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Sample records for il possibile ruolo

  1. Il ruolo svolto dall’attività lavorativa sull’ipertensione arteriosa

    PubMed Central

    Barbini, N.; Gorini, G.; Ferrucci, L.; Biggeri, A.

    2009-01-01

    professionali (esposizione a determinati rischi o vincoli); 2. sugli stili di vita e la salute percepita secondo il Nottingham Health Profile; 3. sulle condizioni oggettive di salute. Per il presente lavoro saranno considerati solo alcuni parametri utili all’approfondimento epidemiologico nel settore cardiocircolatorio. Essi riguarderanno: 1) le condizioni di lavoro, 2) la valutazione soggettiva del lavoro, 3) costrizioni specifiche del lavoro vissute come più gravose con l’avanzare dell’età. Relativamente all’ipertensione, sono stati considerati ipertesi i soggetti che presentavano una PAS ≥160 mm/Hg e/o una PAD ≥90 mm/Hg nonché coloro in cura antipertensiva. Risultati I risultati si riferiscono a 1104 lavoratori, di cui 76% uomini e 24% donne. La prevalenza di ipertensione si è dimostrata più elevata nei maschi (33% Vs 22%). Le stime del rischio hanno evidenziato una associazione statisticamente significativa con alcuni fattori lavorativi come mantenere posture difficili (O.R. 1.71), lavorare in presenza di calore (O.R. 1.43), a contatto con agenti chimici (O.R, 1.31). stare a lungo seduti (O.R. 1.48), fare più cose contemporaneamente (O.R. 1.41), essere interrotti nel proprio lavoro (O.R. 1,35). non poter distogilere gli occhi dal lavoro (O.R.1.61). Conclusioni Noi abbiamo osservato che alcune caratteristiche fisiche del lavoro, ma soprattutto quelle di tipo organizzativo sono fortemente associate all’ipertensione arteriosa. Un elemento importante è sembrata la valutazione soggettiva del valore che i lavoratori danno del proprio lavoro: tale elemento è fortemente connesso con I’organizzazione del lavoro, pertanto è un possibile target di prevenzione (fattore di rischio modificabile). PMID:17886759

  2. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  3. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  4. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  5. mTOR Mediates IL-23 Induction of Neutrophil IL-17 and IL-22 Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feidi; Cao, Anthony; Yao, Suxia; Evans-Marin, Heather L; Liu, Han; Wu, Wei; Carlsen, Eric D; Dann, Sara M; Soong, Lynn; Sun, Jiaren; Zhao, Qihong; Cong, Yingzi

    2016-05-15

    It has been shown recently that neutrophils are able to produce IL-22 and IL-17, which differentially regulate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, it is still largely unknown how the neutrophil production of IL-22 and IL-17 is regulated, and their role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we found that IL-23 promoted neutrophil production of IL-17 and IL-22. IL-23 stimulated the neutrophil expression of IL-23R as well as rorc and ahr. Retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ t and aryl-hydrocarbon receptor differentially regulated IL-23 induction of neutrophil IL-17 and IL-22. In addition, IL-23 induced the activation of mTOR in neutrophils. Blockade of the mTOR pathway inhibited IL-23-induced expression of rorc and ahr, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 production. By using a microbiota Ag-specific T cell-mediated colitis model, we demonstrated that depletion of neutrophils, as well as blockade of IL-22, resulted in a significant increase in the severity of colitis, thereby indicating a protective role of neutrophils and IL-22 in chronic colitis. Collectively, our data revealed that neutrophils negatively regulate microbiota Ag-specific T cell induction of colitis, and IL-23 induces neutrophil production of IL-22 and IL-17 through induction of rorc and ahr, which is mediated by the mTOR pathway. PMID:27067005

  6. Strategies targeting the IL-4/IL-13 axes in disease.

    PubMed

    May, Richard D; Fung, Michael

    2015-09-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are pleiotropic Th2 cytokines produced by a wide variety of different cell types and responsible for a broad range of biology and functions. Physiologically, Th2 cytokines are known to mediate host defense against parasites but they can also trigger disease if their activities are dysregulated. In this review we discuss the rationale for targeting the IL-4/IL-13 axes in asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, COPD, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune disease and fibrotic disease as well as evaluating the associated clinical data derived from blocking IL-4, IL-13 or IL-4 and IL-13 together. PMID:26255210

  7. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Rahim; Sherkat, Roya; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Eskandari, Nahid; Yazdani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well. PMID:24949298

  8. Commentary: IL-4 and IL-13 receptors and signaling.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Sarah M; Heller, Nicola M

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 were discovered approximately 30years ago and were immediately linked to allergy and atopic diseases. Since then, new roles for IL-4 and IL-13 and their receptors in normal gestation, fetal development and neurological function and in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis have been appreciated. Studying IL-4/-13 and their receptors has revealed important clues about cytokine biology and led to the development of numerous experimental therapeutics. Here we aim to highlight new discoveries and consolidate concepts in the field of IL-4 and IL-13 structure, receptor regulation, signaling and experimental therapeutics. PMID:26187331

  9. IL-18/IL-1/IL-17A axis: A novel therapeutic target for neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed

    Cross, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    Healthy and septic human neonates have elevated serum IL-18 levels compared with adults. Using a murine neonatal model of intraabdominal sepsis with systemic (intraperitoneal) IL-18 complementation, Wynn et al. report that IL-18 potentiated mortality in both neonatal sepsis and endotoxemia through the induction of IL-17A, and depended on IL-1 receptor 1 signaling (but not IL-1β). They propose that targeting this IL-18/IL-1/IL-17A axis may improve outcomes for human neonates with sepsis. However, given the important roles of Th17 responses and IL-18 in host defenses, some caution is in order during a potentially microbe-induced septic process in neonates. The important differences in neonatal and adult responses to sepsis highlighted in this paper emphasize the need for further study of the immune responses of neonates. PMID:27434223

  10. Helping You Buy ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  11. IL-17 promotes murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Amarilyo, Gil; Lourenço, Elaine V; Shi, Fu-Dong; La Cava, Antonio

    2014-07-15

    The proinflammatory activity of IL-17-producing Th17 cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. In this article, we provide direct evidence for a role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The induction of SLE by pristane in IL-17-sufficient wild-type mice did not occur in IL-17-deficient mice, which were protected from development of lupus autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis. The protection from SLE in IL-17-deficient mice was associated with a reduced frequency of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells and an expansion of CD4(+) regulatory T cells, and did not depend on Stat-1 signaling. These data affirm the key role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of SLE and strengthen the support for IL-17 blockade in the therapy of SLE. PMID:24920843

  12. IL-10 regulates murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhinan; Bahtiyar, Gul; Zhang, Na; Liu, Lanzhen; Zhu, Ping; Robert, Marie E; McNiff, Jennifer; Madaio, Michael P; Craft, Joe

    2002-08-15

    MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr); MRL-Fas(lpr)) mice develop a spontaneous lupus syndrome closely resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. To define the role of IL-10 in the regulation of murine lupus, IL-10 gene-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) MRL-Fas(lpr) (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-)) mice were generated and their disease phenotype was compared with littermates with one or two copies of an intact IL-10 locus (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/-) and MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/+) mice, respectively). MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice developed severe lupus, with earlier appearance of skin lesions, increased lymphadenopathy, more severe glomerulonephritis, and higher mortality than their IL-10-intact littermate controls. The increased severity of lupus in MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice was closely associated with enhanced IFN-gamma production by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and increased serum concentration of IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. The protective effect of IL-10 in this lupus model was further supported by the observation that administration of rIL-10 reduced IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibody production in wild-type MRL-Fas(lpr) animals. In summary, our results provide evidence that IL-10 can down-modulate murine lupus through inhibition of pathogenic Th1 cytokine responses. Modulation of the level of IL-10 may be of potential therapeutic benefit for human lupus. PMID:12165544

  13. Reconstitution of ST2 (IL-1R4) specific for IL-33 activity; no suppression by IL-1Ra though a common chain IL-1R3 (IL-1RAcP) shared with IL-1.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Eunsom; Kwak, Areum; Lee, Jungmin; Hong, Jaewoo; Lee, Jongho; Youn, Sulah; Bae, Suyoung; Kim, Busun; Ryoo, Soyoon; Kang, Tae-Bong; Her, Erk; Choi, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Youngmin; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptors are composed of ST2 (also known as IL-1R4), a ligand binding chain, and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP, also known as IL-1R3), a signal transducing chain. IL-1R3 is a common receptor for IL-1α, and IL-1β, IL-33, and three IL-36 isoforms. A549 human lung epithelial cells are highly sensitive to IL-1α and IL-1β but not respond to IL-33. The lack of responsiveness to IL-33 is due to ST2 expression. ST2 was stably transfected into A549 cells to reconstitute its activity. RT-PCR and FACS analysis confirmed ST2 expression on the cell surface of A549/ST2 cells. Upon IL-33 stimulation, A549/ST2 cells induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in a dose dependent manner while A549/mock cells remained unresponsive. There was no difference in IL-1α and IL-1β activity in A549/ST2 cells compared to A549/mock cells despite the fact that IL-33 shares IL-1R3 with IL-1α/β. IL-33 activated inflammatory signaling molecules in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Anti-ST2 antibody and soluble recombinant ST2-Fc abolished IL-33-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in A549/ST2 cells but the IL-1 receptor antagonist failed to block IL-33-induced cytokines. This result demonstrates for the first time the reconstitution of ST2 in A549 human lung epithelial cell line and verified its function in IL-33-mediated cytokine production and signal transduction. PMID:27031441

  14. IL-15 temporally reorients IL-10 biased B-1a cells toward IL-12 expression.

    PubMed

    Kanti Ghosh, Amlan; Sinha, Debolina; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is known to strongly modulate T-cell function; however, its role in controlling mucosal immunity, including its ability to modulate B-1a cell activity, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that IL-15 upregulates activation molecules and the costimulatory molecule CD80 on viable B-1a cells. Cell activation was accompanied by the depletion of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-G, an inhibitor of cell activation that is present on B-1a cells. The IL-15 receptor CD122 was stimulated on B-1a cells by the cytokine showing its direct involvement in IL-15-mediated responses. IL-10 is responsible for the long term survival of B-1a cells in culture, which is initially promoted by IL-15. The upregulation of IL-10 was followed by the appearance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 in the presence of IL-15 and the loss of IL-10. This resulted in the cells switching to IL-12 expression. This anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory shift in the B-1a cell character was independent of the cell-specific marker CD5, which remained highly expressed throughout the in vitro life of the cells. The presence of the immunosuppressive receptor programmed cell death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L2 were features of a predominantly IL-10 response. PD-1 and PD-L2 can mediate juxtacrine signaling. However, the abrogation of PD-1 and its ligand was observed when the cells expressed IL-12. This demonstrates an inverse relationship between the receptor and ligand and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. The induction of IgM and IgA, which can play pivotal roles in mucosal immunity, was promoted in the presence of IL-15. Collectively, the data implicate IL-15 as the master cytokine that induces B-1a cells to mount a mucosal immune response. PMID:25748019

  15. IL-21 Signaling in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Warren J.; Wan, Chi-Keung

    2016-01-01

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine produced by T cells and natural killer T cells that has pleiotropic actions on a wide range of immune and non-immune cell types. Since its discovery in 2000, extensive studies on the biological actions of IL-21 have been performed in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports describing patients with primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations of IL21 or IL21R have further deepened our knowledge of the role of this cytokine in host defense. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that mediate IL-21’s actions has provided the rationale for targeting IL-21 and IL-21 downstream mediators for therapeutic purposes. The use of next-generation sequencing technology has provided further insights into the complexity of IL-21 signaling and has identified transcription factors and co-factors involved in mediating the actions of this cytokine. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the biology and signaling of IL-21 and how this knowledge can be potentially translated into clinical settings. PMID:26966515

  16. Free IL-15 Is More Abundant Than IL-15 Complexed With Soluble IL-15 Receptor-α in Murine Serum: Implications for the Mechanism of IL-15 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara G; Quinn, LeBris S

    2016-03-01

    IL-15 is a cytokine that is part of the innate immune system, as well as a proposed myokine released from skeletal muscle during physical exercise that mediates many of the positive physiological effects of exercise. Many of the immune functions of IL-15 are mediated by juxtacrine signaling via externalized IL-15 bound to membrane-associated IL-15 receptor-α (IL-15Rα). Serum and plasma samples also contain measurable concentrations of IL-15, believed to arise from proteolytic cleavage of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes to generate soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα species. Here, we validate commercial assays that can distinguish the free form of IL-15 and IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes. These assays showed that most (86%) IL-15 in mouse serum resides in the free state, with a minor proportion (14%) residing in complex with IL-15Rα. Given the much shorter half-life of free IL-15 compared with IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes, these findings cast doubt on the currently accepted model for IL-15 secretion from cleavage of membrane-bound IL-15/IL-15Rα and suggest that IL-15 is released as a free molecule by an unknown mechanism. PMID:26812159

  17. IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in gyneco-obstetric infections.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Beatriz; Giménez, Francisco; López, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During pregnancy cytokines and inflammatory mediators stimulate the expression of prostaglandin, the levels of which determine the onset of labor. The aim of this work was to study interleukin IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the vaginal discharge, serum and urine of pregnant women with genitourinary infection before and after specific treatment. One hundred and fifty-one patients were studied during the second or third trimester of their pregnancy. METHODS: The selected patients were: healthy or control group (n = 52), those with bacterial vaginosis (n = 47), those with vaginitis (n = 37), those with asymptomatic urinary infection (n = 15) and post-treatment. The level of cytokines was assayed by ELISA test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The IL-1beta levels in vaginal discharge were: control 103.5 +/- 24.2 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 1030 +/- 59.5, vaginitis 749.14 +/- 66.7l ( p < 0.0001), post-treatment 101.4 +/- 28.7. IL-6 values were similar in both control and infected groups, and there were no patients with chorioamnionitis. In vaginal discharge IL-6: control 14.2 +/- 3.9 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 13.2 +/- 3.8, vaginitis 13 +/- 4.2. IL-8 levels were: control 1643 +/- 130.3 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 2612.7 +/- 257.7, vaginitis 3437 +/- 460 (p < 0.0001), post-treatment 1693 +/- 126.6. In urine the results were: control 40.2 +/- 17 pg/ml, asymptomatic urinary infection 1200.7 +/- 375 (p < 0.0001). In patients with therapeutic success both IL-1beta and IL-8 returned to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Genitourinary infections induce a significant increase in IL-1beta and IL-8 levels in vaginal secretions, and IL-8 in urine as well. Both cytokines could be useful as evolutive markers of infection. PMID:16338780

  18. IL-1β Suppresses Innate IL-25 and IL-33 Production and Maintains Helminth Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Mario M.; Maslowski, Kendle M.; Mosconi, Ilaria; Guenat, Nadine; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) elicits the secretion of IL-1β in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1β (IL-1β−/−), or treated with the soluble IL-1βR antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1β acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1β that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity. PMID:23935505

  19. Role of IL-25 in Immunity.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Azar; Khosravi, Afra; Zadeh, Layla Jafar; Parizad, Elaheh Gholami

    2015-04-01

    IL-25 a 2o KDa protein mostly known as IL-17E, encoded by chromosome 14, and containing 117 amino acids. Cytokine IL-17 family consists of 6 members; IL-17A to IL-17F, among which IL-25 has a unique structure and function. The receptor of IL-25 (IL-17BR) is highly expressed in the main Th2 cells. IL-25 regulates the internal safety of adaptive immune responses which leads to begin allergic diseases and plays a role in stimulation of pulmonary mucosal cells and fibroblasts. IL-25 can also have some effects on production of other cytokines. For instance, production of IL-25 in human and mice or injection of IL-25 to animals has resulted in production of high concentrations of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Pilot studies have shown that mRNA of IL-25 has a high expression in Th2 cells. However, the mechanism through which IL-25 leads to Th2 immune response is still unknown. Reaction between IL-25 and IL-17BR leads to activation of transcription factors, such as NF-KB, STAT6, GATA3, NF-ATC1, JUNNB, MAPK, and JNK. IL-25 has been used against the kidney damage in mice. A large number of researchers in various countries, including the U.S. and Taiwan, have stated that IL-25 is a strong inflammatory cytokine protein which is involved in allergic inflammations. PMID:26023586

  20. Anticancer Cytokines: Biology and Clinical Effects of IFN-α2, IL-2, IL-15, IL-21, and IL-12

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Theofanis; Tarhini, Ahmad A.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts over nearly four decades have focused on ways to use cytokines to manipulate the host immune response towards cancer cell recognition and eradication. Significant advances were achieved with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-α (IFN-α), primarily in the treatment of patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, the utility of other cytokines showing promise in the preclinical setting has not been established largely because of toxicity, the complex functionality of each cytokine and the difficulty mimicking in preclinical models the human environment. In this paper we will review the basic biology and the clinical experiences with IFN-α, IL-2, IL-15, IL-21 and IL-12. We will also review ongoing clinical trials and discuss future directions including potential use of cytokines in combination with other effective immunotherapy approaches which have come of age in recent years. PMID:26320059

  1. Pivotal Roles of T-Helper 17-Related Cytokines, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ning; Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Kaneko, Kotaro; Watanabe, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Itoh, Masahiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are characterized by producing interleukin-17 (IL-17, also called IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 and potentially TNF-α and IL-6 upon certain stimulation. IL-23, which promotes Th17 cell development, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 produced by the Th17 cells plays essential roles in various inflammatory diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the functional role of Th17 cells, with particular focus on the Th17 cell-related cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in mouse models and human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23956763

  2. IL-4 and IL-13 Inhibition in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Matthew C; Yamauchi, Paul S

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, prevalent, multi-factorial condition that affects infants, children, and adults. Beyond topical therapy, a variety of systemic agents such as steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine, mycophenoloic acid, and other agents are utilized to treat moderate to severe AD. However, these agents are associated with potential long term adverse events and organ toxicity. There is an unmet need for a safer, long-term systemic agent to adequately control moderate to severe AD. The role of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, in AD has led to the development of biologic agents to treat AD. The aim of this article is to review the role of IL-4 and IL-13 in the pathogenesis of AD and discuss some of the clinical trial data that target and inhibit IL-4 and IL-13 in positively altering the course and outcome of AD.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):925-929. PMID:27537991

  3. Effects of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 on erythrocytes, platelets and clot viscoelasticity

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Janette; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-01-01

    Complex interactions exist between cytokines, and the interleukin family plays a fundamental role in inflammation. Particularly circulating IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 are unregulated in systemic and chronic inflammatory conditions. Hypercoagulability is an important hallmark of inflammation, and these cytokines are critically involved in abnormal clot formation, erythrocyte pathology and platelet hyper-activation, and these three cytokines have known receptors on platelets. Although these cytokines are always unregulated in inflammation, we do not know how the individual cytokines act upon the structure of erythrocytes and platelets, and which of the viscoelastic clot parameters are changed. Here we study the effects of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 at low physiological levels, representative of chronic inflammation, by using scanning electron microscopy and thromboelastography. All three interleukins caused the viscoelastic properties to display an increased hypercoagulability of whole blood and pathology of both erythrocytes and platelets. The most pronounced changes were noted where all three cytokines caused platelet hyper-activation and spreading. Erythrocyte structure was notably affected in the presence of IL-8, where the morphological changes resembled that typically seen in eryptosis (programmed cell death). We suggest that erythrocytes and platelets are particularly sensitive to cytokine presence, and that they are excellent health indicators. PMID:27561337

  4. Association study of functional polymorphisms in interleukins and interleukin receptors genes: IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, IL10, IL10RA and TGFB1 in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Frydecka, Dorota; Groszewska, Agata; Narozna, Beata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Pawlak, Joanna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Slopien, Agnieszka; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a large range of autoimmune diseases, with a history of any autoimmune disease being associated with a 45% increase in risk for the illness. The inflammatory system may trigger or modulate the course of schizophrenia through complex mechanisms influencing neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. In particular, increases or imbalance in cytokine before birth or during the early stages of life may affect neurodevelopment and produce vulnerability to the disease. A total of 27 polymorphisms of IL1N gene: rs1800587, rs17561; IL1B gene: rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627; IL1RN gene: rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961; IL6 gene: rs1800795, rs1800797; IL6R gene: rs4537545, rs4845617, rs2228145, IL10 gene: rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890, rs6676671; IL10RA gene: rs2229113, rs3135932; TGF1B gene: rs1800469, rs1800470; each selected on the basis of molecular evidence for functionality, were investigated in this study. Analysis was performed on a group of 621 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia and 531 healthy controls in Polish population. An association of rs4848306 in IL1B gene, rs4251961 in IL1RN gene, rs2228145 and rs4537545 in IL6R with schizophrenia have been observed. rs6676671 in IL10 was associated with early age of onset. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between analyzed polymorphisms in each gene, except of IL10RA. We observed that haplotypes composed of rs4537545 and rs2228145 in IL6R gene were associated with schizophrenia. Analyses with family history of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence did not show any positive findings. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed. PMID:26481614

  5. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  6. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  7. Circulating low IL-23: IL-35 cytokine ratio promotes progression associated with poor prognosisin breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanghui; Liang, Yanfang; Guan, Xin; Chen, Hui; Liu, Qiankun; Lin, Bihua; Chen, Can; Huang, Mingyuan; Chen, Jianan; Wu, Weiquan; Liang, Yi; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12 (formed by IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-23 (formed by IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-27 (formed by IL-27p28 and EBI3 subunits) and IL-35 (formed by IL-12p35 and EBI3 subunits), establishes a link between innate and adaptive immunity that involves different immune effector cells and cytokines to tumors. However, the role of IL-12 family in breast cancer (BC) progression and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated evidence indicating that EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19 or IL-27p28 were highly expressed in BC tissues, suggested that tumor derived EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 were associated with tumor progression. Circulating IL-12 and IL-23 low expressed, but IL-27 and IL-35 high expressed in BC patients, especially circulating IL-23 associated with IL-35 to mediate BC tumor resection. Ki-67, p53 and EGFR expression on BC tissues, as well as CA125, CA153 and CA199 levels on BC bloods increased when circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio decreased. Together, for the first time, our data suggest that circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio may be an important indicator association with BC progression and prognosis. However, further research should be carried out to assess the implications of circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio in a larger sample size. PMID:27347332

  8. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Luis F.; García-Martínez, Karina; León, Kalet

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM). This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc). However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane. PMID:27195783

  9. Soluble IL7Rα potentiates IL-7 bioactivity and promotes autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Wangko; Highfill, Steven; Walsh, Scott T. R.; Beq, Stephanie; Morse, Elizabeth; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Mackall, Crystal L.

    2013-01-01

    Human soluble interleukin-7 receptor (sIL7R)α circulates in high molar excess compared with IL-7, but its biology remains unclear. We demonstrate that sIL7Rα has moderate affinity for IL-7 but does not bind thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Functionally, sIL7Rα competes with cell-associated IL-7 receptor to diminish excessive IL-7 consumption and, thus, enhances the bioactivity of IL-7 when the cytokine is limited, as it is presumed to be in vivo. IL-7 signaling in the presence of sIL7Rα also diminishes expression of CD95 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, both regulatory molecules. Murine models confirm diminished consumption of IL-7 in the presence of sIL7Rα and also demonstrate a potentiating effect of sIL7Rα on IL-7–mediated homeostatic expansion and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis exacerbation. In multiple sclerosis and several other autoimmune diseases, IL7R genotype influences susceptibility. We measured increased sIL7Rα levels, as well as increased IL-7 levels, in multiple sclerosis patients with the predisposing IL7R genotype, consistent with diminished IL-7 consumption in vivo. This work demonstrates that sIL7Rα potentiates IL-7 bioactivity and provides a basis to explain the increased risk of autoimmunity observed in individuals with genotype-induced elevations of sIL7Rα. PMID:23610432

  10. MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF IL-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, the IL-17 family of cytokines (IL-17A-F) has a very distinct expression pattern and a different biological function. IL-17 is mainly secreted by activated CD4+ T cells and has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 has been shown to exert an important role in host...

  11. Production of IL-13 in spleen cells by IL-18 and IL-12 through generation of NK-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruyasu; Kashiwamura, Shin-ichiro; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Ogura, Takeharu; Gamachi, Naomi; Okamura, Haruki

    2006-02-21

    Treatment of Nylon wool-passed cells (NWC) prepared from the spleen of C57BL/6 mice with IL-18 and IL-12, but not with IL-18 alone, resulted in induction of IFN-gamma, a Th1 cytokine, and GM-CSF at 24 h, and IL-13, a Th2 cytokine at 72 h. The induction of IL-13 was suppressed by anti-GM-CSF antibody, indicating involvement of GM-CSF in IL-13 production. When NWC incubated with IL-18 and IL-12 for 72 h ("primary treatment") were treated again with the same cytokines ("secondary treatment"), IL-13 was induced much more quickly than observed in the primary treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of NWC after the primary treatment showed marked increases in the CD4(-)CD8(-) non-T cell population bearing CD25(+), CD45RB(super high) and CD122(+). These cells were positive for CD49b but negative for NK1.1, indicating that they were not typical but NK-like cells. The NK-like cells produced IL-13 in response to the treatment with IL-18 alone, indicating that the generation of these cells in the primary treatment likely accounts for the quick production of IL-13 in the secondary treatment. These results show that IL-18 and IL-12 generates the NK-like cells in NWC by a process mediated by GM-CSF that are ready for producing IL-13. PMID:16549365

  12. Soluble IL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient upper extremity soft tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Rechardt, Martti; Shiri, Rahman; Matikainen, Sampsa; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Karppinen, Jaro; Alenius, Harri

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies suggest a role for IL-1β in the pathophysiology of upper extremity soft tissue disorders (UESTDs). We studied the levels of interleukin-1 family members in patients with incipient UESTDs and compared them with healthy controls. In this case control study, we included 163 patients with UESTDs and symptom duration shorter than 1 month and 42 healthy controls matched for age and gender at the group level. Serum levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IL-33, TNFα and sensitized C-reactive protein as well as IL-1 family soluble receptors sIL-1RII and sST2 were assessed. We used unconditional logistic regression models to study the associations between cytokines and UESTDs. After adjustment for potential confounders, the serum levels of sIL-1RII (p<0.001) and sST2 (p=0.014) were higher in the patients than the controls. The level of IL-18 was lower in the patients than the controls (p=0.005). There were no significant differences between the patients and controls regarding the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-33, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, or sensitized C-reactive protein. The levels of circulating sIL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient UESTDs, suggesting an important role for these IL-1 family members in the early course of UESTDs. PMID:21371906

  13. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-γ. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  14. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  15. The role of IL-37 in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Vivi A; Zhu, Ziwen; Xiao, Huaping; Wakefield, Mark R; Bai, Qian; Fang, Yujiang

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a new member of the IL-1 family which all have a similar β-barrel structure. Since its discovery, IL-37 has been studied extensively in immunological field. It has been established that IL-37 possesses anti-inflammatory characteristics both in innate immune response as well as in acquired immune responses by downregulating pro-inflammatory molecules. This review will discuss the role of IL-37 in immunological processes and neoplastic pathogenesis. PMID:27251377

  16. Evaluation of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB genetic variants influence on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, different genetic variants located within the IL2/IL21 genetic region as well as within both IL2RA and IL2RB loci have been associated to multiple autoimmune disorders. We aimed to investigate for the first time the potential influence of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB most associated polymorphisms with autoimmunity on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Methods A total of 196 patients with endogenous non-anterior uveitis and 760 healthy controls, all of them from Caucasian population, were included in the current study. The IL2/IL21 (rs2069762, rs6822844 and rs907715), IL2RA (2104286, rs11594656 and rs12722495) and IL2RB (rs743777) genetic variants were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays. Results A statistically significant difference was found for the rs6822844 (IL2/IL21 region) minor allele frequency in the group of uveitis patients compared with controls (P-value=0.02, OR=0.64 CI 95%=0.43-0.94) although the significance was lost after multiple testing correction. Furthermore, no evidence of association with uveitis was detected for the analyzed genetic variants of the IL2RA or IL2RB loci. Conclusion Our results indicate that analyzed IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB polymorphisms do not seem to play a significant role on the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition although further studies are needed in order to clear up the influence of these loci on the non-anterior uveitis susceptibility. PMID:23676143

  17. IL-3 synergises with basophil-derived IL-4 and IL-13 to promote the alternative activation of human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Borriello, Francesco; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Pecoraro, Antonio; Granata, Francescopaolo; Staiano, Rosaria Ilaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Beguinot, Francesco; Schroeder, John; Marone, Gianni

    2015-07-01

    Basophil-derived IL-4 is involved in the alternative activation of mouse monocytes, as recently shown in vivo. Whether this applies to human basophils and monocytes has not been established yet. Here, we sought to characterise the interaction between basophils and monocytes and identify the molecular determinants. A basophil-monocyte co-culture model revealed that IL-3 and basophil-derived IL-4 and IL-13 induced monocyte production of CCL17, a marker of alternative activation. Critically, IL-3 and IL-4 acted directly on monocytes to induce CCL17 production through histone H3 acetylation, but did not increase the recruitment of STAT5 or STAT6. Although freshly isolated monocytes did not express the IL-3 receptor α chain (CD123), and did not respond to IL-3 (as assessed by STAT5 phosphorylation), the overnight incubation with IL-4 (especially if associated with IL-3) upregulated CD123 expression. IL-3-activated JAK2-STAT5 pathway inhibitors reduced the CCL17 production in response to IL-3 and IL-4, but not to IL-4 alone. Interestingly, monocytes isolated from allergen-sensitised asthmatic patients exhibited a higher expression of CD123. Taken together, our data show that the JAK2-STAT5 pathway modulates both basophil and monocyte effector responses. The coordinated activation of STAT5 and STAT6 may have a major impact on monocyte alternative activation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25824485

  18. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianli; Peng, Xiao; Li, Yan; Li, Mingcai

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future. PMID:25873772

  19. Cratylia mollis 1, 4 lectin: a new biotechnological tool in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction and generation of immunological memory.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; da Silva, Rafael Ramos; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Galdino, Suely Lins; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Cratylia mollis lectin has already established cytokine induction in Th1 and Th2 pathways. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate Cramoll 1, 4 in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction as well as analyze immunologic memory mechanism by reinducing lymphocyte stimulation. Initially we performed a screening in cultured splenocytes where Cramoll 1, 4 stimulated IL-6 production 5x more than ConA (P < 0.05). The same behavior was observed with IL-22 where the increase was greater than 4x. Nevertheless, IL-17A induction was similar for both lectins. In PBMCs, the same splenocytes course was observed for IL-6 and IL-17A. Concerning the stimulation of IL-22 and IL-23 Cramoll 1, 4 was more efficient than ConA in cytokines stimulation mainly in IL-23 (P < 0.01). Analyzing reinduced lymphocyte stimulation, IL-17A production was higher (P < 0.001) when the first stimulus was realized with Cramoll 1, 4 at 1 μ g/mL and the second at 5 μ g/mL. IL-22 shows significant differences (P < 0.01) at the same condition. Nevertheless, IL-23 revels the best response when the first stimuli was realized with Cramoll1, 4 at 100 ng/mL and the second with 5 μ g/mL. We conclude that the Cramoll 1, 4 is able to induce IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines in vitro better than Concavalin A, besides immunologic memory generation, being a potential biotechnological tool in Th17 pathway studies. PMID:23586026

  20. Cytoplasmic tail of IL-13Ralpha2 regulates IL-4 signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Allison-Lynn; Nordgren, Ida Karin; Kirby, Isabelle; Holloway, John W; Holgate, Stephen T; Davies, Donna E; Tavassoli, Ali

    2009-08-01

    IL (interleukin)-4 and IL-13 are key cytokines in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disease. IL-4 and IL-13 share many functional properties as a result of their utilization of a common receptor complex comprising IL-13Ralpha1 (IL-13 receptor alpha-chain 1) and IL-4Ralpha. The second IL-13R (IL-13 receptor) has been identified, namely IL-13Ralpha2. This has been thought to be a decoy receptor due to its short cytoplasmic tail and its high binding affinity for IL-13 but not IL-4. IL-13Ralpha2 exists on the cell membrane, intracellularly and in a soluble form. Recent reports revealed that membrane IL-13Ralpha2 may have some signalling capabilities, and a soluble form of IL-13Ralpha2 can be generated in the presence of environmental allergens such as DerP. Interestingly, IL-13Ralpha2 has also been shown to regulate both IL-13 and IL-4 response in primary airway cells, despite the fact that IL-13Ralpha2 does not bind IL-4. The regulator mechanism is still unclear but the physical association of IL-13Ralpha2 with IL-4Ralpha appears to be a key regulatory step. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of IL-13Ralpha2 may interfere with the association or activation of signalling molecules, such as JAK1 (Janus kinase 1), on IL-4Ralpha and thus prevents downstream signal cascade. The receptor has more complicated functions than a simple decoy receptor. In this review, we discuss newly revealed functions of IL-13Ralpha2. PMID:19614610

  1. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

  2. Of Inflammasomes and Alarmins: IL-1β and IL-1α in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Kidney injury implies danger signaling and a response by the immune system. The inflammasome is a central danger recognition platform that triggers local and systemic inflammation. In immune cells, inflammasome activation causes the release of mature IL-1β and of the alarmin IL-1α Dying cells release IL-1α also, independently of the inflammasome. Both IL-1α and IL-1β ligate the same IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) that is present on nearly all cells inside and outside the kidney, further amplifying cytokine and chemokine release. Thus, the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system is a central element of kidney inflammation and the systemic consequences. Seminal discoveries of recent years have expanded this central paradigm of inflammation. This review gives an overview of arising concepts of inflammasome and IL-1α/β regulation in renal cells and in experimental kidney disease models. There is a pipeline of compounds that can interfere with the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system, ranging from recently described small molecule inhibitors of NLRP3, a component of the inflammasome complex, to regulatory agency-approved IL-1-neutralizing biologic drugs. Based on strong theoretic and experimental rationale, the potential therapeutic benefits of using such compounds to block the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system in kidney disease should be further explored. PMID:27516236

  3. Directing traffic: IL-17 and IL-22 coordinate pulmonary immune defense.

    PubMed

    McAleer, Jeremy P; Kolls, Jay K

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory infections and diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and effective treatments probably require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic microbes or allergens. Here, we review mechanisms controlling the production and functions of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, cytokines that direct several aspects of lung immunity. Innate lymphocytes (γδ T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells) are the major source of IL-17 and IL-22 during acute infections, while CD4(+) T-helper 17 (Th17) cells contribute to vaccine-induced immunity. The characterization of dendritic cell (DC) subsets has revealed their central roles in T-cell activation. CD11b(+) DCs stimulated with bacteria or fungi secrete IL-1β and IL-23, potent inducers of IL-17 and IL-22. On the other hand, recognition of viruses by plasmacytoid DCs inhibits IL-1β and IL-23 release, increasing susceptibility to bacterial superinfections. IL-17 and IL-22 primarily act on the lung epithelium, inducing antimicrobial proteins and neutrophil chemoattractants. Recent studies found that stimulation of macrophages and DCs with IL-17 also contributes to antibacterial immunity, while IL-22 promotes epithelial proliferation and repair following injury. Chronic diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been associated with IL-17 and IL-22 responses directed against innocuous antigens. Future studies will evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the IL-17/IL-22 pathway in pulmonary inflammation. PMID:24942687

  4. The Role of IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 in Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Conventional Infant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Alutis, Marie E.; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B.; Bereswill, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that, within 1 week following peroral Campylobacter jejuni infection, conventional infant mice develop self-limiting enteritis. We here investigated the role of IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 during C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection of infant mice. The pathogen efficiently colonized the intestines of IL-18–/– mice only, but did not translocate to extra-intestinal compartments. At day 13 postinfection (p.i.), IL-22–/– mice displayed lower colonic epithelial apoptotic cell numbers as compared to wildtype mice, whereas, conversely, colonic proliferating cells increased in infected IL-22–/– and IL-18–/– mice. At day 6 p.i., increases in neutrophils, T and B lymphocytes were less pronounced in gene-deficient mice, whereas regulatory T cell numbers were lower in IL-23p19–/– and IL-22–/– as compared to wildtype mice, which was accompanied by increased colonic IL-10 levels in the latter. Until then, colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1 increased in IL-23p19–/– mice, whereas IL-18–/– mice exhibited decreased cytokine levels and lower colonic numbers of T and B cell as well as of neutrophils, macrophages, and monocytes as compared to wildtype controls. In conclusion, IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 are differentially involved in mediating C. jejuni-induced immunopathology of conventional infant mice. PMID:27429795

  5. Differential regulation by IL-4 and IL-10 of radiation-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production and ICAM-1 expression by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, A; Squiban, C; Gourmelon, P; Lafont, H; Gaugler, M H

    1999-11-01

    Radiation exposure results in an inflammatory reaction with acute as well as subacute consequences. Leukocyte infiltration is one of the predominant early histological changes and involves both cytokines and adhesion molecules. Endothelial cells play a key role in this reaction. We have previously shown the increased production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 and the upregulation in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression by HUVEC following gamma ray exposure. In the present study, we used the cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 to regulate these radiation-induced manifestations. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with IL-4 and IL-10 (50 pg/ml) either before or after 10- Gy irradiation. Three and seven days after irradiation, IL-6 and IL-8 production by HUVEC (either treated or non-treated) was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results show that IL-4, when added after irradiation, reversed the radiation-induced increase in IL-8 production, although slightly increased IL-6 production. IL-10 decreased both IL-8 and IL-6 production when added after irradiation. ICAM-1 expression was evaluated 3 days after irradiation by flow cytometry. The radiation-induced upregulation in ICAM-1 expression remained unaffected by the use of IL-4. Altogether, our results show that radiation-induced endothelial cell activation may be ameliorated by IL-4 and/or IL-10, which is of significance in designing strategies for cytokine-mediated intervention and/or therapy of radiation damage. PMID:10547270

  6. IL-10 induces gene expression in macrophages: partial overlap with IL-5 but not with IL-4 induced genes.

    PubMed

    Stumpo, Rita; Kauer, Manfred; Martin, Stephan; Kolb, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    The hypothesis that IL-10, in addition to down-regulating pro-inflammatory activities of macrophages, induces an alternative state of macrophage reactivity was tested. We therefore conducted a systematic search for genes induced by IL-10 using the method of suppression subtractive hybridisation. Of an initial 1,300 candidate clones obtained, several screening rounds led to the identification of 51 clones which were reproducibly at least twofold up-regulated in mouse J774 macrophages in response to treatment with IL-10. Of these, 41 genes were homologous to known genes involved in cell metabolism or immunoregulation, five contained novel sequences and another five were homologous to ESTs without known function. One major finding was that about 25% of the IL-10 genes were also found expressed in response to IFNgamma, and several of these also reappeared in IL-4 or IL-5 induced mRNA species. Hence, Th1 and Th2 type cytokines may elicit a common basal activation response in macrophages. The second major finding was that 57% of IL-10 induced genes reappeared in IL-5 induced mRNA but no more than 18% were also found in IL-4 induced mRNA of J774 cells. We conclude that the gene expression response to IL-10 in macrophages is partially different from the response to IL-5 and is substantially different from the response to IL-4, which suggests an unexpected diversity of biological phenotypes induced by different Th2 type cytokines. PMID:14561490

  7. Involvement of IL17A, IL17F and IL23R Polymorphisms in Colorectal Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Omrane, Inés; Medimegh, Imen; Baroudi, Olfa; Ayari, Hager; Bedhiafi, Walid; Stambouli, Nejla; Ferchichi, Marwa; Kourda, Nadia; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Mezlini, Amel; Bougatef, Karim; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2015-01-01

    IL23/IL17 pathway plays an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In general, the genes encoding the cytokines are genetically polymorphic and polymorphisms in genes IL23R and IL17 have been proved to be associated with its susceptibility to inflammatory diseases as well as cancer including colorectal cancer. Moreover, it has been shown that these interleukins are involved in anti-tumor or pro-tumor effects of various cancers. Previously, we showed that there is a significant association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms as well as the occurrence of colorectal cancer and the clinical features of the disease. The purpose of the present work is to investigate an association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms in 102 Tunisian patients with colorectal cancer treatment. The association was analyzed by statistical tools. We found that patients with mutated genotypes of IL17A G197A SNP could be a risk factor for the inefficiency of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unlike IL17F variant, patients with wild type genotypes require surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. On the one hand, we found no evidence that supports a significant association between IL23R polymorphism and the combined genotypes of these three genes and the colorectal cancer treatment. On the other hand, we showed that there is an important interaction between IL17A/IL17F polymorphisms and the stage of the disease as well as its treatment. Finally, patients with IL17F wild type genotype highlighted that there is a valid longer OS without all treatments and with radiotherapy and a neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, we observed that there are no relationships between IL17A, IL23R and the survival of these patients neither with nor without the treatment. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in IL17A and IL17F genes may be a predictive source of colorectal cancer therapy type. Therefore, IL17F may serve as an independent prognostic factor for overall

  8. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  9. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  10. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  11. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  12. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  13. Interleukin (IL)-25: Pleiotropic roles in asthma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiujuan; Sun, Yongchang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Ying

    2016-05-01

    IL-25, also named IL-17E, is a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, which can promote and augment T helper type 2 (Th2) responses locally or systemically. Growing evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that the expression of IL-25 and its cognate receptor, IL-17RB/RA, is markedly upregulated in asthmatic conditions. It has also been found that IL-25 induces not only typical eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but also airway remodelling, manifested by goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial collagen deposition and angiogenesis. This review will focus on the discovery, cellular origins and targets of IL-25, and try to update current animal and human studies elucidating the roles of IL-25 in asthma. We conclude that although IL-25 is a pleiotropic cytokine, it may only play its dominant role in a certain specific asthmatic endotype, named 'IL-25 high' phenotype. Thus, targeting IL-25 or its receptor might selectively benefit some subgroups with asthma. Furthermore, the major IL-25 producing as well as responsive cells in the changeable milieu of asthma should be assessed in the future. PMID:26699081

  14. IL-21 and IL-4 Collaborate To Shape T-Dependent Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Helen M; Vogelzang, Alexis; Warren, Joanna; Loetsch, Claudia; Natividad, Karlo D; Chan, Tyani D; Brink, Robert; Batten, Marcel; King, Cecile

    2015-12-01

    The selection of affinity-matured Ab-producing B cells is supported by interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. In addition to cell surface-expressed molecules, cytokines produced by Tfh cells, such as IL-21 and IL-4, provide B cell helper signals. In this study, we analyze how the fitness of Th cells can influence Ab responses. To do this, we used a model in which IL-21R-sufficient (wild-type [WT]) and -deficient (Il21r(-/-)) Ag-specific Tfh cells were used to help immunodeficient Il21r(-/-) B cells following T-dependent immunization. Il21r(-/-) B cells that had received help from WT Tfh cells, but not from Il21r(-/-) Tfh cells, generated affinity-matured Ab upon recall immunization. This effect was dependent on IL-4 produced in the primary response and associated with an increased fraction of memory B cells. Il21r(-/-) Tfh cells were distinguished from WT Tfh cells by a decreased frequency, reduced conjugate formation with B cells, increased expression of programmed cell death 1, and reduced production of IL-4. IL-21 also influenced responsiveness to IL-4 because expression of both membrane IL-4R and the IL-4-neutralizing soluble (s)IL-4R were reduced in Il21r(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the concentration of sIL-4R was found to correlate inversely with the amount of IgE in sera, such that the highest IgE levels were observed in Il21r(-/-) mice with the least sIL-4R. Taken together, these findings underscore the important collaboration between IL-4 and IL-21 in shaping T-dependent Ab responses. PMID:26491200

  15. Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2011-11-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme. PMID:21896776

  16. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R.

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  17. An activation-induced IL-15 isoform is a natural antagonist for IL-15 function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yinsheng; Song, Yuan; Lin, Dandan; Liu, Yonghao; Mei, Yu; Sandikin, Dedy; Sun, Weiping; Zhuang, Min; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) expression induces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, inhibits the apoptosis of activated T cells and prolongs the survival of CD8(+) memory T cells. Here we identified an IL-15 isoform lacking exon-6, IL-15ΔE6, generated by alternative splicing events of activated immune cells, including macrophages and B cells. In vitro study showed that IL-15ΔE6 could antagonize IL-15-mediated T cell proliferation. The receptor binding assay revealed that IL-15ΔE6 could bind to IL-15Rα and interfere with the binding between IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Over-expression of IL-15ΔE6 in the murine EAE model ameliorated the EAE symptoms of the mice. The clinical scores were significantly lower in the mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 than the control mice and the mice expressing IL-15. The inflammation and demyelination of the EAE mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 were less severe than the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 expression reduced the percentages of inflammatory T cells in the spleen and spinal cord, and inhibited the infiltration of macrophages to the CNS. Our results demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 could be induced during immune activation and function as a negative feedback mechanism to dampen IL-15-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:27166125

  18. An activation-induced IL-15 isoform is a natural antagonist for IL-15 function

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yinsheng; Song, Yuan; Lin, Dandan; Liu, Yonghao; Mei, Yu; Sandikin, Dedy; Sun, Weiping; Zhuang, Min; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) expression induces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, inhibits the apoptosis of activated T cells and prolongs the survival of CD8+ memory T cells. Here we identified an IL-15 isoform lacking exon-6, IL-15ΔE6, generated by alternative splicing events of activated immune cells, including macrophages and B cells. In vitro study showed that IL-15ΔE6 could antagonize IL-15-mediated T cell proliferation. The receptor binding assay revealed that IL-15ΔE6 could bind to IL-15Rα and interfere with the binding between IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Over-expression of IL-15ΔE6 in the murine EAE model ameliorated the EAE symptoms of the mice. The clinical scores were significantly lower in the mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 than the control mice and the mice expressing IL-15. The inflammation and demyelination of the EAE mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 were less severe than the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 expression reduced the percentages of inflammatory T cells in the spleen and spinal cord, and inhibited the infiltration of macrophages to the CNS. Our results demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 could be induced during immune activation and function as a negative feedback mechanism to dampen IL-15-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:27166125

  19. Enhanced Interleukin (IL)-13 Responses in Mice Lacking IL-13 Receptor α 2

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nancy; Whitters, Matthew J.; Jacobson, Bruce A.; Witek, JoAnn; Sypek, Joseph P.; Kasaian, Marion; Eppihimer, Michael J.; Unger, Michelle; Tanaka, Takashi; Goldman, Samuel J.; Collins, Mary; Donaldson, Debra D.; Grusby, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 has recently been shown to play important and unique roles in asthma, parasite immunity, and tumor recurrence. At least two distinct receptor components, IL-4 receptor (R)α and IL-13Rα1, mediate the diverse actions of IL-13. We have recently described an additional high affinity receptor for IL-13, IL-13Rα2, whose function in IL-13 signaling is unknown. To better appreciate the functional importance of IL-13Rα2, mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 were generated by gene targeting. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were increased in IL-13Rα2−/− mice despite the fact that serum IL-13 was absent and immune interferon γ production increased compared with wild-type mice. IL-13Rα2–deficient mice display increased bone marrow macrophage progenitor frequency and decreased tissue macrophage nitric oxide and IL-12 production in response to lipopolysaccharide. These results are consistent with a phenotype of enhanced IL-13 responsiveness and demonstrate a role for endogenous IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 in regulating immune responses in wild-type mice. PMID:12642602

  20. Polymorphisms in the IL2, IL2RA and IL2RB genes in multiple sclerosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Cavanillas, María L; Alcina, Antonio; Núñez, Concepción; de las Heras, Virginia; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; Bartolomé, Manuel; de la Concha, Emilio G; Fernández, Oscar; Arroyo, Rafael; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Urcelay, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-2/IL-2R signalling promotes proliferation and survival of activated T cells and has an essential non-redundant role in the production of regulatory T cells. Associations with different autoimmune diseases of polymorphisms in a linkage disequilibrium block in which the IL2/IL21 genes map (4q27), and also in genes encoding the IL2RA and IL2RB subunits (located in 10p15 and 22q13, respectively), were identified through genome-wide studies. Polymorphisms in these three genes were studied in 430 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and in 550 ethnically matched controls from Madrid (Spain). Replication and meta-analysis with results from an independent cohort of 771 MS patients and 759 controls from Andalucía (Spain) confirmed the association of polymorphisms in the IL2RA gene (PMantel–Haenszel, odds ratio (OR)M–H (95% confidence interval, CI) for rs2104286: 0.0001, 0.75 (0.65–0.87); for rs11594656/rs35285258: 0.004, 1.19 (1.06–1.34); for rs41295061: 0.03, 0.77 (0.60–0.98)); showed a trend for association of the IL2/IL21 rs6822844 (PM–H=0.07, ORM–H (95% CI)=0.86 (0.73–1.01)), but did not corroborate the association for IL2RB. Regression analyses of the combined Spanish cohort revealed the independence of two IL2RA association signals: rs2104286 and rs11594656/rs35285258. The relevant role of the IL2RA gene on MS susceptibility adds support to its common effect on autoimmune risk and the suggestive association of IL2/IL21 warrants further investigation. PMID:20179739

  1. IL-6 in diabetes and cardiovascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Dan; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that participates in normal functions of the immune system, haematopoiesis, metabolism, as well as in the pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles of IL-6 have been described, which are distinguished by different cascades of signalling transduction, namely classic and trans-signalling. The present review summarizes the basic principles of IL-6 signalling and discusses its roles in diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications, with emphasis on the different outcomes mediated by the two modes of IL-6 signalling and the value of developing therapeutic strategies to specifically target the deleterious trans-signalling of IL-6. PMID:24697653

  2. Revisiting IL-6 antagonism in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Thomas; Manfroi, Benoit; Huard, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    IL-6, a cytokine with broad functions in inflammation and immunity, has been extensively studied for its role on normal antibody-producing plasma cells. In addition, IL-6 is recognized as a proliferative factor for multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant plasma cell tumor developing in the bone marrow. Blocking IL-6 signaling was thus developed into a therapeutic approach for MM already early after its discovery, in 1991. Unfortunately, the first clinical trials did not demonstrate a clear benefit, but despite this apparent failure hopes on IL-6 antagonism are still high and trials ongoing. The cellular source of IL-6 has long been a matter of debate. IL-6 was first recognized as an autocrine factor produced by the malignant plasma cells themselves, but later reports clearly showed that IL-6 was a paracrine factor, produced by the microenvironment, mostly by cells from the myeloid lineage. Recently, we have confirmed that IL-6 originates from myeloid lineage cells, mainly from myeloid precursors. We have also demonstrated that IL-6 amplifies the pool of myeloid cells producing a second key factor for MM, a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). These findings form a new rationale for IL-6 inhibition in MM and for new ways to use IL-6 blocking in the clinics. PMID:27497026

  3. IL-17RC: A partner in IL-17 signaling and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Allen W.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    The IL-17 cytokine family members IL-17A and IL-17F mediate inflammatory activities via the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) complex, comprised of the IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits. Proper regulation of the IL-17 signaling axis results in effective host defense against extracellular pathogens, while aberrant signaling can drive autoimmune pathology. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-17 signal transduction can yield an enhanced understanding of inflammatory immune processes and also create an avenue for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of IL-17-dependent diseases. To date, the fundamental signaling mechanisms used by the IL-17R complex are still incompletely defined. While current structure-function studies have primarily focused on the IL-17RA subunit, recent research indicates that the IL-17RC subunit plays a key role in modulating IL-17 responses. This review will examine what is known regarding IL-17RC function and provide a framework for future work on this subunit and its impact on human health. PMID:20012905

  4. Negative feedback on IL-23 exerted by IL-17A during pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Silverpil, Elin; Wright, Adam K A; Hansson, Marit; Jirholt, Pernilla; Henningsson, Louise; Smith, Margaretha E; Gordon, Stephen B; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Gjertsson, Inger; Glader, Pernilla; Lindén, Anders

    2013-10-01

    It is now established that IL-17 has a broad pro-inflammatory potential in mammalian host defense, in inflammatory disease and in autoimmunity, whereas little is known about its anti-inflammatory potential and inhibitory feedback mechanisms. Here, we examined whether IL-17A can inhibit the extracellular release of IL-23 protein, the upstream regulator of IL-17A producing lymphocyte subsets, that is released from macrophages during pulmonary inflammation. We characterized the effect of IL-17A on IL-23 release in several models of pulmonary inflammation, evaluated the presence of IL-17 receptor A (RA) and C (RC) on human alveolar macrophages and assessed the role of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 as a mediator of the effect of IL-17A on the release of IL-23 protein. In a model of sepsis-induced pneumonia, intravenous exposure to Staphylococcus aureus caused higher IL-23 protein concentrations in cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from IL-17A knockout (KO) mice, compared with wild type (WT) control mice. In a model of Gram-negative airway infection, pre-treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-17A Ab and subsequent intranasal (i.n.) exposure to LPS caused higher IL-23 and IL-17A protein concentrations in BAL samples compared with mice exposed to LPS, but pre-treated with an isotype control Ab. Moreover, i.n. exposure with IL-17A protein per se decreased IL- 23 protein concentrations in BAL samples. We detected IL-17RA and IL-17RC on human alveolar macrophages, and found that in vitro stimulation of these cells with IL-17A protein, after exposure to LPS, decreased IL-23 protein in conditioned medium, but not IL-23 p19 or p40 mRNA. This study indicates that IL-17A can partially inhibit the release of IL-23 protein during pulmonary inflammation, presumably by stimulating the here demonstrated receptor units IL-17RA and IL-17RC on alveolar macrophages. Hypothetically, the demonstrated mechanism may serve as negative feedback to protect from excessive IL-17A

  5. The IL-13 Receptor-α1 Chain Is Essential for Induction of the Alternative Macrophage Activation Pathway by IL-13 but not IL-4

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Faruk; Dickensheets, Harold; Pedras-Vasconcelos, Joao; Ramalingam, Thirumalai; Helming, Laura; Gordon, Siamon; Donnelly, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages co-express both the IL-2Rγ chain (γc) and IL-13Rα1. These receptor chains can heterodimerize with IL-4Rα to form type-I or type-II IL-4 receptor complexes, respectively. We used macrophages derived from Il2rg and Il13ra1 knockout mice to evaluate the requirements for these receptor chains for induction of the alternative macrophage activation (AMA) pathway by IL-4 and IL-13. Absence of γc significantly decreased activation of STAT6 by IL-4 but not IL-13. However, although activation of STAT6 by IL-4 was markedly reduced in γc KO macrophages, it was not abolished, indicating that IL-4 can still signal through type-II IL-4 receptors via the IL-13Rα1 chain. IL-13 failed to activate STAT6 in macrophages derived from Il13ra1 KO mice; however, these cells remained fully responsive to IL-4. The inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to signal in Il13ra1−/− macrophages correlated with the inability of IL-13 but not IL-4 to induce expression of genes such as Arg1, Retnla and Ccl11 that are characteristically expressed by alternatively activated macrophages. In addition, IL-13 but not IL-4 failed to induce membrane fusion and giant cell formation by Il13ra1 KO macrophages. These findings demonstrate that the IL-13Rα1 chain is essential for induction of the AMA pathway by IL-13 but not IL-4. PMID:25766112

  6. IL-4 acts as a homeostatic regulator of IL-2-induced TNF and IFN-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Fernandez, C; Oblakowski, P; Meager, A; Duncombe, A S; Rill, D M; Hoffbrand, A V; Brenner, M K

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a cytokine secreted by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes. IL-2-stimulated lymphocytes also secrete two cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), which contribute to effector function and which may themselves recruit fresh, cytokine-secreting effector cells. We have now investigated whether the IL-4 induced is able to homeostatically regulate secretion of the TNF and IFN-gamma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or lymphocytes from normal donors and from patients with neoplastic disease were cultured in the presence of IL-2 alone, IL-4 alone or with both cytokines. IL-2 induced high levels of TNF and IFN-gamma secretion in both groups. The addition of recombinant IL-4 to these IL-2-stimulated cultures lead to significant inhibition of IFN-gamma and TNF production. IFN-gamma secretion was reduced by 50-99% in normal donors and by between 11% and 99% in patients (P less than 0.001). TNF levels induced by IL-2 were similarly reduced by IL-4 both in normal donors (P less than 0.003) and in patients (P less than 0.01). These inhibitory effects were produced by IL-4 at doses of IL-2 attainable in vivo. Inhibition appears to represent a homeostatic regulatory mechanism which may limit recruitment of fresh activated killer (AK) cells. When endogenous IL-4 activity in IL-2-activated lymphocytes was blocked by anti-IL-4 antibody, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and TNF were secreted (P less than 0.05). Since both TNF and IFN-gamma may contribute to the anti-neoplastic action of IL-2, manipulating the level of IL-4 activity in vivo could augment the benefits of IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:1901829

  7. Targeting IL-33 in autoimmunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Petra, Anastasia I; Taracanova, Alexandra; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Conti, Pio

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines. Whereas IL-1 is processed and released by live immune cells in response to infection or other triggers, IL-33 is mostly released as a danger signal ("alarmin") from damaged cells. IL-33 may also be processed and released from activated mast cells (MCs) with subsequent autocrine and paracrine actions. IL-33 augments the stimulatory effects of IgE and substance P on MCs but can also trigger release of cytokines from MCs on its own. Blood IL-33 levels are increased in asthma, atopic dermatitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome. However, prolonged elevation of IL-33 downregulates FcεRI and may be protective in atherosclerosis, suggesting different roles in immune-regulated diseases. Even though neutralizing IL-33, knocking-down its receptor, or using its soluble "decoy" receptor has resulted in anti-inflammatory effects, there appear to be different outcomes in different tissues. Hence, selective regulation of IL-33 synthesis, release, and signaling may be required to provide effective treatment options. PMID:25906776

  8. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Abigail L.; Smith, Nicola C.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; Leach, William J.; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Rooney, Brian P.; Murrell, George A. C.; Millar, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β) in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy. PMID:24757284

  9. Modulation effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junbo; Guo, Li; Pang, Guangchang; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Mingchun

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to explore and evaluate the effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 in mice, and the regulative effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae on the cytokine system. Using an ELISA assay, the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 were examined in mice after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts. The results showed that the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased compared with the control groups (p<0.01), while the level of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly decreased (p<0.01). Semen Ziziphi Spinosae possesses certain modulation effects on cytokines, and the immuno-regulating function and hypnosis effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae may be relevant to these modulation effects on cytokines. PMID:21328141

  10. IL-23/IL-17 axis in spondyloarthritis-bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Siba P; Raychaudhuri, Smriti K

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other types of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Besides IFN-γ and TNF-α; IL-23/IL-17 cytokines play a dominant role in the inflammatory and proliferative cascades of SpA. Recently, in a series of elegant experiments using mouse models and human tissues, it has been demonstrated that IL-23-induced Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22) can contribute to following pathologic events associated with SpA: development of psoriatic plaque, pannus formation in the joint, joint erosion, and new bone formation. In this review article, we have discussed the contributing role of the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine axis in the pathogenesis of PsA and AS. IL-23/IL-17-targeted therapies are very promising for SpA, and we have provided an outline about usefulness of these new groups of biologics in SpA. PMID:27075462

  11. IL-33 drives biphasic IL-13 production for noncanonical Type 2 immunity against hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Yin; Lewkowich, Ian P.; Dawson, Lucas A.; Downey, Jordan; Yang, Yanfen; Smith, Dirk E.; Herbert, De'Broski R.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic helminths are a major cause of chronic human disease, affecting more than 3 billion people worldwide. Host protection against most parasitic helminths relies upon Type 2 cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate interleukin (IL) 4 and 13 production from CD4+ T helper 2 cells (TH2) and innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) remain incompletely understood. The epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 promote Type 2 responses, but the extent of functional redundancy between these cytokines is unclear and whether Type 2 memory relies upon either IL-25 or IL-33 is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate a pivotal role for IL-33 in driving primary and anamnestic immunity against the rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. IL-33–deficient mice have a selective defect in ILC2–derived IL-13 during both primary and secondary challenge infections but generate stronger canonical CD4+ T helper 2 cells responses (IL-4, IgE, mast cells, and basophils) than WT controls. Lack of IL-13 production in IL-33–deficient mice impairs resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) expression and eosinophil recruitment, which are two mechanisms that eliminate N. brasiliensis parasites from infected hosts. Thus, IL-33 is requisite for IL-13 but not IL-4–driven Type 2 responses during hookworm infection. PMID:23248269

  12. Interleukin newcomers creating new numbers in rheumatology: IL-34 to IL-38.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Gaëlle; Thiolat, Allan; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2013-10-01

    The development of innovative technologies is steadily increasing the body of knowledge on molecules involved in physiological functions. Thus, several interleukins (ILs) have been identified and characterized in the past few years. Here, we detail the structural and functional characteristics of IL-34 to IL-38 with special attention to their involvement in inflammatory joint disease. IL-34 chiefly increases osteoclast activation and proliferation and therefore, it plays a direct role in bone destruction as seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) express IL-35, which therefore exerts anti-inflammatory effects by restoring Treg suppressive capabilities and by inhibiting the Th17 pathway. IL-37 has anti-inflammatory effects mediated by a negative feedback loop that decreases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-36 belongs to the IL-1 family and has three different forms. Although this cytokine has been chiefly studied in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it also exerts pro-inflammatory effects in RA. The specific IL-36 antagonist, IL-36Ra binds to the IL-36 receptor, thereby, preventing signal transduction. Finally, IL-38 is a recently identified cytokine whose effect may resemble that of IL-36Ra as it binds to the IL-36 receptor and inhibits its effects, particularly the Th17-response. Although the exact roles for these cytokines awaits elucidation, the current improvements in our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate chronic inflammatory conditions, such as RA may lead to the identification of new treatment targets. PMID:23849463

  13. Epithelial IL-23R Signaling Licenses Protective IL-22 Responses in Intestinal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aden, Konrad; Rehman, Ateequr; Falk-Paulsen, Maren; Secher, Thomas; Kuiper, Jan; Tran, Florian; Pfeuffer, Steffen; Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Breuer, Alexandra; Luzius, Anne; Jentzsch, Marlene; Häsler, Robert; Billmann-Born, Susanne; Will, Olga; Lipinski, Simone; Bharti, Richa; Adolph, Timon; Iovanna, Juan L; Kempster, Sarah L; Blumberg, Richard S; Schreiber, Stefan; Becher, Burkhard; Chamaillard, Mathias; Kaser, Arthur; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2016-08-23

    A plethora of functional and genetic studies have suggested a key role for the IL-23 pathway in chronic intestinal inflammation. Currently, pathogenic actions of IL-23 have been ascribed to specific effects on immune cells. Herein, we unveil a protective role of IL-23R signaling. Mice deficient in IL-23R expression in intestinal epithelial cells (Il23R(ΔIEC)) have reduced Reg3b expression, show a disturbed colonic microflora with an expansion of flagellated bacteria, and succumb to DSS colitis. Surprisingly, Il23R(ΔIEC) mice show impaired mucosal IL-22 induction in response to IL-23. αThy-1 treatment significantly deteriorates colitis in Il23R(ΔIEC) animals, which can be rescued by IL-22 application. Importantly, exogenous Reg3b administration rescues DSS-treated Il23R(ΔIEC) mice by recruiting neutrophils as IL-22-producing cells, thereby restoring mucosal IL-22 levels. The study identifies a critical barrier-protective immune pathway that originates from, and is orchestrated by, IL-23R signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:27524624

  14. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures.

    PubMed

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K

    2012-11-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1β, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted in increased IFN-γ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Rα, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33 had an increased IL-5 secretion. Interestingly, E4BP4 gene expression and the percentage of E4BP4(+) cells of the recently shown IL-10 transcriptional regulator E4BP4 correlated with IL-10 gene expression and protein secretion in Th1 cultures. Taken together, we report that the IL-1 family "alarmins" IL-18 and IL-33 in addition to amplifying both Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines block production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in Th1 cultures. PMID:23028054

  15. Microenvironment-derived IL-1 and IL-17 interact in the control of lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Yaron; Rinott, Gal; Dotan, Shahar; Elkabets, Moshe; Rider, Peleg; Voronov, Elena; Apte, Ron N

    2011-03-15

    Inflammatory cytokines modulate immune responses in the tumor microenvironment during progression/metastasis. In this study, we have assessed the role of IL-1 and IL-17 in the control of antitumor immunity versus progression in a model of experimental lung metastasis, using 3LL and B16 epithelial tumor cells. The absence of IL-1 signaling or its excess in the lung microenvironment (in IL-1β and IL-1R antagonist knockout [KO] mice, respectively) resulted in a poor prognosis and reduced T cell activity, compared with WT mice. In IL-1β KO mice, enhanced T regulatory cell development/function, due to a favorable in situ cytokine network and impairment in APC maturation, resulted in suppressed antitumor immunity, whereas in IL-1R antagonist KO mice, enhanced accumulation and activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells were found. Reduced tumor progression along with improved T cell function was found in IL-17 KO mice, compared with WT mice. In the microenvironment of lung tumors, IL-1 induces IL-17 through recruitment of γ/δ T cells and their activation for IL-17 production, with no involvement of Th17 cells. These interactions were specific to the microenvironment of lung tumors, as in intrafootpad tumors in IL-1/IL-17 KO mice, different patterns of invasiveness were observed and no IL-17 could be locally detected. The results highlight the critical and unique role of IL-1, and cytokines induced by it such as IL-17, in determining the balance between inflammation and antitumor immunity in specific tumor microenvironments. Also, we suggest that intervention in IL-1/IL-17 production could be therapeutically used to tilt this balance toward enhanced antitumor immunity. PMID:21300825

  16. IL-8 and IL-6 primarily mediate the inflammatory response in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Mendieta, Danelia; De la Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Barrera-Villalpando, Maria Isabel; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Arreola, Rodrigo; Hernández-Ferreira, Erick; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pavón, Lenin

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease that has been linked to inflammatory reactions and changes in the systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines that modulate responses in the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We found that concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were elevated in FM patients. Both cytokines correlated with clinical scores, suggesting that IL-6 and IL-8 have additive or synergistic effects in perpetuating the chronic pain in FM patients. These findings indicate that IL-6 and IL-8 are two of the most constant inflammatory mediators in FM and that their levels correlate significantly with the severity of symptoms. PMID:26711564

  17. Critical Role of IL-22/IL22-RA1 Signaling in Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Trevejo-Nunez, Giraldina; Elsegeiny, Waleed; Conboy, Parker; Chen, Kong; Kolls, Jay K

    2016-09-01

    IL-22-IL-22R signaling plays a crucial role in regulating host defenses against extracellular pathogens, particularly in the intestine, through the induction of antimicrobial peptides and chemotactic genes. However, the role of IL-22-IL-22R is understudied in Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection, a prevalent pathogen of pneumonia. This paper presents the findings of IL-22 signaling during a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia and improvement of bacterial burden upon IL-22 administration. IL-22 was rapidly induced in the lung during pneumococcal infection in wild-type mice, and Il22(-/-) mice had higher pneumococcal burdens compared with controls. Additionally, mice with hepatic-specific deletion of Il22ra1 also had higher bacterial burdens in lungs compared with littermate controls after intrapulmonary pneumococcal infection, suggesting that IL-22 signaling in the liver is important to control pneumococcal pneumonia. Thus, we hypothesized that enhancement of IL-22 signaling would control pneumococcal burden in lung tissues in an experimental pneumonia model. Administration of rIL-22 systemically to infected wild-type mice decreased bacterial burden in lung and liver at 24 h postinfection. Our in vitro studies also showed that mice treated with IL-22 had increased C3 expression in the liver compared with the isotype control group. Furthermore, serum from mice treated with IL-22 had improved opsonic capacity by increasing C3 binding on S. pneumoniae Taken together, endogenous IL-22 and hepatic IL-22R signaling play critical roles in controlling pneumococcal lung burden, and systemic IL-22 decreases bacterial burden in the lungs and peripheral organs by potentiating C3 opsonization on bacterial surfaces, through the increase of hepatic C3 expression. PMID:27456484

  18. Human IL-2 mutein with higher antitumor efficacy than wild type IL-2.

    PubMed

    Carmenate, Tania; Pacios, Anabel; Enamorado, Michel; Moreno, Ernesto; Garcia-Martínez, Karina; Fuente, Dasha; León, Kalet

    2013-06-15

    IL-2 has been used for the treatment of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but this therapy has limited efficacy and severe toxicity. Currently, it is assumed that part of the limited efficacy is due to the IL-2-driven preferential expansion of regulatory T cells, which dampen the antitumor immunity. In this study, we characterize a human IL-2 mutant with higher antitumor efficacy and lower toxicity than wild type human IL-2 (wtIL-2). The mutant differs from wtIL-2 by four mutations at the interface with the α subunit of IL-2R. The IL-2 mutant induces in vitro proliferation of CD8(+)CD44(hi) and NK1.1 cells as efficiently as does wtIL-2, but it shows a reduced capacity to induce proliferation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The IL-2 mutant shows a higher antimetastatic effect than does wtIL-2 in several transplantable tumor models: the experimental metastasis model of MB16F0 melanoma and the experimental and spontaneous metastasis models for the mouse pulmonary carcinoma 3LL-D1222. Relevantly, the IL-2 mutant also exhibits lower lung and liver toxicity than does wtIL-2 when used at high doses in mice. In silico simulations, using a calibrated mathematical model, predict that the properties of IL-2 mutein are a consequence of the reduction, of at least two orders of magnitude, in its affinity for the α subunit of IL-2R (CD25). The human IL-2 mutant described in the present work could be a good candidate for improving cancer therapy based on IL-2. PMID:23677467

  19. Characterization of IL-7 and IL-7R in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Sarah R.; Chamberlain, Nathan D.; Volin, Michael V.; Pope, Richard M.; Talarico, Nicholas E; Mandelin, Arthur M.; Shahrara, Shiva

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to characterize the expression of IL-7 and IL-7R in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue and to examine their regulation and pathogenic role in macrophages, endothelial cells and RA synovial tissue fibroblasts. Methods Expression of IL-7 and IL-7R was demonstrated in RA and normal synovial tissues employing immunohistochemistry. Expression and regulation of IL-7 and IL-7R was determined in RA peripheral blood in vitro differentiated macrophages, RA synovial tissue fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) by real-time RT-PCR and/or flow cytometry. Next, IL-7 activated macrophages, RA fibroblasts and endothelial cells were examined for production of proangiogenic factors employing ELISA. Results IL-7 and IL-7R were coexpressed on RA synovial tissue lining and sublining macrophages and endothelial cells. Consistently, expression of IL-7 and its receptor were significantly elevated in RA synovial fluid and peripheral blood macrophages as well as RA fibroblasts compared to normal cells. TLR4 ligation and stimulation with TNF-α modulated expression of IL-7 and IL-7R on RA macrophages and HMVECs. However, in RA fibroblasts only expression of IL-7R was increased by LPS and TNF-α activation. IL-7 also mediated RA pathogenesis by inducing production of potent proangiogenic factors from macrophages and endothelial cells. Conclusion We identify, for the first time, regulators of IL-7 and IL-7R expression in RA fibroblasts, RA peripheral blood in vitro differentiated macrophages and endothelial cells and we document a novel role of IL-7 in RA angiogenesis. PMID:21647866

  20. Regulation of the IL-10/IL-12 axis in human dendritic cells with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gad, Monika; Ravn, Peter; Søborg, Ditte A; Lund-Jensen, Karina; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Jensen, Simon S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we have used monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to design a screening model for the selection of microorganisms with the ability to suppress DC-secreted IL-12p70, a critical cytokine for the induction of T-helper cell type 1 immune responses under inflammatory conditions. By the treatment of DCs with cocktails containing TLR agonists and proinflammatory cytokines, the cells increased the secretion of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-12p70. Clinically used probiotics were tested for their IL-10- and IL-12p70-stimulating properties in immature DCs, and showed a dose-dependent change in the IL-10/IL-12p70 balance. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(™) and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 showed a strong induction of IL-12p70, whereas Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 and Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 preferentially induced IL-10. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 induced both IL-10 and IL-12p70, whereas the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii induced low levels of cytokines. When combining these microorganisms with the Th1-promoting cocktails, E. coli Nissle 1917 and B. infantis 35624 were potent suppressors of IL-12p70 secretion in an IL-10-independent manner, indicating a suppressive effect on Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. The present model, using cocktail-stimulated DCs with potent IL-12p70-stimulating capacity, may be used as an efficient tool to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of microorganisms for potential clinical use. PMID:21707779

  1. IL-22, cell regeneration and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Nikoopour, Enayat; Bellemore, Stacey M; Singh, Bhagirath

    2015-07-01

    IL-22 as a cytokine is described with opposing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Cell regeneration, tissue remodelling and balance between commensal bacteria in the gut and host immune system are considered as anti-inflammatory features of IL-22, whereas production of IL-22 from Th17 cells links this cytokine to pro-inflammatory pathways. Th17 cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are two major producers of IL-22 and both cell types express ROR-γt and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factors. Typically, the immune system cells are the main producers of IL-22. However, targets of this cytokine are mostly non-hematopoietic cells such as hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells of lung and intestine. Association of IL-22 with other cytokines or transcription factors in different cell types might explain its contrasting role in health and disease. In this review we discuss the regulation of IL-22 production by AhR- and IL-23-driven pathways. A clear understanding of the biology of IL-22 will provide new opportunities for its application to improve human health involving many debilitating conditions. PMID:25467639

  2. Transcytosis of IL-11 and Apical Redirection of gp130 Is Mediated by IL-11α Receptor.

    PubMed

    Monhasery, Niloufar; Moll, Jens; Cuman, Carly; Franke, Manuel; Lamertz, Larissa; Nitz, Rebecca; Görg, Boris; Häussinger, Dieter; Lokau, Juliane; Floss, Doreen M; Piekorz, Roland; Dimitriadis, Eva; Garbers, Christoph; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-07-26

    Interleukin (IL)-11 signaling is involved in various processes, including epithelial intestinal cell regeneration and embryo implantation. IL-11 signaling is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11R1 or IL-11R2, two IL-11α-receptor splice variants, and gp130. Here, we show that IL-11 signaling via IL-11R1/2:gp130 complexes occurs on both the apical and basolateral sides of polarized cells, whereas IL-6 signaling via IL-6R:gp130 complexes is restricted to the basolateral side. We show that basolaterally supplied IL-11 is transported and released to the apical extracellular space via transcytosis in an IL-11R1-dependent manner. By contrast, IL-6R and IL-11R2 do not promote transcytosis. In addition, we show that transcytosis of IL-11 is dependent on the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 and that synthetic transfer of the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 to IL-6R promotes transcytosis of IL-6. Our data define IL-11R as a cytokine receptor with transcytotic activity by which IL-11 and IL-6:soluble IL-6R complexes are transported across cellular barriers. PMID:27425614

  3. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  4. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, José L.; Fernando, Maria R.; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L.; Matisz, Chelsea E.; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  5. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Fernando, Maria R; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L; Matisz, Chelsea E; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  6. The Relationship of Cytokines IL-13 and IL-17 with Autoantibodies Profile in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Siloşi, Isabela; Boldeanu, Mihail Virgil; Cojocaru, Manole; Badea, Ramona Georgiana

    2016-01-01

    Aims. In the present study, we aimed to assess the concentrations of IL-13 and IL-17 in serum of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA), the investigation of correlation between the concentrations of these cytokines and disease activity score, and the concentration of some autoantibodies and the evaluation of the utility of IL-13 and -17 concentration measurements as markers of disease activity. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 30 patients and from 28 controls and analysed parameters. Results. The serum concentrations of IL-13, IL-17, anti-CCP, and IgM-RF were statistically significantly higher in patients with eRA, compared to the controls. IL-13 concentrations in the severe and moderate groups with eRA were statistically higher than in the mild and control groups. Also, in the case of IL-17, serum concentrations increased proportionally with the disease activity of eRA. We observe that concentrations of IL-13 and -17 did not correlate with autoantibodies. IL-17 concentration significantly positively correlated with CRP, while IL-13 concentration significantly negatively correlated with CRP. Disease activity score, DAS28, was strongly positively correlated with levels of ESR and weakly positively correlated with concentrations of anti-RA33 autoantibodies. IL-13 has a higher diagnostic utility than IL-17, CRP, ESR, IgM-RF, and anti-CCP as markers of disease activity. Conclusions. The presence of higher IL-13 and IL-17 serum levels in patients, compared with those of controls, confirms that these markers, found with high specificity, might be involved in the pathogenesis of eRA. IL-13 and IL-17 might be of better usefulness in the prediction of eRA activity status than IgM-RF and anti-CCP. PMID:27579330

  7. The Relationship of Cytokines IL-13 and IL-17 with Autoantibodies Profile in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Siloşi, Isabela; Boldeanu, Mihail Virgil; Cojocaru, Manole; Biciuşcă, Viorel; Pădureanu, Vlad; Bogdan, Maria; Badea, Ramona Georgiana; Avramescu, Carmen; Petrescu, Ileana Octavia; Petrescu, Florin; Siloşi, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. In the present study, we aimed to assess the concentrations of IL-13 and IL-17 in serum of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA), the investigation of correlation between the concentrations of these cytokines and disease activity score, and the concentration of some autoantibodies and the evaluation of the utility of IL-13 and -17 concentration measurements as markers of disease activity. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 30 patients and from 28 controls and analysed parameters. Results. The serum concentrations of IL-13, IL-17, anti-CCP, and IgM-RF were statistically significantly higher in patients with eRA, compared to the controls. IL-13 concentrations in the severe and moderate groups with eRA were statistically higher than in the mild and control groups. Also, in the case of IL-17, serum concentrations increased proportionally with the disease activity of eRA. We observe that concentrations of IL-13 and -17 did not correlate with autoantibodies. IL-17 concentration significantly positively correlated with CRP, while IL-13 concentration significantly negatively correlated with CRP. Disease activity score, DAS28, was strongly positively correlated with levels of ESR and weakly positively correlated with concentrations of anti-RA33 autoantibodies. IL-13 has a higher diagnostic utility than IL-17, CRP, ESR, IgM-RF, and anti-CCP as markers of disease activity. Conclusions. The presence of higher IL-13 and IL-17 serum levels in patients, compared with those of controls, confirms that these markers, found with high specificity, might be involved in the pathogenesis of eRA. IL-13 and IL-17 might be of better usefulness in the prediction of eRA activity status than IgM-RF and anti-CCP. PMID:27579330

  8. Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Erinjeri, Joseph P; Thomas, Contessa T; Samoila, Alaiksandra; Fleisher, Martin; Gonen, Mithat; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Thornton, Raymond H; Siegelbaum, Robert H.; Covey, Anne M.; Brody, Lynn A.; Alago, William; Maybody, Majid; Brown, Karen T.; Getrajdman, George; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify changes in plasma cytokine levels following image-guided thermal ablation of human tumors and to identify the factors that independently predict changes in plasma cytokine levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole blood samples were collected from 36 patients at 3 time points: pre-ablation, post-ablation (within 48 hours), and in follow-up (1–5 weeks after ablation). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFa were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using cytokine level as the dependent variable and sample collection, time, age, sex, primary diagnosis, metastatic status, ablation site, and ablation type as the independent variables. RESULTS There was a significant increase in the plasma level of IL-6 post-ablation when compared to pre-ablation (9.6+/−31 fold, p<0.002). IL-10 also showed a significant increase postablation (1.9 +/−2.8 fold, p<0.02). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, and TNFa were not significantly changed after ablation. Cryoablation resulted in the largest change in IL-6 level (>54 fold), while radiofrequency and microwave ablation showed 3.6 and 3.4-fold changes, respectively. Ablation of melanomas showed the largest change in IL-6 48 hours after ablation (92×), followed by ablation of kidney (26×), liver (8×), and lung (6×) cancers. Multivariate analysis revealed that ablation type (p<0.0003), and primary diagnosis (p<0.03) were independent predictors of changes to IL-6 following ablation. Age was the only independent predictor of IL-10 levels following ablation (p<0.019). CONCLUSION Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10, without increasing the plasma level of IL-1a, IL-2, or TNFa. PMID:23582441

  9. Clinical Significance of IL-23 Regulating IL-17A and/or IL-17F Positive Th17 Cells in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhenhua; Wang, Hui; Wu, Yunlong; Sun, Zheng; Wu, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the expression level and clinical significance of (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+) Th17 cells under IL-23 regulation in patients of chronic periodontitis (CP) and healthy controls (HC). Materials and Methods. The whole peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 CP patients and 25 healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to test the (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+) Th17 expression level. Recombinant human IL-23 (rhIL-23) was used to detect Th17 differentiation and expansion. Correlation coefficient analysis between Th17 expression level and clinical parameters was analyzed by SPSS software. Results. Flow cytometry results showed that IL-17A+IL-17F− and IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 were both increased in CP group than in HC group (P < 0.01), while, under recombinant human IL-23 (rhIL-23) stimulation, the number of IL-17A+IL-17F− Th17 cells was significantly increased in both CP and HC groups (P < 0.01). Interestingly, IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 cells were only increased in CP group after rhIL-23 stimulation. Additionally, correlation coefficient analysis showed significant correlation between IL-17A+IL-17F− Th17 cell and attachment loss or probing depth (P < 0.05). Conclusions. This study indicates that both the IL-17A+IL-17F− and IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 cells may be involved in pathogenesis of periodontitis. The role of these Th17 cells in the disease pathogenesis needs to be further investigated. PMID:25525302

  10. Evaluation of serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-12 during pregnancy in bitches.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, M; Piccinno, M; Roncetti, M; Mutinati, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-04-01

    Complex cytokine networks play an important role in a wide range of pregnancy-related processes. During physiological pregnancy, the balance of T helper lymphocytes Th1 and Th2 is strongly shifted toward Th2, which has a protective role in the feto-maternal interaction. The aim of the present study is to establish the serum concentrations, ranges, and trends of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, and inflammatory IL-12A, during three phases of gestation in the bitch (20-30, 31-40, and 41-57 days of gestation). Our results indicate that, in early gestation, IL-4 and -10 serum concentrations are elevated and might depend on progesterone that could act as a potent inhibitor of Th1 responses inducing, conversely, the production of Th2-type cytokines (i.e., IL-10 and IL-4). On the other hand, between 30 and 40 days of gestation, the concentrations of the anti-inflammatory ILs decrease probably because of high concentrations of prolactin, which is endowed with immunostimulatory properties on different immune cell types. In the third phase of gestation (41-57 days), an increase in IL-10 occurs, which might depend on high levels of 17β-estradiol that, during pregnancy, interfere with the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate T lymphocytes, acting as an anti-inflammatory factor. Conversely, the low and persistent concentrations of inflammatory IL-12A, throughout pregnancy, compared with anti-inflammatory ILs, might depend on the characteristic cytokine products of Thl and Th2 cells that are known to be mutually inhibitory. The monitoring of immunological status via the levels of cytokines during pregnancy in the bitch, could represent a diagnostic tool to predict and/or prevent pregnancy abnormality, as demonstrated in women. PMID:23422356

  11. Eccrine sweat contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  12. Gut-busters -- IL-17 Ain’t Afraid Of No IL-23

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies targeting IL-23 ameliorate clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. Paradoxically, IL-17 neutralization exacerbates colitis. In this issue, Lee et al. and Maxwell et al. reveal a protective function of IL-17 through maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, helping to explain this dichotomy (Lee et al., 2015; Maxwell et al., 2015). PMID:26488809

  13. Expression of IL-4/IL-13 receptors in differentiating human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    White, Steven R; Martin, Linda D; Stern, Randi; Laxman, Bharathi; Marroquin, Bertha A

    2010-11-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 elicit several important responses in airway epithelium including chemokine secretion and mucous secretion that may contribute to airway inflammation, cell migration, and differentiation. These cytokines have overlapping but not identical effector profiles likely due to shared subunits in their receptor complexes. These receptors are variably described in epithelial cells, and the relative expression, localization, and function of these receptors in differentiated and repairing epithelial cells are not clear. We examined IL-4/IL-13 receptor expression and localization in primary airway epithelial cells collected from normal human lungs and grown under conditions yielding both undifferentiated and differentiated cells inclusive of basal, goblet, and ciliated cell phenotypes. Gene expression of the IL-4Rα, IL-2Rγc, IL-13Rα1, and IL-13Rα2 receptor subunits increased with differentiation, but different patterns of localization and protein abundance were seen for each subunit based on both differentiation and the cell subtypes present. Increased expression of receptor subunits observed in more differentiated cells was associated with more substantial functional responses to IL-4 stimulation including increased eotaxin-3 expression and accelerated migration after injury. We demonstrate substantial differences in IL-4/IL-13 receptor subunit expression and responsiveness to IL-4 based on the extent of airway epithelial cell differentiation and suggest that these differences may have functional consequences in airway inflammation. PMID:20729386

  14. Functional expression of IL-12 receptor by human eosinophils: IL-12 promotes eosinophil apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nutku, E; Zhuang, Q; Soussi-Gounni, A; Aris, F; Mazer, B D; Hamid, Q

    2001-07-15

    In murine models of allergic inflammation, IL-12 has been shown to decrease tissue eosinophilia, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We evaluated the expression of IL-12R and the effect of IL-12 on eosinophil survival. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of mRNA and immunoreactivity for IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits in human peripheral blood eosinophils. Surface expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits on freshly isolated human eosinophils was optimally expressed after incubation with PMA. To determine the functional significance of IL-12R studies, we studied cell viability and apoptosis. Morphological analysis and propidium iodide staining for cell cycle demonstrated that recombinant human IL-12 increased in vitro human eosinophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of IL-5 together with IL-12 abrogated eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting that IL-12 and IL-5 have antagonistic effects. Our findings provide evidence for a novel role for IL-12 in regulating eosinophil function by increasing eosinophil apoptosis. PMID:11441113

  15. IL-1α and inflammasome-independent IL-1β promote neutrophil infiltration following alum vaccination.

    PubMed

    Oleszycka, Ewa; Moran, Hannah B T; Tynan, Graham A; Hearnden, Claire H; Coutts, Graham; Campbell, Matthew; Allan, Stuart M; Scott, Christopher J; Lavelle, Ed C

    2016-01-01

    Despite its long record of successful use in human vaccines, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of alum are not fully understood. Alum is a potent inducer of interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion in vitro in dendritic cells and macrophages via Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. However, the contribution of IL-1 to alum-induced innate and adaptive immune responses is controversial and the role of IL-1α following alum injection has not been addressed. This study shows that IL-1 is dispensable for alum-induced antibody and CD8 T cell responses to ovalbumin. However, IL-1 is essential for neutrophil infiltration into the injection site, while recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and eosinophils is IL-1 independent. Both IL-1α and IL-1β are released at the site of injection and contribute to the neutrophil response. Surprisingly, these effects are NLRP3-inflammasome independent as is the infiltration of other cell populations. However, while NLRP3 and caspase 1 were dispensable, alum-induced IL-1β at the injection site was dependent on the cysteine protease cathepsin S. Overall, these data demonstrate a previously unreported role for cathepsin S in IL-1β secretion, show that inflammasome formation is dispensable for alum-induced innate immunity and reveal that IL-1α and IL-1β are both necessary for alum-induced neutrophil influx in vivo. PMID:26536497

  16. IL-2 regulation of soluble IL-2 receptor levels following thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan, J A; Sparkes, B G; Lalani, S; Peters, W J; Mills, G B

    1992-01-01

    In the immunosuppressed burn patient serum levels of both IL-2 and a soluble form of IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2R alpha) are significantly elevated. Strikingly, the production of these markers by the in vitro activated patients' cells is decreased. This study examines the role of IL-2 in the decreased production of the sIL-2R alpha in vitro in patients with major burns (n = 18, 30 to greater than 70% total body surface area). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from patients with highly elevated serum sIL-2R alpha, and from healthy controls (n = 12) were activated with concanavalin A (Con A) at initiation. In patients' cultures mitogen-induced increments of sIL-2R alpha levels were significantly lower. There was a significant negative correlation (r = 0.64, P less than 0.001) between a high serum sIL-2R alpha level and a decreased lectin-induced sIL-2R alpha release in vitro. Low levels of sIL-2R alpha in patients' samples were not normalized by increasing the number of T lymphocytes. Also exogenous rIL-1 was without effect, whereas rIL-3 increased sIL-2R alpha release in some cultures. However, sIL-2R alpha levels were significantly increased in patients' cultures by (i) addition of exogenous IL-2; (ii) removal of adherent cells; (iii) addition of cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin; (iv) bypassing cell surface activation by the combination of the calcium ionophore A23187 and the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoyl acetate. The cyclic AMP-elevating drug, forskolin, abrogated the ability of exogenous IL-2 to increase sIL-2R alpha production. Thus, in the burn patient, the reduced in vitro sIL-2R alpha release appears to relate to abnormalities in IL-2 production and action mediated through its functional surface receptor. Elevated levels of sIL-2R alpha in vivo may, therefore, reflect systemic activation of T lymphocytes in response to biologically active IL-2. PMID:1382903

  17. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuexian O.; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F–deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases. PMID:18411338

  18. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuexian O; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S; Broaddus, Russell R; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-05-12

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F-deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases. PMID:18411338

  19. IL-23A, IL-23R, IL-17A and IL-17R polymorphisms in different psoriatic arthritis clinical manifestations in the northern Italian population.

    PubMed

    Catanoso, Maria Grazia; Boiardi, Luigi; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Garagnani, Paolo; Sazzini, Marco; De Fanti, Sara; Farnetti, Enrico; Casali, Bruno; Chiarolanza, Ilaria; Nicoli, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Salvarani, Carlo

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the genetic variability of IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes on an in-depth phenotypically characterized northern Italian Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) case-control cohort, in search for associations specific to different PsA clinical sub-phenotypes. We examined 118 patients with PsA according to CASPAR criteria (mean age 57 ± 13, female 38.4 %, mean disease duration 13.9 ± 8.6 years, peripheral disease 83.8 %, axial manifestations 34.5 %, radiological erosive disease 49 %) compared with 248 controls of the same ethnic origin matched for age and sex. The presence of axial disease was defined by the clinical axial involvement and/or the presence of radiological alteration consistent with spondyloarthropathy according to New York criteria. The presence of peripheral disease (arthritis and/or enthesitis) was defined only on clinical basis. A total of 40 SNPs, mapping within the genes mentioned above, were genotyped in both groups and used to perform association analyses by subdividing the PsA sample into subgroups according to different clinical manifestations on the basis of axial and peripheral involvements. No differences between patients and controls were found in the distribution of the IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants. Comparing patients with axial disease versus those without, we found that axial manifestations were significantly associated with the presence of IL-23R rs12401432 GG homozygosity (26.8 % vs. 5.3 %, p corr = 0.019, OR 2.63 [95 % CI 1.13-6.16]). No differences in distribution of the allelic variants were found comparing patients with versus those without peripheral disease or patients with versus without radiological peripheral erosions. In PA patients of northern Italian origin, IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants are not associated with disease susceptibility. However, a strong association with the IL-23RA rs12401432 GG genotype is associated with axial involvement of the disease

  20. The Unique Functions of the Type-II IL-4 Receptor are revealed in IL-13R¿1-deficient mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IL-4 receptor is a central mediator of Th2-mediated diseases and associates with either the common gamma chain (type-I IL-4R) or IL-13Ra1 (type-II IL-4R) to form two receptor complexes. Here, using IL-13Ra1-/- mice, we characterized the distinct functions of the type-II IL-4R. In contrast to IL-...

  1. Cigarette smoke affects IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17 receptor expression in the lung tissue: Ex vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Angela Marina; Riccobono, Loredana; Siena, Liboria; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Di Sano, Caterina; Anzalone, Giulia; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Pipitone, Loredana; Vitulo, Patrizio; Profita, Mirella

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Th-17 cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. We aimed to evaluate the role of cigarette smoke on the expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R in airways of COPD patients. Epithelial and subepithelial immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R was assessed in surgical specimens from COPD patients (n=15) and from healthy subjects (HC) (n=10) by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, human epithelial cell line 16HBE and A549 as well as PBMC from normal donors were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) to evaluate the IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R expression by flow cytometry. Furthermore, rhIL-17A and CSE stimulation was evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis in 16HBE and in A549. In central and distal airways immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R significantly increased in the epithelium and IL-17A in the subepithelium from COPD than in HC. In distal airway, immunoreactivity for IL-17F increased in the subepithelium of COPD than in HC. IL-17A immunoreactivity positively correlate with IL-17R and total pack years in the epithelium from central and distal airways of COPD patients. In vitro, CSE stimulation significantly increased IL-17F and IL-17R in 16HBE (2.5%) and A549 (5%) while IL-17A and IL-17F in PBMC (10%). IL-17A and CSE stimulation, rather than CSE or rhIL-17A alone, significantly increased proliferation in 16HBE and apoptosis in A549. Cigarette smoke increases Th17 immunity in lung tissue of COPD patients, promoting the mechanism of proliferation and apoptosis in airway epithelial cells. PMID:26198032

  2. Effects of IL-23 and IL-27 on osteoblasts and osteoclasts: inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Chika; Fukawa, Takeshi; Ono, Katsuhiro; Ohwaki, Toshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Wada, Seiki

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-27 are IL-6/IL-12 family members that play a role in the regulation of T helper 1 cell differentiation. Cytokines are known to be involved in the bone remodeling process, although the effects of IL-23 and IL-27 have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the possible roles of these cytokines on osteoblast phenotypes and osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-27 induced signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 activation in osteoblasts. However, neither IL-23 nor IL-27 showed any significant effects on alkaline phosphatase activity, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) expression, mRNA expression such as alkaline phosphatase type I procollagen, or the proliferation of osteoblasts. Osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow cells induced by soluble RANKL was partially inhibited by IL-23 and IL-27 with reduced multinucleated cell numbers, but these interleukins did not affect the proliferation of osteoclast progenitor cells. These results indicate that IL-23 and IL-27 could partly modify cell fusion or the survival of multinucleated osteoclasts. On the other hand, partially purified T cells, which are activated by 2 microg/ml anti-CD3 antibody, completely inhibited osteoclastogenesis by M-CSF/RANKL. On using T cells activated with 0.2 microg/ml anti-CD3 antibody, in which osteoclastogenesis was partially inhibited, the interleukins had additive effects for inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Although the consequences of phosphorylated signals in osteoblasts have not been identified, IL-23 and IL-27, partly and indirectly through activated T cells, inhibited osteoclastogenesis, indicating that these interleukins may protect against bone destructive autoimmune disorders. PMID:17704992

  3. IL-33 and IL-4 impair barrier functions of human vascular endothelium via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chalubinski, Maciej; Wojdan, Katarzyna; Luczak, Emilia; Gorzelak, Paulina; Borowiec, Maciej; Gajewski, Adrian; Rudnicka, Karolina; Chmiela, Magdalena; Broncel, Marlena

    2015-10-01

    The vascular endothelium forms a barrier that controls flow of solutes and proteins and the entry of leukocytes into tissue. Injured tissue releases IL-33, which then alarms the immune system and attracts Th2 cells, thus increasing local concentration of IL-4. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of IL-33 and IL-4 on barrier functions of the human endothelium, expression of tight and adherent junction proteins, apoptosis and adhesive molecule surface expression in human endothelium in order to describe the mechanism of this effect. IL-33 and IL-4 decreased endothelial integrity and increased permeability. When added together, both cytokines lowered the endothelial integrity twice as much as used alone. This effect was accompanied by the down-regulation of occludin and VE-cadherin mRNA expression. Additionally, IL-4, but not IL-33, induced cell apoptosis. Both IL-33 and IL-4 showed the additive potency to down-regulate VE-cadherin mRNA expression. IL-33, unlike IL-4, increased the surface expression of ICAM-1, but not PECAM-1 in endothelial cells. Our results indicate that IL-33 may reversibly destabilize the endothelial barrier, thus accelerating the supply with immunomodulators and assisting leukocytes to reach wounded tissue. However, extended and less-controlled down-regulation of endothelial barrier, which may be a consequence of IL-33-initiated, but in fact IL-4-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells, may be deleterious and may eventually lead to the aggravation of inflammatory processes and the prolongation of tissue dysfunction. PMID:26231284

  4. Interleukin-23 (IL-23)-IL-17 Cytokine Axis in Murine Pneumocystis carinii Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, Xiaowen L.; Happel, Kyle I.; Young, Erana A.; Shellito, Judd E.

    2007-01-01

    Host defense mechanisms against Pneumocystis carinii are not fully understood. Previous work in the murine model has shown that host defense against infection is critically dependent upon host CD4+ T cells. The recently described Th17 immune response is predominantly a function of effector CD4+ T cells stimulated by interleukin-23 (IL-23), but whether these cells are required for defense against P. carinii infection is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that P. carinii stimulates the early release of IL-23, leading to increases in IL-17 production and lung effector CD4+ T-cell population that mediate clearance of infection. In vitro, stimulation of alveolar macrophages with P. carinii induced IL-23, and IL-23p19 mRNA was expressed in lungs of mice infected with this pathogen. To address the role of IL-23 in resistance to P. carinii, IL-23p19−/− and wild-type control C57BL/6 mice were infected and their fungal burdens and cytokine/chemokine responses were compared. IL-23p19−/− mice displayed transient but impaired clearance of infection, which was most apparent 2 weeks after inoculation. In confirmatory studies, the administration of either anti-IL-23p19 or anti-IL-17 neutralizing antibody to wild-type mice infected with P. carinii also caused increases in fungal burdens. IL-17 and the lymphocyte chemokines IP-10, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were decreased in the lungs of infected IL-23p19−/− mice in comparison to their levels in the lungs of wild-type mice. In IL-23p19−/− mice infected with P. carinii, there were fewer effector CD4+ T cells in the lung tissue. Collectively, these studies indicate that the IL-23-IL-17 axis participates in host defense against P. carinii. PMID:17403873

  5. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor by normal and cancerous human ovarian tissues: possible implication of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Levy, Ruthy Shaco; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  6. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Shaco Levy, Ruthy; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  7. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis and IL-10 Receptor Blockade as Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Henry W.; Lu, Christina M.; Mauze, Smita; Freeman, Sherry; Moreira, Andre L.; Kaplan, Gilla; Coffman, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote intracellular infection, including human visceral leishmaniasis, by disabling Th1 cell-type responses and/or deactivating parasitized tissue macrophages. To develop a rationale for IL-10 inhibition as treatment in visceral infection, Th1 cytokine-driven responses were characterized in Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice in which IL-10 was absent or overexpressed or its receptor (IL-10R) was blockaded. IL-10 knockout and normal mice treated prophylactically with anti-IL-10R demonstrated accelerated granuloma assembly and rapid parasite killing without untoward tissue inflammation; IL-12 and gamma interferon mRNA expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase reactivity, and responsiveness to antimony chemotherapy were also enhanced in knockout mice. In IL-10 transgenic mice, parasite replication was unrestrained, and except for antimony responsiveness, measured Th1 cell-dependent events were all initially impaired. Despite subsequent granuloma assembly, high-level infection persisted, and antimony-treated transgenic mice also relapsed. In normal mice with established infection, anti-IL-10R treatment was remarkably active, inducing near-cure by itself and synergism with antimony. IL-10's deactivating effects regulate outcome in experimental visceral leishmaniasis, and IL-10R blockade represents a potential immuno- and/or immunochemotherapeutic approach in this infection. PMID:12379707

  8. Distinct expression of interleukin (IL)-36α, β and γ, their antagonist IL-36Ra and IL-38 in psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Boutet, M-A; Bart, G; Penhoat, M; Amiaud, J; Brulin, B; Charrier, C; Morel, F; Lecron, J-C; Rolli-Derkinderen, M; Bourreille, A; Vigne, S; Gabay, C; Palmer, G; Le Goff, B; Blanchard, F

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ are expressed highly in skin and are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, while the antagonists IL-36Ra or IL-38, another potential IL-36 inhibitor, limit uncontrolled inflammation. The expression and role of IL-36 cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) is currently debated. Here, we observed that during imiquimod-induced mouse skin inflammation and in human psoriasis, expression of IL-36α, γ and IL-36Ra, but not IL-36β and IL-38 mRNA, was induced and correlated with IL-1β and T helper type 17 (Th17) cytokines (IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, CCL20). In mice with collagen-induced arthritis and in the synovium of patients with RA, IL-36α, β, γ, IL-36Ra and IL-38 were all elevated and correlated with IL-1β, CCL3, CCL4 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), but not with Th17 cytokines. In the colon of mice with dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis and in patients with CD, only IL-36α, γ and IL-38 were induced at relatively low levels and correlated with IL-1β and IL-17A. We suggest that only a minor subgroup of patients with RA (17-29%) or CD (25%) had an elevated IL-36 agonists/antagonists ratio, versus 93% of patients with psoriasis. By immunohistochemistry, IL-36 cytokines were produced by various cell types in skin, synovium and colonic mucosa such as keratinocytes, CD68⁺ macrophages, dendritic/Langerhans cells and CD79α⁺ plasma cells. In primary cultures of monocytes or inflammatory macrophages (M1), IL-36β and IL-36Ra were produced constitutively, but IL-36α, γ and IL-38 were produced after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These distinct expression profiles may help to explain why only subgroups of RA and CD patients have a potentially elevated IL-36 agonists/antagonists ratio. PMID:26701127

  9. IL-17/IL-17 receptor system in autoimmune disease: mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Qian, Youcun

    2012-06-01

    IL-17 (interleukin-17), a hallmark cytokine of Th17 (T-helper 17) cells, plays critical roles in host defence against bacterial and fungal infections, as well as in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The present review focuses on current knowledge of the regulation, functional mechanisms and targeting strategies of IL-17 in the context of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence shows that IL-17 is highly up-regulated at sites of inflammatory tissues of autoimmune diseases and amplifies the inflammation through synergy with other cytokines, such as TNF (tumour necrosis factor) α. Although IL-17 was originally thought to be produced mainly by Th17 cells, a newly defined T-cell subset with a specific differentiation programme and tight regulation, several other cell types (especially innate immune cells) are also found as important sources for IL-17 production. Although IL-17 activates common downstream signalling, including NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) and mRNA stability, the immediate receptor signalling has been shown to be quite unique and tightly regulated. Mouse genetic studies have demonstrated a critical role for IL-17 in the pathogenesis of variety of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as RA (rheumatoid arthritis) and MS (multiple sclerosis). Importantly, promising results have been shown in initial clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 or its receptor (IL-17R) to block IL-17-mediated function in treating autoimmune patients with psoriasis, RA and MS. Therefore targeting IL-17/IL-17R, IL-17-producing pathways or IL-17-mediated signalling pathways can be considered for future therapy in autoimmune diseases. PMID:22324470

  10. Serum Levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in Patients With Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Kaplan, İbrahim; Polat, Nihat; Akil, Mehmet Ata; Akyüz, Abdurrahman; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; İnci, Ümit; Kayan, Fethullah; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (RMS) is a complication of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. RHD is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease that is associated with cytokine activities. The etiology of RMS is not fully understood yet. Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 have a key role in development of the autoimmunity. The expression of these cytokines in RMS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in RMS patients compared to healthy subjects.A total of 35 patients admitted to cardiology outpatient clinic between December 2014 and May 2015 who were diagnosed with RMS formed the study group. Age- and gender-matched 35 healthy subjects were included as the control group. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 and P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The patients with RMS had higher WBC count, hsCRP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPs), left atrial diameter (LAD), IL-17, and IL-23 levels compared to the control subjects. The levels of IL-17 (P = 0.012) and IL-23 (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the RMS group. Correlation analysis revealed that IL-17 and IL-23 levels had a significant correlation with each other and with hsCRP and LAD.We demonstrated that serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 are significantly higher in patients with RMS compared to those of healthy subjects. IL-17 and IL-23 expression may have a possible role in inflammatory processes that result in RMS development. PMID:27149476

  11. Serum Levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in Patients With Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Kaplan, İbrahim; Polat, Nihat; Akil, Mehmet Ata; Akyüz, Abdurrahman; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; İnci, Ümit; Kayan, Fethullah; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (RMS) is a complication of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. RHD is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease that is associated with cytokine activities. The etiology of RMS is not fully understood yet. Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 have a key role in development of the autoimmunity. The expression of these cytokines in RMS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in RMS patients compared to healthy subjects. A total of 35 patients admitted to cardiology outpatient clinic between December 2014 and May 2015 who were diagnosed with RMS formed the study group. Age- and gender-matched 35 healthy subjects were included as the control group. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 and P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The patients with RMS had higher WBC count, hsCRP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPs), left atrial diameter (LAD), IL-17, and IL-23 levels compared to the control subjects. The levels of IL-17 (P = 0.012) and IL-23 (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the RMS group. Correlation analysis revealed that IL-17 and IL-23 levels had a significant correlation with each other and with hsCRP and LAD. We demonstrated that serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 are significantly higher in patients with RMS compared to those of healthy subjects. IL-17 and IL-23 expression may have a possible role in inflammatory processes that result in RMS development. PMID:27149476

  12. Competition of IL-1 and IL-1ra determines lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA.

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowski, M P; Stankiewicz, W; Płusa, T; Chciałowski, A; Szmigielski, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) left in microcultures for 24h without mitogen do not respond to subsequent stimulation with PHA. They regain reactivity if the native culture medium is absorbed with other party lymphocytes or partially replaced with the medium from a PHA-stimulated culture. The observations suggest that, during the incubation, some inhibitory agent had accumulated in the culture medium. AIM: The study was performed to determine the nature of the observed phenomenon in respect of the possible role of monocytes and their products IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and to test for immunodiagnostic purposes the significance of quantifying the lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA in patients suffering from inflammatory prosesses. METHODS: Lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA, calculated as the lymphocyte-monokine interaction (LM) index, was determined in the microcultures of PBMC isolated from the blood of healthy donors or of patients with acute tonsilitis. The values of LM indices were compared with the ratios of IL-1ra/IL-1beta concentration estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the culture supernatants. The influences of exogenous IL-1beta, IL-1ra, anti-IL1ra antibodies and antibiotic cefaclor on the monokine concentrations and on the values of LM index were tested. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the level of lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA (LM index) is inversely proportional to the ratio of IL-1ra/IL-1beta concentration in the culture. The low LM values at high IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratios in PBMC cultures from healthy donors, reversed proportions found in patients' PBMC (acute tonsilitis), and the cefaclor-induced reduction of LM value with correlated increase of the IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratio suggest that the LM assay may prove to be useful for immunodiagnostic purposes. PMID:11545246

  13. Role of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Caicun; Ren, Shengxiang

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is one of the key cytokines with pleiotropic effects on immune system. It has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma. Recent progress has been made in our understanding of IL-2 in regulating lymphocytes that has led to exciting new directions for cancer immunotherapy. While improved IL-2 formulations might be used as monotherapies, their combination with other anticancer immunotherapies, such as adoptive cell transfer regimens, antigen-specific vaccination, and blockade of immune checkpoint inhibitory molecules, for example cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) mono-antibodies, would held the promise of treating metastatic cancer. Despite the comprehensive studies of IL-2 on immune system have established the application of IL-2 for cancer immunotherapy, a number of poignant obstacles remain for future research. In the present review, we will focus on the key biological features of IL-2, current applications, limitations, and future directions of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27471638

  14. Extracorporeal photopheresis promotes IL-1β production.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Erhan; Jakobs, Christopher; Peric, Adriana; Michel, Gabriela; Baal, Nelli; Bein, Gregor; Brüne, Bernhard; Hornung, Veit; Hackstein, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a widely used clinical cell-based therapy exhibiting efficacy in heterogenous immune-mediated diseases such as cutaneous T cell lymphoma, graft-versus-host disease, and organ allograft rejection. Despite its documented efficacy in cancer immunotherapy, little is known regarding the induction of immunostimulatory mediators by ECP. In this article, we show that ECP promotes marked release of the prototypic immunostimulatory cytokine IL-1β. ECP primes IL-1β production and activates IL-1β maturation and release in the context of caspase-1 activation in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells. Of interest, IL-1β maturation by ECP was fully intact in murine cells deficient in caspase-1, suggesting the predominance of an inflammasome-independent pathway for ECP-dependent IL-1β maturation. Clinically, patient analysis revealed significantly increased IL-1β production in stimulated leukapheresis concentrates and peripheral blood samples after ECP. Collectively, these results provide evidence for promotion of IL-1β production by ECP and offer new insight into the immunostimulatory capacity of ECP. PMID:25681340

  15. Increased IL-23 and IL-17 expression by peripheral blood cells of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Jiang, Tingwang; Zhang, Weiwei; Ren, Chuanlu; Wang, Qianqian; Qin, Qin; Chen, Jie; Deng, Anmei; Zhong, Renqian

    2013-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a typical autoimmune disease for which the pathogenesis remains unclear. IL-23 and IL-17 are pro-inflammatory cytokines of the "IL-23/IL-17 axis," which may play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-23 and IL-17 in the peripheral blood of patients with PBC and its clinical significance. We used quantitative PCR to determine mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-23 receptor, and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PBC patients. ELISA's were used to determine patients' serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17. IL-23- and IL-17-producing cells in liver biopsis were also analyzed. Compared to a healthy control group, the mRNA expression levels of IL-23 p19, its corresponding receptor, IL-23R, and IL-17 in PBMC's from PBC patients were significantly increased, and these levels were correlated with PBC disease stages. PBC patients' serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 were higher than those in a post-hepatic cirrhosis group and a healthy group, and were significantly higher in the early PBC disease stages than in the advanced PBC stages. There were significantly more IL23+ and IL-17+ mononuclear cells in portal areas of liver tissues in advanced stages of this disease than in the early stages. The serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 in PBC patients were positively correlated with serum GGT levels. Thus, IL-23 and IL-17 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PBC by promoting inflammation. Because the IL-23 and IL-17 levels in the peripheral blood of PBC patients were increased and were correlated with clinical stages, they may be indices that could be used to clinically monitor PBC. PMID:23910013

  16. A CC' loop decoy peptide blocks the interaction between Act1 and IL-17RA to attenuate IL-17- and IL-25-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caini; Swaidani, Shadi; Qian, Wen; Kang, Zizhen; Sun, Paige; Han, Yue; Wang, Chenhui; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Yin, Weiguo; Zhang, Chunjiang; Fox, Paul L; Aronica, Mark; Hamilton, Thomas A; Misra, Saurav; Deng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-25 signaling induce the expression of genes encoding inflammatory factors and are implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activator 1 (Act1) is an adaptor protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase that is critical for signaling by either IL-17 or IL-25, and it is recruited to their receptors (IL-17R and IL-25R) through heterotypic interactions between the SEFIR [SEF (similar expression to fibroblast growth factor genes) and IL-17R] domain of Act1 and that of the receptor. SEFIR domains have structural similarity with the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains of Toll-like receptors and IL-1R. Whereas the BB' loop of TIR is required for TIR-TIR interactions, we found that deletion of the BB' loop from Act1 or IL-17RA (a common subunit of both IL-17R and IL-25R) did not affect Act1-IL-17RA interactions; rather, deletion of the CC' loop from Act1 or IL-17RA abolished the interaction between both proteins. Surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that a peptide corresponding to the CC' loop of Act1 bound directly to IL-17RA. A cell-permeable decoy peptide based on the CC' loop sequence inhibited IL-17- or IL-25-mediated signaling in vitro, as well as IL-17- and IL-25-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice. Together, these findings provide the molecular basis for the specificity of SEFIR-SEFIR versus TIR-TIR domain interactions and consequent signaling. Moreover, we suggest that the CC' loop motif of SEFIR domains is a promising target for therapeutic strategies against inflammatory diseases associated with IL-17 or IL-25 signaling. PMID:22045852

  17. IL-33 Signaling in Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ma-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine super-family, acts as both a traditional cytokine and an intracellular nuclear factor. It is generally released from damaged immune cells and signals through its receptor ST2 in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, plays important roles in type-2 innate immunity, and functions as an “alarmin” or a danger signal for cellular damage or cellular stress. Here, we review recent advances of the role of IL-33 in lung injury and explore its potential significance as an attractive therapeutic target.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13 Genes and Susceptibility to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Shamran, Haidar A.; Ghazi, Haidar F.; AL-Salman, Ahmed; Al-Juboory, Ahmad A.; Taub, Dennis D.; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Singh, Udai P.

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is one of the most aggressive and most common tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The exact causes of glioma are not well known, but evidence suggests the involvement of genetic factors in addition to environmental risk factors. The present study aimed to determine whether polymorphisms in IL-10-1082A/G, IL-12p40 1188C/A, and IL-13+2044G/A (rs20541) are associated with the incidence of glioma in Iraqi patients. Ninety-six patients with different grades of glioma and 40 apparently healthy individuals were recruited. A blood sample and genomic DNA were collected from all subjects. The amplification refractory mutation system and sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for genotyping of IL-10-1082A/G and IL-12p40 1188C/A, respectively; whereas, the IL-13+2044G/A was detected by DNA sequencing after amplification of the genes by PCR. All SNPs were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and each appeared in three genotypes in patients and controls. In IL-10-1082A/G, these genotypes frequencies were AA (75%), AG (22.93%) and GG (2.07%) in patients as compared to similar frequencies (62.5%), (27.5%) and (10%) respectively, in controls. The variant IL-12p40 1188C/A genotype was AA (72.92%), AC (23.96%), and CC (3.13%%) in patients as compared to 65%, 30%, and 5%, respectively, in controls. The frequencies of IL-13+2044G/A genotypes (GG, GA, and AA) were 89.58%, 9.37%, and 1.04% among patients versus 47.5%, 32.5% and 20%, respectively, among controls. These results suggest a protective role of mutant alleles G and A in IL-10-1082A/G and IL-13+2044G/A against gliomas. Further studies with more rigorous parameter designs will be needed to confirm the current findings. PMID:26516307

  19. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, A E; Barcham, G J; Brandon, M R; Nash, A D

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine with a wide range of effects on a variety of cell types. By hybridization with human IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta cDNA probes, the corresponding ovine cDNAs were isolated from a stimulated alveolar macrophage cDNA library. The sequences of these cDNAs showed that ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta encode proteins of 268 and 266 amino acids, respectively, with both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showing a high degree of homology with their human, mouse and bovine equivalents. In a mammalian COS cell-expression system these cDNAs produced biologically active IL-1. Further experiments demonstrated the importance of sequences within the 3' untranslated portion of the cDNAs in determining the level of expression of these molecules. The analysis of expression of IL-1 alpha- and IL-1 beta-specific mRNA in response to endotoxin, phorbol myristic acid (PMA) or PMA plus ionomycin revealed a distinct pattern of differential regulation of the two genes. From genomic analysis both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta appear to exist as single copies in the ovine genome. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1769692

  1. AIM2 inflammasome mediates Arsenic-induced secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingfang; Qi, Yuanlin; Li, Hui; Cui, Jiajun; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Chen, Jian; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic sterile inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including skin cancer. Chronic arsenic exposure is closely associated with the development of skin cancer. However, there is a lack of understanding how arsenic induces chronic inflammation in the skin. Interleukin-1 family cytokines play a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory response. IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 are three pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL-1 family. Their secretion, especially the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, is regulated by inflammasomes which are multi-protein complexes containing sensor proteins, adaptor protein and caspase-1. The data from current study show sub-chronic arsenic exposure activates AIM2 inflammasome which in turn activates caspase-1 and enhances the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in HaCaT cells and the skin of BALB/c mice. In addition, arsenic-promoted activation of AIM2 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β/IL-18 production are inhibited by PKR inhibitor in HaCaT cells or in the skin of PKR mutant mice, indicating a potential role of PKR in arsenic-induced sterile inflammation. PMID:27471628

  2. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4Rα expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4Rα-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  3. AIM2 inflammasome mediates Arsenic-induced secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingfang; Qi, Yuanlin; Li, Hui; Cui, Jiajun; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A; Chen, Jian; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sterile inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including skin cancer. Chronic arsenic exposure is closely associated with the development of skin cancer. However, there is a lack of understanding how arsenic induces chronic inflammation in the skin. Interleukin-1 family cytokines play a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory response. IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 are three pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL-1 family. Their secretion, especially the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, is regulated by inflammasomes which are multi-protein complexes containing sensor proteins, adaptor protein and caspase-1. The data from current study show sub-chronic arsenic exposure activates AIM2 inflammasome which in turn activates caspase-1 and enhances the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in HaCaT cells and the skin of BALB/c mice. In addition, arsenic-promoted activation of AIM2 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β/IL-18 production are inhibited by PKR inhibitor in HaCaT cells or in the skin of PKR mutant mice, indicating a potential role of PKR in arsenic-induced sterile inflammation. PMID:27471628

  4. Oral Escherichia coli colonization factor antigen I fimbriae ameliorate arthritis via IL-35, not IL-27.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Irina; Thornburg, Theresa; Callis, Gayle; Holderness, Kathryn; Maddaloni, Massimo; Pascual, David W

    2014-01-15

    A Salmonella therapeutic expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor Ag I (CFA/I) fimbriae protects against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by eliciting two regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets: TGF-β-producing Foxp3(-)CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells and IL-10-producing Foxp3(+)CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells. However, it is unclear whether CFA/I fimbriae alone are protective and whether other regulatory cytokines are involved, especially in the context for the EBI3-sharing cytokines, Treg-derived IL-35 and APC-derived IL-27, both capable of suppressing Th17 cells and regulating autoimmune diseases. Subsequent evaluation revealed that a single oral dose of purified, soluble CFA/I fimbriae protected against CIA as effectively as did Salmonella-CFA/I and found that Foxp3(+)CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells were the source of secreted IL-35, whereas IL-27 production by CD11c(+) cells was inhibited. Inquiring into their relevance, CFA/I fimbriae-treated IL-27R-deficient (WSX-1(-/-)) mice were equally protected against CIA as were wild-type mice, suggesting a limited role for IL-27. In contrast, CFA/I fimbriae-mediated protection was abated in EBI3(-/-) mice, accompanied by the loss of TGF-β- and IL-10-producing Tregs. Adoptive transfer of C57BL/6 CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells to EBI3(-/-) mice with concurrent CFA/I plus IL-35 treatment effectively stimulated Tregs suppressing proinflammatory collagen II-specific Th cells. In contrast, recipients cotransferred with C57BL/6 and EBI3(-/-) CD39(+)CD4(+) T cells and treated with CFA/I plus IL-35 were not protected, implicating the importance of endogenous IL-35 for conferring CFA/I-mediated protection. Thus, CFA/I fimbriae stimulate IL-35 required for the coinduction of TGF-β and IL-10. PMID:24337375

  5. rIL-10 enhances IL-10 signalling proteins in foetal alveolar type II cells exposed to hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-07-01

    Although the mechanisms by which hyperoxia promotes bronchopulmonary dysplasia are not fully defined, the inability to maintain optimal interleukin (IL)-10 levels in response to injury secondary to hyperoxia seems to play an important role. We previously defined that hyperoxia decreased IL-10 production and pre-treatment with recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) protected these cells from injury. The objectives of these studies were to investigate the responses of IL-10 receptors (IL-10Rs) and IL-10 signalling proteins (IL-10SPs) in hyperoxic foetal alveolar type II cells (FATIICs) with and without rIL-10. FATIICs were isolated on embryonic day 19 and exposed to 65%-oxygen for 24 hrs. Cells in room air were used as controls. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA were analysed by ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. IL-10SPs were assessed by Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA increased significantly in FATIICs during hyperoxia, but JAK1 and TYK2 phosphorylation showed the opposite pattern. To evaluate the impact of IL-8 (shown previously to be increased) and the role of IL-10Rs, IL-10SPs were reanalysed in IL-8-added normoxic cells and in the IL-10Rs' siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells. The IL-10Rs' siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells and IL-8-added normoxic cells showed the same pattern in IL10SPs with the hyproxic cells. And pre-treatment with rIL-10 prior to hyperoxia exposure increased phosphorylated IL-10SPs, compared to the rIL-10-untreated hyperoxic cells. These studies suggest that JAK1 and TYK2 were significantly suppressed during hyperoxia, where IL-8 may play a role, and rIL-10 may have an effect on reverting the suppressed JAK1 and TYK2 in FATIICs exposed to hyperoxia. PMID:26059905

  6. A novel IL-23p19/Ebi3 (IL-39) cytokine mediates inflammation in Lupus-like mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Wei, Yinxiang; Xiao, He; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yu; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Ma, Ning; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Egwuagu, Charles E; Wang, Renxi

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-12 family cytokines have emerged as critical regulators of immunity with some members (IL-12, IL-23) associated with disease pathogenesis while others (IL-27, IL-35) mitigate autoimmune diseases. Each IL-12 family member is comprised of an α and a β chain, and chain-sharing is a key feature. Although four bona fide members have thus far been described, promiscuous chain-pairing between alpha (IL-23p19, IL-27p28, IL-12/IL-35p35) and beta (IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-27/IL-35Ebi3) subunits, predicts six possible heterodimeric IL-12 family cytokines. Here, we describe a new IL-12 member composed of IL-23p19 and Ebi3 heterodimer (IL-39) that is secreted by LPS-stimulated B cells and GL7(+) activated B cells of lupus-like mice. We further show that IL-39 mediates inflammatory responses through activation of STAT1/STAT3 in lupus-like mice. Taken together, our results show that IL-39 might contribute to immunopathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus, and could be used as a possible target for its treatment. PMID:27019190

  7. IL-17A expression in HIV-specific CD8 T cells is regulated by IL-4/IL-13 following HIV-1 prime-boost immunization.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Jayashree; Jackson, Ronald J; Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2015-03-01

    Although Th1 and Th2 cytokines can inhibit interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells, how these cells are regulated under different infectious conditions is still debated. Our previous studies have shown that vaccination of IL-4 and IL-13 gene knockout (KO) mice can induce high-avidity HIV K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells with better protective efficacy. In this study, when IL-13, IL-4, STAT6 KO, and wild-type BALB/c mice were prime-boost immunized with an HIV poxviral modality, elevated numbers of IL-17A(+) splenic K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were observed in all the KO mice compared with the wt BALB/c control. Similarly, when wt BALB/c mice were immunized with IL-13Rα2-adjuvanted HIV vaccines (that transiently inhibited IL-13 activity and induced high-avidity CD8 T cells with enhanced protective efficacy), elevated IL-17A(+) K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were detected both in the lung and the spleen. However, at the transcriptional level, elevated TGF-β, IL-6, ROR-γt, and IL-17A mRNA copy numbers were mainly detected in IL-4 KO, but not the IL-13 KO mice. These data suggested that TGF-β, IL-6, ROR-γt, but not IL-23a, played a role in IL-17A regulation in K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 differentially regulate the expression of IL-17A in K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells at the transcriptional and translational level, respectively, implicating IL-17A as an indirect modulator of CD8 T cell avidity and protective immunity. PMID:25493691

  8. IL-13 but not IL-4 signaling via IL-4Rα protects mice from papilloma formation during DMBA/TPA two-step skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Michael; Quarcoo, David; Chashchina, Anna A; Bozrova, Svetlana V; Qin, Zhihai; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Blankenstein, Thomas; Kammertoens, Thomas; Drutskaya, Marina S

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) was shown to be tumor-promoting in full carcinogenesis studies using 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Because heretofore the role of IL-4 in DMBA/TPA (9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz-anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) two-stage carcinogenesis was not studied, we performed such experiments using either IL-4−/− or IL-4Rα−/− mice. We found that IL-4Rα−/− but not IL-4−/− mice have enhanced papilloma formation, suggesting that IL-13 may be involved. Indeed, IL-13−/− mice developed more papillomas after exposure to DMBA/TPA than their heterozygous IL-13-competent littermate controls. However, when tested in a full carcinogenesis experiment, exposure of mice to 25 μg of MCA, both IL-13−/− and IL-13+/− mice led to the same incidence of tumors. While IL-4 enhances MCA carcinogenesis, it does not play a measurable role in our DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis experiments. Conversely, IL-13 does not affect MCA carcinogenesis but protects mice from DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis. One possible explanation is that IL-4 and IL-13, although they share a common IL-4Rα chain, regulate signaling in target cells differently by employing distinct JAK/STAT-mediated signaling pathways downstream of IL-13 or IL-4 receptor complexes, resulting in different inflammatory transcriptional programs. Taken together, our results indicate that the course of DMBA/TPA- and MCA-induced carcinogenesis is affected differently by IL-4 versus IL-13-mediated inflammatory cascades. PMID:24403255

  9. A CC′ Loop Decoy Peptide Blocks the Interaction Between Act1 and IL-17RA to Attenuate IL-17- and IL-25-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caini; Swaidani, Shadi; Qian, Wen; Kang, Zizhen; Sun, Paige; Han, Yue; Wang, Chenhui; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Yin, Weiguo; Zhang, Chunjiang; Fox, Paul L; Aronica, Mark; Hamilton, Thomas A; Misra, Saurav; Deng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-25 signaling induce the expression of genes that encode inflammatory factors and they are implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activator 1 (Act1) is an adaptor protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase that is critical for IL-17 and IL-25 signaling, and it is recruited to their receptors through heterotypic interactions between their SEFIR [SEF (similar expression to fibroblast growth factor genes)/IL-17R] domains. Modeling of SEFIR domains has shown their structural similarity with the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the IL-1R. Whereas the BB′ loop of TIR is required for TIR-TIR interactions, we found that deletion of the BB′ loop from Act1 or IL-17RA (a common subunit of IL-17R and IL-25R) did not affect Act1–IL-17RA interactions. Instead, deletion of the CC′ loop from Act1 or IL-17RA abolished the interaction between Act1 and IL-17RA, suggesting that SEFIR and TIR domains interact in different manners. Surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that a peptide corresponding to the CC′ loop bound directly to IL-17RA. A cell-permeable decoy peptide based on the CC′ loop sequence inhibited IL-17- and IL-25-mediated signaling, and it inhibited IL-17- and IL-25-induced responses in vitro and pulmonary inflammation in vivo. Together, these findings provide the molecular basis for the specificity of SEFIR versus TIR domain interactions and consequent signaling. Moreover, we suggest that the CC′ loop motif of SEFIR domains is a promising target for therapeutic strategies against IL-17- and IL-25-asssociated inflammatory diseases. PMID:22045852

  10. IL-10 and TNFα Genotypes in SLE

    PubMed Central

    López, Patricia; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The production of two regulators of the inflammatory response, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), has been found to be deeply deregulated in SLE patients, suggesting that these cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic polymorphisms at the promoter regions of IL-10 and TNFα genes have been associated with different constitutive and induced cytokine production. Given that individual steady-state levels of these molecules may deviate an initial immune response towards different forms of lymphocyte activation, functional genetic variants in their promoters could influence the development of SLE. The present review summarizes the information previously reported about the involvement of IL-10 and TNFα genetic variants on SLE appearance, clinical phenotype, and outcome. We show that, in spite of the heterogeneity of the populations studied, the existing knowledge points towards a relevant role of IL-10 and TNFα genotypes in SLE. PMID:20625422

  11. Homeostasis of IL-15 dependent lymphocyte subsets in the liver.

    PubMed

    Cepero-Donates, Yuneivy; Rakotoarivelo, Volatiana; Mayhue, Marian; Ma, Averil; Chen, Yi-Guang; Ramanathan, Sheela

    2016-06-01

    IL-15 is a member of the gamma chain family of cytokines (γc - CD132). The IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) complex consists of 3 subunits: the ligand-binding IL-15Rα chain (CD215), the β chain (CD122; also used by IL-2), and the common γ chain. The biological activities of IL-15 are mostly mediated by the IL-15:IL-15Rα complex, produced by the same cell and 'trans-presented' to responder cells expressing the IL-15Rβγc. The peculiar and almost unique requirement for IL-15 to be trans-presented by IL-15Rα suggests that the biological effects of IL-15 signaling are tightly regulated even at the level of availability of IL-15. Tissue-specific deletion of IL-15Rα has shown macrophage-and dendritic cell-derived IL-15Rα mediate the homeostasis of different CD8(+) T cell subsets. Here we show that hepatocyte and macrophage- specific expression of IL-15Rα is required to maintain the homeostasis of NK and NKT cells in the liver. Thus, homeostasis of IL-15-dependent lymphocyte subsets is also regulated by trans-presentation of IL-15 by non-hematopoietic cells in the tissue environment. PMID:26778709

  12. IL-1 Blockade in Autoinflammatory Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Adriana A.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present with excessive systemic inflammation including fever, rashes, arthritis, and organ-specific inflammation and are caused by defects in single genes encoding proteins that regulate innate inflammatory pathways. Pathogenic variants in two interleukin-1 (IL-1)–regulating genes, NLRP3 and IL1RN, cause two severe and early-onset autoinflammatory syndromes, CAPS (cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes) and DIRA (deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist). The discovery of the mutations that cause CAPS and DIRA led to clinical and basic research that uncovered the key role of IL-1 in an extended spectrum of immune dysregulatory conditions. NLRP3 encodes cryopyrin, an intracellular “molecular sensor” that forms a multimolecular platform, the NLRP3 inflammasome, which links “danger recognition” to the activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. The success and safety profile of drugs targeting IL-1 in the treatment of CAPS and DIRA have encouraged their wider use in other autoinflammatory syndromes including the classic hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome) and additional immune dysregulatory conditions that are not genetically well defined, including Still’s, Behcet’s, and Schnitzler diseases. The fact that the accumulation of metabolic substrates such as monosodium urate, ceramide, cholesterol, and glucose can trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome connects metabolic stress to IL-1β-mediated inflammation and provides a rationale for therapeutically targeting IL-1 in prevalent diseases such as gout, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. PMID:24422572

  13. The IL-23 axis in Salmonella gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Godinez, Ivan; Keestra, A Marijke; Spees, Alanna; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-11-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes cause a localized gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. In contrast, primary immunodeficiencies that impair interleukin-23 (IL-23)-dependent pathways are associated in humans with disseminated NTS bloodstream infections (bacteraemia). The recent use of animal models has helped to define the role the IL-23 axis plays during NTS gastroenteritis, but additional work is needed to elucidate how this host defence pathway prevents NTS bacteraemia. PMID:21740501

  14. Cytokines and migraine: increase of IL-5 and IL-4 plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Munno, I; Centonze, V; Marinaro, M; Bassi, A; Lacedra, G; Causarano, V; Nardelli, P; Cassiano, M A; Albano, O

    1998-06-01

    Thirty-two patients suffering from migraine without aura were assessed during in interictal period to evaluate the contribution of cytokines to the pathophysiology of migraine. To this end, plasma levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Plasma levels of both IFN-gamma and IL-10 were not increased in the patients and did not differ significantly from healthy controls. Of interest, we observed a strong increase of IL-5 levels in 84.3% as well as increased IL-4 levels in 37.5% of patients with migraine without aura. These results suggests a preferential enhancement of some Th2-type cytokines, and may support the growing arguments of an immunoallergic mechanism in the pathophysiology of migraine. PMID:9664752

  15. Involvement of IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist on intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Aureli, A; Sebastiani, P; Del Beato, T; Marimpietri, A E; Graziani, A; Sechi, E; Di Loreto, S

    2014-11-01

    Imbalances in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been increasingly correlated with several neurodevelopmental disorders and their role in neuronal development is being investigated. To assess the possible influence of cytokines on the onset of intellectual disability (ID), we studied the polymorphisms of thirteen proinflammatory cytokine genes in 81 patients and 61 healthy controls. We demonstrated a significant association of interleukin-6 (IL-6) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (-174 G/C and nt565 G/A), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) (Mspa-I 11100) SNP with ID. Moreover, the IL-6 SNPs is an unfavorable genetic predisposition for females. The evaluation of circulating levels of IL-6 and IL-1RA showed that the serum concentrations of IL-6 were significantly higher in ID patients than in controls. These data suggest that functional cytokine gene polymorphisms may influence the development of ID. PMID:25124963

  16. IL-10: Expanding the Immune Oncology Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ivan H.; Wu, Victoria; McCauley, Scott; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Mumm, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in immunoncology have dramatically changed the treatment options available to cancer patients. However, the fundamental challenges with this therapeutic modality are not new and still persist with the current wave of immunoncology compounds. These challenges are centered on the activation and expansion, induction of intratumoral infiltration and persistence of highly activated, cytotoxic, tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells. We have investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of action of pegylated recombinant interleukin-10, (PEG-rIL-10) both pre-clinically with murine (PEG-rMuIL-10) and now clinically (AM0010) with human pegylated interleukin-10. The preponderance of data suggest that IL-10’s engagement of its receptor on CD8+ T cells enhances their activation status leading to antigen specific expansion. Quantitation of CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration reveals that treatment of both humans and mice with pegylated rIL-10 results in 3–4 fold increases of intratumoral, cytotoxic, CD8+ T cells. In addition, mice cured of their tumors with PEG-rMuIL-10 exhibit long term immunological protection from tumor re-challenge and long term treatment of cancer patients with AM0010 results in the persistence of highly activated CD8+ T cells. Cumulatively, these data suggest the IL-10 represents an emerging therapeutic that specifically addresses the fundamental challenges of the current wave of immunoncology assets. PMID:26661378

  17. Diesel Exhaust Particles Upregulate Interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 in Nasal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il-Ho; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ae; Lee, Heung-Man

    2016-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major source of air pollution. Nasal fibroblasts are known to produce various cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate DEP-induced cytokines and chemokines in nasal fibroblasts and to identify the signaling pathway involved. Methods A cytokine and chemokine array performed after stimulation of nasal fibroblasts with DEP revealed that levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were increased most significantly among various cytokines and chemokines. RT—PCR and ELISA were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8. Signaling pathways of p-38, Akt, and NF-κB were analyzed by western blotting, luciferase assay, and ELISA. Organ cultures of nasal interior turbinate were also developed to demonstrate the ex vivo effect of DEP on the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and the associated signaling pathway. Results DEP increased the expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 in nasal fibroblasts at mRNA and protein levels. DEP induced phosphorylation of p38, Akt, and NF-κB, whereas inhibitors of p38, Akt, and NF-κB blocked these phophorylations and the expressions of IL-6 and IL-8. These findings were also observed in ex vivo organ culture of nasal inferior turbinate. Conclusions DEP induces expression of IL-6 and IL-8 via p38, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways in nasal fibroblasts. This finding suggests that air pollution might induce or aggravate allergic rhinitis or chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:27295300

  18. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) Mediates Susceptibility to Visceral Leishmaniasis by Suppressing the IL-17-Neutrophil Response.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Gustavo F S; Nascimento, Manuela S L; Davoli-Ferreira, Marcela; Sacramento, Lais A; Lima, Mikhael H F; Almeida, Roque P; Carregaro, Vanessa; Silva, João Santana

    2016-08-01

    The relationship established between Leishmania infantum and the vertebrate host can lead to a self-healing infection or to the manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic systemic infection associated with high rates of mortality. We hypothesized that regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-27 (IL-27), play a role in susceptibility to L. infantum infection. IL-27 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of IL-27p28 and EBi3 subunits which, when combined, bind to IL-27R, leading to STAT-1 and -3 activation, playing a role in the regulation of the immune response. We observed in this work that IL-27 regulates the Th1/Th17 profiles in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. infantum We showed here that the pathogen recognition by endosomal Toll-like receptors triggers a type I interferon (IFN) response, which acts through the type I IFN receptor and interferon regulatory factor 1 to induce IL-27 production by macrophages. Furthermore, IL-27 plays a major regulatory role in vivo, because Ebi3(-/-) mice can efficiently control parasite replication despite reduced levels of IFN-γ compared to wild-type mice. On the other hand, the absence of Ebi3 leads to exacerbated IL-17A production in the infected organs as well as in a coculture system, suggesting a direct regulatory action of IL-27 during L. infantum infection. As a consequence of exacerbated IL-17A in Ebi3(-/-) mice, a greater neutrophil influx was observed in the target organs, playing a role in parasite control. Thus, this work unveiled the molecular steps of IL-27 production after L. infantum infection and demonstrated its regulatory role in the IL-17A-neutrophil axis. PMID:27245409

  19. IL-33 Facilitates Oncogene Induced Cholangiocarcinoma in Mice by an IL-6 Sensitive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisaku; Rizvi, Sumera; Razumilava, Nataliya; Bronk, Steven F.; Davila, Jaime I.; Champion, Mia D.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Chen, Xin; Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal hepatobiliary neoplasm originating from the biliary apparatus. In humans, CCA risk factors include hepatobiliary inflammation and fibrosis. The recently identified IL-1 family member, IL-33, has been shown to be a biliary mitogen which also promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis. Our aim was to generate a mouse model of CCA mimicking the human disease. Ectopic oncogene expression in the biliary tract was accomplished by the Sleeping Beauty transposon transfection system with transduction of constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) and Yes-associated protein (YAP). Intrabiliary instillation of the transposon-transposase complex was coupled with lobar bile duct ligation in CL57BL/6 mice, followed by administration of IL-33 for three consecutive days. Tumors developed in 72% of the male mice receiving both oncogenes plus IL-33 by 10 weeks, but in only 20% of the male mice transduced with the oncogenes alone. Tumors expressed SOX9 and pancytokeratin (PanCK) [features of cholangiocarcinoma] but were negative for HepPar1 [a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. RNA profiling revealed substantive overlap with human CCA specimens. Not only did IL-33 induce IL-6 expression by human cholangiocytes, but IL-33 likely facilitated tumor development in vivo by an IL-6 sensitive process, as tumor development was significantly attenuated in Il-6 -/- male animals. Furthermore, tumor formation occurred at a similar rate when IL-6 was substituted for IL-33 in this model. In conclusion, the transposase-mediated transduction of constitutively active AKT and YAP in the biliary epithelium coupled with lobar obstruction and IL-33 administration results in the development of CCA with morphological and biochemical features of the human disease. This model highlights the role of inflammatory cytokines in CCA oncogenesis. PMID:25580681

  20. IL-37 Alleviates Rheumatoid Arthritis by Suppressing IL-17 and IL-17-Triggering Cytokine Production and Limiting Th17 Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liang; Jiang, Bo; Deng, Jun; Du, Jing; Xiong, Wen; Guan, Youfei; Wen, Zhongyang; Huang, Kunzhao; Huang, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    IL-37, a new member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is a natural inhibitor of innate immunity associated with autoimmune diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether IL-37 has antiarthritic effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). In this study, we analyzed the expression of IL-37 in PBMCs, serum, and lymphocytes from RA patients as well as CD4(+) T cells polarized under Th1/Th2/Th17 conditions. The role of IL-37 was assessed by investigating the effects of recombinant human (rh)IL-37 and an adenovirus encoding human IL-37 (Ad-IL-37) on Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines in RA patients and CIA mice. We found that active RA patients showed higher IL-37 levels compared with patients with inactive RA and healthy controls. Upregulated IL-37 expression also was found in CD3(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells from RA patients and in Th1/Th17-differentiation conditions. rhIL-37 markedly decreased IL-17 expression and Th17 cell frequency in PBMCs and CD4(+) T cells from RA patients. Furthermore, IL-37 exerted a more suppressive effect on Th17 cell proliferation, whereas it had little or no effect on Th17 cell differentiation. IL-17 and IL-17-driving cytokine production were significantly reduced in synovium and joint cells from CIA mice receiving injections of Ad-IL-37. Our findings indicate that IL-37 plays a potent immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of human RA and CIA models via the downregulation of IL-17 and IL-17-triggering cytokine production and the curbing of Th17 cell proliferation. PMID:25917106

  1. Fine mapping and trans-ethnic genotyping establish IL2/IL21 genetic association with lupus and localize this genetic effect to IL21

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis; Kim-Howard, Xana; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Ziegler, Julie; Sanchez, Elena; Kimberly, Robert P.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D.; Martin, Javier; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Vilá, Luis M.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; James, Judith A.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Moser, Kathy L.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Nath, Swapan K.; Harley, John B.; Sawalha, Amr H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Genetic association of the IL2/IL21 region at 4q27 has been previously reported in lupus and a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Herein, using a very large cohort of lupus patients and controls, we localize this genetic effect to the IL21 gene. Methods We genotyped 45 tag SNPs across the IL2/IL21 locus in two large independent lupus sample sets. We studied a European-derived set consisting of 4,248 lupus patients and 3,818 healthy controls, and an African-American set of 1,569 patients and 1,893 healthy controls. Imputation in 3,004 WTCCC additional control individuals was also performed. Genetic association between the genotyped markers was determined, and pair-wise conditional analysis was performed to localize the independent genetic effect in the IL2/IL21 locus in lupus. Results We established and confirmed the genetic association between IL2/IL21 and lupus. Using conditional analysis and trans-ethnic mapping, we localized the genetic effect in this locus to two SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium; rs907715 located within IL21 (OR=1.16 (1.10–1.22), P= 2.17 ×10−8), and rs6835457 located in the 3’-UTR flanking region of IL21 (OR= 1.11 (1.05–1.17), P= 9.35×10−5). Conclusion We have established the genetic association between lupus and IL2/IL21 with a genome-wide level of significance. Further, we localized this genetic association within the IL2/IL21 linkage disequilibrium block to IL21. If other autoimmune IL2/IL21 genetic associations are similarly localized, then the IL21 risk alleles would be predicted to operate in a fundamental mechanism that influences the course of a number of autoimmune disease processes. PMID:21425124

  2. Expression of IL-1Rrp2 by human myelomonocytic cells is unique to DCs and facilitates DC maturation by IL-1F8 and IL-1F9.

    PubMed

    Mutamba, Shilla; Allison, Asher; Mahida, Yashwant; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2012-03-01

    We report for the first time that expression of the novel IL-1 cytokine receptor IL-1Rrp2 (IL-1R6) is unique to DCs within the human myelomonocytic lineage. IL-1Rrp2 was expressed by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) which was dose-dependently increased by IL-4 and correlated with increased numbers of differentiated MDDCs. Human plasmacytoid DCs also express IL-1Rrp2 but the receptor is not expressed by either myeloid DC type 1 (mDC1) or mDC2 cells. We also show that IL-1F8 or IL-1F9 cytokines, which signal through IL-1Rrp2, induce maturation of MDDCs, as measured by increased expression of HLA-DR and CD83 and decreased expression of CD1a. Furthermore, IL-1F8 stimulated increased CD40 and CD80 expression and IL-18 and IL-12 p70 production by MDDCs, which induced proliferation of IFN-γ-producing CD3(+) lymphocytes (indicative of inflammatory Th1 subsets). IL-1F8 and IL-1F2 were equipotent in their ability to stimulate IL-18 secretion from MDDCs but IL-1F8 was not as potent as IL-1F2 in stimulating secretion of IL-12p70 from MDDCs or inducing lymphocyte proliferation Therefore, IL-1Rrp2 expression by some DC subsets may have an important function in the human immune response in vivo via its role in differentiation of inflammatory Th1 lymphocytes. PMID:22144259

  3. Anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody promotes bone fracture healing through regulating IL-20-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chiu, Yi-Shu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Jou, I-Ming; Wu, Po-Tin; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chang, Ming-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss and skeletal fragility in bone fracture are caused by an imbalance in bone remodeling. The current challenge in bone fracture healing is to promote osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. We aimed to explore the role of IL-20 in osteoblastogenesis, osteoblast differentiation and bone fracture. Serum IL-20 was significantly correlated with serum sclerostin in patients with bone fracture. In a mouse model, anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7E increased bone formation during fracture healing. In vitro, IL-20 inhibited osteoblastogenesis by upregulating sclerostin, and downregulating osterix (OSX), RUNX2, and osteoprotegerin (OPG). IL-20R1 deficiency attenuated IL-20-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and maturation and reduced the healing time after a bone fracture. We conclude that IL-20 affects bone formation and downregulates osteoblastogenesis by modulating sclerostin, OSX, RUNX2, and OPG on osteoblasts. Our results demonstrated that IL-20 is involved in osteoregulation and anti-IL-20 mAb is a potential therapeutic for treating bone fracture or metabolic bone diseases. PMID:27075747

  4. Inhibiting complex IL-17A and IL-17RA interactions with a linear peptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shenping; Desharnais, Joel; Sahasrabudhe, Parag V.; Jin, Ping; Li, Wei; Oates, Bryan D.; Shanker, Suman; Banker, Mary Ellen; Chrunyk, Boris A.; Song, Xi; Feng, Xidong; Griffor, Matt; Jimenez, Judith; Chen, Gang; Tumelty, David; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W.; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W.; Thorarensen, Atli; Qiu, Xiayang; Withka, Jane M.; Wood, Lauren D.

    2016-01-01

    IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-17A signaling have demonstrated remarkable efficacy, but an oral therapy is still lacking. A high affinity IL-17A peptide antagonist (HAP) of 15 residues was identified through phage-display screening followed by saturation mutagenesis optimization and amino acid substitutions. HAP binds specifically to IL-17A and inhibits the interaction of the cytokine with its receptor, IL-17RA. Tested in primary human cells, HAP blocked the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Crystal structure studies revealed that two HAP molecules bind to one IL-17A dimer symmetrically. The N-terminal portions of HAP form a β-strand that inserts between two IL-17A monomers while the C-terminal section forms an α helix that directly blocks IL-17RA from binding to the same region of IL-17A. This mode of inhibition suggests opportunities for developing peptide antagonists against this challenging target. PMID:27184415

  5. Inhibiting complex IL-17A and IL-17RA interactions with a linear peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenping; Desharnais, Joel; Sahasrabudhe, Parag V; Jin, Ping; Li, Wei; Oates, Bryan D; Shanker, Suman; Banker, Mary Ellen; Chrunyk, Boris A; Song, Xi; Feng, Xidong; Griffor, Matt; Jimenez, Judith; Chen, Gang; Tumelty, David; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W; Thorarensen, Atli; Qiu, Xiayang; Withka, Jane M; Wood, Lauren D

    2016-01-01

    IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-17A signaling have demonstrated remarkable efficacy, but an oral therapy is still lacking. A high affinity IL-17A peptide antagonist (HAP) of 15 residues was identified through phage-display screening followed by saturation mutagenesis optimization and amino acid substitutions. HAP binds specifically to IL-17A and inhibits the interaction of the cytokine with its receptor, IL-17RA. Tested in primary human cells, HAP blocked the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Crystal structure studies revealed that two HAP molecules bind to one IL-17A dimer symmetrically. The N-terminal portions of HAP form a β-strand that inserts between two IL-17A monomers while the C-terminal section forms an α helix that directly blocks IL-17RA from binding to the same region of IL-17A. This mode of inhibition suggests opportunities for developing peptide antagonists against this challenging target. PMID:27184415

  6. Regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production and function in macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaojing; Yan, Wenjun; Zheng, Hua; Du, Qinglin; Zhang, Lixing; Ban, Yi; Li, Na; Wei, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 and Interleukin-12 are produced primarily by pathogen-activated antigen-presenting cells, particularly macrophages and dendritic cells. IL-10 and IL-12 play very important immunoregulatory roles in host defense and immune homeostasis. Being anti- and pro-inflammatory in nature, respectively, their functions are antagonistically opposing. A comprehensive and in-depth understanding of their immunological properties and signaling mechanisms will help develop better clinical intervention strategies in therapy for a wide range of human disorders. Here, we provide an update on some emerging concepts, controversies, unanswered questions, and opinions regarding the immune signaling of IL-10 and IL-12. PMID:26918147

  7. Inherited IL-12p40 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Prando, Carolina; Samarina, Arina; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Cobat, Aurelie; Picard, Capucine; AlSum, Zobaida; Al-Jumaah, Suliman; Al-Hajjar, Sami; Frayha, Husn; Al-Mousa, Hamoud; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Adimi, Parisa; Feinberg, Jacqueline; de Suremain, Maylis; Jannière, Lucile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Mansouri, Nahal; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Nallusamy, Revathy; Kumararatne, Dinakantha S.; Bloorsaz, Mohamad Reza; Ben-Ali, Meriem; Elloumi-Zghal, Houda; Chemli, Jalel; Bouguila, Jihene; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Alaki, Emadia; AlFawaz, Tariq S.; Al Idrissi, Eman; ElGhazali, Gehad; Pollard, Andrew J.; Murugasu, Belinda; Wah Lee, Bee; Halwani, Rabih; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed; Al Shehri, Mohammed A.; Al-Zahrani, Mofareh; Bin-Hussain, Ibrahim; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Parvaneh, Nima; Abel, Laurent; Mansouri, Davood; Barbouche, Ridha; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Autosomal recessive interleukin (IL)-12 p40 (IL-12p40) deficiency is a rare genetic etiology of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the genetic, immunologic, and clinical features of 49 patients from 30 kindreds originating from 5 countries (India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia). There are only 9 different mutant alleles of the IL12B gene: 2 small insertions, 3 small deletions, 2 splice site mutations, and 1 large deletion, each causing a frameshift and leading to a premature stop codon, and 1 nonsense mutation. Four of these 9 variants are recurrent, affecting 25 of the 30 reported kindreds, due to founder effects in specific countries. All patients are homozygous and display complete IL-12p40 deficiency. As a result, the patients lack detectable IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 and have low levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). The clinical features are characterized by childhood onset of bacille Calmette-Guérin (attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain) (BCG) and Salmonella infections, with recurrences of salmonellosis (36.4%) more common than recurrences of mycobacterial disease (25%). BCG vaccination led to BCG disease in 40 of the 41 patients vaccinated (97.5%). Multiple mycobacterial infections were rare, observed in only 3 patients, whereas the association of salmonellosis and mycobacteriosis was observed in 9 patients. A few other infections were diagnosed, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 3), nocardiosis (n = 2), and klebsiellosis (n = 1). IL-12p40 deficiency has a high but incomplete clinical penetrance, with 33.3% of genetically affected relatives of index cases showing no symptoms. However, the prognosis is poor, with mortality rates of up to 28.6%. Overall, the clinical phenotype of IL-12p40 deficiency closely resembles that of interleukin 12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency. In conclusion, IL-12p40 deficiency is more common than initially thought and should be considered worldwide in patients

  8. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos; Callera, Fernando

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  9. Enhanced IL-17 signalling following myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Seán P.; Ounzain, Samir; McCormick, James; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis I.I.; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Suzuki, Hisanori; Thiemermann, Christoph; Knight, Richard A.; Latchman, David S.; Stephanou, Anastasis

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-17A and IL-17F are pro-inflammatory cytokines which induce the expression of several cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in target cells. IL-17 cytokines have recently attracted huge interest due to their pathogenic role in diseases such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease although a role for IL-17 cytokines in myocardial infarction (MI) has not previously been described. Methods In vivo MI was performed by coronary artery occlusion in the absence or presence of a neutralizing IL-17 antibody for blocking IL-17 actions in vivo. IL-17 signaling was also assessed in isolated primary cardiomyocytes by Western blot, mRNA expression and immunostaining. Results Expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and the IL-17 receptor (IL-17RA) were all increased following MI. Expression of several IL-17 target genes, including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-6 was also upregulated following MI. In addition, IL-17A promoted the expression of Cxcl1 and IL-6 in isolated cardiomyocytes in a MAPK and PI(3)K-dependent manner. IL-17A and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury were found to have an additive effect on Cxcl1 expression, suggesting that IL-17 may enhance myocardial neutrophil recruitment during MI. Moreover, protein levels of both IL-17R and IL-17A were enhanced following in vivo MI. Finally, blocking IL-17 signaling in vivo reduced the levels of apoptotic cell death markers following in vivo MI. Conclusions These data imply that the expression of IL-17 cytokines and their receptor are elevated during myocardial I/R injury and may play a fundamental role in post infarct inflammatory and apoptotic responses. PMID:22030025

  10. Increased serum levels of novel T cell cytokines IL-33, IL-9 and IL-17 in subjects with type-1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shruthi, Sugumar; Mohan, Viswanathan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan

    2016-10-01

    The role of adaptive immune cytokines in the pathogenesis of type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is well known. Even though reports on the serum levels of both Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines are available, those on newly described T cell cytokines such as IL-17, IL-33 and IL-9 in T1DM are scarce. We therefore measured the serum levels of both T cell polarizing (IL-33 and IL-12) and T cell effector (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-9) cytokines in T1DM subjects with and without microvascular (retinopathy and nephropathy) complications (MVC). All the tested cytokines were significantly elevated in T1DM subjects except for IFN-γ (which failed to attain statistical significance) with no significant difference between those with and without MVC. From the serum cytokine analysis, no apparent Th polarization could be determined for the T1DM subjects. PMID:27442004

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1–IL-20R2 and IL-22R1–IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 Å, and diffracted X-­rays to 3 Å resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-­20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%. PMID:22232181

  13. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carol L; Obiang, Pauline; Bannerman, David; Cunningham, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI). IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/-) mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/-) animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT) mice to IL-1RI(-/-) mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/-) mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/-) mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/-) mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/-) mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/-) mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal and limbic

  14. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5–3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32–1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6–8.5) and 15 (14.9–26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9–7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls. PMID:27034824

  15. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5-3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32-1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6-8.5) and 15 (14.9-26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9-7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls. PMID:27034824

  16. Construction of an Expression System for Bioactive IL-18 and Generation of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing IL-18

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Yuxiu; SATO, Hiroki; HAMANA, Masahiro; MOONAN, Navita Anisia; YONEDA, Misako; XIA, Xianzhu; KAI, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  17. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  18. Inflammasome activation and IL-1β target IL-1α for secretion as opposed to surface expression

    PubMed Central

    Fettelschoss, Antonia; Kistowska, Magdalena; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Johansen, Pål; Senti, Gabriela; Contassot, Emmanuel; Bachmann, Martin F.; French, Lars E.; Oxenius, Annette; Kündig, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and -β both bind to the same IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) and are potent proinflammatory cytokines. Production of proinflammatory (pro)–IL-1α and pro–IL-1β is induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-κB activation. Additional stimulus involving activation of the inflammasome and caspase-1 is required for proteolytic cleavage and secretion of mature IL-1β. The regulation of IL-1α maturation and secretion, however, remains elusive. IL-1α exists as a cell surface-associated form and as a mature secreted form. Here we show that both forms of IL-1α, the surface and secreted form, are differentially regulated. Surface IL-1α requires NF-κB activation only, whereas secretion of mature IL-1α requires additional activation of the inflammasome and caspase-1. Surprisingly, secretion of IL-1α also required the presence of IL-1β, as demonstrated in IL-1β–deficient mice. We further demonstrate that IL-1β directly binds IL-1α, thus identifying IL-1β as a shuttle for another proinflammatory cytokine. These results have direct impact on selective treatment modalities of inflammatory diseases. PMID:22006336

  19. IL-23, rather than IL-17, is crucial for the development of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chaobin; Chen, Guie; Ge, Ruifeng

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the roles of IL-23 and IL-17 in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR remain unclear. Therefore in this study we aim to investigate the precise roles of IL-23 and IL-17 in a mouse model of OVA-induced AR. We found that during OVA-induced AR, eosinophil and goblet cells in the nose were significantly decreased in IL-23-deficient, but not in IL-17-deficient mice. However, there was no difference in the serum IgE and IgG1 levels between IL-23-deficient or IL-17-deficient and wild-type mice. Moreover, IL-4 levels in lymph node cell culture supernatants were significantly decreased in IL-23-deficient, but not IL-17-deficient, compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, OVA-induced AR developed similarly in wild-type mice transferred with either IL-23-deficient BM cells or wild-type BM cells. These findings suggest that IL-23, but not IL-17 is crucial for the development of OVA-induced AR, and IL-23 neutralization may be a potential approach for treatment of OVA-induced AR in humans. PMID:26239416

  20. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections. PMID:25849644

  1. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A.; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation. PMID:26562652

  2. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation. PMID:26562652

  3. Contribution of the IL-17/IL-23 axis to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Cătană, Cristina-Sorina; Berindan Neagoe, Ioana; Cozma, Vasile; Magdaş, Cristian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of modern society, requiring management strategies aimed at prolonging an active life and establishing the exact etiology and pathogenesis. These idiopathic diseases have environmental, genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components. On the one hand, recent advances have shown that abnormal immune reactions against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora are responsible for the inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, in addition to T helper cell-type (Th) 1 and Th2 immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely regulatory T cells and Th17 maintained by IL-23 are likely to develop IBD. IL-23 acts on innate immune system members and also facilitates the expansion and maintenance of Th17 cells. The IL-17/IL-23 axis is relevant in IBD pathogenesis both in human and experimental studies. Novel biomarkers of IBD could be calprotectin, microRNAs, and serum proinflammatory cytokines. An efficient strategy for IBD therapy is represented by the combination of IL-17A and IL-17F in acute IL-17A knockout TNBS-induced colitis, and also definite decrease of the inflammatory process in IL-17F knockout, DSS-induced colitis have been observed. Studying the correlation between innate and adaptive immune systems, we hope to obtain a focused review in order to facilitate future approaches aimed at elucidating the immunological mechanisms that control gut inflammation. PMID:26019446

  4. Contribution of the IL-17/IL-23 axis to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Cătană, Cristina-Sorina; Berindan Neagoe, Ioana; Cozma, Vasile; Magdaş, Cristian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2015-05-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of modern society, requiring management strategies aimed at prolonging an active life and establishing the exact etiology and pathogenesis. These idiopathic diseases have environmental, genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components. On the one hand, recent advances have shown that abnormal immune reactions against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora are responsible for the inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, in addition to T helper cell-type (Th) 1 and Th2 immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely regulatory T cells and Th17 maintained by IL-23 are likely to develop IBD. IL-23 acts on innate immune system members and also facilitates the expansion and maintenance of Th17 cells. The IL-17/IL-23 axis is relevant in IBD pathogenesis both in human and experimental studies. Novel biomarkers of IBD could be calprotectin, microRNAs, and serum proinflammatory cytokines. An efficient strategy for IBD therapy is represented by the combination of IL-17A and IL-17F in acute IL-17A knockout TNBS-induced colitis, and also definite decrease of the inflammatory process in IL-17F knockout, DSS-induced colitis have been observed. Studying the correlation between innate and adaptive immune systems, we hope to obtain a focused review in order to facilitate future approaches aimed at elucidating the immunological mechanisms that control gut inflammation. PMID:26019446

  5. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Binger, Katrina J; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N

    2015-11-01

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt-induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis. PMID:26485286

  6. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4– and IL-13–stimulated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Binger, Katrina J.; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A.; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D.; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N.

    2015-01-01

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt–induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis. PMID:26485286

  7. IL-6 functions in cynomolgus monkeys blocked by a humanized antibody to human IL-6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Imazeki, I; Saito, H; Hasegawa, M; Shinkura, H; Kishimoto, T; Ohsugi, Y

    1998-07-01

    A humanized antibody to the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), hPM-1, blocked the interleukin-6 (IL-6) functions in normal cynomolgus monkey lymphocytes in vitro. The binding activity of hPM-1 to non-human primate IL-6R was examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry. PM-1 recognized the IL-6R on T lymphocytes of cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys, but did not on those of marmosets. The homology between human IL-6R and its cynomolgus monkey counterpart was 97.3% in the extracellular domain of the amino acid sequence, as determined by DNA sequencing of the PCR product from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PM-1 inhibited two functional parameters in vitro in cynomolgus monkeys: (1), T-cell proliferation stimulated by phytohemaglutinin and human IL-6; (2), Immunoglobulin G-production evoked by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan-1- and human IL-6-stimulated B lymphocytes. These data show that hPM-1 binds to and functionally blocks the cynomolgus monkey IL-6 receptors. PMID:9756130

  8. IL-36γ (IL-1F9) is a biomarker for psoriasis skin lesions.

    PubMed

    D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Wilsmann-Theis, Dagmar; Wagenpfeil, Julia; Hölzel, Michael; Ferring-Schmitt, Sandra; Sternberg, Sonja; Wittmann, Miriam; Peters, Bettina; Bosio, Andreas; Bieber, Thomas; Wenzel, Joerg

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, different genes and proteins have been highlighted as potential biomarkers for psoriasis, one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases worldwide. However, most of these markers are not only psoriasis-specific but also found in other inflammatory disorders. We performed an unsupervised cluster analysis of gene expression profiles in 150 psoriasis patients and other inflammatory skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, contact eczema, and healthy controls). We identified a cluster of IL-17/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-associated genes specifically expressed in psoriasis, among which IL-36γ was the most outstanding marker. In subsequent immunohistological analyses, IL-36γ was confirmed to be expressed in psoriasis lesions only. IL-36γ peripheral blood serum levels were found to be closely associated with disease activity, and they decreased after anti-TNFα-treatment. Furthermore, IL-36γ immunohistochemistry was found to be a helpful marker in the histological differential diagnosis between psoriasis and eczema in diagnostically challenging cases. These features highlight IL-36γ as a valuable biomarker in psoriasis patients, both for diagnostic purposes and measurement of disease activity during the clinical course. Furthermore, IL-36γ might also provide a future drug target, because of its potential amplifier role in TNFα- and IL-17 pathways in psoriatic skin inflammation. PMID:25525775

  9. Implication of IL-2/IL-21 region in systemic sclerosis genetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Simeon, Carmen P; Broen, Jasper C; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Beretta, Lorenzo; Vonk, Madelon C; Carreira, Patricia E; Vargas, Sofia; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; González-Gay, Miguel A; Tolosa, Carlos; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Espinosa, Gerard; Vicente, Esther F; Hesselstrand, Roger; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Distler, Jörg H W; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Schuerwegh, Annemie J; Shiels, Paul G; Nordin, Annika; Padyukov, Leonid; Hoffmann-Vold, Anna-Maria; Scorza, Raffaella; Lunardi, Claudio; Airo, Paolo; van Laar, Jacob M; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Gathof, Birgit S; Kreuter, Alexander; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher P; Zhou, Xiaodong; Arnett, Frank C; Fonseca, Carmen; Koeleman, Bobby PC; Assasi, Shervin; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Mayes, Maureen D; Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective The interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 21 (IL-21) locus at chromosome 4q27 has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, and both genes are related to immune system functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the IL-2/IL-21 locus in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patients and methods The case control study included 4493 SSc Caucasian patients and 5856 healthy controls from eight Caucasian populations (Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, USA, Italy, Sweden, UK and Norway). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2069762, rs6822844, rs6835457 and rs907715) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Results We observed evidence of association of the rs6822844 and rs907715 variants with global SSc (pc=6.6E-4 and pc=7.2E-3, respectively). Similar statistically significant associations were observed for the limited cutaneous form of the disease. The conditional regression analysis suggested that the most likely genetic variation responsible for the association was the rs6822844 polymorphism. Consistently, the rs2069762A-rs6822844T-rs6835457G-rs907715T allelic combination showed evidence of association with SSc and limited cutaneous SSc subtype (pc=1.7E-03 and pc=8E-4, respectively). Conclusions These results suggested that the IL-2/IL-21 locus influences the genetic susceptibility to SSc. Moreover, this study provided further support for the IL-2/IL-21 locus as a common genetic factor in autoimmune diseases. PMID:23172754

  10. Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Santacruz, Concepcion; Linares, Marisela; Garfias, Yonathan; Loustaunau, Luisa M.; Pavon, Lenin; Perez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Jimenez-Martinez, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed. Immunological evaluation included determination of interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in tear samples obtained from infected eyes of 28 patients with MK and compared with their contralateral non-infected eyes. Additionally, frequency of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD3−CD56+ cells was also determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MK, and compared with 48 healthy controls. Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. IL-8 > IL-6 in patients with bacterial keratitis; IL-8 > IL-6 > IL-1β and increased frequency of circulating CD3−CD56+ NK cells in patients with gram-negative keratitis; and IL-8 = IL-6 > IL-1β in patients with fungal keratitis. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. PMID:25741769

  11. The effects of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 levels on prognosis in patients with aggressive Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, F; Aydin, F; Yilmaz, M; Kavgaci, H; Bektas, O; Yavuz, M N; Yavuz, A A

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in the pretreatment period and to determine if high IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 levels correlate with the outcome in patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) in the post treatment period. Forty-three patients with the diagnosis of aggressive NHL were included in our study. In all cases initial treatment consisted of CHOP. Patients who failed initial therapy and relapsed from CR were treated with the ESHAP regimen or autologous bone marrow transplantation. The median follow-up duration was 127 weeks (20-228 weeks). There was a negative relationship between the failure-free survival and IL-2 levels (p<0.01). IL-2 levels were negatively correlated with overall survival (p<0.02). There was no relationship between the failure-free survival and IL-6 and IL-10 levels. IL-6 and IL-10 levels did not affect overall survival. In conclusion, in patients with lymphoma, the immune system tries to control the progression of tumor thus leading to high IL-2 levels. PMID:15595640

  12. [IL-33 promotes degranulation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and release of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Chen; Shang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of interleukin 33 (IL-33) on degranulation and cytokine release of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Methods Mouse BMMCs were isolated and stimulated by 0, 10, 20, 50 ng/mL IL-33. The expression of c-Kit was assessed by Western blotting. Beta-hexosaminidase content in culture supernatant was evaluated indirectly through the absorbance value of the product of the reaction between chromogenix substrate and β-hexosaminidase. The levels of histamine and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in culture supernatant were examined by ELISA. Results IL-33 induced the expression of c-Kit in BMMCs. Treatments with different concentrations of IL-33 for 30 minutes induced the degranulation of BMMCs to release β-hexosaminidase and histamine in a dose-dependent manner. IL-33 induced the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in BMMCs after treatments for 24 hours; the peak values of the three kinds of cytokines were got respectively in 50, 50 and 20 ng/mL IL-33 treatment groups. Conclusion IL-33 could induce the degranulation of mast cells and the release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α). PMID:27053610

  13. IL-21 and IL-21 receptor in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Anvari, Enayat; Hadinia, Abolghasem; Ghanbari, Amir; Setayesh, Maryam; Yousefi, Mehdi; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad

    2016-05-01

    Cytokines are considered important factors in the modulation of various immune responses. Among them, interleukin (IL)-21 is one of the major immune modulators, adjusting various immune responses by affecting various immune cells. It has been suggested that IL-21 may enhance autoimmunity through different mechanisms, such as development and activation of helper T (TH)-17 and follicular helper T (TFH) cells, activation of natural killer (NK) cells, enhancing B-cell differentiation and antibody secretion and suppression of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Moreover, IL-21 has also been suggested to be an inducer of autoimmunity when following treatment of MS patients with some therapeutics such as alemtuzumab. This review will seek to clarify the precise role of IL-21/IL-21R in the pathogenesis of MS and, in its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). PMID:26507681

  14. From IL-2 to IL-37: the expanding spectrum of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Banchereau, Jacques; Pascual, Virginia; O'Garra, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Feedback regulatory circuits provided by regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) and suppressive cytokines are an intrinsic part of the immune system, along with effector functions. Here we discuss some of the regulatory cytokines that have evolved to permit tolerance to components of self as well as the eradication of pathogens with minimal collateral damage to the host. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are well characterized, whereas IL-27, IL-35 and IL-37 represent newcomers to the spectrum of anti-inflammatory cytokines. We also emphasize how information accumulated through in vitro as well as in vivo studies of genetically engineered mice can help in the understanding and treatment of human diseases. PMID:22990890

  15. TLR2 ligation induces the production of IL-23/IL-17 via IL-6, STAT3 and NF-kB pathway in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The study was undertaken to investigate the interrelation of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-17 in the salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) and to determine the role of TLR and IL-17 in the pathophysiology of pSS. Methods The expressions of various TLRs, IL-17 and the cytokines involved in Th17 cell differentiation including IL-6, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β were examined by immunohistochemistry in salivary glands of pSS patients. The IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) were examined by flow cytometry and confocal staining in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBCs) and salivary glands of pSS patients. After PBMCs were treated with TLR specific ligands, the induction of IL-17 and IL-23 was determined using real-time PCR and ELISA. The signaling pathway that mediates the TLR2 stimulated production of IL-17 and IL-23 was investigated by using treatment with specific signaling inhibitors. Results We showed that TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, IL-17 and the cytokines associated with Th17 cells were highly expressed in salivary glands of pSS patients but not in controls. The expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were observed in the infiltrating mononuclear cells and ductal epithelial cells, whereas IL-17 was mainly observed in infiltrating CD4+ T cells. The number of IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in pSS patients both in PBMCs and minor salivary glands. The stimulation of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 additively induced the production of IL-17 and IL-23 from the PBMCs of pSS patients especially in the presence of TLR2 stimulation. IL-6, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) pathways were implicated in the TLR2 stimulated IL-17 and IL-23. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that TLR2 ligation induces the production of IL-23/IL-17 via IL-6, STAT3 and NF-kB pathway in pSS. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target TLR/IL-17 pathway

  16. Role of alpha chain-IL-2 complex in the formation of the ternary complex of IL-2 and high-affinity IL-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Kamio, M; Uchiyama, T; Arima, N; Itoh, K; Ishikawa, T; Hori, T; Uchino, H

    1990-01-01

    Using anti-Tac (anti-alpha chain) and 2R-B (anti-beta chain) antibodies, we studied the roles of IL-2 receptor subunits (alpha and beta chains) in the formation of IL-2 and high-affinity IL-2 receptor complex, which is the initial event of IL-2 induced T cell growth. High-affinity IL-2 binding which was undetectable in the presence of 2R-B antibody at 4 degrees C became fully detectable when examined at 37 degrees C, which explained the lack of inhibition by 2R-B antibody of IL-2-induced proliferation of the cells expressing high-affinity IL-2 receptor. We further studied the mechanism of the 'reappearance' of high-affinity IL-2 binding in the presence of 2R-B antibody. The addition of IL-2 to the cells preincubated with radiolabeled or fluorescence-labeled 2R-B antibody resulted in a marked decrease in the antibody bound to the cells expressing high-affinity IL-2 receptor at 37 degrees C. This decrease was blocked by the presence of anti-Tac antibody, which inhibited IL-2 binding to alpha chain, but not by 7G7/B6 antibody, which recognized a non-IL-2 binding site of its chain. Furthermore, the decrease in cell-bound 2R-B antibody was not due to the internalization of beta chain-2R-B antibody complex, because the amount of cell-bound Mik-beta3 antibody recognizing a non-IL-2 binding epitope of beta chain remained unchanged, nor to the inhibition by simple competitive binding of IL-2 molecules to beta chain as judged from comparative studies of competitive binding inhibition. Taking these data together, the reappearance of high-affinity IL-2 binding was considered to be caused by the replacement of 2R-B antibody at the IL-2 binding site of beta chain by alpha chain-mediated IL-2, and it was strongly suggested that alpha chain-IL-2 complex has a key role in the formation of the ternary complex of IL-2 and high-affinity IL-2 receptor. alpha chain may function as a dimension converter of IL-2 to effectively deliver IL-2 molecules to a relatively small number of beta

  17. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-Responsive Cells Play an Important Role in the Induction of Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Urban, Joseph F.; Bohl, Jennifer; Sun, Rex; Notari, Luigi; Yan, Shu; Ramalingam, Thirumalai; Keegan, Achsah D.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies. PMID:23536877

  18. IL-6 and IL-8 enhance factor H binding to the cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    POPEK, SYLWIA; KAPKA-SKRZYPCZAK, LUCYNA; SAWICKI, KRZYSZTOF; WOLIŃSKA, EWA; SKRZYPCZAK, MACIEJ; CZAJKA, MAGDALENA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the role of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 on the expression of fluid-phase complement inhibitor, factor H (FH), and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1), in the A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line. This cell line does not normally produce IL-6, however, is IL-6 responsive due to the presence of receptor for IL-6. The presence of FH and FHL-1 in the cell lysates was confirmed by western blotting. The levels of FH and FHL-1 in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate gene expression, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. The cellular localization of FH and FHL-1 in ovarian cancer cells was assessed by immunofluorescence. The present study revealed that FH, contrary to FHL-1, was secreted by ovarian cancer cells, however, this process was independent of IL stimulation. No significant differences were observed in the concentration of FH in the control cells, when compared with the samples treated with IL-6/IL-8. The results of western blotting revealed that the protein expression levels of FH and FHL-1 were not regulated by IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line expressed both membrane bound and intracellular forms of FH and FHL-1. The present data revealed that the A2780 cells expressed and secreted FH protein and are also able to bind FH and FHL-1. This may influence the efficiency of complement mediated immunotherapy. PMID:27035765

  19. IL-23/IL-17/G-CSF pathway is associated with granulocyte recruitment to the lung during African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Karalyan, Z; Voskanyan, H; Ter-Pogossyan, Z; Saroyan, D; Karalova, E

    2016-10-15

    The interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 pathway plays a crucial role in various forms of inflammation but its function in acute African swine fever (ASF) is not well understood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to find out whether IL-23/IL-17/G-CSF is released in acute ASF and what function it may have. The present study revealed that the production of IL-17 and IL-23 were significantly increased in the sera of ASFV infected pigs. Using ELISA, we found that the serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 have overexpressed in ASF virus infected pigs compared with healthy controls. The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 increase in the early stages and the levels of G-CSF and C - reactive protein in the later stages of ASF. Simultaneously, with the increase of the levels of IL-23/IL-17 extravasation of granular leukocytes in the tissue (diapedesis) is observed. Diapedesis can explain the neutropenia that we identified previously in the terminal stages of ASF. The increase in serum levels of IL-23/IL-17 is preceded by enhanced migration of neutrophils in tissues, and the last one is preceded by neutropenia. The increase in serum levels of G-CSF has compensatory nature, directed on stimulation of proliferation of granulocytes. Taken together, our results revealed an overexpression of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the ASF virus infected pigs, suggesting that it may be a crucial pathway in the diapedesis at ASF. PMID:27590426

  20. IL-8/IL-8 receptor expression in psoriasis and the response to systemic tacrolimus (FK506) therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Lemster, B H; Carroll, P B; Rilo, H R; Johnson, N; Nikaein, A; Thomson, A W

    1995-01-01

    Recently, the keratinocyte IL-8/IL-8 receptor (IL-8R) pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and there is evidence that the potent macrolide immune suppressant tacrolimus (formerly FK506) can inhibit this pathway in vitro. In this study, determination of the expression of cytokine mRNAs in lesional skin of patients with active disease by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed transcripts for IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-8, IL-8R, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-2R and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), but not IL-2 or IL-4. IL-8 was the only cytokine expressed in affected skin of all patients but not in clinically normal skin of healthy subjects. In seven CD4+ T cell clones propagated from the lesional skin of an untreated psoriasis patient, IL-8 was expressed by the skin-derived T lymphocytes and not by feeder cells (irradiated autologous blood lymphocytes); IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 were also expressed by some or all of the T cell clones. IL-8 mRNA was not detected in the skin of any patient after the start of systemic tacrolimus therapy; IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IFN-gamma transcripts were also reduced. By 12 weeks, the mean psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) had decreased from 18.8 to 3.8, a reduction of 80%. In the same post-treatment biopsies, however, message for IL-8R persisted. Estimation of circulating IL-8 levels by enzyme immunoassay showed that all patients with detectable IL-8 before treatment had decreased levels in response to treatment with tacrolimus; reductions in PASI scores were accompanied by decreases in IL-8 levels, that varied both in rate and extent. Partial relapse, which in a minority of patients followed the initial period of remission, and was precipitated by drug dose reduction, was accompanied by an increase in circulating IL-8. These findings add credence to the view that the IL-8/IL-8R autocrine/paracrine pathway may be important in the

  1. Cytokine modulation (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) by human breast milk lipids on intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2).

    PubMed

    Barrera, Girolamo J; Sánchez, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Human breast milk is the best form of nourishment for infants during the first year of life. It is composed by a complex mixture of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Breast milk provides nutrients and bioactive factors that themselves modulate maturation and development of the gastrointestinal tract. Many studies have shown that it provides protection against gastrointestinal tract inflammation. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of human breast milk lipids on epithelial intestinal cells (Caco-2) cytokine regulation and the fatty acid transporter protein (FATP) involved in this process. Caco-2 cells were cultivated and stimulated with different concentration of human milk lipids from healthy human mothers (18-30-year-olds) or single commercial lipids for 48 h. We measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines by immunoassay (ELISA) and quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, respectively. We observed a two to three times decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (p < 0.01) as well as an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in cells stimulated with increasing concentrations of breast milk lipids. These results suggest that human breast milk lipids could have an important role on the cytokine modulation in the newborn bowel. PMID:26441050

  2. Overexpression of interleukins IL-17 and IL-8 with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer induces metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Kaghazian, Maria; Rahmani, Omid; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Hatami, Elham; Ziari, Katayoun; Talebreza, Amir

    2016-06-01

    Current evidences indicated that a group of soluble mediators called chemokines is involved in tumor growth and metastasis. The association of IL-8 with tumor cell migration was previously found, and its expression was related to angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis in many kinds of carcinomas in human and animal models. Furthermore, it has been showed that IL-17 plays its role as either a proteome of tumor progression or antitumor indifferent cancer models. To investigate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of IL-8 and IL-17 in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and non-tumor tissue, quantitative real-time PCR was used in the study. Our results showed that expression of IL-8 mRNA was significantly increased in tumor tissues (mean ± SD 3.84 ± 0.08) compared with adjacent normal mucosa (mean ± SD 1.17 ± 0.75, P = 0.001). Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-17 mRNA was found in tumor tissues (mean ± SD 2.73 ± 0.69) when compared with normal tissues (mean ± SD 1.06 ± 0.07, P = 0.001). Our findings indicated that advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.024) and histological grade (poorly differentiated, P = 0.013) and distant metastasis (P = 0.001) were correlated with expression of IL-8. Moreover, high expression of IL-17 showed significant association with early stage CRC (TNM) (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the expression of IL-8 and IL-17 mRNAs was significantly increased in tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. We found that advanced TNM stage and histological grade and distant metastasis were correlated with expression of IL-8, while high expression of IL-17 showed significant association with early stage CRC (TNM) stage and overexpression of IL-8 may be associated with progression of CRC. PMID:26678893

  3. Kineret®/IL-1ra Blocks the IL-1/IL-8 Inflammatory Cascade during Recombinant Panton Valentine Leukocidin-Triggered Pneumonia but Not during S. aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hayez, Davy; Da Silva, Sonia; Badiou, Cédric; Couzon, Florence; Bes, Michèle; Chavanet, Pascal; Lina, Gérard; Vandenesch, François; Croisier-Bertin, Delphine; Henry, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia is a life-threatening disease. Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) has been associated with necrotizing pneumonia. PVL triggers inflammasome activation in human macrophages leading to IL-1β release. IL-1β activates lung epithelial cells to release IL-8. This study aimed to assess the relevance of this inflammatory cascade in vivo and to test the potential of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra/Kineret) to decrease inflammation-mediated lung injury. Methods We used the sequential instillation of Heat-killed S. aureus and PVL or S. aureus infection to trigger necrotizing pneumonia in rabbits. In these models, we investigated inflammation in the presence or absence of IL-1Ra/Kineret. Results We demonstrated that the presence of PVL was associated with IL-1β and IL-8 release in the lung. During PVL-mediated sterile pneumonia, Kineret/IL-1Ra reduced IL-8 production indicating the relevance of the PVL/IL-1/IL-8 cascade in vivo and the potential of Kineret/IL-1Ra to reduce lung inflammation. However, Kineret/IL-1Ra was ineffective in blocking IL-8 production during infection with S. aureus. Furthermore, treatment with Kineret increased the bacterial burden in the lung. Conclusions Our data demonstrate PVL-dependent inflammasome activation during S.aureus pneumonia, indicate that IL-1 signaling controls bacterial burden in the lung and suggest that therapy aimed at targeting this pathway might be deleterious during pneumonia. PMID:24905099

  4. IL12 and IL27 sequential gene therapy via intramuscular electroporation delivery for eliminating distal aggressive tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shiguo; Lee, Dean Anthony; Li, Shulin

    2010-01-01

    Eradication of residual malignancies and metastatic tumors via a systemic approach is the key for successfully treating cancer and increasing the cancer patient survival. Systemic administration of IL12 protein in an acute large dose is effective but toxic. Systemic administration of IL12 gene by persistently expressing a low level of IL12 protein may reduce the systemic toxicity, but only eradicates IL12 sensitive tumors. Here, we discovered that sequential administration of IL12 and IL27 encoding DNA, referred to as sequential IL12-IL27 gene therapy, not only eradicated IL12 sensitive tumors from 100% of mice but also eradicated the highly malignant 4T1 tumors from 33% of treated mice in multiple independent experiments. This IL12-IL27 sequential gene therapy is not only superior to IL12-IL12 sequential gene therapy for eliminating tumors, but also for inducing CTL activity, increasing T cell infiltration into tumors, and yielding a large number of tumor-specific IFNγ positive CD8 T cells. Notably, depletion of either T- or NK-cells during the IL27 treatment phase reverses tumor eradication, suggesting an NK-cell requirement for this sequential gene therapy-mediated tumor eradication. Both reversal of the administration sequence and co-administration of IL12 and IL27 impaired the tumor eradication in 4T1 tumor bearing mice. This IL12-IL27 sequential gene therapy, via sequential administration of IL12 and IL27 encoding plasmid DNA into tumor-bearing mice through intramuscular electroporation, provides a simple but effective approach for eliminating inaccessible residual tumors. PMID:20139275

  5. A soluble class II cytokine receptor, IL-22RA2, is a naturally occurring IL-22 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenfeng; Presnell, Scott R.; Parrish-Novak, Julia; Kindsvogel, Wayne; Jaspers, Steve; Chen, Zhi; Dillon, Stacey R.; Gao, Zeren; Gilbert, Teresa; Madden, Karen; Schlutsmeyer, Stacy; Yao, Lena; Whitmore, Theodore E.; Chandrasekher, Yasmin; Grant, Francis J.; Maurer, Mark; Jelinek, Laura; Storey, Harold; Brender, Ty; Hammond, Angie; Topouzis, Stavros; Clegg, Christopher H.; Foster, Donald C.

    2001-01-01

    IL-22 is an IL-10 homologue that binds to and signals through the class II cytokine receptor heterodimer IL-22RA1/CRF2–4. IL-22 is produced by T cells and induces the production of acute-phase reactants in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its involvement in inflammation. Here we report the identification of a class II cytokine receptor designated IL-22RA2 (IL-22 receptor-α 2) that appears to be a naturally expressed soluble receptor. IL-22RA2 shares amino acid sequence homology with IL-22RA1 (also known as IL-22R, zcytor11, and CRF2–9) and is physically adjacent to IL-20Rα and IFN-γR1 on chromosome 6q23.3–24.2. We demonstrate that IL-22RA2 binds specifically to IL-22 and neutralizes IL-22-induced proliferation of BaF3 cells expressing IL-22 receptor subunits. IL-22RA2 mRNA is highly expressed in placenta and spleen by Northern blotting. PCR analysis using RNA from various tissues and cell lines showed that IL-22RA2 was expressed in a range of tissues, including those in the digestive, female reproductive, and immune systems. In situ hybridization revealed the dominant cell types expressing IL-22RA2 were mononuclear cells and epithelium. Because IL-22 induces the expression of acute phase reactants, IL-22RA2 may play an important role as an IL-22 antagonist in the regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:11481447

  6. Conditional IL-2 Gene Deletion: Consequences for T Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Popmihajlov, Zoran; Xu, Dong; Morgan, Heather; Milligan, Zoie; Smith, Kendall A.

    2012-01-01

    To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analog, tamoxifen (TAM) as adults. Splenocytes from four different mouse strains, C57Bl/6 wild type (WT), conventional IL-2(−/−), TAM-treated Cre recombinase-negative (Cre−)/IL2fl/fl, and Cre recombinase-positive (Cre+)/IL2fl/fl, were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and monitored for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocyte blastogenesis, aerobic glycolysis, BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA, and CFSE dye dilution to monitor cell division. IL-2 production was monitored by quantitative ELISA and multiple additional cytokines were monitored by quantitative protein-bead arrays. Splenocytes from conventional IL-2(−/−) and TAM-treated Cre+ mice resulted in undetectable IL-2 production by ELISA, so that both strains were IL-2-deficient. As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice did so. By comparison, only cells from IL-2 sufficient WT and Cre− mice switched to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a drop in media pH. Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice was compromised. Splenocytes from IL-2 deficient conventional IL-2(−/−) mice produced low or undetectable other γc-chain cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-21), whereas production of these γc-chain cytokines from IL-2-deficient conditional IL-2(−/−) Cre+ mice were comparable with WT and Cre− mice. These results indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell blastogenesis cannot be attributable to IL-2 alone, but a switch

  7. Impact of IL-1 signalling on experimental uveitis and arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Planck, Stephen R; Woods, April; Clowers, Jenna S; Nicklin, Martin J; Rosenbaum, James T; Rosenzweig, Holly L

    2012-01-01

    Background Uveitis, or inflammatory eye disease, is a common extra-articular manifestation of many systemic autoinflammatory diseases involving the joints. Anakinra (recombinant interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra)) is an effective therapy in several arthritic diseases; yet, few studies have investigated the extent to which IL-1 signalling or IL-1Ra influences the onset and/or severity of uveitis. Objective To seek possible links between arthritis and uveitis pathogenesis related to IL-1 signalling. Methods The eyes of IL-1Ra-deficient BALB/c mice were monitored histologically and by intravital videomicroscopy to determine if uveitis developed along with the expected spontaneous arthritis in ankles and knees. Expression levels of IL-1R and its negative regulators (IL-1Ra, IL-1RII, IL-1RAcP and single Ig IL-1R-related molecule) in eye and joint tissues were compared. Differences in uveitis induced by intraocular injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice lacking IL-1R or IL-1Ra were assessed. Results Deficiency in IL-1Ra predisposes to spontaneous arthritis, which is exacerbated by previous systemic LPS exposure. The eye, however, does not develop inflammatory disease despite the progressive arthritis or LPS exposure. Organ-specific expression patterns for IL-1Ra and negative regulators of IL-1 activity were observed that appear to predict predisposition to inflammation in each location in IL-1Ra knockout mice. The eye is extremely sensitive to locally administered LPS, and IL-1Ra deficiency markedly exacerbates the resulting uveitis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that IL-1Ra plays an important role in suppressing local responses in eyes injected with LPS and that there is discordance between murine eyes and joints in the extent to which IL-1Ra protects against spontaneous inflammation. PMID:22267332

  8. Pressure overload induces IL-18 and IL-18R expression, but markedly suppresses IL-18BP expression in a rabbit model. IL-18 potentiates TNF-α-induced cardiomyocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Friehs, Ingeborg; Mummidi, Srinivas; del Nido, Pedro J.; Addulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Delafontaine, Patrice; Valente, Anthony J.; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent or sustained inflammation plays a causal role in the development and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and its transition to failure. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent pro-hypertrophic inflammatory cytokine. We report that induction of pressure overload in the rabbit, by constriction of the descending thoracic aorta induces compensatory hypertrophy at 4 weeks (mass/volume ratio: 1.7±0.11) and ventricular dilatation indicative of heart failure at 6 weeks (mass/volume ratio: 0.7±0.04). In concordance with this, fractional shortening was preserved at 4 weeks, but markedly attenuated at 6 weeks. We cloned rabbit IL-18, IL-18Rα, IL-18Rβ, and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) cDNA, and show that pressure overload, while enhancing IL-18 and IL-18R expression in hypertrophied and failing hearts, markedly attenuated the level of expression of the endogenous IL-18 antagonist IL-18BP. Cyclical mechanical stretch (10% cyclic equibiaxial stretch, 1 Hz) induced hypertrophy of primary rabbit cardiomyocytes in vitro and enhanced ANP, IL-18, and IL-18Rα expression. Further, treatment with rhIL-18 induced its own expression and that of IL-18Rα via AP-1 activation, and induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in part via PI3K/Akt-dependent GATA4 activation. In contrast, IL-18 potentiated TNF-α-induced cardiomyocyte death, and induced cardiac endothelial cell death. These results demonstrate that pressure overload is associated with enhanced IL-18 and its receptor expression in hypertrophied and failing myocardium in rabbits. Since IL-18BP expression is markedly inhibited, our results indicate a positive amplification in IL-18 pro-inflammatory signaling during pressure overload, and suggest IL-18 as a potential therapeutic target in pathological hypertrophy and cardiac failure. PMID:25108227

  9. Regulation and function of the IL-1 family cytokine IL-1F9 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chustz, Regina T; Nagarkar, Deepti R; Poposki, Julie A; Favoreto, Silvio; Avila, Pedro C; Schleimer, Robert P; Kato, Atsushi

    2011-07-01

    The IL-1 family of cytokines, which now includes 11 members, is well known to participate in inflammation. Although the most recently recognized IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1F5-11) have been shown to be expressed in airway epithelial cells, the regulation of their expression and function in the epithelium has not been extensively studied. We investigated the regulation of IL-1F5-11 in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Messenger (m)RNAs for IL-1F6 and IL-1F9, but not IL-1F5, IL-1F8 or IL-1F10, were significantly up-regulated by TNF, IL-1β, IL-17 and the Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 ligand double-stranded (ds)RNA. mRNAs for IL-1F7 and IL-1F11 (IL-33) were weakly up-regulated by some of the cytokines tested. Notably, mRNAs for IL-1F6 and IL-1F9 were synergistically enhanced by the combination of TNF/IL-17 or dsRNA/IL-17. IL-1F9 protein was detected in the supernatant following stimulation with dsRNA or a combination of dsRNA and IL-17. IL-1F6 protein was detected in the cell lysate but was not detected in the supernatant. We screened for the receptor for IL-1F9 and found that lung fibroblasts expressed this receptor. We found that IL-1F9 activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and the transcription factor NF-κB in primary normal human lung fibroblasts. IL-1F9 also stimulated the expression of the neutrophil chemokines IL-8 and CXCL3 and the Th17 chemokine CCL20 in lung fibroblasts. These results suggest that epithelial activation by TLR3 (e.g., by respiratory viral infection) and exposure to cytokines from Th17 cells (IL-17) and inflammatory cells (TNF) may amplify neutrophilic inflammation in the airway via induction of IL-1F9 and activation of fibroblasts. PMID:20870894

  10. Effects of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 on growth and immunoglobulin production of Epstein-Barr virus-infected human B cells.

    PubMed

    Bende, R J; Jochems, G J; Frame, T H; Klein, M R; van Eijk, R V; van Lier, R A; Zeijlemaker, W P

    1992-09-01

    In the present study we investigated whether interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-6 could enhance the efficiency of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation for the generation of specific human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb)-producing B-cell lines directed against erythrocyte Rhesus(D) antigen. In newly EBV-infected B cells, IL-4 and IL-6 caused a comparable enhancement of proliferation and of total IgG and IgA production. IL-6 showed a much stronger effect than IL-4 on IgM production, whereas IL-4 was unique in inducing IgE production. No stimulatory effects of IL-5 on either growth or Ig production were observed. Although addition of IL-6 resulted during the early phase after EBV infection in high numbers of Ag-specific antibody-producing wells, this did not result in an increased number of stable HuMAb-secreting cell lines. When the effects of cytokines were tested on established polyclonal EBV B cells, in a high cell density culture system, only IL-6 was able to enhance Ig secretion, while no effect could be demonstrated on proliferation. These studies substantiate that IL-6 is an important regulator of proliferation and Ig production, and that it acts at distinct stages after EBV infection, but does not increase the final overall recovery of Ag-specific EBV B-cell lines. PMID:1324802

  11. IL-18 acts in synergy with IL-7 to promote ex vivo expansion of T lymphoid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Gandhapudi, Siva K.; Tan, Chibing; Marino, Julie H.; Taylor, Ashlee A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Gaikwad, Joel; Van De Wiele, C. Justin; Wren, Jonathan D.; Teague, T. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Although IL-18 has not previously been shown to promote T lymphopoiesis, results obtained via a novel data mining algorithm (GAMMA), led us to explore a predicted role for this cytokine in T cell development. IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been extensively characterized as a mediator of inflammatory immune responses. To assess a potential role for IL-18 in T cell development, we sort-purified mouse bone marrow derived common lymphoid progenitor cells (CLP), early thymic progenitors (ETP) and DN2 thymocytes and cultured these populations on OP9-DL4 stromal layers in the presence or absence of IL-18 and/or IL-7. After one week of culture, IL-18 promoted proliferation and accelerated differentiation of ETPs to the DN3 stage, similar in efficiency to IL-7. IL-18 showed synergy with IL-7 and enhanced proliferation of both the thymus derived progenitor cells and the bone marrow derived common lymphoid progenitor cells. The synergistic effect on the ETP population was further characterized and found to correlate with increased surface expression of c-Kit and IL-7 receptors on the IL-18-treated cells. In summary, we successfully validated the GAMMA prediction that IL-18 affects T lymphopoiesis and demonstrated that IL-18 can positively impact bone marrow lymphopoiesis and T cell development, presumably via interaction with the c-Kit and IL-7 signaling axis. PMID:25780034

  12. Phosphorylated STAT3 and PD-1 regulate IL-17 production and IL-23 receptor expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Anuradha; Devalraju, Kamakshi P; Paidipally, Padmaja; Dhiman, Rohan; Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Barnes, Peter F; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-07-01

    We studied the factors that regulate IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production in human tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb)-stimulated CD4(+) T cells from tuberculosis patients secreted less IL-17 than did CD4(+) T cells from healthy tuberculin reactors (PPD(+) ). M. tb-cultured monocytes from tuberculosis patients and PPD(+) donors expressed equal amounts of IL-23p19 mRNA and protein, suggesting that reduced IL-23 production is not responsible for decreased IL-17 production by tuberculosis patients. Freshly isolated and M. tb-stimulated CD4(+) T cells from tuberculosis patients had reduced IL-23 receptor and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression, compared with cells from PPD(+) donors. STAT3 siRNA reduced IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells from PPD(+) donors. Tuberculosis patients had increased numbers of PD-1(+) T cells compared with healthy PPD(+) individuals. Anti-PD-1 antibody enhanced pSTAT3 and IL-23R expression and IL-17 production by M. tb-cultured CD4(+) T cells of tuberculosis patients. Anti-tuberculosis therapy decreased PD-1 expression, increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production and pSTAT3 and IL-23R expression. These findings demonstrate that increased PD-1 expression and decreased pSTAT3 expression reduce IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells of tuberculosis patients. PMID:24643836

  13. Fasting Induces IL-1 Resistance and Free-Fatty Acid-Mediated Up-Regulation of IL-1R2 and IL-1RA

    PubMed Central

    Joesting, Jennifer J.; Moon, Morgan L.; Gainey, Stephen J.; Tisza, Brittany L.; Blevins, Neil A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Weight-loss is a near societal obsession and many diet programs use significant calorie restriction including fasting/short term starvation to generate rapid effects. Fasting is also a well-recognized cause of immunosuppression especially within the innate immune system. In this study, we sought to determine if the IL-1 arm of the neuroimmune system was down-regulated by a 24 h fast and how fasting might generate this effect. Design: Mice were allowed ad libitum access to food or had food withheld for 24 h. Expression of the endogenous IL-1 antagonists, IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was determined as were sickness behaviors before and after IL-1β administration. Results: Fasting markedly increased gene expression of IL-1R2 (83-fold in adipose tissue, 9.5-fold in liver) and IL-1RA (68-fold in liver). Fasted mice were protected from IL-1β-induced weight-loss, hypoglycemia, loss of locomotor, and social anxiety. These protections were coupled to a large positive interaction of fasting and IL-1β on IL-1R2 gene expression in adipose tissue and liver (2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively). Fasting not only increased IL-1RA and IL-1R2 protein 2.5- and 3.2-fold, respectively, in liver but also increased IL-1R2 1.8-fold in adipose tissue. Fasting, in turn, triggered a 2.4-fold increase in plasma free-fatty acids (FFAs) and a 2.1-fold increase in plasma corticosterone. Inhibition, of glucocorticoid action with mifepristone did not impact fasting-dependent IL-1R2 or IL-1RA gene expression. Administration of the FFA, palmitate, to mice increased liver IL-1R2 and IL-1RA gene expression by 14- and 11-fold, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that fasting augments expression of endogenous IL-1 antagonists inducing IL-1 resistance. Fasting-induced increases in plasma FFAs appears to be a signal that drives immunosuppression during fasting/short term starvation. PMID:25071776

  14. IL-2/IL-2 Ab Therapy Induces Target Organ NK Cells that Inhibit CNS Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Junwei; Campagnolo, Denise; Liu, Ruolan; Piao, Wenhua; Shi, Samuel; Hu, Baoyong; Xiang, Rong; Zhou, Qinghua; Vollmer, Timothy; Van Kaer, Luc; La Cava, Antonio; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Objective The role of natural killer (NK) cells in regulating multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well understood. Additional studies with NK cells might provide insight into the mechanism of action of MS therapies such as daclizumab, an antibody against the IL-2R α-chain, which induces expansion of CD56bright NK cells. Methods In a relapsing-remitting form of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS induced in SJL mice, we expanded NK cells with IL-2 coupled with an anti-IL-2 mAb and evaluated the effects of these NK cells on EAE. Further, we investigated the effect of the human version of IL-2/IL-2 mAb on NK cells from MS patients and its effect on CNS inflammation and pathology in a human-mouse chimera model and assessed the underlying mechanisms. Results IL-2/IL-2 mAb dramatically expands NK cells both in the peripheral lymphoid organs and in the central nervous system (CNS), and attenuates CNS inflammation and neurological deficits. Disease protection is conferred by CNS-resident NK cells. Importantly, the human version of IL-2/IL-2 mAb restored the defective CD56+ NK cells from MS patients in a human-mouse chimera model. Both the CD56bright and CD56dim subpopulations were required to attenuate disease in this model. Interpretation These findings unveil the immunotherapeutic potential of NK cells, which can act as critical suppressor cells in target organs of autoimmunity. These results also have implications to better understand the mechanism of action of daclizumab in MS. PMID:21425186

  15. The ILS--The Pentagon Library's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Ruth

    1984-01-01

    Describes implementation of five subsystems of Integrated Library System's (ILS) version 2.1 (minicomputer-based automated library system) at the Pentagon Library: online catalog (search strategies, user acceptance); bibliographic subsystems (cataloging, retrospective conversion); circulation; serials check-in; administrative subsystem (report…

  16. 78 FR 36010 - Illinois Disaster #IL-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Illinois Disaster IL-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Illinois (FEMA- 4116-DR), dated 06/06/2013. Incident: Severe Storms, Straight-line Winds...

  17. IL-23-IL-17 immune axis: Discovery, Mechanistic Understanding, and Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gaffen, Sarah L.; Jain, Renu; Garg, Abhishek V.; Cua, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Preface With the discovery of Th17 cells, the past decade has witnessed a major revision of the T helper subset paradigm and significant progress has been made deciphering the molecular mechanisms for T cell lineage commitment and function. In this review, we focus on the recent advances on the transcriptional control of Th17 cell plasticity and stability as well as the effector functions of Th17 cells—highlighting IL-17 signaling mechanisms in mesenchymal and barrier epithelial tissues. We also discuss the emerging clinical data showing anti-IL-17 and anti-IL-23 treatments are remarkably effective for many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:25145755

  18. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  19. Interleukin-23 (IL-23), independent of IL-17 and IL-22, drives neutrophil recruitment and innate inflammation during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Andrew J; Falkowski, Nicole R; McDonald, Roderick A; Pandit, Chinmay R; Young, Vincent B; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the role of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-23 (IL-23) in promoting neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokine expression and intestinal histopathology in response to Clostridium difficile infection. Wild-type (WT) and p19(-/-) (IL-23KO) mice were pre-treated with cefoperazone in their drinking water for 5 days, and after a 2-day recovery period were challenged with spores from C. difficile strain VPI 10463. Interleukin-23 deficiency was associated with significant defects in both the recruitment of CD11b(High) Ly6G(H) (igh) neutrophils to the colon and the expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and stabilization factors including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Ccl3 and Csf3 within the colonic mucosa as compared with WT animals. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory cytokines including Il33, Tnf and Il6 was significantly reduced in IL-23-deficient animals. There was also a trend towards less severe colonic histopathology in the absence of IL-23. The induction of Il17a and Il22 was also significantly abrogated in IL-23KO mice. Inflammatory cytokine expression and neutrophilic inflammation were not reduced in IL-17a-deficient mice or in mice treated with anti-IL-22 depleting monoclonal antibody. However, induction of RegIIIg was significantly reduced in animals treated with anti-IL-22 antibody. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-23, but not IL-17a or IL-22, promotes neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in the colon in response to C. difficile infection. PMID:26455347

  20. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M.; Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D.; Furlong, Suzanne J.; Lin, Tong-Jun; Hoskin, David W.

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  1. IL-4 Engagement of the Type I IL-4 Receptor Complex Enhances Mouse Eosinophil Migration to Eotaxin-1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Nicola M.; Gwinn, William M.; Donnelly, Raymond P.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that IL-4Rα expression on a myeloid cell type was responsible for enhancement of Th2-driven eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Subsequently, we have shown that IL-4 signaling through type I IL-4 receptors on monocytes/macrophages strongly induced activation of the IRS-2 pathway and a subset of genes characteristic of alternatively activated macrophages. The direct effect(s) of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophils are not clear. The goal of this study was determine the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophil function. Methods Standard Transwell chemotaxis assay was used to assay migration of mouse eosinophils and signal transduction was assessed by Western blotting. Results Here we determined that (i) mouse eosinophils express both type I and type II IL-4 receptors, (ii) in contrast to human eosinophils, mouse eosinophils do not chemotax to IL-4 or IL-13 although (iii) pre-treatment with IL-4 but not IL-13 enhanced migration to eotaxin-1. This IL-4-mediated enhancement was dependent on type I IL-4 receptor expression: γC-deficient eosinophils did not show enhancement of migratory capacity when pre-treated with IL-4. In addition, mouse eosinophils responded to IL-4 with the robust tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT6 and IRS-2, while IL-13-induced responses were considerably weaker. Conclusions The presence of IL-4 in combination with eotaxin-1 in the allergic inflammatory milieu could potentiate infiltration of eosinophils into the lungs. Therapies that block IL-4 and chemokine receptors on eosinophils might be more effective clinically in reducing eosinophilic lung inflammation. PMID:22761864

  2. Interleukin (IL)-1β Is a Strong Inducer of IL-36γ Expression in Human Colonic Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nishida, Atsushi; Shioya, Makoto; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-36γ in human colonic myofibroblasts to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-36γ induction. Materials and methods IL-36 mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Secretion of IL-36γ protein was evaluated by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Molecular mechanism of IL-36γ induction was evaluated by siRNA analyses and immunofluorescence experiments. Results IL-36γ mRNA expression was scarcely detected in the cells without stimulation. IL-1β induced a marked increase of IL-36γ mRNA expression. TNF-α markedly enhanced IL-1β-induced IL-36γ mRNA expression. These responses were confirmed at the protein levels. The inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced the IL-1β-induced IL-36γ mRNA expression. In addition, the siRNAs specific for NF-κB p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) significantly reduced the expression of IL-1β-induced IL-36γ mRNA. Conclusions Colonic myofibroblasts are cellular source of IL-36γ in the intestine. IL-36γ expression was induced by the combination of IL-1β and TNF-α via activation of MAPKs and transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1. PMID:26562662

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-15 receptor α from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Sol; Shim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Seong Don; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Dae-Won; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the activation of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells along with its receptor α (IL-15Rα). To understand the potential roles of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in fish, we identified IL-15 and IL-15Rα cDNA from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and investigated their gene expression profiles after bacterial and viral infection. Coding regions of rock bream (Rb) IL-15 and RbIL-15Rα cDNAs were 534 and 402 bp encoding 177 and 133 amino acid residues, respectively. The sushi domain of IL-15Rα was highly conserved between rock bream and other species. Unlike other IL-15Rαs, RbIL-15Rα does not have a transmembrane region. Gene expression of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα was widely expressed in different tissues of healthy fish, especially immune-related tissues. RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were highly induced in the kidney and spleen after infection with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and red seabream iridovirus. Gene expression patterns of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were similar in the kidney and spleen after pathogen infection. However, these genes were differentially induced in the liver after pathogen infection. These results suggest that the different responses of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα to pathogen infection may be induced by different tissues or cell types. PMID:23911652

  4. Interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, and IL-13 gene expression in the central nervous system and anterior pituitary during systemic inflammation: Pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ma-Li; Bongiorno, Peter B.; Rettori, Valeria; McCann, Samuel M.; Licinio, Julio

    1997-01-01

    The pathophysiology of systemic inflammation and sepsis involves peripheral organs, causing gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular alterations, as well as the central nervous system (CNS), affecting sleep, temperature regulation, behavior, and neuroendocrine function. The molecular basis of the CNS effects of systemic inflammation are not fully elucidated. Here we show that the CNS responds to systemic inflammation with pronounced IL-1β gene expression and limited IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10, and IL-13 gene expression. This pattern occurs throughout the CNS, including areas such as the subfornical organ, pineal gland, neurohypophysis, and hypothalamus. In contrast, in the anterior pituitary, we found limited IL-1β gene expression but marked induction of the mRNA encoding for the secreted isoform of IL-1ra, secreted IL-1ra. We conclude that the central manifestations of peripheral inflammation are mediated by endogenous brain IL-1β synthesized during systemic inflammation in the context of limited central cytokine counter regulation of IL-1. As IL-1β is a potent stimulus for inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, these findings explain our previous observation that systemic inflammation promotes inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the brain and the spillover of NO metabolites into cerebrospinal fluid. The CNS transcription of the HIV-1 replication factor IL-1β in the context of limited transcription of the IL-1 replication inhibitors IL-1ra, IL-10, and IL-13 might help explain the negative impact of systemic inflammation on the clinical course of AIDS. In addition, we propose that IL-1ra may be secreted by the anterior pituitary as a systemic anti-inflammatory hormone that is released in response to IL-1β originated from multiple sources. PMID:8990190

  5. Regulatory effects of interleukin (IL)-1, interferon-beta, and IL-4 on the production of IL-1 receptor antagonist by human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Somm, Emmanuel; Chicheportiche, Rachel; Burger, Danielle; Pernin, Agnès; Cuénod-Pittet, Brigitte; Quinodoz, Pierre; Giusti, Vittorio; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meier, Christoph A

    2004-06-01

    Adipose tissue is the source of production and site of action of several pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines. We have recently shown that white adipose tissue (WAT) is a major producer of the antiinflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Because IL-1Ra serum levels are elevated 7-fold in human obesity and an excess of this protein has been implicated in the acquired resistance to leptin and insulin, we investigated the regulation of IL-1Ra in human WAT. We demonstrate that IL-1Ra is mainly produced by adipocytes, rather than the stromal fraction of WAT, and that IL-1alpha and beta, as well as interferon-beta (IFN-beta), strongly up-regulate the expression and secretion of IL-1Ra in WAT. Moreover, human WAT expresses the receptors and proteins known to be required for the action of IL-1 (IL-1 receptor type I, IL-1 receptor accessory protein) and IFN-beta (IFN-alpha/beta receptor subunits 1 and 2). Finally, human WAT actively secretes these regulatory cytokines, suggesting that they up-regulate IL-1Ra through a local autocrine/paracrine action, which is hypothesized to play a regulatory role in adipogenesis and metabolism. PMID:15181037

  6. IL-23 induces IL-22 and IL-17 production in response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but the absence of these cytokines does not influence disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Riley, Melissa M.; Mintus, Margaret; Pociask, Derek A.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Andrews, Charles W.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chlamydia trachomatis Infections are a significant cause of reproductive tract pathology. Protective and pathologic immune mediators must be differentiated in order to design a safe and effective vaccine. METHODS Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-22 and IL-23 were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum and their course of infection and oviduct pathology were compared. Local genital tract and draining lymph node immune responses were also examined in IL-23 deficient mice. RESULTS IL-22 and IL-23 deficient mice exhibited normal susceptibility to infection and oviduct pathology. IL-23 was required for development of a Chlamydia-specific Th17 response in the lymph nodes and for production of IL-22 and IL-17 in the genital tract. However, influx of Th1 and innate immune cells was not compromised in the absence of IL-23. CONCLUSIONS IL-22 and IL-23 play either redundant or minimal roles in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection in the mouse model. Induction of Th17-associated cytokines by a Chlamydia vaccine should be avoided since these responses are not central to resolution of infection and have pathologic potential. PMID:24238108

  7. Correlation of IL-18 with Tryptase in Atopic Asthma and Induction of Mast Cell Accumulation by IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zheng, Wenjiao; Xie, Hua; Yan, Hongling; Lin, Xiaoping; He, Shaoheng

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 18 and tryptase were previously reported to relate to asthma, but the correlation between these two potent proinflammatory molecules in asthma and their roles in mast cell accumulation remain uninvestigated. Using flow cytometric analysis technique and ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized mouse model, it was found that IL-18 and tryptase levels in the plasma of moderate and severe asthma were elevated, and they correlated well with each other. Tryptase and agonist peptides of protease activated receptor- (PAR-) 2 induced substantial quantity of IL-18 release. IL-18 and tryptase provoked mast cell accumulation in peritoneum of OVA-sensitized mice. OVA-sensitization increased number of IL-18 receptor (R)+ mast cells. IL-18 and tryptase induced dramatic increase in IL-18R+ mast cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of IL-18R on mast cells. Moreover, while IL-18 induced an increase in PAR-2+ mast cells in nonsensitized mice, IL-18 and tryptase provoked increases in IL-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the peritoneum of OVA-sensitized mice. In summary, the correlation between IL-18 and tryptase in plasma of patients with asthma indicates close interactions between them, which should be considered for development of anti-IL-18 and antitryptase therapies. Interactions between IL-18 and tryptase may contribute to mast cell recruitment in asthma. PMID:27069315

  8. Simultaneous blocking of IL-6 and IL-8 is sufficient to fully inhibit CAF-induced human melanoma cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Njainday Pulo; Rösel, Daniel; Dvořánková, Barbora; Kodet, Ondřej; Lacina, Lukáš; Mateu, Rosana; Smetana, Karel; Brábek, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in cell invasion and metastasis. To investigate the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in melanoma cell invasiveness, we used 3D spheroid invasion assay. The effect of conditioned media from normal fibroblasts and CAFs cultivated alone or co-cultivated with melanoma cells on BLM or A2058 melanoma spheroid invasion was analysed. We found that conditioned media from CAFs and CAFs co-cultured with melanoma cells, especially, promote invasion and migration, without significant effect on melanoma cell proliferation. We further analysed the expression of pro-invasive cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 in media and found that melanoma cells are dominant producers of IL-8 and fibroblasts are dominant producers of IL-6 in 2D monocultures, while co-cultivation of CAFs with melanoma cells induces production/secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 into the media. The analyses of IL-6 levels in 3D cultures and human melanoma samples, however, revealed that at least in some cases IL-6 is also produced directly by melanoma cells. Analysis of the role of IL-6 and IL-8 in CAF-induced melanoma invasion, using neutralising antibodies, revealed that simultaneous blocking of IL-6 and IL-8 is sufficient to fully inhibit CAF-induced human melanoma cell invasiveness. In summary, these experiments indicate the important role of CAFs and IL-8 and IL-6 cytokines in melanoma cell invasiveness. PMID:27102177

  9. Revelation of the IFNα, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-1β as promising biomarkers reflecting immuno-pathological mechanisms in porcine Huntington's disease model.

    PubMed

    Valekova, Ivona; Jarkovska, Karla; Kotrcova, Eva; Bucci, John; Ellederova, Zdenka; Juhas, Stefan; Motlik, Jan; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-04-15

    Studies on Huntington's disease (HD) demonstrated altered immune response in HD gene carriers. Using multiplexing immunoassay, we simultaneously investigated seven cytokines in secretomes of microglia and blood monocytes, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum collected from transgenic HD minipigs at pre-symptomatic disease stage. Decline in IFNα and IL-10 was observed in CSF and secretome of microglia whilst elevated IL-8 and IL-1β levels were secreted by microglia. Additionally, IL-8 was increased in serum. The proportion of mutant huntingtin in microglia may have causative impact on cytokine production. IFNα, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-1β represent promising biomarkers reflecting immuno-pathological mechanisms in porcine HD model. PMID:27049565

  10. Biology of common beta receptor-signaling cytokines: IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Huston, David P

    2003-10-01

    IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF are related hematopoietic cytoines that are important for allergic inflammation. The receptors for human IL-5, IL-3, and GM-CSF are members of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily and are comprised of a cytokine-specific alpha chain and the common beta chain that is shared among these cytokines for signaling. Each of these cytokines contributes to the differentiation and function of leukocyte subpopulations and have clinical importance in protective immunity and in the pathophysiology of a spectrum of immunologic diseases that are as diverse as allergy and asthma, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and malignancies. Delineating the biology of these cytokines is enabling the development of new strategies for diagnosing and treating these diseases and modulating immune responses. PMID:14564341

  11. The interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis in ankylosing spondylitis: new advances and potentials for treatment.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, H; Bowness, P

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the most common form of spondyloarthropathy, is a chronic, progressive multi-system inflammatory disorder characteristically affecting the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of AS remain to be elucidated, the presence of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is known to markedly increase its risk of development. Current treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. In recent years, the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 pathway has been shown to have significance in the pathogenesis of AS and treatment modalities targeting this pathway have been shown to be beneficial in various other inflammatory conditions. This review provides an overview of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in the pathogenesis of AS and summarizes new potential treatments for AS and related inflammatory diseases. PMID:26080615

  12. Targeting the IL-33/IL-13 Axis for Respiratory Viral Infections.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Chantal; Bourke, Jane E; Vlahos, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are highly prevalent worldwide. One of the major factors that limits the efficacy of current medication in these patients are viral infections, leading to exacerbations of symptoms and decreased quality of life. Current pharmacological strategies targeting virus-induced lung disease are problematic due to antiviral resistance and the requirement for strain-specific vaccination. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. In this Opinion article, we provide state-of-the-art evidence from humans and preclinical animal models implicating the interleukin (IL)-33/IL-13 axis in virus-induced lung disease. Thus, targeting the IL-33/IL-13 axis may be a feasible way to overcome the limitations of current therapy used to treat virus-induced exacerbations of lung disease. PMID:26833119

  13. From CRP to IL-6 to IL-1: Moving Upstream To Identify Novel Targets for Atheroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Ridker, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) predict vascular risk with an effect estimate as large as that of total or HDL cholesterol. Further, randomized trial data addressing hsCRP have been central to understanding the anti-inflammatory effects of statin therapy and have consistently demonstrated on-treatment hsCRP levels to be as powerful a predictor of residual cardiovascular risk as on-treatment levels of LDL cholesterol. Yet, while hsCRP is clinically useful as a biomarker for risk prediction, most mechanistic studies suggest that CRP itself is unlikely to be a target for intervention. Moving upstream in the inflammatory cascade from CRP to IL-6 to IL-1 provides novel therapeutic opportunities for atheroprotection that focus on the central IL-6 signaling system and ultimately on inhibition of the IL-1β producing NLRP3 inflammasome. Cholesterol crystals, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), atheroprone flow, and local tissue hypoxia activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. As such, a unifying concept of hsCRP as a downstream surrogate biomarker upstream IL-1β activity has emerged. From a therapeutic perspective, small ischemia studies show reductions in acute phase hsCRP production with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra and the IL-6 receptor blocker tocilizumab. A phase IIb study conducted among diabetic patients at high vascular risk indicates that canakinumab, a human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-1β, markedly reduces plasma levels of IL-6, hsCRP, and fibrinogen with no change in atherogenic lipids. Canakinumab in now being tested as a method to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events in a randomized trial of 10,065 post-myocardial infarction patients with elevated hsCRP that is fully enrolled and due to complete in 2017. Clinical trials employing alternative anti-inflammatory agents active against the CRP/IL-6/IL-1 axis including low dose methotrexate and colchicine are being explored. If successful

  14. Statins and IL-1β, IL-10, and MPO Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Cicek Ari, Vuslat; Ilarslan, Yagmur Deniz; Erman, Baran; Sarkarati, Bahram; Tezcan, Ilhan; Karabulut, Erdem; Oz, Serife Gul; Tanriover, Mine Durusu; Sengun, Dilek; Berker, Ezel

    2016-08-01

    Statins possess a wide variety of pleiotropic properties that are independent of their lipid-lowering abilities such as attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, platelet aggregation and stimulating bone formation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of statins on clinical periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in inflammatory periodontal diseases. Seventy-nine subjects with hyperlipidemia and 48 systemically healthy controls (C) were included. Hyperlipidemic patients were either given a diet (HD) or prescribed statin (HS). Patients were classified into three subgroups as those who were periodontally healthy (h), who had gingivitis (g), or who had chronic periodontitis (p). Blood samples were collected for the measurement of lipid profiles. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and MPO were measured in order to determine the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of statins. Probing depth values of the HSp group were significantly lower than those of the Cp group. Percentage of BOP of the HSg group was significantly lower than those of the HDg and Cg groups. While the IL-1β level of the HSp group was significantly lower than that of the HDp group, IL-10 levels of the HSg group were significantly higher than those of the HDg group. MPO levels were significantly lower in the HSg group when compared to those in the HDg and Cg groups. Statin use decreased the IL-1β and MPO levels and enhanced IL-10 in GCF. It can be suggested that statins may attenuate periodontal inflammation and progression of periodontal inflammation. PMID:27290718

  15. Regulation of Inflammation by IL-17A and IL-17F Modulates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giles, Daniel A; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E; Stankiewicz, Traci E; Cappelletti, Monica; Huppert, Stacey S; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Dong, Chen; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K; Divanovic, Senad

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. While it is well-accepted that inflammation is central to NAFLD pathogenesis, the immune pathway(s) orchestrating disease progression are poorly defined. Notably, IL-17RA signaling, via IL-17A, plays an important role in obesity-driven NAFLD pathogenesis. However, the role of the IL-17F, another IL-17RA ligand, in NAFLD pathogenesis has not been examined. Further, the cell types expressing IL-17RA and producing IL-17RA ligands in the pathogenesis of NAFLD have not been defined. Here, IL-17RA-/-, IL-17A-/-, IL-17F-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were fed either standard chow diet or methionine and choline deficient diet (MCDD)--a diet known to induce steatosis and hepatic inflammation through beta-oxidation dysfunction--and hepatic inflammation and NAFLD progression were subsequently quantified. MCDD feeding augmented hepatic IL-17RA expression and significantly increased hepatic infiltration of macrophages and IL-17A and IL-17F producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in WT mice. In contrast, IL-17RA-/-, IL-17A-/-, and IL-17F-/- mice, despite increased steatosis, exhibited significant protection from hepatocellular damage compared to WT controls. Protection from hepatocellular damage correlated with decreased levels of hepatic T-cell and macrophage infiltration and decreased expression of inflammatory mediators associated with NAFLD. In sum, our results indicate that the IL-17 axis also plays a role in a MCDD-induced model of NAFLD pathogenesis. Further, we show for the first time that IL-17F, and not only IL-17A, plays an important role in NAFLD driven inflammation. PMID:26895034

  16. Regulation of Inflammation by IL-17A and IL-17F Modulates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Daniel A.; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E.; Stankiewicz, Traci E.; Cappelletti, Monica; Huppert, Stacey S.; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Dong, Chen; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K.; Divanovic, Senad

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. While it is well-accepted that inflammation is central to NAFLD pathogenesis, the immune pathway(s) orchestrating disease progression are poorly defined. Notably, IL-17RA signaling, via IL-17A, plays an important role in obesity-driven NAFLD pathogenesis. However, the role of the IL-17F, another IL-17RA ligand, in NAFLD pathogenesis has not been examined. Further, the cell types expressing IL-17RA and producing IL-17RA ligands in the pathogenesis of NAFLD have not been defined. Here, IL-17RA-/-, IL-17A-/-, IL-17F-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were fed either standard chow diet or methionine and choline deficient diet (MCDD)—a diet known to induce steatosis and hepatic inflammation through beta-oxidation dysfunction—and hepatic inflammation and NAFLD progression were subsequently quantified. MCDD feeding augmented hepatic IL-17RA expression and significantly increased hepatic infiltration of macrophages and IL-17A and IL-17F producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in WT mice. In contrast, IL-17RA-/-, IL-17A-/-, and IL-17F-/- mice, despite increased steatosis, exhibited significant protection from hepatocellular damage compared to WT controls. Protection from hepatocellular damage correlated with decreased levels of hepatic T-cell and macrophage infiltration and decreased expression of inflammatory mediators associated with NAFLD. In sum, our results indicate that the IL-17 axis also plays a role in a MCDD-induced model of NAFLD pathogenesis. Further, we show for the first time that IL-17F, and not only IL-17A, plays an important role in NAFLD driven inflammation. PMID:26895034

  17. Parasite-Antigen Driven Expansion of IL-5− and IL-5+ Th2 Human Subpopulations in Lymphatic Filariasis and Their Differential Dependence on IL-10 and TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumaran, P. Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Two different Th2 subsets have been defined recently on the basis of IL-5 expression – an IL-5+Th2 subset and an IL-5−Th2 subset in the setting of allergy. However, the role of these newly described CD4+ T cells subpopulations has not been explored in other contexts. Methods To study the role of the Th2 subpopulation in a chronic, tissue invasive parasitic infection (lymphatic filariasis), we examined the frequency of IL-5+IL-4+IL-13+ CD4+ T cells and IL-5−IL-4 IL-13+ CD4+ T cells in asymptomatic, infected individuals (INF) and compared them to frequencies (Fo) in filarial-uninfected (UN) individuals and to those with filarial lymphedema (CP). Results INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and antigen-induced Fo of both Th2 subpopulations compared to the UN and CP. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the Fo of IL-5+Th2 cells and the absolute eosinophil and neutrophil counts; in addition there was a positive correlation between the frequency of the CD4+IL-5−Th2 subpopulation and the levels of parasite antigen – specific IgE and IgG4 in INF individuals. Moreover, blockade of IL-10 and/or TGFβ demonstrated that each of these 2 regulatory cytokines exert opposite effects on the different Th2 subsets. Finally, in those INF individuals cured of infection by anti-filarial therapy, there was a significantly decreased Fo of both Th2 subsets. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both IL-5+ and IL-5−Th2 cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses in filarial infection and that these two Th2 subpopulations may be regulated by different cytokine-receptor mediated processes. PMID:24498448

  18. IL-27 suppresses antimicrobial activity in human leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rosane M. B.; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Rea, Thomas H.; Ochoa, Maria T.; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens trigger immunosuppressive pathways are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of microbial infection. One pathway that inhibits host defense responses involves the induction of type I interferons and subsequently IL-10, yet the mechanism by which type I IFN induces IL-10 remains unclear. Our studies of gene expression profiles derived from leprosy skin lesions suggested a link between IL-27 and the IFN-β induced IL-10 pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the IL-27p28 subunit is upregulated following treatment of monocytes with IFN-β and Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular bacterium that causes leprosy. The ability of IFN-β and M. leprae to induce IL-10 was diminished by IL-27 knockdown. Additionally, treatment of monocytes with recombinant IL-27 was sufficient to induce the production of IL-10. Functionally, IL-27 inhibited the ability of IFN-γ to trigger antimicrobial activity against M. leprae in infected monocytes. At the site of disease, IL-27 was more strongly expressed in skin lesions of patients with progressive lepromatous leprosy, correlating and colocalizing with IFN-β and IL-10 in macrophages. Together, these data provide evidence that in the human cutaneous immune responses to microbial infection, IL-27 contributes to the suppression of host antimicrobial responses. PMID:26030183

  19. Paradoxical Roles of IL-4 in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiguang; Chen, Lin; Qin, Zhihai

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 is a crucial cytokine in tumor immunology. In the initial murine experiments, IL-4 exhibited potent anti-tumor ability. Tumors genetically modified to produce IL-4 were rejected, while parental tumors grew progressively. Mice rejected IL-4-producing tumors got long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. The comparative study showed that IL-4 induced the most effective immune response among several cytokines in both prophylactic and therapeutic models. All of these indicate IL-4 has strong potential as a tumor therapy agent. However, contrary evidence indeed exists, and is becoming more and more abundant which shows IL-4 is a tumor-promoting molecule. IL-4 amounts are usually elevated in human cancer patients. IL-4 knockout mice are more resistant to tumor challenge than IL-4 competent mice. Furthermore, tumor cells of various histological origins often express increased levels of IL-4 receptor in comparison to their normal counterparts. By carefully examining presently available data, we found the effects of IL-4 in tumor immunity are closely related to its sources, expressing time and dose, as well as the molecular and cellular environments. In this mini-review, we concentrate on illustrating the paradoxical roles and underlying mechanisms of IL-4 in tumor immunity and try to understand how one molecule has opposite effects. PMID:20003817

  20. IL-27 Suppresses Antimicrobial Activity in Human Leprosy.

    PubMed

    Teles, Rosane M B; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M; Sarno, Euzenir N; Rea, Thomas H; Ochoa, Maria T; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens trigger immunosuppressive pathways are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of microbial infection. One pathway that inhibits host defense responses involves the induction of type I interferons and subsequently IL-10, yet the mechanism by which type I IFN induces IL-10 remains unclear. Our studies of gene expression profiles derived from leprosy skin lesions suggested a link between IL-27 and the IFN-β induced IL-10 pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the IL-27p28 subunit is upregulated following treatment of monocytes with IFN-β and Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular bacterium that causes leprosy. The ability of IFN-β and M. leprae to induce IL-10 was diminished by IL-27 knockdown. Additionally, treatment of monocytes with recombinant IL-27 was sufficient to induce the production of IL-10. Functionally, IL-27 inhibited the ability of IFN-γ to trigger antimicrobial activity against M. leprae in infected monocytes. At the site of disease, IL-27 was more strongly expressed in skin lesions of patients with progressive lepromatous leprosy, correlating and colocalizing with IFN-β and IL-10 in macrophages. Together, these data provide evidence that in the human cutaneous immune responses to microbial infection, IL-27 contributes to the suppression of host antimicrobial responses. PMID:26030183

  1. IL-6 Transsignaling in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Grzanka, Alicja; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Background IL-6 trans-signaling is critically involved in the initiation and promotion of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we investigated the clinical relevance of soluble members of IL-6 trans-signaling system in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Methods IL-6, interleukin 6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR) and soluble gp130 (sgp130) were measured by ELISA method in plasma from CSU patients and the healthy subjects. The data were related to activation of the acute phase response as indicated by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and compared between patients stratified by the disease activity. Results Concentrations of IL-6, IL-6 sR, sgp130 in plasma and CRP in serum were significantly elevated in CSU patients compared with the healthy controls. CRP correlated significantly with IL-6 and sgp130, similarly IL-6 correlated significantly with sgp130. By contrast, CRP and IL-6 did not correlate significantly with IL-6 sR. However, significant correlation was noted between IL-6 sR and sgp130. Conclusions Concentrations of IL-6 and its soluble receptors were significantly elevated in patients with CSU, suggesting upregulation of the IL-6 trans-signaling in the disease. In addition, our results support the concept that the system may be involved in pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory activation in CSU patients. PMID:26699882

  2. TLR Signals Promote IL-6/IL-17-Dependent Transplant Rejection1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luqiu; Ahmed, Emily; Wang, Tongmin; Wang, Ying; Ochando, Jordi; Chong, Anita S.; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection has often been correlated with Th1 differentiation, whereas transplantation tolerance is frequently associated with induction of regulation. The discovery of the Th17 phenotype has prompted its scrutiny in transplant rejection. Although IL-17 has recently been observed in settings of acute allograft rejection and drives rejection in T-bet-deficient mice that have impaired type 1 T cell responses, there is little evidence of its requirement during acute rejection in wild-type animals. We and others have previously shown that TLR9 signaling by exogenous CpG at the time of transplantation is sufficient to abrogate anti-CD154-mediated acceptance of fully mismatched cardiac allografts. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which acute rejection occurs in this inflammatory context. Our results indicate that CpG targets recipient hematopoietic cells and that its pro-rejection effects correlate both with prevention of anti-CD154-mediated conversion of conventional CD4+ T cells into induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) and with the expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 by intra-graft CD4+ T cells. Moreover, the combined elimination of IL-6 and IL-17 signaling abrogated the ability of CpG to promote acute cardiac allograft rejection. Thus, pro-inflammatory signals at the time of transplantation can change the quality of the effector immune response and reveal a pathogenic function for IL-6 and IL-17 in wild-type recipients. PMID:19414775

  3. IL-11/IL11RA receptor mediated signaling: a web accessible knowledgebase.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Soman, Sowmya; Patil, Yatish B; Advani, Jayshree; Thomas, Joji Kurian; Desai, Dattatraya Venkatesh; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Harsha, H C; Prasad, T S Keshava; Raju, Rajesh; Pandey, Akhilesh; Dimitriadis, Eva; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2013-08-01

    Abstract Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to gp130 family. It plays a significant role in the synthesis and maturation of hematopoietic cells, inhibition of adipogenesis, regulation of embryo implantation, and trophoblasts invasion. Although IL-11 signaling has been described in several biological processes, a centralized resource documenting these molecular reactions induced by IL-11 is not publicly available. In the current study, we have manually annotated the molecular reactions and interactions induced by IL-11 from literature available. We have documented 40 unique molecules involved in 18 protein-protein interactions, 26 enzyme-substrate reactions, 7 translocation events, and 4 activation/ inhibition reactions. We have also annotated 23 genes reported to be differentially regulated under IL-11 stimulation. We have enabled the data availability in standard exchange formats from 'NetPath', a repository for signaling pathways. We believe that this will help in the identification of potential therapeutic targets in IL-11-associated disorders. PMID:23631681

  4. Data on IL-17 production induced by plant lectins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We reported in article da Silva et al. (2016) [2] that ArtinM induces the IL-17 production through interaction with CD4+ T cells and stimulation of IL-23 and IL-1. Besides ArtinM, other plant lectins (PLs) induce IL-17 production by murine spleen cells. The IL-17 production induced by PLs was evaluated regarding the involvement of IL-23, IL-6, Th1-, and Th2-cytokines. Furthermore, the effect exerted TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 on the PLs׳ performance in the induction of IL-17 was examined. The current data were compared to the known ArtinM ability to induce Th17 immunity. PMID:27222857

  5. Data on IL-17 production induced by plant lectins.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We reported in article da Silva et al. (2016) [2] that ArtinM induces the IL-17 production through interaction with CD4(+) T cells and stimulation of IL-23 and IL-1. Besides ArtinM, other plant lectins (PLs) induce IL-17 production by murine spleen cells. The IL-17 production induced by PLs was evaluated regarding the involvement of IL-23, IL-6, Th1-, and Th2-cytokines. Furthermore, the effect exerted TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 on the PLs׳ performance in the induction of IL-17 was examined. The current data were compared to the known ArtinM ability to induce Th17 immunity. PMID:27222857

  6. CD300f associates with IL-4 receptor α and amplifies IL-4–induced immune cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Moshkovits, Itay; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Itan, Michal; Reichman, Hadar; Rozenberg, Perri; Morgenstern-Ben-Baruch, Netali; Shik, Dana; Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Hershko, Alon Y.; Tian, Linjie; Coligan, John E.; Sayós, Joan; Munitz, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    IL-4 receptor (R) α, the common receptor chain for IL-4 and IL-13, is a critical component in IL-4– and IL-13–mediated signaling and subsequent effector functions such as those observed in type 2 inflammatory responses. Nonetheless, the existence of intrinsic pathways capable of amplifying IL-4Rα–induced responses remains unknown. In this study, we identified the myeloid-associated Ig receptor CD300f as an IL-4–induced molecule in macrophages. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that CD300f was colocalized and physically associated with IL-4Rα. Using Cd300f−/− cells and receptor cross-linking experiments, we established that CD300f amplified IL-4Rα–induced responses by augmenting IL-4/IL-13–induced signaling, mediator release, and priming. Consistently, IL-4– and aeroallergen-treated Cd300f−/− mice displayed decreased IgE production, chemokine expression, and inflammatory cell recruitment. Impaired responses in Cd300f−/− mice were not due to the inability to generate a proper Th2 response, because IL-4/IL-13 levels were markedly increased in allergen-challenged Cd300f−/− mice, a finding that is consistent with decreased cytokine consumption. Finally, CD300f expression was increased in monocytes and eosinophils obtained from allergic rhinitis patients. Collectively, our data highlight a previously unidentified role for CD300f in IL-4Rα–induced immune cell responses. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing IL-4Rα–induced responses, and may provide new therapeutic tools to target IL-4 in allergy and asthma. PMID:26124135

  7. Increased IL-2, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, T J; Wadhwa, M; Callard, R; Barratt, T M

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum cytokine concentrations in children with steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). PBMC from patients off treatment were collected during remission and relapse and cultured in medium alone or stimulated with calcium ionophore plus phorbol myristate acetate. Control PBMC were taken from healthy age-matched children. IL-2 was measured by bioassay, IL-4 by immunoradiometric assay, and IL-8 and IFN-gamma by ELISA. After 24 h culture without stimulation, IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma were not detectable in the supernatant in any of the children. After stimulation, the supernatant concentrations of IL-2 (median 172 U/ml at 24 h) and IL-4 (160 pg/ml at 24 h; 210 pg/ml at 72 h) were significantly increased in relapse compared with remission (IL-2 37 U/ml; IL-4 65 pg/ml and 60 pg/ml) and controls (IL-2 69 U/ml; IL-4 40 pg/ml and 40 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). The concentration of IFN-gamma was not significantly increased in relapse compared with remission and controls (600, 325, and 145 U/ml, respectively, at 72 h). IL-8 concentrations were similar in relapse, remission and controls with stimulation (median 32, 40 and 40 ng/ml, respectively) and without (30, 17 and 10 ng/ml). IL-2 was not detectable in serum, but IL-4, IL-8 and IFN-gamma were measurable in about half the patients, both in relapse and remission, though were virtually undetectable in controls. We conclude that relapse of SSNS in children is associated with T lymphocyte activation with release of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma. PMID:7774059

  8. IL-13 improves beta-cell survival and protects against IL-1beta-induced beta-cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rütti, Sabine; Howald, Cédric; Arous, Caroline; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Halban, Philippe A.; Bouzakri, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives IL-13 is a cytokine classically produced by anti-inflammatory T-helper-2 lymphocytes; it is decreased in the circulation of type 2 diabetic patients and impacts positively on liver and skeletal muscle. Although IL-13 can exert positive effects on beta-cell lines, its impact and mode of action on primary beta-cell function and survival remain largely unexplored. Methods Beta-cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of IL-13 alone or in combination with IL-1β or cytokine cocktail (IL-1β, IFNγ, TNFα). Results IL-13 protected human and rat beta-cells against cytokine induced death. However, IL-13 was unable to protect from IL-1β impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion and did not influence NFκB nuclear relocalization induced by IL-1β. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of Akt, increased IRS2 protein expression and counteracted the IL-1β induced regulation of several beta-cell stress response genes. Conclusions The prosurvival effects of IL-13 thus appear to be mediated through IRS2/Akt signaling with NFκB independent regulation of gene expression. In addition to previously documented beneficial effects on insulin target tissues, these data suggest that IL-13 may be useful for treatment of type 2 diabetes by preserving beta-cell mass or slowing its rate of decline. PMID:26909320

  9. IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-12 control the fate of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in human airway inflammation in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Bal, Suzanne M; Bernink, Jochem H; Nagasawa, Maho; Groot, Jelle; Shikhagaie, Medya M; Golebski, Kornel; van Drunen, Cornelis M; Lutter, Rene; Jonkers, Rene E; Hombrink, Pleun; Bruchard, Melanie; Villaudy, Julien; Munneke, J Marius; Fokkens, Wytske; Erjefält, Jonas S; Spits, Hergen; Ros, Xavier Romero

    2016-06-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) secrete type 2 cytokines, which protect against parasites but can also contribute to a variety of inflammatory airway diseases. We report here that interleukin 1β (IL-1β) directly activated human ILC2s and that IL-12 induced the conversion of these activated ILC2s into interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing ILC1s, which was reversed by IL-4. The plasticity of ILCs was manifested in diseased tissues of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), which displayed IL-12 or IL-4 signatures and the accumulation of ILC1s or ILC2s, respectively. Eosinophils were a major cellular source of IL-4, which revealed cross-talk between IL-5-producing ILC2s and IL-4-producing eosinophils. We propose that IL-12 and IL-4 govern ILC2 functional identity and that their imbalance results in the perpetuation of type 1 or type 2 inflammation. PMID:27111145

  10. Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus on secretion of IL1B, IL6, and IL8 by gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-jun; Feng, Xi-ping; Zhang, Xiu-li; Le, Ke-yi

    2012-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis alters cytokine expression in gingival epithelial cells, stimulating inflammatory responses that may lead to periodontal disease. This study explored the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the specific expressions of the interleukins (ILs) IL1B, IL6, and IL8 induced by the pathogen. Human gingival epithelial cells were co-cultured with P. gingivalis, L. acidophilus, or L. acidophilus + P. gingivalis; the control group consisted of the cells alone. Protein and gene expression levels of the ILs were detected using ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. The supernatant from the P. gingivalis group held significantly higher protein and mRNA levels of IL1B, IL6, and IL8, compared to the control group. In the mixed bacterial group (L. acidophilus + P. gingivalis), the levels of all three ILs decreased with increasing concentrations of L. acidophilus and were significantly different from the P. gingivalis group. This suggests that in gingival cells, L. acidophilus offsets the P. gingivalis-induced secretion of these ILs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22382516

  11. Dengue Patients with Early Hemorrhagic Manifestations Lose Coordinate Expression of the Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine IL-10 with the Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; Caldas, Sérgio; Duarte, Myrian Morato; Cury, Ana Luisa Furtado; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Costa, Pedro Augusto Carvalho; Antonelli, Lis R; Gollob, Kenneth J

    2016-07-01

    Dengue is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe cases. The alteration of cytokine levels correlated with clinical characteristics can help determine prognostic markers of the disease and the identification of targets for immunotherapy. We measured the viral load, serotype, and cytokine levels of 212 serum samples from patients with acute dengue infection during days 1-4 after the onset of symptoms. The patients were classified as either with hemorrhagic manifestations (HM) or with no hemorrhagic manifestations (NHM). The cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10 were increased (P < 0.05) in the dengue virus+ group, compared with the control group. A higher viral load (P < 0.05) and IL-6 was detected in the HM group compared with the NHM group. Interestingly, the NHM group demonstrated a significant positive correlation between inflammatory (IL-6 and 8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, whereas the HM group did not. These findings suggest that a disturbance in the balance of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 with the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, combined with the high levels of IL-6 and viral load, characterize possible mechanisms related to the formation of HM. PMID:27139443

  12. IL-10 gene polymorphism and herpesvirus infections.

    PubMed

    Hurme, M; Haanpää, M; Nurmikko, T; Wang, X-Y; Virta, M; Pessi, T; Kilpinen, S; Hulkkonen, J; Helminen, M

    2003-01-01

    Genetics has an important role in resistance to various infections and it also may modify the clinical picture of an infectious disease. Here, we briefly review our recent data demonstrating that the polymorphism of the IL-10 gene is associated with resistance to some common herpesviruses and, additionally, that this same gene is involved in the regulation of the severity of the infection and in the reactivation process. PMID:12627487

  13. IL-10-induced microRNA-187 negatively regulates TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p40 production in TLR4-stimulated monocytes.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Marzia; Curtale, Graziella; Tamassia, Nicola; Castellucci, Monica; Mori, Laura; Gasperini, Sara; Mariotti, Barbara; De Luca, Mariacristina; Mirolo, Massimiliano; Cassatella, Marco A; Locati, Massimo; Bazzoni, Flavia

    2012-11-01

    IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that, in phagocytes, negatively targets cytokine expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Posttranscriptional checkpoints also represent the specific target of a recently discovered, evolutionary conserved class of small silencing RNAs known as "microRNAs" (miRNAs), which display the peculiar function of negatively regulating mRNA processing, stability, and translation. In this study, we report that activation of primary human monocytes up-regulates the expression of miR-187 both in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, we identify miR-187 as an IL-10-dependent miRNA playing a role in IL-10-mediated suppression of TNF-α, IL-6, and the p40 subunit of IL-12 (IL-12p40) produced by primary human monocytes following activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Ectopic expression of miR-187 consistently and selectively reduces TNFα, IL-6, and IL-12p40 produced by LPS-activated monocytes. Conversely, the production of LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p40 is increased significantly when miR-187 expression is silenced. Our data demonstrate that miR-187 directly targets TNF-α mRNA stability and translation and indirectly decreases IL-6 and IL-12p40 expression via down-modulation of IκBζ, a master regulator of the transcription of these latter two cytokines. These results uncover an miRNA-mediated pathway controlling cytokine expression and demonstrate a central role of miR-187 in the physiological regulation of IL-10-driven anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:23071313

  14. Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice via reducing IL-6/STAT3 and IL-23/IL-17

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Lin, Yan; Sang, Li-Xuan; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice. 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, Ginaton group, Ginaton treatment group, and DSS group. After 7 days administration, mice were sacrificed and colons were collected for H-E staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot. By observing clinical disease activity and histological damage, we assessed the effect of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice and observed the effect of Ginaton on normal mice. We also explored the specific mechanism of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice through examining the expression of inflammatory related mediators (gp130, STAT3, p-STAT3, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). Ginaton-treated DSS mice showed significant improvement over untreated DSS mice. Specifically, Ginaton improved clinical disease activity (DAI score, weight closs, colon shortening, and bloody stool) and histological damage, and reduced the expression of inflammatory-related mediators (p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). In addition, clinical disease activity, histological damage, the expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-t) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23) in mice of Ginaton group were similar to normal control group. In conclusion, Ginaton ameliorates DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice by reducing IL-17 production, which is at least partly involved in inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and IL-23/IL-17 axis. Moreover, Ginaton itself does not cause inflammatory change in normal mice. These results support that Ginaton can be as a potential clinical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). PMID:26770316

  15. IL-6 alters osteocyte signaling toward osteoblasts but not osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A D; Kulkarni, R N; Klein-Nulend, J; Lems, W F

    2014-04-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes regulate bone mass in adults. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), such as present during orthodontic tooth movement, also strongly affects bone mass, but little is known about the effect of IL-6 on osteocyte function. Therefore we aimed to determine in vitro whether IL-6 affects osteocyte mechanosensitivity, and osteocyte regulation of osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast differentiation. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were incubated with/without IL-6 (1 or 10 pg/mL) for 24 hr. Subsequently, osteocytes were subjected to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) for 1 hr. Mouse osteoclast precursors were cultured for 7 days on top of IL-6-treated osteocytes. Conditioned medium from osteocytes treated with/without IL-6 was added to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts for 14 days. Exogenous IL-6 (10 pg/mL) did not alter the osteocyte response to PFF. PFF significantly enhanced IL-6 production by osteocytes. IL-6 enhanced Rankl expression but reduced caspase 3/7 activity by osteocytes, and therefore did not affect osteocyte-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from IL-6-treated osteocytes reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Runx2 expression in osteoblasts, but increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 and osteocalcin. Our results suggest that IL-6 is produced by shear-loaded osteocytes and that IL-6 may affect bone mass by modulating osteocyte communication toward osteoblasts. PMID:24492932

  16. Contribution of IL-12/IL-35 common subunit p35 to maintaining the testicular immune privilege.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Shogo; Mitobe, Kana; Furusawa, Jun-Ichi; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Kezuka, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kaori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Sakabe, Kou; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The testis is an organ with immune privilege. The comprehensive blood-testis barrier formed by Sertoli cells protects autoimmunogenic spermatozoa and spermatids from attack by the body's immune system. The interleukin (IL)-6/IL-12 family cytokines IL-12 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), IL-27 (p28/Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 [EBI3]), and IL-35 (p35/EBI3) play critical roles in the regulation of various immune responses, but their roles in testicular immune privilege are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated whether these cytokines are expressed in the testes and whether they function in the testicular immune privilege by using mice deficient in their subunits. Expression of EBI3 was markedly increased at both mRNA and protein levels in the testes of 10- or 12-week-old wild-type mice as compared with levels in 2-week-old mice, whereas the mRNA expression of p40 was markedly decreased and that of p35 was conserved between these two groups. Lack of EBI3, p35, and IL-12 receptor β2 caused enhanced infiltration of lymphocytes into the testicular interstitium, with increased interferon-γ expression in the testes and autoantibody production against mainly acrosomal regions of spermatids. Spermatogenic disturbance was more frequently observed in the seminiferous tubules, especially when surrounded by infiltrating lymphocytes, of these deficient mice than in those of wild-type mice. In particular, p35-deficient mice showed the most severe spermatogenic disturbance. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that endothelial cells and peritubular cells in the interstitium were highly positive for p35 at both ages, and CD163+ resident macrophages positive for p35 and EBI3, possibly producing IL-35, were also detected in the interstitium of 12-week-old mice but not those of 2-week-old mice. These results suggest that p35 helps in maintaining the testicular immune privilege, in part in an IL-35-dependent manner. PMID:24760014

  17. Contribution of IL-12/IL-35 Common Subunit p35 to Maintaining the Testicular Immune Privilege

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Shogo; Mitobe, Kana; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Kezuka, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kaori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Sakabe, Kou; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The testis is an organ with immune privilege. The comprehensive blood–testis barrier formed by Sertoli cells protects autoimmunogenic spermatozoa and spermatids from attack by the body’s immune system. The interleukin (IL)-6/IL-12 family cytokines IL-12 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), IL-27 (p28/Epstein-Barr virus−induced gene 3 [EBI3]), and IL-35 (p35/EBI3) play critical roles in the regulation of various immune responses, but their roles in testicular immune privilege are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated whether these cytokines are expressed in the testes and whether they function in the testicular immune privilege by using mice deficient in their subunits. Expression of EBI3 was markedly increased at both mRNA and protein levels in the testes of 10- or 12-week-old wild-type mice as compared with levels in 2-week-old mice, whereas the mRNA expression of p40 was markedly decreased and that of p35 was conserved between these two groups. Lack of EBI3, p35, and IL-12 receptor β2 caused enhanced infiltration of lymphocytes into the testicular interstitium, with increased interferon-γ expression in the testes and autoantibody production against mainly acrosomal regions of spermatids. Spermatogenic disturbance was more frequently observed in the seminiferous tubules, especially when surrounded by infiltrating lymphocytes, of these deficient mice than in those of wild-type mice. In particular, p35-deficient mice showed the most severe spermatogenic disturbance. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that endothelial cells and peritubular cells in the interstitium were highly positive for p35 at both ages, and CD163+ resident macrophages positive for p35 and EBI3, possibly producing IL-35, were also detected in the interstitium of 12-week-old mice but not those of 2-week-old mice. These results suggest that p35 helps in maintaining the testicular immune privilege, in part in an IL-35-dependent manner. PMID:24760014

  18. Inflammatory Signals Regulate IL-15 in Response to Lymphodepletion.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Scott M; Rivas, Sarai C; Colpitts, Sara L; Howard, Megan E; Stonier, Spencer W; Schluns, Kimberly S

    2016-06-01

    Induction of lymphopenia has been exploited therapeutically to improve immune responses to cancer therapies and vaccinations. Whereas IL-15 has well-established roles in stimulating lymphocyte responses after lymphodepletion, the mechanisms regulating these IL-15 responses are unclear. We report that cell surface IL-15 expression is upregulated during lymphopenia induced by total body irradiation (TBI), cyclophosphamide, or Thy1 Ab-mediated T cell depletion, as well as in RAG(-/-) mice; interestingly, the cellular profile of surface IL-15 expression is distinct in each model. In contrast, soluble IL-15 (sIL-15) complexes are upregulated only after TBI or αThy1 Ab. Analysis of cell-specific IL-15Rα conditional knockout mice revealed that macrophages and dendritic cells are important sources of sIL-15 complexes after TBI but provide minimal contribution in response to Thy1 Ab treatment. Unlike with TBI, induction of sIL-15 complexes by αThy1 Ab is sustained and only partially dependent on type I IFNs. The stimulator of IFN genes pathway was discovered to be a potent inducer of sIL-15 complexes and was required for optimal production of sIL-15 complexes in response to Ab-mediated T cell depletion and TBI, suggesting products of cell death drive production of sIL-15 complexes after lymphodepletion. Lastly, we provide evidence that IL-15 induced by inflammatory signals in response to lymphodepletion drives lymphocyte responses, as memory CD8 T cells proliferated in an IL-15-dependent manner. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the form in which IL-15 is expressed, its kinetics and cellular sources, and the inflammatory signals involved are differentially dictated by the manner in which lymphopenia is induced. PMID:27183627

  19. Reciprocal regulation of lymphoid tissue development in the large intestine by IL-25 and IL-23

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, D S; Bradford, B M; Artis, D; Mabbott, N A

    2015-01-01

    Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) develop after birth in the small and large intestines (SI and LI) and represent a dynamic response of the gut immune system to the microbiota. Despite their similarities, ILF development in the SI and LI differs on a number of levels. We show that unlike ILF in the SI, the microbiota inhibits ILF development in the colon as conventionalization of germ-free mice reduced colonic ILFs. From this, we identified a novel mechanism regulating colonic ILF development through the action of interleukin (IL)-25 on IL-23 and its ability to modulate T regulatory cell (Treg) differentiation. Colonic ILF develop in the absence of a number of factors required for the development of their SI counterparts and can be specifically suppressed by factors other than IL-25. However, IL-23 is the only factor identified that specifically promotes colonic ILFs without affecting SI-ILF development. Both IL-23 and ILFs are associated with inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting that disruption to this pathway may have an important role in the breakdown of microbiota-immune homeostasis. PMID:25249168

  20. IL-3 and CSF-1 Interact to Promote Generation of CD11c+ IL-10-Producing Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Herrero, Lara J.; Taylor, Adam; Hapel, Andrew J.; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the mechanisms of hematopoiesis regulated by multiple cytokines remains a challenge in hematology. IL-3 is an allergic cytokine with the multilineage potential, while CSF-1 is produced in the steady state with restricted lineage coverage. Here, we uncovered an instructive role of CSF-1 in IL-3-mediated hematopoiesis. CSF-1 significantly promoted IL-3-driven CD11c+ cell expansion and dampened basophil and mast cell generation from C57BL/6 bone marrow. Further studies indicated that the CSF-1/CSF-1R axis contributed significantly to IL-3-induced CD11c+ cell generation through enhancing c-Fos-associated monopoiesis. CD11c+ cells induced by IL-3 or IL-3/CSF-1 were competent in cellular maturation and endocytosis. Both IL-3 and IL-3/CSF-1 cells lacked classical dendritic cell appearance and resembled macrophages in morphology. Both populations produced a high level of IL-10, in addition to IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα, in response to LPS, and were relatively poor T cell stimulators. Collectively, these findings reveal a role for CSF-1 in mediating the IL-3 hematopoietic pathway through monopoiesis, which regulates expansion of CD11c+ macrophages. PMID:24743235

  1. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-10-13

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease. PMID:26267317

  2. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A.; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H.; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B.; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease. PMID:26267317

  3. Salivary Immunosuppressive Cytokines IL-10 and IL-13 Are Significantly Elevated in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Salman; Ahmed, Syed Shoaib; Ali, Asad; Khan, Faiza Akhter; Zulfiqar, Gulraiz; Iqbal, Javed; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be one of the most fatal diseases worldwide, owing to its late diagnosis and lack of availability of established reliable biomarkers. The aim of this study was to highlight the significance of immunosuppressive cytokines as potential biomarkers in OSCC. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected from each individual (30 OSCC patients and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy controls). Immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-1RA, were evaluated in each sample using Luminex multianalyte profiling (xMAP) technology on BioPlex instrument. Our results showed that all the studied salivary cytokines were raised in OSCC patients as compared to controls, where IL-10 and IL-13 salivary levels showed statistically significant difference (p = .004 and p = .010, respectively). Mean levels of salivary cytokines in three histologically defined OSCC categories, compared employing one-way ANOVA, showed that salivary levels of IL-1RA were highest in patients having poorly differentiated OSCC tumors as compared to those having moderately and well-differentiated tumors (p = .000 and p = .002, respectively). Among OSCC individuals, duration of smokeless tobacco correlated positively with IL-1RA (p = .036). We conclude that salivary levels of immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-1RA, could prove to be potential biomarkers of OSCC and can be further investigated as markers of early detection and disease progression. PMID:26046681

  4. IL-10 producing intestinal macrophages prevent excessive anti-bacterial innate immunity by limiting IL-23 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Petra; Morris, Venetia; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Park, Yoon; Bjoerheden, Unni; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Muffley, Tracy; Shui, Jr-Wen; Kim, Gisen; Cheroutre, Hilde; Liu, Yun- Cai; Peters, Bjoern; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Murai, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune responses are regulated in the intestine to prevent excessive inflammation. Here we show that a subset of mouse colonic macrophages constitutively produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium, a model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection in humans, these macrophages are required to prevent intestinal pathology. IL-23 is significantly increased in infected mice with a myeloid cell-specific deletion of IL-10, and the addition of IL-10 reduces IL-23 production by intestinal macrophages. Furthermore, blockade of IL-23 leads to reduced mortality in the context of macrophage IL-10 deficiency. Transcriptome and other analyses indicate that IL-10-expressing macrophages receive an autocrine IL-10 signal. Interestingly, only transfer of the IL-10 positive macrophages could rescue IL-10 deficient infected mice. Therefore, these data indicate a pivotal role for intestinal macrophages that constitutively produce IL-10, in controlling excessive innate immune activation and preventing tissue damage after an acute bacterial infection. PMID:25959063

  5. Molecular characterization and immunological roles of avian IL-22 and its soluble receptor IL-22 binding protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a member of the interleukin (IL)-10 family, IL-22 is an important mediator in modulating tissue responses during inflammation. Through activation of STAT3-signaling cascades, IL-22 induces proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways, as well as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), that help prevent tissu...

  6. Potential therapeutic implications of IL-6/IL-6R/gp130-targeting agents in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Tae-Hwe; Wahler, Joseph; Suh, Nanjoo

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with known multiple functions in immune regulation, inflammation, and oncogenesis. Binding of IL-6 to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) induces homodimerization and recruitment of glycoprotein 130 (gp130), which leads to activation of downstream signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that high levels of IL-6 are correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. IL-6 appears to play a critical role in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells, renewal of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and drug resistance of BCSCs, making anti–IL-6/IL-6R/gp130 therapies promising options for the treatment and prevention of breast cancers. However, preclinical and clinical studies of the applications of anti–IL-6/IL-6R/gp130 therapy in breast cancers are limited. In this review, we summarize the structures, preclinical and clinical studies, mechanisms of action of chemical and biological blockers that directly bind to IL-6, IL-6R, or gp130, and the potential clinical applications of these pharmacological agents as breast cancer therapies. PMID:26840088

  7. High IL-6 and low IL-15 levels mark the presence of TB infection: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, S; Anupama, K R; Sambarey, Awanti; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-05-01

    The host immune response, apart from mycobacterial factors, is a significant determinant in the development of tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of the study was to examine whether the differential serum profiles of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and TNF-α could discriminate between TB patients and healthy controls and provide insights into pathogenesis. Serum samples from TB patients, TB patient contacts and healthy controls were collected and analyzed by ELISA. The cytokine concentrations obtained were stratified into three groups: below detection limit (BDL), low values, and high values. The differences in cytokine concentrations were analyzed by Fisher's exact test. The statistically significant results were interpreted based on post-hoc analysis of the chi square contingency table using the adjusted residual method. Among the assayed cytokines, there was a statistically significant difference in the detection levels of IL-6, IL-15 and IFN-γ. Levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β and TNF-α did not vary. Post-hoc analysis of the significant results revealed that dynamic changes in the BDL and high values of cytokines influenced the post-infection cytokine milieu in the study subjects. The study concludes that altered balance in the levels of serum cytokines can be indicative of TB pathogenesis. Hence, profiling of dynamic changes in cytokines would facilitate effective TB diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:26878649

  8. The IL-33 receptor (ST2) regulates early IL-13 production in fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Piehler, D; Eschke, M; Schulze, B; Protschka, M; Müller, U; Grahnert, A; Richter, T; Heyen, L; Köhler, G; Brombacher, F; Alber, G

    2016-07-01

    Allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in response to environmental antigens is an increasing medical problem, especially in the Western world. Type 2 interleukins (IL) are central in the pathological response but their importance and cellular source(s) often rely on the particular allergen. Here, we highlight the cellular sources and regulation of the prototypic type 2 cytokine, IL-13, during the establishment of AAI in a fungal infection model using Cryptococcus neoformans. IL-13 reporter mice revealed a rapid onset of IL-13 competence within innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2) and IL-33R(+) T helper (Th) cells. ILC2 showed IL-33-dependent proliferation upon infection and significant IL-13 production. Th cells essentially required IL-33 to become either GATA3(+) or GATA3(+)/Foxp3(+) hybrids. GATA3(+) Th cells almost exclusively contributed to IL-13 production but hybrid GATA3(+)/Foxp3(+) Th cells did not. In addition, alveolar macrophages upregulated the IL-33R and subsequently acquired a phenotype of alternative activation (Ym1(+), FIZZ1(+), and arginase-1(+)) linked to type 2 immunity. Absence of adaptive immunity in rag2(-/-) mice resulted in attenuated AAI, revealing the need for Th2 cells for full AAI development. Taken together, in pulmonary cryptococcosis ILC2 and GATA3(+) Th2 cells produce early IL-13 largely IL-33R-dependent, thereby promoting goblet cell metaplasia, pulmonary eosinophilia, and alternative activation of alveolar macrophages. PMID:26555705

  9. Experimentally induced psoriatic lesion associates with interleukin (IL)-6 in mast cells and appearance of dermal cells expressing IL-33 and IL-6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Suttle, M-M; Nilsson, G; Snellman, E; Harvima, I T

    2012-09-01

    Mast cells are involved in the development of psoriatic lesion, but it is not known how mast cells are activated or whether mast cell cytokines are expressed during the lesion development. In this study, the Köbner reaction was induced in uninvolved psoriatic skin of 18 patients using the tape-stripping technique, and a sequence of biopsies was collected at 0 days, 2 h and 3 days or at 0 days, 1 day and 7 days for histochemical analysis. Eight patients developed the Köbner reaction verified at the follow-up visit 2-2·5 weeks later. No significant differences were observed in total tryptase(+) mast cells, psoriasis area and severity index and age/sex. Instead, the percentage of tryptase(+) mast cells showing interleukin (IL)-6 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in biopsies from Köbner-positive patients than in those from Köbner-negative patients. IL-33 is a known inducer of IL-6 in mast cells, and the number of IL-33(+) cells increased significantly in Köbner-positive dermal skin at days 3-7. The number of dermal cells with IL-6 receptor (IL-6R, CD126) also increased in Köbner-positive skin at days 3-7. Unexpectedly, the number of IL-6R(+) cells was even higher in Köbner-negative skin at days 3-7. In the chronic plaque of 10 other psoriatic patients, the numbers of IL-6(+) mast cells and dermal cells showing IL-6R were higher than those in the non-lesional skin. In conclusion, the positive Köbner reaction is associated with IL-6 in mast cells and appearance of IL-6R(+) and IL-33(+) dermal cells. This suggests that a previously unrecognized vicious circle may develop in the early psoriatic lesion. PMID:22861371

  10. IL-17 in the Rheumatologist's Line of Sight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, the identification of several new cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23, and of new T helper cell subsets, including Th17 cells, has changed the vision of immunological processes. The IL-17/Th17 pathway plays a critical role during the development of inflammation and autoimmunity, and targeting this pathway has become an attractive strategy for a number of diseases. This review aims to describe the effects of IL-17 in the joint and its roles in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory arthritis. Furthermore, biotherapies targeting directly or indirectly IL-17 in inflammatory rheumatisms will be developed. PMID:23984335

  11. IL10 inhibits starvation-induced autophagy in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts via cross talk between the IL10-IL10R-STAT3 and IL10-AKT-mTOR pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shi, J; Wang, H; Guan, H; Shi, S; Li, Y; Wu, X; Li, N; Yang, C; Bai, X; Cai, W; Yang, F; Wang, X; Su, L; Zheng, Z; Hu, D

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious skin fibrotic disease characterized by excessive hypercellularity and extracellular matrix (ECM) component deposition. Autophagy is a tightly regulated physiological process essential for cellular maintenance, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Previous studies show that IL10 has potential therapeutic benefits in terms of preventing and reducing HS formation. However, no studies have examined IL10-mediated autophagy during the pathological process of HS formation. Here, we examined the effect of IL10 on starvation-induced autophagy and investigated the molecular mechanism underlying IL10-mediated inhibition of autophagy in HS-derived fibroblasts (HSFs) under starvation conditions. Immunostaining and PCR analysis revealed that a specific component of the IL10 receptor, IL10 alpha-chain (IL10Rα), is expressed in HSFs. Transmission electron microscopy and western blot analysis revealed that IL10 inhibited starvation-induced autophagy and induced the expression of p-AKT and p-STAT3 in HSFs in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking IL10R, p-AKT, p-mTOR, and p-STAT3 using specific inhibitors (IL10RB, LY294002, rapamycin, and cryptotanshinone, respectively) showed that IL10 inhibited autophagy via IL10Rα-mediated activation of STAT3 (the IL10R-STAT3 pathway) and by directly activating the AKT-mTOR pathway. Notably, these results suggest that IL10-mediated inhibition of autophagy is facilitated by the cross talk between STAT3, AKT, and mTOR; in other words, the IL10-IL10R-STAT3 and IL10-AKT-mTOR pathways. Finally, the results also indicate that mTOR-p70S6K is the molecule upon which these two pathways converge to induce IL10-mediated inhibition of autophagy in starved HSFs. In summary, the findings reported herein shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying IL10-mediated inhibition of autophagy and suggest that IL10 is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of HS. PMID:26962683

  12. The Role of IL-33 in Gut Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pizarro, Theresa T.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently identified cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family that is widely expressed throughout the body and has the ability to induce Th2 immune responses. In addition, IL-33 plays a key role in promoting host defenses against parasites through the expansion of a novel population of innate lymphoid cells. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that the proinflammatory properties displayed by IL-33 are detrimental in several experimental models of inflammation; in others, however, IL-33 appears to have protective functions. In 2010, four different research groups consistently described the upregulation of IL-33 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Animal models of IBD were subsequently utilized in order to mechanistically determine the precise role of IL-33 in chronic intestinal inflammation, without, however, reaching conclusive evidence demonstrating whether IL-33 is pathogenic or protective. Indeed, data generated from these studies suggest that IL-33 may possess dichotomous functions, enhancing inflammatory responses on one hand and promoting epithelial integrity on the other. This review focuses on the available data regarding IL-33/ST2 in the physiological and inflammatory states of the gut in order to speculate on the possible roles of this novel IL-1 family member in intestinal inflammation. PMID:23766561

  13. Interleukin-23-Independent IL-17 Production Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Permeability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob S; Tato, Cristina M; Joyce-Shaikh, Barbara; Gulen, Muhammet F; Gulan, Fatih; Cayatte, Corinne; Chen, Yi; Blumenschein, Wendy M; Judo, Michael; Ayanoglu, Gulesi; McClanahan, Terrill K; Li, Xiaoxia; Cua, Daniel J

    2015-10-20

    Whether interleukin-17A (IL-17A) has pathogenic and/or protective roles in the gut mucosa is controversial and few studies have analyzed specific cell populations for protective functions within the inflamed colonic tissue. Here we have provided evidence for IL-17A-dependent regulation of the tight junction protein occludin during epithelial injury that limits excessive permeability and maintains barrier integrity. Analysis of epithelial cells showed that in the absence of signaling via the IL-17 receptor adaptor protein Act-1, the protective effect of IL-17A was abrogated and inflammation was enhanced. We have demonstrated that after acute intestinal injury, IL-23R(+) γδ T cells in the colonic lamina propria were the primary producers of early, gut-protective IL-17A, and this production of IL-17A was IL-23 independent, leaving protective IL-17 intact in the absence of IL-23. These results suggest that IL-17-producing γδ T cells are important for the maintenance and protection of epithelial barriers in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:26431948

  14. IL-18 acts in synergy with IL-7 to promote ex vivo expansion of T lymphoid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhapudi, Siva K; Tan, Chibing; Marino, Julie H; Taylor, Ashlee A; Pack, Christopher C; Gaikwad, Joel; Van De Wiele, C Justin; Wren, Jonathan D; Teague, T Kent

    2015-04-15

    Although IL-18 has not previously been shown to promote T lymphopoiesis, results obtained via a novel data mining algorithm (global microarray meta-analysis) led us to explore a predicted role for this cytokine in T cell development. IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been extensively characterized as a mediator of inflammatory immune responses. To assess a potential role for IL-18 in T cell development, we sort-purified mouse bone marrow-derived common lymphoid progenitor cells, early thymic progenitors (ETPs), and double-negative 2 thymocytes and cultured these populations on OP9-Delta-like 4 stromal layers in the presence or absence of IL-18 and/or IL-7. After 1 wk of culture, IL-18 promoted proliferation and accelerated differentiation of ETPs to the double-negative 3 stage, similar in efficiency to IL-7. IL-18 showed synergy with IL-7 and enhanced proliferation of both the thymus-derived progenitor cells and the bone marrow-derived common lymphoid progenitor cells. The synergistic effect on the ETP population was further characterized and found to correlate with increased surface expression of c-Kit and IL-7 receptors on the IL-18-treated cells. In summary, we successfully validated the global microarray meta-analysis prediction that IL-18 affects T lymphopoiesis and demonstrated that IL-18 can positively impact bone marrow lymphopoiesis and T cell development, presumably via interaction with the c-Kit and IL-7 signaling axis. PMID:25780034

  15. IL-15 receptor α signaling constrains the development of IL-17-producing γδ T cells.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Sara L; Puddington, Lynn; Lefrançois, Leo

    2015-08-01

    The development and homeostasis of γδ T cells is highly dependent on distinct cytokine networks. Here we examine the role of IL-15 and its unique receptor, IL-15Rα, in the development of IL-17-producing γδ (γδ-17) T cells. Phenotypic analysis has shown that CD44(high) γδ-17 cells express IL-15Rα and the common gamma chain (CD132), yet lack the IL-2/15Rβ chain (CD122). Surprisingly, we found an enlarged population of γδ-17 cells in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes of adult IL-15Rα KO mice, but not of IL-15 KO mice. The generation of mixed chimeras from neonatal thymocytes indicated that cell-intrinsic IL-15Rα expression was required to limit IL-17 production by γδ T cells. γδ-17 cells also were increased in the peripheral lymph nodes of transgenic knock-in mice, where the IL-15Rα intracellular signaling domain was replaced with the intracellular portion of the IL-2Rα chain (that lacks signaling capacity). Finally, an analysis of neonatal thymi revealed that the CD44(lo/int) precursors of γδ-17 cells, which also expressed IL-15Rα, were increased in newborn mice deficient in IL-15Rα signaling, but not in IL-15 itself. Thus, these findings demonstrate that signaling through IL-15Rα regulates the development of γδ-17 cells early in ontogeny, with long-term effects on their peripheral homeostasis in the adult. PMID:26195801

  16. Combinatorial targeting of TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33 in type 2 cytokine-driven inflammation and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vannella, Kevin M; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Borthwick, Lee A; Barron, Luke; Hart, Kevin M; Thompson, Robert W; Kindrachuk, Kristen N; Cheever, Allen W; White, Sandra; Budelsky, Alison L; Comeau, Michael R; Smith, Dirk E; Wynn, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin-25 (IL-25), and IL-33 are important initiators of type 2-associated mucosal inflammation and immunity. However, their role in the maintenance of progressive type 2 inflammation and fibrosis is much less clear. Using chronic models of helminth infection and allergic lung inflammation, we show that collective disruption of TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33 signaling suppresses chronic and progressive type 2 cytokine-driven inflammation and fibrosis. In a schistosome lung granuloma model or during chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection in the liver, individual ablation of TSLP, IL-25, or IL-33/ST2 had no impact on the development of IL-4/IL-13-dependent inflammation or fibrosis. However, significant reductions in granuloma-associated eosinophils, hepatic fibrosis, and IL-13-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were observed when signaling of all three mediators was simultaneously disrupted. Combined blockade through monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment also reduced IL-5 and IL-13 expression during primary and secondary granuloma formation in the lungs. In a model of chronic house dust mite-induced allergic lung inflammation, combined mAb treatment did not decrease established inflammation or fibrosis. TSLP/IL-33 double-knockout mice treated with anti-IL-25 mAb during priming, however, displayed decreased inflammation, mucus production, and lung remodeling in the chronic phase. Together, these studies reveal partially redundant roles for TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33 in the maintenance of type 2 pathology and suggest that in some settings, early combined targeting of these mediators is necessary to ameliorate progressive type 2-driven disease. PMID:27147589

  17. Localization of IL-4 and IL-4 receptors in the human term placenta, decidua and amniochorionic membranes.

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes-Pinto, M I; Vince, G S; Flanagan, B F; Hart, C A; Johnson, P M

    1997-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in cytokine expression at the materno-fetal interface. Although T-helper 2 (Th2)-type cytokines have been described in the murine feto-placental unit, few studies have as yet been performed in human pregnancy. We have examined the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and expression of IL-4 receptors in the human term placenta, decidua and amniochorionic membranes. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that cytotrophoblast, decidual macrophages and both maternal and fetal endothelial cells consistently expressed IL-4, whereas syncytiotrophoblast and placental macrophages showed an inconsistent pattern between specimens. High- and low-affinity IL-4 receptors were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry at the same cellular sites as stained for IL-4, and detection of IL-4 receptors was also variable in syncytiotrophoblast. Reverse-transcribed-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that both IL-4 and its alternative splice variant, IL-482, are produced both in placental villi and in amniochorionic and decidual tissue. Ligand-binding assays identified the presence, on isolated term syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane vesicle preparations, of functional high-affinity binding sites for IL-4 with a Kd in the range 102-112 pM and an apparent receptor density in the range 99-102 x 10(8) sites/mg protein. Three human choriocarcinoma (BeWo, JEG-3 and Jar) and one amnion-derived (AV3) cell lines expressed IL-4 and both high- and low-affinity IL-4 receptors. The constitutive expression of both IL-4 and IL-4 receptors, together with the novel finding of the alternative splice variant IL-482 in the immediate tissues at the materno fetal interface suggest an immunobiological role for IL-4 in human pregnancy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9038717

  18. Regulation of pathogenic IL-17 responses in collagen-induced arthritis: roles of endogenous interferon-gamma and IL-4

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin (IL)-17 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and the mouse model collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Interferon(IFN)-γ and IL-4 have been shown to suppress Th17 development in vitro, but their potential immunoregulatory roles in vivo are uncertain. The goals of this study were to determine the relationship between Th17 responses and disease severity in CIA and to assess regulation of IL-17 by endogenous IFN-γ and IL-4. Methods DBA1/LacJ mice were immunized with type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis, and treated with neutralizing antibody to IFN-γ and/or IL-4. Systemic IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-4 were measured in serum. At the peak of disease, cytokine production was measured by ELISA of supernatants from spleen, lymph node and paw cultures. Paws were also scored for histologic severity of arthritis. Results Joint inflammation was associated with a higher ratio of systemic IL-17/IFN-γ. Neutralization of IFN-γ accelerated the course of CIA and was associated with increased IL-17 levels in the serum and joints. The IFN-γ/IL-4/IL-17 responses in the lymphoid organ were distinct from such responses in the joints. Neutralization of IL-4 led to increased arthritis only in the absence of IFN-γ and was associated with increased bone and cartilage damage without an increase in the levels of IL-17. Conclusions IL-4 and IFN-γ both play protective roles in CIA, but through different mechanisms. Our data suggests that the absolute level of IL-17 is not the only determinant of joint inflammation. Instead, the balance of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines control the immune events leading to joint inflammation. PMID:19852819

  19. Simvastatin Suppresses Airway IL-17 and Upregulates IL-10 in Patients With Stable COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wongkajornsilp, Adisak; Adcock, Ian M.; Barnes, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins have immunomodulatory properties that may provide beneficial effects in the treatment of COPD. We investigated whether a statin improves the IL-17/IL-10 imbalance in patients with COPD, as has previously been demonstrated in patients with asthma. METHODS: Thirty patients with stable COPD were recruited to a double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial comparing the effect of simvastatin, 20 mg po daily, with that of a matched placebo on sputum inflammatory markers and airway inflammation. Each treatment was administered for 4 weeks separated by a 4-week washout period. The primary outcome was the presence of T-helper 17 cytokines and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in induced sputum. Secondary outcomes included sputum inflammatory cells, FEV1, and symptoms using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). RESULTS: At 4 weeks, there was a significant reduction in sputum IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and CXCL8 concentrations (mean difference, −16.4 pg/mL, P = .01; −48.6 pg/mL, P < .001; −45.3 pg/mL, P = .002; and −190.9 pg/mL, P = .007, respectively), whereas IL-10 concentrations, IDO messenger RNA expression (fold change), and IDO activity (kynurenine to tryptophan ratio) were markedly increased during simvastatin treatment compared with placebo treatment periods (mean difference, 24.7 pg/mL, P < .001; 1.02, P < .001; and 0.47, P < .001, respectively). The absolute sputum macrophage count, proportion of macrophages, and CAT score were reduced after simvastatin compared with placebo (mean difference, −0.16 × 106, P = .004; −14.1%, P < .001; and −3.2, P = .02, respectively). Values for other clinical outcomes were similar between the simvastatin and placebo treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Simvastatin reversed the IL-17A/IL-10 imbalance in the airways and reduced sputum macrophage but not neutrophil counts in patients with COPD. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01944176; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26043025

  20. IL-27 and TGFβ mediated expansion of Th1 and adaptive regulatory T cells expressing IL-10 correlates with bacterial burden and disease severity in pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathella P; Moideen, Kadar; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Sridhar, Rathinam; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cell expression of IL-10 is an important mechanism controlling immunity to tuberculosis (TB). To identify the CD4+ T cell subsets producing IL-10 in human TB, we enumerated the frequencies of IL-10 expressing CD4+ T cell subsets following TB—antigen stimulation of cells from individuals with pulmonary (PTB) and latent TB (LTB). We first demonstrate that TB antigens induce an expansion of IL-10 expressing Th1 (IL-10+, IFNγ+, T-bet+), Th2 (IL-10+, IL-4+, GATA-3+), Th9 (IL-10+, IL-9+, IL-4−), Th17 (IL-10+, IL-17+, IFNγ−), and natural and adaptive regulatory T cells [nTregs; IL-10+, CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+ and aTregs; IL-10 single+, CD4+, CD25−, Foxp3−] in PTB and LTB individuals, with frequencies being significantly higher in the former. However, only Th1 cells and adaptive Tregs expressing IL-10 exhibit a positive relationship with bacterial burdens and extent of disease in PTB. Finally, we show that IL-27 and TGFβ play an important role in the regulation of IL-10+ Th cell subsets. Thus, active PTB is characterized by an IL-27 and TGFβ mediated expansion of IL-10 expressing CD4+ T cell subsets, with IL-10+ Th1 and IL-10+ aTreg cells playing a potentially pivotal role in the pathogenesis of active disease. PMID:26417443

  1. IL-27 and TGFβ mediated expansion of Th1 and adaptive regulatory T cells expressing IL-10 correlates with bacterial burden and disease severity in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nathella P; Moideen, Kadar; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Sridhar, Rathinam; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2015-09-01

    CD4(+) T cell expression of IL-10 is an important mechanism controlling immunity to tuberculosis (TB). To identify the CD4(+) T cell subsets producing IL-10 in human TB, we enumerated the frequencies of IL-10 expressing CD4(+) T cell subsets following TB-antigen stimulation of cells from individuals with pulmonary (PTB) and latent TB (LTB). We first demonstrate that TB antigens induce an expansion of IL-10 expressing Th1 (IL-10(+), IFNγ(+), T-bet(+)), Th2 (IL-10(+), IL-4(+), GATA-3(+)), Th9 (IL-10(+), IL-9(+), IL-4(-)), Th17 (IL-10(+), IL-17(+), IFNγ(-)), and natural and adaptive regulatory T cells [nTregs; IL-10(+), CD4(+), CD25(+), Foxp3(+) and aTregs; IL-10 single(+), CD4(+), CD25(-), Foxp3(-)] in PTB and LTB individuals, with frequencies being significantly higher in the former. However, only Th1 cells and adaptive Tregs expressing IL-10 exhibit a positive relationship with bacterial burdens and extent of disease in PTB. Finally, we show that IL-27 and TGFβ play an important role in the regulation of IL-10(+) Th cell subsets. Thus, active PTB is characterized by an IL-27 and TGFβ mediated expansion of IL-10 expressing CD4(+) T cell subsets, with IL-10(+) Th1 and IL-10(+) aTreg cells playing a potentially pivotal role in the pathogenesis of active disease. PMID:26417443

  2. Helminth Products Protect against Autoimmunity via Innate Type 2 Cytokines IL-5 and IL-33, Which Promote Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Conor M; Stefanska, Anna M; Walsh, Kevin P; Kelly, Patrick J; Boon, Louis; Lavelle, Ed C; Walsh, Patrick T; Mills, Kingston H G

    2016-01-15

    Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that infection with helminth parasites is associated with a reduced risk of developing autoimmune diseases. Mechanistic studies in mice have linked the protective effect of helminths on autoimmunity to the suppressive activity of helminth-induced regulatory T cells (Tregs) or Th2 cells. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment of mice with Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products (FHES) attenuated the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Protection was associated with a significant reduction in the infiltration of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells into the brain. Although FHES enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine and Th2 responses, protection against EAE was independent of IL-4, IL-10, and Tregs. However, administration of FHES induced production of the type 2 cytokines IL-33 and IL-5, which promoted accumulation of eosinophils. FHES-induced expansion of eosinophils and protection against EAE was lost in IL-33(-/-) mice and upon neutralization of IL-5. Furthermore, transfer of FHES-induced or IL-33-induced eosinophils conferred protection against EAE. In addition, treatment of mice with recombinant IL-33 attenuated autoimmunity, and this was dependent on IL-5. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a role for helminth-induced IL-5 and IL-33 in protection against autoimmunity. PMID:26673140

  3. IL-27 enhances Leishmania amazonensis infection via ds-RNA dependent kinase (PKR) and IL-10 signaling.

    PubMed

    Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Ferreira, Pedro L C; Vivarini, Aislan de Carvalho; Calegari-Silva, Teresa; Soares, Deivid Costa; Regis, Eduardo G; Pereira, Renata M S; Silva, Aristóbolo M; Saraiva, Elvira M; Lopes, Ulisses G; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer

    2015-04-01

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania infects and replicates in macrophages, causing a spectrum of diseases in the human host, varying from cutaneous to visceral clinical forms. It is known that cytokines modulate the immunological response against Leishmania and are relevant for infection resolution. Here, we report that Interleukin (IL)-27 increases Leishmania amazonensis replication in human and murine macrophages and that the blockage of the IL-10 receptor on the surface of infected cells abolished the IL-27-mediated enhancement of Leishmania growth. IL-27 induced the activation/phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) in macrophages, and PKR blockage or PKR gene deletion abrogated the enhancement of the parasite growth driven by IL-27, as well as the L. amazonensis-induced macrophage production of IL-27. We also observed that L. amazonensis-induced expression of IL-27 depends on type I interferon signaling and the engagement of Toll-like receptor 2. Treatment of Leishmania-infected mice with IL-27 increased lesion size and parasite loads in the footpad and lymph nodes of infected animals, indicating that this cytokine exerts a local and a systemic effect on parasite growth and propagation. In conclusion, we show that IL-27 is a L. amazonensis-enhancing factor and that the PKR/IFN1 axis and IL-10 are critical mediators of this IL-27 induced effect. PMID:25466588

  4. Lentivirus IL-10 gene therapy down-regulates IL-17 and attenuates mouse orthotopic lung allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, S; Sato, M; Loisel-Meyer, S; Matsuda, Y; Oishi, H; Guan, Z; Saito, T; Yeung, J; Cypel, M; Hwang, D M; Medin, J A; Liu, M; Keshavjee, S

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of lentivirus-mediated IL-10 gene therapy to target lung allograft rejection in a mouse orthotopic left lung transplantation model. IL-10 may regulate posttransplant immunity mediated by IL-17. Lentivirus-mediated trans-airway luciferase gene transfer to the donor lung resulted in persistent luciferase activity up to 6 months posttransplant in the isograft (B6 to B6); luciferase activity decreased in minor-mismatched allograft lungs (B10 to B6) in association with moderate rejection. Fully MHC-mismatched allograft transplantation (BALB/c to B6) resulted in severe rejection and complete loss of luciferase activity. In minor-mismatched allografts, IL-10-encoding lentivirus gene therapy reduced the acute rejection score compared with the lentivirus-luciferase control at posttransplant day 28 (3.0 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 (mean ± SD); p = 0.025; n = 6/group). IL-10 gene therapy also significantly reduced gene expression of IL-17, IL-23, and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-γt without affecting levels of IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Cells expressing IL-17 were dramatically reduced in the allograft lung. In conclusion, lentivirus-mediated IL-10 gene therapy significantly reduced expression of IL-17 and other associated genes in the transplanted allograft lung and attenuated posttransplant immune responses after orthotopic lung transplantation. PMID:23601206

  5. Cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan induces interleukin (IL)-8 production by human microglia but inhibits neutrophil migration toward IL-8.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, M M; Gekker, G; Hu, S; Ehrlich, L C; Hoepelman, A I; Peterson, P K

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the clinical observation that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with cryptococcal meningitis contains high levels of the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 but few polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), the production of IL-8 by cultured brain glial cells after stimulation with two serotypes of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) was studied, followed by an assessment of the effect of GXM on PMNL migration toward IL-8. GXM serotype A but not D was capable of inducing IL-8 production in human fetal microglial cell but not in astrocyte cultures. When added directly to the PMNL, GXM (both serotypes) potently blocked PMNL migration toward IL-8. The mechanism of GXM's inhibitory effect appeared to involve cross-desensitization. These findings suggest that GXM can induce IL-8 production in the brain but that GXM in the systemic circulation inhibits migration of PMNL toward IL-8. PMID:9419203

  6. ELISpot and ELISA analyses of human IL-21-secreting cells: Impact of blocking IL-21 interaction with cellular receptors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jenny; Ehrnfelt, Cecilia; Paulie, Staffan; Zuber, Bartek; Ahlborg, Niklas

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is crucial for the regulation of lymphocytes and is implicated in autoimmune and other diseases. The relevance of being able to measure human IL-21 prompted us to develop ELISA and ELISpot assays for analysis of IL-21 levels and IL-21-producing cells, respectively. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to IL-21 were made and ELISA and ELISpot assays were developed. The selected detection mAb also neutralized IL-21-mediated activation of human cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors (n=24) were stimulated polyclonally (phytohemagglutinin; PHA) or with antigen (Candida albicans extract and tetanus toxoid). Using ELISpot, high numbers of IL-21-producing cells were detected after PHA activation; lower but positive responses to antigen were seen in approximately 50% of the donors. In contrast, the ELISA detected IL-21 in supernatants from PHA-activated cells but not from antigen-stimulated cells. When analyzing IL-17A in parallel, PHA and antigens induced detectable responses in ELISpot as well as in ELISA. Hypothesizing that the lack of detectable IL-21 levels after antigenic stimulation was due to a combination of low frequencies of IL-21-secreting cells and consumption of IL-21 by cellular receptors during cell culture, PBMCs (n=18) were stimulated in the presence of the neutralizing detection mAb. When preventing IL-21 from interacting with its receptor, increased IL-21 levels were found by ELISA after PHA activation and IL-21 could also be measured after antigen stimulation. ELISpot results were unaffected by the addition of the neutralizing mAb. In conclusion, IL-21 secreted by low frequencies of antigen-specific ex vivo-stimulated PBMC can be difficult to detect by ELISA but prevention of IL-21 interaction with its receptor leads to detectable IL-21 levels. In ELISpot, where the cytokine is captured by mAbs on a solid phase immediately upon secretion, blocking the receptor interaction does not affect the detection of IL-21

  7. IL-22 dampens the T cell response in experimental malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sellau, Julie; Alvarado, Catherine Fuentes; Hoenow, Stefan; Mackroth, Maria Sophie; Kleinschmidt, Dörte; Huber, Samuel; Jacobs, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A tight regulation between the pro– and anti–inflammatory immune responses during plasmodial infection is of crucial importance, since a disruption leads to severe malaria pathology. IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, which is known to be highly important in immune regulation. We could detect high plasma levels of IL-22 in Plasmodium falciparum malaria as well as in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6J mice. The deficiency of IL-22 in mice during PbA infection led to an earlier occurrence of cerebral malaria but is associated with a lower parasitemia compared to wt mice. Furthermore, at an early time point of infection T cells from PbA-infected Il22−/− mice showed an enhanced IFNγ but a diminished IL-17 production. Moreover, dendritic cells from Il22−/− mice expressed a higher amount of the costimulatory ligand CD86 upon infection. This finding can be corroborated in vitro since bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from Il22−/− mice are better inducers of an antigen-specific IFNγ response by CD8+ T cells. Even though there is no IL-22 receptor complex known on hematopoietic cells, our data suggest a link between IL-22 and the adaptive immune system which is currently not identified. PMID:27311945

  8. Therapeutic enhancement of IL-2 through molecular design.

    PubMed

    Cassell, Delanie J; Choudhri, Shurjeel; Humphrey, Rachel; Martell, Robert E; Reynolds, Theresa; Shanafelt, Armen B

    2002-01-01

    A recombinant human IL-2 analog (rIL-2, Proleukin) is currently being evaluated for clinical benefit in HIV infected patients. It is approved for therapy of patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Treatment of cancer patients with rIL-2 results in durable responses but is associated with life-threatening toxicity, which limits its use to patients in relatively good health. Antitumor efficacy associated with rIL-2 therapy are hypothesized to be mediated by distinct types of cells that express structurally different forms of the IL-2 receptor. This hypothesis suggests that it might be possible to engineer an IL-2 variant addressing the risks associated with the therapeutic use of IL-2. In this article, we review the clinical experience with IL-2 and its analogs, the evidence that different IL-2 receptors may dissociate efficacy and toxicity, and describe the generation of a novel IL-2 variant with the potential for a superior therapeutic index. PMID:12369861

  9. IL-27-induced modulation of autoimmunity and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Meka, Rakeshchandra R; Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H; Dudics, Steven; Acharya, Bodhraj; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 family. It is produced by activated antigen-presenting cells and plays an important role in the regulation of CD4+ T cell differentiation and immune response. IL-27 activates multiple signaling cascades, including the JAK-STAT and p38 MAPK pathways. Several studies have revealed that IL-27 promotes the differentiation of Th1 and Tr1, but inhibits Th2, Th17, and Treg cells. However, a few studies have shown an opposite effect on certain T cell subsets, such as Treg. IL-27 displays both pro- and anti- inflammatory activities in different autoimmune diseases. Here, we have discussed the role of IL-27 in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, colitis, lupus, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes, and uveitis. Most of this information is derived from experimental models of these autoimmune diseases. The mechanistic basis of the dual role of IL-27 in inflammation and autoimmunity is still not fully defined. In general, the pro-/anti-inflammatory activity of IL-27 is influenced by the underlying immune effector pathways, the phase of the disease, the presence or absence of counter-regulatory cytokines/T cell subsets, and the tissue/cell type under study. Despite a spectrum of outcomes in various autoimmune diseases, mostly anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of IL-27 have been observed in this category of diseases. Accordingly, IL-27 represents a novel, promising target/agent for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26253381

  10. IL-2: a two-faced master regulator of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2011-03-01

    CD4(+) T-cell (Th) cytokines provide important regulatory and effector functions of T-cells. Among them, IL-2 plays a unique role. IL-2 is required for the generation and maintenance of regulatory T-cells (Treg) to provide lifelong protection from autoimmune disease. Whether IL-2 is also required for autoimmune disease development is less clear as Il2(-/)(-) mice themselves spontaneously develop multi-organ inflammation (MOI). In this communication, we discuss evidence that support the thesis that IL-2 is required for the development of autoimmune response, although some aspects of autoimmune response are not regulated by IL-2. Potential IL-2-dependent mechanisms operating at specific stages of the inflammation process are presented. The interplays among Treg, IL-2, autoimmune response and adaptive immunity are discussed. Overall, available information indicates that IL-2 is a two-faced master regulator of autoimmunity: one to prevent autoimmunity while the other promotes autoimmune response. The latter is an unfortunate consequence of IL-2 function that is used to promote the adaptive immune response against foreign antigens and pathogens. PMID:21282039

  11. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Cercek, Miha . E-mail: DimayugaP@cshs.org

    2006-01-13

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor {alpha} expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling.

  12. Role of IL-33 in inflammation and disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley M

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a new member of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines that is expressed by mainly stromal cells, such as epithelial and endothelial cells, and its expression is upregulated following pro-inflammatory stimulation. IL-33 can function both as a traditional cytokine and as a nuclear factor regulating gene transcription. It is thought to function as an 'alarmin' released following cell necrosis to alerting the immune system to tissue damage or stress. It mediates its biological effects via interaction with the receptors ST2 (IL-1RL1) and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), both of which are widely expressed, particularly by innate immune cells and T helper 2 (Th2) cells. IL-33 strongly induces Th2 cytokine production from these cells and can promote the pathogenesis of Th2-related disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis. However, IL-33 has shown various protective effects in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiac remodeling. Thus, the effects of IL-33 are either pro- or anti-inflammatory depending on the disease and the model. In this review the role of IL-33 in the inflammation of several disease pathologies will be discussed, with particular emphasis on recent advances. PMID:21871091

  13. IL-33 Exacerbates Periodontal Disease through Induction of RANKL.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, J; Awang, R A; Oliver-Bell, J; Butcher, J P; Campbell, L; Adrados Planell, A; Lappin, D F; Fukada, S Y; Nile, C J; Liew, F Y; Culshaw, S

    2015-07-01

    Cytokines mediate the balance between protective and destructive immunity in periodontitis. We sought to investigate the role of IL-33 in periodontitis. The expression of IL-33 in gingival tissue from healthy controls (n = 10) and patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 17) was investigated. Based on a murine model of periodontal disease, the function of IL-33 was determined first by administration of exogenous IL-33 and second by inhibition of IL-33 signaling using mice deficient in the IL-33 receptor ST2. Alveolar bone level, serum antibody, and lymphocyte responses were assessed in the murine model. Expression of IL-33 and ST2 was elevated in gingival tissues from patients with chronic periodontitis as compared with healthy tissues (P < 0.05). Similarly, Il33 expression was higher in periodontal tissues of Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected mice as compared with sham-infected controls (P < 0.05). IL-33 treatment of P. gingivalis-infected mice significantly exacerbated alveolar bone loss when compared with infection or IL-33 treatment alone (P < 0.001). Conversely, P. gingivalis infection-induced alveolar bone loss was attenuated in mice lacking ST2. The percentages of T and B lymphocytes expressing nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in the gingival tissues and T lymphocytes expressing RANKL in the cervical draining lymph nodes were higher in IL-33-treated P. gingivalis-infected mice versus phosphate buffered saline-treated P. gingivalis-infected controls (all P < 0.001). Targeting the RANKL pathway by osteoprotegerin administration abrogated periodontal bone destruction in P. gingivalis-infected, IL-33-treated mice. These data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for IL-33 in exacerbating bone loss in a RANKL-dependent manner in the context of bacterial infection and suggest that this pathway may be amenable to manipulation as a novel therapeutic target in periodontitis. PMID:25808546

  14. Necrostatin-1 inhibits Hmgb1-IL-23/IL-17 pathway and attenuates cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anbin; Mao, Xiaogang; Li, Lin; Tong, Yunjie; Huang, Yanli; Lan, Yanli; Jiang, Hong

    2014-10-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is a major issue in cardiac transplantation and inflammatory processes play a major role in myocardial IR injury. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a small molecule capable of inhibiting RIP1 kinase activity and attenuates inflammation-mediated tissue injury. In our study, hearts of C57Bl/6 mice were flushed and stored in cold Bretschneider solution for 8 h and then transplanted into syngeneic recipients. We found that Nec-1 decreased cardiomyocyte necrosis and recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages. Troponin T (TnT) production on 24 h after myocardial IR injury was reduced by Nec-1 administration. Cardiac output at 60 mmHg of afterload pressure was significantly increased in hearts with Nec-1 administration and the cardiac allograft survival in Nec-1-treated animals was significantly prolonged (MST = 90 days in IR + Nec-1 group, P < 0.05 as compared with IR group, MST = 83.5 days). Nec-1 treatment attenuated ROS generation and increased expression of NOS2 and COX-2. The expression of Hmgb1, IL-23, and IL-17A were also decreased with Nec-1 administration. Furthermore, the decreased TnT expression induced by Nec-1 was abrogated with exogenous Hmgb1 administration. In conclusion, Nec-1 played a protective role in cardiomyocyte IR injury, and this was associated with inhibited Hmgb1-IL-23/IL-17 pathway. PMID:24810904

  15. Lemongrass effects on IL-1beta and IL-6 production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sforcin, J M; Amaral, J T; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K

    2009-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been widely recognised for its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Its insecticidal, antimicrobial and therapeutic properties have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of a water extract of lemongrass on pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of lemongrass essential oil on cytokine production by macrophages was also analysed in vitro. The chemical composition of the extract and the oil was also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of lemongrass inhibited macrophages to produce IL-1beta but induced IL-6 production by these cells. Lemongrass essential oil inhibited the cytokine production in vitro. Linalool oxide and epoxy-linalool oxide were found to be the major components of lemongrass water extract, and neral and geranial were the major compounds of its essential oil. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this natural product. PMID:19662581

  16. A biophysical approach to IL-2 and IL-15 receptor function: localization, conformation and interactions.

    PubMed

    Bodnár, Andrea; Nizsalóczki, Eniko; Mocsár, Gábor; Szalóki, Nikoletta; Waldmann, Thomas A; Damjanovich, Sándor; Vámosi, György

    2008-03-15

    Interleukin-2 and interleukin-15 (IL-2, IL-15) are key participants in T and NK cell activation and function. Sharing the beta and gamma receptor subunits results in several common functions: e.g. the promotion of T cell proliferation. On the other hand, due to their distinct alpha receptor subunits, they also play opposing roles in immune processes such as activation induced cell death and immunological memory. Divergence of signaling pathways must ensue already at the plasma membrane where the cytokines interact with their receptors. Therefore understanding molecular details of receptor organization and mapping interactions with other membrane proteins that might influence receptor conformation and function, are of key importance. Biophysical/advanced microscopic methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence crosscorrelation spectroscopy (FCCS), near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, NMR spectroscopy) have been instrumental in clarifying the details of receptor structure and organization from the atomic level to the assembly and dynamics of supramolecular clusters. In this short review some important contributions shaping our current view of IL-2 and IL-15 receptors are presented. PMID:18280585

  17. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-17 Synergistically Promote Viral Persistence by Inhibiting Cellular Apoptosis and Cytotoxic T Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Wanqiu; Jin, Young-Hee; Kang, Hyun Seok

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the development and progression of inflammatory responses, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. Many viral infections, including Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), result in the vigorous production of IL-6. However, the role of IL-6 in the development of virus-induced inflammatory responses is unclear. The infection of susceptible mice with TMEV induces the development of chronic demyelinating disease, which is considered a relevant infectious model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that resistant C57BL/6 mice carrying an IL-6 transgene (IL-6 Tg) develop a TMEV-induced demyelinating disease accompanied by an increase in viral persistence and an elevated Th17 cell response in the central nervous system. Either IL-6 or IL-17 induced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL at a high concentration. The upregulated expression of prosurvival molecules in turn inhibited target cell destruction by virus-specific CD8+ T cells. More interestingly, IL-6 and IL-17 synergistically promoted the expression of these prosurvival molecules, preventing cellular apoptosis at a much lower (<5-fold) concentration. The signals involved in the synergy appear to include the activation of both STAT3 and NF-κB via distinct cytokine-dependent pathways. Thus, the excessive IL-6 promotes the generation of Th17 cells, and the resulting IL-6 and IL-17 synergistically promote viral persistence by protecting virus-infected cells from apoptosis and CD8+ T cell-mediated target destruction. These results suggest that blocking both IL-6 and IL-17 functions are important considerations for therapies of chronic viral diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. IMPORTANCE This study indicates that an excessive level of IL-6 cytokine produced following viral infection promotes the development of IL-17-producing pathogenic helper T cells. We demonstrate here for the first time that IL-6 together with IL-17 synergistically

  18. Elevated serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may associate with the development of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Qiao; Kwang, Hou-Wen; Wu, Dong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the correlation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) progression and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in AS patients. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library database, Ovid, Springer link, WANFANG, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP databases(last updated search in October, 2014) were exhaustively searched for published case-control studies using keywords related to IL-6, IL-17 and AS. The search results were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the data from selected high-quality studies was analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Results: Thirteen case-control studies were selected for this meta-analysis and contained a pooled total of 514 AS patients and 358 healthy controls. Our main result revealed strikingly higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in AS patients, compared to healthy controls (IL-6: SMD = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.33~3.70, P = 0.01; IL-17: SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09~4.02, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis showed a statistically correlation of high IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels with AS both in Asian (IL-6: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.75~5.55, P < 0.001; IL-17: SMD = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.93~4.66, P < 0.001) and Caucasian populations (IL-6: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.33~2.35, P = 0.009; IL-17: SMD = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06~3.98, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meta-analysis of pooled data from thirteen high-quality studies revealed a strong correlation between elevated IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels and the development of AS. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-17 could be used as markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment outcomes in AS patients. PMID:26770328

  19. Myxoma Virus Expressing a Fusion Protein of Interleukin-15 (IL15) and IL15 Receptor Alpha Has Enhanced Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tosic, Vesna; Thomas, Diana L.; Kranz, David M.; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant; Shisler, Joanna L.; MacNeill, Amy L.; Roy, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxoma virus, a rabbit poxvirus, can efficiently infect various types of mouse and human cancer cells. It is a strict rabbit-specific pathogen, and is thought to be safe as a therapeutic agent in all non-rabbit hosts tested including mice and humans. Interleukin-15 (IL15) is an immuno-modulatory cytokine with significant potential for stimulating anti-tumor T lymphocytes and NK cells. Co-expression of IL15 with the α subunit of IL15 receptor (IL15Rα) greatly enhances IL15 stability and bioavailability. Therefore, we engineered a new recombinant myxoma virus (vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr), which expresses an IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein plus tdTomato red fluorescent reporter protein. Permissive rabbit kidney epithelial (RK-13) cells infected with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr expressed and secreted the IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein. Functional activity was confirmed by demonstrating that the secreted fusion protein stimulated proliferation of cytokine-dependent CTLL-2 cells. Multi-step growth curves showed that murine melanoma (B16-F10 and B16.SIY) cell lines were permissive to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr infection. In vivo experiments in RAG1-/- mice showed that subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors treated with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr exhibited attenuated tumor growth and a significant survival benefit for the treated group compared to the PBS control and the control viruses (vMyx-IL15-tdTr and vMyx-tdTr). Immunohistological analysis of the subcutaneous tumors showed dramatically increased infiltration of NK cells in vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr treated tumors compared to the controls. In vivo experiments with immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice revealed a strong infiltrate of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells in response to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr, and prolonged survival. We conclude that delivery of IL15Rα-IL15 in a myxoma virus vector stimulates both innate and adaptive components of the immune system. PMID:25329832

  20. Expression and modulation of IL-1 alpha in murine keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ansel, J.C.; Luger, T.A.; Lowry, D.; Perry, P.; Roop, D.R.; Mountz, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    Murine and human keratinocytes produce an IL-1-like factor that appears to be similar if not identical to monocyte-derived IL-1. IL-1 may be an important mediator in cutaneous inflammatory responses, however, little is currently known concerning factors that may modulate IL-1 expression in keratinocytes. To address this issue we examined the effect of LPS, UV, and the cell differentiation state on murine keratinocyte IL-1 mRNA expression. Our results indicated that as with the murine P388D1 monocyte cell line, PAM 212 keratinocytes constitutively express abundant amounts of IL-1 alpha mRNA. On exposure to LPS (100 micrograms/ml) for 8 h there was more than 10 times the increase in PAM 212 IL-1 alpha mRNA which was accompanied by a sixfold increase in supernatant IL-1 activity. Similarly UV irradiation had a significant effect on keratinocyte IL-1 alpha expression. High dose UV (300 mJ/cm2) inhibited PAM 212 IL-1 alpha expression at 4, 8, 24, 48 h post-UV whereas a lower dose of UV (100 mJ/cm2) inhibited UV at 4 and 8 h post-UV, but induced IL-1 expression at 24 and 48 h post-UV. The expression of IL-1 alpha varied with the differentiation state of the keratinocytes. Freshly removed newborn murine keratinocytes were found to constitutively express IL-1 alpha mRNA. Keratinocytes grown in low (Ca2+) tissue culture media (0.05 mM) for 6 days, functionally and phenotypically become undifferentiated and express increased quantities of IL-1 alpha mRNA, whereas cells grown in high (Ca2+) media (1.2 mM) for 6 days become terminally differentiated and IL-1 expression ceased. Keratinocytes cultured for 3 days in low (Ca2+) conditions expressed an intermediate level of IL-1 alpha. In contrast, little or no IL-1 beta mRNA was detected in either the PAM 212 cells or newborn murine keratinocytes.

  1. IRF-1 promotes liver transplant ischemia/reperfusion injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Rα production

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Dou, Lei; Spadaro, Anthony V.; Isse, Kumiko; Ross, Mark A.; Stolz, Donna B.; Kimura, Shoko; Du, Qiang; Demetris, Anthony J.; Thomson, Angus W.; Geller, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury following liver transplantation (LTx) is an important problem that significantly impacts clinical outcomes. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a critical role in liver injury. Our objective was to determine the immunomodulatory role of IRF-1 during I/R injury following allogeneic LTx. IRF-1 was induced in liver grafts immediately after reperfusion in both human and mouse LTx. IRF-1 contributed significantly to I/R injury as IRF-1 KO grafts displayed much less damage assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and histology. In vitro, IRF-1 regulated both constitutive and induced expression of IL-15, as well as IL-15Rα mRNA expression in murine hepatocytes and liver dendritic cells (DC). Specific knockdown of IRF-1 in human primary hepatocytes gave similar results. In addition, we identified hepatocytes as the major producer of soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes in the liver. IRF-1 KO livers had significantly reduced NK, NKT and CD8+T cell numbers, while rIL-15/IL-15Rα restored these immune cells, augmented cytotoxic effector molecules, promoted systemic inflammatory responses, and exacerbated liver injury in IRF-1 KO graft recipients. These results indicate that IRF-1 promotes LTx I/R injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Rα production and suggest that targeting IRF-1 and IL-15/IL-15Rα may be effective in reducing I/R injury associated with LTx. PMID:25964490

  2. Antibodies targeting human IL1RAP (IL1R3) show therapeutic effects in xenograft models of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ågerstam, Helena; Karlsson, Christine; Hansen, Nils; Sandén, Carl; Askmyr, Maria; von Palffy, Sofia; Högberg, Carl; Rissler, Marianne; Wunderlich, Mark; Juliusson, Gunnar; Richter, Johan; Sjöström, Kjell; Bhatia, Ravi; Mulloy, James C.; Järås, Marcus; Fioretos, Thoas

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a poor survival rate, and there is an urgent need for novel and more efficient therapies, ideally targeting AML stem cells that are essential for maintaining the disease. The interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP; IL1R3) is expressed on candidate leukemic stem cells in the majority of AML patients, but not on normal hematopoietic stem cells. We show here that monoclonal antibodies targeting IL1RAP have strong antileukemic effects in xenograft models of human AML. We demonstrate that effector-cell–mediated killing is essential for the observed therapeutic effects and that natural killer cells constitute a critical human effector cell type. Because IL-1 signaling is important for the growth of AML cells, we generated an IL1RAP-targeting antibody capable of blocking IL-1 signaling and show that this antibody suppresses the proliferation of primary human AML cells. Hence, IL1RAP can be efficiently targeted with an anti-IL1RAP antibody capable of both achieving antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and blocking of IL-1 signaling as modes of action. Collectively, these results provide important evidence in support of IL1RAP as a target for antibody-based treatment of AML. PMID:26261316

  3. Enhanced chemosensitization in multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cells by inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 production.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi; Yang, Wei-Min; Chen, Li-Pai; Yang, Dong-Hua; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Jin; Chen, Jun-Jiang; Huang, Ruo-Chun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2012-10-01

    Drug resistance remains a major hurdle to successful cancer treatment. Many mechanisms such as overexpression of multidrug-resistance related proteins, increased drug metabolism, decreased apoptosis, and impairment of signal transduction pathway can contribute multidrug resistance (MDR). Recent studies strongly suggest a close link between cytokines and drug resistance. To identify new targets involved in drug resistance, we established a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/R and examined the cytokine profile using cytokine antibody array technology. Among 120 cytokines/chemokines screened, IL-6, IL-8, and 13 other proteins were found to be markedly increased in drug-resistant MCF-7/R cell line as compared to sensitive MCF-7/S cell line, while 7 proteins were specifically reduced in drug-resistant MCF-7/R cells. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and IL-8 partially reversed the drug resistance of MCF-7/R to paclitaxel and doxorubicin, while a neutralizing antibody against MCP-1 had no significant effect. Inhibition of endogenous IL-6 or IL-8 by siRNA technology significantly enhanced drug sensitivity of MCF-7/R cells. Furthermore, overexpression of IL-6 or IL-8 expression by transfection increased the ADM resistance in MCF-7/S cells. Our data suggest that increased expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 may contribute to MDR in human breast cancer cells. PMID:22923236

  4. Genetic Variants in IL-12B and IL-27 in the Polish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Gorycka, A; Sowinska, A; Stypinska, B; Grobelna, M K; Walczyk, M; Olesinska, M; Piotrowski, P; Jagodzinski, P P

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the potential association between IL-12B and IL-27 gene polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we performed a case-control study based on the Polish population. Patients with SLE and healthy individuals were examined for -6415 CTCTAA/GC (rs17860508) and +1188A/C (rs3212227) in IL-12B and -924A/G (rs153109) and 4730T/C (rs181206) in IL-27 gene polymorphisms using the high-resolution melting method, PCR-RFLP method and TaqMan SNP genotyping assay, respectively. An increased frequency of GC/GC genotype as well as GC allele of the IL-12B rs17860508 was found in patients with SLE, as compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.001). We did not find differences in genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-12B rs3212227 and IL-27 rs153109 and rs181206 variants between patients with SLE and controls. IL-27 haplotype rs181206C/rs153109G indicated higher risk for SLE (P = 0.002), whereas haplotype rs181206T/rs153109G indicated reduced risk for SLE (P = 0.005). The IL-12B rs3212227 A/C polymorphism was associated with the mean value of the platelets (PLT), urea and complement C3 level. Furthermore, IL-12B rs17860508 genetic variant showed correlation with PLT, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and alkaline phosphatase. Our results revealed that IL-12B rs17860508 and IL-27 haplotype CG are genetic risk factors for SLE and that both IL-12B rs17860508 and rs3212227 predict disease phenotype. PMID:27059274

  5. Targeting Imbalance between IL-1β and IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Ameliorates Delayed Epithelium Wound Healing in Diabetic Mouse Corneas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chenxi; Gao, Nan; Sun, Haijing; Yin, Jia; Lee, Patrick; Zhou, Li; Fan, Xianqun; Yu, Fu-Shin

    2016-06-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus often develop corneal complications and delayed wound healing. How diabetes might alter acute inflammatory responses to tissue injury, leading to delayed wound healing, remains mostly elusive. Using a streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes mellitus mice and corneal epithelium-debridement wound model, we discovered that although wounding induced marked expression of IL-1β and the secreted form of IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra), diabetes suppressed the expressions of sIL-1Ra but not IL-1β in healing epithelia and both in whole cornea. In normoglycemic mice, IL-1β or sIL-1Ra blockade delayed wound healing and influenced each other's expression. In diabetic mice, in addition to delayed reepithelization, diabetes weakened phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling, caused cell apoptosis, diminished cell proliferation, suppressed neutrophil and natural killer cell infiltrations, and impaired sensory nerve reinnervation in healing mouse corneas. Local administration of recombinant IL-1Ra partially, but significantly, reversed these pathological changes in the diabetic corneas. CXCL10 was a downstream chemokine of IL-1β-IL-1Ra, and exogenous CXCL10 alleviated delayed wound healing in the diabetic, but attenuated it in the normal corneas. In conclusion, the suppressed early innate/inflammatory responses instigated by the imbalance between IL-1β and IL-1Ra is an underlying cause for delayed wound healing in the diabetic corneas. Local application of IL-1Ra accelerates reepithelialization and may be used to treat chronic corneal and potential skin wounds of diabetic patients. PMID:27109611

  6. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 Concentrations Predict AKI and Long-Term Mortality in Adults after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William R; Garg, Amit X; Coca, Steven G; Devereaux, Philip J; Eikelboom, John; Kavsak, Peter; McArthur, Eric; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Shortt, Colleen; Shlipak, Michael; Whitlock, Richard; Parikh, Chirag R

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation has an integral role in the pathophysiology of AKI. We investigated the associations of two biomarkers of inflammation, plasma IL-6 and IL-10, with AKI and mortality in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients were enrolled at six academic centers (n = 960). AKI was defined as a ≥ 50% or ≥ 0.3-mg/dl increase in serum creatinine from baseline. Pre- and postoperative IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were categorized into tertiles and evaluated for associations with outcomes of in-hospital AKI or postdischarge all-cause mortality at a median of 3 years after surgery. Preoperative concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 were not significantly associated with AKI or mortality. Elevated first postoperative IL-6 concentration was significantly associated with higher risk of AKI, and the risk increased in a dose-dependent manner (second tertile adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.61 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.10 to 2.36]; third tertile adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.45 to 3.13]). First postoperative IL-6 concentration was not associated with risk of mortality; however, the second tertile of peak IL-6 concentration was significantly associated with lower risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.99]). Elevated first postoperative IL-10 concentration was significantly associated with higher risk of AKI (adjusted OR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.04 to 2.38]) and lower risk of mortality (adjusted HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.56 to 0.93]). There was a significant interaction between the concentration of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, an established AKI biomarker, and the association of IL-10 concentration with mortality (P = 0.01). These findings suggest plasma IL-6 and IL-10 may serve as biomarkers for perioperative outcomes. PMID:25855775

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific IL-21+IFN-γ+CD4+ T Cells Are Regulated by IL-12

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Suihua; Yang, Binyan; Yu, Sifei; Zhang, Yannan; Wu, Changyou

    2016-01-01

    In the current study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific T and B cells, we found that MTB-specific peptides from early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) induced the expression of IL-21 predominantly in CD4+ T cells. A fraction of IL-21-expressing CD4+ T cells simultaneously expressed Th1 cytokines but did not secrete Th2 or Th17 cytokines, suggesting that MTB-specific IL-21-expressing CD4+ T cells were different from Th1, Th2 and Th17 subpopulations. The majority of MTB-specific IL-21-expressing CD4+ T cells co-expressed IFN-γ and IL-21+IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells exhibited obviously polyfunctionality. In addition, MTB-specific IL-21-expressing CD4+ T cells displayed a CD45RO+CD62LlowCCR7lowCD40LhighICOShigh phenotype. Bcl-6-expression was significantly higher in IL-21-expressing CD4+ T cells than IL-21-CD4+ T cells. Moreover, IL-12 could up-regulate MTB-specific IL-21 expression, especially the frequency of IL-21+IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MTB-specific IL-21+IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells from local sites of tuberculosis (TB) infection could be enhanced by IL-12, which have the features of both Tfh and Th1 cells and may have an important role in local immune responses against TB infection. PMID:26785168

  8. Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 contributes to host defense against infections and tissue injuries. However, exaggerated, excessive synthesis of IL-6 while fighting environmental stress leads to an acute severe systemic inflammatory response known as 'cytokine storm', since high levels of IL-6 can activate the coagulation pathway and vascular endothelial cells but inhibit myocardial function. Remarkable beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade therapy using a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab were recently observed in patients with cytokine release syndrome complicated by T-cell engaged therapy. In this review we propose the possibility that IL-6 blockade may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for other types of cytokine storm, such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome including sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PMID:27381687

  9. PEGylated IL-10 Activates Kupffer Cells to Control Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ivan H.; Van Hoof, Dennis; Abramova, Marina; Bilardello, Melissa; Mar, Elliot; Jorgensen, Brett; McCauley, Scott; Bal, Harminder; Oft, Martin; Van Vlasselaer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine that exerts potent context specific immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive effects. We have investigated the mechanism by which PEGylated rIL-10 regulates plasma cholesterol in mice and humans. In agreement with previous work on rIL-10, we report that PEGylated rIL-10 harnesses the myeloid immune system to control total plasma cholesterol levels. We have discovered that PEG-rMuIL-10’s dramatic lowering of plasma cholesterol is dependent on phagocytotic cells. In particular, PEG-rHuIL-10 enhances cholesterol uptake by Kupffer cells. In addition, removal of phagocytotic cells dramatically increases plasma cholesterol levels, suggesting for the first time that immunological cells are implicitly involved in regulating total cholesterol levels. These data suggest that treatment with PEG-rIL-10 potentiates endogenous cholesterol regulating cell populations not currently targeted by standard of care therapeutics. Furthermore, we show that IL-10’s increase of Kupffer cell cholesterol phagocytosis is concomitant with decreases in liver cholesterol and triglycerides. This leads to the reversal of early periportal liver fibrosis and facilitates the restoration of liver health. These data recommend PEG-rIL-10 for evaluation in the treatment of fatty liver disease and preventing its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In direct confirmation of our in vivo findings in the treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice with PEG-rMuIL-10, we report that treatment of hypercholesterolemic cancer patients with PEG-rHuIL-10 lowers total plasma cholesterol by up to 50%. Taken together these data suggest that PEG-rIL-10’s cholesterol regulating biology is consistent between mice and humans. PMID:27299860

  10. Optical spectrum variations of IL Cep A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, N. Z.; Khalilov, O. V.; Bakhaddinova, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The results of many-year uniform spectroscopic observations of the Herbig Ae/Be star IL Cep A are presented. Its Hα line has either a single or a barely resolved two-component emission profile. The H β emission line is clearly divided into two components with a deep central absorption. Smooth variations of the observed parameters of individual spectral lines over nine years are observed. The He I λ5876 Å line has a complex absorption profile, probably with superposed emission components. The NaI D1, D2 doublet exhibits weak changes due to variations in the circumstellar envelope. The variations observed in the stellar spectrum can be explained by either binarity or variations of the magnetic field in the stellar disk. Difficulties associated with both these possibilities are discussed.

  11. Autophagy is required for IL-2-mediated fibroblast growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin; Lotze, Michael T.; Zeh III, Herbert J.

    2013-02-15

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for delivery of cytoplasmic material into the lysosomal degradation pathway to enable vesicular exocytosis. Interleukin (IL)-2 is produced by T-cells and its activity is important for immunoregulation. Fibroblasts are an immune competent cell type, playing a critical role in wound healing, chronic inflammation, and tumor development. Although autophagy plays an important role in each of these processes, whether it regulates IL-2 activity in fibroblasts is unknown. Here, we show that autophagy is required for IL-2-induced cell growth in fibroblasts. IL-2 significantly induced autophagy in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and primary lung fibroblasts. Autophagy inhibitors (e.g., 3-methylamphetamine and bafilomycin A1) or knockdown of ATG5 and beclin 1 blocked clinical grade IL-2-induced autophagy. Moreover, IL-2 induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation in MEFs and promoted interaction between HMGB1 and beclin1, which is required for autophagy induction. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy inhibited IL-2-induced cell proliferation and enhanced IL-2-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that autophagy is an important pro-survival regulator for IL-2-induced cell growth in fibroblasts.

  12. The role of IL-17 in vitiligo: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rasnik K; Lee, Kristina M; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Ucmak, Derya; Farahnik, Benjamin; Abrouk, Michael; Nakamura, Mio; Zhu, Tian Hao; Bhutani, Tina; Wei, Maria; Liao, Wilson

    2016-04-01

    IL-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases; however its role in vitiligo has not been well defined. Emerging human and mouse studies have demonstrated that systemic, tissue, and cellular levels of IL-17 are elevated in vitiligo. Many studies have also shown significant positive correlations between these levels and disease activity, extent, and severity. Treatments that improve vitiligo, such as ultraviolet B phototherapy, also modulate IL-17 levels. This review synthesizes our current understanding of how IL-17 may influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune vitiligo at the molecular level. This has implications for defining new vitiligo biomarkers and treatments. PMID:26804758

  13. IL-10 inhibits alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Goillot, E; Tepper, R I

    1994-12-01

    In this report, we present evidence that the CTL response directed against MHC Class I allo-determinants can be inhibited as a result of IL-10 expression in vivo. The presence of localized IL-10 secretion at the site of allogeneic tumor cell challenge resulted in marked inhibition of the CTL response and allowed growth of the tumor in the allogeneic host. Using purified CD4+ T cells from mice immunized in the presence or absence of IL-10, we have shown that the loss of alloreactivity as a consequence of IL-10 expression results from the inhibition of CD4+ T cell function. The expression of either IL-2 or IFN-gamma with IL-10 locally at the time of allogeneic cell challenge completely restored CTL alloreactivity, suggesting that the action of IL-10 could be bypassed by providing helper T lymphocyte-derived cytokines of the Th1 type at the site of immunization. Inhibition of alloreactivity by IL-10 was observed using either purified macrophages or dendritic cells as APC in an in vitro assay. Thus, the expression of IL-10 following antigenic challenge (such as that observed in Th2-like immune responses) may profoundly limit the ability for generating functional CTL in vivo. PMID:7994751

  14. Immunobiology of IL-37: mechanism of action and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Shannon; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the biological function of a recently discovered cytokine, IL-37, formerly referred to as IL-1F7, and its role in chronic inflammation and autoimmune disease. Much has been discovered about IL-37 in the past decade, including its ability to down-regulate systemic and local inflammation by lowering levels of pro-inflammatory molecules. Here, we critically review the published reports. Future research is necessary to understand the receptor-dependent effects of IL-37, its intracellular and extracellular functions in both normal and diseased states and its potential role as a biomarker and pharmacological target in human disease. PMID:25327443

  15. IL-5 in post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Namias, B; Crusiaux, A; Lybin, M; Devos, R; Velu, T; Capel, P; Bellens, R; Goldman, M

    1993-01-01

    Thoracic trauma or pneumothorax can result in pleural fluid eosinophilia. In this study we investigated the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in three cases of post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPE). Using a specific immunoenzymatic assay, significant levels of IL-5 were found in EPE (range 100-3000 pg/ml), while IL-5 was undetectable (< 25 pg/ml) in corresponding serum samples and in non-eosinophilic pleural fluids. IL-5 present in pleural fluids was found bioactive in a proliferative assay using a mouse CTLL-2 cell line transfected with the cDNA corresponding to the alpha chain of the human IL-5 receptor. Using a reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we found IL-5 mRNA expression within pleural mononuclear cells from patients with EPE, but not in corresponding peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), confirming that IL-5 is synthesized locally in the pleural cavity. In the two cases in which pleural CD4+ cells were purified, these cells were identified as the major source of IL-5. Taken together, these data indicate that the development of post-traumatic EPE is related to a local secretion of IL-5 by CD4+ cells present in the pleural cavity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8100745

  16. Epithelial IL-18 Equilibrium Controls Barrier Function in Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nowarski, Roni; Jackson, Ruaidhrí; Gagliani, Nicola; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Palm, Noah W.; Bailis, Will; Low, Jun Siong; Harman, Christian C.D.; Graham, Morven; Elinav, Eran; Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal mucosal barrier controlling the resident microbiome is dependent on a protective mucus layer generated by goblet cells, impairment of which is a hallmark of the inflammatory bowel disease Ulcerative Colitis. Here we show that IL-18 is critical in driving the pathologic breakdown of barrier integrity in a model of colitis. Deletion of Il18 or its receptor Il18r1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Δ/EC) conferred protection from colitis and mucosal damage in mice. In contrast, deletion of the IL-18 negative regulator Il18bp resulted in severe colitis associated with loss of mature goblet cells. Colitis and goblet cell loss were rescued in Il18bp−/−;Il18rΔ/EC mice, demonstrating that colitis severity is controlled at the level of IL-18 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. IL-18 inhibited goblet cell maturation by regulating the transcriptional program instructing goblet cell development. These results inform on the mechanism of goblet cell dysfunction which underlies the pathology of Ulcerative Colitis. PMID:26638073

  17. Adenoma-linked barrier defects and microbial products drive IL-23/IL-17-mediated tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Wang, Kepeng; Mucida, Daniel; Stewart, C. Andrew; Schnabl, Bernd; Jauch, Dominik; Taniguchi, Koji; Yu, Guann-Yi; Osterreicher, Christoph H.; Hung, Kenneth E.; Datz, Christian; Feng, Ying; Fearon, Eric R.; Oukka, Mohamed; Tessarollo, Lino; Coppola, Vincenzo; Yarovinsky, Felix; Cheroutre, Hilde; Eckmann, Lars; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 2% of colorectal cancer is linked to pre-existing inflammation known as colitis-associated cancer, but most develops in patients without underlying inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal cancer often follows a genetic pathway whereby loss of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor and activation of β-catenin are followed by mutations in K-Ras, PIK3CA and TP53, as the tumour emerges and progresses1,2. Curiously, however, ‘inflammatory signature’ genes characteristic of colitis-associated cancer are also upregulated in colorectal cancer3,4. Further, like most solid tumours, colorectal cancer exhibits immune/inflammatory infiltrates5, referred to as ‘tumour elicited inflammation’6. Although infiltrating CD4+ TH1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells constitute a positive prognostic sign in colorectal cancer7,8, myeloid cells and T-helper interleukin (IL)-17-producing (TH17) cells promote tumorigenesis5,6, and a ‘TH17 expression signature’ in stage I/II colorectal cancer is associated with a drastic decrease in disease-free survival9. Despite its pathogenic importance, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tumour-elicited inflammation are poorly understood. Many epithelial cancers develop proximally to microbial communities, which are physically separated from immune cells by an epithelial barrier10. We investigated mechanisms responsible for tumour-elicited inflammation in a mouse model of colorectal tumorigenesis, which, like human colorectal cancer, exhibits upregulation of IL-23 and IL-17. Here we show that IL-23 signalling promotes tumour growth and progression, and development of a tumoural IL-17 response. IL-23 is mainly produced by tumour-associated myeloid cells that are likely to be activated by microbial products, which penetrate the tumours but not adjacent tissue. Both early and late colorectal neoplasms exhibit defective expression of several barrier proteins. We propose that barrier deterioration induced by

  18. IL-1, IL-4 production and IgE levels in acute and chronic fasciolosis before and after triclabendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Allam, A F; Osman, M M; el-Sayed, M H; Demian, S R

    2000-12-01

    IL-1 generation by mononuclear phagocytes, IL-4 production by Th2 lymphocytes and IgE levels in serum were measured in eight patients with acute fasciolosis and seven patients in the chronic stage of the disease before and after triclabendazole treatment. Results were compared with those of a control group of ten individuals. The monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with acute and chronic fasciolosis produced significantly lower levels of IL-1 and IL-4 respectively, particularly in the chronic phase of the disease, as compared to the control. A significant increase in IgE level in both acute and chronic fasciolosis was observed. The level was significantly higher in acute as compared to chronic cases. After treatment with triclabendazole IL-1, IL-4 and IgE levels moved towards the control indicating obvious improvement in the immunological responses of the patients. PMID:11198376

  19. Vitamin D supplementation up-regulates IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Naghavi Gargari, Bahar; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Shirvani Farsani, Zeinab; Pahlevan Kakhki, Majid; Azimi, Amir Reza

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D regulates gene expression and affects target cell functions. IL-6 and IL-17A are pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with MS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D effects on the expression level of IL-6 and IL-17A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Also, we performed a correlation analysis between the gene expression and some clinical features such as serum level of vitamin D and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Significant up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression was shown under vitamin D treatment. Also, some gender specific correlations between the gene expression with vitamin D levels were detected in female RR-MS patients. PMID:26188623

  20. Plasma Levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 in HIV-Positive Patients With Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Izadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) by CD4 + Th (T helper)-type cells is the predominant host defense mechanism against Oral Candidiasis (OC) in HIV-infected individuals. Weakened CMI and depletion of CD4 + T cells are the main factor contributing to the output of OC in HIV-positive individuals. The cytokines produced by Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells play a role in mediating an increased susceptibility to OC during HIV infection. Objectives: The present study investigated plasma concentration of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 in HIV-1 patients suffering from OC. Patients and Methods: In total, 98 samples in four groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons with and without OC) were obtained from the oral cavities and cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and CHROMagar. Also blood samples were obtained to assess plasma level of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 using ELISA technique. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma concentration of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 but not about IL-4. Our findings suggest a significant interaction between fungal infection and HIV on expression of assessed cytokines. Conclusions: Fungal infection and HIV alone and together could seriously alter immune system function as assessed by measuring the levels of the plasma cytokines. Therefore, these results provide important new information relative to the putative immune-based factors associated with resistance and/or susceptibility to OC in HIV-positive persons. PMID:27127595

  1. Inhibition of TYK2 and JAK1 Ameliorates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Dermatitis by Inhibiting IL-22 and the IL-23/IL-17 axis

    PubMed Central

    Works, Melissa G.; Yin, Fangfang; Yin, Catherine C.; Yiu, Ying; Shew, Kenneth; Tran, Thanh-Thuy; Dunlap, Nahoko; Lam, Jennifer; Mitchell, Tim; Reader, John; Stein, Paul L.; D’Andrea, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin and characterized by aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and function. Immune cells infiltrate the skin and release proinflammatory cytokines that play important roles in psoriasis. The Th17 network, including IL-23 and IL-22, has recently emerged as a critical component in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. IL-22 and IL-23 signaling is dependent on the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases, making Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition an appealing strategy for the treatment of psoriasis. Here we report the activity of SAR-20347, a small molecule inhibitor with specificity for JAK1 and Tyrosine Kinase 2 (TYK2) over other JAK family members. In cellular assays, SAR-20347 dose-dependently (1 nM-10 μM) inhibited JAK1 and/or TYK2 dependent signaling from the IL-12/IL-23, IL-22, and IFN-α receptors. In vivo, TYK2 mutant mice or treatment of wild type mice with SAR-20347 significantly reduced IL-12 induced IFN-γ production and IL-22-dependent Serum Amyloid A (SAA) to similar extents, indicating that in these models, SAR-20347 is probably acting through inhibition of TYK2. In an imiquimod-induced psoriasis model, the administration of SAR-20347 led to a striking decrease in disease pathology, including reduced activation of keratinocytes, and proinflammatory cytokine levels compared to both TYK2 mutant mice and wild type controls. Taken together, these data indicate that targeting both JAK1 and TYK2-mediated cytokine signaling is more effective than TYK2 inhibition alone in reducing psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:25156366

  2. Inhibition of TYK2 and JAK1 ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis by inhibiting IL-22 and the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    PubMed

    Works, Melissa G; Yin, Fangfang; Yin, Catherine C; Yiu, Ying; Shew, Kenneth; Tran, Thanh-Thuy; Dunlap, Nahoko; Lam, Jennifer; Mitchell, Tim; Reader, John; Stein, Paul L; D'Andrea, Annalisa

    2014-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin and characterized by aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and function. Immune cells infiltrate the skin and release proinflammatory cytokines that play important roles in psoriasis. The Th17 network, including IL-23 and IL-22, has recently emerged as a critical component in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. IL-22 and IL-23 signaling is dependent on the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases, making JAK inhibition an appealing strategy for the treatment of psoriasis. In this study, we report the activity of SAR-20347, a small molecule inhibitor with specificity for JAK1 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) over other JAK family members. In cellular assays, SAR-20347 dose dependently (1 nM-10 μM) inhibited JAK1- and/or TYK2-dependent signaling from the IL-12/IL-23, IL-22, and IFN-α receptors. In vivo, TYK2 mutant mice or treatment of wild-type mice with SAR-20347 significantly reduced IL-12-induced IFN-γ production and IL-22-dependent serum amyloid A to similar extents, indicating that, in these models, SAR-20347 is probably acting through inhibition of TYK2. In an imiquimod-induced psoriasis model, the administration of SAR-20347 led to a striking decrease in disease pathology, including reduced activation of keratinocytes and proinflammatory cytokine levels compared with both TYK2 mutant mice and wild-type controls. Taken together, these data indicate that targeting both JAK1- and TYK2-mediated cytokine signaling is more effective than TYK2 inhibition alone in reducing psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:25156366

  3. ILs-3, 6 and 11 increase, but ILs-10 and 24 decrease stemness of human prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Qiao, Baoping; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with cancer recurrence and metastasis. Prostate cancer cells often metastasize to the bone with a complex microenvironment of cytokines favoring cell survival. In this study, the cell stemness influence of a group of interleukins including IL-3, 6, 10, 11 and 24 on human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 was explored in vitro. Sulforhodamine B(SRB) and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays were applied to examine the effect on cell proliferation, and wound healing and transwell assays were used for migration and invasion studies, in addition to colony formation, Western blotting and flowcytometry for the expression of stemness factors and chemotherapy sensitivity. We observed that ILs-3, 6 and 11 stimulated while ILs-10 and 24 inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of both cell lines. Interestingly, ILs-3, 6 and 11 significantly promoted colony formation and increased the expression of SOX2, CD44 and ABCG2 in both prostate cancer cell lines. However, ILs-10 and 24 showed the opposite effect on the expression of these factors. In line with the above findings, treatment with either IL-3 or IL-6 or IL-11 decreased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel while treatment with either IL-10 or IL-24 increased the sensitivity of docetaxel chemotherapy. In conclusion, our results suggest that ILs-3, 6 and 11 function as tumor promoters while ILs-10 and 24 function as tumor suppressors in the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP in vitro, and such differences may attribute to their different effect on the stemness of PCa cells. PMID:26528857

  4. Regulation of the IL-12 receptor beta2 subunit by soluble antigen and IL-12 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, F; Rogge, L; Guéry, J C; Smiroldo, S; Adorini, L

    1998-01-01

    Continuous administration of soluble protein antigen to BALB/c mice inhibits the development of Th1 and induces selective differentiation of Th2 cells. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-12, administered together with soluble protein through a mini-osmotic pump implanted subcutaneously, not only prevents the inhibition of Th1 cell development, but stimulates higher interferon (IFN)-gamma production than in mice receiving IL-12 alone. In parallel to co-stimulation of Th1 cell development, co-administration of IL-12 blocks the Th2 response induced by soluble protein. IL-12 administered in adjuvant with antigen or intraperitoneally 2 days after the immunization does not break the inhibition of Th1 but can still decrease the Th2 response induced by pretreatment with soluble protein antigen. In contrast to IL-12, co-administration of IL-2 or IFN-gamma does not affect the diversion to Th2 induced by soluble antigen. Thus IL-12, but not IL-2 nor IFN-gamma, converts in vivo the inhibitory signal for Th1 cell development delivered by soluble antigen into an immunogenic one, while blocking a positive signal for Th2 cell differentiation. A molecular basis for the co-stimulation of Th1 priming and the prevention of Th2 differentiation by IL-12 in vivo is provided by the observation that transcripts encoding the IL-12 receptor beta2 chain, which is required for IL-12 signaling and Th1 cell development, are selectively inhibited by soluble antigen but are enhanced by IL-12 co-administration. PMID:9485201

  5. Circulating levels of IL-1B+IL-6 cause ER stress and dysfunction in islets from prediabetic male mice.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Christina M; Lu, Christine; Corbin, Kathryn L; Sharma, Poonam R; Dula, Stacey B; Carter, Jeffrey D; Ramadan, James W; Xin, Wenjun; Lee, Jae K; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2013-09-01

    Elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with obesity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism is unknown. We tested whether proinflammatory cytokines IL-1B+IL-6 at low picogram per milliliter concentrations (consistent with serum levels) could directly trigger pancreatic islet dysfunction. Overnight exposure to IL-1B+IL-6 in islets isolated from normal mice and humans disrupted glucose-stimulated intracellular calcium responses; cytokine-induced effects were more severe among islets from prediabetic db/db mice that otherwise showed no signs of dysfunction. IL-1B+IL-6 exposure reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage, activated ER stress responses (Nos2, Bip, Atf4, and Ddit3 [CHOP]), impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and increased cell death only in islets from prediabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, we found increased serum levels of IL-1B and IL-6 in diabetes-prone mice at an age before hyperglycemia was exhibited, suggesting that low-grade systemic inflammation develops early in the disease process. In addition, we implanted normal outbred and inbred mice with subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps containing IL-1B+IL-6 to mimic the serum increases found in prediabetic db/db mice. Both IL-1B and IL-6 were elevated in serum from cytokine-pump mice, but glucose tolerance and blood glucose levels did not differ from controls. However, when compared with controls, isolated islets from cytokine-pump mice showed deficiencies in calcium handling and insulin secretion that were similar to observations with islets exposed to cytokines in vitro. These findings provide proof of principle that low-grade systemic inflammation is present early in the development of type 2 diabetes and can trigger ER stress-mediated islet dysfunction that can lead to islet failure. PMID:23836031

  6. Data on pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6 in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Saing, Tommy; Valdivia, Anddre; Hussain, Parveen; Ly, Judy; Gonzalez, Leslie; Guilford, Frederick T; Pearce, Daniel; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2016-09-01

    Our most recent data indicate differences in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6) and malondialdehyde (MDA), a stable end-product of lipid peroxidation in the plasma samples between HIV positive individuals with low CD4 T cell counts <200 mm(3) and HIV positive individuals with CD4 T cell counts between 200 and 300 mm(3) (ee). The data lend support and provide valuable correlation between CD4 T cell counts and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in HIV positive individuals. PMID:27508262

  7. A tale of two cytokines: IL-17 and IL-22 in asthma and infection

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Michelle L; Robinson, Keven M; Alcorn, John F

    2014-01-01

    The Th17 pathway has recently been shown to play a critical role in host defense, allergic responses and autoimmune inflammation. Th17 cells predominantly produce IL-17 and IL-22, which are two cytokines with broad effects in the lung and other tissues. This review summarizes not only what is currently known about the molecular regulation of this pathway and Th17-related cytokine signaling, but also the roles of these cytokines in pathogen immunity and asthma. In the last 5 years, the Th17 field has rapidly grown and research has revealed that the Th17 pathway is essential in lung pathogenesis in response to exogenous stimuli. As work in the field continues, it is expected that many exciting therapeutic advances will be made for a broad range of diseases. PMID:24325586

  8. NOD Dendritic Cells Stimulated with Lactobacilli Preferentially Produce IL-10 versus IL-12 and Decrease Diabetes Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Manirarora, Jean N.; Parnell, Sarah A.; Hu, Yoon-Hyeon; Kosiewicz, Michele M.; Alard, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) from NOD mice produced high levels of IL-12 that induce IFNγ-producing T cells involved in diabetes development. We propose to utilize the microorganism ability to induce tolerogenic DCs to abrogate the proinflammatory process and prevent diabetes development. NOD DCs were stimulated with Lactobacilli (nonpathogenic bacteria targeting TLR2) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus (TLR2 agonist). LTA-treated DCs produced much more IL-12 than IL-10 and accelerated diabetes development when transferred into NOD mice. In contrast, stimulation of NOD DCs with L. casei favored the production of IL-10 over IL-12, and their transfer decreased disease incidence which anti-IL-10R antibodies restored. These data indicated that L. casei can induce NOD DCs to develop a more tolerogenic phenotype via production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Evaluation of the relative production of IL-10 and IL-12 by DCs may be a very useful means of identifying agents that have therapeutic potential. PMID:21716731

  9. IL-27 supports germinal center function by enhancing IL-21 production and the function of T follicular helper cells.

    PubMed

    Batten, Marcel; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; Kljavin, Noelyn M; Ma, Cindy S; Cox, Jennifer H; Dengler, Hart S; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Caplazi, Patrick; Wong, Melanie; Fulcher, David A; Cook, Matthew C; King, Cecile; Tangye, Stuart G; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Ghilardi, Nico

    2010-12-20

    Maturation and selection of high-affinity B cell clones in the germinal center (GC) relies on support from T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells. T(FH) cells are characterized by their localization to the B cell follicle and their high expression of the costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD1 and the cytokine IL-21, which promotes immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching and production by B cells. We show that the heterodimeric cytokine IL-27 is critical for the function of T(FH) cells and for normal and pathogenic GC responses. IL-27 signaling to T cells results in the production of IL-21, a known autocrine factor for the maintenance of T(FH) cells, in a STAT3-dependent manner. IL-27 also enhances the survival of activated CD4(+) T cells and the expression of T(FH) cell phenotypic markers. In vivo, expression of the IL-27Rα chain is required to support IL-21 production and T(FH) cell survival in a T cell-intrinsic manner. The production of high-affinity antibodies is reduced, and pristane-elicited autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis are significantly diminished, in Il27ra(-/-) mice. Together, our data show a nonredundant role for IL-27 in the development of T cell-dependent antibody responses. PMID:21098093

  10. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus. PMID:26002078

  11. Aberrant actin depolymerization triggers the pyrin inflammasome and autoinflammatory disease that is dependent on IL-18, not IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Lyang; Chae, Jae Jin; Park, Yong Hwan; De Nardo, Dominic; Stirzaker, Roslynn A; Ko, Hyun-Ja; Tye, Hazel; Cengia, Louise; DiRago, Ladina; Metcalf, Donald; Roberts, Andrew W; Kastner, Daniel L; Lew, Andrew M; Lyras, Dena; Kile, Benjamin T; Croker, Ben A; Masters, Seth L

    2015-06-01

    Gain-of-function mutations that activate the innate immune system can cause systemic autoinflammatory diseases associated with increased IL-1β production. This cytokine is activated identically to IL-18 by an intracellular protein complex known as the inflammasome; however, IL-18 has not yet been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of hereditary autoinflammatory disorders. We have now identified an autoinflammatory disease in mice driven by IL-18, but not IL-1β, resulting from an inactivating mutation of the actin-depolymerizing cofactor Wdr1. This perturbation of actin polymerization leads to systemic autoinflammation that is reduced when IL-18 is deleted but not when IL-1 signaling is removed. Remarkably, inflammasome activation in mature macrophages is unaltered, but IL-18 production from monocytes is greatly exaggerated, and depletion of monocytes in vivo prevents the disease. Small-molecule inhibition of actin polymerization can remove potential danger signals from the system and prevents monocyte IL-18 production. Finally, we show that the inflammasome sensor of actin dynamics in this system requires caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and the innate immune receptor pyrin. Previously, perturbation of actin polymerization by pathogens was shown to activate the pyrin inflammasome, so our data now extend this guard hypothesis to host-regulated actin-dependent processes and autoinflammatory disease. PMID:26008898

  12. IL-17 and IL-22 genetic polymorphisms in HBV vaccine non- and low-responders among healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Borzooy, Zohreh; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Mirshafiey, Abbass; Khamseh, Azam; Mahmoudie, Masoud Karkhaneh; Navabi, Shadi Sadat; Nosrati, Marjan; Najafi, Zahra; Hosseini, Mostafa; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare workers constitute a population at high risk for HBV infection. Efficient vaccination options are available; however, the individual response to HBV vaccination may vary widely between subjects, potentially due to cytokine profiles and genetic variations. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between IL-17 and IL-22 gene polymorphisms versus non- and low-responsiveness to HBV vaccination in healthcare workers. Methods We selected the following IL-17 and IL-22 polymorphisms: rs4711998 (A/G) from IL-17 and rs2227501 (A/T), rs2227503 (A/G), rs1026786 (A/G) from IL-22 sequences genes. These were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results The IL-17 rs4711998 GG genotype had a significantly lower frequency in non-responders compared to low-responders (p=0.025). However, we did not identify a relationship between IL-22 rs1026780, rs2227501 and rs2227503 genotypes and the anti-HBs response following HBV vaccination. Conclusion These data suggest that genetic variation in rs4711998 polymorphisms in the IL-17 cytokine may influence vaccine-induced immune responses to HBV vaccine in healthcare workers. PMID:27019828

  13. IL-1β and IL-6 Upregulation in Children with H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiaretti, Antonio; Pulitanò, Silvia; Barone, Giovanni; Ferrara, Pietro; Capozzi, Domenico; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The role of cytokines in relation to clinical manifestations, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 virus infection remains thus far unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate interleukin IL-1β and IL-6 plasma expressions and their association with clinical findings, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 infection. We prospectively evaluated 15 children with H1N1 virus infection and 15 controls with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Interleukin plasma levels were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. Significantly higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were detected in all patients with H1N1 virus infection compared to controls. It is noteworthy to mention that in H1N1 patients with more severe clinical manifestations of disease IL-1β and IL-6 expressions were significantly upregulated compared to H1N1 patients with mild clinical manifestations. In particular, IL-6 was significantly correlated with specific clinical findings, such as severity of respiratory compromise and fever. No correlation was found between interleukin expression and final outcome. In conclusion, H1N1 virus infection induces an early and significant upregulation of both interleukins IL1β and IL-6 plasma expressions. The upregulation of these cytokines is likely to play a proinflammatory role in H1N1 virus infection and may contribute to airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity in these patients. PMID:23737648

  14. A case for IL-6, IL-17A, and nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benchabane, Sarah; Boudjelida, Abdelhalim; Toumi, Ryma; Belguendouz, Houda; Youinou, Pierre; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2016-09-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune epithelitis characterized by mononuclear cell (MNC) infiltration of the lacrimal and salivary glands (SG), as well as the presence of serum autoantibodies. This condition is a growing public health concern in Algeria. Herein, we sought to determine if the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, and nitric oxide (NO), were correlated with the extent of MNC infiltration. The expression of inducible NO synthase (NOS2) and CD68 was measured in the SG of all patients, but not in those of the normal controls (NCs). We included 44 primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients and 15 NCs in this study; we found that the expression of NOS2 and CD68 was elevated in all of the SG of SS patients. Additionally, the serum and saliva levels of IL-6, IL-17A, and NO were higher in the pSS patients, compared with the NCs. Furthermore, the NOS2-induced excess NO was associated with the extent of the MNC infiltration, and thereby with tissue injury. It is also important to note that there were correlations between the levels of IL-6, IL-17A, and NO. Such findings indicate that through the effects of NO, IL-17A participates in the pathophysiology of the disease. With the purpose of improving both the diagnosis and prognosis, IL-6, IL-17A, and NO should be assayed in the serum and saliva of patients suspected of SS. PMID:27207443

  15. IL-23 modulated myelin-specific T cells induce EAE via an IFNγ driven, IL-17 independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kroenke, Mark A.; Segal, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated by myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells. An unresolved issue that has important clinical implications concerns the cytokines produced by myelin-reactive T cells that determine their pathogenicity. Initially, IL-12 polarized, IFNγ producing Th1 cells were thought to be essential for the development of EAE. More recently, IL-23 polarized, IL-17 producing Th17 cells have been highlighted as critical encephalitogenic effectors. There is growing evidence that parallel autoimmune pathways can result in common clinical and histopathological endpoints. In the current study, we describe a form of EAE induced by the transfer of IL-23 modulated CD4+ T cells into IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) deficient hosts. We found that IL-23 stimulates myelin-reactive T cells to produce both IFNγ and IL-17. Surprisingly, in this model the development of EAE is IFNγ dependent. Our findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which IL-23 promotes encephalitogenicity and they further expand the spectrum of autoreactive T cells capable of mediating inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. PMID:20951792

  16. Intratumoral delivery of encapsulated IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in a model of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Michael S; Su, Gang; Griffith, Kent A; Chang, Alfred E

    2010-07-01

    Intratumoral (i.t.) cytokine release through the use of poly-lactic acid microspheres (PLAM) holds tremendous potential for the immunotherapy of breast cancer as it harnesses the immunologic potential of autologous tumor in a clinically feasible and minimally toxic manner. We examined the potential of combinations of i.t. IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha PLAM to generate a tumor-specific immune response and improve outcome in a model of metastatic breast cancer. Balb/c mice with established 4T1 mammary carcinomas were treated with a single injection of BSA, IL-12, IL-18 or TNF-alpha-loaded PLAM alone or in combination after spontaneous metastases occurred. Combined treatment with IL-12 and TNF-alpha PLAM was superior to all other treatments, including the triple combination of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in ablation of the primary tumor, eradicating distant disease and enhancing survival. Simultaneous delivery of IL-12 and TNF-alpha was superior to sequential delivery of IL-12 followed by TNF-alpha, but not TNF-alpha followed by IL-12. In vivo lymphocyte depletion studies established that the effects of IL-12 alone are mediated primarily by NK cells, while the combination of IL-12 and TNF-alpha is dependent upon CD8+ T-cells. Only the combination of IL-12 and TNF-alpha results in an increase in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and a reduction in CD4+CD25+ cells. While there was no change in the dendritic cell population, IL-12 and TNF-alpha resulted in a dramatic increase in DC maturation and antigen presentation. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with simultaneous intratumoral delivery of IL-12 and TNF-alpha PLAM augments DC antigen presentation and increases cytotoxic T-cells without increasing regulatory T-cells, resulting in a T-cell based anti-tumor immune response capable of eradicating disseminated disease. The addition of IL-18 did not improve the efficacy. PMID:19802695

  17. IL-33/ST2 axis in inflammation and immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Marija; Volarevic, Vladislav; Radosavljevic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Ivan; Pejnovic, Nada; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Lukic, Miodrag L

    2012-04-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, binds to its plasma membrane receptor, heterodimeric complex consisted of membrane-bound ST2L and IL-1R accessory protein, inducing NFkB and MAPK activation. IL-33 exists as a nuclear precursor and may act as an alarmin, when it is released after cell damage or as negative regulator of NFκB gene transcription, when acts in an intracrine manner. ST2L is expressed on several immune cells: Th2 lymphocytes, NK, NKT and mast cells and on cells of myeloid lineage: monocytes, dendritic cells and granulocytes. IL-33/ST2 axis can promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses depending on the type of activated cell and microenvironment and cytokine network in damaged tissue. We previously described and discuss here the important role of IL-33/ST2 axis in experimental models of type 1 diabetes, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, fulminant hepatitis and breast cancer. We found that ST2 deletion enhance the development of T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders, EAE and diabetes mellitus type I. Disease development was accompanied by dominantly Th1/Th17 immune response but also higher IL-33 production, which suggest that IL-33 in receptor independent manner could promote the development of inflammatory autoreactive T cells. IL-33/ST2 axis has protective role in Con A hepatitis. ST2-deficient mice had more severe hepatitis with higher influx of inflammatory cells in liver and dominant Th1/Th17 systemic response. Pretreatment of mice with IL-33 prevented Con A-induced liver damage through prevention of apoptosis of hepatocytes and Th2 amplification. Deletion of IL-33/ST2 axis enhances cytotoxicity of NK cells, production of IFN-γ in these cells and systemic production of IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α, which leads to attenuated tumor growth. IL-33 treatment of tumor-bearing mice suppresses activity of NK cells, dendritic cell maturation and enhances alternative activation of macrophages. In conclusion, we observed

  18. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D

    2015-05-12

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:25918379

  19. RNA interference of IL-10 in leukemic B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Brian A; Mansour, Amal; Lin, Yi-Chu; Kotenko, Sergei; Raveche, Elizabeth

    2004-07-23

    RNA interference, or RNAi, is designed to work by Watson-Crick base pairing and to result in a posttranscriptional block in protein synthesis. Antiapoptotic proteins are a major focus of cancer therapy and make attractive targets for RNAi. An IL-10 RNAi sequence was designed in accordance with Tuschl rules and was modeled to a hairpin configuration. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia in the Western world, the failure to undergo apoptosis may be responsible for the accumulation of malignant B-1 cells. Interleukin-10, despite controversy, has been shown to have antiapoptotic properties, and increased endogenous IL-10 production has been found in CLL by several labs. A malignant B-1 cell line, LNC, derived from an NZB mouse (a murine model for CLL) was utilized as a target for IL-10 RNAi. Our earlier studies of antisense IL-10 resulted in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. The cytotoxic effects of IL-10 RNAi were dose- and time-dependent, with an optimal dose 10-fold lower than that of antisense IL-10. IL-10 RNAi lowered IL-10 protein as measured by ELISA. 2 micro M IL-10 RNAi initiated a G2/M block and a decrease in the message for cdc25C, the M-phase inducer phosphatase. IL-10 RNAi efficiently induced apoptosis. Bcl7C, a member of the antiapoptotic Bcl family, was significantly down-regulated. IL-10 modulating Bcl7C expression represents a novel mechanism in the evasion of apoptosis. This approach, by itself or in conjunction with current therapies, merits consideration in similar B-cell malignancies. PMID:15270555

  20. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Rebecca L.; Doerner, Stephanie K.; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M.; Dawson, Emily P.; Lanza, Denise G.; Berger, Nathan A.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Heaney, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in ApcMin/+ polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in ApcMin/+ polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:25918379

  1. IL-33 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Lukas F.; Riether, Carsten; Schürch, Christian M.; Banz, Yara; Wasmer, Marie-Hélène; Stuber, Regula; Theocharides, Alexandre P.; Li, Xiaohong; Xia, Yu; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Baerlocher, Gabriela M.; Manz, Markus G.; McCoy, Kathy D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Ochsenbein, Adrian F.; Beutler, Bruce; Krebs, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by the clonal expansion of one or more myeloid cell lineage. In most cases, proliferation of the malignant clone is ascribed to defined genetic alterations. MPNs are also associated with aberrant expression and activity of multiple cytokines; however, the mechanisms by which these cytokines contribute to disease pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we reveal a non-redundant role for steady-state IL-33 in supporting dysregulated myelopoiesis in a murine model of MPN. Genetic ablation of the IL-33 signaling pathway was sufficient and necessary to restore normal hematopoiesis and abrogate MPN-like disease in animals lacking the inositol phosphatase SHIP. Stromal cell–derived IL-33 stimulated the secretion of cytokines and growth factors by myeloid and non-hematopoietic cells of the BM, resulting in myeloproliferation in SHIP-deficient animals. Additionally, in the transgenic JAK2V617F model, the onset of MPN was delayed in animals lacking IL-33 in radio-resistant cells. In human BM, we detected increased numbers of IL-33–expressing cells, specifically in biopsies from MPN patients. Exogenous IL-33 promoted cytokine production and colony formation by primary CD34+ MPN stem/progenitor cells from patients. Moreover, IL-33 improved the survival of JAK2V617F-positive cell lines. Together, these data indicate a central role for IL-33 signaling in the pathogenesis of MPNs. PMID:26011644

  2. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet...

  3. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet...

  4. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet...

  5. Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Angela; McLeod, Olga; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Deleskog, Anna; Persson, Jonas; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Gustafsson, Sven; Söderberg, Stefan; Öhrvik, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genetic variants robustly associated with coronary artery disease were reported in the vicinity of the interleukin (IL)-5 locus, and animal studies suggested a protective role for IL-5 in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we set this work to explore IL-5 as a plasma biomarker for early subclinical atherosclerosis, as determined by measures of baseline severity and change over time of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods We used biobank and databases of IMPROVE, a large European prospective cohort study of high-risk individuals (n = 3534) free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, in whom composite and segment-specific measures of cIMT were recorded at baseline and after 15 and 30 months. IL-5 was measured with an immunoassay in plasma samples taken at baseline. Results IL-5 levels were lower in women than in men, lower in the South than in North of Europe, and showed positive correlations with most established risk factors. IL-5 showed significant inverse relationships with cIMT change over time in the common carotid segment in women, but no significant relationships to baseline cIMT in either men or women. Conclusions Our results suggest that IL-5 may be part of protective mechanisms operating in early atherosclerosis, at least in women. However, the relationships are weak and whereas IL-5 has been proposed as a potential molecular target to treat allergies, it is difficult to envisage such a scenario in coronary artery disease. PMID:25587992

  6. Interleukin-2 (IL-2, Proleukin) and immune function.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    IL-2 is an immune-based therapy that results in dramatic increases in CD4+ cell counts when used in conjunction with anti-HIV therapy. Although IL-2 has been discussed in previous issues of PI Perspective, new information warrants a further look at the product. PMID:12647677

  7. MicroRNAs: New regulators of IL-22.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhou; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Enyu; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-10 family of interleukins. It can be produced by T helper 22 (Th22) cells, T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T helper 17 (Th17) cells, natural killer 22 (NK22) cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), and γδ T cells. IL-22 acts via binding to a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor complex that consists of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 and mainly contributes to the tissue repair and host defense. Transcription factors such as retinoid orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), have been reported to play important roles in regulation of IL-22 expression. Recently, it has been demonstrated in several studies that microRNAs (miRNAs) potently regulate expression of interleukins, including production of IL-22. Here, we review current knowledge about regulators of IL-22 expression with a particular emphasis on the role of miRNAs. PMID:27221197

  8. The Role of the IL-20 Subfamily in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Mary K.; Keller, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common disease that leads to loss of peripheral vision and, if left untreated, ultimately to blindness. While the exact cause(s) of glaucoma is still unknown, two leading risk factors are age and elevated intraocular pressure. Several studies suggest a possible link between glaucoma and inflammation in humans and animal models. In particular, our lab recently identified a T104M mutation in IL-20 receptor-B (IL-20RB) in primary open angle glaucoma patients from a large pedigree. Several of the interleukin- (IL-) 20 family of cytokines and receptors are expressed in ocular tissues including the trabecular meshwork, optic nerve head, and retinal ganglion cells. The DBA/2J mouse develops high intraocular pressures with age and has characteristic optic nerve defects that make it a useful glaucoma model. IL-24 expression is significantly upregulated in the retina of these mice, while IL-20RA expression in the optic nerve is downregulated following pressure-induced damage. The identification of a mutation in the IL-20RB gene in a glaucoma pedigree and changes in expression levels of IL-20 family members in the DBA/2J mouse suggest that disruption of normal IL-20 signaling in the eye may contribute to degenerative processes associated with glaucoma. PMID:26903709

  9. IL-18 induces PD-1-dependent immunosuppression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Terme, Magali; Ullrich, Evelyn; Aymeric, Laetitia; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Desbois, Mélanie; Delahaye, Nicolas; Viaud, Sophie; Ryffel, Bernard; Yagita, Hideo; Kaplanski, Gilles; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle; Kato, Masashi; Schultze, Joachim L; Tartour, Eric; Kroemer, Guido; Chaput, Nathalie; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2011-08-15

    Immunosuppressive cytokines subvert innate and adaptive immune responses during cancer progression. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) is known to accumulate in cancer patients, but its pathophysiological role remains unclear. In this study, we show that low levels of circulating IL-18, either exogenous or tumor derived, act to suppress the NK cell arm of tumor immunosurveillance. IL-18 produced by tumor cells promotes the development of NK-controlled metastases in a PD-1-dependent manner. Accordingly, PD-1 is expressed by activated mature NK cells in lymphoid organs of tumor bearers and is upregulated by IL-18. RNAi-mediated knockdown of IL-18 in tumors, or its systemic depletion by IL-18-binding protein, are sufficient to stimulate NK cell-dependent immunosurveillance in various tumor models. Together, these results define IL-18 as an immunosuppressive cytokine in cancer. Our findings suggest novel clinical implementations of anti-PD-1 antibodies in human malignancies that produce IL-18. PMID:21724589

  10. Local therapy of cancer with free IL-2

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, John J. L.; Battermann, Jan J.; Hordijk, Gerrit Jan; Krastev, Zachary; Moiseeva, Ekaterina V.; Stewart, Rachel J. E.; Ziekman, Paul G. P. M.; Koten, Jan Willem

    2008-01-01

    This is a position paper about the therapeutic effects of locally applied free IL-2 in the treatment of cancer. Local therapy: IL-2 therapy of cancer was originally introduced as a systemic therapy. This therapy led to about 20% objective responses. Systemic therapy however was very toxic due to the vascular leakage syndrome. Nevertheless, this treatment was a break-through in cancer immunotherapy and stimulated some interesting questions: Supposing that the mechanism of IL-2 treatment is both proliferation and tumoricidal activity of the tumor infiltrating cells, then locally applied IL-2 should result in a much higher local IL-2 concentration than systemic IL-2 application. Consequently a greater beneficial effect could be expected after local IL-2 application (peritumoral = juxtatumoral, intratumoral, intra-arterial, intracavitary, or intratracheal = inhalation). Free IL-2: Many groups have tried to prepare a more effective IL-2 formulation than free IL-2. Examples are slow release systems, insertion of the IL-2 gene into a tumor cell causing prolonged IL-2 release. However, logistically free IL-2 is much easier to apply; hence we concentrated in this review and in most of our experiments on the use of free IL-2. Local therapy with free IL-2 may be effective against transplanted tumors in experimental animals, and against various spontaneous carcinomas, sarcomas, and melanoma in veterinary and human cancer patients. It may induce rejection of very large, metastasized tumor loads, for instance advanced clinical tumors. The effects of even a single IL-2 application may be impressive. Not each tumor or tumor type is sensitive to local IL-2 application. For instance transplanted EL4 lymphoma or TLX9 lymphoma were not sensitive in our hands. Also the extent of sensitivity differs: In Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) often a complete regression is obtained, whereas with the Bovine Vulval Papilloma and Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC) mainly stable disease is

  11. IL-17 induces EMT via Stat3 in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Han, Jieli; Fan, Jinshuo; Duan, Limin; Guo, Mengfei; Lv, Zhilei; Hu, Guorong; Chen, Lian; Wu, Feng; Tao, Xiaonan; Xu, Juanjuan; Jin, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a vital role in lung inflammatory diseases, including lung cancer. However, the role and mechanism of action of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 in EMT in lung adenocarcinoma remain unresolved. In our study, we discovered that the expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2, and Twist1 was positively correlated with IL-17 expression, while E-cadherin expression was negatively correlated with IL-17 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that IL-17 promoted EMT in A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vitro by upregulating N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2, and Twist1 expression and downregulating E-cadherin expression. Stat3 was activated in IL-17-treated A549 and LLC cells, and Stat3 inhibition or siRNA knockdown notably reduced IL-17-induced EMT in A549 and LLC cells. Thus, IL-17 promotes EMT in lung adenocarcinoma via Stat3 signaling; these observations suggest that targeting IL-17 and EMT are potential novel therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. PMID:27186414

  12. MDA-7/IL-24: Multifunctional Cancer Killing Cytokine

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Mitchell E.; Bhatia, Shilpa; Bhoopathi, Praveen; Das, Swadesh K.; Emdad, Luni; Dasgupta, Santanu; Dent, Paul; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    First identified almost two decades ago as a novel gene differentially expressed in human melanoma cells induced to terminally differentiate, MDA-7/IL-24 has since shown great potential as an anti-cancer gene. MDA-7/IL24, a secreted protein of the IL-10 family, functions as a cytokine at normal physiological levels and is expressed in tissues of the immune system. At supra-physiological levels, MDA-7/IL-24 plays a prominent role in inhibiting tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis and was recently shown to target tumor stem/initiating cells for death. Much of the attention focused on MDA-7/IL-24 originated from the fact that it can selectively induce cell death in cancer cells without affecting normal cells. Thus, this gene originally shown to be associated with melanoma cell differentiation has now proven to be a multi-functional protein affecting a broad array of cancers. Moreover, MDA-7/IL-24 has proven efficacious in a Phase I/II clinical trial in humans with multiple advanced cancers. As research in the field progresses, we will unravel more of the functions of MDA-7/IL-24 and define novel ways to utilize MDA-7/IL-24 in the treatment of cancer. PMID:25001534

  13. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Associated with HLA, IL12A, and IL12RB2 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Liu, Xiangdong; Xu, Chun; Lu, Yue; Xie, Gang; Lu, Yan; Gu, Xiangjun; Walker, Erin J.; Jing, Kaiyan; Juran, Brian D.; Mason, Andrew L.; Myers, Robert P.; Peltekian, Kevork M.; Ghent, Cameron N.; Coltescu, Catalina; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Amos, Christopher I.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic granulomatous cholangitis, characteristically associated with antimitochondrial antibodies. Twin and family aggregation data suggest that there is a significant genetic predisposition to primary biliary cirrhosis, but the susceptibility loci are unknown. METHODS To identify genetic loci conferring a risk for primary biliary cirrhosis, we carried out a genomewide association analysis in which DNA samples from 2072 Canadian and U.S. subjects (536 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and 1536 controls) were genotyped for more than 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sixteen of the SNPs most strongly associated with primary biliary cirrhosis were genotyped in two independent replication sets. We carried out fine-mapping studies across three loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. RESULTS We found significant associations between primary biliary cirrhosis and 13 loci across the HLA class II region; the HLA-DQB1 locus (encoding the major histocompatibility complex class II, DQ β chain 1) had the strongest association (P = 1.78×10−19; odds ratio for patients vs. controls, 1.75). Primary biliary cirrhosis was also significantly and reproducibly associated with two SNPs at the IL12A locus (encoding interleukin-12α), rs6441286 (P = 2.42×10−14; odds ratio, 1.54) and rs574808 (P = 1.88×10−13; odds ratio, 1.54), and one SNP at the IL12RB2 locus (encoding interleukin-12 receptor β2), rs3790567 (P = 2.76×10−11; odds ratio, 1.51). Fine-mapping analysis showed that a five-allele haplotype in the 3′ flank of IL12A was significantly associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (P = 1.15×10−34). We found a modest genomewide association (P<5.0×10−5) with the risk of disease for SNPs at the STAT4 locus (encoding signal transducer and activator of transcription 4) and the CTLA4 locus (encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4) and 10 other loci. CONCLUSIONS Our data show significant

  14. Endogenous IL-1 in Cognitive Function and Anxiety: A Study in IL-1RI−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Carol L.; Obiang, Pauline; Bannerman, David; Cunningham, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI). IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI−/− mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI−/− animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT) mice to IL-1RI−/− mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI−/− mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI−/− mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI−/− mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI−/− mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI−/− mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in

  15. Preferential Binding to Elk-1 by SLE-Associated IL10 Risk Allele Upregulates IL10 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jennifer A.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Harley, John B.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Alarcόn-Riquelme, Marta E.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle A.; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Sivils, Kathy Moser; James, Judith A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Merrill, Joan T.; Scofield, R. Hal; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Stevens, Anne M.; Boackle, Susan A.; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Freedman, Barry I.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Martin, Javier; Yu, C. Yung; Chang, Deh-Ming; Song, Yeong Wook; Langefeld, Carl D.; Chen, Weiling; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Tsao, Betty P.

    2013-01-01

    Immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlating with disease activity. The established association of IL10 with SLE and other autoimmune diseases led us to fine map causal variant(s) and to explore underlying mechanisms. We assessed 19 tag SNPs, covering the IL10 gene cluster including IL19, IL20 and IL24, for association with SLE in 15,533 case and control subjects from four ancestries. The previously reported IL10 variant, rs3024505 located at 1 kb downstream of IL10, exhibited the strongest association signal and was confirmed for association with SLE in European American (EA) (P = 2.7×10−8, OR = 1.30), but not in non-EA ancestries. SNP imputation conducted in EA dataset identified three additional SLE-associated SNPs tagged by rs3024505 (rs3122605, rs3024493 and rs3024495 located at 9.2 kb upstream, intron 3 and 4 of IL10, respectively), and SLE-risk alleles of these SNPs were dose-dependently associated with elevated levels of IL10 mRNA in PBMCs and circulating IL-10 protein in SLE patients and controls. Using nuclear extracts of peripheral blood cells from SLE patients for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified specific binding of transcription factor Elk-1 to oligodeoxynucleotides containing the risk (G) allele of rs3122605, suggesting rs3122605 as the most likely causal variant regulating IL10 expression. Elk-1 is known to be activated by phosphorylation and nuclear localization to induce transcription. Of interest, phosphorylated Elk-1 (p-Elk-1) detected only in nuclear extracts of SLE PBMCs appeared to increase with disease activity. Co-expression levels of p-Elk-1 and IL-10 were elevated in SLE T, B cells and monocytes, associated with increased disease activity in SLE B cells, and were best downregulated by ERK inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggest that preferential binding of activated Elk-1 to the IL10 rs3122605-G allele upregulates IL

  16. MAD ointment ameliorates Imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis by inhibiting the IL-23/IL-17 axis in mice.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Qiong; Pan, YaQian; Luo, HanQiong; Xuan, ChunXiao; Liu, JinE; Liu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic auto-immune inflammation disease with skin lesions and abnormal keratinocyte proliferation. The IL-23/IL-17 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Madecassoside (MAD) was the most important constituents isolated from Centella asiatica, which has long been used in dermatology, and it is supposed that MAD may have effects on psoriasis. In the present study, the BALB/c mice ear and back skin received IMQ for 6 consecutive days to induce psoriasis-like dermatitis. MAD ointment was applied 6h later after IMQ treatment, and the IL-23/IL-17 pathway was investigated. The HE staining, BrdU and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) were used to score the severity of keratinocyte proliferation and inflammation of the skin. Real-time PCR and Western Blot were used to detect the IL-23/IL-17 related cytokines. Flow Cytometry were applied to observe the numbers of Th17 cells. Daily application of IMQ for 6days on mouse ear skin and back skin induced psoriasis-like dermatitis. Real-time PCR showed that mRNA level of IL-23, IL-22, IL-17A were significantly decreased by MAD ointment treatment in ear skin. HE staining and BrdU incorporation implied that MAD ointment reduced keratinocyte proliferation. Flow Cytometry results showed MAD ointment decreased the numbers of Th17 cells. Thus, MAD ointment ameliorates Imiquimod-induced skin inflammation and abnormal keratinocyte through regulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. PMID:27540765

  17. IL-15 Fosters Age-Driven Regulatory T Cell Accrual in the Face of Declining IL-2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Jana; Sholl, Allyson; Plas, David R.; Bouillet, Philippe; Chougnet, Claire A.; Hildeman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We and others have shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) accumulate dramatically with age in both humans and mice. Such Treg accrual contributes to age-related immunosenescence as they reduce the response to tumors and parasite infection. While we reported earlier that aged Treg have decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bim and germline deletion of Bim promoted earlier accumulation of Treg, it remains unclear whether the effects of Bim are: (i) Treg intrinsic and (ii) dominant to other BH3-only pro-apoptotic molecules. Further, the mechanism(s) controlling Bim expression in aged Treg remain unclear. Here we show that Treg-specific loss of Bim is sufficient to drive Treg accrual with age and that additional loss of the downstream apoptotic effectors Bax and Bak did not exacerbate Treg accumulation. Further, our results demonstrate that a subpopulation of Treg expands with age and is characterized by lower expression of CD25 (IL-2Rα) and Bim. Mechanistically, we found that IL-2 levels decline with age and likely explain the emergence of CD25loBimlo Treg because Treg in IL-2−/− mice are almost entirely comprised of CD25loBimlo cells, and IL-2 neutralization increases CD25loBimlo Treg in both young and middle-aged mice. Interestingly, the Treg population in aged mice had increased expression of CD122 (IL-2/IL-15Rβ) and neutralization or genetic loss of IL-15 led to less Treg accrual with age. Further, the decreased Treg accrual in middle-aged IL-15−/− mice was restored by the additional loss of Bim (IL-15−/−Bim−/−). Together, our data show that aging favors the accrual of CD25lo Treg whose homeostasis is supported by IL-15 as IL-2 levels become limiting. These data have implications for manipulating Treg to improve immune responses in the elderly. PMID:23805138

  18. IL12Rβ1ΔTM Is a Secreted Product of il12rb1 That Promotes Control of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Aurelie A.; Fountain, Jeffrey J.; Miller, Halli E.; Cooper, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    IL12RB1 is a human gene that is important for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IL12RB1 is expressed by multiple leukocyte lineages, and encodes a type I transmembrane protein (IL12Rβ1) that associates with IL12p40 and promotes the development of host-protective TH1cells. Recently, we observed that il12rb1—the mouse homolog of IL12RB1—is alternatively spliced by leukocytes to produce a second isoform (IL12Rβ1ΔTM) that has biological properties distinct from IL12Rβ1. Although the expression of IL12Rβ1ΔTM is elicited by M. tuberculosis in vivo, and its overexpression enhances IL12p40 responsiveness in vitro, the contribution of IL12Rβ1ΔTM to controlling M. tuberculosis infection has not been tested. Here, we demonstrate that IL12Rβ1ΔTM represents a secreted product of il12rb1 that, when absent from mice, compromises their ability to control M. tuberculosis infection in extrapulmonary organs. Furthermore, elevated M. tuberculosis burdens in IL12Rβ1ΔTM-deficient animals are associated with decreased lymph node cellularity and a decline in TH1 development. Collectively, these data support a model wherein IL12Rβ1ΔTM is a secreted product of il12rb1 that promotes resistance to M. tuberculosis infection by potentiating TH cells response to IL-12. PMID:25404030

  19. Anti-IL-4/-13 based therapy in asthma.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2015-09-01

    It is recognised that airway inflammation is key to asthma pathogenesis. Biopharmaceutical approaches have identified new therapies that target key cells and mediators that drive the inflammatory responses in the asthmatic lung. Such an approach resulted in the development of biologics targeted at inhibition of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. However, early clinical trials with these biologics in patients with asthma were for the most part disappointing even though they were highly effective in animal models of asthma. It is becoming apparent that significant clinical effects with anti-cytokine-based biologic therapies are more likely in carefully selected patient populations that take asthma phenotypes into account. The development of discriminatory biomarkers and genetic profiling may aid identification of such patients with asthma. This review is an update of the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness or otherwise of the targeting of the TH2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 with biologics in patients with asthma. PMID:26021492

  20. Expression of TSLP and Downstream Molecules IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 on the Eye Surface of Patients with Various Types of Allergic Conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaofen; Yao, Juan; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis has not been clearly established. Moreover, previous studies fail to consider human models of allergic conjunctivitis. This study investigated the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoiet in TSLP and its downstream molecules in conjunctival scrappings and tear. Methods. This cross-sectional study compares patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) with normal controls. There are 80 people recorded in Shanxi Eye Hospital. Increasingly, 20 are with VKC, 20 are with SAC, 20 are with PAC, and the remaining 20 are normal controls. Conjunctiva were harvested for total RNA extraction and gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells were collected to make pathological sections for immunohistochemical staining. Human tears were evaluated by Luminex microbead assay. A P value less than 0.05 from Dunnett's post hoc test in SPSS means a statistical significant distinction. Results. Positive expression in conjunctival cells of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. The expression of TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA shows a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 concentrations show a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study suggests that TSLP and downstream molecules are expressed in patients with various types of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27504196

  1. STAT3 activation by KSHV correlates with IL-10, IL-6 and IL-23 release and an autophagic block in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Roberta; Gonnella, Roberta; Di Giovenale, Giulia; Cuomo, Laura; Capobianchi, Angela; Granato, Marisa; Gentile, Giuseppe; Faggioni, Alberto; Cirone, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Kaposis's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been reported to infect, among others, monocytes and dendritic cells DCs impairing their function. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not completely elucidated yet. Here we show that DC exposure to active or UV-inactivated KSHV resulted in STAT3 phosphorylation. This effect, partially dependent on KSHV-engagement of DC-SIGN, induced a high release of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-23, cytokines that in turn might maintain STAT3 in a phosphorylated state. STAT3 activation also correlated with a block of autophagy in DCs, as indicated by LC3II reduction and p62 accumulation. The IL-10, IL-6 and IL-23 release and the autophagic block could be overcome by inhibiting STAT3 activation, highlighting the role of STAT3 in mediating such effects. In conclusion, here we show that STAT3 activation can be one of the molecular mechanisms leading to KSHV-mediated DC dysfunction, that might allow viral persistence and the onset of KSHV-associated malignancies. PMID:24577500

  2. IL-6, IL-18, sIL-2R, and TNFα proinflammatory markers in depression and schizophrenia patients who are free of overt inflammation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Al-Rammahi, Duaa Abdulzahraa; Al-Dujaili, Arafat Hussein

    2015-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia are associated with inflammatory processes. Studies have shown that these disorders exhibit increase in the level of one or more proinflammatory markers. However, these studies did not exclude patients with obvious inflammation (i.e., CRP>6mg/L). Therefore, a comprehensive study should include those inflammatory disorders. In the present study, the inflammatory natures of MDD and schizophrenia were investigated. To achieve this goal, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) in depressed and schizophrenic patients were obtained and compared with those of the control group. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, TNFα, and sIL-2R in MDD and schizophrenic patients compared with the control group. Also patients with schizophrenia group showed higher levels of the inflammatory markers than MDD and control groups. The current study concluded that the immunological response in the MDD and schizophrenic patients groups was significantly stimulated. These disorders may be considered an inflammatory disorder because of elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in spite of lacking an overt inflammation. Furthermore results of this study suggested the possibility of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant therapy in schizophrenic and depressive disorders. PMID:25985379

  3. Expression of TSLP and Downstream Molecules IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 on the Eye Surface of Patients with Various Types of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis has not been clearly established. Moreover, previous studies fail to consider human models of allergic conjunctivitis. This study investigated the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoiet in TSLP and its downstream molecules in conjunctival scrappings and tear. Methods. This cross-sectional study compares patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) with normal controls. There are 80 people recorded in Shanxi Eye Hospital. Increasingly, 20 are with VKC, 20 are with SAC, 20 are with PAC, and the remaining 20 are normal controls. Conjunctiva were harvested for total RNA extraction and gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells were collected to make pathological sections for immunohistochemical staining. Human tears were evaluated by Luminex microbead assay. A P value less than 0.05 from Dunnett's post hoc test in SPSS means a statistical significant distinction. Results. Positive expression in conjunctival cells of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. The expression of TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA shows a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 concentrations show a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study suggests that TSLP and downstream molecules are expressed in patients with various types of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27504196

  4. Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J M; Conacher, M; Hunter, C A; Mohrs, M; Brombacher, F; Alexander, J

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies demonstrate that aluminium hydroxide adjuvant (alum) produces increased Th1 responses in IL-4-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals, although the continued production of IL-5 by spleen cells from these mice also indicates that Th2 responses are induced. In the present study, we demonstrate that alum can induce Th2-associated IL-4 and IL-5 production in the absence of IL-4 signaling in mice deficient in either IL-4Ralpha or Stat6. The Th2 responses observed could not be due to IL-13 as IL-13 responses are also impaired in IL-4Ralpha- and Stat6-deficient mice. We also detected higher levels of IL-4 in IL-4Ralpha gene-deficient, though not Stat6-deficient, mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. The increased levels of IL-4 could be explained by the IL-4R being unavailable to neutralize this cytokine in IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice. While levels of IL-5 production in IL-4Ralpha- or Stat6-deficient mice were similar to IL-4-deficient and wild-type mice, other type 2-associated responses, which are largely or wholly IL-4 dependent, such as the production of IgG1 or IgE Abs, were either reduced or absent. We conclude that alum adjuvants can induce IL-4 production and Th2 responses independently of IL-4 or IL-13, negating the requirement for an early source of IL-4 in the Th2 response induced by this adjuvant. PMID:10586035

  5. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:27440742

  6. An altered peripheral IL6 response in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Money, Kelli M; Olah, Zita; Korade, Zeljka; Garbett, Krassimira A; Shelton, Richard C; Mirnics, Karoly

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent major psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of 17%. Recent evidence suggests MDD is not only a brain dysfunction, but a systemic disease affecting the whole body. Central and peripheral inflammatory changes seem to be a centerpiece of MDD pathology: a subset of patients show elevated blood cytokine and chemokine levels that partially normalize with symptom improvement over the course of anti-depressant treatment. As this inflammatory process in MDD is poorly understood, we hypothesized that the peripheral tissues of MDD patients will respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, resulting in an aberrant transcriptional response to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. To test this, we used MDD patient- and control-derived dermal fibroblast cultures to investigate their response to an acute treatment with IL6, IL1β, TNFα, or vehicle. Following RNA isolation and subsequent cDNA synthesis, quantitative PCR was used to determine the relative expression level of several families of inflammation-responsive genes. Our results showed comparable expression of the tested genes between MDD patients and controls at baseline. In contrast, MDD patient fibroblasts had a diminished transcriptional response to IL6 in all the gene sets tested (oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and lipid metabolism). We also found a significant increase in baseline and IL6 stimulated transcript levels of the IL6 receptor gene. This IL6 receptor transcript increase in MDD fibroblasts was accompanied by an IL6 stimulated increase in induction of SOCS3, which dampens IL6 receptor signaling. Altogether our results demonstrate that there is an altered transcriptional response to IL6 in MDD, which may represent one of the molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathophysiology. Ultimately we hope that these studies will lead to validation of novel MDD drug targets focused on normalizing the altered IL6 response in

  7. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  8. Mast cells and neutrophils release IL-17 through extracellular trap formation in psoriasis1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Andrew M.; Rubin, Cory J.; Khandpur, Ritika; Wang, Jennifer Y.; Riblett, MaryBeth; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Villanueva, Eneida C.; Shah, Parth; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Bruce, Allen T.

    2011-01-01

    IL-17 and IL-23 are absolutely central to psoriasis pathogenesis as drugs targeting either cytokine are highly effective treatments for this disease. The efficacy of these drugs has been attributed to blocking the function of IL-17-producing T cells and their IL-23-induced expansion. However, we demonstrate that mast cells and neutrophils, not T cells, are the predominant cell types that contain IL-17 in human skin. IL-17+ mast cells and neutrophils are found at higher densities than IL-17+ T cells in psoriasis lesions and frequently release IL-17 in the process of forming specialized structures called extracellular traps (MCETs and NETs, respectively). Furthermore, we find that IL-23 and IL-1β can induce MCET formation and degranulation of human mast cells. Release of IL-17 from innate immune cells may be central to the pathogenesis of psoriasis, representing a fundamental mechanism by which the IL-23-IL-17 axis mediates host defense and autoimmunity. PMID:21606249

  9. Antibody blockade of IL-17 family cytokines in immunity to acute murine oral mucosal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Whibley, Natasha; Tritto, Elaine; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Kolbinger, Frank; Moulin, Pierre; Brees, Dominique; Coleman, Bianca M; Mamo, Anna J; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Kammüller, Michael; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2016-06-01

    Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor, IL-17RA, are approved to treat psoriasis and are being evaluated for other autoimmune conditions. Conversely, IL-17 signaling is critical for immunity to opportunistic mucosal infections caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans, as mice and humans lacking the IL-17R experience chronic mucosal candidiasis. IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF bind the IL-17RA-IL-17RC heterodimeric complex and deliver qualitatively similar signals through the adaptor Act1. Here, we used a mouse model of acute oropharyngeal candidiasis to assess the impact of blocking IL-17 family cytokines compared with specific IL-17 cytokine gene knockout mice. Anti-IL-17A antibodies, which neutralize IL-17A and IL-17AF, caused elevated oral fungal loads, whereas anti-IL-17AF and anti-IL-17F antibodies did not. Notably, there was a cooperative effect of blocking IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F together. Termination of anti-IL-17A treatment was associated with rapid C. albicans clearance. IL-17F-deficient mice were fully resistant to oropharyngeal candidiasis, consistent with antibody blockade. However, IL-17A-deficient mice had lower fungal burdens than anti-IL-17A-treated mice. Act1-deficient mice were much more susceptible to oropharyngeal candidiasis than anti-IL-17A antibody-treated mice, yet anti-IL-17A and anti-IL-17RA treatment caused equivalent susceptibilities. Based on microarray analyses of the oral mucosa during infection, only a limited number of genes were associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis susceptibility. In sum, we conclude that IL-17A is the main cytokine mediator of immunity in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis, but a cooperative relationship among IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F exists in vivo. Susceptibility displays the following hierarchy: IL-17RA- or Act1-deficiency > anti-IL-17A + anti-IL-17F antibodies > anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17RA antibodies > IL-17A deficiency. PMID:26729813

  10. IL-10 Restrains IL-17 to Limit Lung Pathology Characteristics following Pulmonary Infection with Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain

    PubMed Central

    Slight, Samantha R.; Monin, Leticia; Gopal, Radha; Avery, Lyndsay; Davis, Marci; Cleveland, Hillary; Oury, Tim D.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2014-01-01

    IL-10 production during intracellular bacterial infections is generally thought to be detrimental because of its role in suppressing protective T-helper cell 1 (Th1) responses. Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that activates both Th1 and Th17 protective immune responses. Herein, we report that IL-10–deficient mice (Il10−/−), despite having increased Th1 and Th17 responses, exhibit increased mortality after pulmonary infection with F. tularensis live vaccine strain. We demonstrate that the increased mortality observed in Il10−/−-infected mice is due to exacerbated IL-17 production that causes increased neutrophil recruitment and associated lung pathology. Thus, although IL-17 is required for protective immunity against pulmonary infection with F. tularensis live vaccine strain, its production is tightly regulated by IL-10 to generate efficient induction of protective immunity without mediating pathology. These data suggest a critical role for IL-10 in maintaining the delicate balance between host immunity and pathology during pulmonary infection with F. tularensis live vaccine strain. PMID:24007881

  11. Continuous high-dose antigen exposure preferentially induces IL-10, but intermittent antigen exposure induces IL-4.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Nakanishi, Takehisa; Watanabe, Jun; Kondo, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Gabazza, Esteban C; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    IL-10 plays a critical role in the induction of specific T-cell tolerance. To date, whether IL-10 induction by antigen application is dose- or time-dependent remains unclear. In this study, IL-10 induction by allergen exposure was investigated in the several schedules. Oxazolone was repeatedly applied to mouse ear, and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines in lesional skins was measured. The results indicated that continuous high-dose antigen exposure induces IL-4 as well as abundant IL-10 production. Monocytes/dendritic cells and T cells are major source of IL-10. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is resumed before antigen scattering: preseason. We evaluated safe-loading dose of allergens in preseasonal therapy focusing Tr1 induction. Restarting immunotherapy with high dose effectively augmented IL-10 expression accompanied with further induction of IL-4 and inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the protocol restarting with low-dose antigen is preferential to obviate the risk of exacerbation or anaphylaxis. PMID:24299227

  12. Meprin A and meprin {alpha} generate biologically functional IL-1{beta} from pro-IL-1{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christian; Haun, Randy S.; Kaushal, Varsha; Mayeux, Philip R.; Shah, Sudhir V.; Kaushal, Gur P.

    2009-02-20

    The present study demonstrates that both oligomeric metalloendopeptidase meprin A purified from kidney cortex and recombinant meprin {alpha} are capable of generating biologically active IL-1{beta} from its precursor pro-IL-1{beta}. Amino-acid sequencing analysis reveals that meprin A and meprin {alpha} cleave pro-IL-1{beta} at the His{sup 115}-Asp{sup 116} bond, which is one amino acid N-terminal to the caspase-1 cleavage site and five amino acids C-terminal to the meprin {beta} site. The biological activity of the pro-IL-1{beta} cleaved product produced by meprin A, determined by proliferative response of helper T-cells, was 3-fold higher to that of the IL-1{beta} product produced by meprin {beta} or caspase-1. In a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation puncture that results in elevated levels of serum IL-1{beta}, meprin inhibitor actinonin significantly reduces levels of serum IL-1{beta}. Meprin A and meprin {alpha} may therefore play a critical role in the production of active IL-1{beta} during inflammation and tissue injury.

  13. INCREASED IL-8 AND IL-6 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INCREASED IL-6 AND IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES.
    R Silbajoris1, A G Lenz2, I Jaspers3, J M Samet1. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2GSF-Institute for Inhalation Biology, Neuherberg, Germany; 3 CEMLB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, ...

  14. The IL-2/IL-2R system: from basic science to therapeutic applications to enhance immune regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Allison L.; Pugliese, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    IL-2 plays a critical role in the normal function of the immune system. A trophic factor for lymphocytes, IL-2 is required for mounting and sustaining adaptive T cell responses; however, IL-2 is also critical for immune regulation via its effects on regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Over the years, we have contributed to the understanding of the biology of IL-2 and its signaling through the IL-2 receptor and helped define the key role played by IL-2 in Treg development and function. Our data show that Treg cells have a heightened sensitivity to IL-2, which may create a therapeutic window to promote immune regulation by selective stimulation of Treg cells. We are now developing new efforts to translate this knowledge to the clinical arena, through our focused interest in Type 1 diabetes as a prototypic autoimmune disease. Specifically, we aim at developing IL-2-based therapeutic regimens and incorporate means to enhance antigen-specific Treg responses, for improved and more selective regulation of islet autoimmunity. In parallel, we are pursuing studies in preclinical models of autoimmunity and transplantation to define critical factors for successful adoptive Treg therapy and develop clinically applicable therapeutic protocols. PMID:24214027

  15. Neither IL-17A mRNA Nor IL-17A Protein Are Detectable in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Tricia L; McClain, Kenneth L; Allen, Carl E

    2011-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by heterogeneous lesions including CD207+/CD1a+ dendritic cells that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of LCH remains speculative, and neoplastic and inflammatory origins have been debated for decades. A recent study identified abundant interleukin-17 (IL-17A) protein in dendritic cells in LCH lesions as well as in plasma from patients with active disease. Furthermore, it identified dendritic cells as a novel source of IL-17A expression. However, subsequent studies from our research group failed to identify any IL-17A gene expression from CD207+ dendritic cells or CD3+ T cells in LCH lesions. In this study, further investigation once again fails to identify any cells in LCH lesions with IL-17A gene expression. Furthermore, IL-17A antigen is undetectable in LCH lesion lysates with western blotting, immunoprecipitation, spectral analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots, immunoprecipitation, and ELISA experiments also demonstrate that antibodies used in original studies that established the IL-17A hypothesis for pathogenesis of LCH recognize nonspecific proteins. We conclude that evidence for IL-17A as a significant factor in LCH remains inadequate and clinical trials targeting IL-17A remain unjustified. PMID:21654633

  16. 76 FR 58241 - Designation for the Aberdeen, SD; Decatur, IL; Hastings, NE; Fulton, IL; the State of Missouri...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ..., Federal Register (76 FR 15937), GIPSA requested applications for designation to provide official services... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Aberdeen, SD; Decatur, IL; Hastings, NE; Fulton, IL; the State of Missouri, and the State of South Carolina Areas AGENCY:...

  17. Genetic deletion of IL-25 (IL-17E) confers resistance to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-25 is emerging as a key regulator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa because of its ability to promote Th2 while suppressing Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. We investigated the contribution of endogenous IL-25 to DSS-induced colitis in mice. Mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water ad li...

  18. In vivo IL-12 and IL-8 production in hydatic patients and their possible diffusion in hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Amri, Manel; Mezioug, Dalila; Ait-Aissa, Saliha; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2008-09-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. It is one of the world's major zoonotic infections. Variability and severity of clinical expression of this parasitosis are associated with duration and intensity of infection. They are also related to the variety of human immunological responses to the hydatic antigens. The aim of this work is to study the inflammatory response associated with human hydatidosis by evaluating the possible roles of the proinflammatory cytokines in hydatic patients. We investigated the patterns of IL-12 and IL-8 in serum from Algerian hydatic patients. Serum IL-12 and IL-8 levels are significantly higher in patients with hydatidosis than in control subjects. Furthermore, cytokines secretion correlates with disease statues (cystic localizations and clinical stage). These data indicate that infection with E. granulosus is associated with high levels of circulating IL-12 and IL-8. Moreover, our data, to our knowledge, constitute the first report of IL-12 and IL-8 diffusion into the hydatid cyst. Our results underline the permeability of the cyst wall to the soluble immune system of the host. The relationship between cyst fertility and cytokine infiltration indicates a strong host-parasite interaction. All these findings have important implications for the diagnosis of hydatidosis in humans. PMID:18775805

  19. Neutrophil and monocyte responses to downhill running: Intracellular contents of MPO, IL-6, IL-10, pstat3, and SOCS3.

    PubMed

    van de Vyver, M; Engelbrecht, L; Smith, C; Myburgh, K H

    2016-06-01

    High-intensity exercise results in immune activation. This study determined whether (a) there is concordance between serum MPO and neutrophil and/or monocyte intracellular MPO content; (b) peripheral blood mononuclear cells respond to inflammatory interleukins (ILs) by increasing intracellular signaling. Healthy male (n = 12) volunteers participated in high-intensity running (12 × 5 min, 10% decline, 15 km/h). Blood sample (pre, post, 4 h) analyses included serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and creatine kinase (CK). Intracellular IL-6, IL-10, MPO and STAT3/SOCS3 signaling were assessed in mononuclear cells. CK (1573 ± 756 u/L), MMP-9 (101 ± 27 ng/mL), neutrophil (9.89 ± 0.76 × 10(9) cells/L) and monocyte counts (1 ± 0.08 × 10(9) cells/L) increased at 4 h. At 4 h serum (7.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL) and monocyte MPO (1.7-fold) increased, whereas neutrophil MPO decreased (0.8-fold). Intracellular monocyte IL-10 and IL-6 decreased by 15% and 20-30%, respectively, coinciding with elevations in serum IL-10 of 14.5 ± 4.7 pg/mL and IL-6 of 5.4 ± 2.9 pg/mL, suggesting immune cell cytokine release in response to exercise. Intracellular PBMC p-STAT3 to total STAT3 ratio increased from pre to 4 h. Circulating monocytes are responsive to increased serum IL-6 suggesting a negative feedback loop via STAT3 signaling. PMID:26059973

  20. Morphine compromises bronchial epithelial TLR2/IL17R signaling crosstalk, necessary for lung IL17 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Santanu; Ninkovic, Jana; Meng, Jingjing; Sharma, Umakant; Ma, Jing; Charboneau, Richard; Roy, Sabita

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic lung infection and inflammation is a hallmark of chronic recreational/clinical use of morphine. We show that early induction of IL17 from the bronchial epithelium, following pathogenic encounter is a protective response, which contributes to pathogenic clearance and currently attributed to TLR2 activation in immune cells. Concurrent activation of TLR2 and IL17R in bronchial epithelium results in the sequestration of MyD88 (TLR2 adapter) by Act1/CIKS (IL17R adapter), thereby turning off TLR2 signaling to restore homeostasis. Morphine inhibits the early IL17 release and interaction between Act1 and MyD88, leading to decreased pathogenic clearance and sustained inflammation. Hence, we propose that therapeutically targeting either TLR2 or IL17 in bronchial epithelia, in the context of morphine, can restore inflammatory homeostasis. PMID:26072707

  1. Does thalidomide affect IL-2 response and production?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L P; Schlegel, P G; Baker, J; Chen, Y; Chao, N J

    1995-08-01

    The exact mechanism of immunosuppression by thalidomide is poorly understood. A common denominator in the pathogenesis of graft-vs.-host disease, graft rejection, reactional lepromatous leprosy, and autoimmune disorders modulated by thalidomide is the activation of T lymphocytes culminating in the synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors, and the induction of proliferation. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on the production of IL-2 by the human leukemia cell line Jurkat through induction of IL-2 gene enhancer activity and through the presence of IL-2 in supernatants. beta-galactosidase activity, encoded by a reporter lac z construct and controlled by a transcription factor in thalidomide-treated PMA- and ionomycin-stimulated Jurkat cells, was similar (97 +/- 1.33%; p > 0.1) to non-thalidomide-treated controls at all drug concentrations tested. IL-2 enhancer-driven beta-galactose activity of thalidomide-treated and stimulated cells was also similar to that of untreated controls (p > 0.2). The IL-2 production of activated nontransfected Jurkat cells was gauged by using the IL-2-dependent cell line HT-2 as a readout and by ELISA. Jurkat cells were subcloned by limiting dilution. Bulk cultures and three subclones (J.5.2.5., J.5.2.9., and J.5.3.8.) were assayed at 6, 12, and 24 hours after PHA/PMA-induced stimulation. No inhibitory effect on the IL-2 production by thalidomide could be detected at any of the drug concentrations tested (5-30 micrograms/mL), whereas 10 to 100 ng/mL of cyclosporine inhibited the IL-2 production by 95 to 100%. In addition, we observed neither inhibition of IL-2-dependent proliferation of HT-2 nor inhibition of PHA-induced proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells by thalidomide at all drug concentrations used (5-30 micrograms/mL). These results do not support the possibility of a modulatory effect on the immune response by thalidomide via IL-2 production and IL-2 response. PMID:7635184

  2. IL-21 signalling via STAT3 primes human naive B cells to respond to IL-2 to enhance their differentiation into plasmablasts.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Lucinda J; Avery, Danielle T; Ma, Cindy S; Moens, Leen; Deenick, Elissa K; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Arkwright, Peter D; Bacchetta, Rosa; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Dadi, Harjit; Roifman, Chaim M; Fulcher, David A; Ziegler, John B; Smart, Joanne M; Kobayashi, Masao; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Cook, Matthew C; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Uzel, Gulbu; Tangye, Stuart G

    2013-12-01

    B-cell responses are guided by the integration of signals through the B-cell receptor (BCR), CD40, and cytokine receptors. The common γ chain (γc)-binding cytokine interleukin (IL)-21 drives humoral immune responses via STAT3-dependent induction of transcription factors required for plasma cell generation. We investigated additional mechanisms by which IL-21/STAT3 signaling modulates human B-cell responses by studying patients with STAT3 mutations. IL-21 strongly induced CD25 (IL-2Rα) in normal, but not STAT3-deficient, CD40L-stimulated naïve B cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed IL2RA as a direct target of STAT3. IL-21-induced CD25 expression was also impaired on B cells from patients with IL2RG or IL21R mutations, confirming a requirement for intact IL-21R signaling in this process. IL-2 increased plasmablast generation and immunoglobulin secretion from normal, but not CD25-deficient, naïve B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-21. IL-2 and IL-21 were produced by T follicular helper cells, and neutralizing both cytokines abolished the B-cell helper capacity of these cells. Our results demonstrate that IL-21, via STAT3, sensitizes B cells to the stimulatory effects of IL-2. Thus, IL-2 may play an adjunctive role in IL-21-induced B-cell differentiation. Lack of this secondary effect of IL-21 may amplify the humoral immunodeficiency in patients with mutations in STAT3, IL2RG, or IL21R due to impaired responsiveness to IL-21. PMID:24159173

  3. Genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R affect multiple sclerosis disease risk and progression.

    PubMed

    Traboulsee, Anthony L; Bernales, Cecily Q; Ross, Jay P; Lee, Joshua D; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2014-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. Previous studies have associated genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R in the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we describe the association between IL2RA (rs2104286) and IL7R (rs6897932) in the Canadian population. Genotyping 1,978 MS patients and 830 controls failed to identify any significant association between these variants and disease risk. However, stratified analysis for family history of disease and disease course identified a trend towards association for IL2RA in patients without a family history (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 0.77) and a significant association between IL7R and patients who developed progressive MS (PrMS) (p = 0.002; odds ratio = 0.73). Although not statistically significant, the effect of IL2RA (rs2104286) in patients without a family history of MS indicates that the genetic components for familial and sporadic disease are perhaps distinct. This data suggests that the onset of sporadic disease is likely determined by a large number of variants of small effect, whereas MS in patients with a family history of disease is caused by a few deleterious variants. In addition, the significant association between PrMS and rs6897932 indicates that IL7R may not be disease-causing but a determinant of disease course. Further characterization of the effect of IL2RA and IL7R genetic variants in defined MS subtypes is warranted to evaluate the effect of these genes on specific clinical outcomes and to further elucidate the mechanisms of disease onset and progression. PMID:24770783

  4. Dietary Iron Enhances Colonic Inflammation and IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 Signaling Promoting Colonic Tumor Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Desiree S.; Fu, S. Kristine; Forrest, Cynthia H.; Croft, Kevin D.; Olynyk, John K.; Lawrance, Ian C.; Trinder, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation and high dietary iron are associated with colorectal cancer development. The role of Stat3 activation in iron-induced colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis was investigated in a mouse model of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Mice, fed either an iron-supplemented or control diet, were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Intestinal inflammation and tumor development were assessed by endoscopy and histology, gene expression by real-time PCR, Stat3 phosphorylation by immunoblot, cytokines by ELISA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Colonic inflammation was more severe in mice fed an iron-supplemented compared with a control diet one week post-DSS treatment, with enhanced colonic IL-6 and IL-11 release and Stat3 phosphorylation. Both IL-6 and ferritin, the iron storage protein, co-localized with macrophages suggesting iron may act directly on IL-6 producing-macrophages. Iron increased DSS-induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis consistent with enhanced mucosal damage. DSS-treated mice developed anemia that was not alleviated by dietary iron supplementation. Six weeks post-DSS treatment, iron-supplemented mice developed more and larger colonic tumors compared with control mice. Intratumoral IL-6 and IL-11 expression increased in DSS-treated mice and IL-6, and possibly IL-11, were enhanced by dietary iron. Gene expression of iron importers, divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1, increased and iron exporter, ferroportin, decreased in colonic tumors suggesting increased iron uptake. Dietary iron and colonic inflammation synergistically activated colonic IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting tumorigenesis. Oral iron therapy may be detrimental in inflammatory bowel disease since it may exacerbate colonic inflammation and increase colorectal cancer risk. PMID:24223168

  5. Diacerein-mediated inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R signaling induces apoptotic effects on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bharti, R; Dey, G; Ojha, P K; Rajput, S; Jaganathan, S K; Sen, R; Mandal, M

    2016-07-28

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling network has been implicated in oncogenic transformations making it attractive target for the discovery of novel cancer therapeutics. In this study, potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of diacerein were observed against breast cancer. In vitro apoptosis was induced by this drug in breast cancer cells as verified by increased sub-G1 population, LIVE/DEAD assay, cell cytotoxicity and presence of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, as well as downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulation of apoptotic protein Bax. In addition, apoptosis induction was found to be caspase dependent. Further molecular investigations indicated that diacerein instigated apoptosis was associated with inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R autocrine signaling axis. Suppression of STAT3, MAPK and Akt pathways were also observed as a consequence of diacerein-mediated upstream inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R. Fluorescence study and western blot analysis revealed cytosolic accumulation of STAT3 in diacerein-treated cells. The docking study showed diacerein/IL-6R interaction that was further validated by competitive binding assay and isothermal titration calorimetry. Most interestingly, it was found that diacerein considerably suppressed tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. The in vivo antitumor effect was correlated with decreased proliferation (Ki-67), increased apoptosis (TUNEL) and inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R-mediated STAT3, MAPK and Akt pathway in tumor remnants. Taken together, diacerein offered a novel blueprint for cancer therapy by hampering IL-6/IL-6R/STAT3/MAPK/Akt network. PMID:26616855

  6. Relative expression analysis of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in tropical sheep breed Pelibuey infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Reyes, Z M; López-Reyes, A G; Lagunas-Martínez, A; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Olazarán-Jenkins, S; Hernández-Romano, J; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-09-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic nematode of Pelibuey sheep, a meat breed used in tropical regions. Due to anthelmintic problems, the identification of hosts resistant to H. contortus is another option of control. The aim of this study was to analyse the relative expression of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in Pelibuey sheep after H. contortus infection. Nineteen lambs infected with H. contortus and three more lambs without infection were studied. The haemonchosis was determined by the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) and by the estimation of the percentage of the packed cell volume (%pcv). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained to extract RNA at 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after infection to quantify the relative expression of IL-5, IL-6 and GAPDH by real-time PCR. Five lambs were classified as low responders (lr) to haemonchosis with averages of 1519 ± 315·3 epg and 31·49 ± 5·13%pcv, and 14 lambs were identified as high responders (hr) with averages of 530 ± 132 epg and 34·88 ± 3·75%pcv. The expression ratio of IL-5 was significantly different compared with control lambs at 2, 7 and 14 days post-infection (PI), and IL-6 was significantly different after 14 days. The highest level of relative expression for IL-5 and IL-6 genes was 9·9-fold and 12-fold after 2 and 14 days for hr hosts (P < 0·05) compared with control group, respectively. In conclusion, the Pelibuey breed in grazing areas exhibited different expression of IL-5 and IL-6 obtained from PBMCs against H. contortus, suggesting the importance of these cytokines in regulating the nematode infection. PMID:26094646

  7. Dynamic CpG-DNA methylation of Il10 and Il19 in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages: effects on tissue-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, S R; Möller, J; Rauen, T; Paul, D; Gahr, M; Rösen-Wolff, Z; Brenner, S; Hedrich, C M

    2012-03-01

    The IL-10 family of cytokines consists of 9 members, including the immune-regulatory IL-10; Il19 is in close physical relationship with Il10 in the so-called IL-10 cytokine cluster on chromosome 1q32. While IL-10 is ubiquitously expressed, IL-19 expression is restricted to myeloid and epithelial cells. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that control tissue-specific expression of IL-10, and IL-19. Modifications in CpG-DNA methylation are a key mechanism in controlling transcription. Using bisulfite sequencing, we demonstrate that murine Il19 is methylated in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Macrophages display site-specific demethylation of Il19. The ubiquitously expressed Il10 gene is methylated to a lower degree and exhibits tissue-specific methylation patterns. DNA demethylation with 5-azacytidine resulted in an induction of IL-10, and IL-19 expression in CD4+ T cells, and CpG-DNA methylation through DNMT3a resulted in transcriptional silencing in macrophages. Thus, our findings suggest a role of CpG-DNA methylation in the regulation of Il10 and Il19. PMID:22187331

  8. IL-33-induced alterations in murine intestinal function and cytokine responses are MyD88, STAT6, and IL-13-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine member of the IL-1 family. The biological activities of IL-33 are associated with promotion of Th2 and inhibition of Th1/Th17 immune responses. Exogenous IL-33 induces a typical “type 2” immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, yet the underlying mechani...

  9. Mutual enhancement of IL-2 and IL-7 on DNA vaccine immunogenicity mainly involves regulations on their receptor expression and receptor-expressing lymphocyte generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Jianlou; Xu, Jian; Huo, Shanshan; Cao, Xuebin; Zhong, Zhenyu; Zhong, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Our previous study showed that IL-2 and IL-7 could mutually enhance the immunogenicity of canine parvovirus VP2 DNA vaccine, although the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here, we used the OVA gene as a DNA vaccine in a mouse model to test their enhancement on DNA vaccine immunogenicity and to explore the molecular mechanism. Results showed that both IL-2 and IL-7 genes significantly increased the immunogenicity of OVA DNA vaccine in mice. Co-administration of IL-2 and IL-7 genes with OVA DNA significantly increased OVA-specific antibody titers, T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production compared with IL-2 or IL-7 alone, confirming that IL-2 and IL-7 mutually enhanced DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Mechanistically, we have shown that IL-2 significantly stimulated generation of IL-7 receptor-expressing lymphocytes, and that IL-7 significantly induced IL-2 receptor expression. These results contribute to an explanation of the mechanism of the mutual effects of IL-2 and IL-7 on enhancing DNA vaccine immunogenicity and provided a basis for further investigation on their mutual effects on adjuvant activity and immune regulation. PMID:26055295

  10. An interleukin 1 receptor antagonist blocks the IL-1-induced IL-6 paracrine production through a prostaglandin E2-related mechanism in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z Y; Bataille, R; Poubelle, P; Rapp, M J; Harousseau, J L; Klein, B

    1995-08-01

    By analogy with the model of pristane-induced mouse plasmacytomas, we have wondered about the putative role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the human multiple myeloma (MM) cytokine network, involving interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) as essential myeloma cell growth factors and inducing cofactors respectively. We show that PGE2 is produced in short-term cultures of bone marrow cells of patients with MM, concomitantly with both IL-6 and IL-1. Indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase and of PGE2 synthesis, significantly inhibits IL-6 production (but not IL-1 production) by 35% to 90% depending on the different MM patients studied and concurrently to that of PGE2. Exogenous PGE2 reverses this inhibition or even stimulates IL-6 production. An IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) also significantly inhibits PGE2, IL-6 production and myeloma cell growth. The inhibition of IL-6 production is reversed by adding exogenous PGE2. These results show that induction of IL-6 by IL-1 is related to PGE2 in the bone marrow of patients with MM. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis (as obtained with indomethacin and the IL-1RA) might be helpful to inhibit myeloma cell proliferation by reducing IL-1-induced endogenous IL-6 production not only in vitro (as demonstrated here) but also in vivo. PMID:8520508

  11. Plasma IL-6/IL-10 Ratio and IL-8, LDH, and HBDH Level Predict the Severity and the Risk of Death in AIDS Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Su, Junwei; Xie, Yirui; Yin, Michael T; Huang, Ying; Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Qihui; Zhu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify blood biomarkers to predict severity and mortality in AIDS PCP patients. Methods. Biomarkers including clinical parameters and plasma inflammatory cytokines were assessed in 32 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) at time of admission. Predictive value of the biomarkers for clinical severity and in-hospital mortality was evaluated by corresponding ROC curve. Results. Levels of CRP, WBC, LDH, HBDH, and Ferritin were significantly higher in the severe and nonsurvivor AIDS PCP patients. These important biochemical indicators have inverse correlation with oxygenation index, especially levels of LDH (P = 0.008, R (2) = 0.258), HBDH (P = 0.001, R (2) = 0.335), and Ferritin (P = 0.005, R (2) = 0.237). Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg and nonsurvivors than in those with PaO2/FiO2 > 200 mmHg and survivors. Severe and nonsurvival groups showed higher ratio of mean IL-6/IL-10 level (1.78 ± 1.56, P < 0.001; 1.11 ± 0.72, P = 0.043), larger AUC (95% CI 0.781-1.000, P < 0.001; 95% CI 0.592-0.917, P = 0.043), and more significantly inverse correlation with the oxygenation index. Conclusion. Plasma IL-8, LDH, and HBDH levels and IL-6/IL-10 ratio could be helpful for early evaluation of the severity and predicting fatal outcomes in AIDS PCP patients. PMID:27579328

  12. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TGF- β1 Serum Concentrations and Response to Clarithromycin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Radzikowska, E; Roży, A; Jaguś, P; Wiatr, E; Gawryluk, D; Chorostowska-Wynimko, J; Roszkowski-Śliż, K

    2016-01-01

    Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a distinct clinicopathological entity with unknown etiology. Inflammatory cytokines play a role in the development of the disease. The present study was performed to assess the correlation between concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TGF-β1 in the serum with response to clarithromycin (CAM) treatment in patients with COP. A total of 39 patients with COP were enrolled in to this study. An oral dose of 500 mg CAM was administered to all of the patients twice daily for 3 months. A complete response was noticed in 31 (80 %) of patients, and 8 (20 %) patients failed to respond to treatment. The concentration of cytokines were assessed by ELISAs before and after treatment. CAM treatment was associated with decreases in serum IL-6 (3.8 pg/mL [IQR 0.9-11.8] vs. 1.1 pg/mL [IQR 0.2-3.1]; p = 0.004), IL-8 (13.6 pg/mL [IQR 9.8-17.5] vs. 8.1 pg/mL [IQR 6.2-13.2]; p = 0.004), and TGF-β1 (37.1 ng/mL [IQR 31.7-46.2] vs. 25.7 ng/mL [IQR 22-41.7];p = 0.0001), which was particularly notable in the responders. We conclude that IL-6, IL-8, and TGF-β1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of COP, as their decreased concentrations were associated with a positive response to CAM treatment. PMID:26987326

  13. Plasma IL-6/IL-10 Ratio and IL-8, LDH, and HBDH Level Predict the Severity and the Risk of Death in AIDS Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia; Su, Junwei; Xie, Yirui; Yin, Michael T.; Huang, Ying; Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Qihui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify blood biomarkers to predict severity and mortality in AIDS PCP patients. Methods. Biomarkers including clinical parameters and plasma inflammatory cytokines were assessed in 32 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) at time of admission. Predictive value of the biomarkers for clinical severity and in-hospital mortality was evaluated by corresponding ROC curve. Results. Levels of CRP, WBC, LDH, HBDH, and Ferritin were significantly higher in the severe and nonsurvivor AIDS PCP patients. These important biochemical indicators have inverse correlation with oxygenation index, especially levels of LDH (P = 0.008, R2 = 0.258), HBDH (P = 0.001, R2 = 0.335), and Ferritin (P = 0.005, R2 = 0.237). Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg and nonsurvivors than in those with PaO2/FiO2 > 200 mmHg and survivors. Severe and nonsurvival groups showed higher ratio of mean IL-6/IL-10 level (1.78 ± 1.56, P < 0.001; 1.11 ± 0.72, P = 0.043), larger AUC (95% CI 0.781–1.000, P < 0.001; 95% CI 0.592–0.917, P = 0.043), and more significantly inverse correlation with the oxygenation index. Conclusion. Plasma IL-8, LDH, and HBDH levels and IL-6/IL-10 ratio could be helpful for early evaluation of the severity and predicting fatal outcomes in AIDS PCP patients. PMID:27579328

  14. Evolutionary Insights into IL17A in Lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; Costa, Paulo P.; Esteves, Pedro J.

    2015-01-01

    In leporids, IL17A had been implicated in the host defense against extracellular pathogens, such as Francisella tularensis that infects hares and rabbits and causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we studied IL17A from five lagomorphs, European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, brush rabbit, European brown hare, and American pika. We observed that this protein is highly conserved between these species, with a similarity of 97–99% in leporids and ~88% between leporids and American pika. The exon/intron structure, N-glycosylation sites, and cysteine residues are conserved between lagomorphs. However, at codon 88, one of the interaction sites between IL17A and its receptor IL17RA, there is an Arg>Pro mutation that only occurs in European rabbit and European brown hare. This could induce critical alterations in the IL17A structure and conformation and consequently modify its function. The differences observed between leporids and humans or rodents might also represent important alterations in protein structure and function. In addition, as for other interleukins, IL17A sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than the sequences of human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. This study gives further support to the hypothesis that European rabbit might be a more suitable animal model for studies on human IL17. PMID:26788019

  15. Evolutionary Insights into IL17A in Lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    In leporids, IL17A had been implicated in the host defense against extracellular pathogens, such as Francisella tularensis that infects hares and rabbits and causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we studied IL17A from five lagomorphs, European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, brush rabbit, European brown hare, and American pika. We observed that this protein is highly conserved between these species, with a similarity of 97-99% in leporids and ~88% between leporids and American pika. The exon/intron structure, N-glycosylation sites, and cysteine residues are conserved between lagomorphs. However, at codon 88, one of the interaction sites between IL17A and its receptor IL17RA, there is an Arg>Pro mutation that only occurs in European rabbit and European brown hare. This could induce critical alterations in the IL17A structure and conformation and consequently modify its function. The differences observed between leporids and humans or rodents might also represent important alterations in protein structure and function. In addition, as for other interleukins, IL17A sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than the sequences of human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. This study gives further support to the hypothesis that European rabbit might be a more suitable animal model for studies on human IL17. PMID:26788019

  16. IL-10 Modulates Placental Responses to TLR Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Mehmet; Peltier, Morgan; Vetrano, Anna; Arita, Yuko; Gurzenda, Ellen; Joseph, Ansamma; Kazzaz, Jeffrey; Sharma, Surendra; Hanna, Nazeeh

    2013-01-01

    Problem Intra-uterine infections increase production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is unclear whether different infectious agents determine the relative expression of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Methods of study We compared the placental inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria) with those induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria). Placental explants from term delivery were treated with either LPS or LTA, in the presence or absence of IL-10, for 24 hrs. Cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were quantified. Results Both LTA and LPS significantly induced several cytokines with LPS eliciting more potent effects. IL-6 and IL-8 were induced to comparable levels in response to both LTA and LPS whereas monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production was induced more by LTA, demonstrating a differential placental response to a specific toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand. IL-10 treatment significantly reduced most pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as PGE2 induced by both LPS and LTA. Interestingly, IL-10 down-regulated LTA-mediated MCP1 induction, but not that mediated by LPS. Moreover, IL-10 was more effective in down-regulating PGE2 after LPS- when compared with LTA stimulation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that placental exposure to LTA and LPS appear to trigger distinct cytokine responses that can be modulated by IL-10. PMID:19821803

  17. Interleukin 2 (IL2) PE40 is cytotoxic to cells displaying either the p55 or p70 subunit of the IL2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Lorberboum-Galski, H; Kozak, R W; Waldmann, T A; Bailon, P; FitzGerald, D J; Pastan, I

    1988-12-15

    IL2-PE40 is a chimeric protein composed of human interleukin 2 (IL2) genetically fused to the amino terminus of a modified form of pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). Internalization of IL2 via the individual p55 and p70 subunits of the IL2 receptor was studied using IL2-PE40 on several mouse and human cell lines expressing either the p55, the p70, or both IL2 receptor subunits. Internalization was assessed by measuring inhibition of protein synthesis caused by the toxin moiety of IL2-PE40. The results demonstrate that IL2 internalization is mediated by either the p55 receptor subunit or by the p70 subunit but is much more efficient when high affinity receptors composed of both subunits are present. IL2-PE40 is a powerful reagent for studying IL2 receptor interactions and for analyzing pathways of the immune response and its regulation. PMID:3143716

  18. Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread

    PubMed Central

    Cush, Stephanie S.; Reynoso, Glennys V.; Kamenyeva, Olena; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.; Hickman, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the spatial dynamics of the anti-inflammatory response to a cutaneous viral infection, we first screened cytokine mRNA expression levels after epicutaneous (ec.) VV infection and found a large increase the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Ex vivo analyses revealed that T cells in the skin were the primary IL-10-producing cells. To understand the distribution of IL-10-producing T cells in vivo, we performed multiphoton intravital microscopy (MPM) of VV-infected mice, assessing the location and dynamic behavior of IL-10 producing cells. Although virus-specific T cells were distributed throughout areas of the inflamed skin lacking overt virus-infection, IL-10+ cells closely associated with large keratinocytic foci of virus replication where they exhibited similar motility patterns to bulk antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Paradoxically, neutralizing secreted IL-10 in vivo with an anti-IL-10 antibody increased viral lesion size and viral replication. Additional analyses demonstrated that IL-10 antibody administration decreased recruitment of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which were important for reducing viral burden in the infected skin. Based upon these findings, we conclude that spatially concentrated IL-10 production limits cutaneous viral replication and dissemination, likely through modulation of the innate immune repertoire at the site of viral growth. PMID:26991092

  19. Combined Analysis of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT Supernatant Is Useful for Distinguishing Active Tuberculosis from Latent Infection.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Maho; Akashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT), an interferon-γ release assay, is used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its inaccuracy in distinguishing active tuberculosis from latent infection is a major concern. There is thus a need for an easy and accurate tool for achieving that goal in daily clinical settings. This study aimed to identify candidate cytokines for specifically differentiating active tuberculosis from latent infection. Our study population consisted of 31 active TB (tuberculosis) patients, 29 LTBI (latent tuberculosis infection) patients and 10 healthy control subjects. We assayed for 27 cytokines in QFT supernatants of both specific antigen-stimulated blood samples (TBAg) and negative-control samples (Nil). We analyzed their specificities and sensitivities by creating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and measuring the area under those curves (AUCs). In TBAg-Nil supernatants, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1RA showed high AUCs of 0.8120, 0.7842, 0.7419 and 0.7375, respectively. Compared with each cytokine alone, combined assay for these top four cytokines showed positive rates in diagnosing active TB, and GDA analysis revealed that MCP-1 and IL-5 are potent in distinguishing active TB from LTBI, with Wilk's lambda = 0.718 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, utilizing the unique characteristic of IL-2 that its TBAg-Nil supernatant levels are higher in LTBI compared to active TB, the difference between IFN-γ and IL-2 showed a large AUC of 0.8910. In summary, besides IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT supernatants may be useful for distinguishing active TB from LTBI. Those cytokines may also help us understand the difference in pathogenesis between active TB and LTBI. PMID:27035669

  20. Immunotherapy of Cancer by IL-12-based Cytokine Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Subleski, Jeff J.; Wigginton, Jon M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is a multi-faceted disease comprising complex interactions between neoplastic and normal cells. Over the past decade, there has been considerable progress in defining the molecular, cellular and environmental contributions to the pathophysiology of tumor development. Despite these advances, the conventional treatment of patients still generally involves surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and the clinical outcome for many of these efforts remains unsatisfactory. Recent studies have highlighted the feasibility of using immunotherapeutic approaches that seek to enhance host immune responses to developing tumors. These strategies include immunomodulatory cytokines, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, type I or type II Interferons (IFNs), Interleukins (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 being among the most potent inducers of anti-tumor activity in a variety of pre-clinical studies. More recently, some exciting new cytokines have been characterized, such as IL-21, IL-23, IL-27, and their immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo suggest that they may have considerable promise for future immunotherapy protocols. The promise of cytokine therapy does indeed derive from the identification of these novel cytokines, but even more fundamentally, the field is greatly benefiting from the ever-expanding amount of pre-clinical data that convincingly demonstrate synergistic and/or novel biological effects that may be achieved through the use of several combinations of cytokines with complementary immune-stimulating capabilities. One cytokine in particular, IL-12, holds considerable promise by virtue of the fact that it plays a central role in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses, can by itself induce potent anti-cancer effects, and synergizes with several other cytokines for increased immunoregulatory and anti-tumor activities. This review will discuss the anti-tumor activity of IL-12, with a special emphasis on its ability to

  1. Combined Analysis of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT Supernatant Is Useful for Distinguishing Active Tuberculosis from Latent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Suzukawa, Maho; Akashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT), an interferon-γ release assay, is used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its inaccuracy in distinguishing active tuberculosis from latent infection is a major concern. There is thus a need for an easy and accurate tool for achieving that goal in daily clinical settings. This study aimed to identify candidate cytokines for specifically differentiating active tuberculosis from latent infection. Our study population consisted of 31 active TB (tuberculosis) patients, 29 LTBI (latent tuberculosis infection) patients and 10 healthy control subjects. We assayed for 27 cytokines in QFT supernatants of both specific antigen-stimulated blood samples (TBAg) and negative-control samples (Nil). We analyzed their specificities and sensitivities by creating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and measuring the area under those curves (AUCs). In TBAg–Nil supernatants, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1RA showed high AUCs of 0.8120, 0.7842, 0.7419 and 0.7375, respectively. Compared with each cytokine alone, combined assay for these top four cytokines showed positive rates in diagnosing active TB, and GDA analysis revealed that MCP-1 and IL-5 are potent in distinguishing active TB from LTBI, with Wilk’s lambda = 0.718 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, utilizing the unique characteristic of IL-2 that its TBAg–Nil supernatant levels are higher in LTBI compared to active TB, the difference between IFN-γ and IL-2 showed a large AUC of 0.8910. In summary, besides IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT supernatants may be useful for distinguishing active TB from LTBI. Those cytokines may also help us understand the difference in pathogenesis between active TB and LTBI. PMID:27035669

  2. IL-36 promotes myeloid cell infiltration, activation and inflammatory activity in skin

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Alexander M.; Baliwag, Jaymie; Chen, Cynthia S.; Guzman, Andrew M.; Stoll, Stefan W.; Gudjonsson, Johann E.; Ward, Nicole L.; Johnston, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-36α (IL-1F6), IL-36β (IL-1F8) and IL-36γ (IL-1F9) and the receptor antagonist IL-36Ra (IL-1F5) constitute a novel signaling system that is poorly understood. We now show that these cytokines have profound effects on the skin immune system. Treatment of human keratinocytes with IL-36 cytokines significantly increased the expression of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL3, CCL5, and CCL20, potent chemotactic agents for activated leukocytes, and IL-36α injected intradermally resulted in chemokine expression, leukocyte infiltration and acanthosis of mouse skin. Blood monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (DC) and monocyte-derived DC (MO-DC) expressed IL-36R and responded to IL-36. In contrast, no direct effects of IL-36 on resting or activated human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or blood neutrophils, could be demonstrated. Monocytes expressed IL-1A, IL-1B and IL-6 mRNA and IL-1β and IL-6 protein and mDC upregulated surface expression of CD83, CD86 and HLADR and secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 after treatment with IL-36. Furthermore, IL-36α-treated MO-DC enhanced allogeneic CD4+ T cell proliferation, demonstrating that IL-36 can stimulate the maturation and function of DC and drive T cell proliferation. These data indicate that IL-36 cytokines actively propagate skin inflammation via the activation of keratinocytes, antigen presenting cells and, indirectly, T cells. PMID:24829417

  3. Deletion of IL-33R attenuates VEGF expression and enhances necrosis in mammary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pejnovic, Nada N.; Mitrovic, Slobodanka L. J.; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa N.; Simovic Markovic, Bojana J.; Lukic, Miodrag L.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33)/IL-33 receptor (IL-33R, ST2) signaling pathway promotes mammary cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting anti-tumor immunity. However, the role of IL-33/IL-33R axis in neoangiogenesis and tumor necrosis is not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-33/IL-33R axis in mammary tumor necrosis. Deletion of IL-33R (ST2) gene in BALB/c mice enhanced tumor necrosis and attenuated tumor growth in 4T1 breast cancer model, which was associated with markedly decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and IL-33 in mammary tumor cells. We next analyzed IL-33, IL-33R and VEGF expression and microvascular density (MVD) in breast tumors from 40 female patients with absent or present tumor necrosis. We found significantly higher expression of IL-33, IL-33R and VEGF in breast cancer tissues with absent tumor necrosis. Both, IL-33 and IL-33R expression correlated with VEGF expression in tumor cells. Further, VEGF expression positively correlated with MVD in perinecrotic zone. Taking together, our data indicate that IL-33/IL-33R pathway is critically involved in mammary tumor growth by facilitating expression of pro-angiogenic VEGF in tumor cells and attenuating tumor necrosis. These data add an unidentified mechanism by which IL-33/IL-33R axis facilitates tumor growth. PMID:26919112

  4. Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment: The Protumor Effects of IL-17 Related to Cancer Type.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Joseph; Giustiniani, Jerome; Garbar, Christian; Antonicelli, Frank; Merrouche, Yacine; Bensussan, Armand; Bagot, Martine; Al-Dacak, Reem

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory process contributes to immune tolerance as well as to tumor progression and metastasis. By releasing extracellular signals, cancerous cells constantly shape their surrounding microenvironment through their interactions with infiltrating immune cells, stromal cells and components of extracellular matrix. Recently, the pro-inflammatory interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper lymphocytes, the Th17 cells, and the IL-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) axis gained special attention. The IL-17 family comprises at least six members, IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E (also called IL-25), and IL-17F. Secreted as disulfide-linked homo- or heterodimers, the IL-17 bind to the IL-17R, a type I cell surface receptor, of which there are five variants, IL-17RA to IL-17RE. This review focuses on the current advances identifying the promoting role of IL-17 in carcinogenesis, tumor metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy of diverse solid cancers. While underscoring the IL-17/IL-17R axis as promising immunotherapeutic target in the context of cancer managing, this knowledge calls upon further in vitro and in vivo studies that would allow the development and implementation of novel strategies to combat tumors. PMID:27589729

  5. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  6. Evaluation of the circulating levels of IL-12 and IL-33 in patients with breast cancer: influences of the tumor stages and cytokine gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Minaee, Kayhan; Farsinejad, Ali-Reza; Nemati, Maryam; Khosravimashizi, Arezu; Daneshvar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sheikhi, Abdolkarim; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): IL-12 as an anti-tumor cytokine and IL-33 a novel identified cytokine with both pro- or anti-tumor activities, play important roles in response against tumor cells. Our aim was to evaluate the IL-12 and IL-33 levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in their genes in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 100 patients with breast cancer, and 100 healthy women were controls. The serum IL-12 and IL-33 levels were measured by ELISA. The SNP rs3212227 (in IL-12 gene) and rs1929992 (in IL-33 gene) were determined using PCR-RFLP. Results: The IL-12 levels similarly expressed in patients and controls. IL-12 levels in patients at stage I were significantly lower than in the healthy group (P<0.05). IL-33 levels and the IL-33/IL-12 ratio were significantly higher in patients than the control group (P<0.001). The IL-33 levels and IL-33/IL-12 ratio in stage IV patients were significantly higher than other stages and controls (P<0.0001 and P<0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes in rs3212227 and rs1929992 between patients and the control group. No significant differences were observed between subjects with various genotypes at rs3212227 and rs1929992 with respect to related cytokine levels. Conclusion: These results indicate that the diminished IL-12 production may contribute to the tumor establishment. The higher IL-33 levels and IL-33/IL-12 ratio in patients also indicate an imbalance in Th1/Th2 responses that may contribute to tumor development. Thus, correcting the imbalance of Th1/Th2 could be an important strategy for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26877848

  7. The functional synergy between IL-12 and IL-2 involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and is associated with the augmentation of STAT serine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Gollob, J A; Schnipper, C P; Murphy, E A; Ritz, J; Frank, D A

    1999-04-15

    IL-12 and IL-2 can stimulate mitogen- or CD3-activated T cells to proliferate, produce IFN-gamma, and kill tumor cells. The magnitude of these functional responses is greatly augmented when T cells are activated by the combination of IL-12 and IL-2. Although peripheral blood T cells are largely unresponsive to these cytokines without prior activation, a small subset of CD8+ T cells (CD8+CD18bright) is strongly activated by the combination of IL-12 and IL-2. In this report we show that the functional synergy between IL-12 and IL-2 in CD8+CD18bright T cells correlates with the activation of the stress kinases, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun N-terminal kinase, but not with the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases. The functional synergy between IL-2 and IL-12 is also associated with a prominent increase in STAT1 and STAT3 serine phosphorylation over that observed with IL-12 or IL-2 alone. By contrast, STAT tyrosine phosphorylation is not augmented over that seen with either cytokine alone. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase completely inhibits the serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 induced by IL-12 and IL-2 and abrogates the functional synergy between IL-12 and IL-2 without affecting STAT tyrosine phosphorylation. This suggests that p38 MAP kinase may play an important role in regulating STAT serine phosphorylation in response to the combination of IL-12 and IL-2. Furthermore, these findings indicate that the optimal activation of T cells by IL-12 and IL-2 may depend on an interaction between the p38 MAP kinase and Janus kinase/STAT signaling pathways. PMID:10201984

  8. A Heterodimeric Cytokine, Consisting of IL-17A and IL-17F, Promotes Migration and Capillary-Like Tube Formation of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Numasaki, Muneo; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Ohrui, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17 family, consisting of six homodimeric cytokines IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E/IL-25, and IL-17F, mediates a variety of biological activities including regulation of chemokine secretion and angiogenesis. Among the IL-17 family members, IL-17A and IL-17E/IL-25 are angiogenesis stimulators, while IL-17B and IL-17F are angiogenesis inhibitors. Recently, IL-17A/F heterodimer, comprised of the IL-17A and IL-17F subunits, was found as another member of the IL-17 cytokine family. However, to date, it has been unknown whether IL-17A/F has biological actions to affect the angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial functions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the biological effects of IL-17A/F on the growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. Recombinant IL-17A/F protein had no direct effects on the growth of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), whereas, after 4-hour incubation in a modified Boyden Chemotaxicell chamber, IL-17A/F significantly induced migration of HMVECs over a wide range of doses via the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. We further investigated the biological effect of IL-17A/F on capillary-like tube formation using a co-culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), which mimicked the in vivo microenvironment. In this co-culture system, IL-17A/F significantly promoted capillary-like endothelial tube formation in a dose-dependent fashion via the PI3K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Additionally, IL-17A/F up-regulated secretion of angiogenic growth factors such as IL-8 and growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α by HDFs. These findings identify a novel biological function for IL-17A/F as an indirect angiogenic agent. PMID:27594509

  9. IL-21R signaling suppresses IL-17+ gamma delta T cell responses and production of IL-17 related cytokines in the lung at steady state and after Influenza A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moser, Emily K; Sun, Jie; Kim, Taeg S; Braciale, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection of the respiratory tract elicits a robust immune response, which is required for efficient virus clearance but at the same time can contribute to lung damage and enhanced morbidity. IL-21 is a member of the type I cytokine family and has many different immune-modulatory functions during acute and chronic virus infections, although its role in IAV infection has not been fully evaluated. In this report we evaluated the contributions of IL-21/IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling to host defense in a mouse model of primary IAV infection using IL-21R knock out (KO) mice. We found that lack of IL-21R signaling had no significant impact on virus clearance, adaptive T cell responses, or myeloid cell accumulations in the respiratory tract. However, a subset of inflammatory cytokines were elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IL-21R KO mice, including IL-17. Although there was only a small increase in Th17 cells in the lungs of IL-21R KO mice, we observed a dramatic increase in gamma delta (γδ) T cells capable of producing IL-17 both after IAV infection and at steady state in the respiratory tract. Finally, we found that IL-21R signaling suppressed the accumulation of IL-17+ γδ T cells in the respiratory tract intrinsically. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized role of IL-21R signaling in regulating IL-17 production by γδ T cells. PMID:25849970

  10. IL-1β, IL-6, and RANTES as Biomarkers of Chikungunya Severity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong-Jiang; Kwek, Dyan J. C.; Lim, Poh-Lian; Dimatatac, Frederico; Ng, Lee-Ching; Ooi, Eng-Eong; Choo, Khar-Heng; Her, Zhisheng; Kourilsky, Philippe; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the immunopathogenesis of Chikungunya virus. Circulating levels of immune mediators and growth factors were analyzed from patients infected during the first Singaporean Chikungunya fever outbreak in early 2008 to establish biomarkers associated with infection and/or disease severity. Methods and Findings Adult patients with laboratory-confirmed Chikungunya fever infection, who were referred to the Communicable Disease Centre/Tan Tock Seng Hospital during the period from January to February 2008, were included in this retrospective study. Plasma fractions were analyzed using a multiplex-microbead immunoassay. Among the patients, the most common clinical features were fever (100%), arthralgia (90%), rash (50%) and conjunctivitis (40%). Profiles of 30 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were able to discriminate the clinical forms of Chikungunya from healthy controls, with patients classified as non-severe and severe disease. Levels of 8 plasma cytokines and 4 growth factors were significantly elevated. Statistical analysis showed that an increase in IL-1β, IL-6 and a decrease in RANTES were associated with disease severity. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive report on the production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors during acute Chikungunya virus infection. Using these biomarkers, we were able to distinguish between mild disease and more severe forms of Chikungunya fever, thus enabling the identification of patients with poor prognosis and monitoring of the disease. PMID:19156204

  11. ΔNp63 regulates IL-33 and IL-31 signaling in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, J M; Oyelakin, A; Min, S; Smalley, K; Bard, J; Luo, W; Nyquist, J; Guttman-Yassky, E; Yoshida, T; De Benedetto, A; Beck, L A; Sinha, S; Romano, R-A

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease with no well-delineated cause or effective cure. Here we show that the p53 family member p63, specifically the ΔNp63, isoform has a key role in driving keratinocyte activation in AD. We find that overexpression of ΔNp63 in transgenic mouse epidermis results in a severe skin phenotype that shares many of the key clinical, histological and molecular features associated with human AD. This includes pruritus, epidermal hyperplasia, aberrant keratinocyte differentiation, enhanced expression of selected cytokines and chemokines and the infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory cells including type 2  T-helper cells - features that are highly representative of AD dermatopathology. We further demonstrate several of these mediators to be direct transcriptional targets of ΔNp63 in keratinocytes. Of particular significance are two p63 target genes, IL-31 and IL-33, both of which are key players in the signaling pathways implicated in AD. Importantly, we find these observations to be in good agreement with elevated levels of ΔNp63 in skin lesions of human patients with AD. Our studies reveal an important role for ΔNp63 in the pathogenesis of AD and offer new insights into its etiology and possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26768665

  12. ΔNp63 regulates IL-33 and IL-31 signaling in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, J M; Oyelakin, A; Min, S; Smalley, K; Bard, J; Luo, W; Nyquist, J; Guttman-Yassky, E; Yoshida, T; De Benedetto, A; Beck, L A; Sinha, S; Romano, R-A

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease with no well-delineated cause or effective cure. Here we show that the p53 family member p63, specifically the ΔNp63, isoform has a key role in driving keratinocyte activation in AD. We find that overexpression of ΔNp63 in transgenic mouse epidermis results in a severe skin phenotype that shares many of the key clinical, histological and molecular features associated with human AD. This includes pruritus, epidermal hyperplasia, aberrant keratinocyte differentiation, enhanced expression of selected cytokines and chemokines and the infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory cells including type 2  T-helper cells – features that are highly representative of AD dermatopathology. We further demonstrate several of these mediators to be direct transcriptional targets of ΔNp63 in keratinocytes. Of particular significance are two p63 target genes, IL-31 and IL-33, both of which are key players in the signaling pathways implicated in AD. Importantly, we find these observations to be in good agreement with elevated levels of ΔNp63 in skin lesions of human patients with AD. Our studies reveal an important role for ΔNp63 in the pathogenesis of AD and offer new insights into its etiology and possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26768665

  13. Feline Leukemia Virus DNA Vaccine Efficacy Is Enhanced by Coadministration with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 Expression Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Linda; Argyle, David; Bain, Derek; Nicolson, Lesley; Dunham, Stephen; Golder, Matthew C.; McDonald, Michael; McGillivray, Christine; Jarrett, Oswald; Neil, James C.; Onions, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The expectation that cell-mediated immunity is important in the control of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection led us to test a DNA vaccine administered alone or with cytokines that favored the development of a Th1 immune response. The vaccine consisted of two plasmids, one expressing the gag/pol genes and the other expressing the env gene of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The genetic adjuvants were plasmids encoding the feline cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, or gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Kittens were immunized by three intramuscular inoculations of the FeLV DNA vaccine alone or in combination with plasmids expressing IFN-γ, IL-12, or both IL-12 and IL-18. Control kittens were inoculated with empty plasmid. Following immunization, anti-FeLV antibodies were not detected in any kitten. Three weeks after the final immunization, the kittens were challenged by the intraperitoneal inoculation of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 and were then monitored for a further 15 weeks for the presence of virus in plasma and, at the end of the trial, for latent virus in bone marrow. The vaccine consisting of FeLV DNA with the IL-12 and IL-18 genes conferred significant immunity, protecting completely against transient and persistent viremia, and in five of six kittens protecting against latent infection. None of the other vaccines provided significant protection. PMID:11507187

  14. Intrathymic radioresistant stem cells follow an IL-2/IL-2R pathway during thymic regeneration after sublethal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga-Pfluecker, J.C.K.; Kruisbeek, A.M. )

    1990-05-15

    Sublethally irradiated mice undergo thymic regeneration which follows a phenotypic pattern of events similar to that observed during normal fetal development. Thymic regeneration after irradiation is the product of a limited pool of intrathymic radioresistant stem cells undergoing simultaneous differentiation. We show that in this model of T cell development, thymic regeneration follows a pathway in which the IL-2R is transiently expressed on CD4-/CD8- cells. IL-2R expression occurred during the exponential growth period of thymic regeneration, and IL-2R blocking prevented this explosive growth. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the IL-2R blockade affected primarily the development of the immature CD3-/CD4-/CD8- (triple negative) cells and their ability to generate CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ or CD3+/CD4+/CD8- and CD3+/CD4-/CD8+ thymocytes. Thus, our findings demonstrate that blocking of the IL-2R resulted in an arrest in proliferation and differentiation by intrathymic radioresistant stem cells, indicating that the IL-2/IL-2R pathway is necessary for the expansion of immature triple negative T cells.

  15. Resistance to Anti-VEGF Therapy Mediated by Autocrine IL6/STAT3 Signaling and Overcome by IL6 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Su, Jia; Adler, Alexander P; Zhang, Li; Ioffe, Ella; Parveen, Asma A; Yancopoulos, George D; Rudge, John; Lowy, Israel; Lin, Hsin Chieh; MacDonald, Douglas; Daly, Christopher; Duan, Xunbao; Thurston, Gavin

    2016-04-15

    Anti-VEGF therapies benefit several cancer types, but drug resistance that limits therapeutic response can emerge. We generated cell lines from anti-VEGF-resistant tumor xenografts to investigate the mechanisms by which resistance develops. Of all tumor cells tested, only A431 (A431-V) epidermoid carcinoma cells developed partial resistance to the VEGF inhibitor aflibercept. Compared with the parental tumors, A431-V tumors secreted greater amounts of IL6 and exhibited higher levels of phospho-STAT3. Notably, combined blockade of IL6 receptor (IL6R) and VEGF resulted in enhanced activity against A431-V tumors. Similarly, inhibition of IL6R enhanced the antitumor effects of aflibercept in DU145 prostate tumor cells that displays high endogenous IL6R activity. In addition, post hoc stratification of data obtained from a clinical trial investigating aflibercept efficacy in ovarian cancer showed poorer survival in patients with high levels of circulating IL6. These results suggest that the activation of the IL6/STAT3 pathway in tumor cells may provide a survival advantage during anti-VEGF treatment, suggesting its utility as a source of response biomarkers and as a therapeutic target to heighten efficacious results. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2327-39. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921327

  16. Acetyl salicylic acid inhibits Th17 airway inflammation via blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kang, Chil Sung; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong Sic; Choi, Hyun Il; Choi, Yong Wook; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Yoo, Joo-Yeon; Jang, Myoung Ho; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback. PMID:23306703

  17. Hippocampal distribution of IL-1β and IL-1RI following lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Croda, Dulce-Mariely; Santiago-García, Juan; Medel-Matus, Jesús S; Martínez-Quiroz, Joel; Puig-Lagunes, Angel A; Beltrán-Parrazal, Luis; López-Meraz, María-Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to neuronal injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in the immature brain remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the hippocampal expression of IL-1β and its type 1 receptor (IL-1RI) following SE induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model in fourteen-days-old rat pups; control animals were given an equal volume of saline instead of the convulsant. IL-1β and IL-1RI mRNA hippocampal levels were assessed by qRT-PCR 6 and 24 h after SE or control conditions. IL-1β and IL-1RI expression was detected in the dorsal hippocampus by immunohistochemical procedures; Fluoro-Jade B staining was carried out in parallel sections in order to detect neuronal cell death. IL-1β mRNA expression was increased 6 h following SE, but not at 24 h; however IL-1RI mRNA expression was unaffected when comparing with the control group. IL-1β and IL-1RI immunoreactivity was not detected in control animals. IL-1β and IL-1RI were expressed in the CA1 pyramidal layer, the dentate gyrus granular layer and the hilus 6 h after SE, whereas injured cells were detected 24 h following seizures. Early expression of IL-1β and IL-1RI in the hippocampus could be associated with SE-induced neuronal cell death mechanisms in the developing rat. PMID:27168372

  18. Immunohistochemical Comparison of IL-36 and the IL-23/Th17 Axis of Generalized Pustular Psoriasis and Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyo Sang; Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Tae-In; Jang, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous pustular disorders include generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Objective To identify differences between GPP and AGEP, here we immunohistochemically evaluated interleukin (IL)-36 and the IL-23/Th17 axis. Methods This retrospective comparative immunohistochemical study was completed using 11 biopsies of 11 cases of GPP and 11 biopsies of 11 cases of AGEP. Through staining with the anti-IL-36-alpha (IL-36α), anti-IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra), anti-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), anti-IL-23, anti-IL-17, and anti-IL-8 antibodies, main expression location and intensity were visualized in the epidermis and dermis. Results In both diseases, diffuse IL-36α expression was observed in the epidermis. IL-36Ra expression was observed in the dermal perivascular area as well as in the epidermis. NF-κB expression was observed in the epidermis and perivascular dermal area. Diffuse IL-23 and IL-17 expression was seen in the whole epidermis and the perivascular dermal area. IL-8 was expressed in the subcorneal pustules and parakeratotic area. Contrary to other cytokines, IL-23 expression in the epidermis of patients with GPP was more intense than only that in patients with AGEP. Conclusion Common pathomechanisms might exist in the development of GPP and AGEP based on these immunohistochemical results, but further studies are needed. PMID:27489427

  19. Altered expression of IL-10 family cytokines in monocytes from CRMO patients result in enhanced IL-1β expression and release.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, S R; Kubasch, A S; Ioannidis, C; Rösen-Wolff, A; Girschick, H J; Morbach, H; Hedrich, C M

    2015-12-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is characterized by reduced activation of protein kinases ERK1 and 2 in monocytes resulting in impaired IL-10 expression. IL10 and its homologs IL19 and IL20 are organized in the IL10 cluster on chromosome 1q32. IL-10 and IL-19 are immune-regulatory cytokines, while IL-20 acts in a pro-inflammatory manner. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein complex forming in response to innate stimuli, mediates IL-1β cleavage and release. Here, we investigated IL-10-related cytokine expression in CRMO monocytes, underlying molecular events, and effects on inflammatory responses. We observed reduced anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-19 expression, and enhanced IL-20 expression in CRMO monocytes. Reduced IL-10 and IL-19 expression was associated with impaired Sp-1 recruitment to regulatory regions, contributing to NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which may induce inflammatory bone-loss. Our findings underscore the importance of balanced receptor-, cell-, and tissue-specific cytokine expression for immune homeostasis, providing additional arguments for cytokine blocking strategies in CRMO. PMID:26404542

  20. Requirement of dual stimulation by homologous recombinant IL-2 and recombinant IL-12 for the in vitro production of interferon gamma by canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few studies have been carried out so far aiming at modulating cellular immune responses in dogs. In this study, we evaluated the ability of recombinant canine IL-2 (rcaIL-2) and IL-12, in the form of a single-chain fusion protein (rsccaIL-12), to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy mongrel dogs. Results Recombinant canine IL-2 purified from Escherichia coli or present in the supernatant of COS-7 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-caIL-2 (COS-7 caIL-2 supernatant) was able to induce proliferation of CTLL-2 cells, thus showing their functional activity. In addition, purified rcaIL-2 and COS-7 caIL-2 supernatant stimulated resting canine PBMC proliferation to a level higher than baseline level. Neither COS-7 sccaIL-12 supernatant nor COS-7 caIL-2 supernatant alone was able to induce significant production of interferon gamma by resting PBMC. However, COS-7 sccaIL-12 supernatant in combination with COS-7 caIL-2 supernatant induced production of IFN-γ by those cells. Conclusions The data shown herein suggest that the combination of canine recombinant IL-12 and IL-2 can be useful to promote cellular immune responses in dogs. PMID:25037233

  1. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor α expression and IL-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michèle Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4Rα can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4Rα and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4Rα levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4Rα and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ► Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ► There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ► We analyze immune responses induced

  2. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the 75th Street... impacts are anticipated. Potential impacts may include residential relocations, effects on...

  3. L-Ascorbyl-2-phosphate attenuates NF-κB signaling in SZ95 sebocytes without affecting IL-6 and IL-8 secretion.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Hiroshi; Apel, Mara; Zouboulis, Christos; Luger, Thomas A; Böhm, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Acne is the most common inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is at the beginning of the cytokine signaling cascade and may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. It activates redox-sensitive transcription factors, which induce IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Interestingly, L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS) was shown to have beneficial effects in patients with acne vulgaris. The mechanism of action of this agent remains unknown. Here, we investigated if APS attenuates IL-1β- or TNF-α-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 expression in SZ95 sebocytes, whereas TNF-α was used as control. We also explored NF-κB activation which is known to orchestrate IL-1β- and TNF-α-mediated cytokine expression in many cell types. Both IL-1β and TNF-α increased IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in SZ95 sebocytes. However, only IL-1β induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. IL-1β but not TNF-α activated NF-κB canonical signaling as demonstrated by Iκ-Bα phosphorylation and degradation as well as by nuclear accumulation of NF-κB/p65. Concomitant treatment of SZ95 sebocytes with APS attenuated the effect of IL-1β and TNF-α on IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression as well as on IL-1β-mediated NF-κB signaling. In contrast, APS failed to reduce IL-1β-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, presumably by maintained IL-1β-mediated p38 activation, which is known to control IL-8 secretion. Our findings shed light into the impact of IL-1β on the inflammatory cytokine response and its molecular mechanisms in human sebocytes. Our data further suggest that the beneficial effect of APS in acne patients involves attenuation of NF-κB signaling but not reduction of IL-6 or IL-8 secretion. PMID:25894228

  4. Decoys and Regulatory “Receptors” of the IL-1/Toll-Like Receptor Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Garlanda, Cecilia; Riva, Federica; Bonavita, Eduardo; Gentile, Stefania; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Members of the IL-1 family play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Members of IL-1R like receptor (ILR) family include signaling molecules and negative regulators. The latter include decoy receptors (IL-1RII; IL-18BP) and “receptors” with regulatory function (TIR8/SIGIRR; IL-1RAcPb; DIGIRR). Structural considerations suggest that also TIGIRR-1 and IL-1RAPL may have regulatory function. The presence of multiple pathways of negative regulation of members of the IL-1/IL-1R family emphasizes the need for a tight control of members of this fundamental system. PMID:23847621

  5. The Role of IL-1 Family Members and Kupffer Cells in Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanhui; Hu, Jianjun; Yu, Xiaolan; Guan, Wen; Lu, Huili; Yu, Yan; Yu, Yongsheng; Zang, Guoqiang; Tang, Zhenghao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family and Kupffer cells are linked with liver regeneration, but their precise roles remain unclear. IL-1 family members are pleiotropic factors with a range of biological roles in liver diseases, inducing hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as liver regeneration. Kupffer cells are the main source of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), the key members of IL-1 family. This systemic review highlights a close association of IL-1 family members and Kupffer cells with liver regeneration, although their specific roles are inconclusive. Moreover, IL-1 members are proposed to induce effects on liver regeneration through Kupffer cells. PMID:27092311

  6. IL-17RA Signaling in Airway Inflammation and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Willis, Cynthia R; Siegel, Lori; Leith, Anh; Mohn, Deanna; Escobar, Sabine; Wannberg, Sharon; Misura, Kira; Rickel, Erika; Rottman, James B; Comeau, Michael R; Sullivan, John K; Metz, Daniela P; Tocker, Joel; Budelsky, Alison L

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) is a shared receptor subunit required for activity of IL-17 family cytokines, including IL-17A and IL-25. IL-17A and IL-25 induce different proinflammatory responses, and concentrations are elevated in subjects with asthma. However, the individual contributions of IL-17A and IL-25 to disease pathogenesis are unclear. We explored proinflammatory activities of the IL-17 pathway in models of pulmonary inflammation and assessed its effects on contractility of human bronchial airway smooth muscle. In two mouse models, IL-17RA, IL-17RB, or IL-25 blockade reduced airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. Individually, IL-17A and IL-25 enhanced contractility of human bronchial smooth muscle induced by methacholine or carbachol. IL-17A had more pronounced effects on methacholine-induced contractility in bronchial rings from donors with asthma compared with donors without asthma. Blocking the IL-17 pathway via IL-17RA may be a useful therapy for some patients with asthma by reducing pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. PMID:25919006

  7. Local expression of IL-4 and IL-5 in perennial allergic rhinitis and their modulation by topical corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Shereen F; Sallam, Maha M; Ibraheem, Samer A

    2004-01-01

    Perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) is an increasing problem for which new and exciting therapies are being developed. A T(H)2-polarized cytokine pattern is thought to predominate regulating local IgE synthesis and cell recruitment in PAR and the development of intranasal steroids has resulted in several agents with quick actions, localized effects and great efficacy in its management. The aim of work was to determine the differences in the local expression of IL-4 and IL-5 in patients with PAR compared to non-atopic healthy controls and investigate the relationship between the expression of these cytokines and the clinical aspects of the disease. Also to evaluate local expression of these cytokines in some of these patients before and after treatment with intranasal steroids (fluticasone proprionate). Nasal biopsies from 37 patients with PAR before therapy and from 8 of them after receiving corticosteroids as local nasal spray were taken. PAR was confirmed by a history of perennial nasal blockage, discharge, and/or sneeze for at least 2 years before the study and by positive skin prick test. Also nasal biopsies were taken from 20 age and gender matched non-atopic controls. Biopsies were analyzed using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to investigate local expression of IL-4 mRNA. Enzyme immunoassay was used for estimation of IL-5 levels in the nasal mucosa. By using the ROC curve; (11 pg/ml) was estimated as a cut-off value for IL-5 where levels below this cut off were considered negative. This study showed that the most common causative allergens in PAR were mite dust, followed by wool & pigeon then mixed moulds. There was a significant relation between expression of IL-4 and IL-5 and the occurrence of allergic rhinitis where mRNA of IL-4 was detected in 17/37 [46%] of patient group and in 3/20 (15%) of the control group (P < 0.05). IL-5 levels were more than the calculated cut off value in 22/37 (59.5%) of patient group as compared to 4

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Lambda-Interferons IL-28A and IL-29 regarding Their Transcriptome and Their Antiviral Properties against Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Diegelmann, Julia; Beigel, Florian; Zitzmann, Kathrin; Kaul, Artur; Göke, Burkhard; Auernhammer, Christoph J.; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Diepolder, Helmut M.; Brand, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Background Specific differences in signaling and antiviral properties between the different Lambda-interferons, a novel group of interferons composed of IL-28A, IL-28B and IL-29, are currently unknown. This is the first study comparatively investigating the transcriptome and the antiviral properties of the Lambda-interferons IL-28A and IL-29. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression studies were performed by microarray analysis, quantitative PCR (qPCR), reporter gene assays and immunoluminometric assays. Signaling was analyzed by Western blot. HCV replication was measured in Huh-7 cells expressing subgenomic HCV replicon. All hepatic cell lines investigated as well as primary hepatocytes expressed both IFN-λ receptor subunits IL-10R2 and IFN-λR1. Both, IL-28A and IL-29 activated STAT1 signaling. As revealed by microarray analysis, similar genes were induced by both cytokines in Huh-7 cells (IL-28A: 117 genes; IL-29: 111 genes), many of them playing a role in antiviral immunity. However, only IL-28A was able to significantly down-regulate gene expression (n = 272 down-regulated genes). Both cytokines significantly decreased HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. In comparison to liver biopsies of patients with non-viral liver disease, liver biopsies of patients with HCV showed significantly increased mRNA expression of IL-28A and IL-29. Moreover, IL-28A serum protein levels were elevated in HCV patients. In a murine model of viral hepatitis, IL-28 expression was significantly increased. Conclusions/Significance IL-28A and IL-29 are up-regulated in HCV patients and are similarly effective in inducing antiviral genes and inhibiting HCV replication. In contrast to IL-29, IL-28A is a potent gene repressor. Both IFN-λs may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic HCV. PMID:21170333

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Induction of Concurrent IL-1β and IL-23 Expression in THP-1 Cells Exhibits Differential Requirements for Caspase-1 and Cathepsin B Activity.

    PubMed

    Wynick, Christopher; Petes, Carlene; Tigert, Alexander; Gee, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    The inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex required for interleukin (IL)-1β production. Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggering of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and subsequent ATP signaling, the NOD-like receptor containing-pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated to cleave pro-caspase-1 into caspase-1, allowing the secretion of IL-1β. IL-1β is known to function with IL-23 in the regulation of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells, Th17 cells, in adaptive immunity. Recently, studies have shown that IL-1β and IL-23 together activate IL-17-producing innate lymphoid cells, demonstrating that the pair may exhibit additional effects on cell differentiation. Using an in vitro model of bacterial infection, LPS treatment of human monocytic cells, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the co-expression of IL-1β and IL-23. We found that IL-1β is partially required for optimal LPS-induced IL-23 production. We also found that IL-23 production was partially dependent on ATP signaling via the P2X7 receptor, whereas IL-1β production required this signaling. Furthermore, we identified a novel role for cathepsin B activity in IL-23 production. Taken together, this study identifies differential requirements for the co-expression of IL-1β and IL-23. Due to their similar roles in Th17 differentiation, characterization of the regulatory mechanisms for LPS-induced IL-1β and IL-23 may reveal novel information into the pathology of the inflammatory response particularly during bacterial infection. PMID:27096899

  10. Elevated levels of Interleukin (IL)-33 induce bone pathology but absence of IL-33 does not negatively impact normal bone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Okragly, Angela J; Hamang, Matthew J; Pena, Emily A; Baker, Hana E; Bullock, Heather A; Lucchesi, Jonathan; Martin, Andrea P; Ma, Y Linda; Benschop, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family. IL-33 effects are mediated through its receptor, ST2 and IL-1RAcP, and its signaling induces the production of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ. There are conflicting reports on the role of IL-33 in bone homeostasis, with some demonstrating a bone protective role for IL-33 whilst others show that IL-33 induces inflammatory arthritis with concurrent bone destruction. To better clarify the role IL-33 plays in bone biology in vivo, we studied IL-33 KO mice as well as mice in which the cytokine form of IL-33 was overexpressed. Mid-femur cortical bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength were similar in the IL-33 KO mice compared to WT animals during the first 8months of life. However, in the absence of IL-33, we observed higher BMD in lumbar vertebrae and distal femur in female mice. In contrast, overexpression of IL-33 resulted in a marked and rapid reduction of bone volume, mineral density and strength. Moreover, this was associated with a robust increase in inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6 and IFN-γ), suggesting the bone pathology could be a direct effect of IL-33 or an indirect effect due to the induction of other mediators. Furthermore, the detrimental bone effects were accompanied by increases in osteoclast number and the bone resorption marker of C-terminal telopeptide collagen-I (CTX-I). Together, these results demonstrate that absence of IL-33 has no negative consequences in normal bone homeostasis while high levels of circulating IL-33 contributes to pathological bone loss. PMID:26771472

  11. Association Between IL-10 Gene Polymorphism and Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongtao; Li, Qiuming; Wang, Menghua; Wan, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental factors both play important roles in the occurrence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). IL-10 592 gene polymorphism is associated with diabetes pathogenesis. This study analyzed the relationship between IL-10 gene promoter-592 loci polymorphism (SNP) in a diabetic model rats with DR. Material/Methods Streptozotocin (STZ) was injected through the tail vein to establish a diabetic rat model. The rats were randomly divided into 2 groups for 3 months’ feeding, including 100 rats in the diabetes-positive control group and 100 rats only injected with citric acid buffer as the blank control group. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) was used to observe retinal vascular changes. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphisms assay (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect IL-10 gene promoter-592 loci polymorphism in DNA samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to test serum IL-10 concentration. Results Serum IL-10 level in DR rats was 33.18±5.0 pg/mL and in the control rats it was 53.33±4.16 pg/mL in (P<0.01). Diabetes susceptibility with IL-10-592 genotype frequency and gene frequency analysis showed that IL-10-592 genotype frequency and allele frequency were significantly different in the DR group compared with the control group (P<0.01). Conclusions IL-10 592 polymorphism was associated with DR susceptibility, suggesting that the gene polymorphism might be a risk factor for DR. PMID:26492380

  12. IL-4 Induces Cholinergic Differentiation of Retinal Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Granja, Marcelo Gomes; Braga, Luis Eduardo Gomes; Carpi-Santos, Raul; de Araujo-Martins, Leandro; Nunes-Tavares, Nilson; Calaza, Karin C; Dos Santos, Aline Araujo; Giestal-de-Araujo, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates several phenomena, among them survival and differentiation of neuronal and glial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of IL-4 on the cholinergic differentiation of neonatal rat retinal cells in vitro, evaluating its effect on the levels of cholinergic markers (CHT1-high-affinity choline transporter; VAChT-vesicular acetylcholine transporter, ChAT-choline acetyltransferase, AChE-acetylcholinesterase), muscarinic receptors, and on the signaling pathways involved. Lister Hooded rat pups were used in postnatal days 0-2 (P0-P2). Our results show that IL-4 treatment (50 U/mL) for 48 h increases the levels of the cholinergic transporters VAChT and CHT1, the acetylcholinesterase activity, and the number of ChAT-positive cells. It also induces changes in muscarinic receptor levels, leading to a small decrease in M1 levels and a significant increase in M3 and M5 levels after 48 h of treatment. We also showed that IL-4 effect on M3 receptors is dependent on type I IL-4 receptor and on an increase in NFκB phosphorylation. These results indicate that IL-4 stimulates cholinergic differentiation of retinal cells. PMID:25682112

  13. Placental IL-10 dysregulation and association with bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Elisabeth C; Kostadinov, Stefan; McLean, Kathryn; Gotsch, Francesca; Venturini, Deborah; Romero, Roberto; Laptook, Abbot R; Sharma, Surendra

    2009-10-01

    Cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid, cord serum, and tracheal aspirate of premature infants suggest a shift toward a proinflammatory state. Cytokines also contribute to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesize that the initiating events for BPD are reflected in the placenta and propose that placental expression of cytokines provide a blueprint of events leading to BPD. This is a retrospective, case-controlled study of placental cytokines of premature infants with (n = 49) and without (n = 49) BPD, matched for gender, birth weight, and year of birth at Women and Infants Hospital between 2003 and 2005. Cytokine expression, including IL-6 and IL-10, was determined by immunohistochemistry in membrane rolls, umbilical cords, and placentas. IL-6 was similarly expressed in all tissues of infants with and without BPD. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was less prominent in the placenta of patients with BPD compared with those without BPD. IL-10 expression in the villous trophoblast layer was associated with a reduced odds ratio of developing BPD (adjusted OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.70, p = 0.02). These results suggest that a placental balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial to normal lung organogenesis. Importantly, IL-10 seems to be protective against the development of BPD. PMID:19581835

  14. Placental IL-10 dysregulation and association with bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Kostadinov, Stefan; McLean, Kathryn; Gotsch, Francesca; Venturini, Deborah; Romero, Roberto; Laptook, Abbot R.; Sharma, Surendra

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid, cord serum, and tracheal aspirate of premature infants suggest a shift toward a pro-inflammatory state. Cytokines also contribute to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesize that the initiating events for BPD are reflected in the placenta and propose that placental expression of cytokines provide a blueprint of events leading to BPD. This is a retrospective, case controlled study of placental cytokines of premature infants with (n=49) and without (n=49) BPD, matched for gender, birthweight and year of birth at Women and Infants Hospital between 2003 and 2005. Cytokine expression, including IL-6 and IL-10, was determined by immunohistochemistry in membrane rolls, umbilical cords, and placentas. IL-6 was similarly expressed in all tissues of infants with and without BPD. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was less prominent in the placenta of patients with BPD compared to those without BPD. IL-10 expression in the villous trophoblast layer was associated with a reduced odds ratio of developing BPD (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.70, p=0.02). These results suggest that a placental balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial to normal lung organogenesis. Importantly, IL-10 appears to be protective against the development of BPD. PMID:19581835

  15. Regulation of macrophage IL-12 synthesis by Leishmania phosphoglycans.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, D; Proudfoot, L; Nikolaev, A V; Xu, D; Sands, W; Feng, G J; Thomas, E; Brewer, J; Ferguson, M A; Alexander, J; Liew, F Y

    1999-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that IFN-gamma, secreted by Th1 cells, is the most potent cytokine leading to macrophage activation and host resistance against infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania. It is also established that IL-12 is a critical cytokine involved in the differentiation and expansion of Th1 cells. Therefore, the ability of Leishmania parasites to actively suppress IL-12 production by host macrophages may be an important strategy for parasite survival. Here we report that a major parasite cell surface molecule, phosphoglycan (PG), of Leishmania could selectively inhibit the synthesis of IL-12(p40, p70) by activated murine macrophages. Furthermore, synthetic PG (sPG) was able to inhibit IL-12 release in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was dependent on the galactose(beta1-4)mannose(alpha1)-PO4 repeating units and not the glycophosphoinositol lipid anchor of lipophosphoglycan. At the concentration used, sPG had no effect on the release of TNF-alpha or IL-6 in activated macrophages. The inhibition of IL-12(p40) production was at the transcriptional level, but was not mediated through NF kappaB inhibition. These data demonstrate that PG may be an important molecule for the establishment and survival of the parasite in permissive hosts. PMID:9933105

  16. IL-1 gene cluster is not linked to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Borzani, I; Guarnelli, M E; Mamolini, E; Annunziata, M; Guida, L; Trombelli, L

    2010-05-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene family has been associated with susceptibility to periodontal diseases, including aggressive periodontitis (AgP); however, the results are still conflicting. The present study investigated the association between IL-1 genes and AgP using 70 markers spanning the 1.1-Mb region, where the IL-1 gene family maps, and exploring both the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the haplotype structure in a case-control study including 95 patients and 121 control individuals. No association between AgP and IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN genes was found in either single-point or haplotype analyses. Also, the LD map of the region 2q13-14 under the Malécot model for multiple markers showed no causal association between AgP and polymorphisms within the region (p = 0.207). In conclusion, our findings failed to support the existence of a causative variant for generalized AgP within the 2q13-14 region in an Italian Caucasian population. PMID:20335539

  17. Tristetraprolin inhibits gastric cancer progression through suppression of IL-33

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kaiyuan; Wang, Hao; Shan, Ting; Chen, Yigang; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Qin; Xia, Jiazeng

    2016-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an adenine/uridine (AU)-rich element (ARE)-binding protein that can induce degradation of mRNAs. In this study, we report that TTP suppresses the expression of interleukin-33 (IL-33), a tumor-promoting inflammatory cytokine, and thereby inhibits the progression of gastric cancer (GC). Overexpression of TTP decreased the level of IL-33, whereas knockdown of TTP increased IL-33 levels. We also discovered that TTP inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of GC cell lines through regulation of IL-33. Furthermore, TTP RNA and protein levels were remarkably reduced in GC and inversely correlated with IL-33 level, and they were also closely associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage, as well as survival rate. Taken together, these findings identified TTP as a downregulator of IL-33, and further suggest that TTP can serve as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of GC and as a potential therapeutic target for GC treatment. PMID:27074834

  18. IL-17 Inhibits Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Masahiro; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Sonomoto, Koshiro; Fukuyo, Shunsuke; Oshita, Koichi; Okada, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineages, such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Here we investigated the effects of IL-17, a key cytokine in chronic inflammation, on chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs. Methods Human bone marrow MSCs were pellet cultured in chondrogenic induction medium containing TGF-β3. Chondrogenic differentiation was detected by cartilage matrix accumulation and chondrogenic marker gene expression. Results Over-expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic marker genes was noted in chondrogenic cultures, but was inhibited by IL-17 in a dose-dependent manner. Expression and phosphorylation of SOX9, the master transcription factor for chondrogenesis, were induced within 2 days and phosphorylated SOX9 was stably maintained until day 21. IL-17 did not alter total SOX9 expression, but significantly suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. At day 7, IL-17 also suppressed the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is known to phosphorylate SOX9. H89, a selective PKA inhibitor, also suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation, expression of chondrogenic markers and cartilage matrix, and also decreased chondrogenesis. Conclusions IL-17 inhibited chondrogenesis of human MSCs through the suppression of PKA activity and SOX9 phosphorylation. These results suggest that chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs can be inhibited by a mechanism triggered by IL-17 under chronic inflammation. PMID:24260226

  19. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 licenses Toll-like receptor 4-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production via IL-6 receptor-positive feedback in endometrial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, J G; Kanamarlapudi, V; Thornton, C A; Sheldon, I M

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), acting via the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), limits neutrophil recruitment once bacterial infections are resolved. Bovine endometritis is an exemplar mucosal disease, characterized by sustained neutrophil infiltration and elevated IL-6 and IL-8, a neutrophil chemoattractant, following postpartum Gram-negative bacterial infection. The present study examined the impact of the IL6R/STAT3 signaling pathway on IL-8 production by primary endometrial cells in response to short- or long-term exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is required for DNA binding and expression of specific targets genes. Immunoblotting indicated constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 in endometrial cells was impeded by acute exposure to LPS. After 24 h exposure to LPS, STAT3 returned to a tyrosine phosphorylated state, indicating cross-talk between the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the IL6R/STAT3 signaling pathways. This was confirmed by short interfering RNA targeting the IL6R, which abrogated the accumulation of IL-6 and IL-8, induced by LPS. Furthermore, there was a differential endometrial cell response, as the accumulation of IL-6 and IL-8 was dependent on STAT3, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, and Src kinase signaling in stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. In conclusion, positive feedback through the IL6R amplifies LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in the endometrium. These findings provide a mechanistic insight into how elevated IL-6 concentrations in the postpartum endometrium during bacterial infection leads to marked and sustained neutrophil infiltration. PMID:26813342

  20. Properties of a specific interleukin 1 (IL 1) receptor on human Epstein Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes. Identity of receptor for IL 1-. cap alpha. and IL 1-. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, K.; Akahoshi, T.; Yamada, M.; Furutani, Y.; Oppenheim, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of specific human interleukin 1 (IL 1) receptors on human Epstein Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes (EBV-B) were studied. Purified human IL 1-..beta.. from a myelomonocytic cell line (THP-1) was labeled with /sup 125/I. Among four EBV-B cell lines tested, a pre-B cell type (VDS-O) specifically bound the highest amount of /sup 125/I-IL 1-..beta... The binding of /sup 125/I-IL 1-..beta.. to VDS-O cells was inhibited by F(ab)'/sub 2/ fragments of anti-human IL 1 and recombinant human IL 1-..cap alpha.., as well as by unlabeled human IL 1-..beta.. but not by recombinant lymphotoxin, recombinant tumor necrosis factor, or phorbol myristic acid, suggesting that IL 1-..cap alpha.. and IL 1-..beta.. bind specifically to the same receptor. The m.w. of IL 1 receptor on human EBV-B cells was estimated to be 60,000 by both the chemical cross-linking method and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isoelectric point of solubilized human IL 1 receptor was 7.3 on HPLC chromatofocusing. The evidence of existence of IL 1 receptor on human EBV-B cells additionally supports the hypothesis that IL 1 may be an autocrine signal for these cells.

  1. Integrating longitudinal serum IL-17 and IL-23 follow-up, along with autoantibodies variation, contributes to predict bullous pemphigoid outcome.

    PubMed

    Plée, Julie; Le Jan, Sébastien; Giustiniani, Jérôme; Barbe, Coralie; Joly, Pascal; Bedane, Christophe; Vabres, Pierre; Truchetet, François; Aubin, François; Antonicelli, Frank; Bernard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an inflammatory autoimmune bullous disease involving cytokines and proteases in the process of blister formation. Recently, IL-17 and IL-23 were evidenced in lesional skin and serum of BP patients at time of diagnosis, but their involvement in disease outcome has still not been investigated yet. We then analysed IL-17 and IL-23 serum levels during the first months of follow-up upon treatment. Compared with age- and sex- matched controls, high levels of IL-23 were observed at baseline in BP patients serum (P < 0.01), while IL-17 levels was not. However, some BP patients expressed high IL-17 serum level, independently of disease severity. In these patients, those with ongoing remission reduced IL-17 concentration upon treatment (P < 0.001), whereas IL-17 level remained elevated in patients who relapsed. Meanwhile, IL-23 serum levels increased during the first month of treatment in BP patients who later relapsed (P < 0.01) and MMP-9 serum level was not controlled. Accordingly, we found that both IL-17 and IL-23 increased MMP-9 secretion from leukocytes in-vitro. Then, we showed that elevated IL-17/IL-23 serum concentrations helped to discriminate BP patients who later relapsed. Such uncontrolled inflammatory response raises the question whether these molecules could become biological target for BP patients resistant to steroid treatment. PMID:26656739

  2. A member of the C/EBP family, NF-IL6 beta, forms a heterodimer and transcriptionally synergizes with NF-IL6.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, S; Akira, S; Kishimoto, T

    1992-01-01

    Using a DNA probe from the DNA-binding portion of the NF-IL6 gene and an antibody against the DNA-binding domain of NF-IL6, we isolated a gene homologous to NF-IL6 in the DNA-binding and leucine zipper domains. This intronless gene, termed NF-IL6 beta encodes a 269-amino acid protein with a potential leucine zipper structure, and the gene product can bind to the CCAAT homology as well as the viral enhancer core sequence, as in the cases of NF-IL6 and C/EBP. This gene is expressed at an undetectable or a minor level in normal tissues but is induced by lipopolysaccharide or inflammatory cytokines, as in the case of NF-IL6. NF-IL6 beta easily forms a heterodimer with NF-IL6 in vitro and the heterodimeric complex binds to the same DNA sequence as the respective homodimers. When examined by transient luciferase assays, NF-IL6 beta is consistently a stronger transactivator than NF-IL6. Furthermore, NF-IL6 beta shows a synergistic transcriptional effect with NF-IL6. These data suggest that NF-IL6 beta is an important transcriptional activator in addition to NF-IL6 in regulation of the genes involved in the immune and inflammatory responses. Images PMID:1741402

  3. IL-17A synergistically enhances TNFα-induced IL-6 and CCL20 production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinjo, Takanori; Iwashita, Misaki; Yamashita, Akiko; Sano, Tomomi; Tsuruta, Mitsudai; Matsunaga, Hiroaki; Sanui, Terukazu; Asano, Tomoichiro; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2016-08-19

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is known to induce inflammatory responses and to be involved in the pathogenesis of not only autoimmune diseases, but also several metabolic and infectious diseases. In this study, IL-17A is shown to induce IL-6 expression in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Interestingly, we found that IL-17A synergistically amplified TNFα-induced secretion of IL-6 and upregulation of IL-17RA expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Its synergistic effects on IL-6 production were inhibited by pre-treatment with inhibitors of IκBα and JNK. Furthermore, IL-17A cooperatively enhanced LPS-mediated IL-6 production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, IL-17A also enhanced CCL20 production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated with TNFα or co-cultured with LPS-stimulated RAW macrophages. In high-fat diet-fed mouse epididymal adipose tissues, IL-17RA and RORγt mRNA levels were significantly increased and the serum level of CCL20 was also upregulated. Taken together, these data show that, in adipose tissues, IL-17A contributes to exacerbating insulin resistance-enhancing IL-6 production and promotes the infiltration of Th17 cells in cooperation with TNFα; these findings represent a novel hypothesis for the association between IL-17A-producing cells and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27311858

  4. Integrating longitudinal serum IL-17 and IL-23 follow-up, along with autoantibodies variation, contributes to predict bullous pemphigoid outcome

    PubMed Central

    Plée, Julie; Le Jan, Sébastien; Giustiniani, Jérôme; Barbe, Coralie; Joly, Pascal; Bedane, Christophe; Vabres, Pierre; Truchetet, François; Aubin, François; Antonicelli, Frank; Bernard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an inflammatory autoimmune bullous disease involving cytokines and proteases in the process of blister formation. Recently, IL-17 and IL-23 were evidenced in lesional skin and serum of BP patients at time of diagnosis, but their involvement in disease outcome has still not been investigated yet. We then analysed IL-17 and IL-23 serum levels during the first months of follow-up upon treatment. Compared with age- and sex- matched controls, high levels of IL-23 were observed at baseline in BP patients serum (P < 0.01), while IL-17 levels was not. However, some BP patients expressed high IL-17 serum level, independently of disease severity. In these patients, those with ongoing remission reduced IL-17 concentration upon treatment (P < 0.001), whereas IL-17 level remained elevated in patients who relapsed. Meanwhile, IL-23 serum levels increased during the first month of treatment in BP patients who later relapsed (P < 0.01) and MMP-9 serum level was not controlled. Accordingly, we found that both IL-17 and IL-23 increased MMP-9 secretion from leukocytes in-vitro. Then, we showed that elevated IL-17/IL-23 serum concentrations helped to discriminate BP patients who later relapsed. Such uncontrolled inflammatory response raises the question whether these molecules could become biological target for BP patients resistant to steroid treatment. PMID:26656739

  5. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 Levels and Their Correlation with Angiogenic Cytokines and Disease Activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-23 (IL-23) and their correlation with angiogenic cytokines and disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and SAPHO syndrome. Patients and Methods. We studied 152 spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients: 69 PsA, 61 AS, 22 SAPHO, and 29 controls. We recorded age, sex, disease duration, and treatment. We assessed BASDAI, VAS, and PASI scores. Serum IL-6, IL-23, VEGF, EGF, FGFb, and FGFa levels were determined using ELISA. We estimated ESR and CRP. Results. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 levels were higher in SpA than in control (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.0004, resp.). There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and CRP in AS (P = 0.000001), PsA (P = 0.000001), and SAPHO (P = 0.0003) patients. There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and ESR in AS (P = 0.000001), PsA (P = 0.002), and SAPHO (P = 0.02) patients. There was no correlation of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines in SpA. Conclusions. Serum IL-6 but not serum IL-23 correlated with ESR and CRP in SpA. No correlation was found of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines. PMID:26339141

  6. Immunocytochemical analysis of the tissue location of cytokines (IL-2 and IL-12) in neuroendocrine lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Przewoźna, Mariola; Zabel, Maciej; Pankowski, Juliusz; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    The study aimed at immunocytochemical evaluation of the cellular expression of two cytokines, IL-2 and IL-12 in lung carcinoids (n = 10), following the earlier demonstration of two markers of endocrine tumours (chromogranin A and NSE--neuron-specific enolase). In the immunocytochemical studies the classical avidin-biotinylated peroxidase (ABC) technique was used. Results of the tests were semiquantitatively appraised employing the IRS scale. In 9/10 cases intense reaction (score: 6-12 points) was noted for both lung neuroendocrine markers. In all cases of carcinoma co-expression of IL-2 and IL-12 was demonstrated in cells of the tumours. The cytokines showed a cytoplasmic localisation of mean (score: 3-4 points) or high (score: 6-12 points) intensity of reaction. Our studies point to a possible role of the two cytokines in the proliferation of lung neuroendocrine carcinomas but more detailed analysis is required on a broader material. PMID:14507073

  7. Cadmium inhibits IL-6 production and IL-6 mRNA expression in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Funkhouser, S.W.; Vredevoe, D.L.; Martinez-Maza, O. )

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium is a known immunotoxic agent in animal studies. Cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system are strategically located at portals of entry in humans and therefore may be particularly at risk for cadmium exposure through contaminated air, food, and drinking water. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, a pleiotropic cytokine, when an activated human monocytic cell line was exposed to cadmium. Results suggest that there were statistically significant lower levels of IL-6 at 0.06 mM cadmium (P < 0.05), and 0.8 and 0.1 mM cadmium (P < 0.01), determined via the ELISA method. IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were also decreased at these cadmium concentrations. The addition of a chelating agent, EDTA, to the cultures prevented the suppression of IL-6 secretion. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Clinical significance of interleukin (IL)-6 in cancer metastasis to bone: potential of anti-IL-6 therapies

    PubMed Central

    Tawara, Ken; Oxford, Julia T; Jorcyk, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic events to the bone occur frequently in numerous cancer types such as breast, prostate, lung, and renal carcinomas, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and multiple myeloma. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is frequently upregulated and is implicated in the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to bone. IL-6 is able to activate various cell signaling cascades that include the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase) pathway, and the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Activation of these pathways may explain the ability of IL-6 to mediate various aspects of normal and pathogenic bone remodeling, inflammation, cell survival, proliferation, and pro-tumorigenic effects. This review article will discuss the role of IL-6: 1) in bone metabolism, 2) in cancer metastasis to bone, 3) in cancer prognosis, and 4) as potential therapies for metastatic bone cancer. PMID:21625400

  9. Immunological aspects in migraine: increase of IL-10 plasma levels during attack.

    PubMed

    Munno, I; Marinaro, M; Bassi, A; Cassiano, M A; Causarano, V; Centonze, V

    2001-09-01

    In the present study, 23 patients with migraine without aura were monitored during a migraine attack. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and interferon-gamma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques. Interestingly, we observed low to undetectable IL-5 and IL-4 levels, whereas high IL-10 levels were seen in 52.2% of the patients. Interferon-gamma plasma levels were undetectable in all patients. After treatment with sumatriptan, 10 patients showed a subsequent decrease in IL-10 and an increase in both IL-4 and IL-5 plasma levels. Although these findings are derived from a limited number of patients, the apparent return to the IL-4 and IL-5 cytokine profile observed during the interictal period leads us to speculate that a preferential enhancement of TH2-type cytokine production may contribute to the pathogenesis of migraine. PMID:11576199

  10. MicroRNA-200c Represses IL-6, IL-8, and CCL-5 Expression and Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Thad; Khorsand, Behnoush; Fischer, Carol; Eliason, Steven; Salem, Ali; Akkouch, Adil; Brogden, Kim; Amendt, Brad A.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate inflammation and BMP antagonists, thus they have potential uses as therapeutic reagents. However, the molecular function of miR-200c in modulating proinflammatory and bone metabolic mediators and osteogenic differentiation is not known. After miR-200c was transduced into a human embryonic palatal mesenchyme (HEPM) (a cell line of preosteoblasts), using lentiviral vectors, the resulting miR-200c overexpression increased osteogenic differentiation biomarkers, including osteocalcin (OCN) transcripts and calcium content. miR-200c expression also down-regulated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-5 under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) in these cells. miR-200c directly regulates the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL-5 transcripts by binding to their 3’UTRs. A plasmid-based miR-200c inhibitor effectively reduces their binding activities. Additionally, miR-200c delivered using polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles effectively inhibits IL-6, IL-8 and CCL-5 in primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and increases the biomarkers of osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including calcium content, ALP, and Runx2. These data demonstrate that miR-200c represses IL-6, IL-8 and CCL-5 and improves osteogenic differentiation. miR-200c may potentially be used as an effective means to prevent periodontitis-associated bone loss by arresting inflammation and osteoclastogenesis and enhancing bone regeneration. PMID:27529418