, Lisa; Phelps, Robert G; Harcharik, Sara T; Hall, Lawrence D; Bernardo, Sebastian G; Moskalenko, Marina M; Sivendran, Meera; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H; Pan, Michael; Moon, Jee Young; Arora, Sonali; Cohain, Ariella; DiFeo, Analisa; Ferringer, Tammie C; Tismenetsky, Mikhail; Tsui, Cindy L; Friedlander, Philip A; Parides, Michael K; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Lebwohl, Mark G; Wolchok, Jedd D; Bhardwaj, Nina; Burakoff, Steven J; Oh, William K; Palucka, Karolina; Merad, Miriam; Schadt, Eric E; Saenger, Yvonne M

2014-08-01

360

Stage II carcinoma of the cervix: analysis of the value of pretreatment extraperitoneal lymph node sampling and adjunctive surgery following irradiation.  

PubMed

This is a retrospective analysis of the results of treatment of 24 patients with bulky stage II carcinoma of the cervix treated with full course irradiation followed by adjunctive surgery between 1975 and 1980. A review of the surgical specimens following irradiation showed that 12 patients had no residual cancer, five had only microscopic foci of cancer, and five had extensive residual cancer. Two patients had unresectable persistent cancer. Six patients had histological evidence of lymph node metastases prior to irradiation. The surgical-pathological findings following irradiation had important prognostic implications. All five patients with extensive residual cancer in the surgical specimen recurred, 2 of 5 patients with only microscopic foci of residual cancer and, none of the 12 patients with no residual cancer in the resected specimens developed a recurrence. Lymph node involvement was not associated with an increased incidence of recurrence. Most patients with residual cancer following full course irradiation recurred locally. Thus the addition of adjunctive surgery following full course irradiation did not significantly improve the treatment results of patients with bulky stage II carcinoma of the cervix. PMID:2122494

Abayomi, O; Chun, M; Ball, H

1990-09-01

361

SMILE'': A Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission LinE adder for the 8-stage RADLAC II accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The RADLAC II Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission LinE SMILE'' is a coaxial wave guide structure that is composed of two regions: (a) a 9.5-m voltage adder and (b) a 3-m long extension section. The adder section provides for the addition of the input voltages from the individual water-dielectric pulse forming line feeds. The extension section isolates the adder from the magnetically immersed foilless diode electron source load and efficiently transports the pulsed power out from the deionized water tank of the device. The SMILE modification of the RADLAC II accelerator enabled us to produce high quality beams of up to 14 MV, 100 kA. The design and the experimental evaluation of SMILE will be presented and compared with numerical simulation predictions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Pankuch, P.J. (EG and G Energy Measurements Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Special Projects)

1991-01-01

362

Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2014-06-30

363

Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bleicher, Richard J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swaby, Ramona F. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldstein, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2012-11-15

364

Mastectomy With Immediate Expander-Implant Reconstruction, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation for Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Treatment Intervals and Clinical Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine intervals between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients treated with mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, and to evaluate locoregional and distant control and overall survival in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between May 1996 and March 2004, 104 patients with Stage II-III breast cancer were routinely treated at our institution under the following algorithm: (1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement, (2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy, (3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant, (4) radiation. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Twenty-six percent of patients were Stage II and 74% Stage III. All received adjuvant chemotherapy. Estrogen receptor staining was positive in 77%, and 78% received hormone therapy. Radiation was delivered to the chest wall with daily 0.5-cm bolus and to the supraclavicular fossa. Median dose was 5040 cGy. Median interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 5 weeks, from completion of chemotherapy to exchange 4 weeks, and from exchange to radiation 4 weeks. Median interval from completion of chemotherapy to start of radiation was 8 weeks. Median follow-up was 64 months from date of mastectomy. The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%. Conclusions: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.

Wright, Jean L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Ben-Porat, Leah [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Van Zee, Kimberly J. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hudis, Clifford [Department of Medicine, Solid Tumor Division, Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Beal, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: mccormib@mskcc.org

2008-01-01

365

Differential survival trends of stage II colorectal cancer patients relate to promoter methylation status of PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1.  

PubMed

Surgical excision of colorectal cancer at early clinical stages is highly effective, but 20-30% of patients relapse. Therefore, it is of clinical relevance to identify patients at high risk for recurrence, who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic and/or predictive methylation markers in stage II colorectal cancer patients. Therefore, we selected six gene promoters (FZD9, PCDH10 (protocadherin 10), SFRP2, SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1), and WIF1) for methylation analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumor samples of colorectal cancer patients (n=143) who were enrolled in a prospective randomized phase III trial of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal cancer Study Group. Patients were randomized to adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin or surveillance only. Survival analyses revealed that combined evaluation of three promoters (PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1) showed differential effects with regard to disease-free survival and overall survival in the two treatment groups (significance level 0.007). In the chemotherapy arm, a statistically insignificant trend for patients without methylation toward longer survival was observed (P=0.069 for disease-free survival and P=0.139 for overall survival). Contrary, patients in the surveillance arm without methylation in their gene promoters had shorter disease-free survival and overall survival (P=0.031 for disease-free survival and P=0.003 for overall survival), indicating a prognostic effect of methylation in this group (test for interaction, P=0.006 for disease-free survival and P=0.018 for overall survival). These results indicate that promoter methylation status of PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1 may be used both as prognostic and predictive molecular marker for colorectal cancer patients and, therefore, may facilitate treatment decisions for stage II colorectal cancer. PMID:24309322

Heitzer, Ellen; Artl, Monika; Filipits, Martin; Resel, Margit; Graf, Ricarda; Weißenbacher, Bettina; Lax, Sigurd; Gnant, Michael; Wrba, Fritz; Greil, Richard; Dietze, Otto; Hofbauer, Friedrich; Böhm, Gerhard; Höfler, Gerald; Samonigg, Hellmut; Schaberl-Moser, Renate; Balic, Marija; Dandachi, Nadia

2014-06-01

366

The CpG island methylator phenotype may confer a survival benefit in patients with stage II or III colorectal carcinomas receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is recognized as a distinct subgroup of CRC, and CIMP status affects prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Identification of CIMP status in CRC is important for proper patient management. In Eastern countries, however, the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics and prognosis of CRCs with CIMP are still unclear. Methods A total of 245 patients who underwent their first surgical resection for sporadic CRC were enrolled and CIMP status of the CRCs was determined using the quantitative MethyLight assay. The clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics were reviewed and compared according to CIMP status. In addition, the three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 124 patients with stage II or stage III CRC was analyzed in order to assess the effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with respect to CIMP status. Results CIMP-high CRCs were identified in 34 cases (13.9%), and were significantly associated with proximal tumor location, poorly differentiated carcinoma, mucinous histology, and high frequencies of BRAF mutation, MGMT methylation, and MSI-high compared to CIMP-low/negative carcinomas. For patients with stage II or III CIMP-low/negative CRCs, no significant difference was found in RFS between those undergoing surgery alone and those receiving surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. However, for patients with CIMP-high CRCs, patients undergoing surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 17; three-year RFS: 100%) showed significantly better RFS than patients treated with surgery alone (n = 7; three-year RFS: 71.4%) (P = 0.022). Conclusions Our results suggest that selected patients with CIMP-high CRC may benefit from fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with longer RFS. Further large scale-studies are required to confirm our results.

2011-01-01

367

Biologic Determinants of Tumor Recurrence in Stage II Colon Cancer: Validation Study of the 12-Gene Recurrence Score in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581  

PubMed Central

Purpose A greater understanding of the biology of tumor recurrence should improve adjuvant treatment decision making. We conducted a validation study of the 12-gene recurrence score (RS), a quantitative assay integrating stromal response and cell cycle gene expression, in tumor specimens from patients enrolled onto Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581. Patients and Methods CALGB 9581 randomly assigned 1,713 patients with stage II colon cancer to treatment with edrecolomab or observation and found no survival difference. The analysis reported here included all patients with available tissue and recurrence (n = 162) and a random (approximately 1:3) selection of nonrecurring patients. RS was assessed in 690 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction by using prespecified genes and a previously validated algorithm. Association of RS and recurrence was analyzed by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Continuous RS was significantly associated with risk of recurrence (P = .013) as was mismatch repair (MMR) gene deficiency (P = .044). In multivariate analyses, RS was the strongest predictor of recurrence (P = .004), independent of T stage, MMR, number of nodes examined, grade, and lymphovascular invasion. In T3 MMR-intact (MMR-I) patients, prespecified low and high RS groups had average 5-year recurrence risks of 13% (95% CI, 10% to 16%) and 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%), respectively. Conclusion The 12-gene RS predicts recurrence in stage II colon cancer in CALGB 9581. This is consistent with the importance of stromal response and cell cycle gene expression in colon tumor recurrence. RS appears to be most discerning for patients with T3 MMR-I tumors, although markers such as grade and lymphovascular invasion did not add value in this subset of patients.

Venook, Alan P.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Lopatin, Margarita; Ye, Xing; Lee, Mark; Friedman, Paula N.; Frankel, Wendy; Clark-Langone, Kim; Millward, Carl; Shak, Steven; Goldberg, Richard M.; Mahmoud, Najjia N.; Warren, Robert S.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.

2013-01-01

368

Effect of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy in Patients <35 Years Old With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Treated With Doxorubicin-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control (LRC) in patients with high-risk features after mastectomy. Young age continues to evolve as a potentially important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of PMRT in patients <35 years old treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II-III breast cancer. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 107 consecutive breast cancer patients <35 years old with Stage IIA-IIIC disease treated at our institution with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, with or without PMRT. The treatment groups were compared in terms of LRC and overall survival. Results: Despite more advanced disease stages, the patients who received PMRT (n = 80) had greater rates of LRC (5-year rate, 88% vs. 63%, p = 0.001) and better overall survival (5-year rate, 67% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) than patients who did not receive PMRT (n = 27). Conclusion: Among breast cancer patients <35 years old at diagnosis, the use of PMRT after doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy led to a statistically greater rate of LRC and overall survival compared with patients without PMRT. The benefit seen for PMRT in young patients provides valuable data to better tailor adjuvant, age-specific treatment decisions after mastectomy.

Garg, Amit K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: joh@mdanderson.org; Oswald, Mary Jane; Huang, Eugene; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, T. Kuan; Tereffe, Welela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Meric-Bernstam, Funda [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hahn, Karin [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-12-01

369

A two-stage Bayesian design with sample size reestimation and subgroup analysis for phase II binary response trials.  

PubMed

Frequentist sample size determination for binary outcome data in a two-arm clinical trial requires initial guesses of the event probabilities for the two treatments. Misspecification of these event rates may lead to a poor estimate of the necessary sample size. In contrast, the Bayesian approach that considers the treatment effect to be random variable having some distribution may offer a better, more flexible approach. The Bayesian sample size proposed by (Whitehead et al., 2008) for exploratory studies on efficacy justifies the acceptable minimum sample size by a "conclusiveness" condition. In this work, we introduce a new two-stage Bayesian design with sample size reestimation at the interim stage. Our design inherits the properties of good interpretation and easy implementation from Whitehead et al. (2008), generalizes their method to a two-sample setting, and uses a fully Bayesian predictive approach to reduce an overly large initial sample size when necessary. Moreover, our design can be extended to allow patient level covariates via logistic regression, now adjusting sample size within each subgroup based on interim analyses. We illustrate the benefits of our approach with a design in non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a simple binary covariate (patient gender), offering an initial step toward within-trial personalized medicine. PMID:23583925

Zhong, Wei; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Carlin, Bradley P

2013-11-01

370

The optimal extent of resection for patients with stages I or II breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy.  

PubMed Central

The optimal extent of breast resection before irradiation for treatment of early breast cancer has not been defined. Increasing the size of the resection may decrease the risk of local recurrence but will also have an adverse impact on the cosmetic outcome. The 5-year likelihood of a recurrence of the tumor was analyzed in relation to the volume of resected breast tissue in 507 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy between 1968 and 1982. Patients were stratified by clinical T-stage and for each T-stage patients were divided into three groups of equal numbers based on the volume of excised tissue. All patients had at least a gross excision of the tumor and the extent of breast resection was determined at the discretion of the surgeon without knowledge of the histologic features of the tumor. The median follow-up time was 100 months. The 5-year actuarial recurrence rates were analyzed in relation to clinical T-stage (T1 or T2) and the presence or absence of an extensive intraductal component (EIC+ or EIC-). For patients with EIC+ tumors, the largest resections were associated with a substantially lower risk of recurrence in the breast than the smallest resections. This effect was seen both for T1 tumors (10% versus 29%, p = 0.07) and for T2 tumors (9% versus 36%, p = 0.04). For patients with EIC-tumors, recurrence rates were significantly lower than for EIC+ tumors and were not influenced by the volume of resection to the same degree as EIC+ tumors. In the absence of an EIC, recurrence rates for the largest and smallest resections were 0% and 9% (p = 0.02) for T1 tumors and 3% and 6% (p = NS) for T2 tumors. It is concluded that a limited breast resection is acceptable for an EIC- tumor but that a more extensive resection is required for an EIC+ tumor. These results stress the importance of assessing the presence or absence of an EIC in determining the optimal extent of breast resection required before radiation therapy.

Vicini, F A; Eberlein, T J; Connolly, J L; Recht, A; Abner, A; Schnitt, S J; Silen, W; Harris, J R

1991-01-01

371

Staging or upper stage reignition for GEO missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geostationary orbit will remain in the near and far future one of the most frequently used for several applications including, mainly, telecommunications. For the time being the GEO satcoms are injected by intermediate, heavy or super heavy class launch vehicles, LV, using quasi standard procedures: low altitude injection on a geostationary transfer orbit, ballistic phase of at least five and

François Duret

2002-01-01

372

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

373

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont (TM) Vespel (R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750 F during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

374

Concomitant boost IMRT-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma: results of a phase II study  

PubMed Central

Aim This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concomitant boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) along with capecitabine and oxaliplatin, followed by a cycle of Xelox, in neoadjuvant course for locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and methods Patients with histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed, locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (cT3-T4 and/or cN+) located within 12 cm of the anal verge were included in this study. Patients received IMRT to the pelvis of 50 Gy and a concomitant boost of 5 Gy to the primary tumor in 25 fractions, and concurrent with oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 d1 weekly) and capecitabine (625 mg/m2 bid d1–5 weekly). One cycle of Xelox (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on d1 and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily d1–14) was given two weeks after the completion of chemoradiation, and radical surgery was scheduled eight weeks after chemoradiation. Tumor response was evaluated by tumor regression grade (TRG) system and acute toxicities were evaluated by NCI-CTC 3.0 criteria. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with Log-rank test. Results A total of 78 patients were included between March 2009 and May 2011 (median age 54 years; 62 male). Seventy-six patients underwent surgical resection. Twenty-eight patients underwent sphincter-sparing lower anterior resection and 18 patients (23.7%) were evaluated as pathological complete response (pCR). The incidences of grade 3 hematologic toxicity, diarrhea, and radiation dermatitis were 3.8%, 10.3%, and 17.9%, respectively. The three-year LR (local recurrence), DFS (disease-free survival) and OS (overall survival) rates were 14.6%, 63.8% and 77.4%, respectively. Initial clinical T stage and tumor regression were independent prognostic factors to DFS. Conclusion An intensified regimen of concomitant boost radiotherapy plus concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin, followed by one cycle of Xelox, can be safely administered in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, and produces a high rate of pCR. A prognostic score model is helpful to distinguish different long-term prognosis groups in early stage.

2014-01-01

375

Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-02-26

376

A Phase I\\/II Study of Altered Fractionated IMRT Alone for Intermediate T-Stage Oropharyngeal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background and Purpose:\\u000a   To prospectively assess the feasibility and efficacy of an accelerated and hyperfractionated intensity- modulated radiation\\u000a therapy (IMRT) schedule for intermediate T-stage oropharyngeal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   Patients with T3 or unfavorable T2 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were eligible; a three-dose level simultaneous integrated\\u000a boost IMRT strategy was used, delivering 78, 69, and 60 Gy to gross

G. Brandon Gunn; Eugene J. Endres; Brent Parker; Maria Pia Sormani; Giuseppe Sanguineti

2010-01-01

377

Dynamic performance of cable-stayed bridge tower with multi-stage pendulum mass damper under wind excitations — II: Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using a multi-stage pendulum mass damper (MSPMD) to control wind-induced vibration of a single column tower of a cable-stayed bridge during construction was studied theoretically in part I of this work. In this paper, the performance of the MSPMD for reducing bridge tower vibration is studied experimentally. A MSPMD model and a tower model of the bridge with geometry scaling of 1:100 were designed and manufactured. Calibration of the MSPMD model with different wire lengths is conducted to verify the analytical model of the damper. A series of tests for the uncontrolled freestanding tower, tower with cables, and tower with MSPMD model are then performed under harmonic and white noise excitations. The experimental results show that the responses of the tower model significantly decrease with the installation of the MSPMD model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the MSPMD to mitigate the vibration of the bridge tower.

Guo, Anxin; Xu, Y. L.; Li, Hui

2007-12-01

378

Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the predicted and measured flight data. Future assessment will incorporate hybrid methods in VAOne analysis (i.e., boundary element methods, BEM and finite element methods, FEM). These hybrid methods will enable the ability to import NASTRAN models providing much more detailed modeling of the underlying beams and support structure of the ARES 1-X test vehicle. Measured acoustic data will be incorporated into these analyses to improve correlation for additional post flight analysis.

Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

2010-01-01

379

Randomized Trial of Postoperative Adjuvant Therapy in Stage II and III Rectal Cancer to Define the Optimal Sequence of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: 10-Year Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the optimal sequence of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 308 patients were randomized to early (n = 155) or late (n = 153) radiotherapy (RT). Treatment included eight cycles of chemotherapy, consisting of fluorouracil 375 mg/m{sup 2}/day and leucovorin 20 mg/m{sup 2}/day, at 4-week intervals, and pelvic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Radiotherapy started on Day 1 of the first chemotherapy cycle in the early RT arm and on Day 1 of the third chemotherapy cycle in the late RT arm. Results: At a median follow-up of 121 months for surviving patients, disease-free survival (DFS) at 10 years was not statistically significantly different between the early and late RT arms (71% vs. 63%; p = 0.162). A total of 36 patients (26.7%) in the early RT arm and 49 (35.3%) in the late RT arm experienced recurrence (p = 0.151). Overall survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. However, in patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection, the DFS rate at 10 years was significantly greater in the early RT arm than in the late RT arm (63% vs. 40%; p = 0.043). Conclusions: After the long-term follow-up duration, this study failed to show a statistically significant DFS advantage for early radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy after resection of Stage II and III rectal cancer. Our results, however, suggest that if neoadjuvant chemoradiation is not given before surgery, then early postoperative chemoradiation should be considered for patients requiring an abdominoperineal resection.

Kim, Tae-Won [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Hee [Department of Hematology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kang, Yoon-Koo [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoo-Hyung [Department of Hematology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chang-Sik [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Hoon; Ahn, Seung-Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Kun [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Cheon [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Shin, E-mail: jayslee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

380

Impact of 18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Treatment Strategy and Radiotherapy Planning for Stage I-II Hodgkin Disease: A Prospective Multicenter Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the impact of preradiotherapy 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) on treatment strategy and radiotherapy planning for patients with Stage I/II Hodgkin disease included in a large prospective multicenter study. Patients and Methods: Conventional computed tomography and FDG-PET were performed just before the planned radiotherapy. The radiotherapy plan was first elaborated under blinded conditions for FDG-PET data. Then, the medical staff was asked to confirm or not confirm the treatment strategy and, if appropriate, to modify the radiotherapy plan based on additional information from FDG-PET. Results: Between January 2004 and January 2006, 137 patients were included (124 were available for analysis) in 11 centers (108 adults, 16 children). All but 1 patient had received chemotherapy before inclusion. Prechemotherapy work-up included FDG-PET for 61 patients, and data were available for elaboration of the first radiotherapy plan. Based on preradiotherapy FDG-PET data, the radiotherapy was cancelled in 6 patients (4.8%), and treatment plan modifications occurred in 16 patients (12.9%): total dose (11 patients), CTV volume (5 patients), number of beam incidences (6 patients), and number of CTV (6 patients). The concordance between the treatment strategies with or without preradiotherapy FDG-PET was 82.3%. Concordance results were not significantly different when prechemotherapy PET-CT information was available. Conclusion: Preradiotherapy FDG-PET for treatment planning in Hodgkin lymphoma may lead to significant modification of the treatment strategy and the radiotherapy planning in patients with Stage I or II Hodgkin disease, even in those who have undergone FDG-PET as part of the prechemotherapy work-up.

Pommier, Pascal, E-mail: pommier@lyon.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Dussart, Sophie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Chabaud, Sylvie [Department of Biostatistics, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Lagrange, Jean Leon [Department of Radiation Oncology, APHP, Henri Mondor University Hospital, Paris 12 University, Creteil (France); Nguyen, Tan Dat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Beckendorff, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Alexis Vautrin, Nancy (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Artignan, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Bondiau, Pierre Yves [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Giammarile, Francesco [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lyon University-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); EA 3738, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)

2011-03-01

381

Analytical performance of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue-based 634-probe prognostic assay for predicting outcome of patients with stage II colon cancer.  

PubMed

A formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue-based prognostic assay to assess the risk for recurrence in stage II colon cancer has recently been clinically validated. This study describes the analytical performance and quality control measures of the assay. The reportable range was determined to be [-1.129, 1.414] in risk score units. The accuracy was evaluated with a split sample comparison within the production lab and between the production lab and a reference lab. The concordance between the replicates within the production lab was 79% (95% confidence interval, 64%-91%). There was no evidence of bias, and the concordance was 78% (95% confidence interval, 61%-90%) between the labs. The lab-to-lab concordance was further evaluated by simulating risk scores from the full reportable range. The simulation suggested a higher concordance. The sensitivity study demonstrated that the percentage of tumor tissue did not impact the risk score and that RNA concentration of 9.5 ng/?L was a conservative determination of the analyte lower limit of quantification. From the precision study, the repeatability and reproducibility estimates were 0.1267 and 0.0548 in risk score units, respectively. Furthermore, multifaceted quality control measures were implemented, such as proper tissue processing steps, high-risk and low-risk controls, nontemplate control, and a gene expression-based classifier to evaluate the cDNA amplification kit, a key reagent in the assay. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the strong analytical performance of the assay and further supports its use as an objective standardized prognostic test for stage II colon cancer. PMID:24717231

Plamadeala, Victoria; Huang, Shuguang; McCreary, Suzanne M; Reitze, Nicholas J; Ewing, Amy L; Gabrin, Michael J; Bennett, Ana E; Mulligan, Jude M; Wilson, Claire L; Wang, Dakun

2014-04-01

382

Sensitivity to CPT-11 and platinum derivatives of stage I/II node-negative breast, lung, and gastric cancer with occult neoplastic cells in lymph node sinuses.  

PubMed

Tumor sensitivity to anticancer drugs such as CPT-11 and platinum derivatives was investigated by assessing Topo-1 and Bax/ERCC-1 expression in patients with stage I/II breast, lung, and gastric cancer who were positive for ONCs, and tumor sensitivity was compared between CPT-11 and platinum derivatives. In the recurrence group (RG) (n=5), immunohistochemistry revealed high expression of Topo-1 in 3 patients (60%) and low expression in 2 patients (40%), while the non-recurrence group (N-RG) (n=17) showed high Topo-1 expression in 3 patients (17.6%) and low expression in 14 patients (82.4%) (not significant; N.S.). High Bax expression combined with low ERCC-1 expression was observed in 2 patients (40%) from the RG and other patterns of expression were seen in 3 patients (60%), while high Bax/low ERCC-1 expression was observed in 3 patients (17.6%) from the N-RG and other patterns were found in 14 patients (82.4%) (N.S.). PCR analysis of Topo-1 expression in the RG (n=4) revealed high expression in 4 patients (100%), while the N-RG (n=5) showed high expression in 3 patients (60%) and low expression in 2 patients (40%) (N.S.). With respect to ERCC-1, PCR analysis of the RG (n=4) also revealed high expression in 4 patients (100%), while the N-RG (n=5) again showed high expression in 3 patients (60%) and low expression in 2 patients (40%) (N.S.). There were significant differences between the expression of high Topo-1 and low ERCC-1 in the RG (p<0.01). These results suggest that tumor sensitivity to CPT-11 may be higher than that for platinum derivatives in patients with node-negative stage I/II breast, lung, or gastric cancer who are positive for ONCs. PMID:17549342

Mukai, Masaya; Sato, Shinkichi; Ninomiya, Hiromi; Wakui, Kanako; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Matsui, Naruaki; Nakamura, Masato; Nakasaki, Hisao; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

2007-07-01

383

FtsH Is Involved in the Early Stages of Repair of Photosystem II in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803W?  

PubMed Central

When plants, algae, and cyanobacteria are exposed to excessive light, especially in combination with other environmental stress conditions such as extreme temperatures, their photosynthetic performance declines. A major cause of this photoinhibition is the light-induced irreversible photodamage to the photosystem II (PSII) complex responsible for photosynthetic oxygen evolution. A repair cycle operates to selectively replace a damaged D1 subunit within PSII with a newly synthesized copy followed by the light-driven reactivation of the complex. Net loss of PSII activity occurs (photoinhibition) when the rate of damage exceeds the rate of repair. The identities of the chaperones and proteases involved in the replacement of D1 in vivo remain uncertain. Here, we show that one of the four members of the FtsH family of proteases (cyanobase designation slr0228) found in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 is important for the repair of PSII and is vital for preventing chronic photoinhibition. Therefore, the ftsH gene family is not functionally redundant with respect to the repair of PSII in this organism. Our data also indicate that FtsH binds directly to PSII, is involved in the early steps of D1 degradation, and is not restricted to the removal of D1 fragments. These results, together with the recent analysis of ftsH mutants of Arabidopsis, highlight the critical role played by FtsH proteases in the removal of damaged D1 from the membrane and the maintenance of PSII activity in vivo.

Silva, Paulo; Thompson, Elinor; Bailey, Shaun; Kruse, Olaf; Mullineaux, Conrad W.; Robinson, Colin; Mann, Nicholas H.; Nixon, Peter J.

2003-01-01