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1

Preliminary Analysis on the Quick Disposal of Used H-II Upper Stage by Electrodynamic Tether  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes an application of the electrodynamic tether to deorbit a spent H-II upper stage to reduce space debris. In such an application, the induced current flows through the tether wire by the tether motion that intersects the geomagnetic field, and the Lorentz force is induced in the opposite direction of tether motion, namely, the direction of the decelerating system, by the interaction between this induced current and the geomagnetic field. The concept is basically the same as that of a ProSEDS space experiment, which is proposed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. But the main difference is its orbit. The orbit of spent H-II upper stage is ellipse, although the orbit of ProSEDS is circular. So the operation and dynamics are different compared with those of ProSEDS. In this study, the performance of an H-II upper stage deorbit system by electrodynamic tether is analyzed by the mission analysis model, and the presumable dynamics of this system is also shown. The results show that this system can deorbit an H-II upper stage in a few months, but there is a possibility that the performance of deorbit will degrade if a rotation of the tether system is occurred.

Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Tsuyuki, Ryosuke; Takegahara, Haruki; Kosakai, Masaya; Nakajima, Atsushi; Yasumitsu, Ryoichiro

2

The Upper Stage Responsiveness Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the results and major findings of the Upper Stage Responsiveness Study (USRS) Phases I and II. Boeing Aerospace Company (BAC), General Dynamics (GD), and Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) conducted a ten month study effort to define (1) a new upper stage for the Titan IV\\/Solid Rocket Motor Unit (SRMU) capable of delivering 13,500 lbs of payload to

Robert E. Day Jr.; James F. Harvell

1990-01-01

3

The Upper Stage Responsiveness Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the results and major findings of the Upper Stage Responsiveness Study (USRS) Phases I and II. Boeing Aerospace Company (BAC), General Dynamics (GD), and Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) conducted a ten month study effort to define (1) a new upper stage for the Titan IV/Solid Rocket Motor Unit (SRMU) capable of delivering 13,500 lbs of payload to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and (2) a new upper stage for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) capable of delivering 20,000 lbs of payload to GEO. Additionally, the concepts defined had to meet Air Force Space Command's (AFSPACECOM) operability drivers for launch systems. The USRS concluded that a new, low-cost, launch-responsive upper stage can meet the requirements for both Titan IV and ALS in the 1997 timeframe.

Day, Robert E., Jr.; Harvell, James F.

1990-09-01

4

Short-term morbidity of the upper limb after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection for Stage I or II breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. The goals of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are to improve axillary staging and reduce unnecessary axillary lymph node dissections (ALND), thereby reducing treatment-related upper-limb morbidity. In the current prospec- tive study, short-term upper-limb morbidity was assessed after SLNB and\\/or ALND. METHODS. The study comprised 204 patients with Stage I\\/II breast carcinoma. Mean patient age was 55.6 years (standard

Johan S. Rietman; Pieter U. Dijkstra; Jan H. B. Geertzen; Peter Baas; Jaap de Vries; Wil Dolsma; Johan W. Groothoff; Willem H. Eisma; Harald J. Hoekstra

2003-01-01

5

Cryogenic upper stage propulsion systems evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of cryogenic propulsion system evolution features that offer significant stage benefits for improving Atlas ELV international posture is discussed. Incorporation of a single RL10C engine is considered to offer the greatest cumulative benefits. Particular attention is given to a Centaur upper stage incorporating structure and avionics evolution features, as well as propulsion and fluids.

Eidson, Robert L.

1992-07-01

6

Multipurpose upper stage "Fregat-SB" with enhanced power capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of the multipurpose upper stage "Fregat-SB" with enhanced power capacity is given in the article. The main parameters of the upper stage on different launchers and its advantages in comparison with the competitors are shown.

Asyushkin, V. A.; Ishin, S. V.

2012-12-01

7

Upper stages for a space transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design features of a flexible use upper stage for the STS are described, noting that potential users must become interested if the system is to be developed. Based on the design for the low-energy Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), the system would be required to utilize the Orbiter payload bay, have reattachable separation devices, have replaceable external propellant tanks, and have standard mechanical and functional interfaces. Implementation of an open grid triangular lattice structure covered with standardized aluminum plates would allow for the system to be tailored to specific missions at standardized increments of size. The system would tilt out of the bay and deploy all necessary appendages before ascent to GEO. A small bi-propellant engine is recommended as a prototype propulsion system to meet launch and mass constraints, particularly for GEO boosts.

Harwood, O. P.

1986-08-01

8

Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

1984-12-01

9

Technical and Operations Design of the SKYLON Upper Stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SKYLON spaceplane cannot reach beyond Low Earth Orbit and therefore payloads requiring higher orbits, such as geostationary transfer orbit, will require an upper stage. A concept design for a cryogenic upper stage called the SKYLON Upper Stage (SUS) is described together with its operations. It is shown that, through the use of resonant orbits, in many cases the stage can be recovered for reuse by the SKYLON that launched it.

Hempsell, Bond, M. A.

10

Guidance and controls for an interim upper stage \\/IUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptability of the Titan Transtage (the upper stage of the Titan IIIC launch vehicle) as a low risk interim upper stage (IUS) in the Space Transportation System is examined. The object of the study is to determine whether the Titan Transtage is compatible with the Shuttle and to provide operational data for the design of a new Space Tug.

R. B. Schroer

1975-01-01

11

Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II #2 (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... chest X-ray shows coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II. There are diffuse, small (2 to 4 mm ... findings include simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - stage II, silico-tuberculosis, disseminated tuberculosis, metastatic lung cancer, and ...

12

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's

J. P. Geddes

1983-01-01

13

Staging and preoperative evaluation of upper gastrointestinal malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal and gastric cancers are distinct carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract, although the distinction between them becomes less clear at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Increasingly accurate staging is possible based on newer radiographic and surgical techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), laparoscopy and thoracoscopy, laparoscopic ultrasound, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). For both cancer types, tumor classification is determined

Eddie K. Abdalla; Peter W. T. Pisters

2004-01-01

14

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics incluse: 1) What is NASA s Mission.; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line.; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologie...

J. C. McArthur

2008-01-01

15

MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-06-03

16

Melanocytic Neoplasms II: Molecular Staging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The TNM staging categories and groupings of the updated 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Staging System\\u000a are outlined in Tables 6.1 and 6.2 [1]. “T ?” parameters are defined by primary tumor thickness, ulceration, and mitotic status; “N” parameters by the number of lymph nodes with metastatic disease and extent of metastatic burden; and “M” parameters by

Michael J. Murphy; J. Andrew Carlson

17

Adjuvant radiation therapy for stage II thymoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Thymoma is difficult to study because of its indolent natural history. The criteria for administration of adjuvant radiation therapy remain controversial, and it is unclear whether patients with Masaoka stage II thymoma benefit from adjuvant radiation. The goal of this report was to determine whether or not this group benefits from radiation therapy in terms of disease-specific survival and

Abeel A Mangi; Cameron D Wright; James S Allan; John C Wain; Dean M Donahue; Hermes C Grillo; Douglas J Mathisen

2002-01-01

18

Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

Adams, Alan M.

1995-06-01

19

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

Geddes, J. P.

20

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification \\/ Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested

A. Rittweger; W. Beuchel; K. Eckhardt

2002-01-01

21

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

22

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used fo...

D. R. Phillips R. J. Wingate

2010-01-01

23

Acoustic and thermal testing of the Titan\\/Centaur upper stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new version of the Centaur high-energy upper stage is being produced by General Dynamics for the USAF\\/Martin Marietta Titan launch vehicle. The Titan\\/Centaur upper stage is subject to consecutive acoustic and thermal testing in General Dynamics' Acoustic and Thermal Test Facility (ATTF). All data is acquired and processed digitally using the high-speed data acquisition system located in the ATTF.

Mark Gehringer; Chris Gibson; Ron Janes

1992-01-01

24

Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding among end-stage renal disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding among end-stage renal disease patients.BackgroundThe risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is increased among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients compared to the general population. However, correlates of UGIB among ESRD patients remain unknown. We conducted a cohort study of dialysis patients to ascertain risk factors for UGIB.MethodsData from the United States Renal Data System

Haimanot Wasse; Daniel L. Gillen; Adrianne M. Ball; Bryan R. Kestenbaum; Stephen L. Seliger; Donald Sherrard; Catherine O. Stehman-Breen

2003-01-01

25

Interaction between fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena in a cryogenic upper stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic cryogenic upper stage is analyzed using the FLOW-3D finite-difference program. The analysis is conducted to illustrate that coupled fluid-dynamic-thermodynamic numerical modeling is feasible with existing computational technology. A long-duration simulation of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank in a cryogenic upper stage is completed with no major computational difficulties. The numerical tank is exposed to external heating and

G. D. Grayson; J. Navickas

1993-01-01

26

STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II  

SciTech Connect

TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

2002-08-29

27

Stage separation dynamic analysis of upper stage of a multistage launch vehicle using retro rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents in brief the formulation used for the studies of lateral and longitudinal dynamics associated with separation and pull out of an ongoing functional stage from the spent stage of a multistage launch vehicle using retro rockets as jettisoning system. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed to solve the governing nonlinear differential equations of motion to obtain the

Duraisamy Jeyakumar; K. K. Biswas; Boggarapu Nageswara Rao

2005-01-01

28

Results of radiotherapy for Stage I and II Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six patients with pathologically Staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with Stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.

1982-06-01

29

Results of radiotherapy for stage I and II Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six patients with pathologically staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.

1982-06-01

30

GRACE: the problem specification stage. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we continue and complete the description of the problem specification stage of the Graphical R-matrix Atomic Collision Environment (GRACE). In particular we describe that part of the graphical user interface which controls the construction and editing of the input data required by a new outer region package FARM. The corresponding event-driven software system, which can be used as a stand alone GUI for FARM, is also published and described.

Scott, N. S.; Johnston, J.; Burke, V. M.; Noble, C. J.; Busby, D. W.

1994-11-01

31

Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle ext...

A. Hedayat E. F. Johnson J. Sims K. A. Holt L. J. Hastings R. H. Flachbart T. Lak

2013-01-01

32

Status and capability of the TOS and AMS upper stage family  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1986, the development of the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) is to be completed. TOS represents a new upper stage for the Space Transportation System (STS). It can place payloads in the weight range from 2,490 to 6,080 kg into Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) and deliver spacecraft to planetary and other high-energy trajectories. Aspects of design approach and reliability

R. C. White

1986-01-01

33

[Range of motion in the joints of the upper extremity at different stages of sympathetic reflex dystrophy (SRD)].  

PubMed

Sympathetic reflex dystrophy of the upper extremity is among the most serious complications of trauma injuries. The aim of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of mobilization treatment, augmented by cryogenic temperatures of post trauma SRD of the upper extremity. The material comprised 113 patients treated at the Orthopedic Outpatient Clinic of the J. Babi?ski Hospital in Breslau during the years 1987-1995. All patients underwent conservative treatment because of post trauma SRD. The effectiveness of cryo-therapy was based on pre- and post-therapy ROM examination. These results were compared to the ROM of the healthy extremity and the degree of ROM limitation was hence calculated. Limitation of ROM was found in all joints of the upper extremity regardless to the stage of the disease. The greatest limitations were found in the joints directly adjacent to the area were the disease was most pronounced. The applied therapy in these cases was found to increase ROM in all patients, with the greatest increase of ROM during stage I and II of the disease. PMID:12050870

Wrzosek, Z; Dragan, S

2001-01-01

34

Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various...

C. M. Reid M. T. Kussmaul T. B. Miller

2011-01-01

35

Mammalian Carnivore Coprolites from the Sopas Formation (Upper Pleistocene, Lujanian Stage), Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental tetrapod coprolites from Uruguay are described for the first time. These remains come from the Piedra Pintada locality (Artigas Department), northern Uruguay, where the Sopas Formation crops out (Upper Pleistocene, Lujanian Stage). It was possible to identify several attributes indicative of a coprolitic origin, such as anisopolar shape, extrusion marks, pointed ends, sutures, gas bubbles, and inclusions. These specimens

Mariano Verde

2003-01-01

36

Design and Development of a 50K LOX/Hydrogen Upper Stage Demonstrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses design and systems integration of a 50,000 pound (222.4 kN) thrust Oxygen/Hydrogen Upper Stage Engine Demonstrator (USD) being developed by Pratt & Whitney Liquid Space Propulsion under contract for the United States Air Force Researc...

S. Peery A. Minick

1998-01-01

37

Development Status of a 50k LOX/Hydrogen Upper Stage Demonstrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses design and systems integration status of a 50, 000 pound (222.4 kN) thrust Oxygen/Hydrogen Upper Stage Engine Demonstrator (USD) being created by Pratt & Whitney Liquid Space Propulsion under contract for the United States Air Force R...

R. Long R. Grabowski A. Minick S. Peery R. Branam

1999-01-01

38

Development Status of a 50k LOX/Hydrogen Upper Stage Demonstrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses design and systems integration status a 50,000 pound (222,4 kN) thrust Oxygen/Hydrogen Upper Stage Engine Demonstrator (USD) being created by Pratt & Whitney Liquid Space Propulsion under contract for the United States Air Force Resea...

R. Grabowski J. Friant R. Long L. Lowinski E. Schmidt

2000-01-01

39

First flight performance of the control system of the inertial upper stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a flight performance data analyses from the first flight of an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) with a Titan 34D booster are reported. The IUS has solid rocket motors, a monopropellant hydrazine reaction control system (RCS), and is separated from the spacecraft when the desired higher energy orbit is reached. Steering is guided by a mission sequencing function

A. K. Goodfellow; C. Vono

1983-01-01

40

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spi...

M. D. Bowles V. P. Dawson

2004-01-01

41

Treatment of patients with stages I and II nonmediastinal Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

In this study, 95 patients with laparotomy-staged I and II nonmediastinal Hodgkin's disease were treated with involved fields (41 patients), mantle (17), extended fields (26), or involved fields followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy (11). Eighty-five patients had upper torso presentations. Seventy had Stage I disease and 25 had stage II. Pathologic findings were nodular sclerosing, 33; mixed cellularity, 41; lymphocyte predominance, 20; and unclassified, one. Five-year overall survivals were excellent regardless of stage, pathologic findings, or treatment: 98% for involved fields or mantle, and 100% for both extended fields and involved fields followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Corresponding disease-free survivals were 77%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. For patients with upper torso presentations, disease-free figures for the mantle (94%) were better than those for involved fields alone (67%). In addition, regression analysis proved involved fields to be a prognostic factor for a lower disease-free survival. No difference between extended fields or mantle radiotherapy could be detected using this model. Relapses usually occurred in nonirradiated upper torso sites. Only three of the 36 patients treated with involved fields and one of 21 treated with extended fields relapsed in the abdomen alone. Most patients in relapse were salvaged. Rescue treatment was most often radiotherapy and adjuvant combination chemotherapy. Based on this study, the use of mantle radiotherapy is recommended in treating laparotomy-staged I and II patients with nonmediastinal presentations, and the use of extended fields or adjuvant chemotherapy as primary prevention is not recommended. (JMT)

Hagemeister, F.B.; Fuller, L.M.; Sullivan, J.; Johnston, D.; North, L.; Butler, J.J.; Velasquez, W.S.; Shullenberger, C.C.

1982-12-01

42

Omicron space habitat—research stage II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design presented in this paper is in response to the revolution in private space activities, the increasing public interest in commercial flights to space and the utilization of structures such as space hotels or private orbital habitats. The baseline for the Omicron design concept is the Russian Salyut derived space station module. Salyut was the first space station to orbit the Earth. Its unique design and technical features were what made the development of space stations Salyut 1-7, MIR and the International Space Station (ISS) Zwezda service module possible. Due to its versatility and the reliable operating launch vehicle Proton, this space module series has the potential to be adapted for space hotel development. This paper proposes a conceptual design of the space habitat called Omicron, with particular focus on interior design for the microgravity environment. The Omicron concepts address the needs of space tourism with a strong emphasis on the safety and comfort of the spaceflight participants. The Omicron habitat supports three inhabitants in nominal conditions (e.g., two passengers and one astronaut). The habitat provides a flexible interior, facilities and spaces dynamically transforming in order to accommodate various types of activities, which will be performed in an organically formed interior supporting spatial orientation and movement in microgravity. The future development potential of Omicron is also considered. The baseline version is composed solely of one rigid module with an inverted cupola for observations. An alternative version offers more space using an inflatable structure. Finally, a combination of multiple Omicron modules enables the creation of a larger orbital habitat. The Omicron's subsystems support a few days visit by trained passengers. The transport to the habitat would be provided e.g., by the Soyuz TMA spacecraft carried by the Soyuz launch vehicle in the early stage of Omicron's development, before a fully reusable spacecraft would be available.

Doule, Ond?ej; Šálený, Vratislav; Hérin, Benoît; Rousek, Tomáš

2012-01-01

43

Contemporary Management of Stage I and II Seminoma.  

PubMed

Seminoma represents about 60 % of all testicular germ cell tumors. At presentation about 80 % of patients have stage I and about 15 % have stage II disease. The last three decades have seen a substantial change in the philosophy of management with the success of surveillance as a strategy to minimize unnecessary treatment, recognition of the late effects of radiation therapy, and the success of cisplatin-based chemotherapy as curative treatment either in the first-line or salvage setting. Overall, in stage I disease where 80-85 % are cured with orchiectomy alone, efforts now are directed at reducing the burden of the disease and its diagnosis on patients with increasing utilization of surveillance and decreased employment of adjuvant therapy. For stage II disease, balancing the relative toxicities of radiation and chemotherapy while avoiding the use of multimodality therapy due to the additive long-term toxicity has become the priority. PMID:23949632

Chung, Peter; Warde, Padraig

2013-10-01

44

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine, component development, and firing tests. The test facility is also described.

Nagai, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamazaki, I.

1985-10-01

45

Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

2013-01-15

46

Critical analysis of treatment of stage II and stage III melanoma patients with immunotherapy.  

PubMed Central

Over the past 8 years, 244 patients with Stage II or III melanoma have been treated by cutaneous injection of a crude acellular homogenate of allogeneic melanoma cells (V-I) or a more concentrated fraction (V-II), followed in most patients by exchanges of WBC between paired partners. Patients with Stage III disease exhibited an overall response rate of 24% and prolongation of survival compared with control data. Stage II patients also had prolonged survival and reduced rate of recurrence over historic peers' data. Breakdown of subgroup data revealed that V-II plus exchange of WBC is similar to V-I plus exchange or V-II alone. However, recent experience of LTF suggests a higher response rate than in either V-I or V-II groups, particularly when autochthonous tumor is used for cross-immunization. The most meaningful immunologic data resulted from analysis of DNCB and MIF data. Patients negative to DNCB rarely respond to immunotherapy. A positive pretreatment MIF or positive conversion following treatment correlates with response, whereas, conversion of positive to negative predicts poor clinical performance.

Jewell, W R; Thomas, J H; Sterchi, J M; Morse, P A; Humphrey, L J

1976-01-01

47

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

SciTech Connect

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Advanced Systems and Technology Organization, South Oyster Bay Road, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

1998-01-15

48

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage.  

PubMed

Various sites along the upper airway (UA) are prone to narrow and collapse in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep stages may eventually alter these sites. The present study was designed to determine the site(s) of UA obstruction and the influence of sleep stage on the pattern of obstruction. Twenty eight obstructive sleep apnoea patients underwent UA pressure measurements during polysomnography. Solid-state pressure sensors were located at the nasopharynx, oropharynx, tongue base, hypopharynx and oesophagus and the lower limit of UA obstruction was determined relying on the observed pressure pattern. The site of UA obstruction varied among consecutive apnoeas in all but two patients. The lower limit of UA obstruction was predominantly located at the nasoand oropharynx. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was associated with a tendency for obstruction to extend towards lower levels of the UA and nasopharyngeal occlusion was significantly less observed during REM compared to oropharyngeal obstruction. Upper airway obstruction involves more than one specific site of the upper airway in the majority of sleep apnoea patients. Obstruction at lower levels of the upper airway is more likely to be observed during rapid eye movement sleep. PMID:9426096

Boudewyns, A N; Van de Heyning, P H; De Backer, W A

1997-11-01

49

Flight test results of the inertial upper stage redundant inertial measurement unit redundancy management technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicles have been deployed once from a Titan T-34D booster and once from Space Shuttle Challenger to carry spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. Telemetry data have been analyzed showing the performance of the failure detection and isolation scheme for the redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU). On the T-34D flight, no built-in test failure events occurred and no

R. Goodstein; B. K. Tse; D. J. Winkel; C. Halliday

1984-01-01

50

BIOFIDELITY OF THE SID-IIs AND A MODIFIED SID-IIs UPPER EXTREMITY: BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HUMAN HUMERUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate biofidelity for side impact dummies is crucial in order to accurately predict injury of human occupants. One such dummy is the SID- IIs, which represents the 5 th percentile human female. A recent area of concern is the biofidelity of the upper extremity of side impact test dummies. Since the upper arm serves as a load path to the

Andrew Kemper; Joel Stitzel; Stefan Duma

51

ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

-A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the development planning aiming at a first launch of ESC-B in 2006.

Juhls, A.

2002-01-01

52

[Physiopathology and therapeutic management of stage I and II endometriosis].  

PubMed

Stage I and II endometriosis is defined by a r-AFS score respectively ranging from 1 to 5 and from 6 to 15. This mild, superficial endometriosis is a very common pathology occurring in infertile women. Nevertheless, these women with stage I/II endometriosis have usually few pelvic pain. This review summarizes the recent literature concerning new data on the pathogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis and its clinical management. Retrograde menstruation, peritoneal adhesion of shed endometrial tissue, and outgrowth of endometrial cells, glands and stroma, are essential elements in the pathogenesis of endometriosis according to Sampson's classic implantation theory. Nevertheless, exact pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unknown. Superficial endometriotic lesions observed by laparoscopy have to be treated. Surgical procedure is not difficult for stage I and II of endometriosis. Surgical procedure remains controversial. Carbon dioxide (CO2) Laser can be used for laparoscopic destruction of endometriosis. Newer procedures, such as SurgiTouch (Lumenis), are more effective in vaporization and decrease the risk thermal damage of contiguous structures. The monopolar scissors can also be used in order to excise the peritoneal endometriotic lesions. Medical treatment may be usefull if surgical treatment is not complete or if the pelvic cavity is hypervascularized. In these cases, Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonists (Gn-RHa) are the most common and effective treatment.; PMID:14968061

Nisolle, M; Nervo, P

2003-12-01

53

Upper Bay Survey: Final Report to the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, Maryland. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume II of the Upper Bay Survey final report contains the contributions of the principal investigators in the biological, geological, and physical science fields. Each chapter reports the details and data summations which substantiate the findings. Each...

T. O. Munson

1975-01-01

54

Migration and winter distributions of canvasbacks staging on the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fall and winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) staging on the upper Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin (navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Pool 19) were studied during 1973-77. Sightings and recoveries obtained from 1,488 color-marked males during 1973-75 and 3,789 banded males and females during 1973-77 suggested 2 principal migration corridors: 1 extending eastward from Pools 7 and 8 to the eastern Great Lakes and southeast to the Mid-Atlantic Region and another southward from Pools 7 and 8 to the lower Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast, and east Texas regions. These discrete populations stage concurrently on Pools 7 and 8 during the fall, but winter in different areas of the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Central flyways. Populations staging on Pool 19 were not discrete from those staging on Pools 7 and 8. A continual turnover of birds passing through these staging areas was indicated. Canvasbacks wintering in the Mississippi and Central flyways were widely dispersed among a variety of habitats, whereas canvasbacks wintering in the Atlantic Flyway were concentrated in a few traditional habitats. Canvasbacks exhibited strong fidelity to wintering areas. Distribution patterns and population attributes of canvasbacks during fall and winter may be explained by the predictability of natural foods and their ability to exploit these foods.

Serie, J. R.; Trauger, D. L.; Sharp, D. E.

1983-01-01

55

Aerothermodynamics calculation of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at descent in the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering calculation method has been developed for investigation of the process of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at deorbiting and descent into the Earth's atmosphere. The results of calculation of its descent trajectory and characteristics of aerodynamic heating are presented. Within the framework of the thermodynamic approach, the authors investigated the process of pressure increase in the tanks due to heating and evaporation of the liquid phase of fuel. Stresses in the shells, the height and the energy equivalent of explosive destruction of tanks were calculated depending on the degree of their filling with remains of the components of liquid fuel.

Glazunov, A. A.; Goldin, V. D.; Zverev, V. G.; Ustinov, S. N.; Finchenko, V. S.

2013-06-01

56

Correlation of upper Bajocian-Bathonian zones in Siberia with the stage standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suggestions to transfer the Arcticoceras ishmae Zone from the middle to the lower Bathonian and the Arctocephalites arcticus Zone from the lower Bathonian to the upper Bajocian put forward by some researchers, are critically considered. These suggestions are based on paleontological records from the Sokur quarry near Saratov. Based on paleontological data from Siberia represented in a number of regional ammonite, belemnite, and retroceram zonations, we infer that the proposed zonal subdivision of the Jurassic in the Sokur quarry to be untrue and believe the revision of the correlation of the above-mentioned zones with the stage and zonal standard to be premature because of insufficient argumentation.

Meledina, S. V.; Nal'Nyaeva, T. I.; Shurygin, B. N.

2009-06-01

57

A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Christopher, R. A.; Prowell, D. C.

2002-01-01

58

Molecular pathology of allergic disease II: Upper airway disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic upper airway diseases such as allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis are an increasing problem. Although the pathogenesis remains elusive, an individual's genetic predisposition as well as exposure to the allergen are currently considered factors in their development. Clinical symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, and congestion are primarily a consequence of granulocyte release of chemical mediators such as histamine, prostanoids, and

Pota Christodoulopoulos; Lisa Cameron; Steven Durham; Qutayba Hamid

2000-01-01

59

Generalized Upper Bounding Techniques for Linear Programming, II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variant of the simplex method is given for solving linear programs with M + L equations, L of which have the property that each variable has at most one nonzero coefficient. Special cases include transportation problems, programs with upper bounded vari...

G. B. Dantzig R. M. Van Slyke

1965-01-01

60

Intraoperative radiotherapy in stage I and II lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States. Treatment depends on the type and stage of lung cancer. For stage I and II cancer, surgery is usually the treatment of choice. Radiation therapy is used in patients who are considered poor risks for surgical resection. Intraoperative brachytherapy is an effective alternative to external irradiation in this group of patients. From 1958 to 1984, 55 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were explored at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and found to have surgical stage I or II tumors, which were considered to be unresectable mainly because of severe obstructive pulmonary disease precluding adequate resection. All these patients were treated with intraoperative brachytherapy at the time of the thoracotomy. Forty-four percent of these patients received in addition external irradiation, mainly to the mediastinum. The overall 5-year survival calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method was 32%, and the local disease-free survival was 63%. Cox regression multivariant analysis demonstrated that there is a distinct subgroup with a better prognosis based on tumor site and patient's age--ie, patients who were younger than 58 years of age and had right-side lesions. PMID:3027826

Hilaris, B S; Nori, D; Martini, N

1987-01-01

61

CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage  

SciTech Connect

Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N. G. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2006-12-15

62

Visualizing group II intron catalysis through the stages of splicing  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Group II introns are self-splicing ribozymes that share a reaction mechanism and a common ancestor with the eukaryotic spliceosome, thereby providing a model system for understanding the chemistry of pre-mRNA splicing. Here we report fourteen crystal structures of a group II intron at different stages of catalysis. We provide a detailed mechanism for the first step of splicing, we describe a reversible conformational change between the first and the second steps of splicing, and we present the ligand-free intron structure after splicing, in an active state that corresponds to the retrotransposable form of the intron. During each reaction, the reactants are aligned and activated by a heteronuclear four-metal-ion center that contains a metal cluster and obligate monovalent cations, adopting a structural arrangement similar to that of protein endonucleases. Based on our data, we propose a model for the splicing cycle and show that it is applicable to the eukaryotic spliceosome.

Marcia, Marco; Pyle, Anna Marie

2012-01-01

63

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2013-09-09

64

MRI and Mammography Before Surgery in Patients With Stage I-II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-09-24

65

Dinoflagellates: Fossil Motile-Stage Tests from the Upper Cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey Coastal Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

Fred E. May

1976-01-01

66

Lessons learned from the dynamic identification\\/qualification tests on the ESC-A upper stage model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modeling approach made at the beginning of the development. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. For the low frequency domain

Andreas Rittweger; Werner Beuchel; Martin G. Andersen; Jochen Albus

2005-01-01

67

Rituximab and Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2013-01-04

68

A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Christopher, R. A.; Prowell, D. C.

2010-01-01

69

Flight test results of the inertial upper stage redundant inertial measurement unit redundancy management technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicles have been deployed once from a Titan T-34D booster and once from Space Shuttle Challenger to carry spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. Telemetry data have been analyzed showing the performance of the failure detection and isolation scheme for the redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU). On the T-34D flight, no built-in test failure events occurred and no failure detection thresholds were exceeded for as long as telemetry was available. On the Space Shuttle flight, considerable failure detection activity took place during which the RIMU indicated continuous proper navigation functioning until gyro maximum rates were exceeded. Adjustments to the algorithm and additional pre-flight tests should reduce the undesired activity while preserving performance on subsequent flights.

Goodstein, R.; Tse, B. K.; Winkel, D. J.; Halliday, C.

1984-01-01

70

First flight performance of the control system of the inertial upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a flight performance data analyses from the first flight of an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) with a Titan 34D booster are reported. The IUS has solid rocket motors, a monopropellant hydrazine reaction control system (RCS), and is separated from the spacecraft when the desired higher energy orbit is reached. Steering is guided by a mission sequencing function that indicates the proper reference attitude quaternions, which are compared with the navigation or current attitude quaternion to form a control error quaternion. Telemetry contact with the spacecraft and IUS failed during an initial boost phase; however, the desired orbit was achieved. Performance was as predicted, except for an increased rate of fuel consumption due to failure to include atmospheric drag in the preflight simulations of conditions in the LEO parking orbit. The effects are expected to be less with a Shuttle launch, and will in any case be offset by an overly adequate propellant supply.

Goodfellow, A. K.; Vono, C.

71

Experimental approach on the pyrotechnical shock reduction of Ariane-5 upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation of the upper stage of the Ariane 5 launcher is to be achieved by means of a Pyrotechnical Expansive Tube (PET) installed in the Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB) structure. When the pyrotechnical device is activated, severe shock levels are transmitted to the structural components and electronic equipment located near the separation section. These shock inputs could affect the operational performances of the above mentioned components during and after separation. An experimental research project to verify that VEB equipment will not be damaged, to achieve a deeper knowledge of the nature and consequences of the event, and to improve existing theoretical models, was undertaken. A specification was identified for the equipment platform, and a campaign of technological tests were started in order to select a damping material and its layout to obtain the highest shock reduction without compromising the VEB structural integrity and stiffness.

Uribarri, I.; Tejero, P.; Rivaillon, B.; Laviron, B.

1991-10-01

72

The Late Stages of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: A Millimeter Survey of Upper Scorpius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to ~4 × 10-3 M Jup of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 × 10-3 to 1.0 × 10-1 M Jup. The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and H? measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30m Telescope as part of programs 066-08, 149-08, and 076-09. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Ménard, Francois; Phillips, Neil; Duchêne, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe

2012-01-01

73

THE LATE STAGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK EVOLUTION: A MILLIMETER SURVEY OF UPPER SCORPIUS  

SciTech Connect

We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Jup} of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sub Jup}. The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and H{alpha} measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars.

Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96826 (United States); Menard, Francois; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe [CRNS-INSU/UJF-Grenoble 1, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Phillips, Neil, E-mail: gmathews@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-20

74

Treatment of giant congenital melanocytic nevus of the left upper extremity with staged expanded flap.  

PubMed

Excision of a congenital giant nevus is advised due to the possibility of it degenerating into a malignant melanoma or for aesthetic concerns. Tissue expansion has emerged as the primary treatment of giant congenital nevi because it enables the body to produce extra skin with excellent texture, better colour match, less severe donor-site deformity and repeated usage of an expanding donor-site. We present a multi-staged expansion/local flap technique to treat a case of a circumferential nevus from the acromioclavicular joint and axillary area throughout the upper extremity excluding the hand. The affected skin was approximately 10% of the total body surface area. The patient underwent eight operations and a total of 11 rounds of tissue expansions (500 cc × 9 rounds, 600 cc × 1 round, 300 cc × 1 round) were completed over a 2-year period prior to the removal of the nevus. A good aesthetic and functional outcome in the left upper extremity was gained. It is recommended that the treatment of giant nevi is best if completed at preschool age after taking several factors into consideration. PMID:21795129

Liu, Yufeng; Huang, Jinlong; Wen, Ke; Liu, Ning; Wang, Jinming

2011-07-27

75

Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

76

Diagnostic Accuracy of Elevated Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen for Recurrence in Postoperative Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients: Comparison With Stage III  

PubMed Central

Purpose Elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) following a curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate recurrence; however, the levels of CEA may be elevated above the normal limit without recurrence. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of elevated serum CEA for predicting recurrence in postoperative stage II and stage III CRC patients. Methods A total of 336 stage II and stage III CRC patients who underwent a curative resection between January 2005 and October 2009 were enrolled. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities of recurrence associated with elevated CEA were analyzed and compared. Results The median follow-up duration was 45 months (36 to 134 months). Twenty-seven of 189 stage II patients (14.3%) and 52 of 147 stage III patients (35.4%) developed recurrence during the follow-up period. Sensitivities, specificities, PPVs, and NPVs of elevated CEA were 37.0%, 91.4%, 41.7%, and 89.7%, respectively, in stage II patients and 46.2%, 90.5%, 72.7%, and 75.4% in stage III patients. Post-test probabilities of recurrence associated with elevated CEA were 41.8% in stage II patients and 71.9% in stage III patients. Conclusion The predictive performance of the probability of recurrence associated with elevated serum CEA after a curative resection in stage II CRC patients is lower than that in stage III CRC patients.

Kim, Ho Seung

2013-01-01

77

Adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin in pathological stage II non-seminomatous testicular cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) were evaluated as adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with pathological stage II non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Between 1985 and 1995, 86 patients with pathological stage II non-seminomatous testicular cancer were treated with two cycles of BEP. At retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) 49 patients (57%) had pathological stage IIA (microscopic nodal metastases) and

M Behnia; R Foster; L. H Einhorn; J Donohue; C. R Nichols

2000-01-01

78

Does adjuvant radiation therapy improve disease-free survival in completely resected Masaoka stage II thymoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether or not patients with completely resected Masaoka stage II thymoma benefit from postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods: We retrospectively review the case records and compared the long-term outcomes of patients affected by Masaoka stage II thymoma treated by resection alone with same stage thymoma patients submitted to resection and RT. Surgical specimens were reviewed to confirm pathological

Ottavio Rena; Esther Papalia; Alberto Oliaro; Enrico Ruffini; PierLuigi Filosso; Domenico Novero; Giuliano Maggi; Caterina Casadio; A. Avogadro

2010-01-01

79

The biostratigraphy and magnetic polarity zonation of the Pabbi Hills, northern Pakistan: An Upper Siwalik (Pinjor Stage) Upper Pliocene–Lower Pleistocene fluvial sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pabbi Hills, northern Pakistan, comprise an Upper Siwalik fluvial sequence spanning 3.2–0.5 Ma. The portion 2.2–0.9 Ma encompasses most of the Pinjor Faunal Stage (ca. 2.5–0.6 Ma) of India, and was extensively sampled for vertebrate fossil remains, with particular attention to recording spatial and vertical provenance. Detailed palaeomagnetic sampling confirms earlier investigations in the Pabbi Hills, and allows fossil

Robin Dennell; Ros Coard; Alan Turner

2006-01-01

80

Upper stratospheric temperature climatology derived from SAGE II observations: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-nm observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K

Pi-Huan Wang; Derek M. Cunnold; H. J. Wang; William P. Chu; Larry W. Thomason

1999-01-01

81

Deletion of chromosome 4q predicts outcome in Stage II colon cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Around 30% of all stage II colon cancer patients will relapse and die of their disease. At present no objective parameters\\u000a to identify high-risk stage II colon cancer patients, who will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, have been established.\\u000a With traditional histopathological features definition of high-risk stage II colon cancer patients is inaccurate. Therefore\\u000a more objective and robust markers for prediction

R. P. M. Brosens; E. J. T. H. Belt; J. C. Haan; T. E. Buffart; B. Carvalho; H. Grabsch; P. Quirke; M. A. Cuesta; A. F. Engel; B. Ylstra; G. A. Meijer

2011-01-01

82

Comparison of stages I–II thymoma treated by complete resection with or without adjuvant radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAdjuvant radiation after resection of Masaoka stage II thymoma is widely advocated, but the evidence supporting it is controversial. Studies addressing this issue generally report few patients and lump all patients beyond stage I together in the analysis.

Sunil Singhal; Joseph B Shrager; David I Rosenthal; Virginia A LiVolsi; Larry R Kaiser

2003-01-01

83

Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Upper Lobe Trisegmentectomy for Early-Stage Left Apical Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resection of the left upper lobe with preservation of the lingula is the anatomic equivalent of a right upper lobectomy with preservation of the right middle lobe. Therefore, our standard operation for a small apical tumor in the left upper lobe has been an apical triseg- mentectomy. The purpose of this article is to review our experience with the procedure

Ward V. Houck; Clark B. Fuller; Robert J. McKenna

2010-01-01

84

Shuttle Program Standard Maneuver Sequences for Orbiter/Upper-Stage Separation Ssus-a, Ssus-D, and Ius.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Descriptions of standard post-ejection maneuver sequences for the deployment of IUS, SSUS-A, and SSUS-D upper stages from the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The sequences were designed to satisfy requirements for limiting the damage inflicted on the...

S. W. Wilson

1980-01-01

85

Oral Sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular oxidative stress is an important factor in asthma and is thought to be the principle mechanism by which oxidant pollutants such as ozone and particulates mediate their pro-inflammatory effects. Endogenous Phase II enzymes abrogate oxidative stress through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and metabolism of reactive chemicals. Objective We conducted a placebo-controlled dose escalation trial to investigate the in vivo effects of sulforaphane, a naturally occurring potent inducer of Phase II enzymes, on the expression of glutathione-s-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione-s-transferase P1 (GSTP1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the upper airway of human subjects. Methods Study subjects consumed oral sulforaphane doses contained in a standardized broccoli sprout homogenate (BSH). RNA expression for selected Phase II enzymes was measured in nasal lavage cells by RT-PCR before and after sulforaphane dosing. Results All subjects tolerated oral sulforaphane dosing without significant adverse events. Increased Phase II enzyme expression in nasal lavage cells occurred in a dose-dependent manner with maximal enzyme induction observed at the highest dose of 200 grams broccoli sprouts prepared as BSH. Significant increases were seen in all sentinel Phase II enzymes RNA expression compared to baseline. Phase II enzyme induction was not seen with ingestion of non-sulforaphane containing alfalfa sprouts. Conclusion Oral sulforaphane safely and effectively induces mucosal Phase II enzyme expression in the upper airway of human subjects. This study demonstrates the potential of antioxidant Phase II enzymes induction in the human airway as a strategy to reduce the inflammatory effects of oxidative stress. Clinical Implications This study demonstrates the potential of enhancement of Phase II enzyme expression as a novel therapeutic strategy for oxidant induced airway disease. Capsule Summary A placebo-controlled dose escalation trial demonstrated that naturally occurring sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts can induce a potent increase in antioxidant Phase II enzymes in airway cells.

Riedl, Marc A.; Saxon, Andrew; Diaz-Sanchez, David

2009-01-01

86

Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma.  

PubMed

We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic. PMID:22949908

Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

2012-08-15

87

Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma  

PubMed Central

We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic.

Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

2012-01-01

88

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

89

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper presents a detail description of the power management and distribution subsystem design for the ISUS ground demonstration program.

Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

1997-01-01

90

Postoperative radiotherapy for stage I\\/II seminoma: results for 212 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A retrospective review of patients with Stage I and II seminoma treated at a regional cancer center was performed to assess the long term efficacy and toxicity associated with post operative radiotherapy.Methods and Materials: Between 1950 and 1995, 212 patients seen at the London Regional Cancer Centre received adjuvant radiotherapy following orchiectomy for Stage I (169) and II (43)

Glenn S Bauman; Varagur M Venkatesan; C. Tetteh Ago; John S Radwan; A. Rashid Dar; Eric W Winquist

1998-01-01

91

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer With Poor Prognostic Features  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adjuvant chemotherapy is typically considered for patients with stage II colon cancer characterized by poor prognostic features, including obstruction, perforation, emergent admission, T4 stage, resection of fewer than 12 lymph nodes, and poor histology. Despite frequent use, the survival advantage conferred on patients with stage II disease by chemotherapy is yet unproven. We sought to determine the overall survival benefit of chemotherapy among patients with stage II colon cancer having poor prognostic features. Patients and Methods A total of 43,032 Medicare beneficiaries who underwent colectomy for stage II and III primary colon adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 1992 to 2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) –Medicare database. ?2 and two-way analysis of variance were used to assess differences in patient- and disease-related characteristics. Five-year overall survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression with propensity score weighting. Results Of the 24,847 patients with stage II cancer, 75% had one or more poor prognostic features. Adjuvant chemotherapy was received by 20% of patients with stage II disease and 57% of patients with stage III disease. After adjustment, 5-year survival benefit from chemotherapy was observed only for patients with stage III disease (hazard ratio[HR], 0.64; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.67). No survival benefit was observed for patients with stage II cancer with no poor prognostic features (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.25) or stage II cancer with any poor prognostic features (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13). Conclusion Among Medicare patients identified with stage II colon cancer, either with or without poor prognostic features, adjuvant chemotherapy did not substantially improve overall survival. This lack of benefit must be considered in treatment decisions for similar older adults with colon cancer.

O'Connor, Erin S.; Greenblatt, David Yu; LoConte, Noelle K.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Liou, Jinn-Ing; Heise, Charles P.; Smith, Maureen A.

2011-01-01

92

Preliminary use of a hydrogel containing enzymes in the treatment of stage II and stage III pressure ulcers.  

PubMed

Considerable progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers but they remain a significant healthcare problem, particularly among the elderly. Treatment may include the use of wound dressings such as hydrogels as well as debridement products that contain relatively high concentrations of various enzymes. Unlike enzymes found in debridement products, low concentrations of endopeptidase enzymes can cleave to denatured proteins. Many endopeptidases have been reported to enhance the healing process. To evaluate the effect of a hydrogel wound dressing containing a combination of endopeptidases on pressure ulcers, a 12-week prospective preliminary study was conducted involving 10 nursing home patients with Stage II (n = 3) or Stage III (n = 7) ulcers that had failed to respond to previous treatments. Seven subjects (three with Stage II ulcers and four with Stage III ulcers) completed the study. Healing was based on wound closure by re-epithelialization as determined by area measurement and clinical assessment. All three Stage II ulcers and two of the Stage III ulcers healed completely; four Stage III ulcers were categorized as healing (>60% improvement) after 12 weeks of care. No dressing-related adverse events occurred and subject acceptance of the product, including comfort, was high. These results suggest that additional studies designed to define the possible contribution of endopeptidase enzymes in wound healing are warranted. PMID:16234576

Parnell, Linda K S; Ciufi, Brandi; Gokoo, Charles F

2005-08-01

93

Reconstructing Northern Hemisphere upper-level fields during World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly mean fields of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from 700 to 100 hPa were statistically reconstructed for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere for the World War II period. The reconstruction was based on several hundred predictor variables, comprising temperature series from meteorological stations and gridded sea level pressure data (1939-1947) as well as a large amount of historical upper-air data

S. Brönnimann; J. Luterbacher

2004-01-01

94

Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2013-10-08

95

Development to the blastocyst stage of immature pig oocytes arrested before the metaphase-II stage and fertilized in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryonic development of mature and meiotically arrested porcine oocytes were compared in the present study. After in vitro maturation (IVM) of cumulus-oocyte complexes for 48h, 75.4% of them extruded a visible polar body (PB). Most of the oocytes with a first polar body (PB+ group) were at the metaphase-II (M-II) stage (91.4%). Most of the

Tamás Somfai; Kazuhiro Kikuchi; Sergey Medvedev; Akira Onishi; Masaki Iwamoto; Dai-ichiro Fuchimoto; Manabu Ozawa; Junko Noguchi; Hiroyuki Kaneko; Katsuhiko Ohnuma; Eimei Sato; Takashi Nagai

2005-01-01

96

Revisited structures of dense and dilute stage II lithium-graphite intercalation compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical intercalation of unsolvated lithium into pyrographite has been carried out in LiClO4-ethylene carbonate electrolyte. Pure phases have been isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction studies. The orientated texture of pyrographite has allowed the study of the different families of Bragg reflections (001, hk0, hkl) especially for stage I LiC6, 3D stage II LiC12 and dilute stage II ‘LiC18’ compounds.

D. Billaud; F. X. Henry; M. Lelaurain; P. Willmann

1996-01-01

97

Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

2011-12-07

98

Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential only for malaria parasite late liver stage development  

PubMed Central

Intracellular malaria parasites require lipids for growth and replication. They possess a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) pathway that localizes to the apicoplast plastid organelle and is assumed to be necessary for pathogenic blood stage replication. However, the importance of FAS II throughout the complex parasite life cycle remains unknown. We show in a rodent malaria model that FAS II enzymes localize to the sporozoite and liver stage apicoplast. Targeted deletion of FabB/F, a critical enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, did not affect parasite blood stage replication, mosquito stage development and initial infection in the liver. This was confirmed by knockout of FabZ, another critical FAS II enzyme. However, FAS II-deficient Plasmodium yoelii liver stages failed to form exo-erythrocytic merozoites, the invasive stage that first initiates blood stage infection. Furthermore, deletion of FabI in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum did not show a reduction in asexual blood stage replication in vitro. Malaria parasites therefore depend on the intrinsic FAS II pathway only at one specific life cycle transition point, from liver to blood.

Vaughan, Ashley M; O'Neill, Matthew T; Tarun, Alice S; Camargo, Nelly; Phuong, Thuan M; Aly, Ahmed S I; Cowman, Alan F; Kappe, Stefan H I

2009-01-01

99

Decadal-scale responses in middle and upper stratospheric ozone from SAGE II Version 7 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses and linear trends in the middle and upper stratosphere for the two periods of 1984 to 1998 and 1991 to 2005. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of the v7 ozone number density vs. altitude data for a range of latitudes and altitudes. The MLR models that are fit to the data include a periodic 11 yr term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11-yr, solar uv-flux throughout most of the latitude/altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Max minus min, solar cycle (SC-like) responses for the SAGE II ozone at those altitudes and for the low to middle latitudes are similar for 1984-1998 and for 1991-2005 and of the order of 5 to 2.5% from 35 to 50 km. This finding is important because the associated linear trend terms are clearly different from the MLR models of those two time spans. The SAGE II results for the upper stratosphere are also compared with those of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) in terms of mixing ratio vs. pressure. The shapes of their respective, SC-like response profiles agree well for a time series from late 1992-2005, or after excluding the first 14 months of data following the Pinatubo eruption. Max minus min, SC-like responses from the SAGE II and HALOE time series vary from 2 to 4% and from 0 to 2%, respectively, and their differences in the upper stratosphere can be accounted for using the analyzed, SC-like response of the HALOE temperatures. The linear ozone trends of the upper stratosphere for 1992-2005 vary from about 0 to -4% decade-1 from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere from SAGE II, while they vary from 0 to -2% decade-1 and are more nearly symmetric about the Equator from HALOE.

Remsberg, E. E.

2013-08-01

100

Using SAS® to Determine Sample Sizes for Traditional 2Stage and Adaptive 2Stage Phase II Cancer Clinical Trial Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Phase II clinical trial, the primary objective is to determine the efficaciousness of a drug, such that decisions to proceed with further studies and development of the drug are warranted. To detect a measurable effect in an investigation product, a two-stage design is often used, whereby an interim look at the data may result in the decision to

Adrienne Groulx; Chung Scian

101

Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, and Urologic Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Urethral Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Ureter Cancer

2013-10-04

102

Rituximab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Yttrium Y 90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan in Treating Patients With Stage I or Stage II Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2013-07-15

103

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

Leslie E. Holland

1986-01-01

104

78 FR 58884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise Holdings, Inc. at Cincinnati/ Northern Kentucky International Airport in Boone County...submitted to EPA by the Commonwealth of Kentucky, through the Kentucky Division for...

2013-09-25

105

Utilization of Solid-Propellant Upper Stages in STS Payload Orbital Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this report is to discuss techniques of trajectory design, maneuver execution, and stage loading that are compatible with the use of SRM's (solid rocket motors) which, once ignited, must burn to propellant depletion. It is anticipated ...

S. W. Wilson

1976-01-01

106

Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

2013-04-05

107

Annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a description of the annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and the upper troposphere derived from observations of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II). The altitude-time cross sections exhibit annually repeatable patterns in both hemispheres. The appearance of a yearly minimum in water vapor in both hemispheres at approximately the same time

M. P. McCormick; E. W. Chiou; L. R. McMaster; W. P. Chu; J. C. Larsen; D. Rind; S. Oltmans

1993-01-01

108

Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097, Paclitaxel, And Carboplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-06-11

109

Number of lymph nodes examined and prognosis of TNM stage II colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of a lymph node-negative colorectal carcinoma should imply a good prognosis; however, the outcomes for TNM stage II patients remain variable. Few studies have examined the relationship of the number of lymph nodes examined to the prognosis of this stage. The aim of this study was to determine whether the number of lymph nodes examined has an effect

Leopoldo Sarli; Giovanni Bader; Domenico Iusco; Carlo Salvemini; Davide Di Mauro; Antonio Mazzeo; Gabriele Regina; Luigi Roncoroni

2005-01-01

110

Long-term results with radiotherapy for stage I–II follicular lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the long-term results with radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage, low-grade follicular lymphomas.Methods and Materials: From 1960 to 1988, 80 patients with Stage I (n = 33) or II (n = 47), World Health Organization Grade 1 (n = 50) or 2 (n = 30) follicular lymphoma were treated with RT. The lymph nodes or spleen were involved in

Richard B Wilder; Dan Jones; Susan L Tucker; Lillian M Fuller; Chul S Ha; Peter McLaughlin; Mark A Hess; Fernando Cabanillas; James D Cox

2001-01-01

111

BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality at three different levels\\u000a of proximity to the selected service station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) in\\u000a the background. Continuous monitoring and passive sampling were used for achieving high temporal and spatial resolution, respectively.\\u000a A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4)

Norbert Gonzalez-Flesca; Sotiris Vardoulakis; André Cicolella

2002-01-01

112

Point: Treating stage II colon cancer: the quest for personalized adjuvant care.  

PubMed

The development of treatment decision strategies to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer continues to challenge many oncologists. Clearly, recurrence risk and prognosis for patients with stage II colon cancer can be variable, with subsets of patients with stage II disease at potentially higher risk than some with stage III. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to produce a consistent relative risk reduction for recurrence across studies. Using clinical calculators to predict individual recurrence risk based on histopathologic and patient data allows this relative risk reduction to be translated into absolute benefit to the patient. In addition, gene expression assays in combination with these histopathologic data may further improve the accuracy of recurrence risk calculations and allow more accurate absolute benefit estimations. This absolute benefit should be discussed with the patient, taking into account the risk of morbidity from chemotherapy and individual preferences to arrive at a shared medical decision regarding adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23138165

Vergo, Maxwell T; Benson, Al B

2012-11-01

113

Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of a receiver-absorber-converter system in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage Unit  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program is directing its efforts at solving endemic national spacecraft architecture problems. The ISUS is an advanced, integrated upper stage concept that would permit payload realignment, allowing large payloads to be moved by smaller and less expensive boosters. A receiver-absorber-converter (RAC) system in the ISUS unit is designed to convert solar energy to kinetic energy in the propulsion phase or electrical energy in the power generation phase for spacecraft control and operation. In this study a three-dimensional, transient, turbulent hydrogen gas flow through the RAC system was simulated using a finite element thermal-hydraulic model. With this model, transient temperature, pressure, and flow fields in the RAC system were obtained. Numerical results of the mass flow rate distribution through hydrogen heating channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen inlet or exit. It takes about 18.5 min for the hydrogen exhaust temperature to drop below 2,000 K. The results obtained from this work have been applied for validating and optimizing the present RAC design, as well as for performing the thermal stress analysis.

Tong, W.

1999-12-01

114

Chemotherapy-radiotherapy association in Hodgkin's disease, clinical stages IA, II/sub 2/A: results of a prospective clinical trial with 166 patients. [/sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

One hundred sixty-six patients with clinical stages IA, II/sub 2/A Hodgkin's disease were treated between April 1972 and December 1976 with three courses of multiagent chemotherapy (methylchlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) followed by mantle irradiation - excluding mediastinum for those with initial upper cervical presentation and absence of mediastinal involvement - or inverted Y radiotherapy. With a follow-up of 12 to 84 months, the overall survival is 93.5% and the overall relapse-free survival 89.9%. With chemotherapy-radiotherapy sequence, staging laparotomy is not indicated. Results and side effects of this treatment strategy are compared with those of other treatment policies.

Andrieu, J.M. (Universite Paris VII, France); Montagnon, B.; Asselain, B.; Bayle-Weisgerber, C.; Chastang, C.; Teillet, F.; Bernard, J.

1980-11-15

115

General Description and Design of the Configuration of the Juno I and Juno II Launching Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Juno I Vehicle consists of a modified Redstone Booster with three solid propellant upper stages. The second and third stages are made up by clustering the same rocket used as the fourth stage. The upper stages are contained in a spinning launcher. The spinning provides stability during flight. The Juno II vehicle uses the same upper stages as the

Bill B. Greever

1960-01-01

116

Research-Based Course Materials and Assessments for Upper-Division Electrodynamics (E&M II)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Favorable outcomes from ongoing research at the University of Colorado Boulder on student learning in junior-level electrostatics (E&M I) have led us to extend this work to upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II). We describe here our development of a set of research-based instructional materials designed to actively engage students during lecture (including clicker questions and other in-class activities); and an instrument for assessing whether our faculty-consensus learning goals are being met. We also discuss preliminary results from several recent implementations of our transformed curriculum, plans for the dissemination and further refinement of these materials, and offer some insights into student difficulties in advanced undergraduate electromagnetism.

Baily, Charles; Dubson, Michael; Pollock, Steven J.

2013-05-28

117

Second primary tumors following adjuvant therapy of resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The occurrence of second primary tumors (SPTs) following adjuvant therapy for resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. Data regarding SPTs were prospectively collected in all patients accrued to Eastern Cooperative Group Oncology E3590 (a phase III trial of adjuvant therapy in patients with completely resected stages II and IIIa NSCLC). Four hundred eighty-eight patients were accrued to the study, 242 to the RT arm and 246 to the CRT arm. Median follow-up was 73 months. Thirty patients (6.1%) developed 33 SPTs, 20 in the RT arm and ten in the CRT arm. Ten SPTs occurred within the upper aerodigestive tract, six in the RT arm and four in the CRT arm. Twenty-three SPTs occurred in other organs, 17 in the RT arm and six in the CRT arm. Median time to detection of a SPT for those patients randomized to RT and CRT was 43 and 36 months, respectively. The incidence of SPTs was 1.8% per patient-year of follow-up. Excluding skin tumors, the relative risk of death following diagnosis of a SPT for patients randomized to the CRT arm as compared with those randomized to RT alone was 2.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-5.58, P=0.12). Patients are at risk for developing a SPT following resection of stages II and IIIa NSCLC. The majority of SPTs occur outside the aerodigestive tract. Following development of a non-skin SPT, the survival difference between patients who had received adjuvant CRT and those treated with adjuvant RT alone was not significant. PMID:14512191

Keller, Steven M; Vangel, Mark G; Wagner, Henry; Schiller, Joan; Herskovic, Arnold; Komaki, Ritsuko; Gray, Robert; Marks, Randolph S; Perry, Michael C; Livingston, Robert B; Johnson, David H

2003-10-01

118

ABILITY OF CLINICAL GRADE TO PREDICT FINAL PATHOLOGIC STAGE IN UPPER URINARY TRACT TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate whether clinical grade predicts final pathologic stage in upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UTTCC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 184 consecutive patients undergoing nephrouretrectomy for UTTCC at our institution between 1986 and 2004. Their clinical, surgical, and pathological data were reviewed to determine the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of clinical biopsy grade with respect to final pathologic stage of disease. Results: In all, 119 (64.7%) patients had information available regarding the clinical grade of disease from preoperative endoscopic biopsy. The distribution of clinical grades was grade 1: 2 (1.6%), grade 2: 46 (38.7%) and grade 3 in 71 (59.7%) patients. Of the 71 patients with grade 3 disease 47 had ? pT2 disease (66% PPV). Of the 48 patients with less than grade 3 disease 35 had < pT2 disease (72% NPV). Of the 71 patients with grade 3 disease 30 had ? pT3 disease (42% PPV). Of the 48 patients with less than grade 3 disease, 44 had stage of disease. This information can be used to counsel patients before surgery and to identify patients for whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be most beneficial.

BROWN, GORDON A.; MATIN, SURENA F.; BUSBY, J. ERIK; DINNEY, COLIN P. N.; GROSSMAN, H. BARTON; PETTAWAY, CURTIS A.; MUNSELL, MARK F.; KAMAT, ASHISH M.

2007-01-01

119

On prediction of re-entry time of an upper stage from GTO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of objects in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is determined by a complex interplay of atmospheric drag and luni-solar gravity. These orbits are highly eccentric (eccentricity >0.7) and have large variations in velocity and perturbations during a revolution. The periodic changes in the perigee altitudes of these orbits are mainly due to the gravitational perturbations of the Sun and the Moon. The re-entry time of the objects in such orbits is sensitive to the initial conditions. The aim of this paper is to study the re-entry time of the cryogenic stage of the Indian geo-synchronous launch vehicle, GSLV-F04/CS, which has been decaying since 2 September 2007 from initial orbit with eccentricity equal to 0.706. Two parameters, initial eccentricity and ballistic coefficient, are chosen for optimal estimation. It is known that the errors are more in eccentricity for the observations based on two line elements (TLEs). These two parameters are computed with response surface method using a genetic algorithm for the selected eight different zones, based on rough linear variation of the mean apogee altitude during 200 days orbit evolution. The study shows that the GSLV-F04/CS will re-enter between 5 December 2010 and 7 January 2011. The methodology is also applied to study the re-entry of six decayed objects (cryogenic stages of GSLV and Molniya satellites). Good agreement is noticed between the actual and the predicted re-entry times. The absolute percentage error in re-entry prediction time for all the six objects is found to be less than 7%. The present methodology is being adopted at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) to predict the re-entry time of GSLV-F04/CS.

Mutyalarao, M.; Sharma, Ram Krishan

2011-06-01

120

Downregulation of caspase-10 predicting poor survival after resection of stage II colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of caspase-10 mRNA expression in stage II colorectal\\u000a cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze caspase-10 expression\\u000a in cancer tissue and corresponding normal mucosa from 120 patients with stage II colorectal cancer. Variables were analyzed\\u000a by Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test.

Xiao-Gang Shen; Cun Wang; Yuan Li; Bin Zhou; Bin Xu; Lie Yang; Zong-Guang Zhou; Xiao-Feng Sun

121

Expression of collagen type I and type II in consecutive stages of human osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal hyaline cartilage the predominant collagen type is collagen type II along with its associated collagens, for example, types IX and XI, produced by normal chondrocytes. In contrast, investigations have demonstrated that in vitro a switch from collagen type II to collagen type I occurs. Some authors have detected collagen type I in osteoarthritic cartilage also in vivo, especially in late stages of osteoarthritis,

Nicolai Miosge; Michael Hartmann; Cyrilla Maelicke; Rainer Herken

2004-01-01

122

ARIANE 5 upper-stage ignition conditions improvement, and return to operation with ''Envisat'' payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARIANE 5 experienced a flight anomaly with the 10 th model mission (F 510), having placed its both satellites in a lower orbit than the planned GTO. Only one satellite (Artemis) could be retrieved due to its own propulsion systems. Arianespace, CNES and Astrium-GmbH (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) immediately set up a recovery team, combining forces for carrying deep and schedule-driven investigations, and later qualifying recovery measures. A failure in such an important program: is immediately triggering a large "post-shock" reaction from the ARIANE community implied in the relevant business and technology. The investigation fields are summarised in the following chapters, showing how failure analysis, engineering investigations and basic research have been combined in order to have a schedule and methodic efficient approach. The combination of all available European resources in space vehicle design has been implemented, involving industry, agency technical centers and research laboratories. The investigation methodology applied has been driven by the particular situation of a flight anomaly investigation, which has to take into account the reduced amount of measurement available in flight and the necessary combination with ground test data for building a strategy to reach identification of possible failure scenario. From the investigations and from extensive sensitivity characterisation test of EPS engine (AESTUS) ignition transient, stability margins have been deeply investigated and introduced in the post-anomaly upgraded stage design. The identification and implementation of recovery measures, extended as well to - potential ignition margin reduction factors even beyond the observed flight anomaly allowed to establish a robust complementary qualification status, thus allowing resuming of operational flight, starting with the valuable "Envisat" payload of European Space Agency, dedicated to earth and climate monitoring, on flight 511, the 28/02/2002, from Kourou Spaceport.

Dutheil, J. Ph.; Langel, G.

2003-08-01

123

Now on display: a gallery of group II intron structures at different stages of catalysis  

PubMed Central

Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that self-splice and retrotranspose into DNA and RNA. They are considered evolutionary ancestors of the spliceosome, the ribonucleoprotein complex essential for pre-mRNA processing in higher eukaryotes. Over a 20-year period, group II introns have been characterized first genetically, then biochemically, and finally by means of X-ray crystallography. To date, 17 crystal structures of a group II intron are available, representing five different stages of the splicing cycle. This review provides a framework for classifying and understanding these new structures in the context of the splicing cycle. Structural and functional implications for the spliceosome are also discussed.

2013-01-01

124

FISH COMMUNITIES IN LAKE IN SUBREGION 2B (UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN) IN RELATION TO LAKE ACIDITY: VOLUME II. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Surveys of fish community status were conducted in summer 1987 in 49 lakes in Subregion 20, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, as part of Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey. Lake selection involved a variable probability sampling design. Fish communities were surveyed using gill n...

125

Optimal Two-Stage Designs Allowing Flexibility in Number of Subjects for Phase II Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase II clinical trials are conducted to test whether a drug has a minimum desired effect and to assess whether further development of the drug is warranted. They are often designed as one-arm trials with response rate as the primary endpoint, and a two-stage design is often used to ensure early termination of the trial for futility. To control the

Nobuyuki Masaki; Tatsuki Koyama; Isao Yoshimura; Chikuma Hamada

2009-01-01

126

Blood gas analysis of bovine fetal capillary blood during stage II labor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether blood gas variables in fetal capillary blood during the last 30 min of stage II labor can be used to diagnose fetal asphyxia. Twenty-five newborn calves were used to investigate the correlation between capillary blood gas values obtained from the dorsolateral aspect of the distal pastern and those in arterial and venous blood. The pH, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, concentration of bicarbonate, base excess and oxygen saturation were determined. The bicarbonate concentration (arterial, r=0.759; venous, r=0.766; both P<0.0001) and base excess (arterial, r=0.730; venous, r=0.807; both P<0.0001) had the highest correlations. Fetal capillary blood was collected during the last 30 min of stage II labor and the results of blood gas analysis were compared with those of arterial and venous blood collected immediately after birth in 38 calves. The pH (arterial, r=0.806; venous, r=0.885; both P<0.0001) and base excess (arterial, r=0.822; venous, r=0.871; both P<0.0001) had the highest correlations. The pH and base excess were significantly lower after birth than during the last 30 min of stage II labor. The severity of fetal acidosis during stage II labor can be easily and reliably determined using the pH or base excess of fetal capillary blood. PMID:17980421

Bleul, U; Schwantag, S; Kähn, W

2007-11-05

127

LGR5 is a promising biomarker for patients with stage I and II gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) expressions in gastric cancer and to evaluate its clinical significance. Methods LGR5 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 257 gastric cancer patients after surgery. The relationships between LGR5 expression and clinicopathological features and patients prognosis were statistically analyzed. Results The expression of LGR5 was significantly higher in gastric cancers as a cancer stem cell marker than in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001), and more frequently in patients with intestinal type, well-moderate differentiation and stage I and II (P<0.05). Although we found gastric cancer patients with LGR5 positive expression had a poorer prognosis, it didn’t meet statistical signi?cance (P>0.05). LGR5 negative expression was significantly related to the favorable overall survival in stage I and II gastric cancer patients (P<0.05). Furthermore, patients with high LGR5 expression tended to be more likely to get progression and have poorer progress-free survival (P<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that LGR5 expression was an independent factor of overall survival for the patients with stage I and II gastric cancer (P<0.05). Conclusions Our results show that LGR5 may play an important role in tumorigenesis and progression and would be a powerful marker to predict the prognosis of patients with stage I and II gastric cancer.

Bu, Zhaode; Zheng, Zhixue; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Ziyu; Sun, Yu; Dong, Bin; Wu, Aiwen; Wu, Xiaojiang; Wang, Xiaohong; Cheng, Xiaojing; Xing, Xiaofang; Li, Yingai; Du, Hong

2013-01-01

128

Radiation therapy of stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgery is the preferred and standard treatment for patients with resectable stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Survival rates of local surgery are unbeaten by other treatment modalities. Up to 70% of these patients survive 5 years or longer. However, there is a subset of patients who either are inoperable due to the presence of severe associated

D. Zierhut; C. Bettscheider; K. Schubert; M. van Kampen; M. Wannenmacher

2001-01-01

129

American Society of Clinical Oncology Recommendations on Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To address whether all medically fit patients with curatively resected stage II colon cancer should be offered adjuvant chemotherapy as part of routine clinical practice, to identify patients with poor prognosis characteristics, and to describe strategies for oncologists to use to discuss adjuvant chemotherapy in practice.

Al B. Benson; Deborah Schrag; Mark R. Somerfield; Alfred M. Cohen; Alvaro T. Figueredo; Patrick J. Flynn; Monika K. Krzyzanowska; Jean Maroun; Pamela McAllister; Eric Van Cutsem; Melissa Brouwers; Manya Charette; Daniel G. Haller

2004-01-01

130

Prognostic Significance of Multiple Molecular Markers for Patients With Stage II Colorectal Cancer Undergoing Curative Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether our constructed high-sensitivity colorimetric membrane-array method could detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and so identify a subgroup of patients who are at high risk for relapse. Summary Background Data: Adjuvant chemotherapy is not rou- tinely recommended in patients diagnosed

Yih-Huei Uen; Shiu-Ru Lin; Deng-Chyang Wu; Yu-Chung Su; Jeng-Yih Wu; Tian-Lu Cheng; Chin-Wen Chi; Jaw-Yuan Wang

2007-01-01

131

The Outcome of Stage I–II Clinically and Surgically Staged Papillary Serous and Clear Cell Endometrial Cancers When Compared with Endometrioid Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare survival and recurrence in clinical and surgical stage I–II papillary serous (PS), clear cell (CC), and endometrioid (EM) cancers of the endometrium and examine the prognostic utility of myometrial invasion.Methods. Clinical, surgicopathologic, and survival data were retrospectively collected on 574 clinical stage I–II endometrial cancer patients, including 53 PS and 18

Frank D. Cirisano; Stanley J. Robboy; Richard K. Dodge; Rex C. Bentley; Hannah R. Krigman; Ingrid S. Synan; John T. Soper; Daniel L. Clarke-Pearson

2000-01-01

132

Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2013-09-04

133

Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2013-09-04

134

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected.

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

135

Histologic study of patterns of cervical involvement in FIGO stage II endometrial carcinoma.  

PubMed

The pathology of cervical involvement in endometrial carcinoma has not been fully defined previously. We reviewed the histopathology of 66 hysterectomies of women with stage II endometrial carcinoma. Cervical spread was categorized as macroscopic or microscopic; stage IIA or IIB; direct spread, surface or lymphvascular metastasis; and size, number, and location. The cervical tumor was macroscopically identified in 15 (23%) women and microscopically identified in 51 (77%). Twenty-one patients (32%) were stage IIA and 45 (68%) stage IIB. The method of spread was direct spread in 28 patients, surface metastases in 27, lymphovascular in 3, both direct spread and surface metastases in 7 and both direct spread and lymphovascular in 1. The cervical tumor had a mean horizontal dimension of 3 mm and a median of 2 mm. There were multiple sites of cervical tumor in 31 (47%) patients and single in 35 (53%). The sites of spread, including cases with multiple sites, were the endocervix in 60 women (90%), transformation zone in 24 (37%), and ectocervix in 3 (5%). Most patients had minimal microscopic cervical tumor. Small examples of direct spread may be an artifact of definition depending on the histology of the isthmian-endocervical junction and many surface metastases appear to follow dilatation and curettage. In 7 of 66, 11%, however, the cervical tumor was greater than 5 mm depth of invasion and/or the result of lymphvascular metastasis. Survival studies are required to compare minimal stage II endometrial carcinoma patients and those with larger and/or lymphvascular derived cervical tumor. Patients with minimal stage II and stage I patients should also be compared. PMID:11240720

Scurry, J.; Craighead, P.; Duggan, M.

2000-11-01

136

Combined modality treatment for stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: CVP versus BACOP chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the 5-year results of a prospective randomized study beginning in 1976 on 177 evaluable patients with pathologic Stage I-IE and II-IIE non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with diffuse histology according to the Rappaport classification. Treatment consisted of either CVP or BACOP chemotherapy (3 cycles) followed by regional radiotherapy (40 to 50 Gy) and further cycles of either combination. In both arms, complete remission at the end of combined treatment was high (CVP 93%, BACOP 98%) regardless of age, stage or bulky disease. At 5 years, the comparative freedom from first progression was 62% for CVP vs 78% for BACOP (p = 0.02), respectively. Clinically relevant differences favoring BACOP chemotherapy were essentially documented in patients with large cell lymphomas (International Working Formulation), those with Stage II having more than three involved anatomical sites, bulky disease and age over 60 years. Recurrence within radiation fields was documented in only 5% of complete responders. Combined treatment was, in general, well tolerated particularly when BACOP was used. In only 2 patients given CVP post radiation cutaneous fibrosis was documented. Second solid tumors were detected in 4 patients. One patient started on CVP died because of brain stem necrosis after 45 Gy. We conclude that in Stage I-II patients with nodal and extranodal diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, particularly large cell lymphomas, combined modality approach with primary Adriamycin and bleomycin containing regimen, such as BACOP, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy offers high chances of cure with minimal toxicity.

Bajetta, E.; Valagussa, P.; Bonadonna, G.; Lattuada, A.; Buzzoni, R.; Rilke, F.; Banfi, A.

1988-07-01

137

Excisional biopsy, auxillary node dissection and definitive radiotherapy for Stages I and II breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

From 1977 to 1982, 189 patients with clinical Stage I and II breast cancer underwent excisional biopsy and auxillary node dissection followed by definitive radiotherapy at the University of Pennsylvania. One hundred and nine patients had T/sub 1/ lesions and 80 had T/sub 2/ lesions. Histologically negative nodes were found in 136 patients (72%) and histologically positive nodes in 53 patients. Median follow-up from the completion of radiotherapy was 26 months. The four year actuarial disease free survival is 82% for pathologic Stage I and 70% for pathologic Stage II. Cosmesis was judged to be good to excellent in 90% and fair in 9%. Complications included arm edema (7%), symptomatic pneumonitis (1%), rib fractures (1%), pericarditis (1%) and pleural effusion (1%). Primary radiotherapy for Stages I and II breast cancer produces a local-regional control rate of 95% and good to excellent cosmesis in 90% of the patients. While these results are preliminary, they compare favorably with other reported series.

Danoff, B.F.; Pajak, T.F.; Solin, L.J.; Goodman, R.L.

1985-03-01

138

A Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program: The Life Course Interview (RDA-LCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article, a Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the qualitative…

Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ritchie, Rachel

2008-01-01

139

A Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program: The Life Course Interview (RDA-LCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study reported in this article, a Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the qualitative…

Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ritchie, Rachel

2008-01-01

140

Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

1987-07-01

141

Study on the eddy current damping of the spin dynamics of space debris from the Ariane launcher upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the topic of damping of the spin dynamics of a spatial debris orbiting around the Earth. Such debris, which can consist of parts of heavy launchers such as the Ariane rocket under consideration in this article, are impacted by torques generated by eddy currents as their conducting non-ferromagnetic body orbits through the Earth magnetosphere. Several previous works have focused on describing this induction phenomenon and have proposed analysis of empirical observations of this particular and important effect which has attracted much attention since the number of spatial debris has emerged as a problem for the future of space programs, especially in low orbits. In this paper, we present a relatively comprehensive modeling of the induction phenomenon, by means of Maxwell's equations inside the conducting and non-ferromagnetic body. Through the generalized Ohm's law, we show how one can obtain a partial differential equation with Neumann's boundary conditions problem that, once solved, e.g. through a finite elements method, yields the values of induced currents and braking torques. The case of a depleted upper stage of a heavy launcher, having a cylindrical shape and thin walls is particularly studied. We show a methodology to estimate the decay-rate of the spinning velocity, which is proven to satisfy a first-order asymptotically stable linear dynamics. Special cases consisting of typical orbit of space debris are treated.

Praly, N.; Hillion, M.; Bonnal, C.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Petit, N.

2012-07-01

142

Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

Le Scodan, Romuald, E-mail: lescodan@crh1.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Selz, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bollet, Marc A.; Lande, Brigitte de la; Daveau, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Bruant, Sarah [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

2012-01-01

143

Radiotherapy of stage I and II Hodgkin disease with inguinal presentation  

SciTech Connect

Seventeen patients who presented with inguinal adenopathy were found to have stage I or II infradiaphragmatic Hodgkin disease. Two patients with stage IIB disease also received MOPP chemotherapy. Fifteen patients currently have no evidence of recurrence; one died of acute myelogenous leukemia 6 years after total nodal irradiation, while another died of cardiopulmonary disease but had no evidence of Hodgkin disease at autopsy. In one patient, progressive peripheral atherosclerosis developed in an irradiated inguinal area, requiring angioplasty. Patient characteristics and results of treatment are analyzed and implications for management presented.

Lanzillo, J.H.; Moylan, D.J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Kramer, S.

1985-01-01

144

Real-time Hydro-NEXRAD II-derived Rainfall Data for the Upper Embarrass Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physically-based semi-distributed coupled water quantity and quality model for a watershed requires real-time rainfall data at high spatial resolution and temporal frequency. For example, the THREW model uses smaller discrete units called representative elementary watersheds (REWs), which represent the smallest elementary unit for hydrological modeling (Tian et al. 2006). Obtaining data at the REW scale presents a challenge because of the absence of rain-gauges inside the watershed and the complexities involved in processing data obtained from multiple radars covering the watershed. Recent development of a Web-based rainfall virtual sensor system and cyberinfrastructure at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and The University of Iowa facilitate processing multiple radar data to the REW level. The resulting rainfall estimates can then be archived or fed into the virtual sensor system for use in real-time modeling or for visualization in Google Earth. The NCSA virtual sensor system consists of: a Google Map-based web interface, a virtual sensor middleware layer, a semantic content management middleware called Tupelo, and workflow tools and services called Cyberintegrator. We are using the virtual sensor system to process rainfall data from the Hydro-NEXRAD II system, developed at The University of Iowa. The virtual sensor translates Hydro-NEXRAD II rainfall data into REW-scale rainfall estimates, and inputs the estimates into hydrologic and hydraulic models for the analysis of water quality and quantity in Upper Embarrass watershed in Illinois. The Hydro-NEXRAD II feed provides real-time rain-rate estimates on a nominal 2-km × 2-km rectangular grid (or more precisely, a 1-degree × 1-degree lat-long grid). Hydro-NEXRAD II quality-controls, synchronizes, merges, and preprocesses data from three NEXRAD radars covering the entire watershed. It provides updated rain-rate maps every 5 minutes and stores them on a web-folder from where the virtual sensor system downloads them via HTTP. When a new radar measurement is available, it is imported into the virtual sensor workflow and archived in Tupelo. The workflow involves a spatial aggregation module that applies an efficient polygon-filling algorithm to average the point radar data for each REW. This REW-based rainfall estimate can then be compared to the rain-gauge data available in the closest neighborhood. Our further work will include assessing the performance of the THREW hydrologic model based on the REW-based rainfall estimate vs the rain gauge estimate. Reference: Tian, F., Hu, H., Lei, Z., and Sivapalan, M. (2006), Extension of the representative elementary watershed approach for cold regions via explicit treatment of energy related processes. Hydro. Earth Syst. Sci. 10, 619-624.

Jha, S. K.; Rodriguez, A.; Singh, S.; Liu, Y.; Minsker, B. S.; Krajewski, W. F.

2010-12-01

145

Stages I and II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of Waldeyer's ring and the neck  

SciTech Connect

In a previous communication results were reported for patients with localized extranodal presentations of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the head and neck who were admitted between 1961-1969. This review describes the larger experience from 1947-1982 in treating 137 Stages I and II Waldeyer's ring patients whose slides were available for reclassification according to the modified Rappaport System. All of these patients were treated definitively as follows: radiotherapy only, 113 patients; radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy, 17 patients; chemotherapy only, seven patients. The overall 5-year survival was 50%. Significant differences were determined for specific subgroups. For patients staged after lymphangiography, the 5-year survival was 67% as compared with 32% for non-lymphangiogram staged patients. Stage (Ann Arbor) also influenced results. The 5-year survival figure for Stage I was 70% as compared with 42% for Stage II. The combination of extent of disease in Waldeyer's ring and the status of the neck had a major impact on survival. When the disease was staged according to the TNMAJCC System, the 5-year survivals were: 75% for T1-T2-TX N0; 53% for T1-T2-TX N+; 54% for T3-T4 N0; and 36% for T3-T4 N+. Also, results for tonsil (52%) and base of tongue (66%) disease were better than for disease involving the nasopharynx (39%) or multiple sites (25%). Treatment also influenced survivals and disease-free survivals. The best results were obtained in patients who were treated with radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy. The 5-year survival and disease-free survival figures were 78% and 69%, respectively.

Kong, J.S.; Fuller, L.M.; Butler, J.J.; Barton, J.H.; Robbins, K.T.; Velasquez, W.M.; Sullivan, J.A.

1984-12-01

146

Association between recurrent metastasis from stage II and III primary colorectal tumors and moderate microsatellite instability.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer cells frequently have low levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-L) and elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST), but little is known about the clinicopathologic significance of these features. We observed that patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer with MSI-L and/or EMAST had shorter times of recurrence-free survival than patients with high levels of MSI (P = .0084) or with highly stable microsatellites P = .0415), based on Kaplan-Meier analysis. MSI-L and/or EMAST were independent predictors of recurrent distant metastasis from primary stage II or III colorectal tumors (Cox proportional hazard analysis: hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.15; P = .0301). PMID:22465427

Garcia, Melissa; Choi, Chan; Kim, Hyeong-Rok; Daoud, Yahya; Toiyama, Yuji; Takahashi, Masanobu; Goel, Ajay; Boland, C Richard; Koi, Minoru

2012-03-27

147

[Time-related effect of betapressin+ in patients with essential hypertension stage II].  

PubMed

Time-related effect of betapressin (penbutolol) has been studied in 24 patients with essential hypertension stage II. The drug was given in the morning, afternoon and evening in a dose 40 mg. Control group consisted of 20 patients with essential hypertension stage II on betapressin at a mean daily dose 108.4 +/- 6.25 mg. Pre- and posttreatment hemodynamic parameters were registered at tetrapolar chest rheography. Arterial pressure was measured according to N.S. Korotkov. In the study group the parameters were taken 6 times a day each 4 hours before and after the treatment course. The course lasted for 20 days on the average in both groups. The study discovered time-related effect of betapressin; negative chronotropic effect in the morning and evening, negative inotropic effect in the day time. The hypotensive effect varied with the day hour being the highest in the single administration. PMID:9121089

Zaslavskaia, R M; Lilitsa, G V; Akhmetov, K Z; Teiblium, M M

1996-01-01

148

Reconstructing Northern Hemisphere upper-level fields during World War II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly mean fields of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from 700 to 100 hPa were statistically reconstructed for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere for the World War II period. The reconstruction was based on several hundred predictor variables, comprising temperature series from meteorological stations and gridded sea level pressure data (1939-1947) as well as a large amount of historical upper-air data (1939-1944). Statistical models were fitted in a calibration period (1948-1994) using the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data set as predictand. The procedure consists of a weighting scheme, principal component analyses on both the predictor variables and the predictand fields and multiple regression models relating the two sets of principal component time series to each other. According to validation experiments, the reconstruction skill in the 1939-1944 period is excellent for GPH at all levels and good for temperature up to 500 hPa, but somewhat worse for 300 hPa temperature and clearly worse for 100 hPa temperature. Regionally, high predictive skill is found over the midlatitudes of Europe and North America, but a lower quality over Asia, the subtropics, and the Arctic. Moreover, the quality is considerably better in winter than in summer. In the 1945-1947 period, reconstructions are useful up to 300 hPa for GPH and, in winter, up to 500 hPa for temperature. The reconstructed fields are presented for selected months and analysed from a dynamical perspective. It is demonstrated that the reconstructions provide a useful tool for the analysis of large-scale circulation features as well as stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the late 1930s and early 1940s.

Brönnimann, S.; Luterbacher, J.

149

Lymphatic spread in stage Ib and II cervical carcinoma: Anatomy and surgical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the frequency and topography of pelvic and para-aortic node involvement in cervical carcinoma and to identify the appropriate level for resection of the lymphatic chains.Methods: Between 1985 and 1994, 421 women with stage Ib or II cervical carcinoma were treated by surgery in combination with irradiation. Each underwent a radical hysterectomy with systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.Results:

Guy Michel; Philippe Morice; Damienne Castaigne; Marc Leblanc; Annie Rey; Pierre Duvillard

1998-01-01

150

Ankle and Foot Kinematics Associated with Stage II PTTD During Stance  

PubMed Central

Background Subjects with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) exhibit abnormal foot kinematics; however, how individual segment kinematics (hindfoot (HF) or first metatarsal (first MET) segments) influence global foot kinematics is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare foot and ankle kinematics and sagittal plane HF and first MET segment kinematics between stage II PTTD and controls. Materials and Methods Thirty patients with stage II PTTD and 15 healthy controls were evaluated. Kinematic data from the tibia, calcaneus, and first MET were collected during walking using three dimensional motion analysis techniques. A threesegment foot model (HF, calcaneus; first MET, first metatarsal, and tibia) was used to calculate relative angles (ankle, HF relative to tibia; midfoot, first MET relative to HF) and segment angles (HF and first MET relative to the global). A mixed effect ANOVA model was utilized to compare angles between groups for each variable. Results Patients with PTTD showed greater ankle plantarflexion (p = 0.02) by 6.8 degrees to 8.4 degrees prior to or at 74% of stance; greater HF eversion (p < 0.01) across stance (mean difference = 4.5 degrees); and greater first MET dorsiflexion (p < 0.01) across stance (mean difference = 8.8 degrees). HF and first MET segment angles revealed greater HF dorsiflexion (p = 0.01) during early stance and greater first MET dorsiflexion (p = 0.001) across stance. Conclusion Abnormal HF and first MET segment kinematics separately influence both ankle and midfoot movement during walking in subjects with stage II PTTD. Clinical Relevance These abnormal kinematics may serve as another measure of response to clinical treatment and/or guide for clinical strategies (exercise, orthotics, and surgery) seeking to improve foot kinematics.

Houck, Jeff R.; Neville, Christopher G.; Tome, Josh; Flemister, Adolph S.

2010-01-01

151

Stage II breast cancer: Differences between four coping patterns in side effects during adjuvant chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six women with stage II breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were recruited for a study evaluating and comparing coping patterns for differences in physical and psychological side effects during treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy. Cluster analyses were used to split women into confrontive, avoidant-confrontive, avoidant-resigned, and resigned coping clusters. Side-effect measurements were taken on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy infusion and

Daniel E. Shapiro; Stephen R. Boggs; James R. Rodrigue; Heather L. Urry; James J. Algina; Richard Hellman; Fay Ewen

1997-01-01

152

Decreased monocyte antibody-dependent cell-mediated toxicity in stage I–II malignant melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocyte and monocyte antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against human red blood cells was examined in 28 stage-I-II malignant melanoma patients. Eighteen were studied at various time intervals after receiving SC Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum); 10 were untreated. Fifteen normal age-matched controls were also studied. Monocyte ADCC was significantly decreased in untreated patients compared with controls (P<0.005) and was significantly increased

James L. Murray; Elisa T. Lee

1984-01-01

153

Arcus-anchored acellular dermal graft compared to anterior colporrhaphy for stage II cystoceles and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The aim of this study is to compare acellular dermal matrix to standard colporrhaphy for cystocele repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred two patients with greater than or equal to stage II anterior prolapse (Aa or Ba 0) who underwent anterior colporrhaphy\\u000a with acellular dermal implant attached to the arcus between October 2003 and February 2007 were compared to 89 controls

Sylvia M. Botros; Peter K. Sand; Jennifer L. Beaumont; Yoram Abramov; Jay James Miller; Roger P. Goldberg

2009-01-01

154

Adjuvant Pelvic Radiotherapy vs. Sequential Chemoradiotherapy for High-Risk Stage I-II Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore if the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin to radiotherapy confers an advantage for overall survival (OAS), and progression free survival (PFS); to assess the incidence of relapses over standard pelvic radiotherapy; and to evaluate the related toxicity in high-risk stage I-II endometrial carcinoma Methods Medical records were reviewed to identify high-risk stage I-II endometrial carcinoma cases treated in the Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine department between 2002 and 2008 with adjuvant radiotherapy alone (arm I) (57 patients) or with sequential carboplatin (AUC5-6) and paclitaxel (135?175 mg/m2) with radiotherapy (arm II) (51 patients). Radiotherapy was performed through the four-field box technique at doses of 45?50 Gy (1.8 Gy/day × 5 days/week). Results The toxicity was manageable and predominantly hematologic with a grade 3 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in 9.8% and 6% of the patients in arm I and arm II, respectively, without febrile neutropenia. All patients experienced hair loss. Chemoradiotherapy arm was associated with a lower incidence rate of relapse (9.8% vs. 22.7%). After a median follow-up period of 48 months, the 5-year OAS and PFS rates for chemoradiotherapy-treated patients were significantly more favorable than those who did not receive chemotherapy (P=0.02 and 0.03, respectively). In arm I, the OAS and PFS rates were 73.7% and 66.7% compared with those in arm II, whose rates were 90.2% and 84.3%. Conclusions Adjuvant chemoradiation with paclitaxel and carboplatin improved the survival rates and decreased the recurrence rates in patients with high-risk stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Chemotherapy was associated with an acceptable rate of toxicity. However, a prospective study with a larger number of patients is needed to define a standard adjuvant treatment for high-risk stage I-II endometrial carcinoma.

El-Hadaad, Hend Ahmed; Wahba, Hanan Ahmed; Gamal, Anas Mohamed; Dawod, Tamer

2012-01-01

155

A prospective study of surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for primary gastric lymphoma stage II.  

PubMed Central

The standard management of primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) (stage II) has not been established despite the use of various treatment modalities. The present prospective trial of combined surgery and chemotherapy for the treatment of PGL (stage II) included 25 consecutive patients treated between July 1978 and December 1993. Twenty-one patients were treated with total gastrectomy and four with partial gastrectomy; this was followed by post-operative chemotherapy with m-VEPA (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisolone and doxorubicin), followed by consolidation chemotherapy with VEMP (vindesine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and prednisolone) or VQEP (vindesine, carbazilquinone, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone). Twenty-one of the 25 patients who completed post-operative chemotherapy were free of relapse 26-203 (median 94) months after the gastrectomy. Of the four patients who did not complete the projected chemotherapy, two relapsed and died of lymphoma. Another patient with recurrent lymphoma died in an accident, and the fourth patient was in remission at 54 months after surgery. The post-operative overall and disease-free survival rates at 10 years for the 25 evaluable patients were 81.6% and 92.0% respectively. Major surgical complications and treatment-related death after chemotherapy were not observed. PGL (stage II) appears to be curable when treated with gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Images Figure 1

Takenaka, T.; Maruyama, K.; Kinoshita, T.; Sasako, M.; Sano, T.; Katai, H.; Matsuno, Y.

1997-01-01

156

Same anthropogenic activity, different taphonomic processes: A comparison of deposits from Los Husos I & II (Upper Ebro Basin, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments from archaeological deposits can be affected both by human activity and environmental agents after deposition. As a result, physical and chemical alterations can be recognized in the stratigraphical record. This work focuses on characterizing and comparing the post-depositional alterations that have affected prehistoric stall deposits from two neighbouring rockshelters located in the Upper Ebro Basin: Los Husos-II (ca. 4450–3790cal.

Ana Polo Díaz; Javier Fernández Eraso

2010-01-01

157

Physical workload in various types of work: Part II. Neck, shoulder and upper arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the correlation between, and the variation in, various measures of exposure to potential risk factors for work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UE-WMSDs), physical workload was measured in 43 types of work (713 individuals), using inclinometry for the head and upper arms, and electromyography (EMG) for the trapezius muscles.Many exposure measures were highly correlated. Head flexion (90th percentile), extension

Gert-Åke Hansson; Istvan Balogh; Kerstina Ohlsson; Lothy Granqvist; Catarina Nordander; Inger Arvidsson; Ingrid Åkesson; Jeannette Unge; Ralf Rittner; Ulf Strömberg; Staffan Skerfving

2010-01-01

158

Monitoring the bovine fetus during stage II of parturition using pulse oximetry.  

PubMed

Measurement of oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is an established method of continuous monitoring of the well-being of the human fetus during parturition. In veterinary medicine, pulse oximetry has been used almost exclusively in intensive care and anesthesiology. The goal of the present study was to investigate the physiological changes in oxygen saturation of the bovine fetus during stage II of parturition and to determine whether the findings can be used to predict postnatal acidosis. The correlation between the oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) measured via pulse oximetry and the oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) of arterial blood measured via blood gas analysis was determined in 23 newborn calves. In addition, the oxygen saturation was monitored continuously via pulse oximetry (FSpO(2)) in 33 bovine fetuses during stage II of parturition. Correlations between the FSpO(2) values during the last 30 and 5min of stage II of parturition and the postpartum values for pH, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, bicarbonate concentration, BE, SaO(2) and lactate concentration in arterial blood were determined. There was a high correlation between SpO(2) and SaO(2) postpartum (r=0.923). The FSpO(2) values correlated moderately with the pH and BE and weakly with the lactate concentration postpartum; calves with a pH<7.2, a BE<-3mM/L or a lactate concentration of >5.4mM/L had significantly lower FSpO(2) values than non-acidotic calves. FSpO(2) values <30% for a period of at least 2min had the highest predictive value for a calf born with a pH<7.2. Pulse oximetry is a novel method of monitoring the bovine fetus during parturition; however, technical modifications are required to improve its usefulness. PMID:17977591

Bleul, U; Kähn, W

2007-10-31

159

Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Stage II Thymoma After Complete Tumor Resection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether patients with Masaoka stage II thymoma benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy after complete tumor resection. Methods and Materials: A total of 107 patients with stage II thymoma who underwent complete resection of their tumors between September 1964 and October 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty-six patients were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, and 41 patients received surgery alone. Results: Eight patients (7.5%) had a relapse of their disease, including two patients (4.5%) who had surgery alone, and 6 patients (9.5%) who had adjuvant radiation therapy. Disease-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.3% and 82.6%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group, and 97.6% and 93.1%, respectively, for the group that underwent surgery alone (p = 0.265). Disease-specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 96.4% and 89.3%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group and 97.5% and 97.5% for the surgery group (p = 0.973). On univariate analysis, patients with type B3 thymomas had the lowest disease-free survival rates among all subtypes (p = 0.001), and patients with large thymomas (>7 cm) had lower disease-specific survival rates than those with small tumors (<7 cm) (p = 0.017). On multivariate analysis, histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy after complete tumor resection for patients with stage II thymoma did not significantly reduce recurrence rates or improve survival rates. Histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Further investigation should be carried out using a multicenter randomized or controlled study.

Chen Yidong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Feng Qinfu, E-mail: qinfufeng@yahoo.com.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Lu Haizhen [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Mao Yousheng [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhou Zongmei; Ou Guangfei; Wang Mei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhao Jun [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); Zhang Hongxing; Xiao Zefen; Chen Dongfu; Liang Jun; Zhai Yirui; Wang Luhua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China); He Jie [Department of Thorax Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 (China)

2010-12-01

160

Effect of 18F-FDG PET\\/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using ¹F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography (PET\\/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in

David Groheux; Jean-Luc Moretti; Georges Baillet; Marc Espie; Sylvie Giacchetti; Elif Hindie; Christophe Hennequin; Jacques-Robert Vilcoq; Caroline Cuvier; Marie-Elisabeth Toubert; Jean-Emmanuel Filmont; Farid Sarandi; Jean-Louis Misset

2008-01-01

161

Second primary tumors following adjuvant therapy of resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of second primary tumors (SPTs) following adjuvant therapy for resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. Data regarding SPTs were prospectively collected in all patients accrued to Eastern Cooperative Group Oncology E3590 (a phase III trial of adjuvant therapy in patients with completely resected stages II and IIIa NSCLC). Four hundred eighty-eight patients

Steven M. Keller; Mark G. Vangel; Henry Wagner; Joan Schiller; Arnold Herskovic; Ritsuko Komaki; Robert Gray; Randolph S. Marks; Michael C. Perry; Robert B. Livingston; David H. Johnson

2003-01-01

162

Southwest Oncology Group experience: adjuvant therapy for Stage IB and II non-seminomatous testicular cancer  

SciTech Connect

During a two year period, 65 patients with Stage II non-seminomatous testis cancer were randomized to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Of the 52 evaluable patients, 23 received radiation followed by chemotherapy (sequential), and 29 received the same chemotherapy as initial treatment, but had drug treatment temporarily interrupted for radiation (sandwich). The combined treatment was well tolerated, but did not eliminate recurrence. With regard to duration of survival and disease-free survival, no statistically significant difference could be found between the sequential and sandwich approaches.

Stephens, R.L. (Univ. of Kansas, Kansas City); Eltringham, J.R.; Coltman, C.A. Jr.; Neidhart, J.; Mullins, J.; Frank, J.

1983-12-01

163

Use of ADEOS-II/GLI Radiometric and Geometric Characteristics for the Simulation of Moisture Variations in the Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an examination of the performance of radiative transfer models in the simulation of variations of the upper tropospheric relative humidity (UTRH) observed by satellites. For this purpose, upper tropospheric water vapor simulations are produced by the radiative transfer code (RSTAR6b) using radiance observations of the water vapour channel (6.7 µm) of the Global Imager (GLI) onboard ADEOS-II satellite. The geographical area covered by these simulations is the Sea of Japan and surroundings. Based on the GLI sensor radiometric and geometric characteristics, we describe the methodology and calculations made to estimate the UTRH from satellite brightness temperature observations. The average correlation obtained between these two parameters is above 0.65. Then the model outputs of the satellite UTRH retrievals are compared with corresponding UTRH from the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data weighted by the water vapour channel of the GLI weighting function. Results are interpreted in terms of proximity with cloud formations.

Dim, J. R.; Murakami, H.; Hori, M.

2008-12-01

164

Thymomas II: a clinicopathologic correlation of 250 cases with a proposed staging system with emphasis on pathologic assessment.  

PubMed

We present 250 cases of thymomas with emphasis on their clinical staging and follow-up. The patients were 120 males and 130 females between the ages of 13 and 92 years. Surgical resection was performed and histopathologic material evaluated in every case. Grossly, the tumors resected varied in size from 3 to 20 cm in greatest diameter. According to our proposed staging system, 31 cases were stage 0, 128 were stage I, 70 stage II, and 21 stage III at the time of resection. Histologically, approximately 53% of thymomas were of mixed histologic types. Follow-up information ranging from 1 to 16 years was obtained, showing significant statistical P values of .044 and .016 for overall and recurrence-free survival, respectively. We consider that our proposed staging system offers better stratification of cases and improved histologic definitions for proper staging of cases of thymoma. PMID:22338058

Moran, Cesar A; Walsh, Garrett; Suster, Saul; Kaiser, Larry

2012-03-01

165

Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for

T. Isobe; E. D. Feigelson; P. I. Nelson

1986-01-01

166

Contamination environment resulting from IUS stage II motor post-burn outgassing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parametric study is presented in which the contamination environment established to aft facing spacecraft surfaces subsequent to burnout of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) second stage motor is characterized. Subsequent to motor burnout, the internal motor case, insulation, and materials in the flexible nozzle seal assembly of the IUS will continue to outgas and expel large hydrocarbon molecules. By means of molecular scattering, these outgassing products may be transported to payload (spacecraft) surfaces creating a potentially severe contamination environment on sensitive components. Transport of the outgassing products is characterized using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Since many of the physical attributes of the outgassed products are unknown, a parametric study is performed in which the outgassing temperature, reference viscosity, and molecular weight of the products are varied. In addition, inclusion or exclusion of an extendible nozzle exit cone provides the effect of nozzle length on the contamination environment. Contour plots of the resulting flowfield number density are provided in addition to incident mass flux to aft facing surfaces of a representative spacecraft.

Kirshman, David J.

2002-09-01

167

Early stages of the recovery stroke in myosin II studied by molecular dynamics simulations  

PubMed Central

The recovery stroke is a key step in the functional cycle of muscle motor protein myosin, during which pre-recovery conformation of the protein is changed into the active post-recovery conformation, ready to exersice force. We study the microscopic details of this transition using molecular dynamics simulations of atomistic models in implicit and explicit solvent. In more than 2 ?s of aggregate simulation time, we uncover evidence that the recovery stroke is a two-step process consisting of two stages separated by a time delay. In our simulations, we directly observe the first stage at which switch II loop closes in the presence of adenosine triphosphate at the nucleotide binding site. The resulting configuration of the nucleotide binding site is identical to that detected experimentally. Distribution of inter-residue distances measured in the force generating region of myosin is in good agreement with the experimental data. The second stage of the recovery stroke structural transition, rotation of the converter domain, was not observed in our simulations. Apparently it occurs on a longer time scale. We suggest that the two parts of the recovery stroke need to be studied using separate computational models.

Baumketner, Andrij; Nesmelov, Yuri

2011-01-01

168

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III aerosol extinction measurements in the Arctic middle and upper troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; StröM, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

2006-09-01

169

Variability of respiratory effort in relation to sleep stages in normal controls and upper airway resistance syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Investigation of the role of sleep states on the respiratory effort of controls and subjects with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) using nasal cannula\\/pressure transducer system and esophageal manometry.Patients and methods: One night's monitoring of sleep and breathing, including the determination of peak end inspiratory esophageal pressure (respiratory effort) with esophageal manometry and flow limitation with nasal cannula. Analysis

Christian Guilleminault; Dalva Poyares; Luciana Palombini; Uta Koester; Zerin Pelin; Jed Black

2001-01-01

170

Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIT) for Restoration of Upper-limb Function. II: Hemipareses Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIT) is a highly specialized form of rehabilitation for those with upper-limb paresis.\\u000a The intervention uses a combination of motor training elements and psychological concepts to facilitate increased use of the\\u000a affected limb as well as improved movement quality and control. Importantly, CIT is designed to achieve real-world improvements\\u000a through behavioral measures that facilitate the incorporation of

Annette Sterr; Katherine Herron; Jennifer Sanders

171

Adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin in pathological stage II non-seminomatous testicular cancer. the Indiana University experience.  

PubMed

Two cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) were evaluated as adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with pathological stage II non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Between 1985 and 1995, 86 patients with pathological stage II non-seminomatous testicular cancer were treated with two cycles of BEP. At retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) 49 patients (57%) had pathological stage II(A) (microscopic nodal metastases) and 37 (43%) had stage II(B) (gross nodal metastases). After RPLND, the patients received bleomycin, 30 units weekly for 8 weeks, etoposide (100 mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (20 mg/m(2)) each for 5 days every 28 days for two cycles as adjuvant chemotherapy. 4 patients were lost to follow-up. 10 patients (12%) developed granulocytopenic fever during their chemotherapy. Of the 82 evaluable patients all remained with no evidence of disease except for a single patient with a cervical nodal relapse of teratoma. This was resected and he remains disease free. Median follow-up has been 85 months (range: 42-173 months). In patients with fully resected stage II non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, two cycles of BEP were almost universally effective in preventing relapse. PMID:10717522

Behnia, M; Foster, R; Einhorn, L H; Donohue, J; Nichols, C R

2000-03-01

172

Gender-Specific Variation in the Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer TNM Stages II to IV  

PubMed Central

To investigate the correlation between gender and the clinical presentation of papillary thyroid cancer and the long-term followup results, 435 patients who underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy were enrolled in this study. Among these papillary thyroid cancer patients, 12.2% showed lymph node metastases and a higher incidence of male patients in the N1b group. There were 65 from 316 female (20.6%) and 49 from 120 male (40.8%) patients who had a postoperative disease progression. A total of 55 (12.6%) patients died of thyroid cancer. Male patients showed a higher thyroid cancer mortality than the females. Multiple regression analysis showed that male gender was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence and mortality. Male patients with TNM stages II to IV of papillary thyroid cancer need to adopt aggressive surgical and postoperative 131I therapy.

Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu; Chen, Szu-Tah; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der

2012-01-01

173

Randomized trial of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for stage I-II Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed

A total of 277 patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease, clinical stages I-II, were randomized to cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone (CVPP) alone for 6 monthly cycles or to CVPP plus radiation therapy (RT), 3,000 rad, to involved areas (CVPP plus RT). One or more of the following factors were considered as unfavorable prognosis: age greater than 45 years, more than two lymph node areas involved, or bulky disease. In the favorable group, disease-free survival (77% vs. 70%) or overall survival (92% vs. 91%) at 84 months for CVPP versus RT plus CVPP was similar. Patients with unfavorable prognosis treated with RT plus CVPP had longer disease-free survival (75% vs. 34%) (P = .001) and overall survival (84% vs. 66%) than patients treated with CVPP alone. PMID:3184196

Pavlovsky, S; Maschio, M; Santarelli, M T; Muriel, F S; Corrado, C; Garcia, I; Schwartz, L; Montero, C; Sanahuja, F L; Magnasco, O

1988-11-16

174

Brachytherapy of stage II mobile tongue carcinoma. Prediction of local control and QOL  

PubMed Central

Background There is no consensus as to the prognostic model for brachytherapy of tongue carcinoma. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors for local control based on a large population under a unified treatment policy. Results Between 1970 and 1998, 433 patients with stage II tongue squamous cell carcinoma were treated by low-dose-rate brachytherapy. This series included 277 patients treated with a linear source with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. A spacer was introduced in 1987. The primary local control rates were 85.6%. Conclusion In the multivariate analysis, an invasive growth pattern was a significant factor for local recurrence. The disease-related survival was influenced by old age and an invasive growth pattern. A spacer lowered mandibular bone complications. The growth pattern was the most important factor for recurrence. Brachytherapy was associated with a high cure rate and the use of spacers brought about good quality of life (QOL).

Oota, Sayako; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Miura, Masahiko

2006-01-01

175

How many lymph nodes are necessary to stage early and advanced adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon and upper rectum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymph-node yields in specimens resected for colorectal adenocarcinoma show considerable variations, raising the question whether the minimum lymph-node number recommended by the UICC (International Union Against Cancer) for pN0 classification represents an appropriate quality standard for specimen work-up. The number of pericolic lymph nodes recovered from 568 archival surgical colorectal carcinoma specimens located in the sigmoid or upper rectum

Sebastian Leibl; Oleksiyy Tsybrovskyy; Helmut Denk

2003-01-01

176

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold; Peter Roopnarine

2011-01-01

177

Impact on Prognosis of Lymph Node Micrometastasis and Isolated Tumor Cells in Stage II Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Even though the importance of micrometastases (MMS) and isolated tumor cells (ITC) has been brought up by many physicians, its impact on the prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer is uncertain. In this research, we tried to investigate the clinical features of MMS and ITC and to prove any correlation with prognosis. Methods The research pool was 124 colorectal cancer patients who underwent a curative resection from April 2005 to November 2009. A total of 2,379 lymph nodes (LNs) were examined, and all retrieved LNs were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining with anti-cytokeratin antibody panel. Clinicopathologic parameters and survival rates were compared based on the presence of MMS or ITC and on the micrometastatic lymph node ratio (mmLNR), which is defined as the number of micrometastatic LNs divided by the number of retrieved LNs. Results Out of 124 patients (26.6%) 33 were found to have MMS or ITC. There were no significant differences in clinicopathologic features, such as gender, tumor location and size, depth of invasion, histologic grade, except for age (P = 0.04). The three-year disease-free survival rate for the MMS or ITC positive group was 85.7%, and that for MMS and ITC negative group was 92.8% (P = 0.209). The three-year disease-free survival rate for the mmLNR > 0.25 group was 73.3%, and that for the mmLNR ? 0.25 group was 92.9% (P = 0.03). Conclusion The presence of MMS or ITC was not closely correlated to the prognosis. However, mmLNR is thought to be a valuable marker of prognosis in cases of stage II colorectal cancer.

Oh, Tai Young; Shin, Ui Sup; Lee, Hyang Ran; Park, Sun Hoo

2011-01-01

178

Deep Posterior Compartment Strength and Foot Kinematics in Subjects With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Tibialis posterior muscle weakness has been documented in subjects with Stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) but the effect of weakness on foot structure remains unclear. The association between strength and flatfoot kinematics may guide treatment such as the use of strengthening programs targeting the tibialis posterior muscle. Materials and Methods Thirty Stage II PTTD subjects (age; 58.1 ± 10.5 years, BMI 30.6 ± 5.4) and 15 matched controls (age; 56.5 ± 7.7 years, BMI 30.6 ± 3.6) volunteered for this study. Deep Posterior Compartment strength was measured from both legs of each subject and the strength ratio was used to compare each subject’s involved side to their uninvolved side. A 20% deficit was defined, a priori, to define two groups of subjects with PTTD. The strength ratio for each group averaged; 1.06 ± 0.1 (range 0.87 to 1.36) for controls, 1.06 ± 0.1 (range, 0.89 to 1.25), for the PTTD strong group, and 0.64 ± 0.2 (range 0.42 to 0.76) for the PTTD weak group. Across four phases of stance, kinematic measures of flatfoot were compared between the three groups using a two-way mixed effect ANOVA model repeated for each kinematic variable. Results Subjects with PTTD regardless of group demonstrated significantly greater hindfoot eversion compared to controls. Subjects with PTTD who were weak demonstrated greater hindfoot eversion compared to subjects with PTTD who were strong. For forefoot abduction and MLA angles the differences between groups depended on the phase of stance with significant differences between each group observed at the pre-swing phase of stance. Conclusion Strength was associated with the degree of flatfoot deformity observed during walking, however, flatfoot deformity may also occur without strength deficits.

Neville, Christopher; Flemister, Adolph S.; Houck, Jeff R.

2010-01-01

179

Clinicopathologic presentation of Asian-Indian American (AIA) women with stage 0, I & II breast cancer.  

PubMed

Although numerous studies have looked at cancer incidence and survival in Asian Indian-American (AIA) patients, there is a paucity of data regarding clinicopathologic presentation of cancer in this ethnically diverse population. After receiving IRB approval, AIA patients of Indian and Pakistani descent who presented with Stage 0, I, & II breast cancer to our facility were identified. Charts were extracted for clinical and pathologic variables in addition to outcomes data. Standard statistical analyses were performed using SAS (v 9.1). The population (n = 50) consisted of 86% Indian (n = 43) and 14% Pakistani (n = 7). The median age at diagnosis was 52 (range 25-79). Sixty-three percent of tumors were detected after discovery of a palpable mass while 36% had a mammographically detected mass. Stage 0, I & II distribution was 14, 42 and 44%, respectively. The median tumor size was 1.5 cm (range 0.2-4.5 cm). ER, PR, and HER2 were positive in 69, 67, and 24% of AIA patients, respectively; 21% were triple-negative. Treatment data shows that 60% underwent lumpectomy (n = 29), 39% underwent mastectomy (n = 19), 74% received hormonal therapy (n = 26) and 55% received chemotherapy (n = 30). To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the clinicopathologic presentation of Asian-Indian American women with breast cancer at a single institution. Of note, AIA women were more likely to present with palpable masses and at a younger age. This differs from Caucasian women and may indicate a social or cultural barrier to routine screening mammograms and possibly a biologically more aggressive tumor. PMID:20563645

Rao, Malay; Khan, Atif J; Moran, Meena S; Hirshfield, Kim M; Ganesan, Shridar; Haffty, Bruce G; Goyal, Sharad

2011-02-01

180

Two-stage designs for phase II cancer trials with ordinal responses.  

PubMed

A common approach to the design of phase II clinical trials in oncology is to conduct a two-stage trial so as to control type I and type II error rates. A number of researchers have proposed methods for the design of such trials when the response can take one of a number of ordered values such as tumor response, stable disease or progressive disease. In this case, the problem may be formulated as that of testing a complex null hypothesis. Control of the type I error rate thus requires specification of the null region and construction of a test that limits the maximum error rate over this region. In this paper we propose that the null region should be bounded by a line in the two-dimensional parameter space for the setting with a response with three levels and more generally by a plane or hyperplane. We then propose a test based on the likelihood ratio statistic and show how this may be calculated in this case for a three-level response. The method is illustrated using an example of a clinical trial to evaluate a new treatment for breast cancer. PMID:18703164

Stallard, Nigel; Cockey, Louise

2008-07-24

181

Familial breast cancer. Part II: Relationships with histology, staging, steroid receptors and serum tumor markers.  

PubMed

Purpose: To identify differences in clinical characteristics, histological features, hormone receptor status, and tumor marker expression between patients with sporadic and familial breast cancer. Patients and methods: As in the previous Part I of this study, two groups of women with breast cancer were compared. The first group (group I) included 504 patients with a family history of breast cancer. The second (control) group (group II) consisted of 300 patients not reporting such a history in their relatives. The examined parameters in this report were stage and axillary lymph node involvement at the time of the initial diagnosis, treatment methods, hormone receptor status, and serum levels of the tumor markers CEA and CA 15.3. The data were processed and analysed using the SPSS statistical package. The statistical significance of differences between groups and subgroups was evaluated by x(2) Pearson's test and Student's paired t-test. Results: Compared to sporadic cases, patients with familial breast cancer were more often diagnosed at an advanced III or IV stage; metastatic involvement of the regional lymph nodes was more frequent in group I patients. In the same group more radical surgical procedures combined with chemotherapy and local irradiation were performed. In group I the percentage of negative hormone receptors was higher (35.3% versus 22.6%; p <0.0001) for estrogen receptors (ER), and 47.6% versus 32.6% (p <0.0001) for progesterone receptors (PR). Also, in group I raised serum levels of CA 15.3 were significantly more frequent compared with group II (48% versus 35.5%, p <0.0789), and this applied also for CEA values above 50 ng/ml (10.6% versus 1.5%, p <0.0002). Conclusion: Familial breast cancer displays particular clinical characteristics, distinguishing it from the sporadic type of the disease. Patients with familial breast cancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Commonly, the hormone receptors are negative and the serum concentrations of tumor markers elevated. The steroid receptor status represents the most reliable predictor of response to hormonotherapy and an important prognostic factor of the patient's outcome. As a result of their particular characteristics, these patients require more radical surgical techniques combined with pre- or postoperative local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy. PMID:17577263

Gavrilov, I; Nacheva, M; Tzingilev, D

182

Integrated configuration effects of hypersonic upper body designs on Single Stage To Orbit non-circular bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of air breathing Single Stage To Orbit vehicles requires investigating configurations that integrate 'Tip to Tail' propulsion flowpaths, active aerodynamic control, and large propellant volumes. The selection of these configurations can vary from arrangements like a Conical Fuselage Wing Body to a Non-Circular Lifting Body. Specifically, the selection criterion relies on satisfying both the aeropropulsion requirements and the internal volume constraints needed to meet mission requirements. The focus of this paper is the relationship between aerodynamic control of the configuration and adequate propellant volume for Single Stage To Orbit vehicle mission requirements.

Cassidy, Patrick F.

1993-02-01

183

Ammonites and infrazonal subdivision of the Dorsoplanites panderi zone (Volgian Stage, Upper Jurassic) of the European part of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight biohorizons, four of which were previously distinguished in Central Poland and four new (contradictionis, pommerania, kuteki, and pilicensis), were identified in the Dorsoplanites panderi zone of the Upper Jurassic Middle Volgian Substage of the European part of Russia on the basis of the succession of ammonites of the Zaraiskites genus. The peculiarities of variations of the ammonite complexes in space and time testify to the stepwise warming during the Panderi Chron and the occurrence of the significant latitudinal temperature gradient in the Middle Russian Sea. New species Zaraiskites kuteki is described.

Rogov, M. A.

2013-08-01

184

Brunnstrom Recovery Stage and Motricity Index for the Evaluation of Upper Extremity in Stroke: Analysis for Correlation and Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to find out first whether Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and motricity index (MI) were correlated with each other and second to observe whether the two assessment tools were sensitive to changes regarding the rehabilitation outcome. Forty-six stroke patients who were admitted to the Stroke Rehabilitation Unit at our…

Safaz, Ismail; Ylmaz, Bilge; Yasar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan

2009-01-01

185

Adjuvant therapy in stage I and stage II epithelial ovarian cancer. Results of two prospective randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

About a third of patients with ovarian cancer present with localized disease; despite surgical resection, up to half the tumors recur. Since it has not been established whether adjuvant treatment can benefit such patients, we conducted two prospective, randomized national cooperative trials of adjuvant therapy in patients with localized ovarian carcinoma. All patients underwent surgical resection plus comprehensive staging and,

Robert C. Young; Leslie A. Walton; Susan S. Ellenberg; Howard D. Homesley; George D. Wilbanks; David G. Decker; Alexander Miller; Robert Park; Francis Major

1990-01-01

186

Overexpression of Protein Phosphatase 4 Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Stage II Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) has been reported to be overexpressed in breast and lung cancers. PP4 plays an important role in the regulation of centrosome maturation, DNA repair, NF?B and JNK signaling pathways. However, the expression and functions of PP4 in pancreatic cancer have not been studied. Experimental design We examined the expression of PP4 catalytic subunit (PP4C) protein in 133 patients with stage II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and their paired benign pancreatic samples (N=113) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To confirm the IHC results, we measured PP4C protein and mRNA levels by Western blotting and real time RT-PCR. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we correlated PP4C expression with survival and other clinicopathologic features. Results PP4C was overexpressed in 75 of 133 (56.4%) stage II PDAC samples, which was significantly higher than the paired benign pancreatic tissue (15%, 17/113). PP4C mRNA expression levels were also higher in PDAC samples than the paired benign pancreatic tissue. Overexpression of PP4C in PDAC samples was associated with higher frequencies of distant metastasis (p=0.02) and poor disease-free and overall survivals in patients with stage II PDAC (p = 0.006 and 0.02) independent of tumor size, margin status, and lymph node status (stage). Conclusions Our study showed that PP4C is overexpressed in PDAC. Overexpression of PP4C in PDAC samples is associated with poor prognosis in patients with stage II PDAC. Therefore, targeting PP4 signaling pathway may represent a new approach for the treatment of PDAC. Impact Our study demonstrated that PP4C is an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage II PDAC.

Weng, Shaofan; Wang, Hua; Chen, Weihong; Katz, Matthew H.; Chatterjee, Deyali; Lee, Jeffrey E; Pisters, Peter W; Gomez, Henry F.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Fleming, Jason B; Wang, Huamin

2012-01-01

187

Diagnostic accuracy of the neurological upper limb examination II: Relation to symptoms of patterns of findings  

PubMed Central

Background In a sample of patients in clinical occupational medicine we have demonstrated that an upper limb neurological examination can reliably identify patterns of findings suggesting upper limb focal neuropathies. This further study aimed at approaching the diagnostic accuracy of the examination. Methods 82 limbs were semi-quantitatively assessed by two blinded examiners (strength in 14 individual muscles, sensibility in 7 homonymous territories, and mechanosensitivity at 10 locations along nerves). Based on the topography of nerves and their muscular and sensory innervation we defined 10 neurological patterns each suggesting a localized nerve affliction. Information on complaints (pain, weakness and/or numbness/tingling) collected by others served as a reference for comparison. The relation between the presence of pattern(s) and complaints was assessed by ?-statistics. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values were calculated, and pre-test odds were compared to post-test probability. Results The two examiners identified pattern(s) suggesting focal neuropathy in 34/36 out of 38 symptomatic limbs, respectively (? = 0.70/0.75), with agreement in 28 limbs. Out of 44 non-symptomatic limbs the examiners agreed on absence of any pattern in 38 limbs. With concordance between the examiners with regard to the presence or absence of any pattern, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.73, 0.86, 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. While the pre-test odds for a limb to be symptomatic amounted to 0.46 the post-test probability was 0.81. For each examiner the post-test probability was 0.87 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusion The improved diagnostic confidence is an indication of one aspect of construct validity of the physical examination. For determination of clinical feasibility of the examination further studies are required, most importantly 1) studies of validity by means of comparison with additional references and 2) studies of the potential benefit that can be attained from its use.

Jepsen, J?rgen R; Laursen, Lise H; Hagert, Carl-Goran; Kreiner, Svend; Larsen, Anders I

2006-01-01

188

Seismic wavefield calculation for laterally heterogeneous earth models-II. The influence of upper mantle heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence that the Earth's mantle is laterally heterogeneous on a broad range of scales, but the character of smaller-scale heterogeneity has to be deduced indirectly. The aim of the present paper is to examine the influence of a variety of stochastic representations of heterogeneity on seismic wave behaviour to help constrain the nature of the variations in seismic properties in the upper mantle. For each of the models, the seismic wavefield is simulated using a pseudospectral method in a 2-D cylindrical coordinate system. The presence of stochastic heterogeneity is particularly important for those parts of the seismic wavefield where a significant portion of the propagation path in the upper mantle is close to horizontal, such as the PP and SS phases, and fundamental-mode and higher-mode surface waves. The effects are noticeable traveltime anomalies and waveform changes for the body waves (particularly associated with phase triplications), and significant phase shifts for Rayleigh waves. A variety of styles of stochastic heterogeneity models are compared for the same source and station configurations using wavefield snapshots and the character of the calculated seismograms. The influence of heterogeneity on body waves and on longer-period Rayleigh waves increases as the scale length increases compared to the wavelength of the seismic waves. The aspect ratio of the heterogeneity has a pronounced effect on the coherence and amplitude of traveltime fluctuations and waveform changes across stations at the surface, which depend on the structures encountered along the propagation paths to the specific receivers. The effect of nearly isotropic heterogeneity is to induce small, short-scale variations in traveltime fluctuations and waveform changes. As the heterogeneity becomes more `plate-like' the fluctuations are on a broader scale and of larger amplitude because the individual patches of heterogeneity have a stronger influence. The effects of broad-scale and stochastic heterogeneity are compared for a model built from a slice through a tomographic model derived from delay-time inversion for the Himalayan region. As would be expected the influence of the deterministic heterogeneity derived from the tomography study has the result of introducing systematic traveltime variations for body waves and noticeable phase shifts for surface waves when compared with the results for the background reference model. The addition of a moderate level of small-scale stochastic heterogeneity, which could not be resolved in the tomography study, has a limited effect on the seismic wavefield at longer periods but is much more significant for periods of less than 4 s when the heterogeneity scale is of the order of 40 km.

Furumura, M.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Furumura, T.

1999-12-01

189

Single-stage surgery combining nerve and tendon transfers for bilateral upper limb reconstruction in a tetraplegic patient: case report.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old tetraplegic patient had paralysis of elbow, thumb, and finger extension and thumb and finger flexion. We transferred axillary nerve branches to the triceps long and upper medial head motor branches, supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve, and brachioradialis tendon to the flexor pollicis longus and flexor superficialis of the index finger. Surgery was performed bilaterally 18 months after spinal cord injury. At 12 months after surgery, we performed bilateral distal radioulnar arthrodesis percutaneously. By 22 months postoperatively, we observed triceps strength scoring M3 bilaterally and full metacarpophalangeal joint extension scoring M4 bilaterally. The thumb span was 53 and 66 mm from the proximal index phalanx on the right and left sides, respectively. Pinch strength measured 1.5 kg on the left side and 2.0 kg on the right. Before surgery, the patient was incapable of grasping; after surgery, a useful grasp had been restored bilaterally. PMID:23751324

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

2013-06-07

190

Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of the Montpellier Phase II Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We recently presented the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a reliable alternative to conventional boost radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The low crude numbers of recurrence in elderly patients led us to investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of this procedure as a sole treatment. Methods and Materials: We included 94 patients older than 65 years in this phase II trial. Among them, 42 patients presented with all the inclusion criteria, i.e., stages pT0 to pT1 and pN0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, and tumor-free margin of >2 mm. IORT was delivered using a dedicated linear accelerator. One 21-Gy fraction was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose, using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. The primary endpoint was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, and specific and overall rates of survival. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-49 months), and median age was 72 years (range, 66-80 years). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Endpoints for all but one patient corresponded to acceptable quality index criteria. Pretreatment quality-of-life scores were maximal, and no significant decrease was observed during follow-up. Cosmesis was good to excellent at 6 months. Two patients experienced recurrence but underwent salvage mastectomy. Conclusion: Our results confirm that exclusive partial-breast IORT is feasible for treating early-stage breast cancer in the elderly. IORT may be considered an alternative treatment for a selected population and offers a safe one-step treatment.

Lemanski, Claire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Azria, David, E-mail: azria@valdorel.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gourgon-Bourgade, Sophie [Biostatistics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gutowski, Marian; Rouanet, Phillippe; Saint-Aubert, Bernard [Department of Surgical and Reconstructive Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Ailleres, Norbert; Fenoglietto, Pascal [Radiophysics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Dubois, Jean-Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France)

2010-03-01

191

10-year changes in upper body strength and power in elite professional rugby league players--the effect of training age, stage, and content.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to observe changes in maximal upper body strength and power across a 10-year period in professional athletes who were experienced resistance trainers. Six professional rugby league players were observed with test data reported according to 2 important training stages in their professional careers. The first stage (1996-1998) monitored the changes as the subjects strived to establish themselves as elite professionals in their sport. The remaining test data are from the latter stage (2000-2006), which is characterized by a longer competition schedule and shorter periods devoted to improving physical preparation. The changes in upper body strength, assessed by the 1 repetition maximum bench press and mean maximum power during bench press throws with various barbell resistances of 40-80 kg, were assessed by effect size (ES) and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) statistics. Large increases in strength and power of approximately 22-23% were reported across the 10-year period, however, only small changes (as determined by ES) in strength or power occurred after year 2000 till 2006. This result of only small changes in strength or power despite 6 years of intense resistance training was attributed to 3 main factors. Key among them are the possible existence of a "strength ceiling" for experienced resistance trainers, the Long-term Athlete Development model, and possibly an inappropriate volume of strength-endurance training from 2004 to 2005. The fact that an SWC in strength and power occurred in the year after the cessation of strength-endurance training suggests that training program manipulation is still an influencing factor in continuing strength and power gains in experienced resistance trainers. PMID:23358318

Baker, Daniel G

2013-02-01

192

Kinematics of stage II fatigue crack propagation: A quantification of the plastic blunting process in one-phase metallic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the work is to carry out an experimental analysis to predict the kinetics of stage II fatigue crack growth based on the strain field around a fatigue crack tip in polycrystalline nickel as a model material. The strains ahead of the crack tip were measured by digital image correlation (DIC) with standard compact tension (CT) specimens. Cracks

Seon-Ho Choi

2005-01-01

193

Analysis of SAGE II ozone of the middle and upper stratosphere for its response to a decadal-scale forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) Version 6.2 ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses in the middle and upper stratosphere from September 1991 to August 2005. The profile data are averaged within twelve, 20°-wide latitude bins from 55° S to 55° N and at twelve altitudes from 27.5 to 55.0 km. The separate, 14-yr data time series are analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR) models that include seasonal, 28 and 21-month, 11-yr sinusoid, and linear trend terms. Proxies are not used for the 28-mo (QBO-like), 11-yr solar uv-flux, or reactive chlorine terms. Instead, the present analysis focuses on the periodic 11-yr terms to see whether they are in-phase with that of a direct, uv-flux forcing or are dominated by some other decadal-scale influence. It is shown that they are in-phase over most of the latitude/altitude domain and that they have max minus min variations between 25° S and 25° N that peak near 4% between 30 and 40 km. Model simulations of the direct effects of uv-flux forcings agree with this finding. The shape of the 11-yr ozone response profile from SAGE II also agrees with that diagnosed for the stratosphere over the same time period from the HALOE data. Ozone in the middle stratosphere of the northern subtropics is perturbed during 1991-1992 following the eruption of Pinatubo, and there are pronounced decadal-scale variations in the ozone of the upper stratosphere for the northern middle latitudes presumably due to dynamical forcings. The 11-yr ozone responses of the southern hemisphere appear to be free of those extra influences. The associated linear trend terms from the SAGE II analyses are slightly negative (-2 to -4%/decade) between 35 and 45 km and nearly constant across latitude. This finding is consistent with the fact that ozone is estimated to have decreased by no more than 1.5% due to the increasing chlorine from mid-1992 to about 2000 but with little change thereafter. It is concluded that a satellite, solar occultation measurement provides both the signal sensitivity and the vertical resolution to record the stratospheric ozone response to the forcing from the solar uv-flux, as well as those due to any other long-term changes.

Remsberg, E.; Lingenfelser, G.

2010-12-01

194

The role of type II spicules in the upper solar atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the suggestion that most of the hot plasma in the Sun's corona comes from type II spicule material that is heated as it is ejected from the chromosphere. This contrasts with the traditional view that the corona is filled via chromospheric evaporation that results from coronal heating. We explore the observational consequences of a hypothetical spicule dominated corona and conclude from the large discrepancy between predicted and actual observations that only a small fraction of the hot plasma can be supplied by spicules (<2% in active regions, <5% in the quiet Sun, and <8% in coronal holes). The red-blue asymmetries of EUV spectral lines and the ratio of lower transition region (LTR;T ? 0.1 MK) to coronal emission measures are both predicted to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Furthermore, hot spicule material would cool dramatically by adiabatic expansion as it rises into the corona, so substantial coronal heating would be needed to maintain the high temperatures that are seen at all altitudes. We suggest that the corona contains a mixture of thin strands, some of which are populated by spicule injections, but most of which are not. A majority of the observed hot emission originates in non-spicule strands and is explained by traditional coronal heating models. However, since these models predict far too little emission from the LTR, most of this emission comes from the bulk of the spicule material that is only weakly heated and visible in He II (304 Å) as it falls back to the surface.

Klimchuk, J. A.

2012-12-01

195

Upper ocean fine-scale features in synthetic aperture radar imagery. Part II: Numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been able to reproduce synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signatures of freshwater plumes and sharp frontal interfaces interacting with wind stress, as well as internal waves by combining hydrodynamic simulations with a radar imaging algorithm. The numerical simulations were performed using a non-hydrostatic model, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS Fluent. We modeled the dynamics of freshwater plumes and their interaction with ambient stratification in the upper ocean as well as with wind stress. We then combined the results from the CFD model with a radar imaging algorithm to simulate the sea surface signature in SAR images. As the plume propagates into a stratified environment, a resonant interaction between the density-driven current and the ambient stratification can lead to internal waves and a fragmentation of the freshwater plume. This fragmentation can be seen as a banding pattern in the simulated radar image of the sea surface. In addition, wind stress leads to directional anisotropy of fine-scale sea surface signatures with respect to the wind direction. The numerical results are consistent with observations of freshwater plumes in the Western Equatorial Pacific during TOGA COARE and observations in the Straits of Florida reported in a companion paper (Soloviev et al., 2011). Internal waves can lead to a signal in the measured electromagnetic field in the ocean. As part of this work, we have also simulated electromagnetic signatures of freshwater plumes and internal waves in the total magnetic field, which potentially provides a link between SAR signatures of transient ocean dynamics and magnetic field fluctuations in the ocean. The novel approach of combining a CFD model with a radar imaging algorithm to investigate the dynamics of small-scale oceanic features and their sea surface signatures in SAR images can be useful for the study and interpretation of a range of near-surface processes, among them freshwater plumes and sharp frontal interfaces, as well as magnetic signatures of oceanic processes.

Matt, S.; Fujimura, A.; Soloviev, A.

2011-12-01

196

Streets and stages: urban renewal and the arts after World War II.  

PubMed

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place. PMID:21197807

Foulkes, Julia L

2010-01-01

197

Stage II breast cancer: differences between four coping patterns in side effects during adjuvant chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Fifty-six women with stage II breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were recruited for a study evaluating and comparing coping patterns for differences in physical and psychological side effects during treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy. Cluster analyses were used to split women into confrontive, avoidant-confrontive, avoidant-resigned, and resigned coping clusters. Side-effect measurements were taken on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy infusion and 3 and 7 days later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs indicated that coping clusters predicted significant variance in physical, psychological, and total side effects when variance in covariates was held constant. Confrontive subjects reported significantly fewer psychological and physical symptoms than avoidant-confrontive and avoidant-resigned copers. Confrontive copers also reported fewer side effects than resigned copers, but this difference was not significant when differences in covariate distributions were controlled. Particularly robust differences were noted when confrontive copers were compared with avoidant-confrontive copers. Results suggest that a critical component in optimal coping may be a willingness to discuss and think about illness. PMID:9278904

Shapiro, D E; Boggs, S R; Rodrigue, J R; Urry, H L; Algina, J J; Hellman, R; Ewen, F

1997-08-01

198

Is There a Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Completely Resected Stage I/II Thymic Epithelial Tumor?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retrospective analyses of patients with stage I-II thymic epithelial tumors (TET) who were treated with either surgery alone (S) or surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy (SRT) were conducted to evaluate the role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods A total of 110 stage I-II TET patients following complete resection were included in this study. Postoperative radiation therapy was recommended for those with aggressive histologic type and/or invasive features according to the surgeons' judgment during the operation. A median dose of 54.0 Gy (range, 44 to 60 Gy) focused on the primary tumor bed was administered to 57 patients (51.8%). Results In all patients, the rates of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival at 10 years were 91.7%, 97.1%, and 95.8%, respectively. No significant differences in disease-specific survival (100% in the S group and 93.5% in the SRT group at 10 years, p=0.12) and disease-free survival (98.1% in the S group and 94.5% in the SRT group at 10 years, p=0.41) were observed between the treatment groups, although a significantly larger number of World Health Organization (WHO)-type B2-C (p<0.001) and Masaoka stage II (p=0.03) tumors were observed in the SRT group than in the S group. No local recurrence was observed in the SRT group. No grade 2 or greater RT-related toxicities were observed in the SRT group. Conclusion Excellent outcomes were achieved in patients with stage I-II TET who underwent complete resection. Considering excellent local control and low morbidity, adjuvant RT may be considered in high risk patients with WHO-type B2-C histology and Masaoka stage II.

Oh, Dongryul; Kim, Kwhanmien; Kim, Jhingook; Shim, Young Mog; Han, Jungho

2012-01-01

199

Treatment of stage i and ii mediastinal Hodgkin disease: a comparison of involved fields, extended fields, and involved fields followed by MOPP in patients stage by laparotomy  

SciTech Connect

Three treatment programs for Stage I and II mediastinal Hodgkin disease (established by laparotomy) were compared. Involved-field radiotherapy + MOPP gave a disease-free survival rate of 97%, significantly different from 62% and 55% for involved and extended fields, respectively. Corresponding survival figures of 97%, 88%, and 84% were not signiticantly different statistically due to salvage with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Among patients given radiotherapy alone, the survival figure of 94% for limited mediastinal disease was significantly better than 63% for extensive mediastinal and hilar disease; corresponding disease-free figures of 72% and 35% were also significantly different. Constitutional symptoms were an important prognostic factor in disease-free survival following the use of involved fields; hilar disease was important only with large mediastinal masses. Most relapses were intrathoracic; MOPP alone salvaged only 47%. Treatment of State I and II Hodgkin disease should be based on symptoms, extent of mediastinal disease, and hilar involvement.

Hagemeister, F.B.; Fuller, L.M.; Sullivan, J.A.; North, L.; Velasquez, W.; Conrad, F.G.; McLaughlin, P.; Butter, J.J.; Shullenberger, C.C.

1981-12-01

200

Cancer Stem Cell Gene Profile as Predictor of Relapse in High Risk Stage II and Stage III, Radically Resected Colon Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Clinical data indicate that prognostic stratification of radically resected colorectal cancer based on disease stage only may not be always be adequate. Preclinical findings suggest that cancer stem cells may influence the biological behaviour of colorectal cancer independently from stage: objective of the study was to assess whether a panel of stemness markers were correlated with clinical outcome in resected stage II and III colon cancer patients. A panel of 66 markers of stemness were analysed and thus patients were divided into two groups (A and B) with most patients clustering in a manner consistent with different time to relapse by using a statistical algorithm. A total of 62 patients were analysed. Thirty-six (58%) relapsed during the follow-up period (range 1.63–86.5 months). Twelve (19%) and 50 (81%) patients were allocated into group A and B, respectively. A significantly different median relapse-free survival was observed between the 2 groups (22.18 vs 42.85 months, p?=?0.0296). Among of all genes tested, those with the higher “weight” in determining different prognosis were CD44, ALCAM, DTX2, HSPA9, CCNA2, PDX1, MYST1, COL1A1 and ABCG2. This analysis supports the idea that, other than stage, biological variables, such as expression levels of colon cancer stem cell genes, may be relevant in determining an increased risk of relapse in resected colorectal cancer patients.

Giampieri, Riccardo; Scartozzi, Mario; Loretelli, Cristian; Piva, Francesco; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Lezoche, Giovanni; Prete, Michela Del; Bittoni, Alessandro; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Cecchini, Luca; Guerrieri, Mario; Bearzi, Italo; Cascinu, Stefano

2013-01-01

201

Analysis of SAGE II ozone of the middle and upper stratosphere for its response to a decadal-scale forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) Version 6.2 ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses in the middle and upper stratosphere from September 1991 to August 2005, a time span for which the trends in reactive chlorine are relatively small. The profile data are averaged within twelve, 20°-wide latitude bins from 55° S to 55° N and at eleven altitudes from 27.5 to 52.5 km. The separate, 14-yr data time series are analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR) models that include seasonal, interannual, 11-yr sinusoid, and linear trend terms. Proxies are not used for the interannual, solar uv-flux, or reactive chlorine terms. Instead, the present analysis focuses on the periodic 11-yr terms to see whether they are in-phase with that of a direct, uv-flux forcing or are dominated by some other decadal-scale influence. It is shown that they are in-phase over most of the latitude/altitude domain and that they have max minus min variations between 25° S and 25° N that peak near 4% between 30 and 40 km. Model simulations of the direct effects of uv-flux forcings agree with this finding. Ozone in the middle stratosphere of the northern subtropics is perturbed during 1991-1992, following the eruption of Pinatubo. There are also pronounced decadal-scale variations in the ozone of the upper stratosphere for the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, presumably due to dynamical forcings. The 11-yr ozone responses of the Southern Hemisphere are relatively free of those extra influences. The associated linear trend terms from the analyses are negative (-2 to -4%/decade) for this 14-yr time period and are nearly constant across latitude in the upper stratosphere. This finding is consistent with the fact that total and reactive chlorine are not changing appreciably from 1991 to 2005. It is concluded that the satellite, solar occultation technique can be used to record the responses of stratospheric ozone to the decadal-scale forcings from the solar uv-flux, as well as those due to the long-term changes from dynamic forcings, reactive chlorine, and the greenhouse gases.

Remsberg, E.; Lingenfelser, G.

2010-07-01

202

Expression of SPARC in tongue carcinoma of stage II is associated with poor prognosis: an immunohistochemical study of 86 cases.  

PubMed

SPARC (secretory protein acidic and rich in cysteine), also known as osteonectin or BM-40, associates with progression in various kinds of tumors. We have examined whether SPARC expression can be a prognostic marker for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HN-SCC). We examined immunolocalization of SPARC in 86 clinical specimens of tongue carcinoma. Although there was no correlation between SPARC positivity in the tumor cells and tumor stages, the 5-year overall survival rate was significantly lower in the SPARC positive cases (28.6%) than in the SPARC negative cases (91.7%), confined to stage II patients (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon test). Additionally, in stage II cases (n = 3), frequency of the postoperative metastasis was significantly higher in SPARC positive cases (5/8, 62.5%) than in the negative cases (1/15, 6.7%) (p < 0.01, chi2 test). Together with these results, SPARC can be a beneficial prognostic marker for the stage II tongue carcinoma, of which clinical outcomes are sometimes difficult to predict. PMID:16012759

Kato, Yasumasa; Nagashima, Yoji; Baba, Yuh; Kawano, Toshiro; Furukawa, Madoka; Kubota, Akira; Yanoma, Shunsuke; Imagawa-Ishiguro, Yukari; Satake, Kenichi; Taguchi, Takahide; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; Mochimatsu, Izumi; Aoki, Ichiro; Kameda, Yoichi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Tsukuda, Mamoru

2005-08-01

203

The influence of gender on survival and tumor recurrence following adjuvant therapy of completely resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the influence of gender on survival and tumor recurrence following adjuvant therapy of completely resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group conducted a randomized prospective trial of adjuvant therapy in patients with completely resected stages II and IIIa NSCLC. A laboratory correlative study assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance

S. M Keller; M. G Vangel; S Adak; H Wagner; J. H Schiller; A Herskovic; R Komaki; M. C Perry; R. S Marks; R. B Livingston; D. H Johnson

2002-01-01

204

SAGE II Upper Tropospheric/Lower Stratospheric aerosol in the post-Pinatubo period (1998-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to improve the separation of clouds and aerosol in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) tropospheric observations (>6 km), we have developed a technique based on evaluation of the distribution of 1020-nm aerosol extinction coefficient and 525 to 1020-nm aerosol extinction ratio following a technique developed by Mike Pitts et al. for CALIPSO PSC identification. The distributions, particularly in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), show a clear aerosol mode with an ‘arm’ stretching toward a cloud mode near the SAGE II saturation level at ~0.02/km. The new method is more effective in the identification of very thin clouds than the operational method developed by Kent et al. (1997 a,b). Using this method for the post-Pinatubo period (1998-2005), we have observed a tropical UTLS aerosol feature that occurs in Northern Hemisphere Summer that stretches from Indonesia over southern Asia toward Africa that is very consistent with aerosol features found in CALIPSO observations once it’s mission began in 2006. It is also consistent with enhanced HCN found in MLS and ACE FTS data that has been associated with pollution lofted to the UTLS by the Asian Monsoon. In addition, we have identified an enhanced aerosol mode that appears in the middle troposphere that primarily appears to be associated with Northern Hemisphere polar human-derived aerosol. In this presentation, we show the new method, comparisons to results using the ‘Kent’ method, and analyses of tropospheric aerosol from the middle troposphere to the lower stratosphere.

Thomason, L. W.; Vernier, J.

2010-12-01

205

2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections  

PubMed Central

Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. ?g/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 ?g/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 ?g/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 ?g/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 ?g/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 ?g/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty acids with these key P. falciparum enzymes.

Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Nestor M.

2010-01-01

206

Load balanced Birkhoff-von Neumann switches, part II: multi-stage buffering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this sequel is to solve the out-of-sequence problem that occurs in the load balanced Birkhoff–von Neumann switch with one-stage buffering. We do this by adding a load-balancing buffer in front of the first stage and a resequencing-and-output buffer after the second stage. Moreover, packets are distributed at the first stage according to their flows, instead of

Cheng-shang Chang; Duan-shin Lee; Ching-ming Lien

2002-01-01

207

Expression of PAT and NPT II Proteins during the Developmental Stages of a Genetically Modified Pepper Developed in Korea.  

PubMed

Estimation of the protein levels introduced in a biotechnology-derived product is conducted as part of an overall safety assessment. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) protein expression in a genetically modified (GM) pepper plant developed in Korea. PAT and NPT II expression levels, based on both dry weight and fresh weight, were variable among different plant generations and plant sections from isolated genetically modified organism (GMO) fields at four developmental stages. PAT expression was highest in leaves at anthesis (11.44 ?g/gdw and 2.17 ?g/gfw) and lowest in roots (0.12 ?g/gdw and 0.01 ?g/gfw). NPT II expression was also highest in leaves at anthesis (17.31 ?g/gdw and 3.41 ?g/gfw) and lowest in red pepper (0.65 ?g/gdw and 0.12 ?g/gfw). In pollen, PAT expression was 0.59-0.62 ?g/gdw, while NPT II was not detected. Both PAT and NPT II showed a general pattern of decreased expression with progression of the growing season. As expected, PAT and NPT II protein expression was not detectable in control pepper plants. PMID:20873787

Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Si Myung; Kim, Jae Kwang; Ryu, Tae Hun; Suh, Seok Cheol; Cho, Hyun Suk

2010-09-28

208

THE FUNCTION IN CATALYSIS OF THE BISULFATE DEHYDRATION STAGE OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE. Technical Report No. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanism whereby anydrous MgSOâ catalyzes the conversion of ; species such as cyclohexanol to cyclohexene is now explicable based on the ; bisulfate dehydration stage The bisulfate stage which was postulated in Technical ; Report No. 1 and is further proven in this report has essentially the same type ; of lattice as the anhydrous stage. This indicates the

J. S. Cho; F. A. Olson; M. E. Wadsworth

1962-01-01

209

Long Term Prognostic Implications of Expression of Glucose Transporter-1 and Hexokinase II in Patients with Stage I Uterine Leiomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Many malignant epithelial tumors show increased expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and hexokinase II (HK-II), both of which are involved in glucose metabolism. GLUT-1 levels are often correlated with prognosis in these tumors. The current retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the importance of GLUT-1 and HK-II expression in leiomyosarcoma (LMS), a malignant uterine non-epithelial tumor with a poor prognosis. The subjects were 23 patients with stage I LMS. Expression of GLUT-1 and HK-II was evaluated immunohistochemically in samples removed surgically, and the MIB-1 index was evaluated as a measure of cell proliferation. The association of these results with prognosis was examined. Twenty samples of leiomyoma (LOM), a benign non-epithelial tumor, were used as controls. Immunohistochemical expression was defined as negative staining (–), weak to sporadic staining (1+), and strong staining (2+) per microscopic field, respectively. Malignancy was evaluated in 2000 cells and the MIB-1 index was calculated. Overall survival for LMS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the LMS cases, 12 were GLUT-1-positive (52.2%; 2+: 2, 1+: 10) and 15 were HK-II-positive (65.2%; 2+: 1, 1+: 14). GLUT-1 expression in LMS was significantly correlated with the MIB1 index. The 10-year survival rates were 90.9% and 58.3% in GLUT-1-negative and GLUT-1-positive cases, respectively, and 75.0% and 73.3% in HK-II-positive and HK-II-negative cases, respectively. GLUT-1 expression was significantly correlated with prognosis. Cases of stage I LMS showed a significant correlation between the expression level of GLUT-1 and the MIB-1 index, an indicator of malignancy. GLUT-1-negative cases had a better prognosis than GLUT-1-positive cases, suggesting that GLUT-1 expression is an effective prognostic marker.

Tsukada, Hitomi; Muramatsu, Toshinari; Miyazawa, Masaki; Iida, Tetsuji; Ikeda, Masae; Shida, Masako; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masaru; Yasuda, Masanori; Mikami, Mikio

2012-01-01

210

Long Term Prognostic Implications of Expression of Glucose Transporter-1 and Hexokinase II in Patients with Stage I Uterine Leiomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Many malignant epithelial tumors show increased expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and hexokinase II (HK-II), both of which are involved in glucose metabolism. GLUT-1 levels are often correlated with prognosis in these tumors. The current retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the importance of GLUT-1 and HK-II expression in leiomyosarcoma (LMS), a malignant uterine non-epithelial tumor with a poor prognosis. The subjects were 23 patients with stage I LMS. Expression of GLUT-1 and HK-II was evaluated immunohistochemically in samples removed surgically, and the MIB-1 index was evaluated as a measure of cell proliferation. The association of these results with prognosis was examined. Twenty samples of leiomyoma (LOM), a benign non-epithelial tumor, were used as controls. Immunohistochemical expression was defined as negative staining (-), weak to sporadic staining (1+), and strong staining (2+) per microscopic field, respectively. Malignancy was evaluated in 2000 cells and the MIB-1 index was calculated. Overall survival for LMS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the LMS cases, 12 were GLUT-1-positive (52.2%; 2+: 2, 1+: 10) and 15 were HK-II-positive (65.2%; 2+: 1, 1+: 14). GLUT-1 expression in LMS was significantly correlated with the MIB1 index. The 10-year survival rates were 90.9% and 58.3% in GLUT-1-negative and GLUT-1-positive cases, respectively, and 75.0% and 73.3% in HK-II-positive and HK-II-negative cases, respectively. GLUT-1 expression was significantly correlated with prognosis. Cases of stage I LMS showed a significant correlation between the expression level of GLUT-1 and the MIB-1 index, an indicator of malignancy. GLUT-1-negative cases had a better prognosis than GLUT-1-positive cases, suggesting that GLUT-1 expression is an effective prognostic marker. PMID:22685357

Tsukada, Hitomi; Muramatsu, Toshinari; Miyazawa, Masaki; Iida, Tetsuji; Ikeda, Masae; Shida, Masako; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masaru; Yasuda, Masanori; Mikami, Mikio

2012-04-21

211

Comparison of NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products with constraints from high quality and density of raingauge networks in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEXRAD's Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) product replaced the Stage III product started in October 2003 at the West Gulf River Forecast Center (WGRFC) where includes most of the Texas and New Mexico. The MPE is an integrated product of rain gauge, NEXRAD, and satellite (GOES) precipitation estimates. The main objective of MPE is to reduce both areal-mean bias error and local bias error. The overall improved quality of MPE over Stage 3 is evident at the WGRFC. However, so far, there is no quantitative evaluation in a relative long period (one year or more) of a large area. In this study, high quality and density of 50 raingauge networks (6 minutes temporal resolution) in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas are used to evaluate both the Stage III (years 2001 and 2002) and MPE (year 2004) products. In this study, we propose two types of comparison (1) directly compare collocated radar cell and gauge of all rainfall events and (2) only compare collocated radar cell and gauge of homogeneous/uniform rainfall events. To find uniform rainfall events, 6-mintutes raingauge rainfall were used to calculate the correlation coefficient (CC) and coefficient of variation (CV) of a hour among one central gauge and its surrounding gauges (>= 4). For a particular rainfall hour, when CV is < 0.5 and CC is > 0.5, or CV is <0.1, the rainfall event of this hour is thus selected as a uniform or homogeneous rainfall event. Our preliminary results of CC from all rainfall events and homogeneous rainfall events for year 2004 (MPE) are 0.79 and 0.96, respectively. This indicates an overall good quality of MPE product in comparison with raingauge rainfall, especially for the homogeneous rainfall events. Work is in progress.

Xie, H.; Wang, X.

2006-05-01

212

VIENNA rectifier II-a novel single-stage high-frequency isolated three-phase PWM rectifier system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analysis of basic realization possibilities, the structure of the power circuit of a new single-stage three-phase boost-type pulsewidth modulated (PWM) rectifier system (VIENNA Rectifier II) is developed. This system has continuous sinusoidal time behavior of the input currents and high-frequency isolation of the output voltage, which is controlled in a highly dynamic manner. As compared to a

Johann W. Kolar; Uwe Drofenik; Franz C. Zach

1999-01-01

213

Further analyses of the decadal-scale responses and trends in middle and upper stratospheric ozone from SAGE II and HALOE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) Version 6.2 ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses and linear trends in the middle and upper stratosphere from 1984 through 1998. The results are compared with those of SAGE II and of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) for 1991-2005, reported previously by Remsberg and Lingenfelser (2010). The regression model fit to the data includes a periodic 11- term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11-yr solar uv-flux throughout most of the latitude/altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Max minus min responses for the upper stratosphere are of order 2% from the HALOE time series that are in terms of mixing ratio versus pressure. Max minus min responses are of order 4% from SAGE II in terms of number density versus altitude and for both 1984-1998 and 1991-2005, even though the concurrent linear trend term coefficients are much different for the two time spans. However, the analyzed 11-yr response from the SAGE II data of 1984-1998 lags that of the uv-flux by 1 to 2 yr in the tropical middle stratosphere, most likely due to the effects of ENSO forcings that are not represented in the regression models. The linear ozone trends in the upper stratosphere for 1991 to 2005 are of the order of -2 to -3%/decade from SAGE II and 0 to -1%/decade from HALOE. Those differences in the ozone trends must be principally due to the associated temperature trends for the analyzed data.

Remsberg, E. E.

2011-09-01

214

Ice wedge growth in the Fox Permafrost Tunnel dates to marine isotope stage II?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We dated a Pleistocene ice wedge (wedge 50S) and its host sediments from the CRREL Fox Permafrost Tunnel near Fairbanks, Alaska with twenty radiocarbon analyses on wood, dispersed organic material, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The age of a wood fragment within the host sediments is 35,570 ± 340 14C yr BP and is thus a maximum age of wedge growth. Previous 14C ages of dispersed organic matter within the ice wedge returned ages from 28 to 31 14C ka, and the wedge is overlain by sediment in which a wood fragment returned an age of 30,090 ± 300 14C yr BP, thus suggesting an age of between 28-35 14C ka BP. Such an age is surprising because it occurs during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) III, not the colder intervals of MIS II. To constrain better the wedge age for paleoclimatic analysis, we determined DIC and DOC age pairs within four ice blocks subsampled from the wedge. Our new DIC/DOC dates are up to 8000 years younger than dispersed organic material in the wedge. The DIC/DOC age pairs return divergent ages, which suggest fluctuating proportions of carbon dioxide and organic carbon with variable radiocarbon ages entrapped within the ice wedge. Because the organic matter ages are older than the DIC/DOC ages, we conclude that they represent 'detrital' maximum ages for the ice wedge and represent the timing of permafrost aggradation prior to wedge growth. Based on the assumption that the ice ages can only be contaminated by old 'detrital' carbon associated with the stratigraphically older host sediments, the youngest dates likely provide the best estimate of when the ice wedge was last active. The youngest age we determined is 21,600 ± 140 14C yr BP (on DOC) recovered from inclined folia that parallel the outer wedge margin at ca. 3.25 cm from the left-most edge, which corresponds to a calendar age of 25.7 cal ka. This sample location corresponds to the stratigraphically-oldest ice according to standard ice wedge growth models. We also determined a minimum age of the wedge of 18,000 ± 110 14C yr BP by dating of DOC in 'pond' ice near to and stratigraphically above wedge 50S. Our data thus substantially revise the timing of ice wedge 50S growth to between 21,600 and 18,000 14C yr BP during MIS II. The calendar age of the youngest wedge date coincides with the beginning of Heinrich event 2 at ca. 26 cal ka, and we hypothesize that ice wedge growth coincided with cold conditions in Alaska at this time. The anomalously 'old' age of 30,090 ± 300 14C yr BP stratigraphically above the ice wedge may represent the age of material emplaced by mass movement over the wedge following ice growth cessation and may not be a true minimum limiting age. Our data further reveal complex carbon-source dynamics in permafrost and ice wedge sediments.

Lachniet, M. S.; Sloat, A. R.; Lawson, D. E.

2011-12-01

215

Potential of lichen secondary metabolites against Plasmodium liver stage parasites with FAS-II as the potential target.  

PubMed

Chemicals targeting the liver stage (LS) of the malaria parasite are useful for causal prophylaxis of malaria. In this study, four lichen metabolites, evernic acid (1), vulpic acid (2), psoromic acid (3), and (+)-usnic acid (4), were evaluated against LS parasites of Plasmodium berghei. Inhibition of P. falciparum blood stage (BS) parasites was also assessed to determine stage specificity. Compound 4 displayed the highest LS activity and stage specificity (LS IC50 value 2.3 ?M, BS IC50 value 47.3 ?M). The compounds 1-3 inhibited one or more enzymes (PfFabI, PfFabG, and PfFabZ) from the plasmodial fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a potential drug target for LS activity. To determine species specificity and to clarify the mechanism of reported antibacterial effects, 1-4 were also evaluated against FabI homologues and whole cells of various pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli, M. tuberculosis). Molecular modeling studies suggest that lichen acids act indirectly via binding to allosteric sites on the protein surface of the FAS-II enzymes. Potential toxicity of compounds was assessed in human hepatocyte and cancer cells (in vitro) as well as in a zebrafish model (in vivo). This study indicates the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of lichen metabolites as antibacterial and antiplasmodial agents. PMID:23806111

Lauinger, Ina L; Vivas, Livia; Perozzo, Remo; Stairiker, Christopher; Tarun, Alice; Zloh, Mire; Zhang, Xujie; Xu, Hua; Tonge, Peter J; Franzblau, Scott G; Pham, Duc-Hung; Esguerra, Camila V; Crawford, Alexander D; Maes, Louis; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-19

216

Delignification of Bagasse with Acetic Acid and Ozone. II. Ozone Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone gas was applied as second stage in delignification of bagasse pulp obtained with acetic acid. The kappa number was reduced from 44 to 10 with 3% ozone (based on dry pulp). Because bagasse was pulped with an aqueous solution of acetic acid (80% volume), selectivity of the ozone stage was favored and does not necessary acidulate pulp, which had

H. Contreras Q; Z. A. Nagieb; R. SanjuáN D

1997-01-01

217

A cost-benefit analysis on the deletion of the inertial upper stage factory acceptance testing versus a decrease in mission reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the benefits attributable to deleting the factory acceptance testing for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) space booster and the possible impacts on mission reliability. A review of the literature revealed limited research on the advantages or disadvantages of performing acceptance testing on commercial programs. However, a review of DoD policy recognized the advantages of cost and time savings when developmental and operational tests are combined. An analysis was performed on the anomalies that occurred during the acceptance testing for the vehicles involved in this study to determine whether all hardware defects would be detected by a later phase of testing. The research suggested that only two chance failures would be undetected by flight testing resulting in a decrease in reliability of .03 percent and a savings of $646,500 per IUS vehicle if acceptance testing was eliminated. The study concluded that current reliability could be maintained by additional flight testing but further research was necessary before a modification to the program could be implemented.

Horn, Michael H.

1991-09-01

218

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Haddix, T. M.; Holte, L. D.; Wilson, R. H.; Bartron, M. L.; Kalie, J. A.; DeHaan, P. W.; Ardren, W. R.; Holm, R. J.; Jaeger, M. E.

2012-01-01

219

Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2013-07-31

220

Correlation between microtubule-associated gene expression and chemosensitivity of patients with stage II non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between mRNA expression of ?-tubulin-III and stathmin in patients with stage II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the chemosensitivity to Navelbine plus cisplatin (NP), as well as to provide a basis for personalized treatment. A single-gene quantitative test was performed to detect the mRNA expression of ?-tubulin-III and stathmin in the tumor tissue of patients with stage II NSCLC. All the patients underwent NP treatment following surgery and were followed-up to record their disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the correlation between ?-tubulin-III and stathmin mRNA expression and DFS and OS in the patients. ?-tubulin-III mRNA expression was associated with OS in the 73 patients (P=0.003) and DFS was correlated with ?-tubulin-III mRNA expression and lymphatic metastasis (P<0.01). Stathmin mRNA expression was not correlated with OS or DFS (P>0.05). OS and DFS were longer in the patients with low ?-tubulin-III mRNA expression than in those with high ?-tubulin-III mRNA expression (P<0.01); there was no significant change in OS and DFS between the patients with high and low mRNA expression of stathmin (P>0.05). The mRNA expression levels of ?-tubulin-III in the tumor tissue of patients with stage II NSCLC may be considered as an index of prognosis and chemosensitivity, as well as a reference for personalized chemotherapeutic applications in patients.

JIANG, HONG; YU, XIN-MING; ZHOU, XING-MING; WANG, XIAO-HONG; SU, DAN

2013-01-01

221

The prognostic importance of miR-21 in stage II colon cancer: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite several years of research and attempts to develop prognostic models a considerable fraction of stage II colon cancer patients will experience relapse within few years from their operation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of miRNA-21 (miR-21), quantified by in situ hybridisation, in a unique, large population-based cohort. Patients and methods: The study included 764 patients diagnosed with stage II colon cancer in Denmark in the year 2003. One section from a representative paraffin-embedded tumour tissue specimen from each patient was processed for analysis of miR-21 and quantitatively assessed by image analysis. Results: The miR-21 signal was predominantly observed in fibroblast-like cells located in the stromal compartment of the tumours. We found that patients expressing high levels of miR-21 had significantly inferior recurrence-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS): HR=1.26; 95% CI: 1.15–1.60; P<0.001. In Cox regression analysis, a high level of miR-21 retained its prognostic importance and was found to be significantly related to poor RF-CSS: HR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.19–1.67; P<0.001. Conclusion: The present study showed that increasing miR-21 expression levels were significantly correlated to decreasing RF-CSS. Further investigations of the clinical importance of miR-21 in the selection of high-risk stage II colon cancer patients are merited.

Kjaer-Frifeldt, S; Hansen, T F; Nielsen, B S; Joergensen, S; Lindebjerg, J; Soerensen, F B; dePont Christensen, R; Jakobsen, A

2012-01-01

222

The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer. Methods From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve. Results When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P?=?0.042 and P?=?0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P?=?0.2036) and DFS ( P?=?0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P?=?0.013). Conclusions Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.

2012-01-01

223

OUTCOME AND PATTERN OF FAILURE IN PATHOLOGIC STAGE I-II PAPILLARY SEROUS CARCINOMA OF THE ENDOMETRIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADJUVANT RADIATION THERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and patterns of failure in women with pathologic Stage I-II papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus and to discuss the implications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Methods: Twenty-three pathologic Stage I-II uterine papillary serous carcinoma patients were treated at our institution between 1980 and 2001. All underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopho- rectomy and

NEIL MEHTA; S. D IANE YAMADA; JACOB ROTMENSCH; ARNO J. MUNDT

2003-01-01

224

Factors associated with weight loss during radiotherapy in patients with stage I or II head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of the study was to identify factors associated with weight loss during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with stage\\u000a I or II head and neck (HN) cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study was conducted as part of a phase III chemoprevention trial. A total of 540 patients were randomized. The patients\\u000a were weighed before and after RT. Patients’ characteristics, dietary intake, health-related

Alice Nourissat; Isabelle Bairati; André Fortin; Michel Gélinas; Abdenour Nabid; François Brochet; Bernard Têtu; François Meyer

225

Streets and Stages: Urban Renewal and the Arts After World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus

Julia L. Foulkes

2010-01-01

226

Streets and Stages: Urban Renewal and the Arts After World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus

Julia L. Foulkes

2010-01-01

227

Sub1 and RPA associate with RNA polymerase II at different stages of transcription.  

PubMed

Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins play many roles in nucleic acid metabolism, but their importance during transcription remains unclear. Quantitative proteomic analysis of RNA polymerase II (RNApII) preinitiation complexes (PICs) identified Sub1 and the replication protein A complex (RPA), both of which bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Sub1, homolog of mammalian coactivator PC4, exhibits strong genetic interactions with factors necessary for promoter melting. Sub1 localizes near the transcription bubble in vitro and binds to promoters in vivo dependent upon PIC assembly. In contrast, RPA localizes to transcribed regions of active genes, strongly correlated with transcribing RNApII but independently of replication. RFA1 interacts genetically with transcription elongation factor genes. Interestingly, RPA levels increase at active promoters in cells carrying a Sub1 deletion or ssDNA-binding mutant, suggesting competition for a common binding site. We propose that Sub1 and RPA interact with the nontemplate strand of RNApII complexes during initiation and elongation, respectively. PMID:22055186

Sikorski, Timothy W; Ficarro, Scott B; Holik, John; Kim, TaeSoo; Rando, Oliver J; Marto, Jarrod A; Buratowski, Stephen

2011-11-01

228

A semikinetic model for early stage plasmasphere refilling. II - Effects of wave-particle interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper treats the early stages of plasmasphere refilling along an initially depleted L = 4 magnetic flux tube through a semikinetic model, with special attention given to the effects of wave-particle interactions in which stochastic diffusion of ions in perpendicular velocity due to equatorially concentrated electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves plays a central role. Characteristic individual ion trajectories are examined,

J. Lin; J. L. Horwitz; G. R. Wilson; C. W. Ho; D. G. Brown

1992-01-01

229

Cyclophosphamide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast, Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2013-06-14

230

Improved five year survival after combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy for Stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the prognosis of patients with localized non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) who are treated with radiotherapy (RT), a prospective controlled study utilizing a combined modality approach was carried out in patients with pathologic Stage I-II NHL. After treatment with regional RT, patients in complete remission were randomized to receive either no further therapy or 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (CVP). At 5 years from completion of irradiation, the relapse-free survival was 46.3% after RT and 72.1% after RT plus CVP (P=0.005). The corresponding findings for the overall survival calculated from the beginning of irradiation were 55.8 and 82.8% respectively (P=0.03). The favorable effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival were statistically significant only in the subgroup with diffuse histology. In patients who relapsed after RT alone, the salvage therapy failed to induce a high incidence of second durable remission. Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated to improve the curve rate in pathologic stage I-II NHL with diffuse histology when regional RT is utilized.

Monfardini, S.; Banfi, A.; Bonadonna, G.; Rilke, F.; Milani, F.; Valagussa, P.; Lattuada, A.

1980-02-01

231

[An elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is associated with poor prognosis in stage II resected colon cancer].  

PubMed

Background: The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is an effective marker of inflammation ana can have prognostic value in surgical patients. Aim: To evaluate the effect of an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on perioperative complications ana overall ana disease-free survival in patients undergoing elective resection for stage II colon cancer. Material and Methods: Data was obtained from clinical charts, preoperative blood results and hospital records of all patients undergoing an elective curative resection for colon cancer, between 2000 and 2007. Preoperative NLR was calculated. Follow-up was obtained from a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer database, clinical records and questionnaires. Uni and multivariable analysis were performed to identify associations, and survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: One hundred twenty two patients with a mean age of69years (52% males), were evaluated. Median follow-up was 73 months, and overall survival for 1 and 5years was 95% and 68%, respectively. On a multivariable analysis after adjusting for age, sex, tumor depth invasion, use of adjuvant therapies and American Society of Anesthesiology preoperative risk score, an NLR > 5 was associated with an increased perioperative complication rate (odds ratio: 3,06, p = 0,033). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a worse overall and disease-free survival for patients with NLR greater than five. Conclusions: A preoperative NLR of five or more is associated with greater perioperative morbidity and worse oncological outcomes in patients undergoing resection for elective stage II colon cancer. PMID:24089275

Urrejola, Gonzalo I; Bambs, Claudia E; Espinoza, Manuel A; Gellona, José; Zúñiga, Alvaro M; Molina, María Elena; Bellolio, Felipe; Miguieles, Rodrigo; Campbell, James M; Pinedo, George A

2013-05-01

232

Prognostic importance of DNA ploidy and DNA index in stage I and II endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated the prognostic importance of DNA ploidy in stage I and II endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) of the endometrium with a focus on DNA index. Patients and methods: High-resolution DNA ploidy analysis was carried out in tumor material from 937 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I and II EAC of the endometrium. Results: Patients with diploid (N = 728), aneuploid tumor with DNA index ?1.20 (N = 118), aneuploid tumors with DNA index >1.20 (N = 39) and tetraploid tumor (N = 52) had 5-year recurrence rates 8%, 14%, 20% and 12%, respectively. Patients with aneuploid tumor with DNA index >1.20 had a poorer 5-year progression-free survival (67%) and overall survival (72%) compared with the patients with aneuploid tumor with DNA index ?1.20 (81% and 89%, respectively). Aneuploid tumors with DNA index ?1.20 relapsed mainly in the vagina and pelvis, whereas aneuploid tumors with DNA index >1.20 relapsed predominantly outside pelvis. Conclusions: The recurrence risk for the patients with aneuploid tumor is higher than the patients with diploid tumor in EAC of the endometrium. Based on DNA index with cut-off 1.20, aneuploid tumors can be separated into two subgroups with different recurrence pattern and survival.

Pradhan, M.; Abeler, V. M.; Danielsen, H. E.; Sandstad, B.; Trope, C. G.; Kristensen, G. B.; Risberg, B. A.

2012-01-01

233

Phase II assessment of talabostat and cisplatin in second-line stage IV melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is an incurable disease with an average survival of less than one year. Talabostat is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor with immunostimulatory properties. METHODS: This phase II, open label, single arm study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 75–100 mg\\/m2 cisplatin combined with 300–400 mcg talabostat bid for 6, 21-day cycles. The primary endpoint

Robert M Eager; C Casey Cunningham; Neil N Senzer; Joe Stephenson Jr; Stephen P Anthony; Steven J O'Day; Gary Frenette; Anna C Pavlick; Barry Jones; Margaret Uprichard; John Nemunaitis

2009-01-01

234

Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle - First stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-II launch vehicle capable of placing 2-ton-class payloads on geostationary orbits is outlined, and focus is placed on its propulsion system. The development status of the project, including component development, preliminary battleship tank firing test (BFT-1), battleship tank firing test (BFT-2), and flight-type tank firing test (CFT) is discussed. The configuration and schematic diagram of BFT-2 are presented, and

Atsutaro Watanabe; Mamoru Endo; Isao Yamazaki; Takashi Maemura; Tatsuo Namikawa

1991-01-01

235

Results and prognostic factors in stage I E-II E primary gastric lymphoma after gastrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Infrequency of gastric lymphomas and lack of homogeneity of studies dealing with them preclude accurate management schemes. Helicobacter pylori (HP) and Isaacson’s classification are new factors to consider. Our aim was to analyze these and other prognostic factors in a homogeneous series.Study Design: Fifty-four patients (mean age 62.4 years) treated by gastrectomy for primary gastric non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in stages

Juan C Rodr??guez-Sanjuán; Concepción Alvarez-Cañas; Fernando Casado; Luis Garc??a-Castrillo; Daniel Casanova; Fernando Val-Bernal; Angel Naranjo

1999-01-01

236

DNA methylation status of cyp17-II gene correlated with its expression pattern and reproductive endocrinology during ovarian development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450c17-II (cyp17-II, 17?-hydroxylase) is responsible for the production of steroid hormones during oocyte maturation in vertebrates. The comparative expression pattern of cyp17-II gene during the gonadal development stages will provide important insights into its function of gonadal development. In addition, epigenetic modification especially DNA methylation plays a vital role in regulation of gene expression. The adult female Japanese flounder at different ovarian development stage (from stages II to V) was obtained in this experiment. The expression of cyp17-II gene in the ovary of Japanese flounder during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Reproductive traits included gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T) were also measured. Moreover, whole CpG dinucleotides methylation status of the two CpG rich regions in cyp17-II coding region was detected by bisulfate sequencing. In the ovary, the cyp17-II gene had the lowest mRNA expression at the early ovarian development stage, but then increased afterward. The variation trends of T and E2 level were consistent with the cyp17-II expression pattern in ovary. In contrast, the whole methylation levels of each CpG rich region (exon 4 and 6) in cyp17-II coding region were declined from stages II to IV, then increased at stage V. The methylation levels of whole CpG sites in each CpG rich region were inversely correlated with the values of ovarian cyp17-II gene expression, T and E2 level, and GSI. Based on the present study, we proposed that cyp17-II may regulate the level of steroid hormone, and then stimulate the oocyte growth and maturation. The cyp17-II gene transcriptional activity was possibly affected by the methylation level of CpG rich regions in coding region. These findings will help in the study of the molecular mechanism of fish reproduction and endocrine physiology. PMID:23747405

Ding, YuXia; He, Feng; Wen, HaiShen; Li, JiFang; Ni, Meng; Chi, MeiLi; Qian, Kun; Bu, Yan; Zhang, DongQian; Si, YuFeng; Zhao, JunLi

2013-06-07

237

DNA ploidy may be a prognostic marker in stage I and II serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.  

PubMed

In patients with serous adenocarcinoma (SAC) of the endometrium, we evaluated the prognostic importance of clinicopathological parameters, DNA ploidy, and immunoexpression of p53, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67. In a series of 73 stage I and II SAC, DNA ploidy analysis was performed on hysterectomy specimens using DNA image cytometry. Immunohistochemical analysis of p53, ER, PR, and Ki-67 expression was additionally performed. In the review of the histological slides by three gynecologic pathologists, the presence of a serous component was not agreed upon in 17 (23 %) cases. The remaining 56 cases, consisting of pure SAC or SAC mixed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, were further analyzed. Tumor recurrence was observed in 14 patients, and 28 patients died during the follow-up period. Patients with diploid (n?=?19), aneuploid (n?=?29), and tetraploid (n?=?8) tumor had 5-year recurrence rates of 10, 38, and 53 %, respectively (p?=?0.09). A DNA ploidy parameter, 5c exceeding rate, was found to be a prognostic marker for recurrence (p?=?0.03), progression-free survival (p?stage, lymphovascular invasion, the extent of myometrial invasion, and lymphadenectomy. The histological diagnosis of SAC may be difficult in some cases. Established clinicopathological parameters do not seem to be strong prognosticators in stage I and II disease. A DNA ploidy parameter, 5c exceeding rate, may be a prognostic marker in this patient group and should be further validated in larger series. PMID:22824999

Pradhan, Manohar; Davidson, Ben; Abeler, Vera Maria; Danielsen, Håvard Emil; Tropé, Claes Göran; Kristensen, Gunnar Balle; Risberg, Björn Åke

2012-07-24

238

hERG1 Channels and Glut-1 as Independent Prognostic Indicators of Worse Outcome in Stage I and II Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify new markers to assess recurrence risk in early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We explored the prognostic impact of ether-a-gò-gò-related gene 1 channels and some hypoxia markers, in patients with nonmetastatic (stage I, II, and III) CRC. METHODS: The expression of hERG1, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), glucose transporter 1, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), and p53 was tested by immunohistochemistry in 135 patients. The median follow-up was 35 months. Clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival were evaluated. RESULTS: hERG1 displayed a statistically significant association with Glut-1, VEGF-A, CA-IX, and EGF-R; p53 with VEGF-A and CA-IX; Glut-1 with the age of the patients; and EGF-R with TNM and mucin content. TNM and CA-IX were prognostic factors at the univariate analysis; TNM, hERG1, and Glut-1, at the multivariate analysis. Risk scores calculated from the final multivariate model allowed to stratify patients into four different risk groups: A) stage I–II, Glut-1 positivity, any hERG1; B) stage I–II, Glut-1 and hERG1 negativity; C) stage I–II, Glut-1 negativity, hERG1 positivity; D) stage III, any Glut-1 and any hERG1. CONCLUSIONS: hERG1 positivity with Glut-1 negativity identifies a patient group with poor prognosis within stage I–II CRC. The possibility that these patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy, independently from the TNM stage, is discussed. IMPACT: More robust prognostic and predictive markers, supplementing standard clinical and pathologic staging, are needed for node-negative patients.

Lastraioli, Elena; Bencini, Lapo; Bianchini, Elisa; Romoli, Maria Raffaella; Crociani, Olivia; Giommoni, Elisa; Messerini, Luca; Gasperoni, Silvia; Moretti, Renato; Di Costanzo, Francesco; Boni, Luca; Arcangeli, Annarosa

2012-01-01

239

Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process. CASE DESCRIPTION A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used. OUTCOMES In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with no change, and the custom articulated orthosis was associated with forefoot adduction. DISCUSSION Based on gait analysis, the higher-cost custom articulated orthosis was chosen as optimal for the patient. This custom articulated orthosis was associated with the greatest change in flatfoot deformity, assessed using gait analysis. The patient felt it produced the greatest correction in foot deformity. Reducing flatfoot deformity while allowing ankle movement may limit progression of stage II PTTD.

NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; HOUCK, JEFF

2010-01-01

240

Clinical significance of microRNA-148a in patients with early relapse of stage II stage and III colorectal cancer after curative resection.  

PubMed

Development of robust prognostic/predictive biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is imperative for advancing treatment strategies for this disease. We aimed to determine whether expression status of microRNAs might be a simple and reliable biomarker to detect postoperative early relapse in patients with CRC after radical resection. We used microRNA arrays and identified that microRNA-148a (miRNA-148a) had substantially different expression levels in early and nonearly relapsed stage II and III CRC tissues. The validation study, which included 55 early relapsed patients and 55 nonearly relapsed patients, further confirmed overexpression of miRNA-148a in nonearly relapsed samples. Subsequently, we explored whether the serum level of miRNA-148a can be used to predict early CRC recurrence. The in vitro and in vivo effects of miRNA-148a were examined by cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as cell cycles, and xenograft in null mice. Last, miRNA-148a was investigated as a potential biomarker for identifying early relapse. Cellular studies demonstrated that the overexpression of miRNA-148a inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation and migration but not invasion. The cell cycle studies also revealed that miRNA-148a caused an accumulation of the G2 population. Moreover, lower levels of miRNA-148a expression were associated with significantly shorter disease-free survival rates and poorer overall survival rates. This study showed that miRNA-148a can inhibit tumorigenesis and reduce the early recurrence of CRC. These findings suggest that miRNA-148a may have potential clinical applications for predicting the early relapse of patients with CRC after radical resection. PMID:23933284

Tsai, Hsiang-Lin; Yang, I-Ping; Huang, Ching-Wen; Ma, Cheng-Jen; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Lu, Chien-Yu; Juo, Suh-Hang; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

2013-08-07

241

Masters of their conditions II: intercultural theatre, narration and stage work with patients and healers.  

PubMed

What can a healer learn from theatre and performance studies? What can theatre and performance studies bring to healing practices? Both disciplines are distinct in Western societies, at times merged into miscellaneous forms of 'art therapy'. What lessons can we learn from traditions that do not separate these competencies and have always integrated them as being naturally complementary? In a consultation of cultural psychiatry, both patients and healers are actively aware of various degrees of merging of art and medicine. Narration, then, cannot be limited to verbal case-history making and verbal therapeutic approaches. Bringing patients and healers on a stage and using all forms of text and performance allow for another way of (re)constructing case histories. Expanding the narrative process opens doors to exploring traditions: their origin, their apprenticeship, their performance and their transmission. PMID:18799638

Arpin, Jacques

2008-09-01

242

The influence of micrometastases on prognosis and survival in stage I-II colon cancer patients: the Enroute? Study  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of lymph node metastases remains the most reliable prognostic predictor and the gold indicator for adjuvant treatment in colon cancer (CC). In spite of a potentially curative resection, 20 to 30% of CC patients testing negative for lymph node metastases (i.e. pN0) will subsequently develop locoregional and/or systemic metastases within 5 years. The presence of occult nodal isolated tumor cells (ITCs) and/or micrometastases (MMs) at the time of resection predisposes CC patients to high risk for disease recurrence. These pN0micro+ patients harbouring occult micrometastases may benefit from adjuvant treatment. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the subset of pN0 patients with micrometastases (pN0micro+) and evaluate the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in pN0micro+ CC patients. Methods/design EnRoute+ is an open label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial. All CC patients (age above 18 years) without synchronous locoregional lymph node and/or systemic metastases (clinical stage I-II disease) and operated upon with curative intent are eligible for inclusion. All resected specimens of patients are subject to an ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping procedure (SLNM) following curative resection. The investigation for micrometastases in pN0 patients is done by extended serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin in sentinel lymph nodes which are tumour negative upon standard pathological examination. Patients with ITC/MM-positive sentinel lymph nodes (pN0micro+) are randomized for adjuvant chemotherapy following the CAPOX treatment scheme or observation. The primary endpoint is 3-year disease free survival (DFS). Discussion The EnRoute+ study is designed to improve prognosis in high-risk stage I/II pN0 micro+ CC patients by reducing disease recurrence by adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01097265

2011-01-01

243

Foot Kinematics During a Bilateral Heel Rise Test in Participants With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Experimental laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES To compare foot kinematics, using 3-dimensional tracking methods, during a bilateral heel rise between participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and participants with a normal medial longitudinal arch (MLA). BACKGROUND The bilateral heel rise test is commonly used to assess patients with PTTD; however, information about foot kinematics during the test is lacking. METHODS Forty-five individuals volunteered to participate, including 30 patients diagnosed with unilateral stage II PTTD (mean ± SD age, 59.8 ± 11.1 years; body mass index, 29.9 ± 4.8 kg/m2) and 15 controls (mean ± SD age, 56.5 ± 7.7 years; body mass index, 30.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Foot kinematic data were collected during a bilateral heel rise task from the calcaneus (hindfoot), first metatarsal, and hallux, using an Optotrak motion analysis system and Motion Monitor software. A 2-way mixed-effects analysis of variance model, with normalized heel height as a covariate, was used to test for significant differences between the normal MLA and PTTD groups. RESULTS The patients in the PTTD group exhibited significantly greater ankle plantar flexion (mean difference between groups, 7.3°; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1° to 9.5°), greater first metatarsal dorsiflexion (mean difference between groups, 9.0°; 95% CI: 3.7° to 14.4°), and less hallux dorsiflexion (mean difference, 6.7°; 95% CI: 1.7° to 11.8°) compared to controls. At peak heel rise, hindfoot inversion was similar (P = .130) between the PTTD and control groups. CONCLUSION Except for hindfoot eversion/inversion, the differences in foot kinematics in participants with stage II PTTD, when compared to the control group, mainly occur as an offset, not an alteration in shape, of the kinematic patterns.

HOUCK, JEFF; NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; TOME, JOSHUA; FLEMISTER, ADOLPH

2010-01-01

244

Phase II assessment of talabostat and cisplatin in second-line stage IV melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background Metastatic melanoma is an incurable disease with an average survival of less than one year. Talabostat is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor with immunostimulatory properties. Methods This phase II, open label, single arm study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 75–100 mg/m2 cisplatin combined with 300–400 mcg talabostat bid for 6, 21-day cycles. The primary endpoint was overall response. The rate of complete responses, duration of overall objective response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were the secondary endpoints. Results Six objective partial responses were recorded in the 74 patients (8.1%) in the intention-to-treat population. Five of these responses involved the 40 evaluable patients (12.5%). Thirty-one percent of patients reported SAEs to the combination of talabostat and cisplatin. Conclusion Acceptable tolerability was observed in the intention-to-treat population and antitumor activity was observed in 12.5% of evaluable patients, which is not greater than historical expectation with cisplatin alone.

2009-01-01

245

Clinical significance of metabolic tumor volume by PET/CT in stages II and III of diffuse large B cell lymphoma without extranodal site involvement.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate whether metabolic tumor volume (MTV) by positron emission tomography (PET) can be a potential prognostic tool when compared with Ann Arbor stage, in stages II and III nodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We evaluated 169 patients with nodal stages II and III DLBCL who underwent measurements with PET prior to rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Cutoff point of MTV was measured using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. During a median period of 36 months, stage II was 59.2% and III was 40.8%. Using the ROC curve, the MTV of 220 cm(3) was the cutoff value. The low MTV group (<220 cm(3)) had longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), compared with the high MTV group (?220 cm(3)) (p?Stage II patients had longer survival than those in stage III (PFS, p?=?0.011; OS, p?=?0.001). The high MTV group had lower PFS and OS patterns, regardless of stage, compared with the low MTV group (p?stage III (PFS, p?=?0.187; OS, p?=?0.054). Assessment of MTV by PET had more potential predictive power than Ann Arbor stage in the patients that received R-CHOP. PMID:22071570

Song, Moo-Kon; Chung, Joo-Seop; Shin, Ho-Jin; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, Su-Ee; Lee, Ho-Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Seong-Jang; Lee, Seok-Mo; Chung, Dong-Seop

2011-11-11

246

Liver transplantation after stage II palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.  

PubMed

The association of biliary atresia (BA) with congenital heart diseases has been extensively described, and there are a number of reports on the outcomes of patients in this group who undergo liver transplantation (LT). The intraoperative management and the timing of LT for patients with end-stage liver disease are matters of debate, especially when complex heart diseases are involved. This report describes the outcome after LT for a pediatric recipient with BA and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The patient underwent Norwood-Sano and Glenn procedures for heart palliation before LT. He was cyanotic, was severely malnourished, and had complications secondary to chronic liver failure. At the time of transplantation, the child was 16 months old and weighed 5175 g. Despite the critical clinical scenario and the long hospitalization period, there were no cardiac, vascular, or biliary complications after LT. At the age of 48 months, the patient was awaiting the final cardiac repair. In conclusion, the presence of complex cardiac malformations may not be a contraindication to LT. An experienced surgical team and a multidisciplinary approach are key to a successful outcome. PMID:23239564

Feier, Flavia H; Neto, Joao Seda; Porta, Gilda; Fonseca, Eduardo A; Vincenzi, Rodrigo; Cândido, Helry L; Benavides, Marcel; Ketzer, Bernardo; Pugliese, Renata; Miura, Irene K; Baggio, Vera; Guimarães, Teresa; Porta, Adriana; Foronda, Gustavo; Donizete, Enis; da Silva, Jose P; Faria, Lucilia; Kondo, Mario; Chapchap, Paulo

2013-03-01

247

Isolation of mouse megakaryocytes. II. Functional and metabolic aspects of two different maturational stages.  

PubMed

Functional and metabolic parameters were compared in immature and mature megakaryocytes (MK) isolated from bone marrow of the mouse by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Comparison of metabolic parameters revealed that the ability to take up serotonin was equal in both megakaryocytic fractions. The uptake of radioactively labeled adenine was increased in immature MK as compared with mature MK. Total adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was enhanced during the differentiation from MK to platelets: immature MK: 5, mature MK: 29, platelets: 63 nmol ATP/mg protein. Since MK, like platelets, released ATP upon stimulation, thrombin-induced release was used as functional parameter to differentiate between secretable and non-secretable ATP compartments. Upon thrombin stimulation both MK fractions released about 25% of their total ATP as compared with about 40% secreted by platelets. Although the actual size of the non-secretable ATP pool was different in mature MK and platelets, they demonstrated similar percentages of retained ATP (20-25%) in contrast to a much higher retention (62%) by immature MK. The present findings suggest that the bulk of ATP is acquired by immature MK as they gain maturity, although some ATP is still obtained during even later stages of differentiation. This growing ATP pool could be attributed mainly to the enlargement of the secretable compartment during the transition of immature MK to mature MK. PMID:4029166

Wesemann, W; Raha, S; McDonald, T P

1985-05-01

248

Analysis of cosmetic results and complications in patients with Stage I and II breast cancer treated by biopsy and irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Between May, 1973 and December, 1980, 78 Stage I and II breast carcinomas in 76 patients were treated by biopsy and radiotherapy with curative intent. With a maximum follow-up of 10 years, a minimum of 2 1/2 years and a median follow-up of 3 1/2 years, a loco-regional control rate of 97% was obtained. Cosmetic results and treatment complications were studied. Patient characteristics, tumor size, excisional biopsy technique, axillary staging procedure and radiotherapy techniques were analyzed and all found to be important factors affecting cosmesis and complications. The most common complications included transient breast edema observed in 51% of patients, breast fibrosis (usually mild) seen in 23% of the population, axillary hematoma or seroma formation in 15%, mild arm edema in 14% and basilic vein thrombosis in 10% of patients. The causes of these and other less frequent complications are discussed. The overall cosmetic result was excellent in 78%, satisfactory in 18% and unsatisfactory in 4% of patients. Recommendations for improving cosmetic results and minimizing complications are made.

Clarke, D.; Martinez, A.; Cox, R.S.

1983-12-01

249

Trimodality therapy of esophagectomy plus neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy improves the survival of clinical stage II/III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of advanced esophageal cancer patients is poor. Trimodality therapy of surgical resection plus neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been developed to improve survival through locoregional control, leading to prevention of micrometastasis. We investigated whether or not neoadjuvant CRT led to survival benefits in TNM stage II/III esophageal cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 62 patients with stage II or III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with neoadjuvant CRT. All patients received esophagectomy 4–7 weeks after CRT consisting of 40 Gy irradiation and chemotherapy (5-FU, 500 mg/m2/day, days 1–5 and cisplatin, 10–20 mg/body, days 1–5). Clinical response and survival rates were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods, with P<0.05 considered as significant. The clinical effect rate of CRT for both primary tumors and metastatic nodes was 82.3%. Operative and hospital mortality rates were 1.65 and 6.5%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 52.6 and 49.2%, respectively. A significant difference was noted between stages II and III for both OS and DFS. The 5-year OS rates were 64.2% for stage II, 33.1% for stage III (T4 and non-T4) and 46.9% for stage III (non-T4 only) patients. The depth of tumor invasion (T3 vs. T4), resectability (R0 vs. R1, R2), lymph node metastasis (positive vs. negative), and the effect of CRT were proven to be independent prognostic factors for univariate analysis, with resectability and the effect of CRT for multivariate analysis. These data suggest that CRT in stage II/III (non-T4) ESCC patient contributed to tumor shrinkage, leading to higher resectability and longer survival. Neoadjuvant CRT appears to be a promising option for these patients.

FUJIWARA, YOSHINORI; YOSHIKAWA, REIGETSU; KAMIKONYA, NORIHIKO; NAKAYAMA, TSUYOSHI; KITANI, KOTARO; TSUJIE, MASANORI; YUKAWA, MASAO; INOUE, MASATOSHI; YAMAMURA, TAKEHIRA

2012-01-01

250

Magnetic fields during the early stages of massive star formation - II. A generalized outflow criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of outflows formed during the collapse of 100-M? cloud cores are presented. We derive a generalized criterion from magnetohydrodynamical wind theory to analyse the launching mechanism of these outflows. The criterion is successfully applied to the whole outflow structure and cases with sub-Keplerian disc rotation. It allows us to decide whether an outflow is driven centrifugally or by the toroidal magnetic pressure. We show that quantities such as the magnetic field line inclination or the ratio of the toroidal to poloidal magnetic field alone are insufficient to determine the driving mechanism of outflows. By performing 12 simulations with variable initial rotational and magnetic energies, we are able to study the influence of the initial conditions on the properties of outflows and jets around massive protostars in detail. Our simulations reveal a strong effect of the magnetic field strength on the morphology of outflows. In runs with weak fields or high rotational energies, well-collimated, fast jets are observed, whereas for strong fields poorly collimated, low-velocity outflows are found. We show that the occurrence of a fast jet is coupled to the existence of a Keplerian protostellar disc. Despite the very different morphologies, all outflows are launched from the discs by centrifugal acceleration with the toroidal magnetic field increasingly contributing to the gas acceleration further away from the discs. The poor collimation of the outflows in runs with strong magnetic fields is a consequence of the weak hoop stresses. This in turn is caused by the slow build-up of a toroidal magnetic field due to strongly sub-Keplerian disc rotation. The mass and momentum outflow rates are of the order of 10-4 M? yr-1 and 10-4 M? km s-1 yr-1, respectively. The mass ejection/accretion ratios scatter around a mean of 0.3 in accordance with observational and analytical results. Based on our results, we suggest an evolutionary scenario for the earliest stage of massive star formation in which initially poorly collimated outflows develop, which successively get better collimated during their evolution due to the generation of fast jets.

Seifried, D.; Pudritz, R. E.; Banerjee, R.; Duffin, D.; Klessen, R. S.

2012-05-01

251

A phase II study of single-agent gefitinib as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of gefitinib (‘IRESSA’) in Japanese patients with previously untreated stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This was a multi-institutional phase II study. Thirty-four patients with previously untreated stage IV NSCLC were enrolled between May 2003 and September 2004. Gefitinib was administered orally 250 mg once a day and

R Suzuki; Y Hasegawa; K Baba; H Saka; H Saito; H Taniguchi; M Yamamoto; S Matsumoto; K Kato; T Oishi; K Imaizumi; K Shimokata

2006-01-01

252

A Large-Area Search for Low-Mass Objects in Upper Scorpius. II. Age and Mass Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present continued results from a wide-field, ~150 deg2, optical photometric and spectroscopic survey of the northern part of the ~5 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. Photometry and spectral types were used to derive effective temperatures and luminosities and place newly identified association members onto a theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From our survey, we have discovered 145 new low-mass members of the association and determined ~10% of these objects to be actively accreting material from a surrounding circumstellar disk. Based on comparison of the spatial distributions of low- and high-mass association members, we find no evidence for spatial segregation by mass within the northern portion of the association. Measured data are combined with pre-main-sequence evolutionary models to derive a mass and age for each star. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that, taking into account known observational uncertainties, the observed age dispersion for the low-mass population in USco is consistent with all stars forming in a single burst ~5 Myr ago, and we place an upper limit of +/-3 Myr on the age spread if the star formation rate has been constant in time. We derive the first spectroscopic mass function for USco that extends into the substellar regime and compare these results to those for three other young clusters and associations.

Slesnick, Catherine L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John M.

2008-11-01

253

Paclitaxel, carboplatin, and oral etoposide: a phase II trial in limited-stage small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Carboplatin/etoposide is an active regimen in the treatment of small cell lung cancer. This phase II trial evaluated whether adding paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) to this two-drug combination might increase its efficacy. Since April 1996, 55 patients were entered into the ongoing protocol. To date, 35 patients are evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. Most of the evaluable patients are male (28). The patients' median age is 60 years (range, 36 to 74 years); 32 patients have Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ratings of 1, and the balance are Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0. All patients had limited-stage disease. Patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 via 1-hour intravenous infusion on day 1, carboplatin dosed to an area under the concentration-time curve of 5, also on day 1, and oral etoposide 100 mg on days 2 through 8. Overall, 31 patients responded to paclitaxel/carboplatin/etoposide therapy, including complete response in 13 patients (37.1%) and partial response in 18 patients (51.4%). Disease was stable in three patients (8.6%) and disease progressed in one (2.0%). Hematologic toxicity included neutropenia (World Health Organization grade 3 in 24.1% of patients, grade 4 in 31.3%), anemia (4% grade 3, no grade 4), and thrombocytopenia (3.2% grade 3, 2.1% grade 4). Nonhematologic adverse events included minor nausea/vomiting (1.5% grade 3, 9.2% grade 2), polyneuropathy (2.3% grade 2, 17.5% grade 1), and myalgia/arthralgia (8.2% grade 2, 16.4% grade 1). Paclitaxel/carboplatin/etoposide is active in small cell lung cancer with moderate toxicity and good subjective tolerance. There were no life-threatening hematologic or nonhematologic complications in this phase II trial. PMID:9331141

Gatzemeier, U; Jagos, U; Kaukel, E; Koschel, G; von Pawel, J

1997-08-01

254

Wetting observed by evanescent-wave-generated fluorescence spectroscopy II. Selective excitation: methylcyclohexane + perfluoromethyl cyclohexane at the upper critical endpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetting at the solid (SF4 glass)-liquid interface of the binary liquid mixture methylcyclohexane + perfluoromethylcyclohexane is studied using evanescent-wave-generated fluorescence spectroscopy (EWGFS). The fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) is used to discriminate between the two coexisting liquid phases by means of selective excitation of DPH in the methylcyclo-hexane-rich phase using a laser operating at 371 nm. A wetting transition is observed beginning at ~ 32°C with a wetting layer apparently attaining maximum thickness at ~ 38°C in relation to an upper critical solution temperatureTUCS ~ 46°C, but more specific information regarding the order and position of the transition cannot be established until a number of experimental design changes are implemented.

Williamson, Ann-Marie; McLure, Ian A.

1996-02-01

255

Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: Design of Interactive Feedback for upper limb rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. Results The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. Conclusions The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time.

2011-01-01

256

Upper Crustal Structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic Results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earth- quake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150- km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Si- erra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins

W. J. Lutter; G. S. Fuis; T. Ryberg; D. A. Okaya; R. W. Clayton; P. M. Davis; C. Prodehl; J. M. Murphy; V. E. Langenheim; M. L. Benthien; N. J. Godfrey; N. I. Christensen; K. Thygesen; C. H. Thurber; G. Simila; G. R. Keller

2004-01-01

257

Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II\\/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel\\/doxorubicin chemotherapy

Bhumsuk Keam; Seock-Ah Im; Hee-Jun Kim; Do-Youn Oh; Jee Hyun Kim; Se-Hoon Lee; Eui Kyu Chie; Wonshik Han; Dong-Wan Kim; Woo Kyung Moon; Tae-You Kim; In Ae Park; Dong-Young Noh; Dae Seog Heo; Sung Whan Ha; Yung-Jue Bang

2007-01-01

258

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

259

A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

260

Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease. For disease-specific survival, recurrent disease was the only significant factor. Primary site on the lower limb had an adverse effect on locoregional control. For distant control, the only significant factor was residual disease. Conclusions: The multivariate analysis suggests chemotherapy has no effect on survival, but because of the wide confidence limits, a chemotherapy effect cannot be excluded. A study of this size is inadequately powered to detect small improvements in survival, and a larger randomized study remains the only way to truly confirm whether chemotherapy improves the results in high-risk MCC.

Poulsen, Michael G. [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia)]. E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Clinic, Melbourne (Australia); Porter, Ian [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia); Walpole, Euan [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia); Hamilton, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Tripcony, Lee [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

2006-01-01

261

Effect of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients With Clinical Stage II and III Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial assessment of patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer. Methods and Materials: During 14 consecutive months, 39 patients (40 tumors) who presented with Stage II or III breast cancer on the basis of a routine extension assessment were prospectively included in this study. PET/CT was performed in addition to the initial assessment. Results: In 3 cases, PET/CT showed extra-axillary lymph node involvement that had not been demonstrated with conventional techniques. Two of these patients had hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the subpectoral and infraclavicular regions, and the third had a hypermetabolic internal mammary node. PET/CT showed distant uptake in 4 women. Of these 4 women, 1 had pleural involvement and 3 had bone metastasis. Overall, of the 39 women, the PET/CT results modified the initial stage in 7 (18%). The modified staging altered the treatment plan for 5 patients (13%). It led to radiotherapy in 4 patients (bone metastasis, pleural lesion, subpectoral lymph nodes, and internal mammary nodes) and excision of, and radiotherapy to, the infraclavicular lymph nodes in 1 patient. Conclusions: PET/CT can provide information on extra-axillary lymph node involvement and can uncover occult distant metastases in a significant percentage of patients. Therefore, initial PET/CT could enable better treatment planning for patients with Stage II and III breast cancer.

Groheux, David [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France)], E-mail: dgroheux@yahoo.fr; Moretti, Jean-Luc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Baillet, Georges [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Espie, Marc; Giacchetti, Sylvie [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Hennequin, Christophe [EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hartmann Hospital, Neuilly sur Seine (France); Cuvier, Caroline [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); EAD Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, IUH, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Sarandi, Farid [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Misset, Jean-Louis [Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris (France)

2008-07-01

262

Icehouse, cool-water carbonate ramps: the case of the Upper Pliocene Capodarso Fm (Sicily): role of trace fossils in the reconstruction of growth stages of prograding wedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach, based on the use of trace fossils combined with analysis of physical and biogenic structures, identification\\u000a of key surfaces, and reconstruction of stratigraphic architecture, proved to be of critical value in defining the depositional\\u000a environments, elucidating the dynamics of progradation, and characterizing the various systems tracts of Upper Pliocene progradational\\u000a wedges (Capodarso area, Sicily) generated by cool-water

Francesco Massari; Assunta D’Alessandro

2010-01-01

263

Use of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II in Neurodevelopmental Follow-up of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives For infants born extremely low birth weight (ELBW), we examined the 1) correlation between results on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) at 18-22 months corrected age; 2) degree to which earlier ASQ assessments predict later BSID-II results; 3) impact of ASQ use on follow-up study return rates. Study Design ASQ data were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 18-22 months corrected age. The BSID-II was completed at 18-22 months corrected age. ASQ and BSID-II 18 – 22 month sensitivity and specificity were examined. Ability of earlier ASQs to predict later BSID-II scores was examined through linear regression analyses. Results ASQ sensitivity and specificity at 18-22 months were 73% and 65%, respectively. Moderate correlation existed between earlier ASQ and later BSID-II results. Conclusions For ELBW infant assessment, the ASQ cannot substitute for the BSID-II, but appears to improve tracking success.

Woodward, Barbara J; Papile, Lu-Ann; Lowe, Jean R; Laadt, Virginia L; Shaffer, Michele L; Montman, Rebecca; Watterberg, Kristi L

2011-01-01

264

Human non-rapid eye movement stage II sleep spindles are blocked upon spontaneous K-complex coincidence and resume as higher frequency spindles afterwards.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential relation between the K-complex (KC) and sleep spindles of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stage II of human sleep. Using 58 electroencephalogram electrodes, plus standard electrooculogram and electromyogram derivations for sleep staging, brain activity during undisturbed whole-night sleep was recorded in six young adults (one of them participated twice). NREM stage II spindles (1256 fast and 345 slow) and 1131 singular generalized KCs were selected from all sleep cycles. The negative peak of the KC, the positive peak of the KC (where applicable), and the prominent negative wave peak of slow and fast spindles were marked as events of reference. Fast Fourier transform-based time-frequency analysis was performed over the marked events, which showed that: (a) fast spindles that happen to coincide with KC are interrupted (100% of 403 cases) and in their place a slower rhythmic oscillation often (80%) appears; and (b) spindles that are usually (72% of 1131) following KCs always have a higher frequency (by ?1 Hz) than both the interrupted spindles and the individual fast spindles that are not in any way associated with a KC. This enhancement of spindle frequency could not be correlated to any of the KC parameters studied. The results of this study reveal a consistent interaction between the KC and the sleep spindle during NREM stage II in human sleep. PMID:20477951

Kokkinos, Vasileios; Kostopoulos, George K

2011-03-01

265

Positive association of the vascular endothelial growth factor-A +405 GG genotype and poor survival in stage I-II gastric cancer in the Northern Chinese population.  

PubMed

The vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays an important role in the angiogenesis and prognosis for gastric cancer. In addition, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VEGF-A have been shown to affect gene expression and process of angiogenesis. The present study evaluated the correlations between SNPs in VEGF-A and gastric cancer survival. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 404 gastric cancer patients and blood samples from 404 controls were included in the study. The SNPs -460T/C (rs833061), +405G/C (rs2101963), -7C/T (rs25648) and +936C/T (rs3025039) were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We showed patients carrying the +405GG genotype had significantly worse survival in the N0 (lymph-node negative), N0L0 (lymph-node negative and lymphovascular-invasion negative) and TNM stage I-II subgroups (P = 0.021, P = 0.007 and P = 0.017, respectively). In addition, haplotype -460T/+405G/-7C and -460C/+405G/-7C carriers showed poor survival in the N0, N0L0 and TNM stage I-II subgroups (P = 0.004, P = 0.030 and P = 0.009 for TGC; P = 0.033, P = 0.049 and P = 0.011 for CGC). Overall, the +405 GG genotype or TGC and CGC haplotypes were correlated with poor survival in TNM stage I-II gastric cancer patients. The +405G/C polymorphism of VEGF-A could be used as a biomarker for molecular staging in stage I-II gastric cancer in Northern China. PMID:23264084

Li, Ailin; Gao, Peng; Wang, Zhenning; Song, Yongxi; Xu, Yingying; Miao, Yuan; Zhu, Jinliang; Xu, Huimian

2012-12-23

266

Feasibility of endoscopic mucosal resection as salvage treatment for patients with local failure after definitive chemoradiotherapy for stage IB, II, and III esophageal squamous cell cancer.  

PubMed

Local failure after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for stage IB, II, and III esophageal cancer is one of the causes of poor outcome. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is an effective treatment for superficial esophageal cancer. However, its feasibility as a salvage treatment for local recurrent or residual tumors after definitive CRT for stage IB, II, and III esophageal cancer remains unclear. Between January 2000 and February 2008, 274 patients with stage IB, II, and III esophageal squamous cell cancer excluding T4 received definitive CRT at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. Of these patients, nine patients with local recurrence after achieving complete response and two patients with residual tumor underwent salvage EMR. The technique of salvage EMR involved a strip biopsy method. We retrospectively reviewed the 11 patients (13 lesions). Characteristics of all 11 patients were as follows: median age of 69 (range: 45-78); male/female: 10/1; baseline clinical stage (Union for International Cancer Control 7th) IB/IIA/IIB/III: 1/3/7/0. The depth of resected tumor was limited to the mucosal layer in seven lesions and submucosal in six lesions. En bloc resection was performed on six lesions (46%). The vertical margin was free of cancer cells in 11 lesions (84.6%). No major complications, such as hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion and perforation, were experienced. At a median follow-up period of 38.9 months (range: 5.3-94 months) after salvage EMR, no recurrence was detected in six patients (54%). Local recurrence was detected in five patients (27%). Of these patients, two had lung metastasis simultaneously, and one was also detected lung metastasis 2 months after the detection of local recurrence. The 5-year survival rate after salvage EMR was 41.6%. Salvage EMR is a feasible treatment option for local recurrent or residual lesions after definitive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for stage IB, II, and III esophageal squamous cell cancer. PMID:23442160

Makazu, M; Kato, K; Takisawa, H; Yoshinaga, S; Oda, I; Saito, Y; Mayahara, H; Ito, Y; Itami, J; Hamaguchi, T; Yamada, Y; Shimada, Y

2013-02-26

267

Increased Density of Metallothionein I\\/II-Immunopositive Cortical Glial Cells in the Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the possible role of metallothionein I\\/II (MT I\\/II) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a focus on the cellular localization of MT I\\/II relative to the astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In AD and preclinical AD cases, MT I\\/II immunolabeling was present in glial cells and did not show a spatial relationship with ?-amyloid plaques or

Paul A. Adlard; Adrian K. West; James C. Vickers

1998-01-01

268

The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on the feasibility of optimal dose adjuvant CMF chemotheraphy in stage II breast carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The impact of a number of variables upon the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy given to 87 patients with Stage II breast carcinoma was retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF). Drugs were given in optimal doses (85% or more of the planned dose) to 17% of the patients; in intermediate doses (66 to 84% of the planned dose) to 50% of the patients; and in low doses (65% or less of the planned dose) to 33% of the patients. Myelosuppression was the main reason for giving intermediate or low doses. At a median follow-up of three years, 84% of all patients remain alive. Radiation therapy preceding chemotherapy was given to 70% of the patients, concomitant irradation and chemotherapy to 15%, and 13 patients (15%) received chemotheapy only. Of the 14 patients who received optimal doses of CMF, 12 (86%) also received radiation therapy. Disease-free survival at three years is similar for irradiated and nonirradiated patients, but the latter have a higher incidence of local recurrence (5% vs. 15%), although the difference is not statistically significant. Delay in the intiation of chemotherapy, mostly because of the administration of postoperative irradiation, adversely affected the probability and duration of disease-free survival, particulararly in premenopausal women in whom chemotherapy was started within more than 90 days of mastectomy. The administration of optimal doses of adjuvant chemotherapy should follow the primary treatment to the breast tumor as closely as possible. If radiation therapy is indicated as well, it should be delivered concomitantly with chemotherapy, given the feasibility of administering both modalities simultaneously, as demonstrated in this study.

Sulkes, A.; Brufman, G.; Rizel, S.; Weshler, Z.; Biran, S.; Fuks, Z.

1983-01-01

269

Expression of Type II Collagen at the Middle Stages of Chick Embryonic and Human Fetal Skin Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using in situ hybridization techniques and RNase protection assays, type II collagen mRNA was transiently detected in the epidermis of chick embryonic skins during days 9 – 15 after fertilization, with a maximum expression at day 11. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that deposition of type II collagen was also transiently localized at the subepidermal region during days 10-15. Type II collagen

Noriyuki Azuma; Tatsuya Izumi; Shingo Tajima; Takeji Nishikawa; Akira Ohshima

1994-01-01

270

Evaluation of Changes in Tumor Shadows and Microcalcifications on Mammography Following KORTUC II, a New Radiosensitization Treatment without any Surgical Procedure for Elderly Patients with Stage I and II Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

We introduced non-surgical therapy with a novel enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II) into early stages breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in tumor shadows and microcalcifications on mammography (MMG) following KORTUC II for elderly patients with breast cancer. We also sought to determine whether MMG was useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of KORTUC II. In addition to MMG, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was performed to detect both metastasis and local recurrence. In all 10 patients, tumor shadows on MMG completely disappeared in several months following the KORTUC II treatment. The concomitant microcalcifications also disappeared or markedly decreased in number. Disappearance of the tumors was also confirmed by the profile curve of tumor density on MMG following KORTUC II treatment; density fell and eventually approached that of the peripheral mammary tissue. These 10 patients have so far have also shown neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis on PET-CT with a mean follow-up period of approximately 27 months at the end of September, 2010. We conclude that breast-conservation treatment using KORTUC II, followed by aromatase inhibitor, is a promising therapeutic method for elderly patients with breast cancer, in terms of avoiding any surgical procedure. Moreover, MMG is considered to be useful for evaluating the efficacy of KORTUC II.

Tsuzuki, Akira; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Tokuhiro, Shiho; Akima, Ryo; Yaogawa, Shin; Itoh, Kenji; Yamada, Yoko; Sasaki, Toshikazu; Onogawa, Masahide; Yamanishi, Tomoaki; Kariya, Shinji; Nogami, Munenobu; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

2011-01-01

271

Squalene epoxidase, located on chromosome 8q24.1, is upregulated in 8q+ breast cancer and indicates poor clinical outcome in stage I and II disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gains of chromosomes 7p and 8q are associated with poor prognosis among oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) stage I\\/II breast cancer. To identify transcriptional changes associated with this breast cancer subtype, we applied suppression subtractive hybridisation method to analyse differentially expressed genes among six breast tumours with and without chromosomal 7p and 8q gains. Identified mRNAs were validated by real-time RT–PCR in

M W Helms; D Kemming; H Pospisil; U Vogt; H Buerger; E Korsching; C Liedtke; C M Schlotter; A Wang; S Y Chan; B H Brandt

2008-01-01

272

Identification of high-risk factors as indicators for adjuvant therapy in stage II colon cancer patients treated at a single institution  

PubMed Central

Although post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is only recommended for patients with stage II colon cancer who are at a high risk of recurrence, the definition of high risk remains unclear. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for recurrence, which may also be indicators for adjuvant therapy, using a retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data obtained from stage II colon cancer patients who had undergone a curative resection. The present study also investigated the effects of ACT in patients who displayed the risk factors for recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the data collected from 377 stage II colon cancer patients, treated at Kurume University Hospital (Fukuoka, Japan) between 1982 and 2005, was conducted in order to determine and compare the risk factors for recurrence between the 163 patients who had undergone adjuvant therapy and the 214 patients who had not undergone adjuvant therapy. The risk factors for recurrence in patients who had not undergone adjuvant therapy were a serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level that was twice the cut-off value and pre-operative bowel obstruction. Adjuvant therapy provided no benefit to patients who presented with neither risk factor, but significantly decreased the recurrence rate in patients presenting with one or both risk factors. Based on these findings, serum CEA levels of twice the cut-off value and pre-operative bowel obstruction were proposed as indicators in the assessment for adjuvant chemotherapy following a curative resection for stage II colon cancer. These results warrant further clinical study of ACT in patients with one or both risk factors.

YAMAGUCHI, KEIZO; OGATA, YUTAKA; AKAGI, YOSHITO; SHIROUZU, KAZUO

2013-01-01

273

A phase I vaccination study with tyrosinase in patients with stage II melanoma using recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-hTyr)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant percentage of patients with stage II melanomas suffer a relapse after surgery and therefore need the development of adjuvant therapies. In the study reported here, safety and immunological response were analyzed after vaccination in an adjuvant setting with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara carrying the cDNA for human tyrosinase (MVA-hTyr). A total of 20 patients were included and

Ralf G. Meyer; Cedrik M. Britten; Ulrike Siepmann; Barbara Petzold; Tolga A. Sagban; Hans A. Lehr; Bernd Weigle; Marc Schmitz; Luis Mateo; Burkhard Schmidt; Helga Bernhard; Thilo Jakob; Rüdiger Hein; Gerold Schuler; Beatrice Schuler-Thurner; Stephan N. Wagner; Ingo Drexler; Gerd Sutter; Nathaly Arndtz; Paul Chaplin; Jost Metz; Alexander Enk; Christoph Huber; Thomas Wölfel

2005-01-01

274

Survival and risk of adverse events in older patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for resected stages II-IIIA lung cancer: observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the survival and risk of serious adverse events in older patients with stages II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer treated with or without postoperative platinum based chemotherapy.Design Observational cohort study.Setting Cases of lung cancer in Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry linked to Medicare files, 1992-2005, and follow-up data to December 2007.Participants 3324 patients aged more than 65

Juan P Wisnivesky; Cardinale B Smith; Stuart Packer; Gary M Strauss; Linda Lurslurchachai; Alex Federman; Ethan A Halm

2011-01-01

275

Long-term results of breast conserving surgery for stages I and II breast cancer: Experiences at Osaka Medical Center for cancer and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study is to summarize the long-term results of breast conserving surgery (BCS) for Japanese patients with\\u000a stage I and II breast cancer at a single institute and to identify risk factors for local recurrence after BCS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  Between October 1986 and June 2000, 979 women underwent BCS with or without radiation therapy (RT). Overall survival,

Yoshifumi Komoike; Kazuyoshi Motomura; Hideo Inaji; Tsutomu Kasugai; Takayuki Nose; Masahiko Koizumi; Hiroki Koyama

2002-01-01

276

Apoptosis and the BCL2 gene family - patterns of expression and prognostic value in STAGE I and II follicular center lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The prognostic significance of spontaneous levels of apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-x protein expression in follicular center lymphoma (FCL) is unknown. The objectives of this retrospective study were (1) to investigate the relationship between pretreatment apoptosis levels and long-term treatment outcome in patients with Stage I and II FCL; (2) to define the incidence and patterns of Bax

Mark D Logsdon; Raymond E Meyn; Pelayo C Besa; William C Pugh; L. Clifton Stephens; Lester J Peters; Luka Milas; James D Cox; Fernando Cabanillas; Shawn Brisbay; Margret Andersen; Timothy J McDonnell

1999-01-01

277

Cyclin D1, p16 and retinoblastoma gene product expression as a predictor for prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer at stages I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of the immunohistochemical expressions of cyclin D1, p16 and the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) with the prognoses of 106 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at stages I and II after a complete resection was investigated. We used antibodies recognizing nuclear and cytoplasmic cyclin D1, p16 and pRB. In 106 tumors, the positive rates of cyclin D1,

Mulan Jin; Shoichi Inoue; Tomohiro Umemura; Jun Moriya; Mikio Arakawa; Kazuo Nagashima; Hiroyuki Kato

2001-01-01

278

S100B Protein Expressions as an Independent Predictor of Early Relapse in UICC Stages II and III Colon Cancer Patients after Curative Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  S100 calcium-binding proteins such as S100B are elevated in primary malignant melanoma and are used as tumor markers for malignant\\u000a melanoma and numerous other cancers. The purpose of this study was to identify the novel predictors of early relapse in UICC\\u000a stages II and III colon cancer patients and thus to identify a subgroup of patients who are at high

Chi-Ching Hwang; Han-Tan Chai; Hsin-Wei Chen; Hsiang-Lin Tsai; Chien-Yu Lu; Fang-Jung Yu; Ming-Yii Huang; Jaw-Yuan Wang

2011-01-01

279

Predictive factors of pathologic complete response and clinical tumor progression after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with stage II and III breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background This study aimed to define predictive factors of pathologic complete response (pCR) and disease progression in stage II and\\u000a III breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods Three hundred thirty-eight patients were included in the study. Patients had received preoperative chemotherapy as follows:\\u000a 101 had doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide (AC); 91 had doxorubicin plus docetaxel; 103 had docetaxel plus capecitabine;

Jae-Heon Jeong; So-Youn Jung; In Hae Park; Keun Seok Lee; Han-Sung Kang; Seok Won Kim; Youngmee Kwon; Eun A Kim; Kyung Lan Ko; Byung-Ho Nam; Seeyoun Lee; Jungsil Ro

280

Preoperative Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag serum titers predict survival in patients with stage II esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive significance of preoperative serum level of cytokeratin 19 fragments (Cyfra21-1) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) after complete resection in patients with stage II esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods Between 1995 and 2006, a total of 379 patients in stage II ESCC who underwent complete resection were consecutively recruited. Statistical analyses were applied to test the associations between preoperative serum titers of Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag, clinicopathological factors and prognoses. Results Preoperative high and normal serum level of Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag were found in 47.8%, 52.2% and 72.8%, 27.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-year overall survival rate for the entire cohort of patients was 95%, 78%, and 56%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 45.3 months longer in patients with low preoperative serum level of Cyfra21-1 (91.9 months) than those with high preoperative serum level of Cyfra21-1 (46.6 months) (P?stage IIB (P?stage, preoperative serum level of Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag were independently and significantly predictive factors (P?stage II ESCC.

2012-01-01

281

Interaction between Gastric and Upper Small Intestinal Hormones in the Regulation of Hunger and Satiety: Ghrelin and Cholecystokinin Take the Central Stage  

PubMed Central

Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in the forebrain, such as hypothalamic nuclei. So far, ghrelin is the only known hormone that is peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake, whereas the suppression of feeding seems to be much more redundantly controlled by a number of gut peptides. Cholecystokinin produced in the duodenum is a well established anorexigenic hormone that interacts with ghrelin to modulate food intake indicating a regulatory network located at the first site of contact with nutrients in the stomach and upper small intestine. In addition, a number of peptides including leptin, urocortin 2, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 interact synergistically with CCK to potentiate its satiety signaling effect. New developments have led to the identification of additional peptides in X/A-like cells either derived from the pro-ghrelin gene by alternative splicing and posttranslational processing (obestatin) or a distinct gene (nucleobindin2/nesfatin-1) which have been investigated for their influence on food intake.

Stengel, Andreas; Tache, Yvette

2013-01-01

282

A Method for Utilizing Bivariate Efficacy Outcome Measures to Screen Regimens for Activity in 2-Stage Phase II Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Most phase II clinical trials utilize a single primary endpoint to determine the promise of a regimen for future study. However, many disorders manifest themselves in complex ways. For example, migraine headaches can cause pain, auras, photophobia, and emesis. Investigators may believe a drug is effective at reducing migraine pain and the severity of emesis during an attack. Nevertheless, they could still be interested in proceeding with development of the drug if it is effective against only one of these symptoms. Such a study would be a candidate for a clinical trial with co-primary endpoints. Purpose The purpose of the article is to provide a method for designing a 2-stage clinical trial with dichotomous co-primary endpoints of efficacy that has the ability to detect activity on either response measure with high probability when the drug is active on one or both measures, while at the same time rejecting the drug with high probability when there is little activity on both dimensions. The design enables early closure for futility and is flexible with regard to attained accrual. Methods The design is proposed in the context of cancer clinical trials where tumor response is used to assess a drug's ability to kill tumor cells and progression-free survival (PFS) status after a certain period is used to evaluate the drug's ability to stabilize tumor growth. Both endpoints are assumed to be distributed as binomial random variables, and uninteresting probabilities of success are determined from historical controls. Given the necessity of accrual flexibility, exhaustive searching algorithms to find optimum designs do not seem feasible at this time. Instead, critical values are determined for realized sample sizes using specific procedures. Then accrual windows are found to achieve a design's desired level of significance, probability of early termination (PET), and power. Results The design is illustrated with a clinical trial that examined bevacizumab in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. This study was negative by tumor response but positive by 6-month PFS. The procedure was compared to modified procedures in the literature, indicating that the method is competitive. Limitations Although the procedure allows investigators to construct designs with desired levels of significance and power, the PET under the null is smaller than single endpoint studies. Conclusions The impact of adding an additional endpoint on the sample size is often minimal, but the study gains sensitivity to activity on another dimension of treatment response. The operating characteristics are fairly robust to the level of association between the two endpoints. Software is available for implementing the methods.

Rubinstein, Larry; Litwin, Samuel; Yothers, Greg

2012-01-01

283

Cisplatin, Irinotecan, and Bevacizumab for Untreated Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer: CALGB 30306, a Phase II Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The efficacy of cisplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab was evaluated in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Patients and Methods Patients with ES-SCLC received cisplatin 30 mg/m2 and irinotecan 65 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1 every 21 days for six cycles on this phase II study. The primary end point was to differentiate between 50% and 65% 12-month survival rates. Results Seventy-two patients were enrolled between March 2005 and April 2006; four patients canceled, and four were ineligible. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included neutropenia (25%), all electrolyte (23%), diarrhea (16%), thrombocytopenia (10%), fatigue (10%), nausea (10%), hypertension (9%), anemia (9%), infection (7%), vascular access thrombosis (2%), stroke (2%), and bowel perforation (1%). Three deaths (5%) occurred on therapy as a result of pneumonitis (n = 1), stroke (n =1), and heart failure (n = 1). Complete response, partial response, and stable disease occurred in three (5%), 45 (70%), and 11 patients (17%), respectively. Progressive disease occurred in one patient (2%). Overall response rate was 75%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.0 months (95% CI, 6.4 to 8.4 months). Median overall survival (OS) was 11.6 months (95% CI, 10.5 to 15.1 months). Hypertension ? grade 1 was associated with improved OS after adjusting for performance status (PS) and age (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.97; P = .04). Lower vascular endothelial growth factor levels correlated with worse PFS after adjusting for age and PS (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.99; P = .03). Conclusion PFS and OS times were higher compared with US trials in ES-SCLC with the same chemotherapy. However, the primary end point of the trial was not met. Hypertension was associated with improved survival after adjusting for age and PS.

Ready, Neal E.; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z.; Pang, Herbert H.; Hodgson, Lydia D.; Graziano, Stephen L.; Green, Mark R.; Vokes, Everett E.

2011-01-01

284

Evaluation of the pair-culture effect in Ophyryotrocha puerilis (Polychaeta: Dorvilleidae). II. Conditions for the moult of the upper jaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions for moult of the upper jaw ofOphryotrocha puerilis were determined in isolated individuals and in groups of various sizes. The frequency of formation of the complicated upper jaw in both isolated individuals and in groups varies to a considerable extent. Although formation of the upper jaw and sex reversal normally are associated processes, the relationship of these two

B. Kegel; H.-D. Pfannenstiel

1983-01-01

285

Magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and stable isotope stratigraphy of an Upper Miocene drill core from the Salé Briqueterie (northwestern Morocco): A high-resolution chronology for the Messinian stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a high-resolution stable isotope, carbonate, magnetostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic record from a 175-m drill core from the Salé Briqueterie, which is part of the Bou Regreg section in northwestern Morocco. The Salé drill core spans the interval from paleomagnetic Chron C4n partim to C3r (earliest Gilbert), which represents the time leading up to and including the isolation and desiccation of the Mediterranean (i.e., the Messinian salinity crisis). During Chrons C3An and C3Ar (6.935 to 5.894 Ma) the isotope and carbonate signals display quasi-periodic variations with estimated periods of 40 and 100 kyr, respectively. We interpret the 40-kyr ?18O variations as reflecting changes in global ice volume caused by obliquity-induced changes (41 kyr) in solar insolation in polar regions. The 100-kyr carbonate variations probably represent long-term modulation of the amplitude of the precessional cycle (˜21 kyr), which is not resolved by our sampling frequency. The cyclic nature of the oxygen isotope signal permits us to extend the isotope nomenclature of Shackleton et al. (1994a) from stage TG24 in Chron C3r (earliest Gilbert) to stage C3Ar.?18O.18 at the base of Chron C3Ar (6.935 Ma). A major change in paleoceanographic conditions is recorded across the Tortonian/Messinian boundary, which we correlate to Chron C3Bn at 7.04 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal ?18O values increased by an average of 0.4‰ in two steps at 7.17 Ma and 6.8 Ma and ?13C values decreased by 0.7-0.8‰ between 7.1 and 6.8 Ma, representing the late Miocene carbon shift. The first step in ?18O values coincides with an inferred reversal in deep water circulation through the Rifian Corridor, and the second correlates with the base of the Tripoli Formation and onset of "crisis conditions" in the Mediterranean. We suggest that the increase in ?18O values represents, at least in part, an increase in global ice volume that lowered sea level and contributed to the establishment of a negative water budget in the Mediterranean. Average ?18O values remained high throughout most of Chrons C3Ar and C3An, reaching maximum ?18O values during isotope stages TG20 and 22 in Chron C3r (earliest Gilbert). The glacio-eustatic falls associated with these events may have resulted in the complete isolation of the Mediterranean from the world ocean (Shackleton et al., 1994a). Following stage TG12 in the Salé record, there exists a trend toward progressively lower ?18O values that may represent a series of marine transgressions that eventually reflooded the Mediterranean and ended the Salinity Crisis.

Hodell, David A.; Benson, Richard H.; Kent, Dennis V.; Boersma, Anne; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna

1994-12-01

286

Prognostic Impact of Erythropoietin Expression and Erythropoietin Receptor Expression on Locoregional Control and Survival of Patients Irradiated for Stage II/III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Prognostic factors can guide the physician in selecting the optimal treatment for an individual patient. This study investigates the prognostic value of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor (EPO-R) expression of tumor cells for locoregional control and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Fourteen factors were investigated in 62 patients irradiated for stage II/III NSCLC, as follows: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), histology, grading, TNM/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack years (average number of packages of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked), smoking during radiotherapy, hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy, EPO expression, and EPO-R expression. Additionally, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R were compared to those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and to those expressing neither EPO nor EPO-R. Results: On univariate analysis, improved locoregional control was associated with AJCC stage II cancer (p < 0.048), surgery (p < 0.042), no smoking during radiotherapy (p = 0.024), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). A trend was observed for a KPS of >70 (p = 0.08), an N stage of 0 to 1 (p = 0.07), and no EPO-R expression (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, AJCC stage II and no EPO expression remained significant. No smoking during radiotherapy was almost significant. On univariate analysis, improved survival was associated with N stage 0 to 1 (p = 0.009), surgery (p = 0.039), hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d (p = 0.016), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, N stage 0 to 1 and no EPO expression maintained significance. Hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d were almost significant. On subgroup analyses, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R had worse outcomes than those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and those expressing neither EPO nor RPO-R. Conclusions: EPO expression of tumor cells was an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control and survival in patients irradiated for NSCLC. EPO-R expression showed a trend. Patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R have an unfavorable prognosis.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Setter, Cornelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Noack, Frank [Institute of Pathology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany)

2011-06-01

287

Promising clinical outcome of stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with inoperable Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in patients with Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three patients with inoperable Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer underwent treatment prospectively using the stereotactic gamma-ray whole-body therapeutic system (body gamma-knife radiosurgery) with 30 rotary conical-surface Co{sup 6} sources focused on the target volume. Low-speed computed tomography simulation was conducted, which was followed by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning. A total dose of 50 Gy was delivered at 5 Gy/fraction to the 50% isodose line covering the planning target volume, whereas a total dose of 70 Gy was delivered at 7 Gy/fraction to the gross target volume. The median follow-up duration was 27 months. Results: Three to 6 months after treatment, the complete response rate for body-gamma knife radiosurgery was 63%, and the overall response rate was 95%. The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year local control rates were all 95% in all patients. The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year overall survival rates were 100%, 91%, and 91%, respectively, in patients with Stage I disease and 73%, 64%, and 64%, respectively, in those with Stage II disease. Only 2.3% (1/43) of the patients had Grade 3 pneumonitis. Conclusion: Our highly focused stereotactic body radiotherapy method resulted in promising local control and survival with minimal toxicity.

Xia Tingyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: xiatingyi1959@21cn.com; Li Hongqi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Sun Qingxuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang Yingjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Fan Naibin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Yu Yong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Li Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing (China); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org

2006-09-01

288

Toward understanding the role of mitochondrial complex II in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum: gene targeting of the Fp subunit.  

PubMed

Malaria parasites in human hosts depend on glycolysis for most of their energy production, and the mitochondrion of the intraerythrocytic form is acristate. Although the genes for all tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle members are found in the parasite genome, the presence of a functional TCA cycle in the intraerythrocytic stage is still controversial. To elucidate the physiological role of Plasmodium falciparum mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase (SQR) or succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)) in the TCA cycle, the gene for the flavoprotein subunit (Fp) of the enzyme, pfsdha (P.falciparum gene for SDH subunit A, PlasmoDB ID: PF3D7_1034400) was disrupted. SDH is a well-known marker enzyme for mitochondria. In the pfsdha disruptants, Fp mRNA and polypeptides were decreased, and neither SQR nor SDH activity of complex II was detected. The suppression of complex II caused growth retardation of the intraerythrocytic forms, suggesting that complex II contributes to intraerythrocytic parasite growth, although it is not essential for survival. The growth retardation in the pfsdha disruptant was rescued by the addition of succinate, but not by fumarate. This indicates that complex II functions as a quinol-fumarate reductase (QFR) to form succinate from fumarate in the intraerythrocytic parasite. PMID:22698672

Tanaka, Takeshi Q; Hirai, Makoto; Watanabe, Yoh-ichi; Kita, Kiyoshi

2012-06-12

289

Non-surgical therapy and radiologic assessment of stage I breast cancer treatment with novel enzyme-targeting radiosensitization: Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II)  

PubMed Central

The new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II), markedly enhances the radiotherapeutic effect of treatment for various types of locally advanced malignant neoplasms. Patients who had declined surgical treatment and systemic chemotherapy, as well as a total of 14 stage I breast cancer patients, were enrolled. A maximum of 6 ml of KORTUC II was injected into tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. The median observation period was 21.6 months with a range of 4–48 months, and the therapy was well tolerated. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography revealed that all primary breast tumors completely responded, and none of the subjects experienced local recurrence during the observation period. Ultrasonography depicted tumor-like findings in 2/14 cases after therapy. The intratumoral flow signal on color-Doppler sonography was positive in 4/14 cases before therapy, and the signal disappeared from all cases after therapy. The absence of a flow signal after therapy suggested that the tumor-like findings on ultrasonography were from scar tissue. Excellent local control based on accurate radiological evaluation implies that KORTUC II has the potential to replace surgery as a therapeutic option for stage I breast cancer. Precise evaluation by various radiological modalities helped to gage the success of this therapy.

HITOMI, JIRO; KUBOTA, KEI; OGAWA, YASUHIRO; HAMADA, NORIHIKO; MURATA, YORIKO; NISHIOKA, AKIHITO

2010-01-01

290

Class II versus Class III Radical Hysterectomy in Stage IB–IIA Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the extent of the radicality in the treatment of stage IB–IIA cervical carcinoma with respect to survival, pattern of relapse, and morbidity.Methods. Two-hundred forty-three patients with cervical carcinoma (FIGO stages IB and IIa) were enrolled in a prospective randomized study comparing two types of radical hysterectomy (Piver–Rutledge–Smith class

Fabio Landoni; Andrea Maneo; Gennaro Cormio; Patrizia Perego; Rodolfo Milani; Orlando Caruso; Costantino Mangioni

2001-01-01

291

Involvement of Difference in Decrease of Hemoglobin Level in Poor Prognosis of Stage I and II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Implication in Outcome of Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the difference in its decrease during treatment on outcome of radiotherapy (RT) alone for patients with Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 572 patients with Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RT alone between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, tumor variables, and Hb level, including pre-RT Hb, mid-RT Hb, and dynamic change of Hb between pre- and post- RT and its difference in decrease ( White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb) were subjected to univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors that predict disease-specific survival (DSS), local regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastases-free survival (MFS). Results: The 5-year DSS was poorer in the Hb continuous decrease group than in the Hb noncontinuous decrease group (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.008). There was poorer 5-year DSS in patients with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of >11.5 g/L than in those with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of {<=}11.5 g/L (82% vs. 89%; p = 0.001), and poorer LRFS (79% vs. 83%; p = 0.035). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that Hb decrease difference with greater than 11.5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and LRFS. Conclusions: The difference in decrease of Hb level during the course of radiation treatment appeared as a poor prognostic factor in Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

Gao Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Anhui provincial hospital, Hefei (China); Tao Yalan; Li Guo; Yi Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xia Yunfei, E-mail: xiayf@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2012-03-15

292

The influence of gender on survival and tumor recurrence following adjuvant therapy of completely resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the influence of gender on survival and tumor recurrence following adjuvant therapy of completely resected stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group conducted a randomized prospective trial of adjuvant therapy in patients with completely resected stages II and IIIa NSCLC. A laboratory correlative study assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of p53 and K-ras mutations. Patients were randomized to receive either radiotherapy (RT) alone or four cycles of cisplatin and VP-16 administered concurrently with radiotherapy (CRT). Median survival was 35 months for the 285 men and 41 months for the 203 women enrolled in the study (P = 0.12). The relative risk (RR) of death for men vs women was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.49). Median survival of the 147 men and 95 women randomized to the RT arm was 39 months each (P = 0.35). Median survival of the 138 men and 108 women randomized to the CRT arm was 30 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.18). Disease recurrence patterns were similar between the genders. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated improved survival for women with tumors of non-squamous histology (P < 0.01). The distribution of p53 and K-ras mutations was similar between the genders and had no influence on survival. Gender does not influence survival following adjuvant RT or CRT administered to patients with completely resected stages II and IIIa NSCLC. However, women with non-squamous histology have increased survival when compared to men. PMID:12234700

Keller, S M; Vangel, M G; Adak, S; Wagner, H; Schiller, J H; Herskovic, A; Komaki, R; Perry, M C; Marks, R S; Livingston, R B; Johnson, D H

2002-09-01

293

Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation With Paclitaxel/Carboplatin for Selected Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Trimodality Phase II Protocol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate, in a Phase II trial conducted August 1998 through January 2001, the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and definitive surgery in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), Stages IIIA bulky and selected Stage IIIB. Patients and Methods: Staging of LA-NSCLC included computed tomography of cranium, thorax, and abdomen, whole-body positron emission tomography, and video mediastinoscopy. Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin was followed by hyperfractionated accelerated thoracic radiotherapy (45 Gy) with simultaneous weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. Four to six weeks after completion of induction therapy, restaging and resection of primary tumor and lymph nodes was intended. Results: A total of 59 consecutive patients were enrolled, 25% with Stage IIIA bulky disease, 65% with Stage IIIB, and 10% with Stage IV (excluded from further analysis). Forty-one patients completed induction therapy; in 52.4% a functional (positron emission tomography) downstaging was proven. Thirty-two patients (59.3%) underwent complete tumor resection, and 5 patients had an exploratory thoracotomy only. Histopathologic downstaging was proven in 59.4% and complete response in 21.9%. Hospital mortality was 5.4%. Median duration of follow-up for living patients was 62.1 months. Overall median survival was 22.6 months, 58.2 months for completely resected patients. During induction chemotherapy, Grade 3/4 granulocytopenia occurred in 8% of patients; the most common Grade 3/4 toxicity of chemoradiation was esophagitis, in 26.4% of patients. Conclusions: Induction paclitaxel/carboplatin with hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiotherapy followed by complete tumor resection demonstrates high efficacy in LA-NSCLC and offers a promising chance of long-term survival.

Hehr, Thomas, E-mail: thomashehr@vinzenz.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Friedel, Godehard; Steger, Volker [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Spengler, Werner [Department of Pneumology, Schillerhoehe Hospital, Thoracic Center of the Robert Bosch Hospital-Stuttgart, Gerlingen (Germany); Eschmann, Susanne M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marienhospital Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Bamberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Budach, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duesseldorf, Tuebingen (Germany)

2010-04-15

294

High levels of microRNA21 in the stroma of colorectal cancers predict short disease-free survival in stage II colon cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 25% of all patients with stage II colorectal cancer will experience recurrent disease and subsequently die within\\u000a 5 years. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in several cancer types and has been associated with survival in colon cancer.\\u000a In the present study we developed a robust in situ hybridization assay using high-affinity Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) probes\\u000a that specifically detect miR-21 in

Boye Schnack Nielsen; Stine Jørgensen; Jacob Ulrik Fog; Rolf Søkilde; Ib Jarle Christensen; Ulla Hansen; Nils Brünner; Adam Baker; Søren Møller; Hans Jørgen Nielsen

2011-01-01

295

Phase II study of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with nodal dissection for clinical stage I gastric cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG0703.  

PubMed

A phase II trial was started in Japan to evaluate the safety of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for clinical stage I gastric cancer. A total of 170 patients will be enrolled in this study by expert surgeons for laparoscopy from 16 institutions over 1 year. The primary endpoint is incidence of anastomotic leak and pancreatic fistula. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, proportion of completion of LADG, proportion of conversion from LADG to open gastrectomy, surgical morbidity and short-term clinical outcomes. PMID:18586666

Kurokawa, Yukinori; Katai, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Sasako, Mitsuru

2008-06-26

296

[Postoperative radiotherapy after complete resection of stage II (N1) non-small-cell lung cancer: reasons for not proposing it].  

PubMed

Postoperative external radiation in non-small-cell lung cancer has remained a topic of debate since the first randomized study examining the potential contribution of postoperative radiotherapy published more than 35 years ago and despite a recent meta-analysis published in 1998 that included 9 randomized prospective studies. Among the 4 eligible randomized studies including non-small-cell lung cancer patients in complete remission of stage II (N1) disease, none demonstrated a significant advantage on survival. In addition, some of these studies disclosed an apparently deleterious effect after postoperative radiotherpy. Although the modalities and the technical quality of radiotherapy and surgical resection were different for the different studies or within a given study, or in some of the older studies even obsolete, and although the precision of the outcome evaluation can be criticized, there is currently no argument for proposing postoperative radiotherapy as a routine systematic practice with conventional methods of bidimensional dosimetric planification after complete surgical resection with good quality mediastinal node dissection for non-small-cell lung cancer patients with stage II (N1) disease. However, the contribution of postoperative radiotherpy with sufficient means for performing tridimensional conformational radiotherapy with individual optimization of computerized dosimetric planification taking into account the residual respiratory function after surgery remains to be evaluated in randomized prospective studies with rigorous control of the technical quality of the surgical resection and the radiotherapy and a precise statistical analysis of the locoregional and distant events in case of incomplete surgical resection and in more advanced stage disease (parietal T3, N0, stage III N2). PMID:11139758

Touboul, E; Deniaud-Alexandre, E; Pereira, R; Deluen, F

2000-11-01

297

Saints or Sinners? The Image of Social Workers From American Stage and Cinema Before World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films and plays produced before World War II portrayed young social workers as fallen angels and older social workers as spinsters or misguided-mother types—images influenced more by political ideology, the audience factor, and attitudes toward women than by any actual knowledge of the profession. A deconstruction of the archetypes, which linger today, can help the profession enhance its identity and

Catherine Hiersteiner

1998-01-01

298

Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2013-10-23

299

One- and two-stage design proposals for a phase II trial comparing three active treatments with control using an ordered categorical endpoint.  

PubMed

Phase II clinical trials are performed to investigate whether a novel treatment shows sufficient promise of efficacy to justify its evaluation in a subsequent definitive phase III trial, and they are often also used to select the dose to take forward. In this paper we discuss different design proposals for a phase II trial in which three active treatment doses and a placebo control are to be compared in terms of a single-ordered categorical endpoint. The sample size requirements for one-stage and two-stage designs are derived, based on an approach similar to that of Dunnett. Detailed computations are prepared for an illustrative example concerning a study in stroke. Allowance for early stopping for futility is made. Simulations are used to verify that the specified type I error and power requirements are valid, despite certain approximations used in the derivation of sample size. The advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are discussed, and the scope for extending the approach to different forms of endpoint is considered. PMID:19061203

Whitehead, John; Jaki, Thomas

2009-02-28

300

Evaluation of the pair-culture effect in Ophyryotrocha puerilis (Polychaeta: Dorvilleidae). II. Conditions for the moult of the upper jaw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for moult of the upper jaw of Ophryotrocha puerilis were determined in isolated individuals and in groups of various sizes. The frequency of formation of the complicated upper jaw in both isolated individuals and in groups varies to a considerable extent. Although formation of the upper jaw and sex reversal normally are associated processes, the relationship of these two processes is not very well understood. Histological investigations at the light microscopic level demonstrate that the dental apparatus is an elaboration of the ectodermal stomodaeum which is considered to be a highly specialized part of the cuticle in the pharyngeal region of the gut.

Kegel, B.; Pfannenstiel, H.-D.

1983-06-01

301

Developmental stage-dependent modulation of synapses by postsynaptic expression of activated calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila neuromuscular junctions, there is a unique system which consists of two neighboring muscles (M6 and M7) innervated by the same neurons and a gene of interest can be expressed in only M6 or in both muscles by GAL4-upstream activating sequence expression system. By using this system, we previously demonstrated that expression of activated calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)

T. Morimoto-Tanifuji; H. Kazama; A. Nose

2004-01-01

302

Mastectomy With Immediate Expander-Implant Reconstruction, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation for Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Treatment Intervals and Clinical Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine intervals between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients treated with mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, and to evaluate locoregional and distant control and overall survival in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between May 1996 and March 2004, 104 patients with Stage II-III breast cancer were routinely treated at our institution under the following algorithm: (1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement, (2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy, (3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant, (4) radiation. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Twenty-six percent of patients were Stage II and 74% Stage III. All received adjuvant chemotherapy. Estrogen receptor staining was positive in 77%, and 78% received hormone therapy. Radiation was delivered to the chest wall with daily 0.5-cm bolus and to the supraclavicular fossa. Median dose was 5040 cGy. Median interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 5 weeks, from completion of chemotherapy to exchange 4 weeks, and from exchange to radiation 4 weeks. Median interval from completion of chemotherapy to start of radiation was 8 weeks. Median follow-up was 64 months from date of mastectomy. The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%. Conclusions: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.

Wright, Jean L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Ben-Porat, Leah [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Van Zee, Kimberly J. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hudis, Clifford [Department of Medicine, Solid Tumor Division, Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Beal, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: mccormib@mskcc.org

2008-01-01

303

Age-Specific Administration of Chemotherapy and Long-Term Quality of Life in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the age-specific pattern of administration of chemotherapy and its association with long-term survival and quality of life (QoL) in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients. Methods. Chemotherapy allocation according to disease and patient characteristics was investigated in a population-based cohort of 562 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients. Five years after diagnosis, survival was determined and QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 Items and a tumor specific module. The association among chemotherapy, survival, and QoL was examined while controlling for potential confounders. Results. Chemotherapy was administered in 71% of patients aged <60 years and in only 20% of patients aged ?80 years. A significant association between chemotherapy and longer survival time was found for stage III cancer only. Chemotherapy was associated with higher symptom levels for trouble with taste, anxiety, and hair loss. In age-specific analyses, younger survivors (<70 years at time of follow-up) with a history of chemotherapy reported significantly lower physical, role, and cognitive functioning and higher pain, appetite loss, hair loss, and trouble with taste symptom levels. In contrast, for older survivors (?70 years), only two (hair loss and dry mouth) out of 38 QoL scores were significantly associated with chemotherapy. Discussion. Chemotherapy is associated with lower long-term QoL, especially in younger survivors. In cases of uncertain survival benefits of chemotherapy, consideration of its long-term effects on QoL should be incorporated into final decisions on treatment.

Jansen, Lina; Hoffmeister, Michael; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Koch, Moritz; Brenner, Hermann

2011-01-01

304

Stage II invasive adenocarcinoma of the ovary: results of treatment by whole abdominal radiation plus pelvic boost versus pelvic radiation plus oral melphalan chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-one patients with histologically confirmed FIGO Stage II adenocarcinoma of the ovary were prospectively treated in two sequential studies: 3000 rad of whole abdominal radiation therapy over 6 weeks by an open field technique followed by 2000 rad pelvic boost over 2 weeks (group 1, 16 patients, 1972-1974) or 5000 rad of pelvic radiation therapy over 5 weeks followed by a year of melphalan chemotherapy at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for 5 days every 4 weeks (group 2, 15 patients, 1975-1982). Abdominal radiation included the entire peritoneal cavity and both diaphragms; the liver was not shielded. Only 2 patients had residual disease greater than 2 cm. No group 1 patients underwent pretherapy restaging laparoscopy prior to radiation or second look laparotomy after treatment. Eighty percent of group 2 patients underwent restaging laparoscopy (10) or staging laparotomy (2) prior to radiation. All group 2 patients underwent second look procedures if no evidence of disease. No patient developed intestinal complications secondary to radiation requiring surgery. Eighty-one percent of group 1 patients and to date 40% of group 2 patients developed recurrences. Size of residual disease prior to radiation, histologic grade, and substage (IIA, B, or C) did not correlate with recurrences. Five-year estimated survival was 40 and 50% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Three thousand rad of wole abdominal radiation plus 2000 rad pelvic boost or 5000 rad pelvic radiation plus melphalan did not appear to improve survival over surgery alone. The role of radiation therapy in Stage II ovarian cancer remains unclear.

Piver, M.S.; Lele, S.B.; Patsner, B.; Krishnamsetty, R.; Emrich, L.J.

1986-02-01

305

Effect of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy in Patients <35 Years Old With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Treated With Doxorubicin-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control (LRC) in patients with high-risk features after mastectomy. Young age continues to evolve as a potentially important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of PMRT in patients <35 years old treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II-III breast cancer. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 107 consecutive breast cancer patients <35 years old with Stage IIA-IIIC disease treated at our institution with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, with or without PMRT. The treatment groups were compared in terms of LRC and overall survival. Results: Despite more advanced disease stages, the patients who received PMRT (n = 80) had greater rates of LRC (5-year rate, 88% vs. 63%, p = 0.001) and better overall survival (5-year rate, 67% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) than patients who did not receive PMRT (n = 27). Conclusion: Among breast cancer patients <35 years old at diagnosis, the use of PMRT after doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy led to a statistically greater rate of LRC and overall survival compared with patients without PMRT. The benefit seen for PMRT in young patients provides valuable data to better tailor adjuvant, age-specific treatment decisions after mastectomy.

Garg, Amit K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: joh@mdanderson.org; Oswald, Mary Jane; Huang, Eugene; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, T. Kuan; Tereffe, Welela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Meric-Bernstam, Funda [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hahn, Karin [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-12-01

306

?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????????: ????????? II ??????? ??????? ?? ????  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the image of Catherine II in the context of the French anti-monarchist pamphlets that abounded after the French revolution and were often directed at the Russian empress as well, representing her as the “Semiramis of the North”. A special case is Marquis de Sade?s Histoire de Juliette, ou les Prospérités du vice, which unmistakably refers to Catherine

Alexandre Stroev

2011-01-01

307

The Declining Utilization of Radiation Therapy in Stage I and II Hodgkin's Disease and its Impact on Survival and Secondary Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Concerns regarding long-term toxicities have led some to withhold radiation therapy (RT) for the treatment of stage I and II Hodgkin's disease (HD). This study was undertaken to assess the utilization of RT in HD and its impact on overall survival (OS) and secondary malignancies. Materials This was a study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database that included patients who were 20 years and older who had been diagnosed with stage I or II HD diagnosed from 1988–2006. OS was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox multivariable Regression model was used to analyze trends. Results A total of 12,247 patients were selected and 51.5% received RT. The median follow up for this cohort was 4.9 years, with 21% of the cohort with > 10 years of follow-up. In 1988–1991, 62.9% received RT whereas in 2004–2006 only 43.7% received RT (p < 0.001). Among this cohort the 5 year OS was 76% for patients who did not receive RT and 87% for those that did receive RT (p < 0.001). The hazard ratio adjusted for other variables in regression model showed that patients who did not receive RT (HR – 1.72, 95% CI – 1.72–2.02) was associated with significantly worse survival when compared to patients who received RT. The actuarial rate of developing a second malignancy was 14.6% vs 15.0% at 15 years for patients who received RT vs. those with no RT (p = 0.089). Conclusions This is one of the largest studies to examine the role of RT in stage I and II HD and revealed a survival benefit with the addition of RT with no increase in secondary malignancies compared to patients who did not receive radiation therapy. Furthermore, this nationwide study revealed an over 20% absolute decrease in the utilization of RT from 1988–2006.

Koshy, Matthew; Rich, Shayna E.; Mahmood, Usama; Kwok, Young

2010-01-01

308

System, trends and perspectives of proteomics in dicot plants Part II: Proteomes of the complex developmental stages.  

PubMed

This review is devoted to the proteomes of the complex developmental stages of dicotyledoneous (dicot) plant materials. The two core technologies, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and mass spectrometry (MS), independently or in combination with each other, are propelling dicot plant proteomics to new discoveries and functions, with the establishment of tissue-specific and organelle proteomes, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, revealing their complexity and specificity. These experimental proteomes have provided a good start towards the establishment of high-density 2-DGE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases, for not only the model dicot plants, A. thaliana and M. truncatula, but also other important dicot plants, which will serve as a basis for proteomes of many other dicot plants and plant materials. PMID:15652803

Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Yonekura, Masami; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

2005-02-01

309

Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff: In vitro activity against the trophozoite stage of a natural sesquiterpene and a synthetic cobalt(II)-lapachol complex.  

PubMed

In this study, the in vitro activities of a natural sesquiterpene, alpha-cyperotundone, isolated from the root bark of Maytenus retusa and a cobalt(II)-complex of a natural occurring prenyl hydroxynaphthoquinone (lapachol) were evaluated against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff using a previously developed colorimetric 96-well microtiter plate assay, based on the oxido-reduction of Alamar Blue(R). The obtained activities showed that these two compounds were able to inhibit the in vitro growth of the amoebae at relatively low concentrations. Further identification of the molecular targets of these products and their effects on acanthamoebae should be determined to evaluate their possible therapeutic use. PMID:20045692

Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Oramas-Royo, Sandra; Hernández-Molina, Rita; Estévez-Braun, Ana; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E

2010-01-04

310

Contents of mRNAs encoding endosome/lysosome components in normal human aorta and in stage II of atherogenesis: a hidden regulation.  

PubMed

Contents of mRNAs encoding endosome/lysosome components EEA1, Rab5a, Lamp1, Lamp2, p62 (SQSTM1), and CD63 were measured by quantitative PCR and compared in intact fragments of human aorta and in aorta fragments with atherosclerotic lesions of stage II (fatty streaks) of the same donors. During atherogenesis an increase was detected only in the level of p62 mRNA but not in other mRNAs. Nevertheless, correlation analysis revealed a profound rearrangement of inter-gene correlations: only 30% of correlations found in the fatty streaks coincided with the correlations in normal fragments. Thus, new constellations were formed in fatty streaks concurrently with disappearance of correlations between mRNAs under study and mRNAs encoding factors of lipid accumulation, reverse cholesterol transfer, and some lipid sensors/transcription regulators of lipid metabolism. PMID:22098244

Shchelkunova, T A; Albert, E A; Morozov, I A; Rubtsov, P M; Samokhodskaya, L M; Sobenin, I A; Orekhov, A N; Smirnov, A N

2011-10-01

311

Randomized Trial of Postoperative Adjuvant Therapy in Stage II and III Rectal Cancer to Define the Optimal Sequence of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: 10-Year Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the optimal sequence of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 308 patients were randomized to early (n = 155) or late (n = 153) radiotherapy (RT). Treatment included eight cycles of chemotherapy, consisting of fluorouracil 375 mg/m{sup 2}/day and leucovorin 20 mg/m{sup 2}/day, at 4-week intervals, and pelvic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Radiotherapy started on Day 1 of the first chemotherapy cycle in the early RT arm and on Day 1 of the third chemotherapy cycle in the late RT arm. Results: At a median follow-up of 121 months for surviving patients, disease-free survival (DFS) at 10 years was not statistically significantly different between the early and late RT arms (71% vs. 63%; p = 0.162). A total of 36 patients (26.7%) in the early RT arm and 49 (35.3%) in the late RT arm experienced recurrence (p = 0.151). Overall survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. However, in patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection, the DFS rate at 10 years was significantly greater in the early RT arm than in the late RT arm (63% vs. 40%; p = 0.043). Conclusions: After the long-term follow-up duration, this study failed to show a statistically significant DFS advantage for early radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy after resection of Stage II and III rectal cancer. Our results, however, suggest that if neoadjuvant chemoradiation is not given before surgery, then early postoperative chemoradiation should be considered for patients requiring an abdominoperineal resection.

Kim, Tae-Won [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Hee [Department of Hematology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kang, Yoon-Koo [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoo-Hyung [Department of Hematology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chang-Sik [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Hoon; Ahn, Seung-Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Kun [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Cheon [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Shin, E-mail: jayslee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

312

Beneficial effects of protein-bound polysaccharide K plus tegafur/uracil in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: analysis of immunological parameters.  

PubMed

Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) increased the 5-year disease-free survival rate and reduced the risk of recurrence in a randomised, controlled study for stage II and III colorectal cancer. In order to elucidate the disease-free survival benefits with PSK and what immunological markers could indicate a PSK responder, serial changes in immunological parameters were monitored in the study. PSK decreased the mean serum immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) level, and increased the mean population of natural killer (NK) cells compared with the controls. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rate for patients with serum IAP values or=8% at 3 months after surgery, PSK conferred a significantly better (p=0.038) 5-year disease-free survival (86.7%; 95% CI: 74.5-98.8%) compared to the control group (60.0%; 95% CI: 29.6-90.4%). In the proportional hazards model, the presence of regional metastases (relative risk, 3.595; 95% CI: 1.518 to 8.518; p=0.004) and omission of PSK treatment (relative risk, 3.099; 95% CI: 1.202 to 7.990; p=0.019) were significant indicators of recurrence. PSK acts as an immunomodulatory activity and biochemical modulator in stage II or III colorectal cancer. Pre-operative serum IAP values or=8% at 3 months after surgery are possible PSK response predictors. PMID:16525672

Ohwada, Susumu; Ogawa, Tetsushi; Makita, Fujio; Tanahashi, Yoshifumi; Ohya, Toshihiro; Tomizawa, Naoki; Satoh, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Isao; Izumi, Masaru; Takeyoshi, Izumi; Hamada, Kunihiro; Minaguchi, Shigeyuki; Togo, Yasushi; Toshihiko, Tago; Koyama, Toru; Kamio, Masashi

2006-04-01

313

Computational investigation of the key factors affecting the second stage activation mechanisms of domain II m-calpain.  

PubMed

The unique conformation of the active site in calpains along with the implication of their role in several diseases has prompted widespread research interest in the scientific community. Structural studies devoted to m- and ?-calpains have proposed a two-stage calcium-dependent activation mechanism for calpains. In this work, we performed conventional and targeted molecular dynamics simulations to investigate global and local changes in the structure of the protease core of m-calpain upon calcium binding. Simulations were performed on the protease core of calcium free (pdbid: 1kfu) and calcium bound (pdbid: 3df0) m-calpain with and without the presence of calcium ions. Our results indicate that the inactive, open conformation of the protease core does not transform into the active, closed conformation simply upon removal of constraints from the neighbor domains. The role of other factors, including calcium binding and the subsequent formation of an Arg94-Glu305 inter-domain salt bridge and the change in the orientation of Trp288 side chain, in the activation of the protease core is elicited. PMID:23053014

Bhatti, Gaurav; Jayanthi, Lakshmi; VandeVord, Pamela; Gebremichael, Yeshitila

2012-10-10

314

Record of Late Pleistocene Glaciation and Deglaciation in the Southern Cascade Range. II. Flux of Glacial Flour in a Sediment Core from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late Wisconsin, glacial flour from alpine glaciers along the east side of the Cascade Range in southern Oregon was deposited in Upper Klamath Lake. Quantitative interpretation of magnetic properties and grain-size data of cored sediments from Caledonia Marsh on the west side of the lake provides a continuous record of the flux of glacial flour spanning the last

Joseph G. Rosenbaum; Richard L. Reynolds

2004-01-01

315

Technology Assessment of Winter Orographic Snowpack Augmentation in the Upper Colorado River Basin: The Impacts of Snow Enhancement. Volume II. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers an assessment of the economic, legal, social, and ecological impact of a proposed project to increase the flow of the Colorado River by increasing the spring runoff of winter snowpack on the mountain tops of the Upper Colorado River Basi...

L. W. Weisbecker

1972-01-01

316

Collisions between Gravity-dominated Bodies. II. The Diversity of Impact Outcomes during the End Stage of Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of the stochastic end stage of planet formation typically begin with a population of embryos and planetesimals that grow into planets by merging. We analyzed the impact parameters of collisions leading to the growth of terrestrial planets from recent N-body simulations that assumed perfect merging and calculated more realistic outcomes using a new analytic collision physics model. We find that collision outcomes are diverse and span all possible regimes: hit-and-run, merging, partial accretion, partial erosion, and catastrophic disruption. The primary outcomes of giant impacts between planetary embryos are approximately evenly split between partial accretion, graze-and-merge, and hit-and-run events. To explore the cumulative effects of more realistic collision outcomes, we modeled the growth of individual planets with a Monte Carlo technique using the distribution of impact parameters from N-body simulations. We find that fewer planets reached masses >0.7 M Earth using the collision physics model compared to simulations that assumed every collision results in perfect merging. For final planets with masses >0.7 M Earth, 60% are enriched in their core-to-mantle mass fraction by >10% compared to the initial embryo composition. Fragmentation during planet formation produces significant debris (~15% of the final mass) and occurs primarily by erosion of the smaller body in partial accretion and hit-and-run events. In partial accretion events, the target body grows by preferentially accreting the iron core of the projectile and the escaping fragments are derived primarily from the silicate mantles of both bodies. Thus, the bulk composition of a planet can evolve via stochastic giant impacts.

Stewart, Sarah T.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.

2012-05-01

317

COLLISIONS BETWEEN GRAVITY-DOMINATED BODIES. II. THE DIVERSITY OF IMPACT OUTCOMES DURING THE END STAGE OF PLANET FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of the stochastic end stage of planet formation typically begin with a population of embryos and planetesimals that grow into planets by merging. We analyzed the impact parameters of collisions leading to the growth of terrestrial planets from recent N-body simulations that assumed perfect merging and calculated more realistic outcomes using a new analytic collision physics model. We find that collision outcomes are diverse and span all possible regimes: hit-and-run, merging, partial accretion, partial erosion, and catastrophic disruption. The primary outcomes of giant impacts between planetary embryos are approximately evenly split between partial accretion, graze-and-merge, and hit-and-run events. To explore the cumulative effects of more realistic collision outcomes, we modeled the growth of individual planets with a Monte Carlo technique using the distribution of impact parameters from N-body simulations. We find that fewer planets reached masses >0.7 M{sub Earth} using the collision physics model compared to simulations that assumed every collision results in perfect merging. For final planets with masses >0.7 M{sub Earth}, 60% are enriched in their core-to-mantle mass fraction by >10% compared to the initial embryo composition. Fragmentation during planet formation produces significant debris ({approx}15% of the final mass) and occurs primarily by erosion of the smaller body in partial accretion and hit-and-run events. In partial accretion events, the target body grows by preferentially accreting the iron core of the projectile and the escaping fragments are derived primarily from the silicate mantles of both bodies. Thus, the bulk composition of a planet can evolve via stochastic giant impacts.

Stewart, Sarah T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Leinhardt, Zoee M., E-mail: sstewart@eps.harvard.edu, E-mail: zoe.leinhardt@bristol.ac.uk [School of Physics, University of Bristol, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

2012-05-20

318

Cardiac Mortality in Patients With Stage I and II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With and Without Radiation: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Standard therapy for stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of combined modality therapy with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, anti-CD20 antibody, and radiation therapy (RT). Curative approaches without RT typically utilize more intensive and/or protracted chemotherapy schedules. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens are associated with a dose-dependent risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We hypothesize that patients treated without RT, i.e., those who are treated with greater total chemotherapy cycles and hence cumulative anthracycline exposure, are at increased risk of cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: The rate of cardiac-specific mortality (CSM) was analyzed in patients with stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 by querying the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Results: A total of 15,454 patients met selection criteria; 6,021 (39%) patients received RT. The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 6-180 months). The median age was 64 years. The actuarial incidence rates of CSM at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.3%, 9.0%, and 13.8%, respectively, in patients treated with RT vs. 5.9%, 10.8% and 16.1%, respectively, in patients treated without RT (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.56). The increase in cardiac deaths for patients treated without RT persisted throughout the follow-up period. On multivariate analysis, treatment without RT remained independently associated with an increased risk of CSM (Cox hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54; p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Increased anthracycline exposure in patients treated only with chemotherapy regimens may result in an increase in cardiac deaths, detectable only through analysis of large sample sizes. Confirmatory evaluation through meta-analysis of randomized data and design of large prospective trials is warranted.

Pugh, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.pugh@ucdenver.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Ballonoff, Ari; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2010-03-01

319

Partial melting on iron(II) oxide-rich asteroids: Insights to the first stage of planetary differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melting of planetesimals was a widespread geologic phenomenon taking place in the early inner solar system. Petrologic and geochemical evidence shows that this melting frequently resulted in full differentiation of planetary bodies into a core, mantle, and crust. The extent of this early planetary melting is evidenced in the breadth of achondrite meteorites. In the achondrite meteorite group, there exist meteorites that experienced low degrees of melting, such that the parent body underwent partial melting and did not fully differentiate. These meteorites, called the primitive achondrites, are a window to the first stage of melting in the early solar system. The primitive achondrites with FeO-poor silicate compositions have been well-studied, but little is known about the formation conditions and history of the FeO-rich primitive achondrites, which includes the brachinites and several ungrouped meteorites. The brachinites are olivine-dominated meteorites with a recrystallized texture that show evidence of partial melting and melt removal on their parent body. The ungrouped primitive achondrites are also olivine-dominated meteorites with a recrystallized texture, but they exhibit a larger range in mineralogy with most being essentially chondritic and containing relict chondrules. In this dissertation, I present a study of the petrology, geochemistry and formation conditions of the FeO-rich primitive achondrites. I analyze the petrology and bulk composition of the meteorites, and I conduct thermodynamic modelling of the mineral assemblages to determine oxidation conditions during their formation. Finally, I attempt to simulate the formation of the brachinite meteorites through 1-atmosphere, gas-mixing partial melting experiments of an FeO-rich chondritic meteorite. These meteorites represent a continuum of partial melting, akin to that seen in the acapulcoite-lodranite clan of primitive achondrites. Mineral compositions and oxygen fugacity formation conditions indicate that the brachinites could have formed from a parent body much like the R chondrites. Gas-mixing, partial melting experiments of a R4 chondrite LaPaz Ice Field 03639 at 1250 °C and an oxygen fugacity of IW-1 create the mineralogy and mineral compositions of the brachinites. The experiments also confirm that the brachinites formed by the partial melting of an FeO-rich chondritic source and not as igneous cumulates.

Gardner-Vandy, Kathryn Gail

320

The reproductive biology of Nelumbo pentapetala (Nelumbonaceae) on the Upper Mississippi River. II. The insects associated with the transfer of pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth study of the insects associated with the transfer of pollen in the American lotus was undertaken in a selected\\u000a population on the Upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. The study showed that members of the Coleoptera (Coleomegilla fascilabris Malsant, Diabrotica unidecimpunctata howardi Barber, D. virgifera Lec.), Diptera (Eristalis tenax (L.), Parhelophilus laetus (Locw)) and Hymenoptera (Agapostemon radiatus

S. H. Sohmer; D. F. Sefton

1978-01-01

321

Surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma accounts for 5% of all urothelial tumors. Compared to lower urinary tract tumors, upper tract urothelial carcinoma is diagnosed more frequently at advanced stages. Open radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard treatment option for upper tract tumors. However, with the advancement of minimally invasive techniques and the benefits of these procedures regarding perioperative morbidity, cosmesis, and earlier convalescence, these options have shown promise in managing the patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Despite the perioperative advantages, concerns exist on the oncological safety after minimally invasive surgery. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

Bird, Vincent G.; Kanagarajah, Prashanth

2011-01-01

322

Health-related quality of life in survivors of stage I-II breast cancer: randomized trial of post-operative conventional radiotherapy and hypofractionated tomotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is a key component of clinical oncology trials. However, few breast cancer trials comparing adjuvant conventional radiotherapy (CR) and hypofractionated tomotherapy (TT) have investigated HRQOL. We compared HRQOL in stage I-II breast cancer patients who were randomized to receive either CR or TT. Tomotherapy uses an integrated computed tomography scanner to improve treatment accuracy, aiming to reduce the adverse effects of radiotherapy. Methods A total of 121 stage I–II breast cancer patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy (MA) were randomly assigned to receive either CR or TT. CR patients received 25?×?2 Gy over 5 weeks, and BCS patients also received a sequential boost of 8?×?2 Gy over 2 weeks. TT patients received 15?×?2.8 Gy over 3 weeks, and BCS patients also received a simultaneous integrated boost of 15?×?0.6 Gy over 3 weeks. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires. The mean score (± standard error) was calculated at baseline, the end of radiotherapy, and at 3 months and 1, 2, and 3 years post-radiotherapy. Data were analyzed by the 'intention-to-treat' principle. Results On the last day of radiotherapy, patients in both treatment arms had decreased global health status and functioning scores; increased fatigue (clinically meaningful in both treatment arms), nausea and vomiting, and constipation; decreased arm symptoms; clinically meaningful increased breast symptoms in CR patients and systemic side effects in TT patients; and slightly decreased body image and future perspective. At 3 months post-radiotherapy, TT patients had a clinically significant increase in role- and social-functioning scores and a clinically significant decrease in fatigue. The post-radiotherapy physical-, cognitive- and emotional-functioning scores improved faster in TT patients than CR patients. TT patients also had a better long-term recovery from fatigue than CR patients. ANOVA with the Bonferroni correction did not show any significant differences between groups in HRQOL scores. Conclusions TT patients had a better improvement in global health status and role- and cognitive-functioning, and a faster recovery from fatigue, than CR patients. These results suggest that a shorter fractionation schedule may reduce the adverse effects of treatment.

2012-01-01

323

Radical radiotherapy for stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer in patients not sufficiently fit for or declining surgery (medically inoperable): a systematic review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine the effectiveness of radical radiotherapy in medically inoperable stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the extent of treatment related morbidity.?METHODS—Randomised trials were sought by electronically searching the Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and both randomised and non-randomised trials were sought by searching Medline and Excerpta Medica (Embase). Further studies were identified from references cited in those papers already identified by electronic searching. The studies included were those of patients of any age with stage I/II NSCLC receiving radiotherapy at a dose of >40 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks or its radiobiological equivalent.?RESULTS—Two randomised and 35 non-randomised studies were identified. One randomised and nine non-randomised studies did not meet the selection criteria, leaving one randomised and 26 non-randomised studies for analysis. In the randomised trial 2 year survival was higher following continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART; 37%) than following 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks (24%). An estimated 2003 patients were included in the 26 non-randomised studies; overall survival was 22-72% at 2 years, 17-55% at 3 years, and 0-42% at 5 years. Following treatment, 11-43% of patients died from causes other than cancer. Cancer specific survival was 54-93% at 2 years, 22-56% at 3 years, and 13-39% at 5 years. Complete response rates were 33-61% and local failure rates were 6-70%. Distant metastases developed in approximately 25% of patients. Better response rates and survival were seen in those with smaller tumours and in those receiving higher doses although the reasons for prescribing higher doses were not clearly stated. The outcome was worse in those with prior weight loss or poor performance status. Assessment of treatment related morbidity and effects on quality of life and symptom control were inconclusive because of the lack of prospective evaluation and paucity of data.?CONCLUSIONS—No randomised trials compared a policy of immediate radical radiotherapy with palliative radiotherapy given when patients develop symptoms. In the absence of such trials, radical radiotherapy appears to result in a better survival than might be expected had treatment not been given. A substantial, though variable, proportion of patients died during follow up from causes other than cancer. The optimal radiation dose and treatment technique (particularly with respect to mediastinal irradiation) remain uncertain.??

Rowell, N; Williams, C

2001-01-01

324

Prospective evaluation of concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for Stage II or III breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of concurrent radiation therapy and paclitaxel-based adjuvant chemotherapy, given either weekly or every 3 weeks, after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). Methods and Materials: After definitive breast surgery and AC chemotherapy, 40 patients with operable Stage II or III breast cancer received protocol-based treatment with concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy. Paclitaxel was evaluated on 2 schedules, with treatment given either weekly x 12 weeks (60 mg/m{sup 2}), or every 3 weeks x 4 cycles (135-175 mg/m{sup 2}). Radiation fields and schedules were determined by the patient's surgery and pathology. The tolerability of concurrent therapy was evaluated in cohorts of 8 patients as a phase I study. Results: Weekly paclitaxel treatment at 60 mg/m{sup 2} per week with concurrent radiation led to dose-limiting toxicity in 4 of 16 patients (25%), including 3 who developed pneumonitis (either Grade 2 [1 patient] or Grade 3 [2 patients]) requiring steroids. Efforts to eliminate this toxicity in combination with weekly paclitaxel through treatment scheduling and CT-based radiotherapy simulation were not successful. By contrast, dose-limiting toxicity was not encountered among patients receiving concurrent radiation with paclitaxel given every 3 weeks at 135-175 mg/m{sup 2}. However, Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis not requiring steroid therapy was seen in 2 of 24 patients (8%) treated in such a fashion. Excessive radiation dermatitis was not observed with either paclitaxel schedule. Conclusions: Concurrent treatment with weekly paclitaxel and radiation therapy is not feasible after adjuvant AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Concurrent treatment using a less frequent paclitaxel dosing schedule may be possible, but caution is warranted in light of the apparent possibility of pulmonary injury.

Burstein, Harold J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: hburstein@partners.org; Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Galper, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lu, H.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kuter, Irene [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Wong, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gelman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bunnell, Craig A. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Parker, Leroy M.; Garber, Judy E. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P.; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2006-02-01

325

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOEpatents

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01

326

Transcutaneous Measurement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Tension (TcPO2 and TcPCO 2) during Treadmill Exercise in Patients with Arterial Occlusive Disease (AOD)—Stages I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions were measured during treadmill exercise in 30 patients with stages I and II arterial occlusive disease and 28 normal controls. Measuring sites were the dorsum of the foot and the frontal thorax. The calculated oxygen index at maximum exercise\\/rest (foot\\/ thorax) differentiated with 100% sensitivity and specifity between the two groups. The oxygen index

Jan André Schmidt; Christiane Bracht; Achim Leyhe; Peter von Wichert

1990-01-01

327

Conservative surgery and radiotherapy for stage I/II breast cancer using lung density correction: 10-year and 15-year results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) planning for breast cancer using lung density correction improves dose homogeneity. Its use obviates the need for a medial wedge, thus reducing scatter to the opposite breast. Although lung density correction is used at many centers in planning for early-stage breast cancer, long-term results of local control and survival have not been reported. Since 1984, we have used lung density correction for dose calculations at the University of Michigan. We now present our 10-year and 15-year results. Methods and Materials: The records of 867 patients with Stage I/II breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT with or without systemic therapy were reviewed. Tangential fields delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast calculated using lung density correction were used. A boost was added in 96.8% of patients for a total median dose of 61.8 Gy. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-18.9 years), 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial rates of in-breast tumor recurrence as only first failure were 2.2%, 3.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. With surgical salvage, the 15-year cumulative rate of local control was 99.7%. Factors that significantly predicted for increased rate of local recurrence in multivariate analysis were age {<=} 35 years, hazard ratio 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.9) p = 0.004; negative progesterone receptor status, hazard ratio 6.8 (95% CI, 2.3-20.3) p = < 0.001; negative estrogen receptor status, hazard ratio 4.0 (95% CI, 1.5-11.1) p = 0.007; and lack of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, hazard ratio 7.7 (95% CI, 1.7-33.3) p = 0.008. Relapse-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 84.6%, 70.8%, and 55.9%, respectively; breast cancer-specific survival rates were 94.4%, 90.5%, and 86.9%, respectively; and corresponding estimates for overall survival were 89.7%, 75.7%, and 61.3%. Conclusions: Use of lung density correction was associated with high rates of local control, relapse-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival compared with other reported series of breast-conserving surgery and RT in early-stage disease. These results will serve as a benchmark against which newer radiation delivery strategies such as intensity-modulated RT and partial breast RT can be compared.

Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Griffith, Kent A. [University of Michigan Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Douglas, Kathye R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lichter, Allen S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2005-04-01

328

Phase II study of ABV (doxorubicin with increased dose, bleomycin and vinblastine) therapy in newly diagnosed advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study (JCOG9705).  

PubMed

The role of dacarbazine in ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) therapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) remains unclear. This phase II study assessed the efficacy and safety of ABV therapy with an increased doxorubicin dose (30 mg/m(2)) in advanced-stage HL. The primary endpoint was complete response rate (%CR). Patients received six or eight cycles of ABV every 4 weeks followed by involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) in residual disease and initial bulky mass. Seventy-two patients were enrolled. An interim analysis in 46 assessable patients showed that %CR had exceeded the stopping criteria.However, the 2-year progression-free survival (%PFS) rate of 49.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 32.2-66.6) was markedly lower than the 79.2% PFS (95% CI 70.6-87.7) seen in our previously reported study (JCOG9305) of ABVd with two-thirds the dose of dacarbazine of the original ABVD. Therefore, the study was closed early. The %CR in the 70 eligible patients after ABV was 31.4% (95% CI 20.9-43.6) and was increased to 70.0% (95% CI 57.9-80.4) after the addition of IFRT. ABV was inferior to ABVd for PFS in patients with advanced HL, suggesting that dacarbazine is indispensable in ABVD/ABVd. PMID:22712838

Ogura, Michinori; Itoh, Kuniaki; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Tobinai, Kensei; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Hirano, Masami; Ueda, Ryuzo; Shibata, Taro; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Hotta, Tomomitsu; Shimoyama, Masanori; Morishima, Yasuo

2012-08-21

329

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine augmentation in patients with stage II treatment-resistant major depressive disorder: an open label, fixed dose, single-blind study.  

PubMed

We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe) augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD). Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800?mg) for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ?7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed. PMID:23766680

De Berardis, Domenico; Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Rapini, Gabriella; Iasevoli, Felice; Valchera, Alessandro; Signorelli, Maria; Aguglia, Eugenio; Perna, Giampaolo; Salone, Anatolia; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2013-05-12

330

The combination of radiotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-ftorafur) and tamoxifen in stage II breast cancer. Long-term follow-up results of a randomised trial.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred patients with node positive stage II breast cancer were randomised to four groups after radical mastectomy and axillary evacuation: (1) Postoperative radiotherapy, (2) Adjuvant chemotherapy with eight courses of CAFt (cyclophosphamide 500 mg m-2 + doxorubicin 40 mg/m-2 + ftorafur 20 mg kg-1 orally day 1-14) every fourth week, (3) Postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy and (4) postoperative radiation, adjuvant chemotherapy and tamoxifen 40 mg daily for 2 years. Thirty-two per cent of the patients discontinued treatment due to GI-toxicity, while 26% required dose reductions due to leukopenia. Radiation pneumonitis was more frequent after the combination of postoperative radiotherapy with chemotherapy. There was a better relapse-free survival in the groups receiving chemotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone (P = 0.05), which was highly significant in a multivariate Cox analysis (P = 0.004). No significant survival differences were seen. Tamoxifen had no clear overall effect but there were better relapse-free (P = 0.04) and overall (P = 0.004) survival with tamoxifen in estrogen receptor positive patients, while estrogen receptor negative patients had a somewhat poorer survival (P = 0.07) after tamoxifen. Local control was better (NS) after the combination (93%) radiotherapy and chemotherapy compared to either treatment alone (76% with radiotherapy and 74% with chemotherapy at 5 years).

Blomqvist, C.; Tiusanen, K.; Elomaa, I.; Rissanen, P.; Hietanen, T.; Heinonen, E.; Grohn, P.

1992-01-01

331

Association of angiotensin II type-1 receptor A1166C gene polymorphism with the susceptibility of end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Association between angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) A1166C gene polymorphism and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk is still controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association of AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism with ESRD susceptibility. The search was performed in the databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library as of 1 May 2012, and the eligible investigations were recruited for this meta-analysis. Nineteen literatures were identified for the analysis of association between AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism and ESRD susceptibility. There was no association between AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism and ESRD susceptibility for overall populations, Caucasians, Asians and Turkish population. Interestingly, CC genotype was associated with a higher risk of ESRD in Africans (OR?=?3.36, 95% CI: 1.42-7.99, p?=?0.006). However, C allele and AA genotype were not associated with the ESRD risk in African population. In conclusion, CC genotype might be a risk factor for the ESRD susceptibility in African population. However, more case-control association investigations on larger, stratified populations are required in the future. PMID:23971628

Zhou, Tian-Biao; Yin, Sheng-Sheng; Jiang, Zong-Pei

2013-08-23

332

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Augmentation in Patients with Stage II Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Label, Fixed Dose, Single-Blind Study  

PubMed Central

We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe) augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD). Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800?mg) for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ?7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed.

Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Rapini, Gabriella; Aguglia, Eugenio; Perna, Giampaolo; Salone, Anatolia; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2013-01-01

333

Lack of association of angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C gene polymorphism with the risk of end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

Abstract The association between angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) A 1166C (rs5186) gene polymorphism and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk remains controversial. We aimed to assess the association between AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism and ESRD susceptibility by performing a meta-analysis. Eligible studies were searched according to a predefined criterion using electronic databases. Eight articles were identified for the analysis of the association between AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism and ESRD risk. A allele and AA genotype were not associated with ESRD risk in overall populations, Caucasians and Asians (overall populations: p?=?0.834 and 0.832, Caucasians: p?=?0.853 and 0.884, Asians: p?=?0.243 and 0.982). CC and AC genotype were not associated with ESRD risk in overall populations, Caucasians and Asians (overall populations: p?=?0.304 and 0.712, Caucasians: p?=?0.510 and 0.987, Asians: p?=?0.319 and 0.225). In conclusion, AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism may not be correlated with ESRD risk in overall populations, Caucasians and Asians. However, more studies should be performed in the future. PMID:23902432

Mao, Song; Huang, Songming

2013-08-01

334

Clinicopathologic Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Endorectal Brachytherapy versus Conventional Chemoradiotherapy in the Neoadjuvant Setting for Resectable Stages II and III Low Rectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Purpose. To assess for differences in clinical, radiologic, and pathologic outcomes between patients with stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma treated neoadjuvantly with conventional external beam radiotherapy (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)) versus high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (EBT). Methods. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant EBT received 4 consecutive daily 6.5?Gy fractions without chemotherapy, while those undergoing 3DRT or IMRT received 28 daily 1.8?Gy fractions with concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Data was collected prospectively for 7 EBT patients and retrospectively for 25 historical 3DRT/IMRT controls. Results. Time to surgery was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher rate of pathologic CR for EBT (P = 0.06). Rates of margin and lymph node positivity at resection were similar for all groups. Acute toxicity was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P = 0.025). Overall and progression-free survival were noninferior for EBT. On MRI, EBT achieved similar complete response rate and reduction in tumor volume as 3DRT and IMRT. Histopathologic comparison showed that EBT resulted in more localized treatment effects and fewer serosal adhesions. Conclusions. EBT offers several practical benefits over conventional radiotherapy techniques and appears to be at least as effective against low rectal cancer as measured by short-term outcomes. PMID:22830003

Smith, Jessica A; Wild, Aaron T; Singhi, Aatur; Raman, Siva P; Qiu, Haoming; Kumar, Rachit; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Hruban, Ralph H; Kamel, Ihab R; Efron, Jonathan; Wick, Elizabeth C; Azad, Nilofer S; Diaz, Luis A; Le, Yi; Armour, Elwood P; Gearhart, Susan L; Herman, Joseph M

2012-07-08

335

Increased levels of serum leptin are a risk factor for the recurrence of stage I/II hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment  

PubMed Central

Obesity and related adipocytokine disbalance increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. To determine the impact of increased levels of leptin, an obesity-related adipocytokine, on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, we conducted a prospective case-series analysis. Eighty-five consecutive primary hepatocellular carcinoma patients at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2008 were analyzed. Serum leptin level significantly correlated with Body Mass Index, total body fat, and the amount of subcutaneous fat. They included 33 with stage I/II, who underwent curative treatment. The factors contributing to recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, including leptin, were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Body Mass Index (p = 0.0062), total body fat (p = 0.0404), albumin (p = 0.0210), ?-fetoprotein (p = 0.0365), and leptin (p = 0.0003) were significantly associated with the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis suggested that leptin (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.07–1.49, p = 0.0035) was a sole independent predictor. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survival was lower in patients with greater serum leptin concentrations (>5 ng/mL, p = 0.0221). These results suggest that the serum leptin level is a useful biomarker for predicting the early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Watanabe, Naoki; Takai, Koji; Imai, Kenji; Shimizu, Masahito; Naiki, Takafumi; Nagaki, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka

2011-01-01

336

Increased levels of serum leptin are a risk factor for the recurrence of stage I/II hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment.  

PubMed

Obesity and related adipocytokine disbalance increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. To determine the impact of increased levels of leptin, an obesity-related adipocytokine, on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, we conducted a prospective case-series analysis. Eighty-five consecutive primary hepatocellular carcinoma patients at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2008 were analyzed. Serum leptin level significantly correlated with Body Mass Index, total body fat, and the amount of subcutaneous fat. They included 33 with stage I/II, who underwent curative treatment. The factors contributing to recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, including leptin, were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Body Mass Index (p = 0.0062), total body fat (p = 0.0404), albumin (p = 0.0210), ?-fetoprotein (p = 0.0365), and leptin (p = 0.0003) were significantly associated with the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis suggested that leptin (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.49, p = 0.0035) was a sole independent predictor. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survival was lower in patients with greater serum leptin concentrations (>5 ng/mL, p = 0.0221). These results suggest that the serum leptin level is a useful biomarker for predicting the early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22128212

Watanabe, Naoki; Takai, Koji; Imai, Kenji; Shimizu, Masahito; Naiki, Takafumi; Nagaki, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka

2011-10-29

337

Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust II. Combination of surface and upper-level conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An invasive forest pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, white pine blister rust (WPBR), is believed to have arrived in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico about 1970. Epidemiological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that introduction was the result of long-distance dispersal (LDD) by atmospheric transport from California. This study applies a method to identify the atmospheric conditions favorable for rust transport and infection. An upper level synoptic classification (ULSC) identifies patterns of upper-level flow favorable for the transport of rust spores from a source to a target. Transport data are coupled with data for surface conditions favorable for infection at a designated target. A resulting calendar lists likelihood classes for establishment by four-times-daily observations during a dispersal season from April through July in the years 1965 to 1974. The single most-favorable period for transport and infection at the New Mexico site was identified as 1 15 June 1969. Five additional sites in the western United States with susceptible white pine populations and known infestation status were then evaluated to verify the model. Only the infested sites exhibit an establishment likelihood of “high” or “very high.” This suggests that the methodology correctly identifies locations with elevated establishment likelihood. Finally, likelihoods at nine additional points in the southwestern United States are determined and used to map regional patterns of transport, infection and establishment. The ULSC combined with appropriate surface meteorological data could be used to further investigate transport and infection, identify other areas at risk, assess the potential for gene flow of WPBR and evaluate long-distance dispersal of other pathogens.

Frank, K. L.; Geils, B. W.; Kalkstein, L. S.; Thistle, H. W.

2008-09-01

338

Consolidative Involved-Node Proton Therapy for Stage IA-IIIB Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: Preliminary Dosimetric Outcomes From a Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose reduction to organs at risk (OARs) with proton therapy (PT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) enrolled on a Phase II study of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2009 and October 2010, 10 patients were enrolled on a University of Florida institutional review board-approved protocol for de novo 'classical' Stage IA-IIIB HL with mediastinal (bulky or nonbulky) involvement after chemotherapy. INRT was planned per European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines. Three separate optimized plans were developed for each patient: 3D-CRT, IMRT, and PT. The primary end point was a 50% reduction in the body V4 with PT compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT. Results: The median relative reduction with PT in the primary end point, body V4, was 51% compared with 3D-CRT (p = 0.0098) and 59% compared with IMRT (p = 0.0020), thus all patients were offered treatment with PT. PT provided the lowest mean dose to the heart, lungs, and breasts for all 10 patients compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. The median difference in the OAR mean dose reduction with PT compared with 3D-CRT were 10.4 Gy/CGE for heart; 5.5 Gy/CGE for lung; 0.9 Gy/CGE for breast; 8.3 Gy/CGE for esophagus; and 4.1 Gy/CGE for thyroid. The median differences for mean OAR dose reduction for PT compared with IMRT were 4.3 Gy/CGE for heart, 3.1 Gy/CGE for lung, 1.4 Gy/CGE for breast, 2.8 Gy/CGE for esophagus, and 2.7 Gy/CGE for thyroid. Conclusions: All 10 patients benefitted from dose reductions to OARs with PT compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. It is anticipated that these reductions in dose to OAR will translate into lower rates of late complications, but long-term follow-up on this Phase II INRT study is needed.

Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Su Zhong; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Latif, Naeem [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2012-05-01

339

Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for locally advanced (Stage II and worse) head-and-neck cancer: Dosimetric and clinical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric parameters of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced head-and-neck tumors (Stage II and above) and the effects on xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A total of 49 patients with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the head and neck were consecutively treated with 3D-CRT using a one-point setup technique; 17 had larynx cancer, 12 oropharynx, 12 oral cavity, and 6 nasopharynx cancer; 2 had other sites of cancer. Of the 49 patients, 41 received postoperative RT and 8 definitive treatment. Also, 13 were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy before and during RT; in 6 cases, 5-fluorouracil was added. The follow-up time was 484-567 days (median, 530 days). Results: One-point setup can deliver 96% of the prescribed dose to the isocenter, to the whole planning target volume, including all node levels of the neck and without overdosages. The mean dose to the primary planning target volume was 49.54 {+-} 4.82 Gy (51.53 {+-} 5.47 Gy for larynx cases). The average dose to the contralateral parotid gland was approximately 38 Gy (30 Gy for larynx cases). The maximal dose to the spinal cord was 46 Gy. A Grade 0 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia score corresponded to a mean dose of 30 Gy to one parotid gland. A lower xerostomia score with a lower mean parotid dose and longer follow-up seemed to give rise to a sort of functional recovery phenomenon. Conclusion: Three dimensional-CRT in head-and-neck cancers permits good coverage of the planning target volume with about 10-11 segments and one isocenter. With a mean dose of approximately 30 Gy to the contralateral parotid, we observed no or mild xerostomia.

Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiotherapy, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy) and National Research Council, IFC, Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: portaluri@hotmail.com; Fucilli, Fulvio I.M. [Department of Medical Physics, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Castagna, Roberta [Department of Radiotherapy, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Bambace, Santa [Department of Radiotherapy, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Pili, Giorgio [Department of Medical Physics, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Tramacere, Francesco [Department of Radiotherapy, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Russo, Donatella [Department of Radiotherapy, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Francavilla, Maria Carmen [Department of Radiotherapy, AUSL Br-1, 'Di Summa-Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy)

2006-11-15

340

Phase I/II study of vaccination with electrofused allogeneic dendritic cells/autologous tumor-derived cells in patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

In the present study, we assessed the feasibility, toxicity, immunologic response, and clinical efficacy of vaccination with allogeneic dendritic cell (DC)/tumor fusions in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients with stage IV RCC with accessible tumor lesions or independent therapeutic indications for nephrectomy were eligible for enrollment. Tumors were processed into single cell suspensions and cryopreserved. DCs were generated from adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from normal volunteers and cultured with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. DCs were fused to patient derived RCC with serial electrical pulses. Patients received up to 3 vaccinations at a fixed dose of 4x10(7) to 1x10(8) cells administered at 6-week intervals. Twenty-four patients underwent vaccination. Twenty-one and 20 patients were evaluable for immunologic and clinical response, respectively. DCs demonstrated a characteristic phenotype with prominent expression of HLA class II and costimulatory molecules. A mean fusion efficiency of 20% was observed, determined by the percent of cells coexpressing DC and tumor antigens. No evidence of significant treatment related toxicity or auto-immunity was observed. Vaccination resulted in antitumor immune responses in 10/21 evaluable patients as manifested by an increase in CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell expression of interferon-gamma after ex vivo exposure to tumor lysate. Two patients demonstrated a partial clinical response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria and 8 patients had stabilization of their disease. Vaccination of patients with RCC with allogeneic DC/tumor fusions was feasible, well tolerated, and resulted in immunologic and clinical responses in a subset of patients. PMID:17893567

Avigan, David E; Vasir, Baldev; George, Daniel J; Oh, William K; Atkins, Michael B; McDermott, David F; Kantoff, Philip W; Figlin, Robert A; Vasconcelles, Michael J; Xu, Yuanxin; Kufe, Donald; Bukowski, Ronald M

2007-10-01

341

A Comparison of Laparoscopic and Abdominal Radical Parametrectomy for Cervical or Vaginal Apex Carcinoma and Stage II Endometrial Cancer After Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Radical parametrectomy (RP), performed either abdominally (ARP) or laparoscopically (LRP), is a viable alternative to radiotherapy in treating invasive cervical cancer, vaginal apex cancer, and endometrial cancer that is more advanced than initially suspected after hysterectomy. We carried out a comparative study on intra- and postoperative parameters between the two performed by similarly experienced surgeons. Methods: Forty consecutive patients indicative for RP were reviewed: 22 and 18 underwent ARP and LRP, respectively. Information was collected on demographics, indications for initial and this surgery, tumor characteristics, intra- and postoperative parameters, and complications. The lengths of resected parametrial and vaginal tissues were measured. Results: Compared with ARP, LRP resulted in shorter operative time (200 vs 239 min), less blood loss (627.8 vs 929.5 mL), shorter hospital stay (16.8 vs 19.9 days), and removal of more pelvic lymph nodes (27.4 ± 5.9 vs 23.1 ± 7.1). Although it was not attempted in ARP to remove lymph nodes in the deep obturator space, it was attempted in LRP and one positive node was found. In the ARP cohort there was one case of injury to the small intestine during surgery, whereas in LRP there was one instance of lower urologic fistula after surgery. Conclusion: LRP is superior to ARP in terms of shorter operative time, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay while still maintaining the completeness of the procedure. It can be safely performed in the hands of experienced surgeons for cervical or vaginal apex carcinoma and stage II endometrial cancer after hysterectomy.

Jiang, Hongyuan; Qu, Lianxi; Hua, Keqin; Xu, Huan; Guo, Sun-Wei

2013-01-01

342

Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Using Carboplatin, Tegafur-Uracil and Leucovorin for Stage III and IV Head-and-Neck Cancer: Results of GORTEC Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment of locally advanced, nonresectable, head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the optimal chemotherapy regimen is still controversial. The objective of this Phase II study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant treatment using tegafur-uracil, leucovorin, carboplatin, and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 77 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma Stage III and IVA were enrolled between October 2003 and July 2005. Of the 77 patients, 72 were eligible. They were treated with tegafur-uracil (300 mg/m{sup 2}/d) and leucovorin (75 mg/d) from Days 1 to 19 and from Days 29 to 47 and carboplatin (70 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously for 4 consecutive days), in three cycles every 21 days. Conventional radiotherapy was delivered to a total dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Results: With a mean follow-up of 22.8 months, the 3-year locoregional control, overall survival and disease-free survival actuarial rate was 33.1%, 41.9%, and 27.2%, respectively. The compliance of the treatment was correct. The main acute toxicity was mucositis, with 62% Grade 3-4. Three patients (4.2%) died of acute toxicity. The incidence and severity of late toxicity was acceptable, with 32% Grade 3 and no Grade 4 toxicity. Conclusion: The protocol of concomitant chemoradiotherapy using tegafur-uracil, leucovorin, and carboplatin for locally advanced unresectable head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma is feasible. The compliance was correct. The incidence and severity of the acute and late toxicities were acceptable, but not improved. The efficacy of this regimen seems equivalent to the main protocols of concurrent chemoradiotherapy. It represents a possible alternative for patients without an intravenous catheter.

Fesneau, Melanie; Pointreau, Yoann; Chapet, Sophie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Kaplan Center, Tours (France); Martin, Laurent [Department of Radiation Oncology, Guillaume le Conquerant Center, Le Havre (France); Pommier, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leon Berard Center, Lyon (France); Alfonsi, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sainte Catherine Center, Avignon (France); Laguerre, Brigitte [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eugene Marquis Center, Rennes (France); Feham, Nasreddine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Louis Pas43teur Hospital, Colmar (France); Berger, Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint Jean Center, Saint-Doulchard (France); Garaud, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Henry Kaplan Center, Tours (France); Calais, Gilles, E-mail: calais@med.univ-tours.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Kaplan Center, Tours (France)

2010-01-15

343

Phase I Study of Oxaliplatin in Combination With Capecitabine and Radiotherapy as Postoperative Treatment for Stage II and III Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A Phase I study was conducted to determine the maximal tolerated dose and the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of oxaliplatin (OXA) combined with capecitabine and radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment in patients with operable rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 21 patients with Stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma after curative surgery were treated with radiotherapy to a total dose of 50 Gy in 5 weeks. OXA was administered at a dosage of 40 (n = 6), 50 (n = 3),60 (n = 3), 70 (n = 3), or 80 mg/m{sup 2} (n = 6) once a week for 2 weeks (first cycle) followed by a second cycle after a 7-day break. Capecitabine at a fixed dose of 1,300 mg/m{sup 2}/d was administered orally at the same schedule as for OXA. DLT was defined as Grade 3 or 4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. Results: Grade 1-3 leukopenia, diarrhea, and nausea/vomiting were the most common toxic side effects, and most were Grade 1-2. A DLT was first observed in 1 of 3 patients at 40 mg/m{sup 2} (Grade 3 diarrhea) but was not observed in the next 3 patients at the same level or in patients who received a dose level of 50-70 mg/m{sup 2}. At 80 mg/m{sup 2}, DLT occurred in 3 of 6 patients (1 Grade 4 leukopenia and 2 Grade 3 diarrhea). Conclusions: OXA combined with a fixed dose of capecitabine at 625 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily by mouth plus radiotherapy in the adjuvant setting was tolerable and clinically feasible. The maximal tolerated dose of OXA in this setting was 80 mg/m{sup 2}, comparable to the maximal tolerated dose of OXA in the neoadjuvant setting.

Jin Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Li Yexiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)], E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Wang Jinwan [Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang Weihu; Liu Yueping; Wang Kai; Fang Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou Zhixiang [Department of Abdominal Surgery, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou Aiping [Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu Zihao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

2008-11-01

344

Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

2013-01-07

345

Functional outcomes of intramuscular botulinum toxin type a in the upper limbs of children with cerebral palsy: a phase II trial 1 1 No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the author(s) or upon any organization with which the author(s) is\\/are associated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wallen MA, O’Flaherty SJ, Waugh M-CA. Functional outcomes of intramuscular botulinum toxin type A in the upper limbs of children with cerebral palsy: a phase II trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:192–200.

Margaret A Wallen; Stephen J O’Flaherty; Mary-Clare A Waugh

2004-01-01

346

Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

Theil, Elvira

1997-01-01

347

Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

Theil, Elvira

1997-01-01

348

Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with increasing pubertal Tanner stage in males but remained stable during puberty in females. Design: Upper airway dynamic function during sleep was measured over the course of puberty. Participants: Normal subjects of Tanner stages 1 to 5. Measurements: During sleep, maximal inspiratory airflow was measured while varying the level of nasal pressure. The slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship (SPF) was measured. Results: The SPF correlated with age and Tanner stage. However, the relationship with Tanner stage became nonsignificant when the correlation due to the mutual association with age was removed. Females had a lower SPF than males. Conclusions: In both sexes, the upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with age rather than degree of pubertal development. Thus, changes in sex hormones are unlikely to be a primary modulator of upper airway function during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Although further studies of upper airway structural changes during puberty are needed, we speculate that the changes in upper airway function with age are due to the depressant effect of age on ventilatory drive, leading to a decrease in upper airway neuromotor tone. Citation: Bandla P; Huang J; Karamessinis L; Kelly A; Pepe M; Samuel J; Brooks L; Mason TA; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):534-541.

Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Samuel, John; Brooks, Lee; Mason, Thornton. A.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

2008-01-01

349

Surgical approaches for stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis: feasibility of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) thymectomy in comparison with trans-sternal resection  

PubMed Central

Complete resection could be achieved in virtually all myasthenic patients with Masaoka stage I and II thymoma using the trans-sternal technique. Whether this is appropriate for minimally invasive approach is not yet clear. We evaluated the feasibility of complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) thymectomy for the treatment of Masaoka stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis, compared to conventional trans-sternal thymectomy. We summarized 33 patients with Masaoka stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis between April 2006 and September 2011. Of these, 15 patients underwent right-sided complete VATS (the VATS group) by using adjuvant pneuomomediastinum, comparing with 18 patients using the trans-sternal approach (the T3b group). No intraoperative death was found and no VATS case required conversion to median sternotomy. Significant differences between the two groups regarding duration of surgery and volume of intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) were observed. Postoperative morbidities were 26.7% and 33.3% for the VATS and T3b groups, respectively. All 33 patients were followed up for 12 to 61 months in the study. The cumulative probabilities of reaching complete stable remission and effective rate were 26.7% (4/15) and 93.3% (14/15) in the VATS group, which had a significantly higher complete stable remission and effective rate than those in the T3b group (P = 0.026 and P = 0.000, respectively). We conclude that VATS thymectomy utilizing adjuvant pneuomomediastinum for the treatment of stage I and II thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis is technically feasible but deserves further investigation in a large series with long-term follow-up.

He, Zhicheng; Zhu, Quan; Wen, Wei; Chen, Liang; Xu, Hai; Li, Hai

2013-01-01

350

Safety of zoledronic acid and incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) during adjuvant therapy in a randomised phase III trial (AZURE: BIG 01–04) for women with stage II\\/III breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AZURE trial is an ongoing phase III, academic, multi-centre, randomised trial designed to evaluate the role of zoledronic\\u000a acid (ZOL) in the adjuvant therapy of women with stage II\\/III breast cancer. Here, we report the safety and tolerability profile\\u000a of ZOL in this setting. Eligible patients received (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and\\/or endocrine therapy and were randomised\\u000a to receive neither additional

R. Coleman; E. Woodward; J. Brown; D. Cameron; R. Bell; D. Dodwell; M. Keane; M. Gil; C. Davies; R. Burkinshaw; S. J. Houston; R. J. Grieve; P. J. Barrett-Lee; H. Thorpe

2011-01-01

351

Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Bacterial Infection; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

2013-10-10

352

Randomized phase III trial of vinorelbine plus cisplatin compared with observation in completely resected stage IB and II non-small-cell lung cancer: updated survival analysis of JBR-10.  

PubMed

PURPOSE Adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (ACT) is now an accepted standard for completely resected stage II and III A non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Long-term follow-up is important to document persistent benefit and late toxicity. We report here updated overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) data. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with completely resected stage IB (T2N0, n = 219) or II (T1-2N1, n = 263) NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 4 cycles of vinorelbine/cisplatin or observation. All efficacy analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results Median follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 5.8 to 13.8; 33 lost to follow-up); there were 271 deaths in 482 randomly assigned patients. ACT continues to show a benefit (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.99; P = .04). There was a trend for interaction with disease stage (P = .09; HR for stage II, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.92; P = .01; stage IB, HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.52; P = .87). ACT resulted in significantly prolonged DSS (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.97; P = .03). Observation was associated with significantly higher risk of death from lung cancer (P = .02), with no difference in rates of death from other causes or second primary malignancies between the arms. CONCLUSION Prolonged follow-up of patients from the JBR.10 trial continues to show a benefit in survival for adjuvant chemotherapy. This benefit appears to be confined to N1 patients. There was no increase in death from other causes in the chemotherapy arm. PMID:19933915

Butts, Charles A; Ding, Keyue; Seymour, Lesley; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Graham, Barbara; Gandara, David; Johnson, David H; Kesler, Kenneth A; Green, Mark; Vincent, Mark; Cormier, Yvon; Goss, Glenwood; Findlay, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shepherd, Frances A

2009-11-23

353

Randomized Phase III Trial of Vinorelbine Plus Cisplatin Compared With Observation in Completely Resected Stage IB and II Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Updated Survival Analysis of JBR-10  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (ACT) is now an accepted standard for completely resected stage II and III A non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Long-term follow-up is important to document persistent benefit and late toxicity. We report here updated overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) data. Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected stage IB (T2N0, n = 219) or II (T1-2N1, n = 263) NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 4 cycles of vinorelbine/cisplatin or observation. All efficacy analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results Median follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 5.8 to 13.8; 33 lost to follow-up); there were 271 deaths in 482 randomly assigned patients. ACT continues to show a benefit (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.99; P = .04). There was a trend for interaction with disease stage (P = .09; HR for stage II, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.92; P = .01; stage IB, HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.52; P = .87). ACT resulted in significantly prolonged DSS (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.97; P = .03). Observation was associated with significantly higher risk of death from lung cancer (P = .02), with no difference in rates of death from other causes or second primary malignancies between the arms. Conclusion Prolonged follow-up of patients from the JBR.10 trial continues to show a benefit in survival for adjuvant chemotherapy. This benefit appears to be confined to N1 patients. There was no increase in death from other causes in the chemotherapy arm.

Butts, Charles A.; Ding, Keyue; Seymour, Lesley; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Graham, Barbara; Gandara, David; Johnson, David H.; Kesler, Kenneth A.; Green, Mark; Vincent, Mark; Cormier, Yvon; Goss, Glenwood; Findlay, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shepherd, Frances A.

2010-01-01

354

Prediction of 2 years-survival in patients with stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer utilizing 18F-FDG PET/CT SUV quantification  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the correlation between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), size of primary lung lesion, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2 years follow-up. Patients and methods. Forty-nine patients with stage I–II NSCLC were included in this study. Pre-surgical 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) study was performed for all patients. The relationship between SUVmax, tumour size and clinical outcome was measured. The cut-off value for SUVmax and tumour size with the best prognostic significance, probability of DFS and the correlation between SUVmax and the response to therapy were calculated. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between SUVmax and DFS (p = 0.029). The optimal cut-offs were 9.00 for SUVmax (p = 0.0013) and 30mm for tumour size (p = 0.0028). Patients with SUVmax > 9 and primary lesion size > 30 mm had an expected 2years-DFS of 37.5%, while this rose to 90% if the tumour was <30 mm and/or SUVmax was <9. Conclusions In stage I-II, SUVmax and tumour size might be helpful to identify the subgroup of patients with high chance for recurrence.

Cistaro, Angelina; Quartuccio, Natale; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Fania, Piercarlo; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Campenni, Alfredo; Ficola, Umberto; Baldari, Sergio

2013-01-01

355

Dosimetric Comparison of Three Different Involved Nodal Irradiation Techniques for Stage II Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients: Conventional Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, and Three-Dimensional Proton Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose distribution to targeted and nontargeted tissues in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients using conventional radiotherapy (CRT), intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and three-dimensional proton RT (3D-PRT). Methods and Materials: CRT, IMRT, and 3D-PRT treatment plans delivering 30 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE)/Gy to an involved nodal field were created for 9 Stage II Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (n = 27 plans). The dosimetric endpoints were compared. Results: The planning target volume was adequately treated using all three techniques. The IMRT plan produced the most conformal high-dose distribution; however, the 3D-PRT plan delivered the lowest mean dose to nontarget tissues, including the breast, lung, and total body. The relative reduction in the absolute lung volume receiving doses of 4-16 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with CRT ranged from 26% to 37% (p < .05), and the relative reduction in the absolute lung volume receiving doses of 4-10 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with IMRT was 48-65% (p < .05). The relative reduction in absolute total body volume receiving 4-30 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with CRT was 47% (p < .05). The relative reduction in absolute total body volume receiving a dose of 4 CGE/Gy for 3D-PRT compared with IMRT was 63% (p = .03). The mean dose to the breast was significantly less for 3D-PRT than for either IMRT or CRT (p = .03) The mean dose and absolute volume receiving 4-30 CGE/Gy for the heart, thyroid, and salivary glands were similar for the three modalities. Conclusion: In this favorable subset of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients without disease in or below the hila, 3D-PRT significantly reduced the dose to the breast, lung, and total body. These observed dosimetric advantages might improve the clinical outcomes of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients by reducing the risk of late radiation effects related to low-to-moderate doses in nontargeted tissues.

Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Rodriguez, Christina; Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Louis, Debbie; Yeung, Daniel; Li Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.ed [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2009-11-15

356

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

2012-04-01

357

Selectivity improvement in the solvent refined coal process. I - Detailed first-stage reaction studies - Coal mineral catalysis. II - Detailed second-stage reaction studies - Hydrotreating of coal liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two stage process is investigated for the production of a low-sulfur solid SRC-I (solvent refined coal) type boiler fuel with a minimum consumption of hydrogen. The first stage involves the scavenging action of coal minerals. Mineral additives (e.g., iron oxide and iron) increase selectivity for hydrodesulfurization over hydrogenation in coal liquefaction reactions. Mineral residues from SRC processes show insignificant desulfurization activity, but through oxidation, their sulfurization activity increases to significant levels without an increase in hydrogenation activity. The sulfur removal activity of an additive depends on its surface area. The second stage involves hydrotreating the dissolver effluent for maximum sulfur removal, with a minimum consumption of hydrogen. The effect of a wide range of variables on hydrotreating of a coal liquid in the presence of a commercial Co-Mo-Al catalyst is evaluated. The variables include catalyst loading, hydrogen partial pressure, reaction temperature and time.

Garg, D.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Clinton, J. H.

1980-08-01

358

Phase II trial of a trimodality regimen for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer using chemotherapy as induction treatment with concurrent hyperfractionated chemoradiation with carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by subsequent resection: a single-center study.  

PubMed

PURPOSE We started a phase II trial of induction chemotherapy and concurrent hyperfractionated chemoradiotherapy followed by either surgery or boost chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced, stage III disease. The purpose is to achieve better survival in the surgery group with minimum morbidity and mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients treated from 1998 to 2002 with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgical resection for stage III NSCLC were analyzed. The treatment consisted of four cycles of induction chemotherapy with carboplatin/paclitaxel followed by chemoradiotherapy with a reduced dose of carboplatin/paclitaxel and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy with 1.5 Gy twice daily up to 45 Gy. After restaging, operable patients underwent thoracotomy. Inoperable patients received chemoradiotherapy up to 63 Gy. Study end points included resectability, pathologic response, and survival. Results One hundred twenty patients were enrolled; 25% patients had stage IIIA, 73% had stage IIIB, and 2% stage IV. After treatment, 47.5% had downstaging, 29.2% had stable disease, and 23.3% had progressive disease. Thirty patients (25%) were not eligible for operation because of progressive disease, stable disease, and/or functional deterioration with one treatment-related death. The 30-day mortality was 5% in patients who underwent operation. The 5-year survival rate for 120 patients was 21.7%, and it was 43.1% in patients with complete resection. In postoperative patients with stage N0 disease, 5-year survival was 53.3%; if stage N2 or N3 disease was still present, 5-year survival was 33.3%. CONCLUSION Staging and treatment with chemoradiotherapy and complete resection performed in experienced centers achieve acceptable morbidity and mortality. PMID:20100967

Friedel, Godehard; Budach, Wilfried; Dippon, Juergen; Spengler, Werner; Eschmann, Susanne Martina; Pfannenberg, Christina; Al-Kamash, Fawaz; Walles, Thorsten; Aebert, Hermann; Kyriss, Thomas; Veit, Stefanie; Kimmich, Martin; Bamberg, Michael; Kohlhaeufl, Martin; Steger, Volker; Hehr, Thomas

2010-01-25

359

Revisiting the prognostic value of preoperative 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in early-stage (I & II) non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aims were to determine if the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor as determined by preoperative 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is an independent predictor of overall survival and to assess its prognostic value after stratification according to pathological staging. Methods A retrospective clinicopathologic review of 363 patients who had a preoperative 18F-FDG PET done before undergoing attempted curative resection for early-stage (I & II) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was performed. Patients who had received any adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy were excluded. The primary outcome measure was duration of overall survival. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to find out the optimal cutoff values of SUVmax yielding the maximal sensitivity plus specificity for predicting the overall survival. Survival curves stratified by median SUVmax and optimal cutoff SUVmax were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and statistical differences were assessed using the log-rank test. Multivariate proportional hazards (Cox) regression analyses were applied to test the SUVmax’s independency of other prognostic factors for the prediction of overall survival. Results The median duration of follow-up was 981 days (2.7 years). The median SUVmax was 5.9 for all subjects, 4.5 for stage IA, 8.4 for stage IB, and 10.9 for stage IIB. The optimal cutoff SUVmax was 8.2 for all subjects. No optimal cutoff could be established for specific stages. In univariate analyses, each doubling of SUVmax [i.e., each log (base 2) unit increase in SUVmax] was associated with a 1.28-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.59, p?=?0.029] increase in hazard of death. Univariate analyses did not show any significant difference in survival by SUVmax when data were stratified according to pathological stage (p?=?0.119, p?=?0.818, and p?=?0.882 for stages IA, IB, and IIB, respectively). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that SUVmax was not an independent predictor of overall survival (p?>?0.05). Conclusion Each doubling of SUVmax as determined by preoperative PET is associated with a 1.28-fold increase in hazard of death in early-stage (I & II) NSCLC. Preoperative SUVmax is not an independent predictor of overall survival.

Brahmanday, Govinda; Bajaj, Sunil K.; Ravikrishnan, K. P.; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver

2009-01-01

360

How Is Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... organ outside of the lymph system (IE). Stage II Either of the following means the disease is stage II: The lymphoma is in 2 or more groups ... not the combination of underarm and groin nodes (II). The lymphoma extends from a single group of ...

361

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

362

Titan 34D\\/IUS\\/DSCS II-III launch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a mission in which two Defense Satellite Communication System spacecraft (DSCS-II and DSCS-III) were placed into a near-synchronous equatorial orbit with the aid of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and the Titan 34D launch vehicle. Liftoff of the T34D\\/IUS-2 launch vehicle occurred on October 30, 1982. Attention is given to details regarding the design and

D. J. Rohrbaugh; C. Ufferheide

1984-01-01

363

Upper mesosphere temperature changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle of July 2000 an extremely strong solar proton event happened (named "Bastille II"), which caused a major polar cap absorption due to the strong increase of D-region electron density by high energy particle precipitation resulting from a major coronal mass ejection on the sun. The concurrent ionospheric disturbances led to enhanced electric fields, which caused an increase of the ion drift and the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere and possibly in the upper meso-sphere as well. Through the enhanced ion drag increases of temperature are usu-ally re-sulting. We tried to recognize this in observations of Polar mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) with the SOUSY Svalbard Radar and of incoherent scatter with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. We find two inde-pendent observations, which indicate a potential temperature increase of the upper mesopause region due to ion and neutral heating: (1) During the strongest D-region electron density enhancement we recognized a dis-appearance of PMSE above 86 km lasting over a fraction of a day. This could be ex-plained by disappearance (melting) of ice particles due to heating (2) We also recognized that the incoherent scatter spectrum above the PMSE region was wider than estimates deduced from temperature profile models. This can be ex-plained by a temperature enhancement. We also estimated the heating rate from the incoherent scatter electron density and the electric field measured with the ESR. The neutral heating rate of a few Kelvin per day, which was deduced with conventional assumptions, however, cannot fully explain the tem-perature increases needed to understand the observations (1) and (2). Other possibilities, such as composition changes, are considered.

Roettger, J.; Fukao, S.

364

Collaborative Stage  

Cancer.gov

Required SEER Site-Specific Factors for Collaborative Stage - This tool highlights the site-specific factors (SSF) required for staging, obsolete SSF’s, clinically significant SSFs, as well as those not required.

365

ERCC2 2251A>C genetic polymorphism was highly correlated with early relapse in high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer patients: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Early relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is attributed mainly to the higher malignant entity (such as an unfavorable genotype, deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and advance cancer stage) and poor response to chemotherapy. Several investigations have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms in drug-targeted genes, metabolizing enzymes, and DNA-repairing enzymes are all strongly correlated with inter-individual differences in the

Ming-Yii Huang; Wei-Yu Fang; Su-Chen Lee; Tian-Lu Cheng; Jaw-Yuan Wang; Shiu-Ru Lin

2008-01-01

366

Stage design  

DOEpatents

A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

Shacter, J.

1975-12-01

367

Stage II to IV Low-grade Serous Carcinoma of the Ovary Is Associated With a Poor Prognosis: A Clinicopathologic Study of 32 Patients From a Population-based Tumor Registry.  

PubMed

Low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) of the ovary has only recently been recognized as a disease entity distinct from the more common high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). When confined to the ovary, LGSC is associated with a very favorable prognosis, and chemotherapy is typically not recommended. There is little available information on the prognosis of patients with LGSC with extraovarian spread, from population-based tumor registries where there has been full pathology review. Thirty-two cases of Stage II to IV ovarian LGSC were identified in the Cheryl Brown Ovarian Cancer Outcomes Unit (1984-2000). In 19 cases, blocks were available and immunostaining for p53, p16, Ki-67, WT1, and E-cadherin was performed. Expression of these markers was then compared with a series of >400 cases of HGSC from the outcomes unit. LGSCs presented at Stage II in 10/32 cases, Stage III in 21/32 cases, and Stage IV in 1/32 cases. On follow-up, most patients died of disease, with <30% survival at 10 years. Compared with HGSCs, the LGSCs were significantly less likely to express p16 at high levels, or to show abnormal p53 expression (P=0.049 and <0.0001, respectively). Ki-67 staining indices were lower in the LGSCs (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences between LGSCs and HGSCs with respect to expression of WT1 and E-cadherin (P=0.27 and 0.62, respectively). This population-based series of LGSC with extraovarian spread at presentation had an unfavorable prognosis, similar to that of HGSC. As previously reported, LGSC shows lower tumor proliferation and fewer p53 abnormalities than in HGSC. PMID:24071867

Ali, Rola H; Kalloger, Steve E; Santos, Jennifer L; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Gilks, C Blake

2013-11-01

368

Developmental status of endo-developmental stages of Microplitis rufiventris kok. in Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.) larvae topically treated by juvenile hormones I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juvenile hormones I and II (JHI and JHII) were topically applied at concentrations of 1 or 5 ?g to Spodoptera littoralis larvae containing newly deposited eggs of Microplitis rufiventris. The study demonstrated that both hormones do influence several aspects of the development of the parasitoid after treatment of its host larvae. Of these effects: (1) significant lengthening of periods

Wedad Khafagi

2003-01-01

369

Preoperative Paclitaxel\\/Carboplatin Radiochemotherapy for Stage III\\/IV Resectable Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer: Seven-Year Follow-Up of a Phase II Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous treatment concepts for advanced but resectable oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma exist. In this study, we present the 7-year results of a promising treatment with preoperative simultaneous chemoradiation using paclitaxel and carboplatin within a prospective phase II trial comprising 56 patients. After determination of the local tumor extension, chemoradiation was applied for 4 weeks and up to 40

A. Eckardt; B. Sinikovic; C. Hofele; M. Bremer; C. Reuter

2007-01-01

370

Therapeutic outcome and relation of acute and late side effects in the adjuvant radiotherapy of endometrial carcinoma stage I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy is the standard treatment for endometrial carcinoma. However, until now there has been no clear indication that radiotherapy in that setting improves survival. This calls for critical assessment of the relation between the expected benefit and the number and severity of postradiotherapeutic side effects.Material and methods: In a retrospective study 159 consecutive patients with stage

Elisabeth Weiss; Peter Hirnle; Heike Arnold-Bofinger; Clemens F. Hess; Michael Bamberg

1999-01-01

371

Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on cosmesis and complications in Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast treated by biopsy and radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmesis and complication rates were examined in patients with early stage carcinoma of the breast treated by biopsy and radiation therapy with and without adjuvant chemotherapy in an attempt to determine the effect of chemotherapy upon these parameters. Between April 1, l975 and June 1, 1980, 51 patients were treated with radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (XRT + ACT) and

Gordon R. Ray; Victor J. Fish; Jane B. Marmor; William Rogoway; Paula Kushlan; Charles Arnold; R. Hewlett Lee; Francis Marzoni

1984-01-01

372

A Phase II Trial of Complete Resection for Stage IV Melanoma: Results of Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) Clinical Trial S9430  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Patients with stage IV melanoma who undergo complete resection have a favorable outcome compared to patients with disseminated stage IV disease, based on retrospective experience at individual centers. SWOG performed a prospective trial in patients with metastatic melanoma enrolled prior to complete resection of metastatic disease providing prospective outcomes in the cooperative group setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IV melanoma judged amenable to complete resection by their surgeon, based on physical examination and radiologic imaging, underwent surgery within 28 days of enrollment. All eligible patients were followed with scans (CT or PET) every 6 months until relapse and death. RESULTS 77 patients were enrolled from 18 different centers. Of those, 5 patients were ineligible; 2 had stage III disease alone and 3 had no melanoma in their surgical specimen. In addition, 8 eligible patients had incompletely resected tumor. Therefore, the primary analysis included 64 completely resected patients. Twenty (31%) patients had visceral disease. With median follow-up of 5 years, the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 5 months (95% CI 3–7 months) while median overall survival (OS) was 21 months (95% CI 16–34 months). OS at 3 and 4 years were 36% and 31%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In a prospective, multi-center setting, appropriately selected patients with stage IV melanoma can achieve prolonged OS after complete surgical resection. While median RFS was only five months, patients can still frequently undergo subsequent surgery for isolated recurrences. This patient population is appropriate for aggressive surgical therapy and for trials evaluating adjuvant therapy.

Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Moon, James; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Warneke, James A.; Vetto, John T.; Redman, Bruce G.; Liu, P.Y.; Unger, Joseph M.; Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Sondak, Vernon K.

2010-01-01

373

Intrusive magmatism during early evolutionary stages of the Ural epioceanic orogen: UPb geochronology (LA ICP MS, NORDSIM, and SHRIMP II), geochemistry, and evolutionary tendencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years extensive data have been obtained on all geologically important intrusive complexes in the Central and Southern\\u000a Urals by U-Pb zircon geochronologic high spatial resolution techniques (LA ICP MS, NORDSIM, and SHRIMP II). This made it possible\\u000a to revise the current concepts for the magmatic activity of the Ural Paleozoic orogen.\\u000a \\u000a Intrusive magmatism that occurred early in the

G. B. Fershtater; A. A. Krasnobaev; F. Bea; P. Montero; N. S. Borodina

2009-01-01

374

A phase I/II study of bortezomib plus CHOP every 2 weeks (CHOP-14) in patients with advanced-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Background Bortezomib targets molecular dysregulation of nuclear factor-?B activation and cell cycle control, which are characteristic features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of bortezomib treatment with dose-dense cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) every 2 weeks (CHOP-14). Methods Untreated DLBCL patients were enrolled. A phase I dose-escalation study with 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 mg/m2 bortezomib administration on day 1 and 4 in addition to the CHOP-14 regimen was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Lenograstim 5 µg/kg/d was administered on day 4-13. The bortezomib dose from the phase I study was used in the phase II study. Results Nine and 37 patients were enrolled in the phase I and phase II studies, respectively. The analysis of the phase II results (40 patients) included data of the 3 patients in the last MTD dose cohort of the phase I trial. During the phase I trial, no DLT was observed at any bortezomib dose; therefore, the recommended dose was 1.6 mg/m2. In phase II, the overall response rate was 95% (complete response: 80%; partial response: 15%). Nine out of the 40 patients showed grade 3 sensory neuropathy, and 22 required at least 1 dose reduction. Three patients could not complete the intended 6 cycles of treatment because of severe neuropathy. Conclusion Bortezomib plus CHOP-14 was highly effective for the treatment of untreated DLBCL patients, but in many cases, dose or schedule modification was required to reduce neurotoxicity.

Kim, Jeong Eun; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Jang, Geundoo; Lee, Dae Ho; Kim, Shin; Park, Chan-Sik; Huh, Jooryung; Kim, Won Seog; Park, Jinny; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Soon Il

2012-01-01

375

The early oxynitridation stages of hydrogen-terminated (100) silicon after exposure to N 2 :N 2 O. II. Silicon and oxygen bonding states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early oxidation stages of hydrogen-terminated single-crystalline (100) silicon have been studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, following the evolution of the Si?2p and O?1s signals after exposure to N 2:N 2O ambient at 850 °C for different durations. Evidence is given that the usual analysis of the film in terms of the Si?2p peak leads to inconsistencies, related to the presence

G. F. Cerofolini; C. Galati; L. Renna; N. Re

2003-01-01

376

[Compression neuropathy of upper limbs in miners].  

PubMed

The authors analyzed prevalence of individual types of upper limb compression neuropathy in miners of coal and iron-ore mines. Medical examination covered main mining occupations exposed to suchhazards as local vibration, cooling microclimate, functional overstrain. Some types of compression neuropathies appeared to depend on duration of exposure to the hazards and on the occupation hands disease stage. PMID:16898248

Rodin, S I; Matveeva, O V

2006-01-01

377

Phase II Trial of Combined Modality Therapy With Concurrent Topotecan Plus Radiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy for Unresectable Stage III and Selected Stage IV Non-Small-Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The optimal combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) and the role of consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown. Topotecan is active against NSCLC, can safely be combined with RT at effective systemic doses, and can be given by continuous infusion, making it an attractive study agent against locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: In this pilot study, 20 patients were treated with infusion topotecan 0.4 mg/m{sup 2}/d with three-dimensional conformal RT to 63 Gy both delivered Monday through Friday for 7 weeks. Patients without progression underwent consolidation chemotherapy with etoposide and a platinum agent for one cycle followed by two cycles of docetaxel. The study endpoints were treatment response, time to progression, survival, and toxicity. Results: Of the 20 patients, 19 completed induction chemoradiotherapy and 13 completed consolidation. Of the 20 patients, 18 had a partial response and 1 had stable disease after induction chemoradiotherapy. The 3-year overall survival rate was 32% (median, 18 months). The local and distant progression-free survival rate was 30% (median, 21 months) and 58% (median, not reached), respectively. Three patients developed central nervous system metastases, 1 within 228 days, 1 within 252 days, and 1 within 588 days. Three patients had pulmonary emboli. Therapy was well tolerated with 1 of 20 developing Grade 4 lymphopenia. Grade 3 hematologic toxicity was seen in 17 of 20 patients but was not clinically significant. Other Grade 3 toxicities included esophagitis in 3, esophageal stricture in 2, fatigue in 8, and weight loss in 1. Grade 3 pneumonitis occurred in 6 of 20 patients. Conclusion: Continuous infusion topotecan with RT was well tolerated and active in the treatment of poor-risk patients with unresectable Stage III NSCLC.

Seung, Steven K. [Oregon Clinic, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Portland, OR (United States)], E-mail: steven.seung@providence.org; Ross, Helen J. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2009-03-01

378

Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment.

Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

2009-01-01

379

Reliability of pancreatic cancer staging classifications.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of UICC and JPS classifications was evaluated in a group of 74 patients undergoing resection for pancreatic carcinoma in the 1982-1992 period. The predictivity of peritoneal cytology and intraoperative liver biopsies was evaluated in a subgroup of 15 patients. Patient division by stage according, respectively, to UICC and JPS classifications was: stage I: 28 and 2 patients; stage II: 12 and 11 patients; stage III: 29 and 30 patients; stage IV: 5 and 31 patients. Median survival by UICC stages was: 17 months (m) in stage I, 10 m in stage II, 12 m in stage III, and 6 m in stage IV; by JPS stages it was 29 m in stage II, 14 m in stage III, and 7 m in stage IV. A radical resection was possible in 48 patients (65%); the survival was significantly worse in the nonradical resection group. The survival difference among UICC stages was not significant in a multivariate analysis with radicality, whereas among JPS stages a significant survival difference was found in both univariate and multivariate analysis. The tumor invasion of the retroperitoneal tissues and the presence of distant metastasis were indicators of a significantly worse prognosis. Lymph node involvement, tumor size, and serosal invasion had no significant effect on survival. Peritoneal cytology and liver biopsies did not provide further prognostic information. PMID:8195639

Zerbi, A; Balzano, G; Bottura, R; Di Carlo, V

1994-02-01

380

Prospective, Risk-Adapted Strategy of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a Phase II Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Validation of a prospective, risk-adapted strategy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with a T1-3N0M0 (American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition) NSCLC were accrued. Using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group definition, patients were treated to a total dose of 60,Gy in three fractions for peripherally located lesions and four fractions for centrally located lesions. The primary endpoint was toxicity, graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute and late morbidity scoring system, and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Secondary endpoints were local control and survival. Results: A total of 40 patients were included, 17 with a centrally located lesion. The lung toxicity-free survival estimate at 2 years was 74% and was related to the location (central vs. peripheral) and the size of the target volume. No dose volumetric parameters could predict the occurrence of lung toxicity. One patient died because of treatment-related toxicity. The 1-year and 2-year local progression-free survival estimates were 97% and 84%, respectively, and were related to stage (T1 vs. T2) related (p = 0.006). Local failure was not more frequent for patients treated in four fractions. The 1-year local progression-free survival estimate dropped below 80% for lesions with a diameter of more than 4 cm. Conclusion: The proposed risk-adapted strategy for both centrally and peripherally located lesions showed an acceptable toxicity profile while maintaining excellent local control rates. The correlation between local control and tumor diameter calls for the inclusion of tumor stage as a variable in future study design.

Bral, Samuel, E-mail: samuelbral@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Gevaert, Thierry; Linthout, Nadine; Versmessen, Harijati; Collen, Christine; Engels, Benedikt [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Verdries, Douwe [Department of Radiology of the University Hospital Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Everaert, Hendrik [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Christian, Nicolas; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Brussels, Brussels (Belgium)

2011-08-01

381

A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

Isobe, Koichi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: isobeko@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Higuchi, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Gunma Prefecture Cancer Center, Gunma (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakazawa, Masanori [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Fukuda, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nihei, Keiji [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Kana [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsuno, Yoshihiro [Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiologic Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2007-11-15

382

Petrographic Characterization of Kentucky Coals. Final Report. Part II. Depositional Settings of the Coal Bearing, Upper Tradewater Formation in Western Kentucky with Emphasis on the Mannington (No. 4) Coal Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depositional settings were determined in the coal bearing, Middle Pennsylvanian, upper Tradewater Formation in western Kentucky with emphasis on the Mannington (No. 4) coal zone. The coals have been analyzed for maceral contents, lithotypes, dry sulfur/as...

D. N. Baynard J. C. Hower

1983-01-01

383

Outcomes of wrist arthroplasty using a free vascularized fibular head graft for Enneking stage II giant cell tumors of the distal radius.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to report the clinical outcomes of wrist arthroplasty with a free vascularized fibular head graft (FVFHG) and to highlight some considerations that may affect outcomes. FVFHG was performed on 12 patients with giant cell tumors of the distal radius between April 1984 and July 2005. The mean age of patients was 33 years. All 12 patients were classified as Enneking stage 2. Outcomes were evaluated with radiographic and functional assessments, including the scale of Enneking. The mean follow-up period was 6.26 years. Bone union was achieved in all patients at a mean of 15.7 weeks after surgery. Skin grafting was performed at the recipient site in 5 patients and had good skin healing. Subluxation in the wrist joint was observed in 5 patients and was related to the length of the transplanted fibula. The 5 patients with subluxation experienced considerable osteoarthritic change. The mean arc of flexion-extension and rotation of the wrist joint was 73.1° and 102.9°, respectively. The mean grip strength was 57.25% of the contralateral side. The mean functional score was 26.4 points. Wrist arthroplasty with a FVFHG is a useful option to treat Enneking stage 2 giant cell tumors of the distal radius. We believe that wrist instability is not determined by the choice of laterality of the fibula, which can be minimized by transplanting a short fibula with the anterior tibial artery as a donor artery. The recipient sites can be successfully resurfaced by skin grafting. PMID:22976356

Chung, Duke Whan; Han, Chung Soo; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sang Gil

2012-09-13

384

Upper and lower integrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The function \\/(~) whose upper and lower integrals are considered is taken~ to be an arbitrary single-valued real function defined at every point of a given interval (a, b). To shorten the discussion the interval is supposed finite. The def'm~ion of the upper and lower integrals is by means of pencils of auxiliary functions such as are used in

Margaret D. Kennedy; S. Pollard

1935-01-01

385

Using Upper Limits of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The widespread use of molecular markers to estimate parentage makes possible a new index of the opportunity for sexual selection. After demonstrating the need for a new measure, I develop one based on the upper limit on sexual selection. I describe what sets the upper limit for each sex by showing how maximum fecundity increases with number of mates,

PATRICK D. LORCH

2005-01-01

386

Nodal staging  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lymph node metastases are a poor prognostic indicator in many tumours and therefore accurate identification during staging is important prior to commencing treatment. The presence of lymph node metastases can significantly alter patient management and therefore accurate diagnosis of the presence and extent of nodal disease can help optimise patient management. In this review, the radiologic features that aid in the differentiation of malignant and benign lymph nodes are discussed. The keys to successful interpretation on cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging of nodal metastases are highlighted. The clinical role of positron emission tomography-CT imaging for nodal staging is discussed and emerging imaging techniques that may further improve nodal staging accuracy are surveyed.

Koh, Dow-Mu

2009-01-01

387

Expression of kisspeptins and their Receptors, gnrh-1/gnrhr-II-1a and gonadotropin genes in the brain of adult male and female European sea bass during different gonadal stages.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins play a critical role in the control of hypothalamic-gonadotropic function and puberty onset in mammals. Studies in fish have all supported the hypothesis that they might play similar roles in the reproduction of this animal group, however, their physiological relevance in the occurrence of key reproductive events still remains to be determined. This study examines the relative mRNA expression profiles of the duplicate kisspeptin system (kiss1, kiss2, gpr54-1b, and gpr54-2b) in the hypothalamus and pituitary of adult male and female sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during different gonadal stages using qRT-PCR. We also report the changes in the expression levels of gnrh-1, gnrhr-II-1a, fsh?, and lh? and the relationships observed between both kisspeptin and GnRH systems. Our data show clear sex differences in the dynamics of kisspeptin and kisspeptin receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus of sea bass during gonadal development. Overall, all four kisspeptin system genes increased either before or during the advanced stages of oogenesis and declined during atresia, exhibiting profiles that are identical to those observed for gnrhr-II-1a, fsh?, lh?, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI). While the situation was not as clear in males, the high kiss2 expression levels observed in the hypothalamus during mid recrudescence suggest that it might be playing a role in the neuroendocrine signaling that regulates germ cell proliferation at the testicular level. In this sense, the proposed role attributed to kisspeptins as key factors in the onset of reproduction in fish receives an additional support from the data obtained in the present work. Nevertheless, further research is required to clarify their precise role in sea bass. PMID:23583767

Alvarado, M V; Carrillo, M; Felip, A

2013-04-11

388

Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design, demand and fuel projections and cost analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I Report, Grid ICES, presented the broad alternatives and implications for development of an energy system satisfying thermal demand with the co-generation of electric power, all predicated on the use of solid fuels. Participants of the system are the University of Minnesota, operator and primary thermal user, and Northern States Power Company, primary electrical user; with St. Mary's Hospital, Fairview Hospital, and Augsburg College as Add-on Customers for the thermal service (Option I). Included for consideration are the Options of (II) solid waste disposal by the Pyrolysis Method, with heat recovery, and (III) conversion of a portion of the thermal system from steam to hot water distribution to increase co-generation capability and as a demonstration system for future expansion. This report presents the conceptual design of the energy system and each Option, with the economic implications identified so that selection of the final system can be made. Draft outline of the Environmental Assessment for the project is submitted as a separate report.

Not Available

1978-03-08

389

Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on cosmesis and complications in Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast treated by biopsy and radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Cosmesis and complication rates were examined in patients with early stage carcinoma of the breast treated by biopsy and radiation therapy with and without adjuvant chemotherapy in an attempt to determine the effect of chemotherapy upon these parameters. Between April 1, l975 and June 1, 1980, 51 patients were treated with radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (XRT + ACT) and 83 patients with radiotherapy alone (XRT). Cosmetic results deteriorated with time in both groups but to a greater extent in the XRT + ACT group. Comparison of the two treatment groups revealed that complication rates were significantly incresed in the XRT + ACT group. Of the 51 patients in the XRT + ACT group, 21 patients (41%) suffered complications compared to 8 (10%) of the 83 patients in the XRT group. This difference in complication rates resulted primarily from an increased incidence in the XRT + ACT group of wet desquamation in the electron beam portal used to treat the internal mammary lymph nodes and a trend towards a higher incidence of spontaneous nonpathologic rib fractures, myositis and arm edema. The authors' preliminary conclusions are that adjuvant chemotherapy has a negative impact upon cosmesis and complications rates in patients being treated with definitive radiotherapy. However, cosmetic results remain satisfactory and complication rates are maintained at an acceptable level.

Ray, G.R.; Fish, V.J.; Marmor, J.B.; Rogoway, W.; Kushlan, P.; Arnold, C.; Lee, R.H.; Marzoni, F.

1984-06-01

390

Effects of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the single-stage deammonification process treating high-strength reject water from sludge dewatering.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) is often encountered in wastewaters. This study investigated the effects of iron on the single-stage deammonification process treating reject water from sludge dewatering. When Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) concentrations in the influent were below 1.3mg/L and 0.4 mg/L, Fe(2+) incorporation was found to be linearly correlated with NH(4)(+)-N removal. However, the excess Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) drastically deteriorated the deammonification performance. Both of the reactor performance and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization results suggested higher sensitivity of autotrophic bacteria to iron than heterotrophs, the sequence of which was assessed to anammox bacteria>aerobic ammonium oxidizers>hetetrophic denitrifiers. With the excess existence of iron, extracellular substances were largely released by bacterial cells, which were the likely sites for iron uptake by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The information provided here would be useful to facilitate the application of deammonification process in the treatment of wastewater including metal iron. PMID:22483570

Liu, Sitong; Horn, Harald

2011-12-27

391

ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES  

SciTech Connect

A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

2010-08-10

392

Binary Stage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fluid amplifier is utilized in a computing system. The pure fluid binary counting stage comprises a pair of pure fluid amplifiers coupled together through a delay and energy storage system such that one of the fluid through a delay and energy storage ...

R. E. Bowles

1965-01-01

393

Staging tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metaphorically, tourists can be considered to enact a range of performances on distinct stages. Their enactions are distinguished according to various factors, including their competence, reflexivity, the extent to which they are directed and regulated, or participate in group or solo performances. Providing examples from research carried out at the Taj Mahal in India, particular attention is directed to the

Tim Edensor

2000-01-01

394

Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC in our institution between 1990 and 2004, 248 patients with clinical N0 or N1 to N2 lymph node status at diagnosis had pN0 status after NAC and BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRR-FS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: All 248 patients underwent breast irradiation, and 158 patients (63.7%) also received LNI. With a median follow-up of 88 months, the 5-year LRR-FS and OS rates were respectively 89.4% and 88.7% with LNI and 86.2% and 92% without LNI (no significant difference). Survival was poorer among patients who did not have a pathologic complete primary tumor response (hazard ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-7.99) and in patients with N1 to N2 clinical status at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.36). LNI did not significantly affect survival. Conclusions: Relative to combined breast and local lymph node irradiation, isolated breast irradiation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of locoregional relapse or death among cN0 to cN2 breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

Daveau, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Brain, Etienne [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

2010-10-01

395

Left upper lobectomy.  

PubMed

This is a 32-year-old woman with a left peripheral lung lesion about 3 cm in diameter found by physical examination. Lung cancer of the left upper lobe is suspected in preoperative diagnosis. PMID:24040545

Zhao, Jungang; Ren, Kaiming; Tang, Jun

2013-08-01

396

Upper respiratory infections.  

PubMed

Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

Grief, Samuel N

2013-07-12

397

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6.89 kPa (1psi) band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Complete destratification of the liquid and ullage was achieved at these fill levels. The axial jet was effective in providing tank pressure control within the same pressure control band at the 90% fill level. However, at the 50% level, the system reached a point at which it was unable to extract enough energy to keep up with the heat leak into the tank. Due to a hardware problem, the recirculation pump operated well below the axial jet design flow rate. Therefore, it is likely that the performance of the axial jet would have improved had the pump operated at the proper flow rate. A CFD model is being used to determine if the desired axial jet performance would be achieved if a higher pump flow rate were available. Testing conducted thus far has demonstrated that both TVS concepts can be effective in destratifying a propellant tank, rejecting stored heat energy, and thus, controlling tank pressure.

Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney