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Sample records for il-18 enhances thrombospondin-1

  1. IL-18 enhances thrombospondin-1 production in human gastric cancer via JNK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Cherlhyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Bang, Sa Ik; Yang, Young; Park, Hyunjeong; Cho, Daeho . E-mail: cdhkor@sookmyung.ac.kr

    2006-06-16

    IL-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is produced by many cancer cells. A recent report suggested that IL-18 plays a key role in regulating the immune escape of melanoma and gastric cancer cells. Thrombospondin (TSP-1) is known to inhibit angiogenesis in several cancers but some studies have reported that it stimulates angiogenesis in some cancers such as gastric cancer. IL-18 and TSP-1 are related to tumor proliferation and metastasis. This study investigated the relationship between IL-18 and TSP-1 in gastric cancer. RT-PCR and ELISA showed that after the cells had been treated with IL-18, the level of TSP-1 mRNA expression and TSP-1 protein production by IL-18 increased in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cells were next treated with specific inhibitors in order to determine the signal pathway involved in IL-18-enhanced TSP-1 production. IL-18-enhanced TSP-1 expression was blocked by SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) specific inhibitor. In addition, Western blot showed that IL-18 enhanced the expression of phosphorylated JNK. Overall, these results suggest that IL-18 plays a key role in TSP-1 expression involving JNK.

  2. Enhanced expression of thrombospondin-1 and hypovascularity in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, N; Ono, M; Taguchi, K; Okamoto, M; Shimada, M; Takenaka, K; Hayashi, K; Mosher, D F; Sugimachi, K; Tsuneyoshi, M; Kuwano, M

    1998-12-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) is relatively hypovascular, in contrast to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is often highly vascular. We investigated if the diminished vascularity of CCC is related to altered expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an antiangiogenic factor, and/or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor, comparing the relationships with those of high- and low-vascular HCC. We also investigated the relationship between the mutation of the p53 gene and TSP-1 expression or VEGF expression. Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining were performed on surgically resected human CCC and HCC. The ratios of TSP-1 mRNA level in cancer cells versus adjacent noncancerous cells (T/N ratios) were significantly higher in CCC (n = 11) than in HCC with high vascularity (n = 15). In contrast, T/N ratios of VEGF mRNA level in CCC (n = 11) were comparable with those in HCC with low vascularity (n = 5). In CCC, the cancer cells and fibroblasts were positively stained with anti-TSP-1 antibody. We observed that T/N ratios of VEGF mRNA level, but not those of the TSP-1 mRNA level, were significantly correlated with vascularity in HCC. The relative increase in TSP-1 and the relative decrease in VEGF in tumors compared with normal tissue may underlie the limited angiogenesis of CCC. The p53 gene did not affect the expression of TSP-1 in CCC or VEGF in HCC. PMID:9828214

  3. Blockade of IL-18 signaling diminished neuropathic pain and enhanced the efficacy of morphine and buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Dominika; Piotrowska, Anna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Makuch, Wioletta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the low efficacy of antinociceptive drugs for the treatment of neuropathic pain is a major therapeutic problem. Here, we show the potential role of interleukin (IL)-18 signaling in this phenomenon. IL-18 is an important molecule that performs various crucial functions, including the alteration of nociceptive transmission in response to neuropathic pain. We have studied the changes in the mRNA and protein levels (qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively) of IL-18, IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP) and the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) over time in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Our study demonstrated that the spinal levels of IL-18BP were slightly downregulated at days 7 and 14 in the rats subjected to CCI. In contrast, the IL-18 and IL-18R mRNA expression and protein levels were elevated in the ipsilateral spinal cord on days 2, 7 and 14. Moreover, in rats exposed to a single intrathecal administration of IL-18BP (50 and 100 ng) 7 or 14 days following CCI, symptoms of neuropathic pain were attenuated, and the analgesia pursuant to morphine and buprenorphine (0.5 and 2.5 μg) was enhanced. In summary, the restoration of the analgesic activity of morphine and buprenorphine via the blockade of IL-18 signaling suggests that increased IL-18 pathway may account for the decreased analgesic efficacy of opioids for neuropathic pain. PMID:26763728

  4. The Interaction between IL-18 and IL-18R Limits the Magnitude of Protective Immunity and Enhances Pathogenic Responses Following Infection with Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Purnima; Ali, Asim Q; Fang, Rong; Forbes, Digna; Ballard, Billy; Ismail, Nahed

    2011-01-01

    The binding of IL-18 to IL-18Rα induces both pro-inflammatory and protective functions during infection, depending on the context in which it occurs. IL-18 is highly expressed in the liver of wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice following lethal infection with highly virulent Ixodes Ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE), an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute fatal toxic shock-like syndrome. In this study, we found that IOE infection of IL-18Rα-/- mice resulted in significantly less host cell apoptosis, decreased hepatic leukocyte recruitment, enhanced bacterial clearance and prolonged survival compared to infected WT mice, suggesting a pathogenic role of IL-18/IL-18Rα in Ehrlichia-induced toxic shock. Although lack of IL-18R decreases the magnitude of IFN-γ producing type-1 immune response, enhanced resistance of the IL-18Rα-/- mice against Ehrlichia correlated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at sites of infection, decreased systemic IL-10 production, increased frequency of protective natural killer T (NKT) cells producing TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased frequency of pathogenic TNF-α-producing CD8+ T cells. Adoptive transfer of immune wild type CD8+ T cells increased bacterial burden in IL-18Rα-/- mice following IOE infection. Furthermore, rIL-18 treatment of WT mice infected with mildly virulent Ehrlichia muris (EM) impaired bacterial clearance and enhanced liver injury. Finally, lack of IL-18R signal reduced dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and their TNF-α production, suggesting that IL-18 possibly promote the adaptive pathogenic immune responses against Ehrlichia via influencing T cell priming functions of DCs Together, these results suggest that the presence or absence of IL-18R signals governs the pathogenic versus protective immunity in a model of Ehrlichia-induced immunopathology. PMID:21715688

  5. Thrombospondin-1 interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi surface calreticulin to enhance cellular infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candice A; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y; Ikejiani, Adaeze O; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N; Cardenas, Tatiana C; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A; Lima, Maria F; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  6. Thrombospondin-1 Interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Calreticulin to Enhance Cellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candice A.; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y.; Ikejiani, Adaeze O.; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N.; Cardenas, Tatiana C.; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A.; Lima, Maria F.; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  7. Photodynamic Therapy-mediated Cancer Vaccination Enhances Stem-like Phenotype and Immune Escape, Which Can Be Blocked by Thrombospondin-1 Signaling through CD47 Receptor Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanhong; Zou, Fangyuan; Wang, Jingjing; Yin, Guifang; Le, Vanminh; Fei, Zhewei; Liu, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Like most of the strategies for cancer immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy-mediated vaccination has shown poor clinical outcomes in application. The aim of this study is to offer a glimpse at the mechanisms that are responsible for the failure based on cancer immuno-editing theory and to search for a positive solution. In this study we found that tumor cells were able to adapt themselves to the immune pressure exerted by vaccination. The survived tumor cells exhibited enhanced tumorigenic and stem-like phenotypes as well as undermined immunogenicity. Viewed as a whole, immune-selected tumor cells showed more malignant characteristics and the ability of immune escape, which might contribute to the eventual relapse. Thrombospondin-1 signaling via CD47 helped prevent tumor cells from becoming stem-like and rendered them vulnerable to immune attack. These findings prove that the TSP-1/CD47/SIRP-α signal axis is important to the evolution of tumor cells in the microenvironment of immunotherapy and identify thrombospondin-1 as a key signal with therapeutic benefits in overcoming long term relapse, providing new evidence for the clinical promise of cancer vaccination. PMID:25697354

  8. Enhanced production of IL-18 in butyrate-treated intestinal epithelium by stimulation of the proximal promoter region.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Uwe; Koyama, Noriko; Hosoda, Tomoko; Nuernberger, Heike; Sato, Kazuto; Hoelzer, Dieter; Herweck, Frank; Manigold, Tobias; Singer, Manfred V; Rossol, Siegbert; Böcker, Ulrich

    2002-09-01

    Expression of IL-18 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) has been implicated in Th1 cell-mediated chronic intestinal inflammation and anti-tumor immunity. However, physiological regulatory factors have not been identified. Besides their effects on proliferation and restitution, immunomodulatory functions have been attributed to short chain fatty acids (SCFA). We investigated the effect of SCFA (butyrate, propionate, acetate) on expression of IL-18 in IEC in vitro and in vivo. Expression of IL-18 mRNA and protein in human carcinoma-derived HT-29 and Caco-2 cells was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. Transcriptional regulation of IL-18 gene expression was determined by transient transfection of wild-type and mutated IL-18 promoter. Further, in vivo expression of IL-18 in the intestine from butyrate-treated and untreated mice was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IL-18 mRNA and the IL-18 protein were expressed in IEC, while IL-18 secretion was not observed. Butyrate and acetate increased intracellular IL-18 content in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. In contrast to proinflammatory stimuli butyrate potently activated the IL-18 promoter, indicating that IL-18 is regulated at the transcriptional level by SCFA. Furthermore, a 108-bp sequence in the proximal region was identified to be essential for IL-18 promoter activation by butyrate. As proof of principle butyrate effects were confirmed in vivo by demonstration of increased IL-18 protein expression in IEC from butyrate-treated mice. In conclusion, SCFA up-regulate IL-18 protein expression in IEC, suggesting a potential regulatory contribution of these luminal constituents to T cell mediated inflammatory and neoplastic intestinal conditions. PMID:12207348

  9. Interaction with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provokes Natural Killer Cells for Enhanced IL-12/IL-18-Induced Interferon-Gamma Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Heike; Jäger, Marcus; Mauel, Katharina; Brandau, Sven; Lask, Sara; Flohé, Stefanie B.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue injury induces an inflammatory response accompanied by the recruitment of immune cells and of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that contribute to tissue regeneration. After stimulation with interleukin- (IL-) 12 and IL-18 natural killer (NK) cells secrete the proinflammatory cytokine interferon- (IFN-) γ. IFN-γ plays a crucial role in the defense against infections and modulates tissue regeneration. In consideration of close proximity of NK cells and MSC at the site of injury we investigated if MSC could influence the ability of NK-cells to produce IFN-γ. Coculture experiments were performed with bone marrow-derived human MSC and human NK cells. MSC enhanced the ability of IL-12/IL-18-stimulated NK cells to secrete IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. This activation of NK cells was dependent on cell-cell contact as well as on soluble factors. The increased IFN-γ secretion from NK cells after contact with MSC correlated with an increased level of intracellular IFN-γ. Alterations in the IL-12 signaling pathway including an increased expression of the IL-12β1 receptor subunit and an increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) could be observed. In conclusion, MSC enhance the IFN-γ release from NK cells which might improve the defense against infections at the site of injury but additionally might affect tissue regeneration. PMID:24876666

  10. Secreted Thrombospondin-1 Regulates Macrophage Interleukin-1β Production and Activation through CD47

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Erica V.; Miller, Thomas W.; Ivins-O’Keefe, Kelly; Kaur, Sukhbir; Roberts, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 regulates inflammation by engaging several cell surface receptors and by modulating activities of other secreted factors. We have uncovered a novel role of thrombospondin-1 in modulating production and activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β by human and murine macrophages. Physiological concentrations of thrombospondin-1 limit the induction by lipopolysaccharide of IL-1β mRNA and total protein production by human macrophages. This inhibition can be explained by the ability of thrombospondin-1 to disrupt the interaction between CD47 and CD14, thereby limiting activation of NFκB/AP-1 by lipopolysaccharide. Only the CD47-binding domain of thrombospondin-1 exhibits this activity. In contrast, CD47, CD36, and integrin-binding domains of thrombospondin-1 independently enhance the inflammasome-dependent maturation of IL-1β in human THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Correspondingly, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack either thrombospondin-1 or CD47 exhibit diminished induction of mature IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide. Lack of CD47 also limits lipopolysaccharide induction of IL-1β, NLRP3, and caspase-1 mRNAs. These data demonstrate that thrombospondin-1 exerts CD47-dependent and -independent pro-and anti-inflammatory effects on the IL-1β pathway. Therefore, thrombospondin-1 and its receptor CD47 may be useful targets for limiting the pro-inflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide and for treating endotoxemia. PMID:26813769

  11. Pressure overload induces IL-18 and IL-18R expression, but markedly suppresses IL-18BP expression in a rabbit model. IL-18 potentiates TNF-α-induced cardiomyocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Friehs, Ingeborg; Mummidi, Srinivas; del Nido, Pedro J.; Addulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Delafontaine, Patrice; Valente, Anthony J.; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent or sustained inflammation plays a causal role in the development and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and its transition to failure. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent pro-hypertrophic inflammatory cytokine. We report that induction of pressure overload in the rabbit, by constriction of the descending thoracic aorta induces compensatory hypertrophy at 4 weeks (mass/volume ratio: 1.7±0.11) and ventricular dilatation indicative of heart failure at 6 weeks (mass/volume ratio: 0.7±0.04). In concordance with this, fractional shortening was preserved at 4 weeks, but markedly attenuated at 6 weeks. We cloned rabbit IL-18, IL-18Rα, IL-18Rβ, and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) cDNA, and show that pressure overload, while enhancing IL-18 and IL-18R expression in hypertrophied and failing hearts, markedly attenuated the level of expression of the endogenous IL-18 antagonist IL-18BP. Cyclical mechanical stretch (10% cyclic equibiaxial stretch, 1 Hz) induced hypertrophy of primary rabbit cardiomyocytes in vitro and enhanced ANP, IL-18, and IL-18Rα expression. Further, treatment with rhIL-18 induced its own expression and that of IL-18Rα via AP-1 activation, and induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in part via PI3K/Akt-dependent GATA4 activation. In contrast, IL-18 potentiated TNF-α-induced cardiomyocyte death, and induced cardiac endothelial cell death. These results demonstrate that pressure overload is associated with enhanced IL-18 and its receptor expression in hypertrophied and failing myocardium in rabbits. Since IL-18BP expression is markedly inhibited, our results indicate a positive amplification in IL-18 pro-inflammatory signaling during pressure overload, and suggest IL-18 as a potential therapeutic target in pathological hypertrophy and cardiac failure. PMID:25108227

  12. Thrombospondin-1 limits ischemic tissue survival by inhibiting nitric oxide–mediated vascular smooth muscle relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, Jeff S.; Hyodo, Fuminori; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Romeo, Martin J.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Wink, David A.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2007-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway, by relaxing vascular smooth muscle cells, is a major physiologic regulator of tissue perfusion. We now identify thrombospondin-1 as a potent antagonist of NO for regulating F-actin assembly and myosin light chain phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Thrombospondin-1 prevents NO-mediated relaxation of precontracted vascular smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that an NO-mediated increase in skeletal muscle perfusion was enhanced in thrombospondin-1–null relative to wild-type mice, implicating endogenous thrombospondin-1 as a physiologic antagonist of NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a random myocutaneous flap model for ischemic injury, tissue survival was significantly enhanced in thrombospondin-1–null mice. Improved flap survival correlated with increased recovery of oxygen levels in the ischemic tissue of thrombospondin-1–null mice as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. These findings demonstrate an important antag-onistic relation between NO/cGMP signaling and thrombospondin-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells to regulate vascular tone and tissue perfusion. PMID:17082319

  13. Feline Leukemia Virus DNA Vaccine Efficacy Is Enhanced by Coadministration with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 Expression Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Linda; Argyle, David; Bain, Derek; Nicolson, Lesley; Dunham, Stephen; Golder, Matthew C.; McDonald, Michael; McGillivray, Christine; Jarrett, Oswald; Neil, James C.; Onions, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The expectation that cell-mediated immunity is important in the control of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection led us to test a DNA vaccine administered alone or with cytokines that favored the development of a Th1 immune response. The vaccine consisted of two plasmids, one expressing the gag/pol genes and the other expressing the env gene of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The genetic adjuvants were plasmids encoding the feline cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, or gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Kittens were immunized by three intramuscular inoculations of the FeLV DNA vaccine alone or in combination with plasmids expressing IFN-γ, IL-12, or both IL-12 and IL-18. Control kittens were inoculated with empty plasmid. Following immunization, anti-FeLV antibodies were not detected in any kitten. Three weeks after the final immunization, the kittens were challenged by the intraperitoneal inoculation of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 and were then monitored for a further 15 weeks for the presence of virus in plasma and, at the end of the trial, for latent virus in bone marrow. The vaccine consisting of FeLV DNA with the IL-12 and IL-18 genes conferred significant immunity, protecting completely against transient and persistent viremia, and in five of six kittens protecting against latent infection. None of the other vaccines provided significant protection. PMID:11507187

  14. Thrombospondin-1 is a CD47-dependent endogenous inhibitor of hydrogen sulfide signaling in T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas W.; Kaur, Sukhbir; Ivins-O’Keefe, Kelly; Roberts, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 is a potent suppressor of T cell activation via its receptor CD47. However, the precise mechanism for this inhibition remains unclear. Because H2S is an endogenous potentiator of T cell activation and is necessary for full T cell activation, we hypothesized that thrombospondin-1 signaling through CD47 inhibits T cell activation by antagonizing H2S signaling. Primary T cells from thrombospondin-1 null mice were more sensitive to H2S-dependent activation assessed by proliferation and induction of interleukin-2 and CD69 mRNAs. Exogenous thrombospondin-1 inhibited H2S responses in wild type and thrombospondin-1 null T cells but enhanced the same responses in CD47 null T cells. Fibronectin, which shares integrin and glycosaminoglycan binding properties with thrombospondin-1 but not CD47 binding, did not inhibit H2S signaling. A CD47-binding peptide derived from thrombospondin-1 inhibited H2S-induced activation, whereas two other functional sequences from thrombospondin-1 enhanced H2S signaling. Therefore, engaging CD47 is necessary and sufficient for thrombospondin-1 to inhibit H2S-dependent T cell activation. H2S stimulated T cell activation by potentiating MEK-dependent ERK phosphorylation, and thrombospondin-1 inhibited this signaling in a CD47-dependent manner. Thrombospondin-1 also limited activation-dependent T cell expression of the H2S biosynthetic enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, thereby limiting the autocrine role of H2S in T cell activation. Thus, thrombospondin-1 signaling through CD47 is the first identified endogenous inhibitor of H2S signaling and constitutes a novel mechanism that negatively regulates T cell activation. PMID:23499828

  15. Coexistence of 2282del4 FLG gene mutation and IL-18 –137G/C gene polymorphism enhances the risk of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gleń, Jolanta; Rębała, Krzysztof; Bandurski, Tadeusz; Sikorska, Monika; Nowicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis appears in the context of the correlation between cornified envelope proteins and immunological factors. Aim To estimate the association between FLG R501X and 2282del4 gene mutations, –137 G/C IL-18 and –1112 C/T IL-13 gene polymorphisms and their influence on AD course and the risk in the Polish population. Material and methods One hundred and fifty-two AD patients and 123 healthy volunteers were included into the study. Amplification refractory mutation system – polymerase chain reaction method was used. Results 2282del4 FLG mutation, predominant (p = 0.04) in Polish AD patients, enhanced the risk of AD (OR = 2.35; p = 0.01) and was associated with itch (p = 0.023). GG genotype of IL-18 was prevailing in AD (p < 0.0001), associated with elevated IgE levels (p = 0.00074) and pruritus (p < 0.0001). GG genotype and G-allele in –137 position of IL-18 increased AD risk (OR = 5.4; p = 0.0001, respectively, OR = 5.3; p = 0.000029). –1112 C/T polymorphism of IL-13 was associated with elevated IgE levels (p = 0.00049), pruritus (p = 0.0005), SCORAD score (p = 0.02), concomitant asthma (p = 0.0087) and AD risk (OR = 2.02; p = 0.012). Coexistence of 2282del4 or R501X FLG gene mutation with GG genotype of IL-18 was associated with a 6-fold higher risk of AD (OR = 5.8; p = 0.00013), contrary to combined occurrence of FLG mutations with T-allele in –1112 position of IL-13 gene (OR = 0.12; p = 0.1). Conclusions 2282del4 FLG mutation similarly to GG genotype and G-allele in –137 position of IL-18 gene enhance the risk of AD in the Polish population. Coexistence of FLG mutations with GG genotype of IL-18 may be helpful to estimate chances of AD development. PMID:26985181

  16. Endogenous Thrombospondin-1 Regulates Leukocyte Recruitment and Activation and Accelerates Death from Systemic Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Manso, Gema; Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Galli, Susana; Soto-Pantoja, David R.; Kuznetsova, Svetlana A.; Tsokos, Maria; Roberts, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated Candida albicans infection results in high morbidity and mortality despite treatment with existing antifungal drugs. Recent studies suggest that modulating the host immune response can improve survival, but specific host targets for accomplishing this goal remain to be identified. The extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 is released at sites of tissue injury and modulates several immune functions, but its role in C. albicans pathogenesis has not been investigated. Here, we show that mice lacking thrombospondin-1 have an advantage in surviving disseminated candidiasis and more efficiently clear the initial colonization from kidneys despite exhibiting fewer infiltrating leukocytes. By examining local and systemic cytokine responses to C. albicans and other standard inflammatory stimuli, we identify a crucial function of phagocytes in this enhanced resistance. Subcutaneous air pouch and systemic candidiasis models demonstrated that endogenous thrombospondin-1 enhances the early innate immune response against C. albicans and promotes activation of inflammatory macrophages (inducible nitric oxide synthase+, IL-6high, TNF-αhigh, IL-10low), release of the chemokines MIP-2, JE, MIP-1α, and RANTES, and CXCR2-driven polymorphonuclear leukocytes recruitment. However, thrombospondin-1 inhibited the phagocytic capacity of inflammatory leukocytes in vivo and in vitro, resulting in increased fungal burden in the kidney and increased mortality in wild type mice. Thus, thrombospondin-1 enhances the pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis by creating an imbalance in the host immune response that ultimately leads to reduced phagocytic function, impaired fungal clearance, and increased mortality. Conversely, inhibitors of thrombospondin-1 may be useful drugs to improve patient recovery from disseminated candidiasis. PMID:23144964

  17. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-γ. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  18. Co-administration of avian influenza virus H5 plasmid DNA with chicken IL-15 and IL-18 enhanced chickens immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV). However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is that it induces poor immune responses. In this study, chicken interleukin (IL) -15 and IL-18 were used as genetic adjuvants to improve the immune responses induced from the H5 DNA vaccination in chickens. The immunogenicity of the recombinant plasmid DNA was analyzed based on the antibody production, T cell responses and cytokine production, following inoculation in 1-day-old (Trial 1) and 14-day-old (Trial 2) specific-pathogen-free chickens. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the role of chicken IL-15 and IL-18 as adjuvants following the vaccination of chickens with the H5 DNA vaccine. Results The overall HI antibody titer in chickens immunized with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to chickens immunized with pDis/H5 (p < 0.05). The findings revealed that the inoculation of the 14-day-old chickens exhibited a shorter time to achieve the highest HI titer in comparison to the inoculation of the 1-day-old chickens. The cellular immunity was assessed by the flow cytometry analysis to enumerate CD4+ and CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood. The chickens inoculated with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 demonstrated the highest increase in CD4+ T cells population relative to the control chickens. However, this study revealed that pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 was not significant (P > 0.05) in inducing CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, with the exception of Trial 1, the flow cytometry results for Trial 2 demonstrated that the pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-18 inoculated group was able to trigger a higher increase in CD4+ T cells than the pDis/H5 group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-18 group was not significant (P > 0.05) in modulating CD8+ T cells population in both trials. The pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 inoculated

  19. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor by normal and cancerous human ovarian tissues: possible implication of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Levy, Ruthy Shaco; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  20. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Shaco Levy, Ruthy; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  1. Construction of an Expression System for Bioactive IL-18 and Generation of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing IL-18

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Yuxiu; SATO, Hiroki; HAMANA, Masahiro; MOONAN, Navita Anisia; YONEDA, Misako; XIA, Xianzhu; KAI, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  2. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  3. Correlation of IL-18 with Tryptase in Atopic Asthma and Induction of Mast Cell Accumulation by IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zheng, Wenjiao; Xie, Hua; Yan, Hongling; Lin, Xiaoping; He, Shaoheng

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 18 and tryptase were previously reported to relate to asthma, but the correlation between these two potent proinflammatory molecules in asthma and their roles in mast cell accumulation remain uninvestigated. Using flow cytometric analysis technique and ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized mouse model, it was found that IL-18 and tryptase levels in the plasma of moderate and severe asthma were elevated, and they correlated well with each other. Tryptase and agonist peptides of protease activated receptor- (PAR-) 2 induced substantial quantity of IL-18 release. IL-18 and tryptase provoked mast cell accumulation in peritoneum of OVA-sensitized mice. OVA-sensitization increased number of IL-18 receptor (R)+ mast cells. IL-18 and tryptase induced dramatic increase in IL-18R+ mast cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of IL-18R on mast cells. Moreover, while IL-18 induced an increase in PAR-2+ mast cells in nonsensitized mice, IL-18 and tryptase provoked increases in IL-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the peritoneum of OVA-sensitized mice. In summary, the correlation between IL-18 and tryptase in plasma of patients with asthma indicates close interactions between them, which should be considered for development of anti-IL-18 and antitryptase therapies. Interactions between IL-18 and tryptase may contribute to mast cell recruitment in asthma. PMID:27069315

  4. Original insights on thrombospondin-1-related antireceptor strategies in cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Martiny, Laurent; Dedieu, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a large matricellular glycoprotein known to be overexpressed within tumor stroma in several cancer types. While mainly considered as an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, TSP-1 exhibits multifaceted functionalities in a tumor context depending both on TSP-1 concentration as well as differential receptor expression by cancer cells and on tumor-associated stromal cells. Besides, the complex modular structure of TSP-1 along with the wide variety of its soluble ligands and membrane receptors considerably increases the complexity of therapeutically targeting interactions involving TSP-1 ligation of cell-surface receptors. Despite the pleiotropic nature of TSP-1, many different antireceptor strategies have been developed giving promising results in preclinical models. However, transition to clinical trials often led to nuanced outcomes mainly due to frequent severe adverse effects. In this review, we will first expose the intricate and even sometimes opposite effects of TSP-1-related signaling on tumor progression by paying particular attention to modulation of angiogenesis and tumor immunity. Then, we will provide an overview of current developments and prospects by focusing particularly on the cell-surface molecules CD47 and CD36 that function as TSP-1 receptors; including antibody-based approaches, therapeutic gene modulation and the use of peptidomimetics. Finally, we will discuss original approaches specifically targeting TSP-1 domains, as well as innovative combination strategies with a view to producing an overall anticancer response. PMID:26578962

  5. Original insights on thrombospondin-1-related antireceptor strategies in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Martiny, Laurent; Dedieu, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a large matricellular glycoprotein known to be overexpressed within tumor stroma in several cancer types. While mainly considered as an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, TSP-1 exhibits multifaceted functionalities in a tumor context depending both on TSP-1 concentration as well as differential receptor expression by cancer cells and on tumor-associated stromal cells. Besides, the complex modular structure of TSP-1 along with the wide variety of its soluble ligands and membrane receptors considerably increases the complexity of therapeutically targeting interactions involving TSP-1 ligation of cell-surface receptors. Despite the pleiotropic nature of TSP-1, many different antireceptor strategies have been developed giving promising results in preclinical models. However, transition to clinical trials often led to nuanced outcomes mainly due to frequent severe adverse effects. In this review, we will first expose the intricate and even sometimes opposite effects of TSP-1-related signaling on tumor progression by paying particular attention to modulation of angiogenesis and tumor immunity. Then, we will provide an overview of current developments and prospects by focusing particularly on the cell-surface molecules CD47 and CD36 that function as TSP-1 receptors; including antibody-based approaches, therapeutic gene modulation and the use of peptidomimetics. Finally, we will discuss original approaches specifically targeting TSP-1 domains, as well as innovative combination strategies with a view to producing an overall anticancer response. PMID:26578962

  6. Electroconvulsive seizure induces thrombospondin-1 in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Segawa, Masahiro; Kajitani, Naoto; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Shibasaki, Chiyo; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction has recently gained attention for its involvement in mood disorders. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) possibly plays a role in synaptic repair. However, the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a member of the TSP family, is reported to be secreted by astrocytes and to regulate synaptogenesis. We investigated the effects of electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) on the expression of TSPs in the adult rat hippocampus. Single and repeated ECS significantly increased TSP-1 mRNA expression after 2h and returned to sham levels at 24h. Conversely, the TSP-2 and -4 mRNA levels did not change. Only repeated ECS induced TSP-1 proteins. ECS also induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The GFAP expression occurred later than the TSP-1 mRNA expression following single ECS; however, it occurred earlier and was more persistent following repeated ECS. ECS had no effect on the α2δ-1 or neuroligin-1 expressions, both of which are TSP-1 receptors. Furthermore, chronic treatment with antidepressants did not induce the expression of TSP-1 or GFAP. These findings suggest that repeated ECS, but not chronic treatment with antidepressants, induces TSP-1 expression partially via the activation of astrocytes. Therefore, TSP-1 is possibly involved in the synaptogenic effects of ECS. PMID:24121060

  7. Thrombospondin-1 in a Murine Model of Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Dee, Zenaida P.; Chittur, Sridar V.; Patel, Hiral; Chinikaylo, Aleona; Lippert, Brittany; Patel, Bhumi; Lawler, Jack; Gutierrez, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is one of the late complications observed in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Carcinogenesis is promoted by persistent chronic inflammation occurring in IBD. Understanding the mechanisms involved is essential in order to ameliorate inflammation and prevent CRC. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is a multidomain glycoprotein with important roles in angiogenesis. The effects of TSP-1 in colonic tumor formation and growth were analyzed in a model of inflammation-induced carcinogenesis. WT and TSP-1 deficient mice (TSP-1-/-) of the C57BL/6 strain received a single injection of azoxymethane (AOM) and multiple cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce chronic inflammation-related cancers. Proliferation and angiogenesis were histologically analyzed in tumors. The intestinal transcriptome was also analyzed using a gene microarray approach. When the area containing tumors was compared with the entire colonic area of each mouse, the tumor burden was decreased in AOM/DSS-treated TSP-1-/- versus wild type (WT) mice. However, these lesions displayed more angiogenesis and proliferation rates when compared with the WT tumors. AOM-DSS treatment of TSP-1-/- mice resulted in significant deregulation of genes involved in transcription, canonical Wnt signaling, transport, defense response, regulation of epithelial cell proliferation and metabolism. Microarray analyses of these tumors showed down-regulation of 18 microRNAs in TSP-1-/- tumors. These results contribute new insights on the controversial role of TSP-1 in cancer and offer a better understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of CRC. PMID:26461935

  8. IL-18 acts in synergy with IL-7 to promote ex vivo expansion of T lymphoid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Gandhapudi, Siva K.; Tan, Chibing; Marino, Julie H.; Taylor, Ashlee A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Gaikwad, Joel; Van De Wiele, C. Justin; Wren, Jonathan D.; Teague, T. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Although IL-18 has not previously been shown to promote T lymphopoiesis, results obtained via a novel data mining algorithm (GAMMA), led us to explore a predicted role for this cytokine in T cell development. IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been extensively characterized as a mediator of inflammatory immune responses. To assess a potential role for IL-18 in T cell development, we sort-purified mouse bone marrow derived common lymphoid progenitor cells (CLP), early thymic progenitors (ETP) and DN2 thymocytes and cultured these populations on OP9-DL4 stromal layers in the presence or absence of IL-18 and/or IL-7. After one week of culture, IL-18 promoted proliferation and accelerated differentiation of ETPs to the DN3 stage, similar in efficiency to IL-7. IL-18 showed synergy with IL-7 and enhanced proliferation of both the thymus derived progenitor cells and the bone marrow derived common lymphoid progenitor cells. The synergistic effect on the ETP population was further characterized and found to correlate with increased surface expression of c-Kit and IL-7 receptors on the IL-18-treated cells. In summary, we successfully validated the GAMMA prediction that IL-18 affects T lymphopoiesis and demonstrated that IL-18 can positively impact bone marrow lymphopoiesis and T cell development, presumably via interaction with the c-Kit and IL-7 signaling axis. PMID:25780034

  9. Thrombospondin-1 is a transcriptional repression target of PRMT6.

    PubMed

    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Richard, Stéphane

    2009-08-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is known to catalyze the generation of asymmetric dimethylarginine in polypeptides. Although the cellular role of PRMT6 is not well understood, it has been implicated in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. PRMT6 is known to methylate histone H3 Arg-2 (H3R2), and this negatively regulates the lysine methylation of H3K4 resulting in gene repression. To identify in a nonbiased manner genes regulated by PRMT6 expression, we performed a microarray analysis on U2OS osteosarcoma cells transfected with control and PRMT6 small interfering RNAs. We identified thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent natural inhibitor of angiogenesis, as a transcriptional repression target of PRMT6. Moreover, we show that PRMT6-deficient U2OS cells exhibited cell migration defects that were rescued by blocking the secreted TSP-1 with a neutralizing peptide or blocking alpha-TSP-1 antibody. PRMT6 associates with the TSP-1 promoter and regulates the balance of methylation of H3R2 and H3K4, such that in PRMT6-deficient cells H3R2 was hypomethylated and H3K4 was trimethylated at the TSP-1 promoter. Using a TSP-1 promoter reporter gene, we further show that PRMT6 directly regulates the TSP-1 promoter activity. These findings show that TSP-1 is a transcriptional repression target of PRMT6 and suggest that neutralizing the activity of PRMT6 could inhibit tumor progression and therefore may be of cancer therapeutic significance. PMID:19509293

  10. Dendritic Cell Activity Driven by Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Producing Human IL-18, in Healthy BCG Vaccinated Adults

    PubMed Central

    Szpakowski, Piotr; Biet, Franck; Locht, Camille; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Rudnicka, Wiesława; Druszczyńska, Magdalena; Allain, Fabrice; Fol, Marek; Pestel, Joël; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains an enormous global burden, despite wide vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is insufficient to protect the human population against tuberculosis. In this study we constructed recombinant BCG producing human IL-18 (rBCGhIL-18) and investigated whether human IL-18 produced by rBCGhIL-18 modulates DC functions and enhances Th1 responses to mycobacterial antigens in humans. We found that the costimulatory CD86 and CD80 molecules were significantly upregulated on rBCGhIL-18-infected DCs, whereas the stimulation of DCs with nonrecombinant BCG was less effective. In contrast, both BCG strains decreased the DC-SIGN expression on human DCs. The rBCGhIL-18 increased IL-23, IL-10, and IP-10 production by DCs to a greater extent than nonrecombinant BCG. In a coculture system of CD4+ T cells and loaded DCs, rBCGhIL-18 favoured strong IFN-γ but also IL-10 production by naive T cells but not by memory T cells. This was much less the case for nonrecombinant BCG. Thus the expression of IL-18 by recombinant BCG increases IL-23, IP-10, and IL-10 expression by human DCs and enhances their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 expression by naive T cells, without affecting the maturation phenotype of the DCs. PMID:26339658

  11. Determination of the CD148-Interacting Region in Thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rosie; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Chen, Jin; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Takahashi, Takamune

    2016-01-01

    CD148 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed in multiple cell types, including vascular endothelial cells and duct epithelial cells. Previous studies have shown a prominent role of CD148 to reduce growth factor signals and suppress cell proliferation and transformation. Further, we have recently shown that thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) serves as a functionally important ligand for CD148. TSP1 has multiple structural elements and interacts with various cell surface receptors that exhibit differing effects. In order to create the CD148-specific TSP1 fragment, here we investigated the CD148-interacting region in TSP1 using a series of TSP1 fragments and biochemical and biological assays. Our results demonstrate that: 1) CD148 binds to the 1st type 1 repeat in TSP1; 2) Trimeric TSP1 fragments that contain the 1st type repeat inhibit cell proliferation in A431D cells that stably express wild-type CD148 (A431D/CD148wt cells), while they show no effects in A431D cells that lack CD148 or express a catalytically inactive form of CD148. The anti-proliferative effect of the TSP1 fragment in A431D/CD148wt cells was largely abolished by CD148 knockdown and antagonized by the 1st, but not the 2nd and 3rd, type 1 repeat fragment. Furthermore, the trimeric TSP1 fragments containing the 1st type repeat increased the catalytic activity of CD148 and reduced phospho-tyrosine contents of EGFR and ERK1/2, defined CD148 substrates. These effects were not observed in the TSP1 fragments that lack the 1st type 1 repeat. Last, we demonstrate that the trimeric TSP1 fragment containing the 1st type 1 repeat inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in culture and angiogenesis in vivo. These effects were largely abolished by CD148 knockdown or deficiency. Collectively, these findings indicate that the 1st type 1 repeat interacts with CD148, reducing growth factor signals and inhibiting epithelial or endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. PMID:27149518

  12. Epithelial IL-18 Equilibrium Controls Barrier Function in Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nowarski, Roni; Jackson, Ruaidhrí; Gagliani, Nicola; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Palm, Noah W.; Bailis, Will; Low, Jun Siong; Harman, Christian C.D.; Graham, Morven; Elinav, Eran; Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal mucosal barrier controlling the resident microbiome is dependent on a protective mucus layer generated by goblet cells, impairment of which is a hallmark of the inflammatory bowel disease Ulcerative Colitis. Here we show that IL-18 is critical in driving the pathologic breakdown of barrier integrity in a model of colitis. Deletion of Il18 or its receptor Il18r1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Δ/EC) conferred protection from colitis and mucosal damage in mice. In contrast, deletion of the IL-18 negative regulator Il18bp resulted in severe colitis associated with loss of mature goblet cells. Colitis and goblet cell loss were rescued in Il18bp−/−;Il18rΔ/EC mice, demonstrating that colitis severity is controlled at the level of IL-18 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. IL-18 inhibited goblet cell maturation by regulating the transcriptional program instructing goblet cell development. These results inform on the mechanism of goblet cell dysfunction which underlies the pathology of Ulcerative Colitis. PMID:26638073

  13. Epithelial-derived IL-18 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and Foxp3⁺ Treg cell function in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Harrison, O J; Srinivasan, N; Pott, J; Schiering, C; Krausgruber, T; Ilott, N E; Maloy, K J

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) are found in many chronic inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and polymorphisms in the IL18R1-IL18RAP locus are associated with IBD susceptibility. IL-18 is an IL-1 family cytokine that has been proposed to promote barrier function in the intestine, but the effects of IL-18 on intestinal CD4(+) T cells are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that IL-18R1 expression is enhanced on both effector and regulatory CD4(+) T cells in the intestinal lamina propria, with T helper type 17 (Th17) cells exhibiting particularly high levels. We further show that, during steady state, intestinal epithelial cells constitutively secrete IL-18 that acts directly on IL-18R1-expressing CD4(+) T cells to limit colonic Th17 cell differentiation, in part by antagonizing IL-1R1 signaling. In addition, although IL-18R1 is not required for colonic Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation, we found that IL-18R1 signaling was critical for Foxp3(+) Treg cell-mediated control of intestinal inflammation, where it promoted the expression of key Treg effector molecules. Thus IL-18 is a key epithelial-derived cytokine that differentially regulates distinct subsets of intestinal CD4(+) T cells during both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, a finding with potential implications for treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25736457

  14. IL-18 induces PD-1-dependent immunosuppression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Terme, Magali; Ullrich, Evelyn; Aymeric, Laetitia; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Desbois, Mélanie; Delahaye, Nicolas; Viaud, Sophie; Ryffel, Bernard; Yagita, Hideo; Kaplanski, Gilles; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle; Kato, Masashi; Schultze, Joachim L; Tartour, Eric; Kroemer, Guido; Chaput, Nathalie; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2011-08-15

    Immunosuppressive cytokines subvert innate and adaptive immune responses during cancer progression. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) is known to accumulate in cancer patients, but its pathophysiological role remains unclear. In this study, we show that low levels of circulating IL-18, either exogenous or tumor derived, act to suppress the NK cell arm of tumor immunosurveillance. IL-18 produced by tumor cells promotes the development of NK-controlled metastases in a PD-1-dependent manner. Accordingly, PD-1 is expressed by activated mature NK cells in lymphoid organs of tumor bearers and is upregulated by IL-18. RNAi-mediated knockdown of IL-18 in tumors, or its systemic depletion by IL-18-binding protein, are sufficient to stimulate NK cell-dependent immunosurveillance in various tumor models. Together, these results define IL-18 as an immunosuppressive cytokine in cancer. Our findings suggest novel clinical implementations of anti-PD-1 antibodies in human malignancies that produce IL-18. PMID:21724589

  15. IL-18 acts in synergy with IL-7 to promote ex vivo expansion of T lymphoid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhapudi, Siva K; Tan, Chibing; Marino, Julie H; Taylor, Ashlee A; Pack, Christopher C; Gaikwad, Joel; Van De Wiele, C Justin; Wren, Jonathan D; Teague, T Kent

    2015-04-15

    Although IL-18 has not previously been shown to promote T lymphopoiesis, results obtained via a novel data mining algorithm (global microarray meta-analysis) led us to explore a predicted role for this cytokine in T cell development. IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been extensively characterized as a mediator of inflammatory immune responses. To assess a potential role for IL-18 in T cell development, we sort-purified mouse bone marrow-derived common lymphoid progenitor cells, early thymic progenitors (ETPs), and double-negative 2 thymocytes and cultured these populations on OP9-Delta-like 4 stromal layers in the presence or absence of IL-18 and/or IL-7. After 1 wk of culture, IL-18 promoted proliferation and accelerated differentiation of ETPs to the double-negative 3 stage, similar in efficiency to IL-7. IL-18 showed synergy with IL-7 and enhanced proliferation of both the thymus-derived progenitor cells and the bone marrow-derived common lymphoid progenitor cells. The synergistic effect on the ETP population was further characterized and found to correlate with increased surface expression of c-Kit and IL-7 receptors on the IL-18-treated cells. In summary, we successfully validated the global microarray meta-analysis prediction that IL-18 affects T lymphopoiesis and demonstrated that IL-18 can positively impact bone marrow lymphopoiesis and T cell development, presumably via interaction with the c-Kit and IL-7 signaling axis. PMID:25780034

  16. Thrombospondin 1 promotes an aggressive phenotype through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayachandran, Aparna; Anaka, Matthew; Prithviraj, Prashanth; Hudson, Christopher; McKeown, Sonja J; Lo, Pu-Han; Vella, Laura J; Goding, Colin R; Cebon, Jonathan; Behren, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which epithelial cells loose their polarity and become motile mesenchymal cells, is a determinant of melanoma metastasis. We compared gene expression signatures of mesenchymal-like melanoma cells with those of epithelial-like melanoma cells, and identified Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) as highly up-regulated in the mesenchymal phenotype. This study investigated whether THBS1, a major physiological activator of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, is involved in melanoma EMT-like process. We sought to examine expression patterns in distinct melanoma phenotypes including invasive, de-differentiated, label-retaining and drug resistant populations that are putatively associated with an EMT-like process. Here we show that THBS1 expression and secretion was elevated in melanoma cells exhibiting invasive, drug resistant, label retaining and mesenchymal phenotypes and correlated with reduced expression of genes involved in pigmentation. Elevated THBS1 levels were detected in Vemurafenib resistant melanoma cells and inhibition of THBS1 led to significantly reduced chemoresistance in melanoma cells. Notably, siRNA-mediated silencing of THBS1 and neutralizing antibody to THBS1 reduced invasion in mesenchymal-like melanoma cells, while ectopic THBS1 expression in epithelial-like melanoma cells enhanced invasion. Furthermore, the loss of THBS1 inhibited in vivo motility of melanoma cells within the embryonic chicken neural tube. In addition, we found aberrant THBS1 protein expression in metastatic melanoma tumor biopsies. These results implicate a role for THBS1 in EMT, and hence THBS1 may serve as a novel target for strategies aimed at the treatment of melanoma invasion and drug resistance. PMID:25051363

  17. AIM2 inflammasome mediates Arsenic-induced secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingfang; Qi, Yuanlin; Li, Hui; Cui, Jiajun; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A; Chen, Jian; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sterile inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including skin cancer. Chronic arsenic exposure is closely associated with the development of skin cancer. However, there is a lack of understanding how arsenic induces chronic inflammation in the skin. Interleukin-1 family cytokines play a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory response. IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 are three pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL-1 family. Their secretion, especially the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, is regulated by inflammasomes which are multi-protein complexes containing sensor proteins, adaptor protein and caspase-1. The data from current study show sub-chronic arsenic exposure activates AIM2 inflammasome which in turn activates caspase-1 and enhances the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in HaCaT cells and the skin of BALB/c mice. In addition, arsenic-promoted activation of AIM2 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β/IL-18 production are inhibited by PKR inhibitor in HaCaT cells or in the skin of PKR mutant mice, indicating a potential role of PKR in arsenic-induced sterile inflammation. PMID:27471628

  18. AIM2 inflammasome mediates Arsenic-induced secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingfang; Qi, Yuanlin; Li, Hui; Cui, Jiajun; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Chen, Jian; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic sterile inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including skin cancer. Chronic arsenic exposure is closely associated with the development of skin cancer. However, there is a lack of understanding how arsenic induces chronic inflammation in the skin. Interleukin-1 family cytokines play a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory response. IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 are three pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL-1 family. Their secretion, especially the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, is regulated by inflammasomes which are multi-protein complexes containing sensor proteins, adaptor protein and caspase-1. The data from current study show sub-chronic arsenic exposure activates AIM2 inflammasome which in turn activates caspase-1 and enhances the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in HaCaT cells and the skin of BALB/c mice. In addition, arsenic-promoted activation of AIM2 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β/IL-18 production are inhibited by PKR inhibitor in HaCaT cells or in the skin of PKR mutant mice, indicating a potential role of PKR in arsenic-induced sterile inflammation. PMID:27471628

  19. Cancer-induced immunosuppression: IL-18-elicited immunoablative NK cells.

    PubMed

    Terme, Magali; Ullrich, Evelyn; Aymeric, Laetitia; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Coudert, Jérôme D; Desbois, Mélanie; Ghiringhelli, François; Viaud, Sophie; Ryffel, Bernard; Yagita, Hideo; Chen, Lieping; Mécheri, Salaheddine; Kaplanski, Gilles; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle; Kato, Masashi; Schultze, Joachim L; Tartour, Eric; Kroemer, Guido; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia; Chaput, Nathalie; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2012-06-01

    During cancer development, a number of regulatory cell subsets and immunosuppressive cytokines subvert adaptive immune responses. Although it has been shown that tumor-derived interleukin (IL)-18 participates in the PD-1-dependent tumor progression in NK cell-controlled cancers, the mechanistic cues underlying this immunosuppression remain unknown. Here, we show that IL-18 converts a subset of Kit(-) (CD11b(-)) into Kit(+) natural killer (NK) cells, which accumulate in all lymphoid organs of tumor bearers and mediate immunoablative functions. Kit(+) NK cells overexpressed B7-H1/PD-L1, a ligand for PD-1. The adoptive transfer of Kit(+) NK cells promoted tumor growth in two pulmonary metastases tumor models and significantly reduced the dendritic and NK cell pools residing in lymphoid organs in a B7-H1-dependent manner. Neutralization of IL-18 by RNA interference in tumors or systemically by IL-18-binding protein dramatically reduced the accumulation of Kit(+)CD11b(-) NK cells in tumor bearers. Together, our findings show that IL-18 produced by tumor cells elicits Kit(+)CD11b(-) NK cells endowed with B7-H1-dependent immunoablative functions in mice. PMID:22427351

  20. Adjuvant effects of recombinant giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) IL-18 on the canine distemper disease vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yue; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Yizheng; Wang, Jianxi; Chen, Jiao; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus known to cause morbidity and mortality in a broad range of animals. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially captive ones, are susceptible to natural infection with CDV. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a powerful adjuvant molecule that can enhance the development of antigen-specific immunity and vaccine efficacy. In this study, a giant panda IL-18 gene eukaryotic expression plasmid (pcAmIL-18) was constructed. Female BALB/c mice were muscularly inoculated with the plasmids pcAmIL-18, pcDNA3.1 and PBS, respectively. They were subsequently injected with an attenuated CDV vaccine for dogs, and the induced humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. The results showed that pcAmIL-18 remarkably improved the level of specific antibody, IFN-γ and IL-2 in mice sera, the T lymphocyte proliferation index and the percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. These data indicated that pcAmIL-18 is a potential adjuvant that promotes specific immunity. PMID:25399820

  1. Adjuvant effects of recombinant giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) IL-18 on the canine distemper disease vaccine in mice

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Yue; NIU, Lili; DENG, Jiabo; WANG, Qiang; YU, Jianqiu; ZHANG, Yizheng; WANG, Jianxi; CHEN, Jiao; WEI, Changhe; TAN, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus known to cause morbidity and mortality in a broad range of animals. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially captive ones, are susceptible to natural infection with CDV. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a powerful adjuvant molecule that can enhance the development of antigen-specific immunity and vaccine efficacy. In this study, a giant panda IL-18 gene eukaryotic expression plasmid (pcAmIL-18) was constructed. Female BALB/c mice were muscularly inoculated with the plasmids pcAmIL-18, pcDNA3.1 and PBS, respectively. They were subsequently injected with an attenuated CDV vaccine for dogs, and the induced humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. The results showed that pcAmIL-18 remarkably improved the level of specific antibody, IFN-γ and IL-2 in mice sera, the T lymphocyte proliferation index and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These data indicated that pcAmIL-18 is a potential adjuvant that promotes specific immunity. PMID:25399820

  2. Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 signaling regulate healing of thermal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Pantoja, David R.; Shih, Hubert B.; Maxhimer, Justin B.; Cook, Katherine L.; Ghosh, Arunima; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Roberts, David D.

    2016-01-01

    More than 2.5 million Americans suffer from burn injuries annually, and burn management is a major public health problem. Treatments have been developed to manage wound injuries employing skin grafts, various dressings and topical and systemic agents. However, these often achieve limited degrees of success. We previously reported that targeting the interaction of thrombospondin-1 with its signaling receptor CD47 or deletion of the genes encoding either of these proteins in mice improves recovery from soft tissue ischemic injuries as well as tissue injuries caused by ionizing radiation. We now demonstrate that the absence of CD47 improves the rate of wound closure for a focal dermal second-degree thermal injury, whereas lack of thrombospondin-1 initially delays wound closure compared to healing in wild type mice. Doppler analysis of the wounded area showed increased blood flow in both CD47 and thrombospondin-1 null mice. Accelerated wound closure in the CD47 null mice was associated with increased fibrosis as demonstrated by a 4-fold increase in collagen fraction. Wound tissue of CD47 null mice showed increased thrombospondin-1 mRNA and protein expression and TGF-β1 mRNA levels. Activation of latent TGF-β1 was increased in thermally injured CD47-null tissue as assessed by phosphor-ylation of the TGF-β1 receptor-regulated transcription factors SMAD-2 and -3. Overall these results indicate that targeting CD47 may improve the speed of healing thermal injuries, but some level of CD47 expression may be required to limit the long term TGF-β1-dependent fibrosis of these wounds. PMID:24840925

  3. Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 signaling regulate healing of thermal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pantoja, David R; Shih, Hubert B; Maxhimer, Justin B; Cook, Katherine L; Ghosh, Arunima; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Roberts, David D

    2014-07-01

    More than 2.5 million Americans suffer from burn injuries annually, and burn management is a major public health problem. Treatments have been developed to manage wound injuries employing skin grafts, various dressings and topical and systemic agents. However, these often achieve limited degrees of success. We previously reported that targeting the interaction of thrombospondin-1 with its signaling receptor CD47 or deletion of the genes encoding either of these proteins in mice improves recovery from soft tissue ischemic injuries as well as tissue injuries caused by ionizing radiation. We now demonstrate that the absence of CD47 improves the rate of wound closure for a focal dermal second-degree thermal injury, whereas lack of thrombospondin-1 initially delays wound closure compared to healing in wild type mice. Doppler analysis of the wounded area showed increased blood flow in both CD47 and thrombospondin-1 null mice. Accelerated wound closure in the CD47 null mice was associated with increased fibrosis as demonstrated by a 4-fold increase in collagen fraction. Wound tissue of CD47 null mice showed increased thrombospondin-1 mRNA and protein expression and TGF-β1 mRNA levels. Activation of latent TGF-β1 was increased in thermally injured CD47-null tissue as assessed by phosphorylation of the TGF-β1 receptor-regulated transcription factors SMAD-2 and -3. Overall these results indicate that targeting CD47 may improve the speed of healing thermal injuries, but some level of CD47 expression may be required to limit the long term TGF-β1-dependent fibrosis of these wounds. PMID:24840925

  4. Thrombospondin-1 restrains neutrophil granule serine protease function and regulates the innate immune response during Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Olonisakin, T F; Xiong, Z; Hulver, M; Sayeed, S; Yu, M T; Gregory, A D; Kochman, E J; Chen, B B; Mallampalli, R K; Sun, M; Silverstein, R L; Stolz, D B; Shapiro, S D; Ray, A; Ray, P; Lee, J S

    2015-07-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG) contribute to intracellular microbial killing but, if left unchecked and released extracellularly, promote tissue damage. Conversely, mechanisms that constrain neutrophil serine protease activity protect against tissue damage but may have the untoward effect of disabling the microbial killing arsenal. The host elaborates thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matricellular protein released during inflammation, but its role during neutrophil activation following microbial pathogen challenge remains uncertain. Mice deficient in TSP-1 (thbs1(-/-)) showed enhanced lung bacterial clearance, reduced splenic dissemination, and increased survival compared with wild-type (WT) controls during intrapulmonary Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. More effective pathogen containment was associated with reduced burden of inflammation in thbs1(-/-) mouse lungs compared with WT controls. Lung NE activity was increased in thbs1(-/-) mice following K. pneumoniae challenge, and thbs1(-/-) neutrophils showed enhanced intracellular microbial killing that was abrogated with recombinant TSP-1 administration or WT serum. Thbs1(-/-) neutrophils exhibited enhanced NE and CG enzymatic activity, and a peptide corresponding to amino-acid residues 793-801 within the type-III repeat domain of TSP-1 bridled neutrophil proteolytic function and microbial killing in vitro. Thus, TSP-1 restrains proteolytic action during neutrophilic inflammation elicited by K. pneumoniae, providing a mechanism that may regulate the microbial killing arsenal. PMID:25492474

  5. Generation and characterization of mice transgenic for human IL-18-binding protein isoform a.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, Giamila; Banda, Nirmal K; Guthridge, Carla; Vondracek, Andrea; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Siegmund, Britta; Azam, Tania; Sennello, Joseph A; Dinarello, Charles A; Arend, William P

    2003-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is a natural inhibitor of the pleiotropic cytokine IL-18. To study the role of IL-18BP in modulating inflammatory responses in vivo, mice transgenic for human IL-18BP isoform a (IL-18BP-Tg) were generated. The transgene was expressed at high levels in each organ examined. High levels of bioactive human IL-18BPa were detectable in the circulation of IL-18BP-Tg mice, which were viable, fertile, and had no tissue or organ abnormality. The high levels of IL-18BP in the transgenic mice were able to completely neutralize the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducing activity of exogenously administered IL-18. Following administration of endotoxin, with or without prior sensitization with heat-inactivated Propionibacterium acnes, IL-18BP-Tg mice produced significantly lower serum levels of IFN-gamma and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 compared with nontransgenic littermates. Significantly reduced production of IFN-gamma in response to endotoxin was also observed in cultures of IL-18BP-Tg splenocytes. Finally, IL-18BP-Tg mice were completely protected in a model of hepatotoxicity induced by administration of concanavalin A. These results indicate that high endogenous levels of IL-18BP in trangenic mice effectively neutralize IL-18 and are protective in response to different inflammatory stimuli. PMID:12960225

  6. IL18 Gene Variants Influence the Susceptibility to Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leon Rodriguez, Daniel A; Carmona, F. David; Echeverría, Luis Eduardo; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disorder caused by the infection with the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. According to the World Health Organization, more than six million people are currently infected in endemic regions. Genetic factors have been proposed to influence predisposition to infection and development of severe clinical phenotypes like chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Interleukin 18 (IL18) encodes a proinflammatory cytokine that has been proposed to be involved in controlling T. cruzi infection. In this study, we analyzed the possible role of six IL18 gene variants (rs5744258, rs360722, rs2043055, rs187238, rs1946518 and rs360719), which cover most of the variation within the locus, in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi and/or CCC. In total, 1,171 individuals from a Colombian region endemic for Chagas disease, classified as seronegative (n = 595), seropositive asymptomatic (n = 175) and CCC (n = 401), were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Significant associations with T. cruzi infection were observed when comparing seronegative and seropositive individuals for rs187238 (P = 2.18E-03, OR = 0.77), rs360719 (P = 1.49E-03, OR = 0.76), rs2043055 (P = 2.52E-03, OR = 1.29), and rs1946518 (P = 0.0162, OR = 1.22). However, dependence analyses suggested that the association was mainly driven by the polymorphism rs360719. This variant is located within the promoter region of the IL18 gene, and it has been described that it creates a binding site for the transcription factor OCT-1 affecting IL-18 expression levels. In addition, no evidence of association was observed between any of the analyzed IL18 gene polymorphisms and the development of CCC. In summary, our data suggest that genetic variation within the promoter region of IL18 is directly involved in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi, which provides novel insight into disease pathophysiology and adds new perspectives to achieve a more effective disease control. PMID:27027876

  7. Cloning and characterization of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) IL-18 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yue; Deng, Jiabo; Niu, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Jianqiu; Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhang, Yizheng; Tan, Xuemei

    2016-06-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing IFN-γ. IL-18 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is an intrinsic inhibitor of IL-18 that possesses higher affinity to IL-18. In this study, we cloned and characterized IL-18BP in giant panda (AmIL-18BP) from the spleen. The amino acid sequence of giant panda IL-18BP ORF shared about 65% identities with other species. To evaluate the effects of AmIL-18BP on the immune responses, we expressed the recombinant AmIL-18BP in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).The fusing protein PET-AmIL-18BP was purified by nickel affinity column chromatography. The biological function of purified PET-AmIL-18BP was determined on mice splenocyte by qRT-PCR. The results showed that AmIL-18BP was functional and could significantly reduce IFN-γ production in murine splenocytes. These results will facilitate the study of protecting giant panda on etiology and immunology. PMID:27234556

  8. Thrombospondin 1 expression and angiogenesis in breast carcinoma and their relation with platelet activity

    PubMed Central

    Ersoz, Gulriz; Dilek, Fatma Husniye; Gencer, Ercan; Kosar, Mehmet Nuri; Dilek, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates angiogenesis and the expression of thrombospondin 1 in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and their possible relation to platelet counts and platelet activity. The study included 20 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma. Platelet activity was evaluated by determining thromboxane B2 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels by enzyme immunoassay (EIA).Thrombospondin (TSP) 1 and CD34 expression was studied immunohistochemically. Mean platelet count of the patient group was significantly greater than the mean platelet count of the control group (P < 0.05). The platelet counts were positively correlated with tumour size (r=0.609; P < 0.01). Platelet counts were higher in the patients who had grade 3 microvessel density (P < 0.05). The mean basal platelet cGMP level in the patient group was significantly lower than it was in the control group (P < 0.05). Focal TSP immunoreactivity was detectable in 5 (20%) cases in the tumour cells, and in 9 (45%) cases in the stroma. We did not find any correlation between TSP-1 staining and angiogenesis, platelet counts, platelet activity, and the histological prognostic parameters. Our study confirms the essential role of platelets in tumour growth and angiogenesis. Decreased levels of cGMP in the patient group may cause platelet hyperreactivity. Although thrombospondin 1 may be upregulated in malignant breast tissue, this is not sufficient for tumour growth and dissemination according to our results. PMID:19396698

  9. The role of IL18-607C>A and IL18-137G>C promoter polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marlene; Carvalho, Serafim; Lima, Luís; Mota-Pereira, Jorge; Pimentel, Paulo; Maia, Dulce; Correia, Diana; Gomes, Sofia; Cruz, Agostinho; Medeiros, Rui

    2016-05-27

    Recent studies suggest that immune activation and cytokines, such as IL-18, are involved in depression. IL-18 is expressed in brain and is increased in patients with moderate to severe depression. In this study we aim to evaluate the role of IL18-607C>A and IL18-137G>C promoter polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically relapse and treatment resistant depression (TRD). We genotyped the referred polymorphisms in a subset of 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 27 months. Patients carrying IL18-607 CA or AA genotypes were significantly more prone to relapse after AD treatment and present a significantly lower time to relapse than patients carrying CC genotype. Similarly, patients carrying IL18-137 GC or CC genotypes have a significantly higher risk of relapse and display relapse significantly earlier than the ones carrying GG genotype. Due to the low number of IL18-607 CC and IL18-137 GG in the relapse subgroup (n=3 and n=5, respectively), results were validated by bootstrapping analysis, and remained significant. No association was found between the evaluated genetic polymorphisms and TRD. IL18 peripheral mRNA levels were upregulated in IL18-607 CA or AA carriers. This preliminary report indicates that IL18-607C>A and IL18-137G>C genetic polymorphisms seem to influence depression relapse after antidepressant treatment in our subset of depressed patients, and may possibly contribute to the disregulated IL-18 levels found in patients with depression. PMID:27001087

  10. Serum IL-18 level, clinical symptoms and IL-18-607A/C polymorphism among chronic patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Tan, Yun-Long; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Shu-Ping; Malouta, Michelle Z; Bernard, Jared D; Combs, Jessica L; Bhatti, Sarai; Davis, Michael C; Kosten, Thomas R; Soares, Jair C

    2016-06-01

    Literature suggests that alterations in the inflammatory and immune systems are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Specifically, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia exhibit increased IL-18, a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine in type 1 T-helper (Th1) responses. The functional 607A/C promoter polymorphism of the IL-18 gene is also associated with the psychopathology of this disorder. However, no current study has explored its role in the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia as mediated through IL-18 levels. We recruited 772 inpatients with schizophrenia and 775 healthy controls in a Han Chinese population and genotyped the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism. Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum IL-18 levels were measured in 80 patients and 93 healthy controls. Our results showed that there were no significant differences in the distribution of the allele and genotype frequencies between the patients and controls. Both increased IL-18 serum level and the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism were positively associated with the PANSS general psychopathology subscore and the PANSS total score. Moreover, interaction of increased IL-18 serum level and the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism influenced the clinical psychopathological symptoms, indicating that association of IL-18 level with the PANSS general psychopathology subscale or the total scores was present only among patients carrying the C allele. We demonstrate an association between the IL-18-607A/C variant and clinical psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia. Findings suggest that the association between higher IL-18 levels and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia is dependent on the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism. PMID:26974498

  11. Thrombospondin-1-N-Terminal Domain Induces a Phagocytic State and Thrombospondin-1-C-Terminal Domain Induces a Tolerizing Phenotype in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tabib, Adi; Krispin, Alon; Trahtemberg, Uriel; Verbovetski, Inna; Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi; Mevorach, Dror

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, we have found that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is synthesized de novo upon monocyte and neutrophil apoptosis, leading to a phagocytic and tolerizing phenotype of dendritic cells (DC), even prior to DC-apoptotic cell interaction. Interestingly, we were able to show that heparin binding domain (HBD), the N-terminal portion of TSP-1, was cleaved and secreted simultaneously in a caspase- and serine protease- dependent manner. In the current study we were interested to examine the role of HBD in the clearance of apoptotic cells, and whether the phagocytic and tolerizing state of DCs is mediated by the HBD itself, or whether the entire TSP-1 is needed. Therefore, we have cloned the human HBD, and compared its interactions with DC to those with TSP-1. Here we show that rHBD by itself is not directly responsible for immune paralysis and tolerizing phenotype of DCs, at least in the monomeric form, but has a significant role in rendering DCs phagocytic. Binding of TSP-1-C-terminal domain on the other hand induces a tolerizing phenotype in dendritic cells. PMID:19721725

  12. Immune responses of chickens inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine coexpressing glycoprotein B of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and chicken IL-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Pei; Cui, Bao-An; Li, He-Ping; Jiao, Xian-Qin; Zheng, Lan-Lan; Cheng, Guo; Chao, An-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes severe and economically significant respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Herein, the immunogenicity of two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV-gB and rFPV-gB/IL18) containing ILTV glycoprotein B (gB) and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the two rFPVs and challenged with the virulent ILTV CG strain. There were differences in antibody levels elicited by either rFPV-gB/IL18 or rFPV-gB as determined using ELISA. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) in chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were higher (P < 0.05) than in those immunized with rFPV-gB, and the level of proliferative response of the T cells in the rFPV-gB/IL18-vaccinated group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the rFPV-gB group. All chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were protected (10/10), whereas only eight of 10 of the chickens immunized with the rFPV-gB were protected. The results showed that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-gB vaccine could be enhanced by simultaneous expression of chicken IL-18. PMID:22077232

  13. Thrombospondin-1 is induced in rat myocardial infarction and its induction is accelerated by ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sezaki, Satoshi; Hirohata, Satoshi; Iwabu, Akihiro; Nakamura, Keigo; Toeda, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Toru; Yamawaki, Hitoshi; Demircan, Kadir; Kusachi, Shozo; Shiratori, Yasushi; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi

    2005-10-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multifunctional, rapid-turnover matricellular protein. Recent studies demonstrated that TSP-1 has a role in regulating inflammatory reactions. Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an inflammatory response, ultimately leading to healing and scar formation. In particular, an enhanced inflammatory reaction and a massive accumulation of monocytes/macrophages is seen with reperfusion after MI. To examine the role of TSP-1 in MI, we isolated rat TSP-1 complementary DNA (cDNA) and analyzed the level and distribution of the mRNA expression. In infarcted rat hearts, TSP-1 mRNA increased markedly at 6 and 12 hrs after coronary artery ligation (27.97 +/- 3.40-fold and 22.77 +/- 1.83-fold, respectively, compared with sham-operated hearts). Western blot analysis revealed that TSP-1 protein was transiently induced in the infarcted heart. Using in situ hybridization analysis, TSP-1 mRNA signals were observed in the infiltrating cells at the border area of infarction. We then examined the effect of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) on TSP-1 mRNA induction in the rats with infarcted hearts. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that I/R enhanced the TSP-1 mRNA expression approximately 4-fold, as compared with the level in the permanently ligated heart. Finally, we examined the effect of TSP-1 on proinflammatory cytokine release in mononuclear cells. The releases of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from human mononuclear cells were enhanced by TSP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the immediate and marked increase of TSP-1 expression suggests that TSP-1 has an inflammatory-associated role in MI. PMID:16179730

  14. Hantavirus Infection Suppresses Thrombospondin-1 Expression in Cultured Endothelial Cells in a Strain-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Morzunov, Sergey P.; St. Jeor, Stephen C.; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Lombardi, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is associated with two frequently fatal diseases in humans: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The pathogenesis of hantavirus infection is complex and not fully understood; however, it is believed to involve virus-induced hyperinflammatory immune responses. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large homotrimeric protein that plays a putative role in regulating blood homeostasis. Hyperresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli has also been associated with defects in the THBS1 gene. Our data suggest that hantavirus infection of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) suppress the accumulation of THBS1 in the extracellular matrix. Additionally, this suppression is dependent on virus replication, implying a direct mechanism of action. Our data also imply that the pathogenic Andes and Hantaan strains inhibit THBS1 expression while the non-pathogenic Prospect Hill strain showed little inhibition. These observations suggest that a dysregulation of THBS1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of hantavirus infection. PMID:27486439

  15. Hantavirus Infection Suppresses Thrombospondin-1 Expression in Cultured Endothelial Cells in a Strain-Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F; Morzunov, Sergey P; St Jeor, Stephen C; Rizvanov, Albert A; Lombardi, Vincent C

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is associated with two frequently fatal diseases in humans: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The pathogenesis of hantavirus infection is complex and not fully understood; however, it is believed to involve virus-induced hyperinflammatory immune responses. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large homotrimeric protein that plays a putative role in regulating blood homeostasis. Hyperresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli has also been associated with defects in the THBS1 gene. Our data suggest that hantavirus infection of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) suppress the accumulation of THBS1 in the extracellular matrix. Additionally, this suppression is dependent on virus replication, implying a direct mechanism of action. Our data also imply that the pathogenic Andes and Hantaan strains inhibit THBS1 expression while the non-pathogenic Prospect Hill strain showed little inhibition. These observations suggest that a dysregulation of THBS1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of hantavirus infection. PMID:27486439

  16. Thrombospondin-1 domain-containing peptide properdistatin improves vascular function in human melanoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Simonsen, Trude G; Andersen, Lise Mari K; Rofstad, Einar K

    2015-03-01

    Properdistatin is a novel peptide derived from the thrombospondin-1 domain of the plasma protein properdin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of properdistatin treatment on the morphology and function of tumor vasculature. A-07 human melanoma xenografts grown in dorsal window chambers were used as preclinical model. Tumors were treated with 80 mg/kg/day properdistatin or vehicle for 4 days. Morphologic parameters of tumor vascular networks were assessed from high-resolution transillumination images, and tumor blood supply time and plasma velocities were assessed from first-pass imaging movies recorded after a bolus of 155 kDa tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dextran had been administered intravenously. Properdistatin-treated tumors showed reduced density of small-diameter vessels, reduced blood supply time, and increased plasma velocities. In conclusion, properdistatin treatment inhibited angiogenesis and improved vascular function in A-07 tumors. PMID:24555949

  17. Expression of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Wound Healing after Gingivectomy in Postorthodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Rauten, Anne Marie; Silosi, Isabela; Stratul, Stefan Ioan; Foia, Liliana; Camen, Adrian; Toma, Vasilica; Cioloca, Daniel; Surlin, Valeriu; Surlin, Petra; Bogdan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wound healing is a tissue repair process after an injury, and two of its main components are inflammation and angiogenesis, in which course a cascade of mediators is involved. The aim of this research was to evaluate the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in wound healing after periodontal surgery (gingivectomy) for gingival overgrowth during orthodontic treatment with or without magnification devices, by assessing their levels in GCF. Methods. From 19 patients with gingival overgrowth as a result of fixed orthodontic treatment, the overgrown gingiva was removed by gingivectomy, from one half of the mandibular arch without magnification and from the other under magnification. Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 were determined from gingival crevicular fluid by ELISA tests. Results. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) and correlations between levels of the two biomarkers were analyzed. Statistically significant differences were established between levels of the two biomarkers at different time points, with significant positive correlation at the point of 24 hours. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results seem to sustain the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis in wound healing of patients with postorthodontic gingivectomy. The dynamics of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 levels could suggest a reduced inflammation and a faster angiogenesis using microsurgery. PMID:27403446

  18. Expression of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Wound Healing after Gingivectomy in Postorthodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rauten, Anne Marie; Silosi, Isabela; Stratul, Stefan Ioan; Toma, Vasilica

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wound healing is a tissue repair process after an injury, and two of its main components are inflammation and angiogenesis, in which course a cascade of mediators is involved. The aim of this research was to evaluate the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in wound healing after periodontal surgery (gingivectomy) for gingival overgrowth during orthodontic treatment with or without magnification devices, by assessing their levels in GCF. Methods. From 19 patients with gingival overgrowth as a result of fixed orthodontic treatment, the overgrown gingiva was removed by gingivectomy, from one half of the mandibular arch without magnification and from the other under magnification. Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 were determined from gingival crevicular fluid by ELISA tests. Results. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) and correlations between levels of the two biomarkers were analyzed. Statistically significant differences were established between levels of the two biomarkers at different time points, with significant positive correlation at the point of 24 hours. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results seem to sustain the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis in wound healing of patients with postorthodontic gingivectomy. The dynamics of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 levels could suggest a reduced inflammation and a faster angiogenesis using microsurgery. PMID:27403446

  19. A poxvirus protein that binds to and inactivates IL-18, and inhibits NK cell response.

    PubMed

    Born, T L; Morrison, L A; Esteban, D J; VandenBos, T; Thebeau, L G; Chen, N; Spriggs, M K; Sims, J E; Buller, R M

    2000-03-15

    IL-18 induces IFN-gamma and NK cell cytotoxicity, making it a logical target for viral antagonism of host defense. We demonstrate that the ectromelia poxvirus p13 protein, bearing homology to the mammalian IL-18 binding protein, binds IL-18, and inhibits its activity in vitro. Binding of IL-18 to the viral p13 protein was compared with binding to the cellular IL-18R. The dissociation constant of p13 for murine IL-18 is 5 nM, compared with 0.2 nM for the cellular receptor heterodimer. Mice infected with a p13 deletion mutant of ectromelia virus had elevated cytotoxicity for YAC-1 tumor cell targets compared with control animals. Additionally, the p13 deletion mutant virus exhibited decreased levels of infectivity. Our data suggest that inactivation of IL-18, and subsequent impairment of NK cell cytotoxicity, may be one mechanism by which ectromelia evades the host immune response. PMID:10706717

  20. Downregulation of thrombospondin-1 by DNA hypermethylation is associated with tumor progression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuang; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Hong; He, Yun; Ye, Guo; Huang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (THBS-1) has been demonstrated to have a complicated role in human cancer and to exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects in different types of tumors. DNA methylation, as the most frequent mechanism for gene silencing, has been widely investigated in regards to the development of tumors. However, the expression levels and methylation status of THBS-1, and their roles in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remain to be elucidated. The present study detected downregulated THBS-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in LSCC by using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting, while decreased expression levels of THBS-1 mRNA and protein were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of THBS-1 was frequently observed in LSCC by methylation-specific PCR, particularly in tumor tissues from lymph node metastasis or samples from cancer with advanced TNM stage. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated that downregulated expression of THBS-1 in LSCC was consistent with aberrant methylation of this gene. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxy-cytidine in Hep-2 cells induced demethylation of THBS-1, enhanced THBS-1 expression, and inhibited the proliferative and invasive ability of Hep-2 cells. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that THBS-1 may exert an inhibitory effect in the development of LSCC. Aberrant methylation was an important reason for the downregulation of THBS-1 and was involved in the invasion and metastasis of LSCC. Demethylating agents may be effective candidates for the treatment of LSCC. PMID:27485791

  1. Leptin promotes breast cancer cell migration and invasion via IL-18 expression and secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuangfa; Wei, Lan; Huang, Yunxiu; Wu, Yang; Su, Min; Pang, Xueli; Wang, Nian; Ji, Feihu; Zhong, Changli; Chen, Tingmei

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, crosstalk between tumor microenvironment and cancer cells have received increasing attention. Accumulating research data suggests that leptin, a key adipokine secreted from adipocytes, plays important roles in breast cancer development. In our study, the effects of leptin on polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and promotion of the invasiveness of tumor cells were investigated. THP1 cells were used to differentiate M2 polarization macrophages. After stimulated by leptin, we established a co-culture system of tumor cells and macrophages to evaluate the function of leptin-induced macrophages in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. The gene and protein expressions were analyzed and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated. Moreover, pathological human specimens, and xenografts in nude mice, were detected to strengthen the in vitro results. Leptin elevated the expression of an array of cytokines in TAMs, IL-18 was the most increased, with an activation of the NF-κB/NF-κB1 signalling pathway. Additionally, after treated with leptin, TAMs significantly promoted the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. However, these effects of leptin were abolished by the co-incubation of Bay11‑7082, a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor. Leptin also directly stimulated IL-18 expression in breast cancer cells, which, differently, was via the PI3K/AKT-ATF-2 signaling pathway. In vivo studies showed that malignant breast carcinoma exhibited strong higher expression of Leptin, IL-8, and TAMs markers. Xenograft tumor-bearing mouse models showed that leptin significantly increased tumor volume, enhanced lung metastases, and increased expression of IL-8 and TAM markers, which were abolished by depletion of macrophages by clophosome-clodronate liposomes (CCL). Leptin could induce IL-18 expression both in TAMs and breast cancer cells. Leptin-induced IL-18 expression was regulated via NF-κB/NF-κB1 signaling in TAMs, while via PI3K

  2. Secondary allergic T cell responses are regulated by dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in the setting of allergic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Reyes, N J; Khandelwal, P; Schlereth, S L; Lee, H S; Masli, S; Saban, D R

    2016-08-01

    Allergic eye disease, as in most forms of atopy, ranges in severity among individuals from immediate hypersensitivity to a severe and debilitating chronic disease. Dendritic cells play a key role in stimulating pathogenic T cells in allergen re-exposure, or secondary responses. However, molecular cues by dendritic cells underpinning allergic T cell response levels and the impact that this control has on consequent severity of allergic disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that a deficiency in thrombospondin-1, a matricellular protein known to affect immune function, has subsequent effects on downstream T cell responses during allergy, as revealed in an established mouse model of allergic eye disease. More specifically, we demonstrate that a thrombospondin-1 deficiency specific to dendritic cells leads to heightened secondary T cell responses and consequent clinical disease. Interestingly, whereas thrombospondin-1-deficient dendritic cells augmented activity of allergen-primed T cells, this increase was not recapitulated with naïve T cells in vitro. The role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in regulating secondary allergic T cell responses was confirmed in vivo, as local transfer of thrombospondin-1-sufficient dendritic cells to the ocular mucosa of thrombospondin-1 null hosts prevented the development of augmented secondary T cell responses and heightened allergic eye disease clinical responses. Finally, we demonstrate that topical instillation of thrombospondin-1-derived peptide reduces T cell activity and clinical progression of allergic eye disease. Taken together, this study reveals an important modulatory role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 on secondary allergic T cell responses and suggests the possible dysregulation of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 expression as a factor in allergic eye disease severity. PMID:26856994

  3. Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 Regulation of Cardiac, Pulmonary and Vascular Responses in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Natasha M.; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Csányi, Gábor; Pagano, Patrick J.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular homeostasis and health is maintained through the balanced interactions of cardiac generated blood flow and cross-talk between the cellular components that comprise blood vessels. Central to this cross-talk is endothelial generated nitric oxide (NO) that stimulates relaxation of the contractile vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) layer of blood vessels. In cardiovascular disease this balanced interaction is disrupted and NO signaling lost. Work over the last several years indicates regulation of NO is much more complex than previously believed. It is now apparent the secreted protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), that is upregulated in cardiovascular disease and animal models of the same, on activating cell surface receptor CD47, redundantly inhibits NO production and NO signaling. This inhibitory event has implications for baseline and disease-related responses mediated by NO. Further work has identified that TSP1-CD47 signaling stimulates enzymatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to further limit blood flow and promote vascular disease. Herein consideration is given to the most recent discoveries in this regard which identify the TSP1-CD47 axis as a major proximate governor of cardiovascular health. PMID:24418252

  4. BMP4/Thrombospondin-1 loop paracrinically inhibits tumor angiogenesis and suppresses the growth of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, R; Osawa, T; Wang, F; Nishii, R; Das, B; Tsuchida, S; Muramatsu, M; Takahashi, T; Inoue, T; Wada, Y; Minami, T; Yuasa, Y; Shibuya, M

    2014-07-17

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has potential as an anticancer agent. Recent studies have suggested that BMP4 inhibits the survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs) of neural and colon cancers. Here, we showed that BMP4 paracrinically inhibited tumor angiogenesis via the induction of Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), and consequently suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Although HeLa (human cervical cancer), HCI-H460-LNM35 (highly metastatic human lung cancer) and B16 (murine melanoma) cells did not respond to the BMP4 treatment in vitro, the growth of xeno- and allografts of these cells was suppressed via reductions in tumor angiogenesis after intraperitoneal treatment with BMP4. When we assessed the mRNA expression of major angiogenesis-related factors in grafted tumors, we found that the expression of TSP1 was significantly upregulated by BMP4 administration. We then confirmed that BMP4 was less effective in suppressing the tumor growth of TSP1-knockdown cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that BMP4 reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vivo in a TSP1-dependent manner, which indicates that BMP4 interfered with the stabilization of tumor angiogenesis. In conclusion, the BMP4/TSP1 loop paracrinically suppressed tumor angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, which subsequently reduced the growth of tumors. BMP4 may become an antitumor agent and open a new field of antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:24013228

  5. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca2+-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Jia, Ganchu; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssus, the P. fucata byssus has an exterior cuticle without granules and an inner core with nanocavities. The removal of Ca2+ by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment expands the nanocavities and reduces the extensibility of the byssus, which is accompanied by a decrease in the β-sheet conformation of byssal proteins. Through proteomic methods, several proteins with antioxidant and anti-corrosive properties were identified as the main components of the distal byssus regions. Specifically, a protein containing thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is highly expressed in the foot, is hypothesized to be responsible for byssus extensibility. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of inorganic ions and multiple proteins for bivalve byssus extension, which could guide the future design of biomaterials for use in seawater. PMID:26446436

  6. The thrombospondin-1 receptor CD36 is an important mediator of ovarian angiogenesis and folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian angiogenesis is a complex process that is regulated by a balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Physiological processes within the ovary, such as folliculogenesis, ovulation, and luteal formation are dependent upon adequate vascularization and anything that disrupts normal angiogenic processes may result in ovarian dysfunction, and possibly infertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) receptor CD36 in mediating ovarian angiogenesis and regulating ovarian function. Methods The role of CD36 was evaluated in granulosa cells in vitro and ovarian morphology and protein expression were determined in wild type and CD36 null mice. Results In vitro, CD36 inhibition increased granulosa cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Granulosa cells in which CD36 was knocked down also exhibited an increase in expression of survival and angiogenic proteins. Ovaries from CD36 null mice were hypervascularized, with increased expression of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2. Ovaries from CD36 null mice contained an increase in the numbers of pre-ovulatory follicles and decreased numbers of corpora lutea. CD36 null mice also had fewer number of offspring compared to wild type controls. Conclusions The results from this study demonstrate that CD36 is integral to the regulation of ovarian angiogenesis by TSP-1 and the expression of these family members may be useful in the control of ovarian vascular disorders. PMID:24628875

  7. Thrombospondin 1 Deficiency Ameliorates the Development of Adriamycin-Induced Proteinuric Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maimaitiyiming, Hasiyeti; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) is an important player in diabetic nephropathy. However, the role of TSP1 in podocyte injury and the development of non-diabetic proteinuric kidney disease is largely unknown. In the current study, by using a well-established podocyte injury model (adriamycin-induced nephropathy mouse model), we examined the contribution of TSP1 to the development of proteinuric kidney disease. We found that TSP1 was up-regulated in the glomeruli, notably in podocytes, in adriamycin injected mice before the onset of proteinuria. ADR treatment also stimulated TSP1 expression in cultured human podocytes in vitro. Moreover, increased TSP1 mediated ADR-induced podocyte apoptosis and actin cytoskeleton disorganization. This TSP1’s effect was through a CD36-dependent mechanism and involved in the stimulation of p38MAPK pathway. Importantly, in vivo data demonstrated that TSP1 deficiency protected mice from ADR induced podocyte loss and foot process effacement. ADR induced proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, renal macrophage infiltration and inflammation was also attenuated in TSP1 deficient mice. Taken together, these studies provide new evidence that TSP1 contributes to the development of non-diabetic proteinuric kidney disease by stimulating podocyte injury and the progression of renal inflammation. PMID:27196103

  8. Extensible byssus of Pinctada fucata: Ca2+-stabilized nanocavities and a thrombospondin-1 protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Jia, Ganchu; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-10-01

    The extensible byssus is produced by the foot of bivalve animals, including the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, and enables them to attach to hard underwater surfaces. However, the mechanism of their extensibility is not well understood. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the ultrastructure, composition and mechanical properties of the P. fucata byssus using electron microscopy, elemental analysis, proteomics and mechanical testing. In contrast to the microstructures of Mytilus sp. byssus, the P. fucata byssus has an exterior cuticle without granules and an inner core with nanocavities. The removal of Ca2+ by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment expands the nanocavities and reduces the extensibility of the byssus, which is accompanied by a decrease in the β-sheet conformation of byssal proteins. Through proteomic methods, several proteins with antioxidant and anti-corrosive properties were identified as the main components of the distal byssus regions. Specifically, a protein containing thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is highly expressed in the foot, is hypothesized to be responsible for byssus extensibility. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of inorganic ions and multiple proteins for bivalve byssus extension, which could guide the future design of biomaterials for use in seawater.

  9. Prostate Cancer-Associated Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 4 Activates Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and Thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman-Luck, Ruth A; Stansfield, Scott H; Stephens, Carson R; Loessner, Daniela; Clements, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer metastasis to bone is terminal; thus, novel therapies are required to prevent end-stage disease. Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) is a serine protease that is overproduced in localized prostate cancer and is abundant in prostate cancer bone metastases. In vitro, KLK4 induces tumor-promoting phenotypes; however, the underlying proteolytic mechanism is undefined. The protein topography and migration analysis platform (PROTOMAP) was used for high-depth identification of KLK4 substrates secreted by prostate cancer bone metastasis-derived PC-3 cells to delineate the mechanism of KLK4 action in advanced prostate cancer. Thirty-six putative novel substrates were determined from the PROTOMAP analysis. In addition, KLK4 cleaved the established substrate, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, thus validating the approach. KLK4 activated matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), a protease that promotes prostate tumor growth and metastasis. MMP1 was produced in the tumor compartment of prostate cancer bone metastases, highlighting its accessibility to KLK4 at this site. KLK4 further liberated an N-terminal product, with purported angiogenic activity, from thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and cleaved TSP1 in an osteoblast-derived matrix. This is the most comprehensive analysis of the proteolytic action of KLK4 in an advanced prostate cancer model to date, highlighting KLK4 as a potential multifunctional regulator of prostate cancer progression. PMID:27378148

  10. High-glucose environment increased thrombospondin-1 expression in keratinocytes via DNA hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng-Che E; Huang, Shu-Mei; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Wu, Chin-Han; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is an important health issue because of its increasing prevalence and association with impaired wound healing. Epidermal keratinocytes with overexpressed antiangiogenic molecule thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) have been shown to impair proper wound healing. This study examined the potential involvement of keratinocyte-derived TSP1 on diabetic wound healing. Cultured human keratinocytes and diabetic rat model were used to evaluate the effect of high-glucose environment on TSP1 expression in epidermal keratinocytes, and the molecular mechanisms involved in the process were also studied. We demonstrated that high-glucose environment increased TSP1 expression in keratinocytes. In addition, increased oxidative stress induced DNA hypomethylation at the TSP1 promoter region in keratinocytes exposed to high-glucose environment. Similar findings were found in our diabetic rat model. Early antioxidant administration normalized TSP1 expression and global DNA methylation status in diabetic rat skin and improved wound healing in vivo. Because oxidative stress contributed to TSP1 DNA hypomethylation, early recognition of diabetic condition and timely administration of antioxidant are logical approaches to reduce complications associated with diabetes as alterations in epigenome may not be reversible by controlling glucose levels during the later stages of disease course. PMID:26678678

  11. Astrocyte-secreted thrombospondin-1 modulates synapse and spine defects in the fragile X mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Connie; Lau, Sally K M; Doering, Laurie C

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are key participants in various aspects of brain development and function, many of which are executed via secreted proteins. Defects in astrocyte signaling are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal neural circuitry such as Fragile X syndrome (FXS). In animal models of FXS, the loss in expression of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP) from astrocytes is associated with delayed dendrite maturation and improper synapse formation; however, the effect of astrocyte-derived factors on the development of neurons is not known. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an important astrocyte-secreted protein that is involved in the regulation of spine development and synaptogenesis. In this study, we found that cultured astrocytes isolated from an Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mouse model of FXS displayed a significant decrease in TSP-1 protein expression compared to the wildtype (WT) astrocytes. Correspondingly, Fmr1 KO hippocampal neurons exhibited morphological deficits in dendritic spines and alterations in excitatory synapse formation following long-term culture. All spine and synaptic abnormalities were prevented in the presence of either astrocyte-conditioned media or a feeder layer derived from FMRP-expressing astrocytes, or following the application of exogenous TSP-1. Importantly, this work demonstrates the integral role of astrocyte-secreted signals in the establishment of neuronal communication and identifies soluble TSP-1 as a potential therapeutic target for Fragile X syndrome. PMID:27485117

  12. Thrombospondin-1 Modulates Actin Filament Remodeling and Cell Motility in Mouse Mammary Tumor cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ndishabandi, Dorothy; Duquette, Cameron; Billah, Ghita El-Moatassim; Reyes, Millys; Duquette, Mark; Lawler, Jack; Kazerounian, Shideh

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the secretion of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) by activated stromal cells and its accumulation in the tumor microenvironment during dysplasia inhibits primary tumor growth through inhibition of angiogenesis. This inhibitory function of TSP-1 is actuated either by inhibiting MMP9 activation and the release of VEGF from extracellular matrix or by an interaction with CD36 on the surface of endothelial cells resulting in an increase in apoptosis. In contrast, several published articles have also shown that as tumor cells become more invasive and enter the early stage of carcinoma, they up-regulate TSP-1 expression, which may promote invasion and migration. In our in vivo studies using the polyoma middle T antigen (PyT) transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, we observed that the absence of TSP-1 significantly increased the growth of primary tumors, but delayed metastasis to the lungs. In this study, we propose a mechanism for the promigratory function of TSP-1 in mouse mammary tumor cells in vitro. We demonstrate the correlations between expression of TSP-1 and its receptor integrin α3β1, which is considered a promigratory protein in cancer cells. In addition we propose that binding of TSP-1 to integrin α3β1 is important for mediating actin filament polymerization and therefore, cell motility. These findings can help explain the dual functionality of TSP-1 in cancer progression. PMID:26273699

  13. Thrombospondin-1 null mice are resistant to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective Chronic hypoxia induces pulmonary hypertension in mice. Smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and medial thickening characterize the vasculature of these animals. Thrombospondin-1 null (TSP-1-/-) mice spontaneously develop pulmonary smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and medial thickening. In addition, TSP-1 produced by the pulmonary endothelium inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell growth. Based on these observations we sought to describe the pulmonary vascular changes in TSP-1-/- mice exposed to chronic hypoxia. Methods We exposed TSP-1-/- and wild type (WT) mice to a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 0.1 for up to six weeks. Pulmonary vascular remodeling was evaluated using tissue morphometrics. Additionally, right ventricle systolic pressures (RVSP) and right ventricular hypertrophy by right ventricle/left ventricle + septum ratios (RV/LV+S) were measured to evaluate pulmonary hypertensive changes. Finally, acute pulmonary vasoconstriction response in both TSP-1-/- and WT mice was evaluated by acute hypoxia and U-46619 (a prostaglandin F2 analog) response. Results In hypoxia, TSP-1-/- mice had significantly lower RVSP, RV/LV+S ratios and less pulmonary vascular remodeling when compared to WT mice. TSP-1-/- mice also had significantly lower RVSP in response to acute pulmonary vasoconstriction challenges than their WT counterparts. Conclusion TSP-1-/- mice had diminished pulmonary vasoconstriction response and were less responsive to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension than their wild type counterparts. This observation suggests that TSP-1 could play an active role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension associated with hypoxia. PMID:20441584

  14. Thrombospondin-1 Gene Expression Affects Survival and Tumor Spectrum of p53-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Jack; Miao, Wei-Min; Duquette, Mark; Bouck, Noël; Bronson, Roderick T.; Hynes, Richard O.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo data indicate that thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) inhibits tumor progression in several ways including direct effects on cellular growth and apoptosis in the stromal compartment. To evaluate the importance of TSP1 for the progression of naturally arising tumors in vivo, we have crossed TSP1-deficient mice with p53-deficient mice. In p53-null mice, the absence of TSP1 decreases survival from 160 ± 52 days to 149 ± 42 days. A log-rank test comparing survival curves for these two populations yields a two-sided P value of 0.0272. For mice that are heterozygous for the p53-null allele, survival is 500 ± 103 days in the presence of TSP1 expression, and 426 ± 125 days in its absence (P = 0.0058). Whereas TSP1 expression did not cause a measurable change in the incidence of the majority of tumor types, a statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in the incidence of osteosarcomas is observed in the absence of TSP1. To determine more directly if host TSP1 inhibits tumor growth, B16F10 melanoma and F9 testicular teratocarcinoma cells have been implanted in C57BL/6J and 129Sv TSP1-null mice, respectively. The B16F10 tumors grow approximately twice as fast in the TSP1-null background and exhibit an increase in vascular density, a decrease in the rate of tumor cell apoptosis, and an increase in the rate of tumor cell proliferation. Increased tumor growth is also observed in the absence of TSP1 on the 129Sv genetic background. These data indicate that endogenous host TSP1 functions as a modifier or landscaper gene to suppress tumor growth. PMID:11696456

  15. Physiological levels of thrombospondin-1 decrease NO-dependent vasodilation in coronary microvessels from aged rats.

    PubMed

    Nevitt, Chris; McKenzie, Grant; Christian, Katelyn; Austin, Jeff; Hencke, Sarah; Hoying, James; LeBlanc, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    Aging and cardiovascular disease are associated with the loss of nitric oxide (NO) signaling and a decline in the ability to increase coronary blood flow reserve (CFR). Thrombospondin-1 (Thbs-1), through binding of CD47, has been shown to limit NO-dependent vasodilation in peripheral vascular beds via formation of superoxide (O2 (-)). The present study tests the hypothesis that, similar to the peripheral vasculature, blocking CD47 will improve NO-mediated vasoreactivity in coronary arterioles from aged individuals, resulting in improved CFR. Isolated coronary arterioles from young (4 mo) or old (24 mo) female Fischer 344 rats were challenged with the NO donor, DEA-NONO-ate (1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-4) M), and vessel relaxation and O2 (-) production was measured before and after Thbs-1, αCD47, and/or Tempol and catalase exposure. In vivo CFR was determined in anesthetized rats (1-3% isoflurane-balance O2) via injected microspheres following control IgG or αCD47 treatment (45 min). Isolated coronary arterioles from young and old rats relax similarly to exogenous NO, but addition of 2.2 nM Thbs-1 inhibited NO-mediated vasodilation by 24% in old rats, whereas young vessels were unaffected. Thbs-1 increased O2 (-) production in coronary arterioles from rats of both ages, but this was exaggerated in old rats. The addition of CD47 blocking antibody completely restored NO-dependent vasodilation in isolated arterioles from aged rats and attenuated O2 (-) production. Furthermore, αCD47 treatment increased CFR from 9.6 ± 9.3 (IgG) to 84.0 ± 23% in the left ventricle in intact, aged animals. These findings suggest that the influence of Thbs-1 and CD47 on coronary perfusion increases with aging and may be therapeutically targeted to reverse coronary microvascular dysfunction. PMID:27199114

  16. Sustained Beta-Cell Dysfunction but Normalized Islet Mass in Aged Thrombospondin-1 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Emanuelsson, Hanna; Christoffersson, Gustav; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic islet endothelial cells have in recent years been shown to support beta-cell mass and function by paracrine interactions. Recently, we identified an islets endothelial-specific glycoprotein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), that showed to be of importance for islet angiogenesis and beta-cell function in young mice. The present study aimed to investigate long-term consequences for islet morphology and beta-cell function of TSP-1 deficiency. Islet and beta-cell mass were observed increased at 10–12 weeks of age in TSP-1 deficient mice, but were normalized before 16 weeks of age when compared to wild-type controls. Islet vascularity was normal in 10–12 and 16-week-old TSP-1 deficient animals, whereas islets of one-year-old animals lacking TSP-1 were hypervascular. Beta-cell dysfunction in TSP-1 deficient animals was present at similar magnitudes between 10–12 and 52 weeks of age, as evaluated by glucose tolerance tests. The insulin secretion capacity in vivo of islets in one-year-old TSP-1 deficient animals was only ∼15% of that in wild-type animals. Using a transplantation model, we reconstituted TSP-1 in adult TSP-deficient islets. In contrast to neonatal TSP-1 deficient islets that we previously reported to regain function after TSP-1 reconstitution, adult islets failed to recover. We conclude that TSP-1 deficiency in islets causes changing vascular and endocrine morphological alterations postnatally, but is coupled to a chronic beta-cell dysfunction. The beta-cell dysfunction induced by TSP-1 deficiency is irreversible if not substituted early in life. PMID:23094049

  17. The NLRP1-IL18 Connection: A Stab in the Back of Obesity-Induced Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-01-12

    IL-18 has been reported to counteract obesity and metabolic syndrome, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this issue, Masters and colleagues describe how NLRP1 inflammasome induces IL-18 production in fat, solving not only an important biological mechanism, but also opening the door for therapeutic approaches (Murphy et al., 2016). PMID:26771112

  18. IL-18/IL-1/IL-17A axis: A novel therapeutic target for neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed

    Cross, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    Healthy and septic human neonates have elevated serum IL-18 levels compared with adults. Using a murine neonatal model of intraabdominal sepsis with systemic (intraperitoneal) IL-18 complementation, Wynn et al. report that IL-18 potentiated mortality in both neonatal sepsis and endotoxemia through the induction of IL-17A, and depended on IL-1 receptor 1 signaling (but not IL-1β). They propose that targeting this IL-18/IL-1/IL-17A axis may improve outcomes for human neonates with sepsis. However, given the important roles of Th17 responses and IL-18 in host defenses, some caution is in order during a potentially microbe-induced septic process in neonates. The important differences in neonatal and adult responses to sepsis highlighted in this paper emphasize the need for further study of the immune responses of neonates. PMID:27434223

  19. An NK Cell Perforin Response Elicited via IL-18 Controls Mucosal Inflammation Kinetics during Salmonella Gut Infection.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anna A; Dolowschiak, Tamas; Sellin, Mikael E; Felmy, Boas; Verbree, Carolin; Gadient, Sandra; Westermann, Alexander J; Vogel, Jörg; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salome; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. The mucosal inflammation is thought to arise from a standoff between the pathogen's virulence factors and the host's mucosal innate immune defenses, particularly the mucosal NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome. However, it had remained unclear how this switches the gut from homeostasis to inflammation. This was studied using the streptomycin mouse model. S.Tm infections in knockout mice, cytokine inhibition and -injection experiments revealed that caspase-1 (not -11) dependent IL-18 is pivotal for inducing acute inflammation. IL-18 boosted NK cell chemoattractants and enhanced the NK cells' migratory capacity, thus promoting mucosal accumulation of mature, activated NK cells. NK cell depletion and Prf-/- ablation (but not granulocyte-depletion or T-cell deficiency) delayed tissue inflammation. Our data suggest an NK cell perforin response as one limiting factor in mounting gut mucosal inflammation. Thus, IL-18-elicited NK cell perforin responses seem to be critical for coordinating mucosal inflammation during early infection, when S.Tm strongly relies on virulence factors detectable by the inflammasome. This may have broad relevance for mucosal defense against microbial pathogens. PMID:27341123

  20. An NK Cell Perforin Response Elicited via IL-18 Controls Mucosal Inflammation Kinetics during Salmonella Gut Infection

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anna A.; Dolowschiak, Tamas; Sellin, Mikael E.; Felmy, Boas; Verbree, Carolin; Gadient, Sandra; Westermann, Alexander J.; Vogel, Jörg; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salome; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. The mucosal inflammation is thought to arise from a standoff between the pathogen's virulence factors and the host's mucosal innate immune defenses, particularly the mucosal NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome. However, it had remained unclear how this switches the gut from homeostasis to inflammation. This was studied using the streptomycin mouse model. S.Tm infections in knockout mice, cytokine inhibition and –injection experiments revealed that caspase-1 (not -11) dependent IL-18 is pivotal for inducing acute inflammation. IL-18 boosted NK cell chemoattractants and enhanced the NK cells' migratory capacity, thus promoting mucosal accumulation of mature, activated NK cells. NK cell depletion and Prf-/- ablation (but not granulocyte-depletion or T-cell deficiency) delayed tissue inflammation. Our data suggest an NK cell perforin response as one limiting factor in mounting gut mucosal inflammation. Thus, IL-18-elicited NK cell perforin responses seem to be critical for coordinating mucosal inflammation during early infection, when S.Tm strongly relies on virulence factors detectable by the inflammasome. This may have broad relevance for mucosal defense against microbial pathogens. PMID:27341123

  1. Two-hybrid analysis reveals multiple direct interactions for thrombospondin 1.

    PubMed

    Aho, S; Uitto, J

    1998-10-01

    The yeast two-hybrid system was used to reveal the interactions between proteins residing within the cutaneous basement membrane zone and other gene products expressed in cultured human keratinocytes. The proteins of interest included type VII collagen, the predominant component of anchoring fibrils, and laminin 5, a component of anchoring filaments. Although the two-hybrid system was not able to verify a direct interaction between the type VII collagen NC1 domain and the short arm of Lam(beta)3, the type VII collagen NC1 domain (tVII/NC1) and the laminin 5 beta3 chain globular domain VI (lam5/beta3) cDNAs, when used as baits, detected four overlapping cDNA clones encoding thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). The overlapping region of these cDNAs encodes amino acids 400-459, a segment included within a 70 kDa chymotryptic fragment known to bind type V collagen, laminin-1 and other matrix components. The type VII collagen NC1/TSP1 interaction was confirmed by exchanging the vectors, and the interacting domain was mapped by testing a set of both 5' and 3' deletion constructs. The central region of TSP1, when used as a bait in two-hybrid system, showed strong binding to the fibronectin (FN) type III-like repeats 4-7 of type VII collagen NC1 domain. The TSP1 bait also interacted with laminin 5 beta3 chain domain V/III, and the TSP1/laminin 5 beta3 chain interaction was verified by a GST-fusion protein interaction assay. The transcripts encoding TSP1, TSP2, Lam(beta)3 and type VII collagen were abundant in cultured foreskin keratinocytes, and the expression of TSP1 and TSP2 in a wide variety of adult and fetal tissues was confirmed by PCR analysis of multiple tissue cDNA panels. Furthermore, TSP1 type I repeats showed self interaction, and recognized a clone for extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-2. In addition, clones encoding angiogenesis related protein Jagged1 and a platelet enzyme phospholipase scramblase were identified. Thus, the results indicate several previously

  2. IL-18 Does not Increase Allergic Airway Disease in Mice When Produced by BCG

    PubMed Central

    Amniai, L.; Biet, F.; Marquillies, P.; Locht, C.; Pestel, J.; Tonnel, A.-B.; Duez, C.

    2007-01-01

    Whilst BCG inhibits allergic airway responses in murine models, IL-18 has adversary effects depending on its environment. We therefore constructed a BCG strain producing murine IL-18 (BCG-IL-18) and evaluated its efficiency to prevent an asthma-like reaction in mice. BALB/cByJ mice were sensitized (day (D) 1 and D10) by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and primary (D20–22) and secondary (D62, 63) challenged with OVA aerosols. BCG or BCG-IL-18 were intraperitonealy administered 1 hour before each immunization (D1 and D10). BCG-IL-18 and BCG were shown to similarly inhibit the development of AHR, mucus production, eosinophil influx, and local Th2 cytokine production in BAL, both after the primary and secondary challenge. These data show that IL-18 did not increase allergic airway responses in the context of the mycobacterial infection, and suggest that BCG-IL-18 and BCG are able to prevent the development of local Th2 responses and therefore inhibit allergen-induced airway responses even after restimulation. PMID:18299704

  3. Alternaria extract activates autophagy that induces IL-18 release from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Murai, Hiroki; Okazaki, Shintaro; Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Hosoki, Koa; Yasutomi, Motoko; Sur, Sanjiv; Ohshima, Yusei

    2015-09-01

    Alternaria alternata is a major outdoor allergen that causes allergic airway diseases. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) has been shown to induce airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 and thereby initiate Th2-type responses. We investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in IL-18 release from ALT-E-stimulated airway epithelial cells. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were stimulated with ALT-E in the presence of different inhibitors of autophagy or caspases. IL-18 levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. The numbers of autophagosomes, an LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, and p62 degradation were determined by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin, which inhibit the formation of preautophagosomal structures and autolysosomes, respectively, suppressed ALT-E-induced IL-18 release by cells, whereas caspase 1 and 8 inhibitors did not. ALT-E-stimulation increased autophagosome formation, LC-3 conversion, and p62 degradation in airway epithelial cells. LPS-stimulation induced the LC3 conversion in A549 cells, but did not induce IL-18 release or p62 degradation. Unlike LPS, ALT-E induced airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 via an autophagy dependent, caspase 1 and 8 independent pathway. Although autophagy has been shown to negatively regulate canonical inflammasome activity in TLR-stimulated macrophages, our data indicates that this process is an unconventional mechanism of IL-18 secretion by airway epithelial cells. PMID:26032499

  4. Structure-function analysis of Nel, a thrombospondin-1-like glycoprotein involved in neural development and functions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ritsuko; Nakamoto, Chizu; Obama, Hiroya; Durward, Elaine; Nakamoto, Masaru

    2012-01-27

    Nel (neural epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like molecule) is a multimeric, multimodular extracellular glycoprotein with heparin-binding activity and structural similarities to thrombospondin-1. Nel is predominantly expressed in the nervous system and has been implicated in neuronal proliferation and differentiation, retinal axon guidance, synaptic functions, and spatial learning. The Nel protein contains an N-terminal thrombospondin-1 (TSP-N) domain, five cysteine-rich domains, and six EGF-like domains. However, little is known about the functions of specific domains of the Nel protein. In this study, we have performed structure-function analysis of Nel, by using a series of expression constructs for different regions of the Nel protein. Our studies demonstrate that the TSP-N domain is responsible for homo-multimer formation of Nel and its heparin-binding activity. In vivo, Nel and related Nell1 are expressed in several regions of the mouse central nervous system with partly overlapping patterns. When they are expressed in the same cells in vitro, Nel and Nell1 can form hetero-multimers through the TSP-N domain, but they do not hetero-oligomerize with thrombospondin-1. Whereas both the TSP-N domain and cysteine-rich domains can bind to retinal axons in vivo, only the latter causes growth cone collapse in cultured retinal axons, suggesting that cysteine-rich domains interact with and activate an inhibitory axon guidance receptor. These results suggest that Nel interacts with a range of molecules through its different domains and exerts distinct functions. PMID:22157752

  5. Genetic variation within IL18 is associated with insulin levels, insulin resistance and postprandial measures☆

    PubMed Central

    Smart, M.C.; Dedoussis, G.; Yiannakouris, N.; Grisoni, M.L.; Dror, G.K.; Yannakoulia, M.; Papoutsakis, C.; Louizou, E.; Mantzoros, C.S.; Melistas, L.; Kontogianni, M.D.; Cooper, J.A.; Humphries, S.E.; Talmud, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims IL-18 expression is up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques, and higher levels are seen in obese and Type 2 Diabetic individuals. More recently, a possible role for IL-18 in glucose and energy homeostasis has been suggested. Methods and results We investigated variation within the IL18 gene and its association with measures of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Five IL18 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1946519, rs2043055, rs549908, rs360729, rs3882891) were selected and genotyped in the Gene-Diet Attica Investigation on childhood obesity (GENDAI) (age range 10–14 yrs); in young European men in the second European Atherosclerosis Research offspring Study (EARSII), an offspring study (age range 18–28 yrs) and in a group of healthy women from the Greek Obese Women study (GrOW) (age range 18–74 yrs). Six common haplotypes were observed. In GrOW, Hap6 (Frequency-2.6%) was associated with higher insulin levels (p < 0.0001), estimates of HOMA-Insulin Resistance (p < 0.0001) and HOMA-β-cell (p < 0.0001) compared to the common haplotype Hap1 (Frequency-33.2%). In EARSII, rs2043055 was associated with peak and area under the curve triglycerides (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) after an oral fat tolerance test in ‘cases’ but not ‘controls’. None of the haplotypes were associated with measures of body fatness in any of the studies. Conclusion Association of IL18 variation with insulin levels and estimates of insulin resistance were only observed in our adult study, suggesting that the effects of IL-18 are only associated with increasing age. Taken together with the association of IL18 variants with post-prandial measures, this provides support for IL-18 as a metabolic factor. PMID:20227263

  6. IL-18 Production from the NLRP1 Inflammasome Prevents Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Andrew J; Kraakman, Michael J; Kammoun, Helene L; Dragoljevic, Dragana; Lee, Man K S; Lawlor, Kate E; Wentworth, John M; Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Gerlic, Motti; Whitehead, Lachlan W; DiRago, Ladina; Cengia, Louise; Lane, Rachael M; Metcalf, Donald; Vince, James E; Harrison, Leonard C; Kallies, Axel; Kile, Benjamin T; Croker, Ben A; Febbraio, Mark A; Masters, Seth L

    2016-01-12

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is activated by Caspase-1 in inflammasome complexes and has anti-obesity effects; however, it is not known which inflammasome regulates this process. We found that mice lacking the NLRP1 inflammasome phenocopy mice lacking IL-18, with spontaneous obesity due to intrinsic lipid accumulation. This is exacerbated when the mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-protein diet, but not when mice are fed a HFD with low energy density (high fiber). Furthermore, mice with an activating mutation in NLRP1, and hence increased IL-18, have decreased adiposity and are resistant to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. Feeding these mice a HFD further increased plasma IL-18 concentrations and strikingly resulted in loss of adipose tissue mass and fatal cachexia, which could be prevented by genetic deletion of IL-18. Thus, NLRP1 is an innate immune sensor that functions in the context of metabolic stress to produce IL-18, preventing obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26603191

  7. Post-ischemic hypothermia reduced IL-18 expression and suppressed microglial activation in the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Fukui, On; Kinugasa, Yukiko; Fukuda, Aya; Fukuda, Hirotsugu; Tskitishvili, Ekaterine; Hayashi, Shusaku; Song, Mihyon; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Hosono, Takayoshi; Shimoya, Koichiro; Murata, Yuji

    2006-11-22

    Inflammation is an important factor for hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine which may be a contributor to injury in the immature brain after HI. To investigate the effects of post-HI hypothermia on IL-18 in the developing brain, 7-day-old rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by 8% oxygen for 60 min and divided into a hypothermia group (rectal temperature 32 degrees C for 24 h) and a normothermia group (36 degrees C for 24 h). The IL-18 mRNA was analyzed with real-time RT-PCR, and the protein level was analyzed by Western blot, and the location and source of IL-18 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The significant increase of the IL-18 mRNA was observed in the ipsilateral hemispheres of the normothermia group at 24 h and 72 h after HI compared with controls, but the level in the ipsilateral hemispheres of the hypothermia group was significantly reduced at both time points, compared with the normothermia group, respectively. The IL-18 protein level in the ipsilateral hemispheres of the normothermia group significantly increased at 72 h after HI compared with controls, however, the protein level of the hypothermia group was significantly decreased, compared with the normothermia group. IL-18-positive cells were observed throughout the entire cortex, corpus callosum (CC) and striatum in the ipsilateral hemispheres of normothermia group at 72 h after HI, however, little positive cells were observed in the hypothermia group. Double labeling immunostaining found that most of the IL-18-positive cells were colocalized with lectin, which is a marker of microglia. The number of ameboid microglia (AM) in the normothermia group was significantly increased in cortex and CC, compared with the number in controls, but there were very few ramified microglia (RM) in these areas. In contrast, the number of AM in the hypothermia group was significantly decreased in cortex and CC, compared with the number in

  8. Acetylsalicylic acid inhibits IL-18-induced cardiac fibroblast migration through the induction of RECK.

    PubMed

    Siddesha, Jalahalli M; Valente, Anthony J; Sakamuri, Siva S V P; Gardner, Jason D; Delafontaine, Patrice; Noda, Makoto; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2014-07-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis and adverse remodeling is thought to involve the ROS-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the activation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Here we investigated the role of RECK (reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs), a unique membrane-anchored MMP regulator, on IL-18-induced CF migration, and the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on this response. In a Matrigel invasion assay, IL-18-induced migration of primary mouse CF was dependent on both IKK/NF-κB- and JNK/AP-1-mediated MMP9 induction and Sp1-mediated RECK suppression, mechanisms that required Nox4-dependent H(2)O(2) generation. Notably, forced expression of RECK attenuated IL-18-induced MMP9 activation and CF migration. Further, therapeutic concentrations of ASA inhibited IL-18-induced H(2)O(2) generation, MMP9 activation, RECK suppression, and CF migration. The salicylic acid moiety of ASA similarly attenuated IL-18-induced CF migration. Thus, ASA may exert potential beneficial effect in cardiac fibrosis through multiple protective mechanisms. PMID:24265116

  9. Acetylsalicylic Acid Inhibits IL-18-Induced Cardiac Fibroblast Migration Through the Induction of RECK

    PubMed Central

    SIDDESHA, JALAHALLI M.; VALENTE, ANTHONY J.; SAKAMURI, SIVA S.V.P.; GARDNER, JASON D.; DELAFONTAINE, PATRICE; NODA, MAKOTO; CHANDRASEKAR, BYSANI

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis and adverse remodeling is thought to involve the ROS-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the activation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Here we investigated the role of RECK (reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs), a unique membrane-anchored MMP regulator, on IL-18 induced CF migration, and the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on this response. In a Matrigel invasion assay, IL-18 induced migration of primary mouse CF was dependent on both IKK/NF-κB- and JNK/AP-1-mediated MMP9 induction and Spl-mediated RECK suppression, mechanisms that required Nox4-dependent H2O2 generation. Notably, forced expression of RECK attenuated IL-18 induced MMP9 activation and CF migration. Further, therapeutic concentrations of ASA inhibited IL-18 induced H2O2 generation, MMP9 activation, RECK suppression, and CF migration. The salicylic acid moiety of ASA similarly attenuated IL-18 induced CF migration. Thus, ASA may exert potential beneficial effect in cardiac fibrosis through multiple protective mechanisms. PMID:24265116

  10. Intratumoral delivery of encapsulated IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in a model of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Michael S; Su, Gang; Griffith, Kent A; Chang, Alfred E

    2010-07-01

    Intratumoral (i.t.) cytokine release through the use of poly-lactic acid microspheres (PLAM) holds tremendous potential for the immunotherapy of breast cancer as it harnesses the immunologic potential of autologous tumor in a clinically feasible and minimally toxic manner. We examined the potential of combinations of i.t. IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha PLAM to generate a tumor-specific immune response and improve outcome in a model of metastatic breast cancer. Balb/c mice with established 4T1 mammary carcinomas were treated with a single injection of BSA, IL-12, IL-18 or TNF-alpha-loaded PLAM alone or in combination after spontaneous metastases occurred. Combined treatment with IL-12 and TNF-alpha PLAM was superior to all other treatments, including the triple combination of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in ablation of the primary tumor, eradicating distant disease and enhancing survival. Simultaneous delivery of IL-12 and TNF-alpha was superior to sequential delivery of IL-12 followed by TNF-alpha, but not TNF-alpha followed by IL-12. In vivo lymphocyte depletion studies established that the effects of IL-12 alone are mediated primarily by NK cells, while the combination of IL-12 and TNF-alpha is dependent upon CD8+ T-cells. Only the combination of IL-12 and TNF-alpha results in an increase in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and a reduction in CD4+CD25+ cells. While there was no change in the dendritic cell population, IL-12 and TNF-alpha resulted in a dramatic increase in DC maturation and antigen presentation. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with simultaneous intratumoral delivery of IL-12 and TNF-alpha PLAM augments DC antigen presentation and increases cytotoxic T-cells without increasing regulatory T-cells, resulting in a T-cell based anti-tumor immune response capable of eradicating disseminated disease. The addition of IL-18 did not improve the efficacy. PMID:19802695

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 reveal differential expression patterns in cancer and low antigen expression in normal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bujak, Emil; Pretto, Francesca; Ritz, Danilo; Gualandi, Laura; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-09-10

    There is a considerable interest for the discovery and characterization of tumor-associated antigens, which may facilitate antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies. Thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are homologous secreted proteins, which have previously been reported to be overexpressed during remodeling typical for wound healing and tumor progression and to possibly play a functional role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. To our knowledge, a complete immunohistochemical characterization of thrombospondins levels in normal rodent tissues has not been reported so far. Using antibody phage technology, we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies specific to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2, two antigens which share 62% aminoacid identity. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues, except for a weak staining of heart tissue by antibodies specific to thrombospondin-1. The analysis also showed that thrombospondin-1 was strongly expressed in 5/7 human tumors xenografted in nude mice, while it was only barely detectable in 3/8 murine tumors grafted in immunocompetent mice. By contrast, a high-affinity antibody to thrombospondin-2 revealed a much lower level of expression of this antigen in cancer specimens. Our analysis resolves ambiguities related to conflicting reports on thrombosponding expression in health and disease. Based on our findings, thrombospondin-1 (and not thrombospondin-2) may be considered as a target for antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies, in consideration of its low expression in normal tissues and its upregulation in cancer. - Highlights: • High affinity monoclonal antibodies to murine and human TSP1 and 2 were raised. • Both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues. • Strong positivity of human tumor xenografts for TSP1 was detected. • Study revealed much lower level of TSP2 expression in cancer specimens

  12. Imbalanced production of IL-18 and its antagonist in human diseases, and its implications for HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Samarani, Suzanne; Allam, Ossama; Sagala, Patrick; Aldabah, Zainab; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Mehraj, Vikram; Tremblay, Cécile; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Amre, Devendra; Ahmad, Ali

    2016-06-01

    IL-18 is a pleiotropic and multifunctional cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. It is produced as a biologically inactive precursor, which is cleaved into its active mature form mainly by caspase-1. The caspase becomes active from its inactive precursor (procaspase-1) upon assembly of an inflammasome. Because of IL-18's potential pro-inflammatory and tissue destructive effects, its biological activities are tightly controlled in the body by its naturally occurring antagonist called IL-18BP. The antagonist is produced in the body both constitutively and in response to an increased production of IL-18 as a negative feedback mechanism. Under physiological conditions, most of IL-18 in the circulation is bound with IL-18BP and is inactive. However, an imbalance in the production of IL-18 and its antagonist (an increase in the production of IL-18 with a decrease, no increase or an insufficient increase in the production of IL-18BP) has been described in many chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. The imbalance results in an increase in the concentrations of free IL-18 (unbound with its antagonist) resulting in increased biological activities of the cytokine that contribute towards pathogenesis of the disease. In this article, we provide an overview of the current biology of IL-18 and its antagonist, discuss how the imbalance occurs in HIV infections and how it contributes towards development of AIDS and other non-AIDS-associated clinical conditions occurring in HIV-infected individuals undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Finally, we discuss challenges facing immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at restoring balance between IL-18 and its antagonist in these patients. PMID:26898120

  13. IFN-γ Production Depends on IL-12 and IL-18 Combined Action and Mediates Host Resistance to Dengue Virus Infection in a Nitric Oxide-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Cisalpino, Daniel; Amaral, Flávio A.; Souza, Patrícia R. S.; Souza, Rafael S.; Ryffel, Bernhard; Vieira, Leda Q.; Silva, Tarcília A.; Atrasheuskaya, Alena; Ignatyev, George; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Souza, Danielle G.; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by one of four serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV-1–4). Severe dengue infection in humans is characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased vascular permeability, hemorrhage and shock. However, there is little information about host response to DENV infection. Here, mechanisms accounting for IFN-γ production and effector function during dengue disease were investigated in a murine model of DENV-2 infection. IFN-γ expression was greatly increased after infection of mice and its production was preceded by increase in IL-12 and IL-18 levels. In IFN-γ−/− mice, DENV-2-associated lethality, viral loads, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, and liver injury were enhanced, when compared with wild type-infected mice. IL-12p40−/− and IL-18−/− infected-mice showed decreased IFN-γ production, which was accompanied by increased disease severity, higher viral loads and enhanced lethality. Blockade of IL-18 in infected IL-12p40−/− mice resulted in complete inhibition of IFN-γ production, greater DENV-2 replication, and enhanced disease manifestation, resembling the response seen in DENV-2-infected IFN-γ−/− mice. Reduced IFN-γ production was associated with diminished Nitric Oxide-synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and NOS2−/− mice had elevated lethality, more severe disease evolution and increased viral load after DENV-2 infection. Therefore, IL-12/IL-18-induced IFN-γ production and consequent NOS2 induction are of major importance to host resistance against DENV infection. PMID:22206036

  14. Thrombospondin-1 might be a therapeutic target to suppress RB cells by regulating the DNA double-strand breaks repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Ying; Wu, Nandan; Xu, Lijun; Zhang, Jing; Ge, Jian; Yu, Keming; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) arises from the retina, and its growth usually occurs under the retina and toward the vitreous. Ideal therapy should aim to inhibit the tumor and protect neural cells, increasing the patient's life span and quality of life. Previous studies have demonstrated that Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is associated with neurogenesis, neovascularization and tumorigenesis. However, at present, the bioactivity of TSP-1 in retinoblastoma has not been defined. Herein, we demonstrated that TSP-1 was silenced in RB cell lines and clinical tumor samples. HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), could notably transcriptionally up-regulate TSP-1 in RB cells, WERI-Rb1 cells and Y79 cells. Moreover, we found human recombinant TSP-1 (hTSP-1) could significantly inhibit the cell viability of RB cells both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, hTSP-1 could significantly induce the expression of γ-H2AX, a well-characterized in situ marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in RB cells. The DNA NHEJ pathway in WERI-Rb1 cells could be significantly inhibited by hTSP-1. A mutation in Rb1 might be involved in the hTSP-1-medicated γ-H2AX increasing in WERI-Rb1 cells. Furthermore, hTSP-1 could inhibit RB cells while promoting retinal neurocyte survival in the neuronal and retinoblastoma cell co-culture system. As such, TSP-1 may become a therapeutic target for treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:26756218

  15. Maintenance chemotherapy in children with ALL exerts metronomic-like thrombospondin-1 associated anti-endothelial effect

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Nicolas; Cointe, Sylvie; Barlogis, Vincent; Arnaud, Laurent; Lacroix, Romaric; Pasquier, Eddy; Dignat-George, Françoise; Michel, Gérard; Sabatier, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance chemotherapy is an important part of the treatment of ALL in children. It relies on the long-term oral administration of daily low-dose mercaptopurin and weekly low-dose methotrexate. Although it has been used in the clinic for decades, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we investigated different angiogenic and immune biomarkers to gain insights into the mechanisms of action of maintenance therapy in children with ALL. We thus monitored circulating endothelial cells (CEC), endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and endothelial microparticles (EMP), pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, VEGFR-1 and Ang-2), anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) in 47 children with ALL during the maintenance phase of their treatment (at treatment initiation and after 6, 12 and 18 months). We observed a statistically significant decrease in EPC and EMP counts throughout the maintenance phase associated with a significant increase in THBS1 levels. No significant change was detected in other angiogenic markers or in Treg numbers. The results presented here indicate that maintenance therapy in children with ALL exerts its antitumor activity at least in part through anti-angiogenic effects, similar to those induced by metronomic chemotherapy. Larger studies are now warranted to validate these findings and determine their clinical implications. PMID:26284583

  16. Maintenance chemotherapy in children with ALL exerts metronomic-like thrombospondin-1 associated anti-endothelial effect.

    PubMed

    Andre, Nicolas; Cointe, Sylvie; Barlogis, Vincent; Arnaud, Laurent; Lacroix, Romaric; Pasquier, Eddy; Dignat-George, Françoise; Michel, Gérard; Sabatier, Florence

    2015-09-01

    Maintenance chemotherapy is an important part of the treatment of ALL in children. It relies on the long-term oral administration of daily low-dose mercaptopurin and weekly low-dose methotrexate. Although it has been used in the clinic for decades, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we investigated different angiogenic and immune biomarkers to gain insights into the mechanisms of action of maintenance therapy in children with ALL. We thus monitored circulating endothelial cells (CEC), endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and endothelial microparticles (EMP), pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, VEGFR-1 and Ang-2), anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) in 47 children with ALL during the maintenance phase of their treatment (at treatment initiation and after 6, 12 and 18 months). We observed a statistically significant decrease in EPC and EMP counts throughout the maintenance phase associated with a significant increase in THBS1 levels. No significant change was detected in other angiogenic markers or in Treg numbers.The results presented here indicate that maintenance therapy in children with ALL exerts its antitumor activity at least in part through anti-angiogenic effects, similar to those induced by metronomic chemotherapy. Larger studies are now warranted to validate these findings and determine their clinical implications. PMID:26284583

  17. Cyclic thrombospondin-1 mimetics: grafting of a thrombospondin sequence into circular disulfide-rich frameworks to inhibit endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Yue; Craik, David J.; Daly, Norelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Tumour formation is dependent on nutrient and oxygen supply from adjacent blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors can play a vital role in controlling blood vessel formation and consequently tumour progression by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation, sprouting and migration. The primary aim of the present study was to design cyclic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mimetics using disulfide-rich frameworks for anti-angiogenesis therapies and to determine whether these peptides have better potency than the linear parent peptide. A short anti-angiogenic heptapeptide fragment from TSP-1 (GVITRIR) was incorporated into two cyclic disulfide-rich frameworks, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II) and SFTI-1 (sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1). The cyclic peptides were chemically synthesized and folded in oxidation buffers, before being tested in a series of in vitro evaluations. Incorporation of the bioactive heptapeptide fragment into the cyclic frameworks resulted in peptides that inhibited microvascular endothelial cell migration, and had no toxicity against normal primary human endothelial cells or cancer cells. Importantly, all of the designed cyclic TSP-1 mimetics were far more stable than the linear heptapeptide in human serum. The present study has demonstrated a novel approach to stabilize the active region of TSP-1. The anti-angiogenic activity of the native TSP-1 active fragment was maintained in the new TSP-1 mimetics and the results provide a new chemical approach for the design of TSP-1 mimetics. PMID:26464514

  18. Cyclic thrombospondin-1 mimetics: grafting of a thrombospondin sequence into circular disulfide-rich frameworks to inhibit endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Yue; Craik, David J; Daly, Norelle L

    2015-01-01

    Tumour formation is dependent on nutrient and oxygen supply from adjacent blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors can play a vital role in controlling blood vessel formation and consequently tumour progression by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation, sprouting and migration. The primary aim of the present study was to design cyclic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mimetics using disulfide-rich frameworks for anti-angiogenesis therapies and to determine whether these peptides have better potency than the linear parent peptide. A short anti-angiogenic heptapeptide fragment from TSP-1 (GVITRIR) was incorporated into two cyclic disulfide-rich frameworks, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II) and SFTI-1 (sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1). The cyclic peptides were chemically synthesized and folded in oxidation buffers, before being tested in a series of in vitro evaluations. Incorporation of the bioactive heptapeptide fragment into the cyclic frameworks resulted in peptides that inhibited microvascular endothelial cell migration, and had no toxicity against normal primary human endothelial cells or cancer cells. Importantly, all of the designed cyclic TSP-1 mimetics were far more stable than the linear heptapeptide in human serum. The present study has demonstrated a novel approach to stabilize the active region of TSP-1. The anti-angiogenic activity of the native TSP-1 active fragment was maintained in the new TSP-1 mimetics and the results provide a new chemical approach for the design of TSP-1 mimetics. PMID:26464514

  19. The Structures of the Thrombospondin-1 N-Terminal Domain and Its Complex with a Synthetic Pentameric Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Duquette, Mark; Liu, Jin-huan; Zhang, Rongguang; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Wang, Jia-huai; Lawler, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Summary The N-terminal domain of thrombospondin-1 (TSPN-1) mediates the protein’s interaction with (1) glycosaminoglycans, calreticulin, and integrins during cellular adhesion, (2) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein during uptake and clearance, and (3) fibrinogen during platelet aggregation. The crystal structure of TSPN-1 to 1.8 Å resolution is a β sandwich with 13 antiparallel β strands and 1 irregular strand-like segment. Unique structural features of the N- and C-terminal regions, and the disulfide bond location, distinguish TSPN-1 from the laminin G domain and other concanavalin A-like lectins/glucanases superfamily members. The crystal structure of the complex of TSPN-1 with heparin indicates that residues R29, R42, and R77 in an extensive positively charged patch at the bottom of the domain specifically associate with the sulfate groups of heparin. The TSPN-1 structure and identified adjacent linker region provide a structural framework for the analysis of the TSPN domain of various molecules, including TSPs, NELLs, many collagens, TSPEAR, and kielin. PMID:16407063

  20. Thrombospondin 1 Mediates High-Fat Diet-Induced Muscle Fibrosis and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yibin; Barnes, Richard H.; Tokunaga, Masakuni; Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Geletka, Lynn; Lumeng, Carey N.; Buchner, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1 or TSP-1) is a circulating glycoprotein highly expressed in hypertrophic visceral adipose tissues of humans and mice. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces the robust increase of circulating THBS1 in the early stages of HFD challenge. The loss of Thbs1 protects male mice from diet-induced weight gain and adipocyte hypertrophy. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study has demonstrated that Thbs1-null mice are protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Tissue-specific glucose uptake study has revealed that the insulin-sensitive phenotype of Thbs1-null mice is mostly mediated by skeletal muscles. Further assessments of the muscle phenotype using RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, and histological studies have demonstrated that Thbs1-null skeletal muscles are protected from the HFD-dependent induction of Col3a1 and Col6a1, coupled with a new collagen deposition. At the same time, the Thbs1-null mice display a better circadian rhythm and higher amplitude of energy expenditure with a browning phenotype in sc adipose tissues. These results suggest that THBS1, which circulates in response to a HFD, may induce insulin resistance and fibrotic tissue damage in skeletal muscles as well as the de-browning of sc adipose tissues in the early stages of a HFD challenge. Our study may shed new light on the pathogenic role played by a circulating extracellular matrix protein in the cross talk between adipose tissues and skeletal muscles during obesity progression. PMID:24140711

  1. Chemopreventive apigenin controls UVB-induced cutaneous proliferation and angiogenesis through HuR and thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    Veliceasa, Dorina; Bridgeman, Bryan B.; Fitchev, Philip; Cornwell, Mona L.; Crawford, Susan E.; Pelling, Jill C.; Volpert, Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Plant flavonoid apigenin prevents and inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin and has strong anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Here we identify mechanisms, by which apigenin controls these oncogenic events. We show that apigenin acts, at least in part, via endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). TSP1 expression by the epidermal keratinocytes is potently inhibited by UVB. It inhibits cutaneous angiogenesis and UVB-induced carcinogenesis. We show that apigenin restores TSP1 in epidermal keratinocytes subjected to UVB and normalizes proliferation and angiogenesis in UVB-exposed skin. Importantly, reconstituting TSP1 anti-angiogenic function in UVB-irradiated skin with a short bioactive peptide mimetic representing exclusively its anti-angiogenic domain reproduced the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of apigenin. Cox-2 and HIF-1α are important mediators of angiogenesis. Both apigenin and TSP1 peptide mimetic attenuated their induction by UVB. Finally we identified the molecular mechanism, whereby apigenin did not affect TSP1 mRNA, but increased de novo protein synthesis. Knockdown studies implicated the RNA-binding protein HuR, which controls mRNA stability and translation. Apigenin increased HuR cytoplasmic localization and physical association with TSP1 mRNA causing de novo TSP1 synthesis. HuR cytoplasmic localization was, in turn, dependent on CHK2 kinase. Together, our data provide a new mechanism, by which apigenin controls UVB-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25526033

  2. Thrombospondin-1 as a Paradigm for the Development of Antiangiogenic Agents Endowed with Multiple Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Rusnati, Marco; Urbinati, Chiara; Bonifacio, Silvia; Presta, Marco; Taraboletti, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled neovascularization occurs in several angiogenesis-dependent diseases, including cancer. Neovascularization is tightly controlled by the balance between angiogenic growth factors and antiangiogenic agents. The various natural angiogenesis inhibitors identified so far affect neovascularization by different mechanisms of action. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular modular glycoprotein that acts as a powerful endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. It acts both indirectly, by sequestering angiogenic growth factors and effectors in the extracellular environment, and directly, by inducing an antiangiogenic program in endothelial cells following engagement of specific receptors including CD36, CD47, integrins and proteoglycans (all involved in angiogenesis ). In view of its central, multifaceted role in angiogenesis, TSP-1 has served as a source of antiangiogenic tools, including TSP-1 fragments, synthetic peptides and peptidomimetics, gene therapy strategies, and agents that up-regulate TSP-1 expression. This review discusses TSP-1-based inhibitors of angiogenesis, their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential, drawing our experience with angiogenic growth factor-interacting TSP-1 peptides, and the possibility of exploiting them to design novel antiangiogenic agents.

  3. Thrombospondin 1 mediates high-fat diet-induced muscle fibrosis and insulin resistance in male mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mayumi; Jiang, Yibin; Barnes, Richard H; Tokunaga, Masakuni; Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Geletka, Lynn; Lumeng, Carey N; Buchner, David A; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2013-12-01

    Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1 or TSP-1) is a circulating glycoprotein highly expressed in hypertrophic visceral adipose tissues of humans and mice. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces the robust increase of circulating THBS1 in the early stages of HFD challenge. The loss of Thbs1 protects male mice from diet-induced weight gain and adipocyte hypertrophy. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study has demonstrated that Thbs1-null mice are protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Tissue-specific glucose uptake study has revealed that the insulin-sensitive phenotype of Thbs1-null mice is mostly mediated by skeletal muscles. Further assessments of the muscle phenotype using RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, and histological studies have demonstrated that Thbs1-null skeletal muscles are protected from the HFD-dependent induction of Col3a1 and Col6a1, coupled with a new collagen deposition. At the same time, the Thbs1-null mice display a better circadian rhythm and higher amplitude of energy expenditure with a browning phenotype in sc adipose tissues. These results suggest that THBS1, which circulates in response to a HFD, may induce insulin resistance and fibrotic tissue damage in skeletal muscles as well as the de-browning of sc adipose tissues in the early stages of a HFD challenge. Our study may shed new light on the pathogenic role played by a circulating extracellular matrix protein in the cross talk between adipose tissues and skeletal muscles during obesity progression. PMID:24140711

  4. Chemopreventive apigenin controls UVB-induced cutaneous proliferation and angiogenesis through HuR and thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Mirzoeva, Salida; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bridgeman, Bryan B; Fitchev, Philip; Cornwell, Mona L; Crawford, Susan E; Pelling, Jill C; Volpert, Olga V

    2014-11-30

    Plant flavonoid apigenin prevents and inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin and has strong anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Here we identify mechanisms, by which apigenin controls these oncogenic events. We show that apigenin acts, at least in part, via endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). TSP1 expression by the epidermal keratinocytes is potently inhibited by UVB. It inhibits cutaneous angiogenesis and UVB-induced carcinogenesis. We show that apigenin restores TSP1 in epidermal keratinocytes subjected to UVB and normalizes proliferation and angiogenesis in UVB-exposed skin. Importantly, reconstituting TSP1 anti-angiogenic function in UVB-irradiated skin with a short bioactive peptide mimetic representing exclusively its anti-angiogenic domain reproduced the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of apigenin. Cox-2 and HIF-1α are important mediators of angiogenesis. Both apigenin and TSP1 peptide mimetic attenuated their induction by UVB. Finally we identified the molecular mechanism, whereby apigenin did not affect TSP1 mRNA, but increased de novo protein synthesis. Knockdown studies implicated the RNA-binding protein HuR, which controls mRNA stability and translation. Apigenin increased HuR cytoplasmic localization and physical association with TSP1 mRNA causing de novo TSP1 synthesis. HuR cytoplasmic localization was, in turn, dependent on CHK2 kinase. Together, our data provide a new mechanism, by which apigenin controls UVB-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25526033

  5. Antigen-induced regulation of T-cell motility, interaction with antigen-presenting cells and activation through endogenous thrombospondin-1 and its receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Sten-Erik; Uzunel, Mehmet; Talme, Toomas; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

    2015-01-01

    Antigen recognition reduces T-cell motility, and induces prolonged contact with antigen-presenting cells and activation through mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we show that the T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 regulate T-cell motility, contact with antigen-presenting cells and activation through endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), calreticulin and CD47. Antigen stimulation induced a prominent up-regulation of TSP-1 expression, and transiently increased and subsequently decreased LRP1 expression whereas calreticulin was unaffected. This antigen-induced TSP-1/LRP1 response down-regulated a motogenic mechanism directed by LRP1-mediated processing of TSP-1 in cis within the same plasma membrane while promoting contact with antigen-presenting cells and activation through cis interaction of the C-terminal domain of TSP-1 with CD47 in response to N-terminal TSP-1 triggering by calreticulin. The antigen-induced TSP-1/LRP1 response maintained a reduced but significant motility level in activated cells. Blocking CD28 co-stimulation abrogated LRP1 and TSP-1 expression and motility. TCR/CD3 ligation alone enhanced TSP-1 expression whereas CD28 ligation alone enhanced LRP1 expression. Silencing of TSP-1 inhibited T-cell conjugation to antigen-presenting cells and T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine responses. The Th1 response enhanced motility and increased TSP-1 expression through interleukin-2, whereas the Th2 response weakened motility and reduced LRP1 expression through interleukin-4. Ligation of the TCR and CD28 therefore elicits a TSP-1/LRP1 response that stimulates prolonged contact with antigen-presenting cells and, although down-regulating motility, maintains a significant motility level to allow serial contacts and activation. Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses differentially regulate T-cell expression of TSP-1 and LRP1 and motility. PMID:25393517

  6. NCTC 2544 and IL-18 production: a tool for the identification of contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Emanuela; Galbiati, Valentina; Mitjans, Montserrat; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Progress in understanding the mechanisms of skin sensitization, provides us with the opportunity to develop in vitro tests as an alternative to in vivo sensitization testing. Keratinocytes play a key role in all phases of skin sensitization. We have recently identified interleukin-18 (IL-18) production in keratinocyte as a potentially useful endpoint for determination of contact sensitization potential of low molecular weight chemicals. The aim of the present article is to further exploit the performance of the NCTC 2544 assay. NCTC 2544 is a commercially available skin epithelial-like cell line originating from normal human skin, which posses a good expression of cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activities. Cells were exposed to contact allergens (2-bromo-2-bromomethyl glutaronitrile, cinnamaldehyde, citral, diethylmaleate, dinitrochlorobenzene, glyoxal, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, nickel sulfate, 4-nitrobenzylbromide, oxazolone, penicillin G, resorcinol, tetramethylthiuram disulfide), to pre- pro-haptens (cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, p-phenylediamine), to respiratory allergens (ammonium hexachloroplatinate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, glutaraldehyde, hexamethylenediisocyanate, maleic anhydride, trimellitic anhydride) and to irritants (benzaldehyde, cholorobenzene, diethylphtalate, hydrobenzoic acid, lactic acid, octanoic acid, phenol, salicylic acid, sodium lauryl sulphate, sulfamic acid). Cell associated IL-18 was evaluated 24 later by ELISA. At not-cytotoxic concentrations (cell viability higher of 80%, as assessed by MTT reduction assay), all contact sensitizers, including pre-pro-haptens, induced a dose-related increase in IL-18, whereas both irritants, with the exception of sulfamic acid, and respiratory allergens failed. A total of 33 chemicals were tested, with an overall accuracy of 97%. Overall, results obtained indicated that cell-associated IL-18 might provide an in vitro tool for identification and discrimination of contact vs. respiratory

  7. Prevention of Th2-like cell responses by coadministration of IL-12 and IL-18 is associated with inhibition of antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, and serum IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, C L; Van Ark, I; Hofman, G; Kool, M; Nijkamp, F P; Van Oosterhout, A J

    1998-11-01

    Allergic asthma is thought to be regulated by Th2 cells, and inhibiting this response is a promising mode of intervention. Many studies have focused on differentiation of Th cells to the Th1 or Th2 subset in vitro. IL-4 is essential for Th2 development, while IL-12 induces Th1 development, which can be enhanced by IL-18. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-12 and IL-18 were able to interfere in Th2 development and the associated airway symptoms in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized with OVA using a protocol that induces IgE production. Repeated challenges by OVA inhalation induced elevated serum levels of IgE, airway hyperresponsiveness, and a predominantly eosinophilic infiltrate in the bronchoalveolar lavage concomitant with the appearance of Ag-specific Th2-like cells in lung tissue and lung-draining lymph nodes. Whereas treatments with neither IL-12 nor IL-18 during the challenge period were effective, combined treatment of IL-12 and IL-18 inhibited Ag-specific Th2-like cell development. This inhibition was associated with an absence of IgE up-regulation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and cellular infiltration in the lavage. These data show that, in vivo, the synergistic action of IL-12 and IL-18 is necessary to prevent Th2-like cell differentiation, and consequently inhibits the development of airway symptoms in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:9794443

  8. Soluble IL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient upper extremity soft tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Rechardt, Martti; Shiri, Rahman; Matikainen, Sampsa; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Karppinen, Jaro; Alenius, Harri

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies suggest a role for IL-1β in the pathophysiology of upper extremity soft tissue disorders (UESTDs). We studied the levels of interleukin-1 family members in patients with incipient UESTDs and compared them with healthy controls. In this case control study, we included 163 patients with UESTDs and symptom duration shorter than 1 month and 42 healthy controls matched for age and gender at the group level. Serum levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IL-33, TNFα and sensitized C-reactive protein as well as IL-1 family soluble receptors sIL-1RII and sST2 were assessed. We used unconditional logistic regression models to study the associations between cytokines and UESTDs. After adjustment for potential confounders, the serum levels of sIL-1RII (p<0.001) and sST2 (p=0.014) were higher in the patients than the controls. The level of IL-18 was lower in the patients than the controls (p=0.005). There were no significant differences between the patients and controls regarding the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-33, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, or sensitized C-reactive protein. The levels of circulating sIL-1RII and IL-18 are associated with incipient UESTDs, suggesting an important role for these IL-1 family members in the early course of UESTDs. PMID:21371906

  9. Cutting edge: stage-specific requirement of IL-18 for antiviral NK cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C

    2015-02-15

    Although NK cells are considered part of the innate immune system, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of Ag-experienced NK cells to become long-lived and contribute to potent recall responses similar to T and B cells. The precise signals that promote the generation of a long-lived NK cell response are largely undefined. In this article, we demonstrate that NK cells require IL-18 signaling to generate a robust primary response during mouse CMV (MCMV) infection but do not require this signal for memory cell maintenance or recall responses. IL-12 signaling and STAT4 in activated NK cells increased the expression of the adaptor protein MyD88, which mediates signaling downstream of the IL-18 and IL-1 receptors. During MCMV infection, NK cells required MyD88, but not IL-1R, for optimal expansion. Thus, an IL-18-MyD88 signaling axis facilitates the prolific expansion of NK cells in response to primary viral infection, but not recall responses. PMID:25589075

  10. Stage-specific requirement of IL-18 for antiviral NK cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Although natural killer (NK) cells are considered part of the innate immune system, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of antigen-experienced NK cells to become long-lived and contribute to potent recall responses similar to T and B cells. The precise signals that promote the generation of a long-lived NK cell response are largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells require interleukin (IL)-18 signaling to generate a robust primary response during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, but do not require this signal for memory cell maintenance or recall responses. IL-12 signaling and STAT4 in activated NK cells increased the expression of the adaptor protein MyD88, which mediates signaling downstream of the IL-18 and IL-1 receptors. During MCMV infection, NK cells required MyD88 but not IL-1 receptor for optimal expansion. Thus, an IL-18-MyD88 signaling axis facilitates the prolific expansion of NK cells in response to primary viral infection, but not recall responses. PMID:25589075

  11. Cofactor Regulation of C5a Chemotactic Activity in Physiological Fluids. Requirement for the Vitamin D Binding Protein, Thrombospondin-1 and its Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Glenda; Zhang, Jianhua; Habiel, David M.; Ge, Lingyin; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kew, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Factors in physiological fluids that regulate the chemotactic activity of complement activation peptides C5a and C5a des Arg are not well understood. The vitamin D binding protein (DBP) has been shown to significantly enhance chemotaxis to C5a/C5a des Arg. More recently, platelet-derived thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been shown to facilitate the augmentation of C5a-induced chemotaxis by DBP. The objective of this study was to better characterize these chemotactic cofactors and investigate the role that cell surface TSP-1 receptors CD36 and CD47 may play in this process. The chemotactic activity in C-activated normal serum, citrated plasma, DBP-depleted serum or C5 depleted serum was determined for both normal human neutrophils and U937 cell line transfected with the C5a receptor (U937-C5aR). In addition, levels of C5a des Arg, DBP and TSP-1 in these fluids were measured by RIA or ELISA. Results show that there is a clear hierarchy with C5a being the essential primary signal (DBP or TSP-1 will not function in the absence of C5a), DBP the necessary cofactor and TSP-1 a dependent tertiary factor, since it cannot function to enhance chemotaxis to C5a without DBP. Measurement of the C5a-induced intracellular calcium flux confirmed the same hierarchy observed with chemotaxis. Moreover, analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) demonstrated that C5a-dependent chemotactic activity is significantly decreased after anti-DBP treatment. Finally, results show that TSP-1 utilizes cell surface receptors CD36 and CD47 to augment chemotaxis, but DBP does not bind to TSP-1, CD36 or CD47. The results clearly demonstrate that C5a/C5a des Arg needs both DBP and TSP-1 for maximal chemotactic activity and suggest that the regulation of C5a chemotactic activity in physiological fluids is more complex than previously thought. PMID:22014686

  12. Compatibility of a novel thrombospondin-1 analog with fertility and pregnancy in a xenograft mouse model of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Diane S; Edwards, Andrew K; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the growth of endometrium outside of the uterus. Although endometriosis contributes to 50% of female infertility cases, medical treatments are incompatible with pregnancy. Angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessels from existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in endometriotic lesion growth and survival. Previously, we demonstrated the effectiveness of thrombospondin-1 analog, ABT-898 (Abbott Laboratories) to inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization in mice. We have now evaluated the trans-generational implications of ABT-898 treatment before and during mouse pregnancy. We hypothesized that ABT-898 would target lesion vasculature without affecting pregnancy, offspring development, or ovarian and uterine vascularity in mice. Endometriosis was induced using human endometrium in β-estradiol-primed BALB/c-Rag-2-/-Il2rγ-/- mice receiving intraperitoneal injections of ABT-898 (25 mg/kg) or 5% dextrose control for 21 days. Ultrasound assessment of lesion vascularization revealed a reduction in blood flow supplying treated lesions. Excised ABT-898 treated lesions stained for CD31+ endothelial cells exhibited a decrease in microvessel density. Following confirmation of estrous cycling, mice were bred and treated with ABT-898 on gestation days 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19. ABT-898 did not affect estrous cycling or pregnancy parameters including litter size across generations and offspring weight gain. Quantification of angiogenic cytokine plasma levels revealed no significant differences between treatment groups. Vimentin staining of the uterus and ovary revealed no observable effects of ABT-898. Similarly, no obvious histological anomalies were observed in the kidney, liver, ovary, or uterus following ABT-898 treatment. These results suggest that ABT-898 effectively inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization without affecting trans-generational pregnancy outcomes in mice. PMID:25811892

  13. Leptin augments recruitment of IRF-1 and CREB to thrombospondin-1 gene promoter in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Soumyadip; Ganguly, Rituparna; Raman, Priya

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that high pathophysiological concentrations of leptin, the adipocyte-secreted peptide, upregulate the expression of a potent proatherogenic matricellular protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, this regulation was found to occur at the level of transcription; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The goal of the present study was to investigate the specific transcriptional mechanisms that mediate upregulation of TSP-1 expression by leptin. Primary human aortic smooth muscle cell cultures were transiently transfected with different TSP-1 gene (THBS1) promoter-linked luciferase reporter constructs, and luciferase activity in response to leptin (100 ng/ml) was assessed. We identified a long THBS1 promoter (-1270/+750) fragment with specific leptin response elements that are required for increased TSP-1 transcription by leptin. Promoter analyses, protein/DNA array and gel shift assays demonstrated activation and association of transcription factors, interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), to the distal fragment of the THBS1 promoter in response to leptin. Supershift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed formation of a single complex between IRF-1 and CREB in response to leptin; importantly, recruitment of this complex to the THBS1 promoter mediated leptin-induced TSP-1 transcription. Finally, binding sequence decoy oligomer and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that regulatory elements for both IRF-1 (-1019 to -1016) and CREB (-1198 to -1195), specific to the distal THBS1 promoter, were required for leptin-induced TSP-1 transcription. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that leptin promotes a cooperative association between IRF-1 and CREB on the THBS1 promoter driving TSP-1 transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:27281481

  14. Calcitriol reduces thrombospondin-1 and increases vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer cells: implications for tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    García-Quiroz, Janice; Rivas-Suárez, Mariana; García-Becerra, Rocío; Barrera, David; Martínez-Reza, Isela; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Santos-Martinez, Nancy; Villanueva, Octavio; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Avila, Euclides; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2014-10-01

    Calcitriol, a potent antineoplastic vitamin D metabolite, inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and slows the growth of tumors. Calcitriol also may exert either antiangiogenic or proangiogenic effects depending on the tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (Tsp-1) are key factors involved in promoting and inhibiting angiogenesis, respectively. The effects of calcitriol on Tsp-1 have not been studied in the mammary gland, while VEGF regulation is not clear, since opposite outcomes have been demonstrated. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of calcitriol on VEGF and Tsp-1 expression in primary breast tumor-derived cells and a panel of established breast cancer cell lines. In vivo studies in athymic mice were also performed in order to gain further insight into the biological effects of calcitriol on angiogenesis. Real time-PCR and ELISA analyses showed that calcitriol stimulated VEGF mRNA expression and protein secretion while elicited the opposite effect on Tsp-1 in 7 out of 8 cell lines studied, independently of the cell phenotype (P<0.05 in n=5). In vivo, calcitriol significantly inhibited the relative tumoral volume after 4 weeks of treatment; however, serum VEGF was higher in calcitriol-treated animals compared to controls (P<0.05). The integrated fluorescence intensity analysis of CD31, a vessel marker, showed that xenografted breast cancer cells developed tumors with similar vascular density regardless of the treatment. Nevertheless, larger necrotic areas were observed in the tumors of calcitriol-treated mice compared to controls. Since the antineoplastic activity of calcitriol has been consistently demonstrated in several studies including this one, our results suggest that the antitumoral effect of calcitriol in vivo involve different mechanisms not necessarily related to the inhibition of tumor vascularization. Overall, our findings indicate that calcitriol can impact the angiogenic

  15. Repeating Structures of the Major Staphylococcal Autolysin Are Essential for the Interaction with Human Thrombospondin 1 and Vitronectin*

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Thomas P.; Gisch, Nicolas; Binsker, Ulrike; Schlag, Martin; Darm, Katrin; Völker, Uwe; Zähringer, Ulrich; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Human thrombospondin 1 (hTSP-1) is a matricellular glycoprotein facilitating bacterial adherence to and invasion into eukaryotic cells. However, the bacterial adhesin(s) remain elusive. In this study, we show a dose-dependent binding of soluble hTSP-1 to Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Diminished binding of soluble hTSP-1 to proteolytically pretreated staphylococci suggested a proteinaceous nature of potential bacterial adhesin(s) for hTSP-1. A combination of separation of staphylococcal surface proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with a ligand overlay assay with hTSP-1 and identification of the target protein by mass spectrometry revealed the major staphylococcal autolysin Atl as a bacterial binding protein for hTSP-1. Binding experiments with heterologously expressed repeats of the AtlE amidase from Staphylococcus epidermidis suggest that the repeating sequences (R1ab-R2ab) of the N-acetyl-muramoyl-l-alanine amidase of Atl are essential for binding of hTSP-1. Atl has also been identified previously as a staphylococcal vitronectin (Vn)-binding protein. Similar to the interaction with hTSP-1, the R1ab-R2ab repeats of Atl are shown here to be crucial for the interaction of Atl with the complement inhibition and matrix protein Vn. Competition assays with hTSP-1 and Vn revealed the R1ab-R2ab repeats of AtlE as the common binding domain for both host proteins. Furthermore, Vn competes with hTSP-1 for binding to Atl repeats and vice versa. In conclusion, this study identifies the Atl repeats as bacterial adhesive structures interacting with the human glycoproteins hTSP-1 and Vn. Finally, this study provides insight into the molecular interplay between hTSP-1 and Vn, respectively, and a bacterial autolysin. PMID:24371140

  16. Pneumococcal Adhesins PavB and PspC Are Important for the Interplay with Human Thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Binsker, Ulrike; Kohler, Thomas P; Krauel, Krystin; Kohler, Sylvia; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2015-06-01

    The human matricellular glycoprotein thrombospondin-1 (hTSP-1) is released by activated platelets and mediates adhesion of Gram-positive bacteria to various host cells. In staphylococci, the adhesins extracellular adherence protein (Eap) and autolysin (Atl), both surface-exposed proteins containing repeating structures, were shown to be involved in the acquisition of hTSP-1 to the bacterial surface. The interaction partner(s) on the pneumococcal surface was hitherto unknown. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that pneumococcal adherence and virulence factor B (PavB) and pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) are key players for the interaction of Streptococcus pneumoniae with matricellular hTSP-1. PavB and PspC are pneumococcal surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors exhibiting repetitive sequences in their core structure. Heterologously expressed fragments of PavB and PspC containing repetitive structures exhibit hTSP-1 binding activity as shown by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance studies. Binding of hTSP-1 is charge-dependent and inhibited by heparin. Importantly, the deficiency in PavB and PspC reduces the recruitment of soluble hTSP-1 by pneumococci and decreases hTSP-1-mediated pneumococcal adherence to human epithelial cells. Platelet activation assays suggested that PavB and PspC are not involved in the activation of purified human platelets by pneumococci. In conclusion, this study indicates a pivotal role of PavB and PspC for pneumococcal recruitment of soluble hTSP-1 to the bacterial surface and binding of pneumococci to host cell-bound hTSP-1 during adhesion. PMID:25897078

  17. Regulation of Thrombospondin-1 expression in alternatively activated macrophages and adipocytes: role of cellular crosstalk and omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Finlin, Brian S.; Zhu, Beibei; Starnes, Catherine P.; McGehee, Robert E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.; Kern, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expression in human adipose positively correlates with body mass index and may contribute to adipose dysfunction by activating TGF-β and/or inhibiting angiogenesis. Our objective was to determine how TSP-1 is regulated in adipocytes and polarized macrophages using a coculture system and to determine whether fatty acids, including the ω-3 fatty acid DHA, regulate TSP-1 expression. Coculture of M1, M2a, or M2c macrophages with adipocytes induced TSP-1 gene expression in adipocytes (from 2.4 to 4.2-fold, P<0.05), and adipocyte coculture induced TSP-1 gene expression in M1 and M2c macrophages (M1:8.6-fold; M2c 26-fold, P<0.05). TSP-1 protein levels in the shared media of adipocytes and M2c cells was also strongly induced by coculture (>10 fold, P<0.05). DHA treatment during the coculture of adipocytes and M2c macrophages potently inhibited theM2c macrophage TSP-1 mRNA level (97% inhibition, P<0.05). Adipocyte coculture induced IL-10 expression in M2c macrophages (10.1-fold, P<0.05), and this increase in IL-10 mRNA expression was almost completely blocked with DHA treatment (96% inhibition, P<0.05); thus, IL-10 expression closely paralleled TSP-1 expression. Since IL-10 has been shown to regulate TSP-1 in other cell types, we reduced IL-10 expression with siRNA in the M2c cells and found that this caused TSP-1 to be reduced in response to adipocyte coculture by 60% (P<0.05), suggesting that IL-10 regulates TSP-1 expression in M2c macrophages. These results suggest that supplementation with dietary ω-3 fatty acids could potentially be beneficial to adipose tissue in obesity by reducing TSP-1 and fibrosis. PMID:23528972

  18. HIF-2α-mediated induction of pulmonary thrombospondin-1 contributes to hypoxia-driven vascular remodelling and vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Labrousse-Arias, David; Castillo-González, Raquel; Rogers, Natasha M.; Torres-Capelli, Mar; Barreira, Bianca; Aragonés, Julián; Cogolludo, Ángel; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Calzada, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Hypoxic conditions stimulate pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodelling, both pathognomonic changes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The secreted protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is involved in the maintenance of lung homeostasis. New work identified a role for TSP1 in promoting PAH. Nonetheless, it is largely unknown how hypoxia regulates TSP1 in the lung and whether this contributes to pathological events during PAH. Methods and results In cell and animal experiments, we found that hypoxia induces TSP1 in lungs, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, and pulmonary fibroblasts. Using a murine model of constitutive hypoxia, gene silencing, and luciferase reporter experiments, we found that hypoxia-mediated induction of pulmonary TSP1 is a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α-dependent process. Additionally, hypoxic tsp1−/− pulmonary fibroblasts and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell displayed decreased migration compared with wild-type (WT) cells. Furthermore, hypoxia-mediated induction of TSP1 destabilized endothelial cell–cell interactions. This provides genetic evidence that TSP1 contributes to vascular remodelling during PAH. Expanding cell data to whole tissues, we found that, under hypoxia, pulmonary arteries (PAs) from WT mice had significantly decreased sensitivity to acetylcholine (Ach)-stimulated endothelial-dependent vasodilation. In contrast, hypoxic tsp1−/− PAs retained sensitivity to Ach, mediated in part by TSP1 regulation of pulmonary Kv channels. Translating these preclinical studies, we find in the lungs from individuals with end-stage PAH, both TSP1 and HIF-2α protein expression increased in the pulmonary vasculature compared with non-PAH controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that HIF-2α is clearly implicated in the TSP1 pulmonary regulation and provide new insights on its contribution to PAH-driven vascular remodelling and vasoconstriction. PMID:26503986

  19. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit IFN-γ-induced IL-18 binding protein production by prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Breeze, Andrew; Kulka, Marianna

    2015-02-01

    Prostate cancer cells can produce IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) in response to interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which may function to neutralize IL-18, an anti-tumor factor formerly known as IFN-γ inducing factor. The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with a lower risk of certain types of cancer including prostate cancer, although the precise mechanisms of this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFAs could modify IL-18BP production by prostate cancer cells by altering IFN-γ receptor-mediated signal transduction. Here, we demonstrate that n-3 PUFA treatment significantly reduced IFN-γ-induced IL-18BP production by DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells by inhibiting IL-18BP mRNA expression and was associated with a reduction in IFN-γ receptor expression. Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and P38 were suppressed by n-3 PUFA treatment. By contrast, n-6 PUFA had no effect on IFN-γ receptor expression, but decreased IFN-γ-induced IL-18BP production and IFN-γ stimulation of JAK1, STAT1, ERK1/2, and JNK phosphorylation. These data indicate that both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be beneficial in prostate cancer by altering IFN-γ signaling, thus inhibiting IL-18BP production and thereby rendering prostate cancer cells more sensitive to IL-18-mediated immune responses. PMID:25351720

  20. Protection from Inflammatory Organ Damage in a Murine Model of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Using Treatment with IL-18 Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chiossone, Laura; Audonnet, Sandra; Chetaille, Bruno; Chasson, Lionel; Farnarier, Catherine; Berda-Haddad, Yael; Jordan, Stefan; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Dalod, Marc; Mazodier, Karin; Novick, Daniela; Dinarello, Charles A.; Vivier, Eric; Kaplanski, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition due to the association of an infectious agent with lymphocyte cytotoxicity defects, either of congenital genetic origin in children or presumably acquired in adults. In HLH patients, an excess of lymphocyte or macrophage cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNFα is present in serum. In animal models of the disease, IFN-γ and TNF-α have been shown to play a central pathogenic role. In humans, unusually high concentrations of IL-18, an inducer of IFN-γ, and TNF-α have been reported, and are associated with an imbalance between IL-18 and its natural inhibitor IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) resulting in an excess of free IL-18. Here we studied whether IL-18BP could reduce disease severity in an animal model of HLH. Mouse cytomegalovirus infection in perforin-1 knock-out mice induced a lethal condition similar to human HLH characterized by cytopenia with marked inflammatory lesions in the liver and spleen as well as the presence of hemophagocytosis in bone marrow. IL-18BP treatment decreased hemophagocytosis and reversed liver as well as spleen damage. IL-18BP treatment also reduced both IFN-γ and TNF-α production by CD8+ T and NK cells, as well as Fas ligand expression on NK cell surface. These data suggest that IL-18BP is beneficial in an animal model of HLH and in combination with anti-infectious therapy may be a promising strategy to treat HLH patients. PMID:22891066

  1. Polymorphism in the IL18 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Rachel T.; Wilson, Melanie A.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Clyde, Merlise A.; Calingaert, Brian; Moorman, Patricia G.; Poole, Charles; Anderson, A. Rebecca; Anderson, Stephanie; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Beesley, Jonathan; Hogdall, Estrid; Brewster, Wendy; Carney, Michael E.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cunningham, Julie M.; DiCioccio, Richard A.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Hogdall, Claus K; Hopkins, Michael P.; Jenison, Eric L.; Blaakaer, Jan; Lurie, Galina; McGuire, Valerie; Menon, Usha; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Ramus, Susan J.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Song, Honglin; Terada, Keith Y.; Van Den Berg, David; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Webb, Penelope M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wu, Anna H.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2009-01-01

    Over 22,000 cases of ovarian cancer were diagnosed in 2007 in the United States but only a fraction of them can be attributed to mutations in highly penetrant genes such as BRCA1. To determine whether low penetrance genetic variants contribute to ovarian cancer risk, we genotyped 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several candidate gene pathways in 848 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 798 controls in the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study (NCO) using a customized Illumina array. The inflammation gene interleukin-18 (IL18) showed the strongest evidence for association with epithelial ovarian cancer in a gene-by-gene analysis (p=0.002) with a <25% chance of being a false positive finding (q-value=0.240). Using a multivariate model search algorithm over eleven IL18 tagging SNPs, we found the association was best modeled by rs1834481. Further, this SNP uniquely tagged a significantly associated IL18 haplotype and there was an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer per rs1834481 allele (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.45). In a replication stage, twelve independent studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) genotyped rs1834481 in an additional 5,877 cases and 7,791 controls. The fixed effects estimate per rs1834481 allele was null (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.05) when data from the twelve OCAC studies were combined. The effect estimate remained unchanged with the addition of the initial NCO data. This analysis demonstrates the importance of consortia, like the OCAC, in either confirming or refuting the validity of putative findings in studies with smaller sample sizes. PMID:19064572

  2. Sarcoidosis in celiac disease: A page written by genetic variants in IL-18 miRNAs target site?

    PubMed

    Mormile, Raffaella

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic idiopathic granulomatous disease. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis shows characteristic microRNAs (miRNAs) profiles. MiRNAs have recently emerged as a new class of modulators of gene expression. MiRNAs are involved in susceptibility to a number of autoimmune diseases promoting and inhibiting the gene expression of different Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL18. Sarcoidosis has been connected with a variety of autoimmune disorders including celiac disease (CD). CD is a chronic, immune-mediated condition of the small intestine caused by permanent intolerance to dietary gluten. IL-18 has been reported to play an important role in inducing and maintaining inflammation after gluten exposure. MiRNAs expression is significantly altered in CD patients. We hypothesize that sarcoidosis and CD may be the result of common genetic variants in IL-18 miRNA target site. PMID:27063085

  3. Synergy between Common γ Chain Family Cytokines and IL-18 Potentiates Innate and Adaptive Pathways of NK Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Carolyn M.; Wolf, Asia-Sophia; Goodier, Martin R.; Riley, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies to develop cell-based therapies for cancer and other diseases have consistently shown that purified human natural killer (NK) cells secrete cytokines and kill target cells after in vitro culture with high concentrations of cytokines. However, these assays poorly reflect the conditions that are likely to prevail in vivo in the early stages of an infection and have been carried out in a wide variety of experimental systems, which has led to contradictions within the literature. We have conducted a detailed kinetic and dose–response analysis of human NK cell responses to low concentrations of IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, and IFN-α, alone and in combination, and their potential to synergize with IL-2. We find that very low concentrations of both innate and adaptive common γ chain cytokines synergize with equally low concentrations of IL-18 to drive rapid and potent NK cell CD25 and IFN-γ expression; IL-18 and IL-2 reciprocally sustain CD25 and IL-18Rα expression in a positive feedback loop; and IL-18 synergizes with FcγRIII (CD16) signaling to augment antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. These data indicate that NK cells can be rapidly activated by very low doses of innate cytokines and that the common γ chain cytokines have overlapping but distinct functions in combination with IL-18. Importantly, synergy between multiple signaling pathways leading to rapid NK cell activation at very low cytokine concentrations has been overlooked in prior studies focusing on single cytokines or simple combinations. Moreover, although the precise common γ chain cytokines available during primary and secondary infections may differ, their synergy with both IL-18 and antigen–antibody immune complexes underscores their contribution to NK cell activation during innate and adaptive responses. IL-18 signaling potentiates NK cell effector function during innate and adaptive immune responses by synergy with IL-2, IL-15, and IL-21 and immune complexes. PMID:27047490

  4. Thrombospondin-1 Affects Bovine Luteal Function via Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1-Dependent and Independent Actions.

    PubMed

    Farberov, Svetlana; Meidan, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1) are specifically up-regulated by prostaglandin F2alpha in mature corpus luteum (CL). This study examined the relationship between the expression of THBS1 and TGFB1 and the underlying mechanisms of their actions in luteal endothelial cells (ECs). TGFB1 stimulated SMAD2 phosphorylation and SERPINE1 levels in dose- and time-dependent manners in luteal EC. THBS1 also elevated SERPINE1; this effect was abolished by TGFB1 receptor-1 kinase inhibitor (SB431542). The findings here further imply that THBS1 activates TGFB1 in luteal ECs: THBS1 increased the effects of latent TGFB1 on phosphorylated SMAD (phospho-SMAD) 2 and SERPINE1. THBS1 silencing significantly decreased SERPINE1 and levels of phospho-SMAD2. Lastly, THBS1 actions on SERPINE1 were inhibited by LSKL peptide (TGFB1 activation inhibitor); LSKL also counteracted latent TGFB1-induced phospho-SMAD2. We found that TGFB1 up-regulated its own mRNA levels and those of THBS1. Both compounds generated apoptosis, but THBS1 was significantly more effective (2.5-fold). Notably, this effect of THBS1 was not mediated by TGFB1. THBS1 and TGFB1 also differed in their activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Whereas TGFB1 rapidly induced phospho-p38, THBS1 had a delayed effect. Inhibition of p38 pathway by SB203580 did not modulate TGFB1 effect on cell viability, but it amplified THBS1 actions. THBS1-stimulated caspase-3 activation coincided with p38 phosphorylation, suggesting that caspase-induced DNA damage initiated p38 phosphorylation. The in vitro data suggest that a feed-forward loop exists between THBS1, TGFB1, and SERPINE1. Indeed all these three genes were similarly induced in the regressing CL. Their gene products can promote vascular instability, apoptosis, and matrix remodeling during luteolysis. PMID:26658711

  5. Suppression of experimental myasthenia gravis, a B cell-mediated autoimmune disease, by blockade of IL-18.

    PubMed

    Im, S H; Barchan, D; Maiti, P K; Raveh, L; Souroujon, M C; Fuchs, S

    2001-10-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production and IL-12-driven Th1 phenotype polarization. Increased expression of IL-18 has been observed in several autoimmune diseases. In this study we have analyzed the role of IL-18 in an antibody-mediated autoimmune disease and elucidated the mechanisms involved in disease suppression mediated by blockade of IL-18, using experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) as a model. EAMG is a T cell-regulated, antibody-mediated autoimmune disease in which the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is the major autoantigen. Th1- and Th2-type responses are both implicated in EAMG development. We show that treatment by anti-IL-18 during ongoing EAMG suppresses disease progression. The protective effect can be adoptively transferred to naive recipients and is mediated by increased levels of the immunosuppressive Th3-type cytokine TGF-beta and decreased AChR-specific Th1-type cellular responses. Suppression of EAMG is accompanied by down-regulation of the costimulatory factor CD40L and up-regulation of CTLA-4, a key negative immunomodulator. Our results suggest that IL-18 blockade may potentially be applied for immunointervention in myasthenia gravis. PMID:11641240

  6. Aberrant actin depolymerization triggers the pyrin inflammasome and autoinflammatory disease that is dependent on IL-18, not IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Lyang; Chae, Jae Jin; Park, Yong Hwan; De Nardo, Dominic; Stirzaker, Roslynn A; Ko, Hyun-Ja; Tye, Hazel; Cengia, Louise; DiRago, Ladina; Metcalf, Donald; Roberts, Andrew W; Kastner, Daniel L; Lew, Andrew M; Lyras, Dena; Kile, Benjamin T; Croker, Ben A; Masters, Seth L

    2015-06-01

    Gain-of-function mutations that activate the innate immune system can cause systemic autoinflammatory diseases associated with increased IL-1β production. This cytokine is activated identically to IL-18 by an intracellular protein complex known as the inflammasome; however, IL-18 has not yet been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of hereditary autoinflammatory disorders. We have now identified an autoinflammatory disease in mice driven by IL-18, but not IL-1β, resulting from an inactivating mutation of the actin-depolymerizing cofactor Wdr1. This perturbation of actin polymerization leads to systemic autoinflammation that is reduced when IL-18 is deleted but not when IL-1 signaling is removed. Remarkably, inflammasome activation in mature macrophages is unaltered, but IL-18 production from monocytes is greatly exaggerated, and depletion of monocytes in vivo prevents the disease. Small-molecule inhibition of actin polymerization can remove potential danger signals from the system and prevents monocyte IL-18 production. Finally, we show that the inflammasome sensor of actin dynamics in this system requires caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and the innate immune receptor pyrin. Previously, perturbation of actin polymerization by pathogens was shown to activate the pyrin inflammasome, so our data now extend this guard hypothesis to host-regulated actin-dependent processes and autoinflammatory disease. PMID:26008898

  7. NK Cell-extrinsic IL-18 Signaling Is Required for Efficient NK Cell Activation to Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Brandstadter, Joshua D.; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Summary NK cells are important for the control of vaccinia virus (VV) in vivo. Recent studies have shown that multiple pathways are required for effective activation of NK cells. These include both TLR-dependent and -independent pathways, as well as the NKG2D activating receptor that recognizes host stress-induced NKG2D ligands. However, it remains largely unknown what controls the upregulation of NKG2D ligands in response to VV infection. In this study, we first showed that IL-18 is critical for NK cell activation and viral clearance. We then demonstrated that IL-18 signaling on both NK cells and DCs is required for efficient NK cell activation upon VV infection in vitro. We further showed in vivo that efficient NK cell activation to VV is dependent on DCs and IL-18 signaling in non-NK cells, suggesting an essential role for NK cell-extrinsic IL-18 signaling in NK cell activation. Mechanistically, IL-18 signaling in DCs promotes expression of Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand. Collectively, our data reveal a previously unrecognized role for NK cell-extrinsic IL-18 signaling in NK cell activation through upregulation of NKG2D ligands. These observations may provide insights into the design of effective NK cell-based therapies for viral infections and cancer. PMID:24846540

  8. IL-18 gene polymorphism in patients with visceral leishmaniasis in East Azarbaijan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Bazmani, Ahad; Kohansal, Mohamad Hasan; Kazemi, Abdolhasan; Babaloo, Zohre

    2016-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania species. According to the important role of cellular immunity against VL, this study was directed to determine the frequency of -607A/C and -137G/C genotypes on promoter region of interleukin-18 gene. The study groups included 91 patients with confirmed history of VL, 106 healthy seronegative, and 79 healthy seropositive individuals. All three groups were analyzed by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). The highest rate of -607/A, and -607/C alleles was observed in seronegative individuals (66/67 %) and in the patients (72/83 %). Allele frequency of -607/C is more than -607/A allele in all groups. In position of -137, frequency of -137/G allele in all groups was more than -137/C. Statistical analysis of distribution of genotypes, did not reveal any significant difference among groups. On the basis of the results, there was no significant association between VL and polymorphism of IL-18 promoter. The results of this study showed that IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms at positions -607 and -137 are not associated with VL in East Azerbaijan, Iran. PMID:27605823

  9. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) interacts with thrombospondin-1 to induce negative regulatory effects on IGF-I actions.

    PubMed

    Moralez, Anna M; Maile, Laura A; Clarke, Jane; Busby, Walker H; Clemmons, David R

    2005-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) and thrombospondin-1 (TS-1) are both present in extracellular matrix (ECM). Both proteins have been shown to bind to one another with high affinity. The purpose of these studies was to determine how the interaction between IGFBP-5 and TS-1 modulates IGF-I actions in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells (pSMC) in culture. The addition of increasing concentrations of TS-1 to pSMC cultures enhanced the protein synthesis and cell migration responses to IGF-I; whereas the addition of IGFBP-5 alone resulted in minimal changes. In contrast, the addition of IGFBP-5 to cultures that were also exposed to IGF-I and TS-1 resulted in inhibition of protein synthesis. When the cell migration response was assessed, the response to IGF-I plus TS-1 was also significantly inhibited by the addition of IGFBP-5, whereas 1.0 microg/ml of IGFBP-5 alone had no effect on the response to IGF-I. To determine the molecular mechanism by which this inhibition occurred, a mutant form of IGFBP-5 that does not bind to IGF-I was tested. This mutant was equipotent compared to native IGFBP-5 in its ability to inhibit both protein synthesis and cell migration responses to IGF-I plus TS-1 thus excluding the possibility that IGFBP-5 was inhibiting the response to TS-1 and IGF-I by inhibiting IGF-I binding to the IGF-I receptor. To determine if an interaction between TS-1 and IGFBP-5 was the primary determinant of the inhibitory effect of IGFBP-5, an IGFBP-5 mutant that bound poorly to TS-1 was utilized. The addition of 1.0 microg/ml of this mutant did not inhibit the protein synthesis or cell migration responses to IGF-I plus TS-1. To determine the mechanism by which IGFBP-5 binding to TS-1 inhibited cellular responses to TS-1 plus IGF-I, TS-1 binding to integrin associated protein (IAP) was assessed. The addition of IGFBP-5 (1.0 microg/ml) inhibited TS-1-IAP association. In contrast, a mutant form of IGFBP-5 that bound poorly to TS-1 had a minimal

  10. ATP acts as an agonist to promote stimulus-induced secretion of IL-1 beta and IL-18 in human blood.

    PubMed

    Perregaux, D G; McNiff, P; Laliberte, R; Conklyn, M; Gabel, C A

    2000-10-15

    Cultured monocytes and macrophages stimulated with LPS produce large quantities of proIL-1beta, but release little mature cytokine to the medium. The efficiency at which the procytokine is converted to its active 17-kDa species and released extracellularly is enhanced by treating cytokine-producing cells with a secretion stimulus such as ATP or nigericin. To determine whether this need for a secretion stimulus extends to blood, individual donors were bled twice daily for 4 consecutive days, and the collected blood samples were subjected to a two-step IL-1 production assay. LPS-activated blood samples generated cell-free IL-1beta, but levels of the extracellular cytokine were greatly increased by subsequent treatment with ATP or nigericin. Specificity and concentration requirements of the nucleotide triphosphate effect suggests a P2X(7) receptor involvement. Quantities of IL-1beta generated by an individual donor's blood in response to the LPS-only and LPS/ATP stimuli were relatively consistent over the 4-day period. Between donors, consistent differences in cytokine production capacity were observed. Blood samples treated with ATP also demonstrated enhanced IL-18 production, but TNF-alpha levels decreased. Among leukocytes, monocytes appeared to be the most affected cellular targets of the ATP stimulus. These studies indicate that an exogenous stimulus is required by blood for the efficient production of IL-1beta and IL-18, and suggest that circulating blood monocytes constitutively express a P2X(7)-like receptor. PMID:11035104

  11. Production of IL-13 in spleen cells by IL-18 and IL-12 through generation of NK-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruyasu; Kashiwamura, Shin-ichiro; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Ogura, Takeharu; Gamachi, Naomi; Okamura, Haruki

    2006-02-21

    Treatment of Nylon wool-passed cells (NWC) prepared from the spleen of C57BL/6 mice with IL-18 and IL-12, but not with IL-18 alone, resulted in induction of IFN-gamma, a Th1 cytokine, and GM-CSF at 24 h, and IL-13, a Th2 cytokine at 72 h. The induction of IL-13 was suppressed by anti-GM-CSF antibody, indicating involvement of GM-CSF in IL-13 production. When NWC incubated with IL-18 and IL-12 for 72 h ("primary treatment") were treated again with the same cytokines ("secondary treatment"), IL-13 was induced much more quickly than observed in the primary treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of NWC after the primary treatment showed marked increases in the CD4(-)CD8(-) non-T cell population bearing CD25(+), CD45RB(super high) and CD122(+). These cells were positive for CD49b but negative for NK1.1, indicating that they were not typical but NK-like cells. The NK-like cells produced IL-13 in response to the treatment with IL-18 alone, indicating that the generation of these cells in the primary treatment likely accounts for the quick production of IL-13 in the secondary treatment. These results show that IL-18 and IL-12 generates the NK-like cells in NWC by a process mediated by GM-CSF that are ready for producing IL-13. PMID:16549365

  12. IL-18 triggered by the Nlrp3 inflammasome induces host innate resistance in a pulmonary model of fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Ketelut-Carneiro, Natália; Silva, Grace Kelly; Rocha, Fernanda Agostini; Milanezi, Cristiane Maria; Cavalcanti-Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo; Zamboni, Dario Simões; Silva, João Santana

    2015-05-01

    Pathogens are sensed by innate immune receptors that initiate an efficient adaptive immune response upon activation. The elements of the innate immune recognition process for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis include TLR-2, TLR-4, and dectin-1. However, there are additional receptors necessary for the host immune responses to P. brasiliensis. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLRs), which activate inflammasomes, are candidate receptors that deserve renewed investigation. After pathogen infection, the NLRs form large signaling platforms called inflammasomes, which lead to caspase-1 activation and maturation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-18 and IL-1β). In this study, we showed that NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (Nlrp3) is required to induce caspase-1 activation and further secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 by P. brasiliensis-infected macrophages. Additionally, potassium efflux and lysosomal acidification induced by the fungus were important steps in the caspase-1 activation mechanism. Notably, Nlrp3 and caspase-1 knockout mice were more susceptible to infection than were the wild-type animals, suggesting that the Nlrp3-dependent inflammasomes contribute to host protection against P. brasiliensis. This protective effect occurred owing to the inflammatory response mediated by IL-18, as shown by an augmented fungus burden in IL-18 knockout mice. Taken together, our results show that the Nlrp3 inflammasome is essential for resistance against P. brasiliensis because it orchestrates robust caspase-1 activation and triggers an IL-18-dependent proinflammatory response. PMID:25825440

  13. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  14. Macrophage-derived IL-18 and increased fibrinogen deposition are age-related inflammatory signatures of vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Menocal, Luis; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Martinez, Laisel; Shehadeh, Lina A; Duque, Juan C; Wei, Yuntao; Mesa, Annia; Pena, Angela; Gupta, Vineet; Pham, Si M; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I

    2014-03-01

    Aging has been associated with pathological vascular remodeling and increased neointimal hyperplasia. The understanding of how aging exacerbates this process is fundamental to prevent cardiovascular complications in the elderly. This study proposes a mechanism by which aging sustains leukocyte adhesion, vascular inflammation, and increased neointimal thickness after injury. The effect of aging on vascular remodeling was assessed in the rat balloon injury model using microarray analysis, immunohistochemistry, and LINCOplex assays. The injured arteries in aging rats developed thicker neointimas than those in younger animals, and this significantly correlated with a higher number of tissue macrophages and increased vascular IL-18. Indeed, IL-18 was 23-fold more abundant in the injured vasculature of aged animals compared with young rats, while circulating levels were similar in both groups of animals. The depletion of macrophages in aged rats with clodronate liposomes ameliorated vascular accumulation of IL-18 and significantly decreased neointimal formation. IL-18 was found to inhibit apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and macrophages, thus favoring both the formation and inflammation of the neointima. In addition, injured arteries of aged rats accumulated 18-fold more fibrinogen-γ than those of young animals. Incubation of rat peritoneal macrophages with immobilized IL-18 increased leukocyte adhesion to fibrinogen and suggested a proinflammatory positive feedback loop among macrophages, VSMC, and the deposition of fibrinogen during neointimal hyperplasia. In conclusion, our data reveal that concentration changes in vascular cytokine and fibrinogen following injury in aging rats contribute to local inflammation and postinjury neointima formation. PMID:24414074

  15. Macrophage-derived IL-18 and increased fibrinogen deposition are age-related inflammatory signatures of vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Menocal, Luis; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Martinez, Laisel; Shehadeh, Lina A.; Duque, Juan C.; Wei, Yuntao; Mesa, Annia; Pena, Angela; Gupta, Vineet; Pham, Si M.

    2014-01-01

    Aging has been associated with pathological vascular remodeling and increased neointimal hyperplasia. The understanding of how aging exacerbates this process is fundamental to prevent cardiovascular complications in the elderly. This study proposes a mechanism by which aging sustains leukocyte adhesion, vascular inflammation, and increased neointimal thickness after injury. The effect of aging on vascular remodeling was assessed in the rat balloon injury model using microarray analysis, immunohistochemistry, and LINCOplex assays. The injured arteries in aging rats developed thicker neointimas than those in younger animals, and this significantly correlated with a higher number of tissue macrophages and increased vascular IL-18. Indeed, IL-18 was 23-fold more abundant in the injured vasculature of aged animals compared with young rats, while circulating levels were similar in both groups of animals. The depletion of macrophages in aged rats with clodronate liposomes ameliorated vascular accumulation of IL-18 and significantly decreased neointimal formation. IL-18 was found to inhibit apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and macrophages, thus favoring both the formation and inflammation of the neointima. In addition, injured arteries of aged rats accumulated 18-fold more fibrinogen-γ than those of young animals. Incubation of rat peritoneal macrophages with immobilized IL-18 increased leukocyte adhesion to fibrinogen and suggested a proinflammatory positive feedback loop among macrophages, VSMC, and the deposition of fibrinogen during neointimal hyperplasia. In conclusion, our data reveal that concentration changes in vascular cytokine and fibrinogen following injury in aging rats contribute to local inflammation and postinjury neointima formation. PMID:24414074

  16. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14–911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18–137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype–genotype analyses, the CD14–911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18–137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  17. Renoprotective Effect of Lactoferrin against Chromium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats: Involvement of IL-18 and IGF-1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Rehab; Salama, Abeer; Mansour, Dina; Hassan, Azza

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal widely used in more than 50 industries. Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of chromium poisoning. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin (Lf) against potassium dichromate (PDC)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Beside, because previous studies suggest that interlukin-18 (IL-18) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play important roles in promoting kidney damage, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of these two cytokines in PDC model of AKI and in the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin. Adult male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with Lf (200mg/kg/day, p.o.) or (300mg/kg/day, p.o.); the doses that are usually used in the experiment studies, for 14 days followed by a single dose of PDC (15mg/kg, s.c.). PDC caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, and total protein levels. This was accompanied with decreased renal glutathione content, and increased renal malondialdehyde, IL-18, IL-4, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), IGF-1, and the phosphorylated form of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) levels. Moreover, normal expression IFN-γ mRNA and enhanced expression of TNF-α mRNA was demonstrated in renal tissues. Histopathological investigations provoked deleterious changes in the renal tissues. Tubular epithelial hyperplasia and apoptosis were demonstrated immunohistochemically by positive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, and Caspase-3 expression, respectively. Pretreatment of rats with Lf in both doses significantly corrected all previously mentioned PDC-induced changes with no significant difference between both doses. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, tubular hyperplasia and apoptosis in PDC-induced AKI. It suggested a role of IL-18 through stimulation of IL-4-induced inflammatory pathway, and IGF-1 through triggering FoxO1

  18. Renoprotective Effect of Lactoferrin against Chromium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats: Involvement of IL-18 and IGF-1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Rehab; Salama, Abeer; Mansour, Dina; Hassan, Azza

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal widely used in more than 50 industries. Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of chromium poisoning. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin (Lf) against potassium dichromate (PDC)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Beside, because previous studies suggest that interlukin-18 (IL-18) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play important roles in promoting kidney damage, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of these two cytokines in PDC model of AKI and in the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin. Adult male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.); the doses that are usually used in the experiment studies, for 14 days followed by a single dose of PDC (15 mg/kg, s.c.). PDC caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, and total protein levels. This was accompanied with decreased renal glutathione content, and increased renal malondialdehyde, IL-18, IL-4, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), IGF-1, and the phosphorylated form of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) levels. Moreover, normal expression IFN-γ mRNA and enhanced expression of TNF-α mRNA was demonstrated in renal tissues. Histopathological investigations provoked deleterious changes in the renal tissues. Tubular epithelial hyperplasia and apoptosis were demonstrated immunohistochemically by positive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, and Caspase-3 expression, respectively. Pretreatment of rats with Lf in both doses significantly corrected all previously mentioned PDC-induced changes with no significant difference between both doses. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, tubular hyperplasia and apoptosis in PDC-induced AKI. It suggested a role of IL-18 through stimulation of IL-4-induced inflammatory pathway, and IGF-1 through triggering Fox

  19. Regulation of T-lymphocyte motility, adhesion and de-adhesion by a cell surface mechanism directed by low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and endogenous thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    Talme, Toomas; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

    2014-01-01

    T lymphocytes are highly motile and constantly reposition themselves between a free-floating vascular state, transient adhesion and migration in tissues. The regulation behind this unique dynamic behaviour remains unclear. Here we show that T cells have a cell surface mechanism for integrated regulation of motility and adhesion and that integrin ligands and CXCL12/SDF-1 influence motility and adhesion through this mechanism. Targeting cell surface-expressed low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) with an antibody, or blocking transport of LRP1 to the cell surface, perturbed the cell surface distribution of endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) while inhibiting motility and potentiating cytoplasmic spreading on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and fibronectin. Integrin ligands and CXCL12 stimulated motility and enhanced cell surface expression of LRP1, intact TSP-1 and a 130 000 MW TSP-1 fragment while preventing formation of a de-adhesion-coupled 110 000 MW TSP-1 fragment. The appearance of the 130 000 MW TSP-1 fragment was inhibited by the antibody that targeted LRP1 expression, inhibited motility and enhanced spreading. The TSP-1 binding site in the LRP1-associated protein, calreticulin, stimulated adhesion to ICAM-1 through intact TSP-1 and CD47. Shear flow enhanced cell surface expression of intact TSP-1. Hence, chemokines and integrin ligands up-regulate a dominant motogenic pathway through LRP1 and TSP-1 cleavage and activate an associated adhesion pathway through the LRP1–calreticulin complex, intact TSP-1 and CD47. This regulation of T-cell motility and adhesion makes pro-adhesive stimuli favour motile responses, which may explain why T cells prioritize movement before permanent adhesion. PMID:24877199

  20. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Samantha; Duquette, Mark; Liu, Joyce; Drapkin, Ronny; Lawler, Jack; Petrik, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Most women are diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) at advanced stage, where therapies have limited effectiveness and the long-term survival rate is low. We evaluated the effects of combined antiangiogenic and chemotherapy treatments on advanced stage EOC. Treatment of EOC cells with a recombinant version of the thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) induced more apoptotic cell death (36.5 ± 9.6%) in vitro compared to untreated controls (4.1 ± 1.4). In vivo, tumors were induced in an orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model of advanced stage EOC. Mice were treated with 3TSR (4 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with chemotherapy drugs delivered with maximum tolerated dose or metronomic scheduling. Pretreatment with 3TSR induced tumor regression, normalized tumor vasculature, and improved uptake of chemotherapy drugs. Combination 3TSR and metronomic chemotherapy induced the greatest tumor regression (6.2-fold reduction in size compared to PBS-treated controls) and highest survival when treatment was initiated at advanced stage. 3TSR binding to its receptor, CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), increased binding of CD36 and SHP-1, which significantly inhibited phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor. In this study, we describe a novel treatment approach and mechanism of action with 3TSR and chemotherapy that induces regression of advanced stage EOC and significantly improves survival.—Russell, S., Duquette, M., Liu, J., Drapkin, R., Lawler, J., Petrik, J. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:25395453

  1. Increased IL18 mRNA levels in peripheral artery disease and its association with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deser, Serkan Burc; Bayoglu, Burcu; Besirli, Kazım; Cengiz, Mujgan; Arapi, Berk; Junusbekov, Yerik; Dirican, Ahmet; Arslan, Caner

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) typically refers to lower limb vessel ischemia caused by atherosclerotic stenosis of lower extremity arteries. IL18 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine reported to function as an inflammatory biomarker in cardiovascular diseases. IL18 activity is balanced by high-affinity naturally occurring IL18-binding protein (IL18BP). This study aimed to determine whether IL18, IL18 BP mRNA levels and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism, which was previously associated with IL18 gene transcriptional activity, were associated with PAD etiology. IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RT-PCR, respectively, in 55 PAD patients (26 aorta-iliac, 29 femoro-popliteal) and 61 disease-free controls. IL18 mRNA levels were increased in PAD patients compared with healthy controls (p = 0.09); however, did not reach a statistical significant level, also did not significantly differ between aorta-iliac and femoro-popliteal occlusive PAD subgroups (p = 0.285). However, IL18BP mRNA levels were significantly lower in PAD group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Genotype frequencies of rs187238 polymorphism did not significantly differ between PAD patients and controls (p = 0.385). IL18 mRNA levels were significantly correlated with triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients (p = 0.003, p = 0.014, respectively). HDL cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with IL18 mRNA levels in controls (p = 0.05). This report is a preliminary study to show an association between IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels and PAD and suggests that the IL18 gene may have a significant relationship with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients. PMID:26438531

  2. Intratumoral delivery of dendritic cells engineered to secrete both interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 effectively treats local and distant disease in association with broadly reactive Tc1-type immunity.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Tomohide; Huang, Jian; Gooding, William E; Gambotto, Andrea; Robbins, Paul D; Vujanovic, Nikola L; Alber, Sean M; Watkins, Simon C; Okada, Hideho; Storkus, Walter J

    2003-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) were adenovirally engineered to constitutively and durably secrete the potent Th1-biasing cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 (AdIL12DC) and/or IL-18 (AdIL18DC) and evaluated for their ability to promote therapeutic antitumor immunity in murine sarcoma models. Injection of either AdIL12DC or AdIL18DC into day 7 CMS4 or MethA tumors resulted in tumor rejection or slowed tumor growth when compared with control cohorts. Importantly, intratumoral injection with DCs engineered to secrete both IL-12 and IL-18 (AdIL12/IL18DC) resulted in complete and the most acute rejection of any treatment group analyzed. This strategy was also effective in promoting the regression of contralateral, untreated tumors. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were required for tumor rejection. CD8+ splenic T cells from mice treated with AdIL12/IL18DC produced the highest levels of IFN-gamma in response to tumor rechallenge in vitro and displayed the broadest repertoire of Tc1-type reactivity to acid-eluted, tumor-derived peptides among all treatment cohorts. This apparent enhancement in cross-presentation of tumor-associated epitopes in vivo may result from the increased capacity of engineered DCs to kill tumor cells, survive tumor-induced apoptosis, and present immunogenic MHC/tumor peptide complexes to T cells after intratumoral injection. In support of this hypothesis, cytokine gene-engineered DCs expressed higher levels of MHC and costimulatory molecules, as well as Fas ligand and membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor alpha, with the latter markers associated with elevated tumoricidal activity in vitro. Cytokine gene-engineered DCs appeared to have a survival advantage in situ when injected into tumor lesions, to be found in approximation with regions of tumor apoptosis, and to have the capacity to ingest apoptotic tumor bodies. These results support the ability of combined cytokine gene transfer to enhance multiple effector functions mediated by intralesionally injected DCs that may

  3. The Role of IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 in Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Conventional Infant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Alutis, Marie E.; Grundmann, Ursula; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B.; Bereswill, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that, within 1 week following peroral Campylobacter jejuni infection, conventional infant mice develop self-limiting enteritis. We here investigated the role of IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 during C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection of infant mice. The pathogen efficiently colonized the intestines of IL-18–/– mice only, but did not translocate to extra-intestinal compartments. At day 13 postinfection (p.i.), IL-22–/– mice displayed lower colonic epithelial apoptotic cell numbers as compared to wildtype mice, whereas, conversely, colonic proliferating cells increased in infected IL-22–/– and IL-18–/– mice. At day 6 p.i., increases in neutrophils, T and B lymphocytes were less pronounced in gene-deficient mice, whereas regulatory T cell numbers were lower in IL-23p19–/– and IL-22–/– as compared to wildtype mice, which was accompanied by increased colonic IL-10 levels in the latter. Until then, colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1 increased in IL-23p19–/– mice, whereas IL-18–/– mice exhibited decreased cytokine levels and lower colonic numbers of T and B cell as well as of neutrophils, macrophages, and monocytes as compared to wildtype controls. In conclusion, IL-23, IL-22, and IL-18 are differentially involved in mediating C. jejuni-induced immunopathology of conventional infant mice. PMID:27429795

  4. Identification of a truncated splice variant of IL-18 receptor alpha in the human and rat, with evidence of wider evolutionary conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which stimulates activation of the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) pathway via interaction with the IL-18 receptor. The receptor itself is formed from a dimer of two subunits, with the ligand-binding IL-18Rα subunit being encoded by the IL18R1 gene. A splice variant of murine IL18r1, which has been previously described, is formed by transcription of an unspliced intron (forming a ‘type II’ IL18r1 transcript) and is predicted to encode a receptor with a truncated intracellular domain lacking the capacity to generate downstream signalling. In order to examine the relevance of this finding to human IL-18 function, we assessed the presence of a homologous transcript by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the human and rat as another common laboratory animal. We present evidence for type II IL18R1 transcripts in both species. While the mouse and rat transcripts are predicted to encode a truncated receptor with a novel 5 amino acid C-terminal domain, the human sequence is predicted to encode a truncated protein with a novel 22 amino acid sequence bearing resemblance to the ‘Box 1’ motif of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, in a similar fashion to the inhibitory interleukin-1 receptor 2. Given that transcripts from these three species are all formed by inclusion of homologous unspliced intronic regions, an analysis of homologous introns across a wider array of 33 species with available IL18R1 gene records was performed, which suggests similar transcripts may encode truncated type II IL-18Rα subunits in other species. This splice variant may represent a conserved evolutionary mechanism for regulating IL-18 activity. PMID:25250214

  5. IL-18-induced expression of high-affinity IL-2R on murine NK cells is essential for NK-cell IFN-γ production during murine Plasmodium yoelii infection.

    PubMed

    Stegmann, Kerstin A; De Souza, J Brian; Riley, Eleanor M

    2015-12-01

    Early production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, is essential for control of blood-stage malaria infections. We have shown that IFN-γ production can be induced among human natural killer (NK) cells by coculture with Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes, but the importance of this response is unclear. To further explore the role of NK cells during malaria infection, we have characterized the NK-cell response of C57BL/6 mice during lethal (PyYM) or nonlethal (Py17XNL) P. yoelii infection. Ex vivo flow cytometry revealed that NK cells are activated within 24 h of Py17XNL blood-stage infection, expressing CD25 and producing IFN-γ; this response was blunted and delayed during PyYM infection. CD25 expression and IFN-γ production were highly correlated, suggesting a causal relationship between the two responses. Subsequent in vitro experiments revealed that IL-18 signaling is essential for induction of CD25 and synergizes with IL-12 to enhance CD25 expression on splenic NK cells. In accordance with this, Py17XNL-infected erythrocytes induced NK-cell CD25 expression and IFN-γ production in a manner that is completely IL-18- and partially IL-12-dependent, and IFN-γ production is enhanced by IL-2. These data suggest that IL-2 signaling via CD25 amplifies IL-18- and IL-12-mediated NK-cell activation during malaria infection. PMID:26420375

  6. Helicobacter urease-induced activation of the TLR2/NLRP3/IL-18 axis protects against asthma.

    PubMed

    Koch, Katrin N; Hartung, Mara L; Urban, Sabine; Kyburz, Andreas; Bahlmann, Anna S; Lind, Judith; Backert, Steffen; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Inflammasome activation and caspase-1-dependent (CASP1-dependent) processing and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 are critical events at the interface of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori with its host. Whereas IL-1β promotes Th1 and Th17 responses and gastric immunopathology, IL-18 is required for Treg differentiation, H. pylori persistence, and protection against allergic asthma, which is a hallmark of H. pylori-infected mice and humans. Here, we show that inflammasome activation in DCs requires the cytoplasmic sensor NLRP3 as well as induction of TLR2 signaling by H. pylori. Screening of an H. pylori transposon mutant library revealed that pro-IL-1β expression is induced by LPS from H. pylori, while the urease B subunit (UreB) is required for NLRP3 inflammasome licensing. UreB activates the TLR2-dependent expression of NLRP3, which represents a rate-limiting step in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. ureB-deficient H. pylori mutants were defective for CASP1 activation in murine bone marrow-derived DCs, splenic DCs, and human blood-derived DCs. Despite colonizing the murine stomach, ureB mutants failed to induce IL-1β and IL-18 secretion and to promote Treg responses. Unlike WT H. pylori, ureB mutants were incapable of conferring protection against allergen-induced asthma in murine models. Together, these results indicate that the TLR2/NLRP3/CASP1/IL-18 axis is critical to H. pylori-specific immune regulation. PMID:26214524

  7. Helicobacter urease–induced activation of the TLR2/NLRP3/IL-18 axis protects against asthma

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Katrin N.; Hartung, Mara L.; Urban, Sabine; Kyburz, Andreas; Bahlmann, Anna S.; Lind, Judith; Backert, Steffen; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasome activation and caspase-1–dependent (CASP1-dependent) processing and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 are critical events at the interface of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori with its host. Whereas IL-1β promotes Th1 and Th17 responses and gastric immunopathology, IL-18 is required for Treg differentiation, H. pylori persistence, and protection against allergic asthma, which is a hallmark of H. pylori–infected mice and humans. Here, we show that inflammasome activation in DCs requires the cytoplasmic sensor NLRP3 as well as induction of TLR2 signaling by H. pylori. Screening of an H. pylori transposon mutant library revealed that pro–IL-1β expression is induced by LPS from H. pylori, while the urease B subunit (UreB) is required for NLRP3 inflammasome licensing. UreB activates the TLR2-dependent expression of NLRP3, which represents a rate-limiting step in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. ureB-deficient H. pylori mutants were defective for CASP1 activation in murine bone marrow–derived DCs, splenic DCs, and human blood-derived DCs. Despite colonizing the murine stomach, ureB mutants failed to induce IL-1β and IL-18 secretion and to promote Treg responses. Unlike WT H. pylori, ureB mutants were incapable of conferring protection against allergen-induced asthma in murine models. Together, these results indicate that the TLR2/NLRP3/CASP1/IL-18 axis is critical to H. pylori–specific immune regulation. PMID:26214524

  8. Decreased astrocytic thrombospondin-1 secretion after chronic ammonia treatment reduces the level of synaptic proteins: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Tong, Xiao Y; Curtis, Kevin M; Ruiz-Cordero, Roberto; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Abuzamel, Missa; Johnstone, Joshua; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Norenberg, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is a major complication in patients with severe liver disease. Elevated blood and brain ammonia levels have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and astrocytes are the principal neural cells involved in this disorder. Since defective synthesis and release of astrocytic factors have been shown to impair synaptic integrity in other neurological conditions, we examined whether thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an astrocytic factor involved in the maintenance of synaptic integrity, is also altered in CHE. Cultured astrocytes were exposed to ammonia (NH₄Cl, 0.5-2.5 mM) for 1-10 days, and TSP-1 content was measured in cell extracts and culture media. Astrocytes exposed to ammonia exhibited a reduction in intra- and extracellular TSP-1 levels. Exposure of cultured neurons to conditioned media from ammonia-treated astrocytes showed a decrease in synaptophysin, PSD95, and synaptotagmin levels. Conditioned media from TSP-1 over-expressing astrocytes that were treated with ammonia, when added to cultured neurons, reversed the decline in synaptic proteins. Recombinant TSP-1 similarly reversed the decrease in synaptic proteins. Metformin, an agent known to increase TSP-1 synthesis in other cell types, also reversed the ammonia-induced TSP-1 reduction. Likewise, we found a significant decline in TSP-1 level in cortical astrocytes, as well as a reduction in synaptophysin content in vivo in a rat model of CHE. These findings suggest that TSP-1 may represent an important therapeutic target for CHE. Defective release of astrocytic factors may impair synaptic integrity in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. We found a reduction in the release of the astrocytic matricellular proteins thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in ammonia-treated astrocytes; such reduction was associated with a decrease in synaptic proteins caused by conditioned media from ammonia-treated astrocytes. Exposure of neurons to CM from ammonia-treated astrocytes, in which TSP-1 is over

  9. Involvement of IL-18 in the Expansion of Unique Hepatic T Cells with Unconventional Cytokine Profiles during Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Keishi; Nakamura, Risa; Osada, Yoshio; Senba, Masachika; Tamada, Koji; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2014-01-01

    Infection with schistosomes invokes severe fibrotic granulomatous responses in the liver of the host. Schistosoma mansoni infection induces dramatic fluctuations in Th1 or Th2 cytokine responses systemically; Th1 reactions are provoked in the early phase, whilst Th2 responses become dominant after oviposition begins. In the liver, various unique immune cells distinct from those of conventional immune competent organs or tissues exist, resulting in a unique immunological environment. Recently, we demonstrated that S. mansoni infection induces unique CD4+ T cell populations exhibiting unconventional cytokine profiles in the liver of mice during the period between Th1- and Th2-phases, which we term the transition phase. They produce both IFN-γ and IL-4 or both IFN-γ and IL-13 simultaneously. Moreover, T cells secreting triple cytokines IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-4 were also induced. We term these cells Multiple Cytokine Producing Hepatic T cells (MCPHT cells). During the transition phase, when MCPHT cells increase, IL-18 secretion was up-regulated in the liver and sera. In S. mansoni-infected IL-18-deficient mice, expansion of MCPHT cells was curtailed. Thus our data suggest that IL-18 produced during S. mansoni infection play a role in the expansion of MCPHT cells. PMID:24824897

  10. Methotrexate and its therapeutic antagonists caffeine and theophylline, target a motogenic T-cell mechanism driven by thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1).

    PubMed

    Talme, Toomas; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

    2016-05-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a widely used treatment for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, based on the concept that it is immunosuppressive. Its mechanism of action, however, remains unclear, although it is thought to depend on adenosine. Caffeine and theophylline, which have several targets including adenosine receptors, have been shown to suppress the beneficial clinical effects of MTX. Here we show that MTX and caffeine and theophylline differentially affect a motogenic T-cell mechanism driven by endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). MTX stimulated TSP-1 expression and the motogenic TSP-1/TSP-1 receptor mechanism in primary human T cells, hence mimicking IL-2 and CXCL12, which similar to MTX, dampen inflammatory disease. SiRNA-mediated gene silencing of TSP-1 and LRP1 inhibited this stimulatory effect. Caffeine and theophylline inhibited the TSP-1/TSP-1 receptor mechanism by inhibiting LRP1 expression. These results indicate that the effect of MTX on T cells is immunoregulatory rather than immunosuppressive, and suggest a pathway dependent on TSP-1/TSP-1 receptor interactions for the regulation of immune responses. PMID:26909742

  11. Structure and Function of a Fungal Adhesin that Binds Heparin and Mimics Thrombospondin-1 by Blocking T Cell Activation and Effector Function

    PubMed Central

    Brandhorst, T. Tristan; Roy, René; Wüthrich, Marcel; Nanjappa, Som; Filutowicz, Hanna; Galles, Kevin; Tonelli, Marco; McCaslin, Darrell R.; Satyshur, Kenneth; Klein, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) is a 120-kD surface protein on B. dermatitidis yeast. We show here that BAD-1 contains 41 tandem repeats and that deleting even half of them impairs fungal pathogenicity. According to NMR, the repeats form tightly folded 17-amino acid loops constrained by a disulfide bond linking conserved cysteines. Each loop contains a highly conserved WxxWxxW motif found in thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) type 1 heparin-binding repeats. BAD-1 binds heparin specifically and saturably, and is competitively inhibited by soluble heparin, but not related glycosaminoglycans. According to SPR analysis, the affinity of BAD-1 for heparin is 33 nM±14 nM. Putative heparin-binding motifs are found both at the N-terminus and within each tandem repeat loop. Like TSP-1, BAD-1 blocks activation of T cells in a manner requiring the heparan sulfate-modified surface molecule CD47, and impairs effector functions. The tandem repeats of BAD-1 thus confer pathogenicity, harbor motifs that bind heparin, and suppress T-cell activation via a CD47-dependent mechanism, mimicking mammalian TSP-1. PMID:23853587

  12. Decreased Astrocytic Thrombospondin-1 Secretion After Chronic Ammonia Treatment Reduces the Level of Synaptic Proteins: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, A. R.; Tong, X. Y.; Curtis, K. M.; Ruiz-Cordero, R.; Shamaladevi, N.; Abuzamel, M.; Johnstone, J.; Gaidosh, G.; Rama Rao, K.V.; Norenberg, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is a major complication in patients with severe liver disease. Elevated blood and brain ammonia levels have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and astrocytes are the principal neural cells involved in this disorder. Since defective synthesis and release of astrocytic factors have been shown to impair synaptic integrity in other neurological conditions, we examined whether thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an astrocytic factor involved in the maintenance of synaptic integrity, is also altered in CHE. Cultured astrocytes were exposed to ammonia (NH4Cl, 0.5–2.5 mM) for 1–10 days, and TSP-1 content was measured in cell extracts and culture media. Astrocytes exposed to ammonia exhibited a reduction in intra- and extracellular TSP-1 levels. Exposure of cultured neurons to conditioned media (CM) from ammonia-treated astrocytes showed a decrease in synaptophysin, PSD95 and synaptotagmin levels. CM from TSP-1 overexpressing astrocytes that were treated with ammonia, when added to cultured neurons, reversed the decline in synaptic proteins. Recombinant TSP-1 similarly reversed the decrease in synaptic proteins. Metformin, an agent known to increase TSP-1 synthesis in other cell types also reversed the ammonia-induced TSP-1 reduction. Likewise, we found a significant decline in TSP-1 level in cortical astrocytes, as well as a reduction in synaptophysin content in vivo in a rat model of CHE. These findings suggest that TSP-1 may represent an important therapeutic target for CHE. PMID:25040426

  13. Stainless Steel Ions Stimulate Increased Thrombospondin-1-Dependent TGF-Beta Activation by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Implications for In-Stent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Pallero, Manuel A.; Talbert Roden, Melissa; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Anderson, Peter G.; Lemons, Jack; Brott, Brigitta C.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Despite advances in stent design, in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a significant clinical problem. All implant metals exhibit corrosion, which results in release of metal ions. Stainless steel (SS), a metal alloy widely used in stents, releases ions to the vessel wall and induces reactive oxygen species, inflammation and fibroproliferative responses. The molecular mechanisms are unknown. TGF-β is known to be involved in the fibroproliferative responses of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in restenosis, and TGF-β antagonists attenuate ISR. We hypothesized that SS ions induce the latent TGF-β activator, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), through altered oxidative signaling to stimulate increased TGF-β activation and VSMC phenotype change. Methods VSMCs were treated with SS metal ion cocktails, and morphology, TSP1, extracellular matrix production, desmin and TGF-β activity were assessed by immunoblotting. Results SS ions stimulate the synthetic phenotype, increased TGF-β activity, TSP1, increased extracellular matrix and downregulation of desmin in VSMCs. Furthermore, SS ions increase hydrogen peroxide and decrease cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling, a known repressor of TSP1 transcription. Catalase blocks SS ion attenuation of PKG signaling and increased TSP1 expression. Conclusions These data suggest that ions from stent alloy corrosion contribute to ISR through stimulation of TSP1-dependent TGF-β activation. PMID:20016205

  14. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor suppresses IL-18-induced interferon-gamma production through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation in human NK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Soyoung; Song, Seok Bean; Jung, Minkyung; Park, Yoorim; Bang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Tae Sung; Park, Hyunjeong; Kim, Cherl-hyun; Yang, Yool-hee; Bang, Sa Ik; Cho, Daeho

    2008-09-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the innate immune response. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a well-known interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma} inducing factor, which stimulates immune response in NK and T cells. Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) catalyzes the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which acts as a second messenger to function as an anti-apoptotic factor and proliferation stimulator of immune cells. In this study, to elucidate whether SPHK is involved in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, we measured IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production after pre-treatment with SPHK inhibitor (SKI) in NK-92MI cells. We found that IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} expression was blocked by SKI pre-treatment in both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the increased IFN-{gamma} production by stimulation with IL-18 is mediated through both SPHK and p38 MAPK. To determine the upstream signals of SKI and p38 MAPK in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK was measured after SKI pre-treatment. As a result, inhibition of SPHK by SKI blocked phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, showing that SPHK activation by IL-18 is an upstream signal of p38 MAPK activation. Inhibition of SPHK by SKI also inhibited IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production in human primary NK cells. In conclusion, SPHK activation is an essential factor for IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production via p38 MAPK.

  15. Decorin induces rapid secretion of thrombospondin-1 in basal breast carcinoma cells via inhibition of Ras homolog gene family, member A/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Neill, Thomas; Jones, Holly R; Crane-Smith, Zoe; Owens, Rick T; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V

    2013-05-01

    Pathological neovascularization relies on an imbalance between potent proangiogenic agents and equally effective antiangiogenic cues. Collectively, these factors contribute to an angiogenic niche within the tumor microenvironment. Oncogenic events and hypoxia contribute to augmented levels of angiokines, and thereby activate the so-called angiogenic switch to promote aggressive tumorigenic and metastatic growth. Soluble decorin functions as a paracrine pan-inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as Met and epidermal growth factor receptor, and thus is capable of suppressing angiogenesis under normoxia. This leads to noncanonical repression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and concurrent induction of thrombospondin-1. The substantial induction of endogenous tumor cell-derived thrombospondin-1, a potent antiangiogenic effector, led us to the discovery of an unexpected secretory phenotype occurring very rapidly (within 5 min) after decorin treatment of the triple-negative basal breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Surprisingly, the effect was not mediated by Met receptor antagonism, as initially hypothesized, but required epidermal growth factor receptor signaling to achieve swift and robust thrombospondin-1 release. Furthermore, this effect was ultimately dependent on the prompt degradation of Ras homolog gene family member A, via the 26S proteasome, leading to direct inactivation of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1. The latter led to derepression of thrombospondin-1 secretion. Collectively, these data provide a novel mechanistic role for Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1, in addition to providing the first conclusive evidence of decorin exclusively targeting a receptor tyrosine kinase to achieve a specific effect. The overall effects of soluble decorin on the tumor microenvironment would cause an immediately-early as well as a sustained antiangiogenic response

  16. Human mucosal-associated invariant T cells contribute to antiviral influenza immunity via IL-18-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Loh, Liyen; Wang, Zhongfang; Sant, Sneha; Koutsakos, Marios; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Corbett, Alexandra J; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P; Crowe, Jane; Rossjohn, Jamie; Xu, Jianqing; Doherty, Peter C; McCluskey, James; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes known to elicit potent immunity to a broad range of bacteria, mainly via the rapid production of inflammatory cytokines. Whether MAIT cells contribute to antiviral immunity is less clear. Here we asked whether MAIT cells produce cytokines/chemokines during severe human influenza virus infection. Our analysis in patients hospitalized with avian H7N9 influenza pneumonia showed that individuals who recovered had higher numbers of CD161(+)Vα7.2(+) MAIT cells in peripheral blood compared with those who succumbed, suggesting a possible protective role for this lymphocyte population. To understand the mechanism underlying MAIT cell activation during influenza, we cocultured influenza A virus (IAV)-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, then assayed them by intracellular cytokine staining. Comparison of influenza-induced MAIT cell activation with the profile for natural killer cells (CD56(+)CD3(-)) showed robust up-regulation of IFNγ for both cell populations and granzyme B in MAIT cells, although the individual responses varied among healthy donors. However, in contrast to the requirement for cell-associated factors to promote NK cell activation, the induction of MAIT cell cytokine production was dependent on IL-18 (but not IL-12) production by IAV-exposed CD14(+) monocytes. Overall, this evidence for IAV activation via an indirect, IL-18-dependent mechanism indicates that MAIT cells are protective in influenza, and also possibly in any human disease process in which inflammation and IL-18 production occur. PMID:27543331

  17. Prospective study of IL-18 and risk of MI and stroke in men and women aged 60–79 years: A nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Jefferis, Barbara J.; Whincup, Peter H.; Welsh, Paul; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Rumley, Ann; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lowe, Gordon D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Aim IL-18 is hypothesized to destabilise atherosclerotic plaques, leading to thrombotic events and epidemiologic studies suggest that IL-18 may increase risk of CHD or CVD. We examined prospective associations between levels of serum IL-18 and new CHD and stroke events in older men and women from a general population. Methods A case-control study was nested within a prospective cohort of men and women aged 60–79 years recruited from general practices in 25 British towns in 1998–2000 and followed-up for 7.5 years for fatal and non-fatal MI and stroke. Baseline IL-18 was measured in stored serum samples of incident cases of MI (n = 364) or stroke (n = 300) and two controls per case. Results Geometric mean IL-18 levels were higher among the 364 MI cases than the 706 controls; 417.84 pg/mL (IQR 316.25, 537.44) compared to 386.90 pg/mL (IQR 296.54, 482.33), p(difference) = 0.002. IL-18 was positively associated with adverse lipid and inflammatory profiles. Men and women in the top third of baseline IL-18 levels had an age and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for MI of 1.31 (95%CI 0.92, 1.85) compared with those in the lowest third; this attenuated to 1.05 (95%CI 0.72, 1.53) after additional adjustment for established vascular and inflammatory risk factors. Each doubling of IL-18 level was associated with an increased OR for MI 1.34 (95%CI 1.04, 1.72), which was attenuated on adjustment for established vascular and inflammatory risk factors; 1.09 (95%CI 0.83, 1.44). Geometric mean IL-18 levels did not differ between stroke cases and controls. The OR for stroke associated with the highest compared to the lowest tertile of IL-18 was 1.24 (95%CI 0.84, 1.84). Results for MI and stroke did not differ by presence of pre-existing CVD, gender or age. Conclusions Circulating IL-18 levels were strongly associated with a range of established and novel risk factors but were not independently associated with risk of MI or stroke in our study. PMID:23207179

  18. Behavioral and genetic investigations of low exploratory behavior in Il18r1−/− mice: We can’t always blame it on the targeted gene

    PubMed Central

    Eisener-Dorman, Amy F.; Lawrence, David A.; Bolivar, Valerie J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of gene targeting technologies has enabled research with immune system-related knockout mouse strains to advance our understanding of how cytokines and their receptors interact and influence a number of body systems, including the central nervous system. A critical issue when we are interpreting phenotypic data from these knockout strains is the potential role of genes other than the targeted one. Although many of the knockout strains have been made congenic on a C57BL/6 (B6) genetic background, there remains a certain amount of genetic material from the129 substrain that was used in the development of these strains. This genetic material could result in phenotypes incorrectly attributed to the targeted gene. We recently reported low activity behavior in Il10−/− mice that was linked to this genetic material rather than the targeted gene itself. In the current study we confirm the generalizability of those earlier findings, by assessing behavior in Il18−/− and Il18r1−/− knockout mice. We identified low activity and high anxiety-like behaviors in Il18r1−/− mice, whereas Il18−/− mice displayed little anxiety-like behavior. Although Il18r1−/− mice are considered a congenic strain, we have identified substantial regions of 129P2-derived genetic material not only flanking the ablated Il18r1 on Chromosome 1, but also on Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10, and 14. Our studies suggest that residual 129-derived gene(s), rather than the targeted Il18r1 gene, is/are responsible for the low level of activity seen in the Il18r1−/− mice. Mapping studies are necessary to identify the gene or genes contributing to the low activity phenotype. PMID:20580925

  19. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures.

    PubMed

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K

    2012-11-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1β, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted in increased IFN-γ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Rα, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33 had an increased IL-5 secretion. Interestingly, E4BP4 gene expression and the percentage of E4BP4(+) cells of the recently shown IL-10 transcriptional regulator E4BP4 correlated with IL-10 gene expression and protein secretion in Th1 cultures. Taken together, we report that the IL-1 family "alarmins" IL-18 and IL-33 in addition to amplifying both Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines block production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in Th1 cultures. PMID:23028054

  20. Downregulation of thrombospondin-1 by DNA hypermethylation is associated with tumor progression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuang; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Hong; He, Yun; Ye, Guo; Huang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    Thrombospondin‑1 (THBS‑1) has been demonstrated to have a complicated role in human cancer and to exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects in different types of tumors. DNA methylation, as the most frequent mechanism for gene silencing, has been widely investigated in regards to the development of tumors. However, the expression levels and methylation status of THBS‑1, and their roles in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remain to be elucidated. The present study detected downregulated THBS‑1 mRNA and protein expression levels in LSCC by using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting, while decreased expression levels of THBS‑1 mRNA and protein were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tumor‑node‑metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of THBS‑1 was frequently observed in LSCC by methylation‑specific PCR, particularly in tumor tissues from lymph node metastasis or samples from cancer with advanced TNM stage. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated that downregulated expression of THBS‑1 in LSCC was consistent with aberrant methylation of this gene. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxy-cytidine in Hep‑2 cells induced demethylation of THBS-1, enhanced THBS‑1 expression, and inhibited the proliferative and invasive ability of Hep‑2 cells. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that THBS‑1 may exert an inhibitory effect in the development of LSCC. Aberrant methylation was an important reason for the downregulation of THBS‑1 and was involved in the invasion and metastasis of LSCC. Demethylating agents may be effective candidates for the treatment of LSCC. PMID:27485791

  1. Quercetin inhibits angiogenesis through thrombospondin-1 upregulation to antagonize human prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feiya; Jiang, Xian; Song, Liming; Wang, Huiping; Mei, Zhu; Xu, Zhiqing; Xing, Nianzeng

    2016-03-01

    The rapid growth, morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer, and the lack of effective treatment have attracted great interests of researchers to find novel cancer therapies aiming to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Quercetin is a flavonoid compound that widely exists in the nature. Our previous study preliminarily demonstrated that quercetin effectively inhibited human prostate cancer cell xenograft tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is the first reported endogenous anti-angiogenic factor that can inhibit angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between quercetin inhibiting angiogenesis and TSP-1 upregulation in prostate cancer has not been determined. Thus, we explored the important role of TSP-1 upregulation in reducing angiogenesis and anti-prostate cancer effect of quercetin both in vitro and in vivo for the first time. After the selected doses were used for a certain time, quercetin i) significantly inhibited PC-3 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner; ⅱ) effectively inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell xenograft tumor growth by 37.5% with 75 mg/kg as compared to vehicle control group, more effective than 25 (22.85%) and 50 mg/kg (29.6%); ⅲ) was well tolerated by BALB/c mice and no obvious toxic reactions were observed; ⅳ) greatly reduced angiogenesis and led to higher TSP-1 protein and mRNA expression both in vitro and in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, quercetin could increase TSP-1 expression to inhibit angiogenesis resulting in antagonizing prostate cancer PC-3 cell and xenograft tumor growth. The present study can lay a good basis for the subsequent concrete mechanism study and raise the possibility of applying quercetin to clinical for human prostate cancer in the near future. PMID:26676551

  2. Thrombospondin-1-Based Antiangiogenic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jennifer N; Lawler, Jack

    2015-09-01

    Ocular angiogenesis is one of the underlying causes of blindness and vision impairment and may occur in a spectrum of disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinal artery or vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. As such, strategies to inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor activity have proven to be effective in the clinic for the treatment of eye diseases. A complementary approach would be to increase the level of naturally occurring inhibitors of angiogenesis, such as thrombospondin (TSP)-1. This article summarizes the development of TSP-1-based inhibitors of angiogenesis. PMID:26352160

  3. Study of serum interleukin (IL) 18 and IL-6 levels in relation with the clinical disease severity in chronic idiopathic urticaria patients of Kashmir (North India)

    PubMed Central

    Ashiq, Iram; Shera, Irfan A; Yousuf, Qayser; Shah, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic urticaria is termed as idiopathic if there is an absence of any identifiable causes of mast cell and basophil degranulation. Various cytokines have been found to be involved in inflammatory processes associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria, including interleukin (IL) 18 and IL-6. Objective To evaluate any possible correlation of IL-18 and IL-6 cytokines with the clinical disease severity in chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Methods IL-18 and IL-6 levels of CIU patients (n = 62) and healthy controls (n = 27) were assessed by commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits following the manufacturer's protocols. Results Serum IL-18 concentration (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 62.95 ± 36.09 pg/mL) in CIU patients and in healthy controls (54.35 ± 18.45 pg/mL) showed no statistical significance (p > 0.05). No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between autologous serum skin test (ASST) positive and ASST negative patients with regard to the serum IL-18 levels either. Similarly, serum IL-6 concentration (0.82 ± 4.6 pg/mL) in CIU patients and in healthy controls (0.12 ± 1.7 pg/mL), showed no statistical significance (p > 0.05). Also, comparison between positive and ASST negative patients with regard to the serum IL-6 levels was statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, statistical significance was found both in IL-18 and IL-6 concentrations in certain grades with regard to the clinical disease severity of urticaria. Conclusion There is no significant association as such found between IL-18 and IL-6 levels with CIU, however, these cytokines may help in predicting the clinical disease severity in CIU. Hence, these cytokines may indicate a potential role as a biomarker to assess the disease severity in CIU. PMID:25379480

  4. Decrease of Let-7f in Low-Dose Metronomic Paclitaxel Chemotherapy Contributed to Upregulation of Thrombospondin-1 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wei-Yang; Liang, Xiao-Shuan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chun-Yang; Pang, Da

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose metronomic (LDM) paclitaxel therapy displayed a stronger anti-angiogenic activity on breast tumors with fewer side effects. Upregulation of anti-angiogenic factor Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) accords for therapeutic potency of LDM paclitaxel, but its molecular mechanism has not been elucidated yet. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as new important regulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we hypothesize that miRNAs are involved in TSP-1 overexpression in paclitaxel LDM therapy of breast tumors. The miRNA profile of tumor tissues from control, LDM and MTD groups in 4T1 mouse breast cancer model was detected by microarray, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Luciferase assay and western blot were employed to explore the mechanisms of miRNAs involved in this process. We found that let-7f, let-7a, miR-19b and miR-340-5p were reduced by >2 fold, and miR-543* and miR-684 were upregulated by at least 50% in paclitaxel LDM therapy. qRT-PCR verification revealed that let-7f level was reduced most significantly in LDM therapy. Computational prediction using TargetScan and miRanda suggested THBS1 which encodes TSP-1 as a potential target for let-7f. Luciferase activity assay further confirmed that let-7f may bind to 3'UTR of THBS1 gene and inhibit its activity. Moreover, forced expression of let-7f led to a decrease of TSP-1 at both mRNA and protein levels in MCF-7 cells. Contrastly, let-7f inhibition induced an increased expression of THBS1 mRNA and TSP-1 protein, but did not affect the proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Paclitaxel LDM therapy led to a decrease of let-7f and the elevation of TSP-1 protein expression in MCF-7 cells, while overexpression of let-7f may abolish LDM-induced the upregulation of TSP-1 in MCF-7 cells. In summary, let-7f inhibition contributed to the upregulation of TSP-1 in paclitaxel LDM therapy, independently of proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of breast cancer. This study indicates let-7f

  5. Association of thrombospondin-1 with the actin cytoskeleton of human thrombin-activated platelets through an alphaIIbbeta3- or CD36-independent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Saumet, Anne; Jesus, Nando de; Legrand, Chantal; Dubernard, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an adhesive glycoprotein which, when secreted from alpha-granules of activated platelets, can bind to the cell surface and participate in platelet aggregate formation. In this study, we show that thrombin activation leads to the rapid and specific association of a large amount of secreted alpha-granular TSP-1 with the actin cytoskeleton. This cytoskeletal association of TSP-1 was correlated with platelet secretion, but not aggregation, and was inhibited by cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Association of TSP-1 with the actin cytoskeleton was mediated by membrane receptors, as shown by using MAII, a TSP-1-specific monoclonal antibody that inhibited both TSP-1 surface binding to activated platelets and cytoskeletal association. TSP-1 and its potential membrane receptors, e.g. alphaIIbbeta3 integrin, CD36 and CD47, concomitantly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. However, studies on platelets from a patient with type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia lacking alphaIIbbeta3 and another with barely detectable CD36 showed normal TSP-1 surface expression and association with the actin cytoskeleton. Likewise, no involvement of CD47 in TSP-1 association with the actin cytoskeleton could be inferred from experiments with control platelets using the function-blocking anti-CD47 antibody B6H12. Finally, assembly of signalling complexes, as observed through translocation of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and kinases to the actin cytoskeleton, was found to occur in concert with cytoskeletal association of TSP-1, in control platelets as well as in thrombasthenic and CD36-deficient platelets. Our results imply a role for the actin cytoskeleton in the membrane-surface expression process of TSP-1 molecules and suggest a possible coupling of TSP-1 receptors to signalling events occurring independently of alphaIIbbeta3 or CD36. These results provide new insights into the link between surface-bound TSP-1 and the contractile actin

  6. Relationship of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 and schizophrenia-like symptoms in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Luo, Yayan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Minling; Ke, Xiaoyin; Huang, Xini; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Exposing to NMDAR receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, produces schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and deteriorates symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Meanwhile, schizophrenia is associated with alterations of cytokines in the immune system. This study aims to examine the serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 levels in chronic human ketamine users as compared to healthy subjects. The correlations between the serum cytokines levels with the demographic, ketamine use characteristics and psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Methods 155 subjects who fulfilled the criteria of ketamine dependence and 80 healthy control subjects were recruited. Serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The psychiatric symptoms of the ketamine abusers were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results Serum IL-6 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher, while serum TNF-α level was significantly lower among ketamine users than among healthy controls (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α levels showed a significant negative association with PANSS total score (r = −0.210, p < 0.01) and negative subscore (r = −0.300, p < 0.01). No significant association was found between PANSS score and serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18. Conclusions Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 were altered in chronic ketamine abusers which may play a role in schizophrenia-like symptoms in chronic ketamine abusers. PMID:26589393

  7. CD161++CD8+ T cells, including the MAIT cell subset, are specifically activated by IL-12+IL-18 in a TCR-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ussher, James E; Bilton, Matthew; Attwod, Emma; Shadwell, Jonathan; Richardson, Rachel; de Lara, Catherine; Mettke, Elisabeth; Kurioka, Ayako; Hansen, Ted H; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2014-01-01

    CD161++CD8+ T cells represent a novel subset that is dominated in adult peripheral blood by mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, as defined by the expression of a variable-α chain 7.2 (Vα7.2)-Jα33 TCR, and IL-18Rα. Stimulation with IL-18+IL-12 is known to induce IFN-γ by both NK cells and, to a more limited extent, T cells. Here, we show the CD161++ CD8+ T-cell population is the primary T-cell population triggered by this mechanism. Both CD161++Vα7.2+ and CD161++Vα7.2− T-cell subsets responded to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation, demonstrating this response was not restricted to the MAIT cells, but to the CD161++ phenotype. Bacteria and TLR agonists also indirectly triggered IFN-γ expression via IL-12 and IL-18. These data show that CD161++ T cells are the predominant T-cell population that responds directly to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation. Furthermore, our findings broaden the potential role of MAIT cells beyond bacterial responsiveness to potentially include viral infections and other inflammatory stimuli. PMID:24019201

  8. A Eukaryotic Expression Plasmid Carrying Chicken Interleukin-18 Enhances the Response to Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaokang; Zhang, Chunjie; Wu, Tingcai; Li, Yinju

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine involved in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length chicken IL-18 (ChIL-18) gene from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo spleen cells and provided evidence that the ChIL-18 gene in a recombinant plasmid was successfully expressed in chicken DT40 cells. ChIL-18 significantly enhanced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA expression in chicken splenocytes, which increased IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by macrophages. The potential genetic adjuvant activity of the ChIL-18 plasmid was examined in chickens by coinjecting ChIL-18 plasmid and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. ChIL-18 markedly elevated serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and anti-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (anti-HN)-specific antibody levels, induced the secretion of both Th1- (IFN-γ) and Th2- (interleukin-4) type cytokines, promoted the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and increased the populations of CD3+ T cells and their subsets, CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, a virus challenge revealed that ChIL-18 contributed to protection against Newcastle disease virus challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that the coadministration of ChIL-18 plasmid and NDV vaccine induces a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular levels and that ChIL-18 is a novel immunoadjuvant suitable for NDV vaccination. PMID:25355794

  9. Thrombospondin-1 induces differential response in human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells lines under in vitro inflammatory and apoptotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Romaní, Laura; García-Posadas, Laura; López-García, Antonio; Paraoan, Luminita; Diebold, Yolanda

    2015-05-01

    Recently, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been reported to be critical for maintaining a healthy ocular surface. The purpose of the study was to characterize the expression of TSP-1 and of its receptors CD36 and CD47 in corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells and determine the effect of exogenous TSP-1 treatment on these cells, following the induction of inflammation- and apoptosis-related changes. The expression of TSP-1, CD36 and CD47 by corneal and conjunctival cell lines was firstly characterized by ELISA, immunofluorescence analysis, Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) exposure for 5 or 15 min was used as pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic stimulus for corneal or conjunctival epithelial cells, respectively. To analyze inflammation and apoptosis-related changes, IL-6 and TGF-β2 secretion determined by ELISA was used as inflammatory markers, while activated caspase-3/7 levels and cell viability, determined by CellEvent™ Caspase-3/7 Green Detection Reagent and XTT cytotoxicity assay, respectively, were used as apoptotic markers. Changes in CD36 and CD47 mRNA expression were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Corneal epithelial cells secreted and expressed higher protein levels of TSP-1 than conjunctival epithelial cells, although TSP-1 mRNA expression levels were similar and had lower CD36 and CD47, both at protein and mRNA levels. Both cell lines responded to exogenous TSP-1 treatment increasing CD36 at protein and mRNA levels. Blocking experiments revealed a predominance of TSP-1/CD47 rather than TSP-1/CD36 interactions to up-regulate CD36 levels in conjunctival epithelial cells, but not in corneal epithelial cells. BAC exposure increased IL-6 secretion and caspase-3/7 levels and decreased cell viability in both, corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. Moreover, BAC exposure increased latent TGF-β2 levels in conjunctival epithelial cells. Interestingly, CD36 mRNA expression was down

  10. Secretion of interferon-gamma by human macrophages demonstrated at the single-cell level after costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Laila; Coma, Gemma; Peña, Ruth; Bellido, Rocio; Blanco, Ester J J; Este, José A; Borras, Francesc E; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ruiz, Lidia; Rosell, Antoni; Andreo, Felipe; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Bofill, Margarita

    2009-03-01

    The interferon (IFN)-gamma component of the immune response plays an essential role in combating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Induction of IFN-gamma secretion by human T and natural killer (NK) cells through synergistic costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 in the adaptive immune responses against pathogens is well established, but induction of similar activity in macrophages is still controversial, with doubts largely focusing on contamination of macrophages with NK or T cells in the relevant experiments. The possible contribution of macrophages to the IFN response is, however, an important factor relevant to the pathogenesis of many diseases. To resolve this issue, we analysed the production of IFN-gamma at the single-cell level by immunohistochemistry and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) analysis and unequivocally demonstrated that human macrophages derived from monocytes in vitro through stimulation with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18 or with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were able to produce IFN-gamma when further stimulated with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18. In addition, naturally activated alveolar macrophages immediately secreted IFN-gamma upon treatment with IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, human macrophages in addition to lymphoid cells contribute to the IFN-gamma response, providing another link between the innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:18759749

  11. Secretion of interferon-γ by human macrophages demonstrated at the single-cell level after costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Coma, Gemma; Peña, Ruth; Bellido, Rocio; Blanco, Ester J J; Este, José A; Borras, Francesc E; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ruiz, Lidia; Rosell, Antoni; Andreo, Felipe; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Bofill, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-γ component of the immune response plays an essential role in combating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Induction of IFN-γ secretion by human T and natural killer (NK) cells through synergistic costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 in the adaptive immune responses against pathogens is well established, but induction of similar activity in macrophages is still controversial, with doubts largely focusing on contamination of macrophages with NK or T cells in the relevant experiments. The possible contribution of macrophages to the IFN response is, however, an important factor relevant to the pathogenesis of many diseases. To resolve this issue, we analysed the production of IFN-γ at the single-cell level by immunohistochemistry and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) analysis and unequivocally demonstrated that human macrophages derived from monocytes in vitro through stimulation with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18 or with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were able to produce IFN-γ when further stimulated with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18. In addition, naturally activated alveolar macrophages immediately secreted IFN-γ upon treatment with IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, human macrophages in addition to lymphoid cells contribute to the IFN-γ response, providing another link between the innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:18759749

  12. IL-18, TNF, and IFN-γ alleles and genotypes are associated with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B infection and severity of liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sandro da Costa; Chachá, Silvana Gama Florêncio; Souza, Fernanda Fernandes; Teixeira, Andreza Corrêa; Santana, Rodrigo de Carvalho; Deghaide, Neifi Hassan Saloun; Rodrigues, Sandra; Marano, Leonardo Arduíno; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Martinelli, Ana de Lourdes Candolo

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the association of polymorphisms in the IL-18 (-607C/A and -137C/G), IFNγ (+874 A/T), and TNF (-238 A/G and -308 A/G) genes with susceptibility to HBV infection and severity of liver injury. A total of 259 chronic HBV-infected patients followed at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, and 202 healthy individuals were studied. Four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Liver biopsy was performed in 212 HBV-infected patients and classified according to severity of liver fibrosis (scores 0-4) and necroinflammatory activity (HAI scores 0-18). TNF-308*A allele (P < 0.001; OR = 2.16) and TNF -308 AA genotype (P = 0.026; OR = 5.43) were associated with susceptibility to HBV infection. An association was found between severe liver fibrosis when compared to mild fibrosis and the following polymorphisms: Alleles IL-18 -137*G (P = 0.004; OR = 3.45), TNF -308*A (P < 0.001; OR = 3.39), and IFNγ +874*T (P = 0.029; OR = 1.85) and IL-18 -137 GG genotype (P = 0.009; OR = 3.70). No significant association was found between IL-18 (-607 A/C) polymorphism and severity of liver fibrosis. Alleles IL-18 -137*G (P = 0.028; OR = 2.64) and TNF-308*A (P = 0.002; OR = 3.06) and IL-18 -137 GG genotype (P = 0.011; OR = 4.20) were associated with severe necroinflammatory activity (HAI>12) when compared to mild necroinflammatory activity (HAI 1-8). The results suggest that IL-18 -137C/G, TNF-308 G/A and IFNγ +874 A/T SNPs were associated to more severe liver injury in chronic HBV infection. TNF -308*A allele and TNF -308 AA genotype could play a role in the susceptibility to HBV infection. PMID:25952099

  13. Alternaria-Induced Release of IL-18 from Damaged Airway Epithelial Cells: An NF-κB Dependent Mechanism of Th2 Differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jim; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Vaidya, Swapnil; Kalita, Anjana; Bacsi, Attila; Corry, David; Kurosky, Alexander; Brasier, Allan; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2012-01-01

    Background A series of epidemiologic studies have identified the fungus Alternaria as a major risk factor for asthma. The airway epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. These reports suggest that activated airway epithelial cells can produce cytokines such as IL-25, TSLP and IL-33 that induce Th2 phenotype. However the epithelium-derived products that mediate the pro-asthma effects of Alternaria are not well characterized. We hypothesized that exposure of the airway epithelium to Alternaria releasing cytokines that can induce Th2 differentiation. Methodology/Principal Finding We used ELISA to measure human and mouse cytokines. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) induced rapid release of IL-18, but not IL-4, IL-9, IL-13, IL-25, IL-33, or TSLP from cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells; and in the BAL fluids of naïve mice after challenge with ALT-E. Both microscopic and FACS indicated that this release was associated with necrosis of epithelial cells. ALT-E induced much greater IL-18 release compared to 19 major outdoor allergens. Culture of naïve CD4 cells with rmIL-18 induced Th2 differentiation in the absence of IL-4 and STAT6, and this effect was abrogated by disrupting NF- κB p50 or with a NEMO binding peptide inhibitor. Conclusion/Significance Rapid and specific release of IL-18 from Alternaria-exposed damaged airway epithelial cells can directly initiate Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4+ T-cells via a unique NF-κB dependent pathway. PMID:22347372

  14. Helicobacter pylori induces IL-1β and IL-18 production in human monocytic cell line through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome via ROS signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Sheng; Luo, Jingjing; Liu, Anyuan; Tang, Shuangyang; Liu, Shuo; Yu, Minjun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether Helicobacter pylori could activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inflammasome activation. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was infected with H. pylori. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in supernatant were measured by ELISA. Intracellular ROS level was analyzed by flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were employed to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in THP-1 cells, respectively. Our results showed that H. pylori infection could induce IL-1β and IL-18 production in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in THP-1 cells following H. pylori infection was remarkably reduced by NLRP3-specific small interfering RNA treatment. In addition, the intracellular ROS level was elevated by H. pylori infection, which could be eliminated by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Furthermore, NAC treatment could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome formation and caspase-1 activation and suppress the release of IL-1β and IL-18 from H. pylori-infected THP-1 cells. These findings provide novel insights into the innate immune response against H. pylori infection, which could potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:25834143

  15. In vivo and in vitro IL-18 production during uveitis associated with Behçet disease: effect of glucocorticoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Belguendouz, H; Messaoudene, D; Lahmar-Belguendouz, K; Djeraba, Z; Otmani, F; Terahi, M; Tiar, M; Hartani, D; Lahlou-Boukoffa, O S; Touil-Boukoffa, C

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis represents one of the major diagnostic criteria in Behçet's disease. It is most prevalent in the countries of the Mediterranean area, including Algeria, and along the Silk Road. Clinical features include oral and genital ulcers, ocular and skin lesions, as well as central nervous system, joint, vascular, gastrointestinal, or pulmonary manifestations. Many studies have reported that Th1 immune responses are involved in the physiopathology. We have previously studied the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ, cytokine markers in the Th1 pathway involved in Behçet's disease. In our study, we investigate in vivo and in vitro IL-18 production in Algerian patients with Behçet's disease with ocular manifestations in various stages of the disease. We examined the effect of glucocorticoids on IL-18 production during the active stage of the disease. Our results suggest that IL-18 could be a good biomarker for monitoring disease activity and its regression, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment on the underlying immunopathologic process. PMID:25630753

  16. NLRP3 has a protective role in age-related macular degeneration through the induction of IL-18 by drusen components

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Sarah L; Campbell, Matthew; Ozaki, Ema; Salomon, Robert G; Mori, Andres; Kenna, Paul F; Farrar, Gwyneth Jane; Kiang, Anna-Sophia; Humphries, Marian M; Lavelle, Ed C; O’Neill, Luke A J; Hollyfield, Joe G; Humphries, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss worldwide. Drusen accumulation is the major pathological hallmark common to both dry and wet AMD. Although activation of the immune system has been implicated in disease progression, the pathways involved are unclear. Here we show that drusen isolated from donor AMD eyes activates the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, causing secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Drusen component C1Q also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, the oxidative-stress–related protein-modification carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP), a biomarker of AMD, primes the inflammasome. We found cleaved caspase-1 and NLRP3 in activated macrophages in the retinas of mice immunized with CEP-adducted mouse serum albumin, modeling a dry-AMD–like pathology. We show that laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a mouse model of wet AMD, is exacerbated in Nlrp3−/− but not Il1r1−/− mice, directly implicating IL-18 in the regulation of CNV development. These findings indicate a protective role for NLRP3 and IL-18 in the progression of AMD. PMID:22484808

  17. The Effect of Campylobacter concisus on Expression of IL-18, TNF-α and p53 in Barrett’s Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Namin, Behrooz; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: Barrett’s oesophagus is a pre-malignant condition at gastroesophageal junction in which normal squamous epithelium is replaced by columnar shape epithelium, which predisposes oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is known that Barrett’s oesophagus evolves as a consequence of chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Although progression of Barrett’s oesophagus to adenocarcinoma is still unclear, increasing incidence of oesophageal cancer and mortality worldwide make its study necessary. Several investigations have been made on the aetiology of oesophageal cancer. Most of them assessed genetical or environmental factors. However, potential role of bacteria in the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma as a new environmental factor has not been addressed. Previous study on Barrett’s disease detected presence of Campylobacter concisus as a new emerging pathogen on Barrett’s and oesophageal cancer samples compared with healthy individuals. This indicates that this organism might involve in the progression of Barrett’s to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effects of C. concisus on expression of three biomarkers including interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumour suppressor gene (p53) in three Barrett's cell lines. Materials and Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR assays were developed to measure expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-18 and TNF-α) and gene expression of p53 in Barrett's cell lines in co-culture with C. concisus. Results: The mentioned organism was able to modulate considerably expression of p53, TNF-α and IL-18 in a time-dependent manner. Conclusions: The results showed that microorganism influences expression of carcinogenesis biomarker and cytokines in cell line models and possibility promotes oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26865939

  18. Discovery of IL-18 As a Novel Secreted Protein Contributing to Doxorubicin Resistance by Comparative Secretome Analysis of MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Keying; Hu, Xiaofang; Xu, Lisa X.

    2011-01-01

    Background Resistance to chemotherapy is the major cause of failure in breast cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that secreted proteins may play important roles in chemoresistance. We sought to systematically characterize secreted proteins associated with drug resistance, which may represent potential serum biomarkers or novel drug targets. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, we adopted the proteomic strategy of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare the secretome of MCF-7 and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox. A total of 2,084 proteins were identified with at least two unique peptides in the conditioned media of two cell lines. By quantification with label-free spectral counting, 89 differentially expressed secreted proteins (DESPs) between the two cell lines were found. Among them, 57 DESPs were first found to be related to doxorubicin resistance in this work, including 24 extracellular matrix related proteins, 2 cytokines and 31 unclassified proteins. We focused on 13 novel DESPs with confirmed roles in tumor metastasis. Among them, the elevated expression of IL-18 in doxorubicin-resistant cell lines and breast tumor tissues was validated and its role in doxorubicin resistance was further confirmed by cell viability experiments in the presence or absence of this protein. Conclusions/Significance Comparative analysis of the secretome of MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox identified novel secreted proteins related to chemotherapy resistance. IL-18 was further validated to contribute to doxorubicin resistance, in addition to its confirmed role in breast cancer metastasis. Due to its dual roles in both drug resistance and tumor metastasis, IL-18 may represent a useful drug target for breast cancer therapy. PMID:21931812

  19. Changes in Neuronal Excitability by Activated Microglia: Differential Na+ Current Upregulation in Pyramid-Shaped and Bipolar Neurons by TNF-α and IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Klapal, Lars; Igelhorst, Birte A.; Dietzel-Meyer, Irmgard D.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are activated during pathological events in the brain and are capable of releasing various types of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of 5% microglia activated by 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to hippocampal cultures upregulates Na+ current densities (INavD) of bipolar as well as pyramid-shaped neurons, thereby increasing their excitability. Deactivation of microglia by the addition of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreases INavD below control levels suggesting that the residual activated microglial cells influence neuronal excitability in control cultures. Preincubation of hippocampal cultures with 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a major cytokine released by activated microglia, upregulated INavD significantly by ~30% in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, the upregulation only reached an increase of ~14%. Incubation of the cultures with antibodies against either TNF-receptor 1 or 2 blocked the upregulation of INavD in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, increases in INavD were exclusively blocked by antibodies against TNF-receptor 2, suggesting that both cell types respond differently to TNF-α exposure. Since additional cytokines, such as interleukin-18 (IL-18), are released from activated microglia, we tested potential effects of IL-18 on INavD in both cell types. Exposure to 5–10 ng/ml IL-18 for 4 days increased INavD in both pyramid-shaped as well as bipolar neurons, albeit the dose–response curves were shifted to lower concentrations in bipolar cells. Our results suggest that by secretion of cytokines, microglial cells upregulate Na+ current densities in bipolar and pyramid-shaped neurons to some extent differentially. Depending on the exact cytokine composition and concentration released, this could change the balance between the activity of inhibitory bipolar and excitatory pyramid-shaped cells. Since bipolar cells show a larger upregulation of

  20. IL-6, IL-18, sIL-2R, and TNFα proinflammatory markers in depression and schizophrenia patients who are free of overt inflammation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Al-Rammahi, Duaa Abdulzahraa; Al-Dujaili, Arafat Hussein

    2015-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia are associated with inflammatory processes. Studies have shown that these disorders exhibit increase in the level of one or more proinflammatory markers. However, these studies did not exclude patients with obvious inflammation (i.e., CRP>6mg/L). Therefore, a comprehensive study should include those inflammatory disorders. In the present study, the inflammatory natures of MDD and schizophrenia were investigated. To achieve this goal, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) in depressed and schizophrenic patients were obtained and compared with those of the control group. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, TNFα, and sIL-2R in MDD and schizophrenic patients compared with the control group. Also patients with schizophrenia group showed higher levels of the inflammatory markers than MDD and control groups. The current study concluded that the immunological response in the MDD and schizophrenic patients groups was significantly stimulated. These disorders may be considered an inflammatory disorder because of elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in spite of lacking an overt inflammation. Furthermore results of this study suggested the possibility of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant therapy in schizophrenic and depressive disorders. PMID:25985379

  1. Interleukin (IL)-22 receptor 1 is over-expressed in primary Sjogren's syndrome and Sjögren-associated non-Hodgkin lymphomas and is regulated by IL-18.

    PubMed

    Ciccia, F; Guggino, G; Rizzo, A; Bombardieri, M; Raimondo, S; Carubbi, F; Cannizzaro, A; Sireci, G; Dieli, F; Campisi, G; Giacomelli, R; Cipriani, Paola; De Leo, G; Alessandro, R; Triolo, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate more clearly the role of interleukin (IL)-18 in modulating the IL-22 pathway in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients and in pSS-associated lymphomas. Minor salivary glands (MSGs) from patients with pSS and non-specific chronic sialoadenitis (nSCS), parotid glands biopsies from non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) developed in pSS patients, were evaluated for IL-18, IL-22, IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1), IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) expression. MSGs IL-22R1-expressing cells were characterized by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in pSS, nSCS and healthy controls . The effect of recombinant IL-18 and IL-22 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from pSS and nSCS was studied by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MSGs of pSS and NHL were characterized by an imbalance between IL-22 and IL-22BP protein expression, with IL-18 and IL-22BP being expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and IL-18 and IL-22R1 being correlated directly. Aberrant expression of IL-22R1, induced by IL-18, was observed only among tissue and circulating myeloid cells of pSS patients and macrophages of NHL tissues of pSS patients, but not nSCS. IL-22R1 expression on PBMC of pSS was functional, as its stimulation with recombinant IL-22 significantly up-regulated the expression of STAT-3, IL-17 and IL-22. An IL-18-dependent aberrant expression of IL-22R1 on cells of haematopoietic origin seems to be a specific immunological signature of patients with pSS and pSS-associated lymphomas. PMID:25880879

  2. Thrombospondin-1 Silencing Down-Regulates Integrin Expression Levels in Human Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells with BRAFV600E: New Insights in the Host Tissue Adaptation and Homeostasis of Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Mark; Sadow, Peter M.; Lawler, Jack; Nucera, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is characterized by pleomorphic cells, has a poor prognosis, is highly devastating disease, and is not curable. No reliable biomarkers of metastatic potential, helpful for early diagnosis of ATC and therapeutic response have been found yet. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) plays a fundamental role in cancer progression by regulating cell stromal cross-talk in the tumor microenvironment. Goals: Our goal was to understand whether TSP-1 could affect protein levels of its integrin receptors (e.g., ITGα3, α6, and β1) and cell morphology in BRAFV600E-ATC cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design: Anaplastic thyroid cancer-derived cell cultures and western blotting were used to assess integrin protein expression upon TSP-1 silencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed on orthotopic primary human ATC and metastatic ATC in lung tissue to compare TSP-1 and integrin protein expression levels. Results: TSP-1 knock-down down-regulates ITGα3, α6, and β1 in BRAFV600E-human ATC cells. BRAFV600E-ATC cells with TSP-1 knock-down were rounded compared to control cells, which displayed a spread morphology. TSP-1 knock-down also reduced TSP-1, ITGα3, α6, and β1 protein expression levels in vivo in the ATC microenvironment, which is enriched in stromal and inflammatory cells. Conclusion: TSP-1 silencing causes changes in ITG levels and ATC cell morphology. The assessment of TSP-1 and ITG levels might contribute to earlier metastatic potential of BRAFV600E-positive aggressive thyroid cancers, and allow improved patient selection for clinical trials. PMID:24348463

  3. Murine Macrophages Secrete Interferon γ upon Combined Stimulation with Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18: A Novel Pathway of Autocrine Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Munder, Markus; Mallo, Moisés; Eichmann, Klaus; Modolell, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ, a key immunoregulatory cytokine, has been thought to be produced solely by activated T cells and natural killer cells. In this study, we show that murine bone marrow– derived macrophages (BMMΦ) secrete large amounts of IFN-γ upon appropriate stimulation. Although interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 alone induce low levels of IFN-γ mRNA transcripts, the combined stimulation of BMMΦ with both cytokines leads to the efficient production of IFN-γ protein. The macrophage-derived IFN-γ is biologically active as shown by induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as upregulation of CD40 in macrophages. Our findings uncover a novel pathway of autocrine macrophage activation by demonstrating that the macrophage is not only a key cell type responding to IFN-γ but also a potent IFN-γ–producing cell. PMID:9625771

  4. AIM2 Mediates Inflammation-Associated Renal Damage in Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Glomerulonephritis by Regulating Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Junhui; Zhang, Le; Pan, Jiachao; Ma, Shumin; Yu, Xiaojian; Li, Xiaobo; Chen, Shijun; Du, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims. AIM2 plays an important role in innate immunity, but its role in regulating the immune response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) is unknown. We hypothesized that AIM2 expression is positively correlated with HBV-mediated inflammation in patients with HBV-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN), potentiating inflammation and leading to renal damage. We therefore analyzed the expression of AIM2 and inflammatory factors in HBV-GN tissues and cell lines relative to the inflammatory response to HBV infection and HBV status. Methods. Seventy-nine patients with chronic nephritis (CN) were included: 54 with HBV-GN and 24 with chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Expression of AIM2, caspase-1, and IL-1β was detected by immunohistochemistry in renal biopsies from each patient. Following siRNA-mediated knockdown of AIM2 in HBV-infected and HBV-uninfected human glomerular mesangial (HGM) cells, expression of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results. AIM2 expression in HBV-GN biopsies (81.4%) was significantly higher than in CGN (4.0%) and positively correlated with caspase-1 and IL-1β expression in HBV-GN. In vitro, AIM2 knockdown reduced caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 expression in HBV-infected and HBV-uninfected HGM cells. Conclusion. AIM2 elevation during HBV infection or replication may contribute to inflammatory damage, thus providing a putative therapeutic target for HBV-GN. PMID:24701032

  5. DNA vaccine (P1-2A-3C-pCDNA) co-administered with Bovine IL-18 gives protective immune response against Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kotla, Sivareddy; Sanghratna Vishanath, Bahire; H J, Dechamma; K, Ganesh; V V S, Suryanarayana; Reddy, G R

    2016-09-25

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. Presently used tissue culture inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration. DNA vaccines along with appropriate adjutants is one of the approach for the development of alternative vaccine. In the present study, we constructed P1-2A-3CpCDNA (containing P1-2A-3C coding sequences of FMDV Asia-1 Ind 63/72) and bovine IL-18 pCDNA plasmids and evaluated in cattle. Four groups of calves each group containing six calves were vaccinated with 200μg of plasmid DNA vaccine P1-2A-3CpCDNA, P1-2A-3CpCDNA+ bIL-18pCDNA and inactivated vaccine respectively where as fourth group was unvaccinated. P1-2A-3CpCDNA+bIL-18pCDNA vaccinated animals have shown higher levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T-cell proliferation responses. Higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were observed in these animals. Similarly, IL-18 adjuvanted group has shown increased Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. All the vaccinated animals were challenged with cattle adapted FMD homologous Asia1 virus two weeks after the booster dose. IL18 co administered DNA vaccine construct has protected four out of six animals challenged with homologous virus. PMID:27599937

  6. Co-incubation with IL-18 potentiates antigen-specific IFN-γ response in a whole-blood stimulation assay for measurement of cell-mediated immune responses in pigs experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Riber, Ulla; Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jakobsen, Jeanne T; Nguyen, Lien T M; Jungersen, Gregers

    2011-02-15

    The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in vitro assay for a direct read-out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult to evaluate for less severe or immunocompromising infections. Here we investigated the performance of the assay when recombinant co-stimulatory cytokines IL-12 and/or IL-18 were added along with Ag or PBS to cultures of whole-blood from pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis. In pigs recovering from a natural infection, addition of rIL-12 or rIL-18 alone increased the Ag-specific IFN-γ release while addition of both cytokines resulted in increased IFN-γ release also in PBS cultures. In analyses after experimental infections with L. intracellularis, significant increased levels of Ag-specific IFN-γ production were measured in Ag+rIL-18 cultures from infected pigs compared to the background response in PBS+rIL-18 control samples (p<0.01) or to Ag+rIL-18 cultures from non-inoculated control pigs (p<0.05). Flow cytometry identified two lymphocyte subsets as the Ag-specific IFN-γ producers. The highest IFN-γ production was by CD4(+)CD8(+) cells while a more numerous population of CD4(-)CD8(+) cells produced lower amounts of IFN-γ in response to rIL-18 and L. intracellularis Ag. PMID:20889217

  7. Interleukin-18-mediated enhancement of the protective effect of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus glycoprotein B plasmid DNA vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Li, Xin-Sheng; Cui, Bao-An; Wang, Shu-Juan; Geng, Jing-Wei; Li, Kun

    2011-01-01

    The immunogenicity of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoprotein B (gB) plasmid DNA vaccine and the immunoregulatory activity of chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. Two recombinant plasmids, pcDNA3.1/gB (pgB) and pcDNA3.1/IL-18 (pIL-18), containing gB and IL-18 were constructed. Chickens were intramuscularly administered two immunizations 2 weeks apart, and challenged with the virulent CG strain of ILTV 2 weeks later. All animals vaccinated with pgB alone or with a combination of pgB plus pIL-18 developed a specific anti-ILTV ELISA antibody and splenocyte proliferation response. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) T lymphocytes in chickens immunized with pgB plus pIL-18 were significantly higher than in those immunized with pgB alone. Co-injection of pIL-18 significantly increased the production of gamma interferon and IL-2, indicating that IL-18 enhances the T helper 1-dominant immune response. Challenge experiments showed that the morbidity rate in the pgB group (25  %) was significantly higher than that in the pgB plus pIL-18 group (10  %). The mortality rates in the pgB and pgB plus pIL-18 groups were 10 and 0 %, respectively, and the corresponding protection rates were 60 and 80  %. These results indicate that IL-18 may be an effective adjuvant for an ILTV vaccine. PMID:20829398

  8. T cell responses are elicited against Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the absence of signalling through TLRs, RLRs and IL-1R/IL-18R

    PubMed Central

    Goritzka, Michelle; Pereira, Catherine; Makris, Spyridon; Durant, Lydia R.; Johansson, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokine receptors are key players in the initiation of immune responses to infection. PRRs detecting viral RNA, such as toll like receptor (TLR)-3, -7/8, and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs; RIG-I and MDA-5), as well as cytokine receptors such as interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R), have been implicated in responses to RNA viruses that infect the airways. The latter includes respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a human pathogen that can cause severe lower respiratory tract infections, especially in infants. To evaluate the collective contribution of PRRs and IL-1R signalling to RSV immunity, we generated Myd88/Trif/Mavs−/− mice that are deficient in signalling by all TLRs, RLRs and IL-1R, as well as other cytokine receptors such as IL-18 receptor. Early production of pro-inflammatory mediators and lung infiltration by immune cells were completely abrogated in infected Myd88/Trif/Mavs−/− mice. However, RSV-specific CD8+ T cells were elicited and recruited into the lungs and airways. Consistent with these findings, Myd88/Trif/Mavs−/− mice survived RSV infection but displayed higher viral load and weight loss. These data highlight an unappreciated level of redundancy in pathways that couple innate virus sensing to adaptive immunity, providing the host with remarkable resilience to infection. PMID:26688048

  9. Endogenous conversion of ω-6 to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat-1 mice attenuated intestinal polyposis by either inhibiting COX-2/β-catenin signaling or activating 15-PGDH/IL-18.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) have inhibitory effects in various preclinical cancer models, but their effects in intestinal polyposis have never been examined. As attempts have been made to use nutritional intervention to counteract colon cancer development, in this study we evaluated the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on intestinal polyposis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. The experimental groups included wild-type C56BL/6 mice, Apc(Min/+) mice, fat-1 transgenic mice expressing an n-3 desaturase to enable ω-3 PUFA synthesis, and Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 double-transgenic mice; all mice were 20 weeks of age. Small intestines were collected for gross and pathologic evaluation, including assessment of polyp number and size, followed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. After administration of various concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, PUFA levels were measured in small intestine tissue by GC/MS/MS analysis to compare with PUFA synthesis of between C57BL6 and fat-1mice. As a result, ω-3 PUFAs significantly attenuated Apc mutation-induced intestinal polyposis accompanied with significant inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, COX-2 and PGE2, but induced significant levels of 15-PGDH. In addition, significant induction of the inflammasome-related substrates as IL-1β and IL-18 and activation of caspase-1 was observed in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. Administration of at least 3 g/60 kg ω-3 PUFAs was equivalent to ω-3 PUFAs produced in fat-1 mice and resulted in significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, caspase-3 and IL-18, as seen in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. We conclude that ω-3PUFAs can prevent intestinal polyp formation by inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but increased levels of 15-PGDH and IL-18. PMID:26650508

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Scans Identifies IL18RAP, PTPN2, TAGAP, and PUS10 As Shared Risk Loci for Crohn's Disease and Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Gabrielle; Beauchamp, Claudine; Trynka, Gosia; Dubois, Patrick C.; Lagacé, Caroline; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Hommes, Daan W.; Barisani, Donatella; Palmieri, Orazio; Annese, Vito; van Heel, David A.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Daly, Mark J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Rioux, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and celiac disease (CelD) are chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, involving genetic and environmental factors in their pathogenesis. The two diseases can co-occur within families, and studies suggest that CelD patients have a higher risk to develop CD than the general population. These observations suggest that CD and CelD may share common genetic risk loci. Two such shared loci, IL18RAP and PTPN2, have already been identified independently in these two diseases. The aim of our study was to explicitly identify shared risk loci for these diseases by combining results from genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of CD and CelD. Specifically, GWAS results from CelD (768 cases, 1,422 controls) and CD (3,230 cases, 4,829 controls) were combined in a meta-analysis. Nine independent regions had nominal association p-value <1.0×10−5 in this meta-analysis and showed evidence of association to the individual diseases in the original scans (p-value <1×10−2 in CelD and <1×10−3 in CD). These include the two previously reported shared loci, IL18RAP and PTPN2, with p-values of 3.37×10−8 and 6.39×10−9, respectively, in the meta-analysis. The other seven had not been reported as shared loci and thus were tested in additional CelD (3,149 cases and 4,714 controls) and CD (1,835 cases and 1,669 controls) cohorts. Two of these loci, TAGAP and PUS10, showed significant evidence of replication (Bonferroni corrected p-values <0.0071) in the combined CelD and CD replication cohorts and were firmly established as shared risk loci of genome-wide significance, with overall combined p-values of 1.55×10−10 and 1.38×10−11 respectively. Through a meta-analysis of GWAS data from CD and CelD, we have identified four shared risk loci: PTPN2, IL18RAP, TAGAP, and PUS10. The combined analysis of the two datasets provided the power, lacking in the individual GWAS for single diseases, to detect shared loci with a relatively small effect. PMID:21298027

  11. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  12. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  13. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G.; Gahtan, Vivian

    2015-09-04

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods: Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not, likely due conservation of N-terminal domains in TSP-1 and -2. In addition, TSP-1, -2 and -5 significantly affect VSMC gene expression; however, little overlap exists in the specific genes altered. This study further delineates TSP-1, -2 and -5's contributions to processes related to VSMC physiology. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of three different thrombospondins on smooth muscle cells. • Thrombospondins −1, −2, −5 all increase smooth muscle cell migration. • Thrombospondins −1 and −2, but not −5, increase smooth muscle cell proliferation. • All three thrombospondins exhibit temporally distinct patterns of gene expression. • Thrombospondins −1 and −2 display distinct patterns of gene expression.

  14. Enhanced immune response of MAIT cells in tuberculous pleural effusions depends on cytokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Xinchun; An, Hongjuan; Yang, Bingfen; Zhang, Fuping; Cheng, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    The functions of MAIT cells at the site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans are still largely unknown. In this study, the phenotypes and immune response of MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions and peripheral blood were investigated. MAIT cells in tuberculous pleural effusions had greatly enhanced IFN-γ, IL-17F and granzyme B response compared with those in peripheral blood. The level of IFN-γ response in MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions was inversely correlated with the extent of tuberculosis infection (p = 0.0006). To determine whether cytokines drive the immune responses of MAIT cells at the site of tuberculosis infection, the role of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 was investigated. Blockade of IL-2, IL-12 or IL-18 led to significantly reduced production of IFN-γ and/or granzyme B in MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions. Majority of IL-2-producing cells (94.50%) in tuberculous pleural effusions had phenotype of CD3+CD4+, and most IL-12p40-producing cells (91.39%) were CD14+ cells. MAIT cells had significantly elevated expression of γc receptor which correlated with enhanced immune responses of MAIT cells. It is concluded that MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions exhibited highly elevated immune response to Mtb antigens, which are controlled by cytokines produced by innate/adaptive immune cells. PMID:27586092

  15. Enhanced immune response of MAIT cells in tuberculous pleural effusions depends on cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Xinchun; An, Hongjuan; Yang, Bingfen; Zhang, Fuping; Cheng, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    The functions of MAIT cells at the site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans are still largely unknown. In this study, the phenotypes and immune response of MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions and peripheral blood were investigated. MAIT cells in tuberculous pleural effusions had greatly enhanced IFN-γ, IL-17F and granzyme B response compared with those in peripheral blood. The level of IFN-γ response in MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions was inversely correlated with the extent of tuberculosis infection (p = 0.0006). To determine whether cytokines drive the immune responses of MAIT cells at the site of tuberculosis infection, the role of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 was investigated. Blockade of IL-2, IL-12 or IL-18 led to significantly reduced production of IFN-γ and/or granzyme B in MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions. Majority of IL-2-producing cells (94.50%) in tuberculous pleural effusions had phenotype of CD3(+)CD4(+), and most IL-12p40-producing cells (91.39%) were CD14(+) cells. MAIT cells had significantly elevated expression of γc receptor which correlated with enhanced immune responses of MAIT cells. It is concluded that MAIT cells from tuberculous pleural effusions exhibited highly elevated immune response to Mtb antigens, which are controlled by cytokines produced by innate/adaptive immune cells. PMID:27586092

  16. Astrocytic CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein δ Regulates Neuronal Viability and Spatial Learning Ability via miR-135a.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Yi; Ko, Chiung-Yuan; Wang, Wei-Jan; Wang, Shao-Ming; Gean, Po-Wu; Kuo, Yu-Min; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2016-08-01

    The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with astrocytes-induced neuroinflammation. However, the detailed mechanism of astrocytes associated with learning impairments and neuronal loss in AD is poorly defined. Here, we provide novel evidences that astrocytic miR-135a is critical for neuronal viability and spatial learning ability in vivo. The AppTg/Cebpd (-/-) mice showed a spatial learning improvement compared with the APPswe/PS1/E9 bigenic (AppTg) mice. miR-135a was found to be a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (CEBPD) responsive miRNA and can repress the transcription of thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) / Thbs1 (mouse) via its 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR). We used different experimental approaches to attenuate the expression of CEBPD/Cebpd (mouse) or miR-135a in astrocytes and found the following results: increase in THBS1/Thbs1 expression, decrease in neuronal apoptosis, and increase in growth of neurites. Importantly, injection of miR-135a antagonist (AM135a) into the brain of AppTg mice was found to prevent neuronal apoptosis and improved the spatial learning ability. Together, our findings demonstrate a critical function for the astrocytic CEBPD, and point to miR-135a antagonist as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26208701

  17. Neutrophil Extracellular Trap-Associated Protein Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Enhanced in Lupus Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kahlenberg, J. Michelle; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Smith, Carolyne K.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represent an important defense mechanism against microorganisms. Clearance of NETs is impaired in a subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), while NETosis is increased in neutrophils and, particularly, in low-density granulocytes derived from lupus patients. NETs are toxic to the endothelium, expose immunostimulatory molecules, activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells and may participate in organ damage through incompletely characterized pathways. In order to better understand the role of NETs in fostering dysregulated inflammation, we examined inflammasome activation in response to NETs or to LL-37, an antibacterial protein externalized on the NETs. Both NETs and LL-37 activate caspase-1, the central enzyme of the inflammasome, in both human and murine macrophages, resulting in release of active IL-1β and IL-18. LL-37 activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome utilizes P2×7 receptor-mediated potassium efflux. NET and LL-37-mediated activation of the inflammasome is enhanced in macrophages derived from lupus patients. In turn, IL-18 is able to stimulate NETosis in human neutrophils. These results suggest that enhanced formation of NETs in lupus patients can lead to increased inflammasome activation in adjacent macrophages. This leads to release of inflammatory cytokines which further stimulate NETosis, resulting in a feed-forward inflammatory loop that could potentially lead to disease flares and/or organ damage. PMID:23267025

  18. Thrombospondin-1 expression in breast cancer: prognostic significance and association with p53 alterations, tumour angiogenesis and extracellular matrix components.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, E; Damala, K; Tsanou, E; Briasoulis, E; Papadiotis, E; Mitselou, A; Charhanti, A; Doukas, M; Lampri, L; Arvanitis, D L

    2012-02-01

    Thrombospondin (TSP-1) is a 450-kd adhesive glycoprotein that was initially discovered in platelets and subsequently in a variety of cell types. Several reports suggest that TSP-1 possesses tumour suppressor function, through its ability to inhibit tumour neovascularization. In this study we investigated tissue sections from 124 breast carcinomas for the immuno-histochemical expression of TSP-1 protein and its relationship to several clinicopathological parameters. The possible relationship to hormone receptors content, p53 protein, proliferation associated indices, angiogenesis, VEGF expression and extracellular matrix components (tenascin, fibronectin, laminin, collagen type IV and syndecan-1) was also estimated. TSP-1 was detected in the perivascular tissue, at the epithelial-stromal junction, in the stroma and in the tumour cells. High tumour cell TSP-1 expression was observed in 9.7%, moderate in 17.7%, mild in 10.5%, while 62.1% of the cases were negative for TSP-1 expression. The survival analysis showed an increased risk of recurrence associated with low TSP-1 tumour cell expression. High stromal TSP-1 expression was observed in 3.2% of the cases, moderate in 3.3%, mild in 27.4%, while 63.6% of the cases showed absence of TSP-1 expression. This expression was higher in invasive lobular type of breast cancer and inversely correlated with the lymph node involvement and the estrogen receptor content. Stromal TSP-1 expression was also positively correlated with extracellular matrix components expression, tenascin, fibronectin, collagen type IV, laminin, and syndecan-1. The relationship of TSP-1 expression with tumor angiogenesis, growth fraction and p53 protein expression was not significant. Our data suggest that TSP-1 expression seems to be associated with favorable biological behavior and may have clinical value in terms of predicting the risk of recurrence. In addition, TSP-1 might not be a direct anti-angiogenic factor, although it seems to be implicated in the remodeling of breast cancer tissue through interaction with other extracellular matrix components. PMID:22207555

  19. Elevated postinjury thrombospondin 1-CD47 triggering aids differentiation of patients' defective inflammatory CD1a+dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjukta; Bankey, Paul E; Miller-Graziano, Carol L

    2014-11-01

    A subset of Pts develops dysfunctional MO to inflammatory DC differentiation and immunosuppression. MDDC, a newly described DC subset, is pivotal in initiating antibacterial responses. Endogenous proteins are known to alter MO to MDDC differentiation. In particular, trauma-elevated TSP-1, a protein that is known to affect MO functions, could trigger MDDC differentiation defects. We hypothesized that TSP-1-deranged differentiation of inflammatory CD1a(+)MDDC would negatively alter activation of immune functions, thereby increasing the risk of postinjury infections. Post-trauma increased TSP-1 levels in patients' plasma and MO correlated with two distinct MDDC differentiation dysfunctions: the previously described decreased CD1a(+)DC yields but also, development of an immunoincompetent CD1a(+)MDDC. The Pts' development of Dysf DC correlated to increased infectious complications. TSP-1 triggered its inhibitory receptor, CD47, activating an inhibitory phosphatase, SHP-1. Increased pSHP-1, decreased antigen processing, and depressed T cell stimulation characterized Pt Dysf DC. TSP-1 mimics added during Cnt MDDC differentiation depressed CD1a(+)DC yields but more importantly, also induced defective CD1a(+)MDDC, reproducing Pts' MDDC differentiation dysfunctions. CD47 triggering during Cnt MDDC differentiation increased SHP-1 activation, inhibiting IL-4-induced STAT-6 activation (critical for CD1a(+)MDDC differentiation). SHP-1 inhibition during MDDC differentiation in the presence of TSP-1 mimics restored pSTAT-6 levels and CD1a(+)MDDC immunogenicity. Thus, postinjury-elevated TSP-1 can decrease CD1a(+)DC yields but more critically, also induces SHP-1 hyperactivity, deviating MDDC differentiation to defective CD1a(+) inflammatory MDDCs by inhibiting STAT-6. PMID:25001859

  20. 76 FR 76744 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Agents Targeting Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Radiotherapy in Cancer Patients AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION..., to treat or prevent cancers in humans; and (2) the use of morpholino oligonucleotides that reduce expression of CD47 to treat or prevent radiation exposure damage in humans. DATES: Only written comments...

  1. Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines bearing Spike gene of PEDV combined with porcine IL-18

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea, a highly contagious enteric disease of swine. The Spike (S) protein is one of the main structural proteins of PEDV capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Herein, we generated three distinct DNA ...

  2. Oenothein B, a cyclic dimeric ellagitannin isolated from Epilobium angustifolium, enhances IFNγ production by lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramstead, Andrew G; Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T; Jutila, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Oenothein B is a polyphenol isolated from Epilobium angustifolium and other plant sources, which has been reported to exhibit immunomodulatory properties. Oenothein B is known to activate myeloid cells and induce the production of IL-1 and other cytokines. However, its effects on lymphocytes are unknown. In this report, we show that oenothein B stimulated innate lymphocytes, including bovine and human γδ T cells and NK cells, resulting in either increased CD25 and/or CD69 expression. We also demonstrate that oenothein B enhanced the production of interferon-γ (IFNγ) by bovine and human NK cells alone and in combination with interleukin-18 (IL-18), a response not observed with other commonly studied polyphenols. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oenothein B enhanced the production of IFNγ by human T cells. Since IFNγ contributes to antitumor, antibacterial, and antiviral cell responses, these data suggest an additional mechanism that could account, at least in part, for the immune enhancing properties of oenothein B. PMID:23226309

  3. Moral Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement often claim that, even if such enhancement would benefit the enhanced, it would harm others. But this objection looks unpersuasive when the enhancement in question is a moral enhancement — an enhancement that will expectably leave the enhanced person with morally better motives than she had previously. In this article I (1) describe one type of psychological alteration that would plausibly qualify as a moral enhancement, (2) argue that we will, in the medium-term future, probably be able to induce such alterations via biomedical intervention, and (3) defend future engagement in such moral enhancements against possible objections. My aim is to present this kind of moral enhancement as a counter-example to the view that biomedical enhancement is always morally impermissible. PMID:19132138

  4. The Counteradhesive Proteins, Thrombospondin 1 and SPARC/Osteonectin, Open the Tyrosine Phosphorylation-Responsive Paracellular Pathway in Pulmonary Vascular Endothelia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Anguo; Mosher, Deane F.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The counteradhesive proteins are a group of genetically and structurally distinct multidomain proteins that have been grouped together for their ability to inhibit cell-substrate interactions. Three counteradhesive proteins that influence endothelial cell behavior include thrombospondin (TSP)1, SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine), also known as osteonectin, and tenascin. More recently, these proteins have been shown to not only regulate cell-matrix interactions but cell-cell interactions as well. TSP1 increases tyrosine phosphorylation of components of the cell-cell adherens junctions or zonula adherens (ZA) and opens the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia. The EGF-like repeats of TSP1 activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 and these two receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK)s participate in ZA protein tyrosine phosphorylation and barrier disruption in response to the TSP1 stimulus. For the barrier response to TSP1, EGFR/ErbB2 activation is necessary but insufficient. Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)µ counter-regulates phosphorylation of selected tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of EGFR. Although tenascin, like TSP1, also contains EGF-like repeats and is known to activate EGFR, whether it too opens the paracellular pathway is unknown. In addition to TSP1, tenascin, and the other TSP family members, there are numerous other proteins that also contain EGF-like repeats and participate in hemostasis, wound healing, and tissue remodeling. EGFR not only responds to direct binding of EGF motif-containing ligands but can be transactivated by a wide range of diverse stimuli. In fact, several established mediators of increased vascular permeability and/or lung injury, including thrombin, tumor necrosis factor-α, platelet-activating factor, bradykinin, angiopoietin, and H2O2, each transactivate EGFR. It is conceivable that EGFR serves a pivotal signaling role in a final common pathway for the pulmonary response to selected injurious stimuli. SPARC/Osteonectin also increases tyrosine phosphorylation of ZA proteins and opens the endothelial paracellular pathway in a PTK dependent manner. The expression of the counteradhesive proteins is increased in response to a wide range of injurious stimuli. It is likely that these same molecules participate in the host response to acute lung injury and are operative during the barrier response within the pulmonary microvasculature. PMID:18952113

  5. Elevated postinjury thrombospondin 1–CD47 triggering aids differentiation of patients' defective inflammatory CD1a+dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjukta; Bankey, Paul E.; Miller-Graziano, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    A subset of Pts develops dysfunctional MO to inflammatory DC differentiation and immunosuppression. MDDC, a newly described DC subset, is pivotal in initiating antibacterial responses. Endogenous proteins are known to alter MO to MDDC differentiation. In particular, trauma-elevated TSP-1, a protein that is known to affect MO functions, could trigger MDDC differentiation defects. We hypothesized that TSP-1-deranged differentiation of inflammatory CD1a+MDDC would negatively alter activation of immune functions, thereby increasing the risk of postinjury infections. Post-trauma increased TSP-1 levels in patients' plasma and MO correlated with two distinct MDDC differentiation dysfunctions: the previously described decreased CD1a+DC yields but also, development of an immunoincompetent CD1a+MDDC. The Pts' development of Dysf DC correlated to increased infectious complications. TSP-1 triggered its inhibitory receptor, CD47, activating an inhibitory phosphatase, SHP-1. Increased pSHP-1, decreased antigen processing, and depressed T cell stimulation characterized Pt Dysf DC. TSP-1 mimics added during Cnt MDDC differentiation depressed CD1a+DC yields but more importantly, also induced defective CD1a+MDDC, reproducing Pts' MDDC differentiation dysfunctions. CD47 triggering during Cnt MDDC differentiation increased SHP-1 activation, inhibiting IL-4-induced STAT-6 activation (critical for CD1a+MDDC differentiation). SHP-1 inhibition during MDDC differentiation in the presence of TSP-1 mimics restored pSTAT-6 levels and CD1a+MDDC immunogenicity. Thus, postinjury-elevated TSP-1 can decrease CD1a+DC yields but more critically, also induces SHP-1 hyperactivity, deviating MDDC differentiation to defective CD1a+ inflammatory MDDCs by inhibiting STAT-6. PMID:25001859

  6. Retinoic acid expression associates with enhanced IL-22 production by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells and attenuation of intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Lisa A.; Jones, Sarah A.; Raverdeau, Mathilde; Higgs, Rowan; Stefanska, Anna; Groom, Joanna R.; Misiak, Alicja; Dungan, Lara S.; Sutton, Caroline E.; Streubel, Gundula; Bracken, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, modulates mucosal T helper cell responses. Here we examined the role of RA in regulating IL-22 production by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells in intestinal inflammation. RA significantly enhanced IL-22 production by γδ T cells stimulated in vitro with IL-1β or IL-18 and IL-23. In vivo RA attenuated colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate treatment or Citrobacter rodentium infection. This was associated with a significant increase in IL-22 secretion by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In addition, RA treatment enhanced production of the IL-22–responsive antimicrobial peptides Reg3β and Reg3γ in the colon. The attenuating effects of RA on colitis were reversed by treatment with an anti–IL-22 neutralizing antibody, demonstrating that RA mediates protection by enhancing IL-22 production. To define the molecular events involved, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and found that RA promoted binding of RA receptor to the IL-22 promoter in γδ T cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular events controlling IL-22 transcription and suggest that one key outcome of RA signaling may be to shape early intestinal immune responses by promoting IL-22 synthesis by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells. PMID:23690441

  7. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  8. Enhancer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Masanori; Takemoto, Tatsuya

    During embryonic development, genes are expressed under a strict spatial and temporal order in cells and tissues. This regulation is governed by regulatory regions in the genome, usually identified as enhancers (Kondoh, 2008). The identification and mapping of a set of enhancers allow clarification of essential regulatory elements involved in the enhancer action and their interacting protein factors. Enhancer analysis also determines upstream signaling cascades that regulate interacting protein factors. If the regulatory regions do not function properly, spatio-temporal order of the gene expression will be disrupted, and this may cause abnormal development and dis eases (Kleinjan & van Heyningen, 2005; Sabherwal et al., 2007). Thus, identifica tion of the regulatory regions provides an important entry point to clarify regulatory mechanisms underlying embryonic development.

  9. LASIK enhancements.

    PubMed

    Durrie, D S; Vande Garde, T L

    2000-01-01

    As the field of refractive surgery continues to evolve, an increasing number of surgical options are available for LASIK enhancements. Nonetheless, older methods such as AK continue to play an important role in enhancement procedures. Improvements in instruments and techniques allow for previously made LASIK flaps to be safely lifted for additional myopic or hyperopic ablations. Newer methods such as Intacs placement provide an effective option for patients who are not good candidates for further ablative procedures. These advancements allow refractive surgeons to treat a wider range of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism effectively in eyes with a history of LASIK surgery. PMID:10941651

  10. Analysis of interleukin-18, interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) and interleukin-18-related cytokines in Crohn's disease lesions.

    PubMed

    Pagès, F; Lazar, V; Berger, A; Danel, C; Lebel-Binay, S; Zinzindohoué, F; Desreumaux, P; Cellier, C; Thiounn, N; Bellet, D; Cugnenc, P H; Fridman, W H

    2001-03-01

    A local increase of interleukin-18 (IL-18) expression has been recently demonstrated in Crohn's disease (CD), suggesting a role for mature IL-18 (cleaved by ICE protease) in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and Th1 polarization observed in CD lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate IL-18 modulation and its potential immune consequences in CD lesions. We showed increased IL-18 production in chronic CD lesions and identified epithelial cells and macrophages as IL-18-producing cells. A twofold increase in ICE alpha, beta, and/or gamma mRNA that encodes for the complete mature peptide was required for ICE activity, and a marked increase in IL-18R-positive immune cells was observed in chronic lesions compared to uninvolved areas or normal control samples. Chronic lesions also displayed intense transcription of IL-18-induced cytokines, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8. By contrast, when neither IL-18 nor ICE mRNAs were enhanced (early asymptomatic CD lesions), IL-18-induced cytokines were not up-regulated. These results are in accordance with a putative role of mature IL-18 in the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:11282552

  11. Enhancing bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Koenigsberg, S.

    1997-02-01

    Oxygen is often the limiting factor in aerobic bioremediation. Without adequate oxygen, contaminant degradation will either cease or proceed by highly inefficient anaerobic processes. Researchers at Regenesis Bioremediation Products recently develope a technology to combat this problem, Oxygen Release Compound (ORC) a unique formulation of magnesium peroxide release oxygen slowly when hydrated. ORC is idea for supporting bioremediation of underground storage tank releases. ORC treatment represents a low intensity approach to remediation - simple, passive, low-cost, long term enhancement of a natural attenuation. 1 fig.

  12. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  13. Autonomy and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen; Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Some have objected to human enhancement on the grounds that it violates the autonomy of the enhanced. These objections, however, overlook the interesting possibility that autonomy itself could be enhanced. How, exactly, to enhance autonomy is a difficult problem due to the numerous and diverse accounts of autonomy in the literature. Existing accounts of autonomy enhancement rely on narrow and controversial conceptions of autonomy. However, we identify one feature of autonomy common to many mainstream accounts: reasoning ability. Autonomy can then be enhanced by improving people's reasoning ability, in particular through cognitive enhancement; given how valuable autonomy is usually taken to be, this gives us extra reason to pursue such cognitive enhancements. Moreover, autonomy-based objections will be especially weak against such enhancements. As we will argue, those who are worried that enhancements will inhibit people's autonomy should actually embrace those enhancements that will improve autonomy. PMID:25045410

  14. Interleukin-18 induces EMMPRIN expression in primary cardiomyocytes via JNK/Sp1 signaling and MMP-9 in part via EMMPRIN and through AP-1 and NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatapuram Seenu; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Mummidi, Srinivas; Valente, Anthony J.; Venkatesan, Balachandar; Shanmugam, Prakashsrinivasan; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    IL-18 and the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs and are elevated in myocardial hypertrophy, remodeling, and failure. Here, we report several novel findings in primary cardiomyocytes treated with IL-18. First, IL-18 activated multiple transcription factors, including NF-κB (p50 and p65), activator protein (AP)-1 (cFos, cJun, and JunD), GATA, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor, interferon regulatory factor-1, p53, and specific protein (Sp)-1. Second, IL-18 induced EMMPRIN expression via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88/IL-1 receptor-associated kinase/TNF receptor-associated factor-6/JNK-dependent Sp1 activation. Third, IL-18 induced a number of MMP genes, particularly MMP-9, at a rapid rate as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-3 at a slower rate. Finally, the IL-18 induction of MMP-9 was mediated in part via EMMPRIN and through JNK- and ERK-dependent AP-1 activation and p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB activation. These results suggest that the elevated expression of IL-18 during myocardial injury and inflammation may favor EMMPRIN and MMP induction and extracellular matrix degradation. Therefore, targeting IL-18 or its signaling pathways may be of potential therapeutic benefit in adverse remodeling. PMID:20693392

  15. Cognitive Enhancement and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement--augmenting normal cognitive capacities--is not new. Literacy, numeracy, computers, and the practices of science are all cognitive enhancements. Science is now making new cognitive enhancements possible. Biomedical cognitive enhancements (BCEs) include the administration of drugs, implants of genetically engineered or…

  16. Acute experimental changes in mood state regulate immune function in relation to central opioid neurotransmission: a model of human CNS-peripheral inflammatory interaction.

    PubMed

    Prossin, A R; Koch, A E; Campbell, P L; Barichello, T; Zalcman, S S; Zubieta, J-K

    2016-02-01

    Although evidence shows depressed moods enhance risk for somatic diseases, molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced somatic susceptibility are ill-defined. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will inform development of treatment and prevention strategies across comorbid depressive and somatic illnesses. Existing evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18; an IL-1 family cytokine) is elevated in depression and implicated in pathophysiology underlying comorbid medical illnesses. We previously identified strong associations between baseline IL-18 and μ-opioid receptor availability in major depressive disorder (MDD) volunteers. Combined with the evidence in animal models, we hypothesized that experimental mood induction would change IL-18, the extent proportional to opioid neurotransmitter release. Using the Velten technique in a [(11)C]carfentanil positron emission tomography neuroimaging study, we examined the impact of experimentally induced mood (sad, neutral) on plasma IL-18 and relationships with concurrent changes in the central opioid neurotransmission in 28 volunteers (healthy, MDD). Results showed mood induction impacted IL-18 (F2,25=12.2, P<0.001), sadness increasing IL-18 (T27=2.6, P=0.01) and neutral mood reducing IL-18 (T27=-4.1, P<0.001). In depressed volunteers, changes in IL-18 were more pronounced (F2,25=3.6, P=0.03) and linearly proportional to sadness-induced μ-opioid activation (left ventral pallidum, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, right hypothalamus and bilateral amygdala). These data demonstrate that dynamic changes of a pro-inflammatory IL-1 superfamily cytokine, IL-18, and its relationship to μ-opioid neurotransmission in response to experimentally induced sadness. Further testing is warranted to delineate the role of neuroimmune interactions involving IL-18 in enhancing susceptibility to medical illness (that is, diabetes, heart disease and persistent pain states) in depressed individuals. PMID:26283642

  17. Enhancement and Civic Virtue

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Will; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement frequently adopt what Allen Buchanan has called the Personal Goods Assumption. On this assumption, the benefits of biomedical enhancement will accrue primarily to those individuals who undergo enhancements, not to wider society. Buchanan has argued that biomedical enhancements might in fact have substantial social benefits by increasing productivity. We outline another way in which enhancements might benefit wider society: by augmenting civic virtue and thus improving the functioning of our political communities. We thus directly confront critics of biomedical enhancement who argue that it will lead to a loss of social cohesion and a breakdown in political life. PMID:24882886

  18. Current enhancement update

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.; Clark, J.C.; Struve, K.W.; Yu, S.S.

    1984-06-14

    Net current enhancement to levels in excess of the beam current has been observed in gases at pressures excess of 50 torr. We delineate the regimes where enhancement is observed. The experimental results fall into two very distinct classes; current enhancement at injection where the beam is only slightly displaced and current enhancement clearly associated with the high amplitude hose instability. A careful theoretical and experimental study of the diagnostics revealed no fundamental flaws although there are several complex and unlikely scenarios which could introduce fictitious current enhancement. Theoretical efforts indicate several mechanisms for generating enhancement but none of the theories can account for the detailed observations. 4 references, 4 figures.

  19. Enhancement and Civic Virtue.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Will; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-07-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement frequently adopt what Allen Buchanan has called the Personal Goods Assumption. On this assumption, the benefits of biomedical enhancement will accrue primarily to those individuals who undergo enhancements, not to wider society. Buchanan has argued that biomedical enhancements might in fact have substantial social benefits by increasing productivity. We outline another way in which enhancements might benefit wider society: by augmenting civic virtue and thus improving the functioning of our political communities. We thus directly confront critics of biomedical enhancement who argue that it will lead to a loss of social cohesion and a breakdown in political life. PMID:24882886

  20. Adjuvant effects of interleukin-18 in DNA vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Li; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine with multiple functions in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, chicken IL-18 was evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the protective immunity of a DNA vaccine carrying the VP243 gene of IBDV. Groups of 14-day-old SPF chickens were given twice at 2-week intervals with 100 μg of the plasmid DNA vaccine pCAGVP243, pCAGVP243-IL-18 and the blank vector pCAGGS, respectively, and challenged with vvIBDV (HLJ0504 strain) 2 weeks later. Chickens immunized with plasmid pCAGVP243-IL-18 carrying both VP243 and IL-18 genes induced significantly higher levels of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation responses and of the cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ than those injected with pCAGVP243 encoding the VP243 gene alone. Furthermore, pCAGVP243-IL-18 provided higher protection (93%) against vvIBDV challenge in chickens than pCAGVP243 (60%), as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, mortality, and bursal atrophy. These results indicated that the cytokine IL-18 could enhance the immune responses and protection efficacy of DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens, highlighting the potential value of chicken IL-18 as an adjuvant in the prevention of vvIBDV infection. PMID:23395585

  1. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 alters multiple signaling pathways to inhibit natural killer cell death

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, D.L.; Subleski, J.J.; Reynolds, D.A.; Buschman, M.D.; Schill, W.B.; Burkett, M.W.; Malyguine, A.M.; Young, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18), is a natural killer (NK) cell activator that induces NK cell cytotoxicity and interferon-?? (IFN-??) expression. In this report, we define a novel role for IL-18 as an NK cell protective agent. Specifically, IL-18 prevents NK cell death initiated by different and distinct stress mechanisms. IL-18 reduces NK cell self-destruction during NK-targeted cell killing, and in the presence of staurosporin, a potent apoptotic inducer, IL-18 reduces caspase-3 activity. The critical regulatory step in this process is downstream of the mitochondrion and involves reduced cleavage and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The ability of IL-18 to regulate cell survival is not limited to a caspase death pathway in that IL-18 augments tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, resulting in increased and prolonged mRNA expression of c-apoptosis inhibitor 2 (cIAP2), a prosurvival factor and caspase-3 inhibitor, and TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), a prosurvival protein. The cumulative effects of IL-18 define a novel role for this cytokine as a molecular survival switch that functions to both decrease cell death through inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and enhance TNF induction of prosurvival factors. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  2. Smart Image Enhancement Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Contrast and lightness measures are used to first classify the image as being one of non-turbid and turbid. If turbid, the original image is enhanced to generate a first enhanced image. If non-turbid, the original image is classified in terms of a merged contrast/lightness score based on the contrast and lightness measures. The non-turbid image is enhanced to generate a second enhanced image when a poor contrast/lightness score is associated therewith. When the second enhanced image has a poor contrast/lightness score associated therewith, this image is enhanced to generate a third enhanced image. A sharpness measure is computed for one image that is selected from (i) the non-turbid image, (ii) the first enhanced image, (iii) the second enhanced image when a good contrast/lightness score is associated therewith, and (iv) the third enhanced image. If the selected image is not-sharp, it is sharpened to generate a sharpened image. The final image is selected from the selected image and the sharpened image.

  3. Neutralization of interleukin-18 ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Kaliyamurthi; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Reddy, Venkatapuram Seenu; Boylston, William H; Valente, Anthony J; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2009-03-20

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by the induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Recently demonstrating that oxidative stress and TNF-alpha each stimulate interleukin (IL)-18 expression in cardiomyocytes, we hypothesized that I/R also induces IL-18 expression and thus exacerbates inflammation and tissue damage. Neutralization of IL-18 signaling should therefore diminish tissue injury following I/R. I/R studies were performed using a chronically instrumented closed chest mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent 30 min of ischemia by LAD coronary artery ligation followed by various periods of reperfusion. Sham-operated or ischemia-only mice served as controls. A subset of animals was treated with IL-18-neutralizing antibodies 1 h prior to LAD ligation. Ischemic LV tissue was used for analysis. Our results demonstrate that, compared with sham operation and ischemia alone, I/R significantly increased (i) oxidative stress (increased MDA/4-HNE levels), (ii) neutrophil infiltration (increased MPO activity), (iii) NF-kappaB DNA binding activity (p50, p65), and (iv) increased expression of IL-18Rbeta, but not IL-18Ralpha or IL-18BP transcripts. Administration of IL-18-neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced I/R injury measured by reduced infarct size (versus control IgG). In isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes, simulated ischemia/reperfusion enhanced oxidative stress and biologically active IL-18 expression via IKK-dependent NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that IL-18 plays a critical role in I/R injury and thus represents a promising therapeutic target. PMID:19164288

  4. Neutralization of Interleukin-18 Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-induced Myocardial Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kaliyamurthi; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Reddy, Venkatapuram Seenu; Boylston, William H.; Valente, Anthony J.; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2009-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by the induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Recently demonstrating that oxidative stress and TNF-α each stimulate interleukin (IL)-18 expression in cardiomyocytes, we hypothesized that I/R also induces IL-18 expression and thus exacerbates inflammation and tissue damage. Neutralization of IL-18 signaling should therefore diminish tissue injury following I/R. I/R studies were performed using a chronically instrumented closed chest mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent 30 min of ischemia by LAD coronary artery ligation followed by various periods of reperfusion. Sham-operated or ischemia-only mice served as controls. A subset of animals was treated with IL-18-neutralizing antibodies 1 h prior to LAD ligation. Ischemic LV tissue was used for analysis. Our results demonstrate that, compared with sham operation and ischemia alone, I/R significantly increased (i) oxidative stress (increased MDA/4-HNE levels), (ii) neutrophil infiltration (increased MPO activity), (iii) NF-κB DNA binding activity (p50, p65), and (iv) increased expression of IL-18Rβ, but not IL-18Rα or IL-18BP transcripts. Administration of IL-18-neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced I/R injury measured by reduced infarct size (versus control IgG). In isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes, simulated ischemia/reperfusion enhanced oxidative stress and biologically active IL-18 expression via IKK-dependent NF-κB activation. These results indicate that IL-18 plays a critical role in I/R injury and thus represents a promising therapeutic target. PMID:19164288

  5. Suboptimization of developmental enhancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Brandt, Alexander J; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2015-10-16

    Transcriptional enhancers direct precise on-off patterns of gene expression during development. To explore the basis for this precision, we conducted a high-throughput analysis of the Otx-a enhancer, which mediates expression in the neural plate of Ciona embryos in response to fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and a localized GATA determinant. We provide evidence that enhancer specificity depends on submaximal recognition motifs having reduced binding affinities ("suboptimization"). Native GATA and ETS (FGF) binding sites contain imperfect matches to consensus motifs. Perfect matches mediate robust but ectopic patterns of gene expression. The native sites are not arranged at optimal intervals, and subtle changes in their spacing alter enhancer activity. Multiple tiers of enhancer suboptimization produce specific, but weak, patterns of expression, and we suggest that clusters of weak enhancers, including certain "superenhancers," circumvent this trade-off in specificity and activity. PMID:26472909

  6. Expression of dectin-1 and enhanced activation of NALP3 inflammasome are associated with resistance to paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Feriotti, Claudia; Bazan, Silvia B.; Loures, Flávio V.; Araújo, Eliseu F.; Costa, Tânia A.; Calich, Vera L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognizes β-glucans and plays a major role in the immunity against fungal pathogens. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has a sugar-rich cell wall mainly composed of mannans and glucans. To investigate the role of dectin-1 in the innate immunity of resistant (A/J) and susceptible (B10.A) mice to P. brasiliensis infection, we evaluated the role of curdlan (a dectin-1 agonist) and laminarin (a dectin-1 antagonist) in the activation of macrophages from both mouse strains. We verified that curdlan has a negligible role in the activation of B10.A macrophages but enhances the phagocytic and fungicidal abilities of A/J macrophages. Curdlan up-regulated the expression of costimulatory molecules and PRRs in A/J macrophages that express elevated levels of dectin-1, but not in B10.A cells. In addition, curdlan treatment inhibited arginase-1 and enhanced NO-synthase mRNA expression in infected A/J macrophages but had not effect in B10.A cells. In contrast, laminarin reinforced the respective M2/M1 profiles of infected A/J and B10.A macrophages. Following curdlan treatment, A/J macrophages showed significantly higher Syk kinase phosphorylation and expression of intracellular pro-IL-1β than B10.A cells. These findings led us to investigate if the NRLP3 inflammasome was differently activated in A/J and B10.A cells. Indeed, compared with B10.A cells A/J macrophages showed an increased expression of NALP3, ASC, and IL-1β mRNA. They also showed elevated caspase-1 activity and secreted high levels of mature IL-β and IL-18 after curdlan treatment and P. brasiliensis infection. Our data demonstrate that soluble and particulate β-glucans exert opposed modulatory activities on macrophages of diverse genetic patterns. Moreover, the synergistic action of dectin-1 and NALP3 inflammasome were for the first time associated with the innate response of resistant hosts to P. brasiliensis

  7. Credit Enhancement Overview Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Financing Solutions Working Group

    2014-01-01

    Provides considerations for state and local policymakers and energy efficiency program administrators designing and implementing successful credit enhancement strategies for residential and commercial buildings.

  8. [Medical image enhancement: Sharpening].

    PubMed

    Kats, L; Vered, M

    2015-04-01

    Most digital imaging systems provide opportunities for image enhancement operations. These are applied to improve the original image and to make the image more appealing visually. One possible means of enhancing digital radiographic image is sharpening. The purpose of sharpening filters is to improve image quality by removing noise or edge enhancement. Sharpening filters may make the radiographic images subjectively more appealing. But during this process, important radiographic features may disappear while artifacts that simulate pathological process might be generated. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for dentists to be familiar with and aware of the use of image enhancement operations, provided by medical digital imaging programs. PMID:26255429

  9. Enhancement of video images.

    PubMed

    Baily, N A; Nachazel, R J

    1980-04-01

    The enhancement of radiographic and fluoroscopic images using simple video analog techniques is described. In each instance, both the degree of enhancement and the features of the image to be enhanced are under the direct control of the radiologist. Noise is suppressed with a sharp cut-off, low-pass filter. Three types of analog circuits are discussed. One provides edge sharpening and contrast enhancement; one allows either black or white suppression, with expansion of the remaining shades of gray; and one provides an exponential response to selectable portions of the input signal. PMID:7360962

  10. Heat exchange enhancement structure

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelison, R.C.; Kreith, F.

    1980-12-02

    A passive heat exchange enhancement structure which operates by free convection includes a flat mounting portion having a plurality of integral fins bent outwardly from one side edge thereof. The mounting portion is securable around a stovepipe, to a flat surface or the like for transferring heat from the pipe through the fins to the surrounding air by rotation-enhanced free convection.

  11. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  12. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  13. Enhancing Individual Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on enhancing individual readiness through human resource development (HRD). "Secondary School Administrator's Perception of Enhancing Self-Worth through Service" (Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Emily James Weatherford) presents results of a study to examine secondary school administrators' endorsement of…

  14. Should we enhance animals?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of “animal enhancement”, at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. PMID:19880704

  15. EDITORIAL: Nano-enhanced! Nano-enhanced!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-08-01

    In the early 19th century, a series of engineering and scientific breakthroughs by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, James Watt and many others led to the foundations of thermodynamics and a new pedigree of mechanical designs that reset the standards of engineering efficiency. The result was the industrial revolution. In optical- and electronics- based nanotechnology research, a similarly subtle bargain is being made; we cannot alter the fact that systems have a finite response to external excitations, but what we can do is enhance that response. The promising attributes of ZnO have long been recognised; its large band gap and high exciton binding energy lend it to a number of applications from laser diodes, LEDs, optical waveguides and switches, and acousto-optic applications to sun cream. When this material is grown into nanowires and nanorods, the material gains a whole new dimension, as quantum confinement effects come into play. Discovery of the enhanced radiative recombination, which has potential for exploitation in many optical and opto-electronic applications, drove intensive research into investigating these structures and into finding methods to synthesise them with optimised properties. This research revealed further subtleties in the properties of these materials. One example is the work by researchers in the US reporting synthesis procedures that produced a yield—defined as the weight ratio of ZnO nanowires to the original graphite flakes—of 200%, and which also demonstrated, through photoluminescence analysis of nanowires grown on graphite flakes and substrates, that graphite induces oxygen vacancies during annealing, which enhances the deep-level to near-band-edge emission ratio [1]. Other one-dimensional materials that provide field emission enhancements include carbon nanotubes, and work has been performed to find ways of optimising the emission efficiency from these structures, such as through control of the emitter density [2]. One of the

  16. Enhancer Malfunction in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Hans-Martin; Hu, Deqing; Shilatifard, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Why certain point mutations in a general transcription factor are associated with specific forms of cancer has been a major question in cancer biology. Enhancers are DNA regulatory elements that are major regulators of tissue-specific gene expression. Recent studies suggest that enhancer malfunction through point mutations in either regulatory elements or factors modulating enhancer-promoter communication could be the cause of tissue-specific cancer development. In this Perspective, we will discuss recent findings in the identification of cancer-related enhancer mutations and the role of Drosophila Trr and its human homologs, the MLL3 and MLL4/COMPASS-like complexes, as enhancer histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) monomethyltransferases functioning in enhancer-promoter communication. Recent genome-wide studies in the cataloging of somatic mutations in cancer have identified mutations in intergenic sequences encoding regulatory elements, and in MLL3 and MLL4 in both hematological malignancies and solid tumors. We propose that cancer-associated mutations in MLL3 and MLL4 exert their properties through the malfunction of Trr/MLL3/MLL4-dependent enhancers. PMID:24656127

  17. On latent fingerprint enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K.

    2010-04-01

    Automatic feature extraction in latent fingerprints is a challenging problem due to poor quality of most latents, such as unclear ridge structures, overlapped lines and letters, and overlapped fingerprints. We proposed a latent fingerprint enhancement algorithm which requires manually marked region of interest (ROI) and singular points. The core of the proposed enhancement algorithm is a novel orientation field estimation algorithm, which fits orientation field model to coarse orientation field estimated from skeleton outputted by a commercial fingerprint SDK. Experimental results on NIST SD27 latent fingerprint database indicate that by incorporating the proposed enhancement algorithm, the matching accuracy of the commercial matcher was significantly improved.

  18. Hierarchical image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is an important technique in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical image enhancement approach based on the structure layer and texture layer. In the structure layer, we propose a structure-based method based on GMM, which better exploits structure details with fewer noise. In the texture layer, we present a structure-filtering method to filter unwanted texture with keeping completeness of detected salient structure. Next, we introduce a structure constraint prior to integrate them, leading to an improved enhancement result. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves higher quality results than previous approaches.

  19. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, Renee H.

    2010-11-01

    Renee Spires, Project Manager at Savannah River Remediation, opens Session 3 (Accelerated Waste Retrieval and Closure: Key Technologies) at the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange with a talk on enhanced chemical cleaning.

  20. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-06-07

    This 3rd quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and final dryer/process design.

  1. Plasmon-Enhanced Upconversion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di M; García-Etxarri, Aitzol; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2014-11-20

    Upconversion, the conversion of photons from lower to higher energies, is a process that promises applications ranging from high-efficiency photovoltaic and photocatalytic cells to background-free bioimaging and therapeutic probes. Existing upconverting materials, however, remain too inefficient for viable implementation. In this Perspective, we describe the significant improvements in upconversion efficiency that can be achieved using plasmon resonances. As collective oscillations of free electrons, plasmon resonances can be used to enhance both the incident electromagnetic field intensity and the radiative emission rates. To date, this approach has shown upconversion enhancements up to 450×. We discuss both theoretical underpinnings and experimental demonstrations of plasmon-enhanced upconversion, examining the roles of upconverter quantum yield, plasmonic geometry, and plasmon spectral overlap. We also discuss nonoptical consequences of including metal nanostructures near upconverting emitters. The rapidly expanding field of plasmon-enhanced upconversion provides novel fundamental insight into nanoscale light-matter interactions while improving prospects for technological relevance. PMID:26276488

  2. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-07-07

    This 4th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from April 1st through June 30th of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and dryer/process construction.

  3. Enhanced metabolite generation

    DOEpatents

    Chidambaram, Devicharan

    2012-03-27

    The present invention relates to the enhanced production of metabolites by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the metabolite, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.

  4. Enhancing Displays by Blurring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiana, C.; Pavel, M.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Some Enhanced Vision cockpit displays consist of synthetic imagery superimposed on a real image. The high spatial frequency components of the synthetic imagery can mislead an operator by masking features of the real image. We demonstrate that blurring the synthetic image prior to superposition reduces its masking effect in high- contrast regions of the real image, while maintaining its enhancing properties in regions of the real image where visibility is low.

  5. MORAL ENHANCEMENT AND FREEDOM

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978

  6. CD47 regulates renal tubular epithelial cell self-renewal and proliferation following renal ischemia reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Natasha M; Zhang, Zheng J; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Thomson, Angus W; Isenberg, Jeffrey S

    2016-08-01

    Defects in renal tubular epithelial cell repair contribute to renal ischemia reperfusion injury, cause acute kidney damage, and promote chronic renal disease. The matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 and its receptor CD47 are involved in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury, although the role of this interaction in renal recovery is unknown. We found upregulation of self-renewal genes (transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc) in the kidney of CD47(-/-) mice after ischemia reperfusion injury. Wild-type animals had minimal self-renewal gene expression, both before and after injury. Suggestive of cell autonomy, CD47(-/-) renal tubular epithelial cells were found to increase expression of the self-renewal genes. This correlated with enhanced proliferative capacity compared with cells from wild-type mice. Exogenous thrombospondin-1 inhibited self-renewal gene expression in renal tubular epithelial cells from wild-type but not CD47(-/-) mice, and this was associated with decreased proliferation. Treatment of renal tubular epithelial cells with a CD47 blocking antibody or CD47-targeting small interfering RNA increased expression of some self-renewal transcription factors and promoted cell proliferation. In a syngeneic kidney transplant model, treatment with a CD47 blocking antibody increased self-renewal transcription factor expression, decreased tissue damage, and improved renal function compared with that in control mice. Thus, thrombospondin-1 via CD47 inhibits renal tubular epithelial cell recovery after ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of proliferation/self-renewal. PMID:27259369

  7. Deletion of A44L, A46R and C12L Vaccinia Virus Genes from the MVA Genome Improved the Vector Immunogenicity by Modifying the Innate Immune Response Generating Enhanced and Optimized Specific T-Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Holgado, María Pía; Falivene, Juliana; Maeto, Cynthia; Amigo, Micaela; Pascutti, María Fernanda; Vecchione, María Belén; Bruttomesso, Andrea; Calamante, Gabriela; Del Médico-Zajac, María Paula; Gherardi, María Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    MVA is an attenuated vector that still retains immunomodulatory genes. We have previously reported its optimization after deleting the C12L gene, coding for the IL-18 binding-protein. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of MVA vectors harboring the simultaneous deletion of A44L, related to steroid synthesis and A46R, a TLR-signaling inhibitor (MVAΔA44L-A46R); or also including a deletion of C12L (MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R). The absence of biological activities of the deleted genes in the MVA vectors was demonstrated. Adaptive T-cell responses against VACV epitopes, evaluated in spleen and draining lymph-nodes of C57Bl/6 mice at acute/memory phases, were of higher magnitude in those animals that received deleted MVAs compared to MVAwt. MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R generated cellular specific memory responses of higher quality characterized by bifunctionality (CD107a/b⁺/IFN-γ⁺) and proliferation capacity. Deletion of selected genes from MVA generated innate immune responses with higher levels of determining cytokines related to T-cell response generation, such as IL-12, IFN-γ, as well as IL-1β and IFN-β. This study describes for the first time that simultaneous deletion of the A44L, A46R and C12L genes from MVA improved its immunogenicity by enhancing the host adaptive and innate immune responses, suggesting that this approach comprises an appropriate strategy to increase the MVA vaccine potential. PMID:27223301

  8. Deletion of A44L, A46R and C12L Vaccinia Virus Genes from the MVA Genome Improved the Vector Immunogenicity by Modifying the Innate Immune Response Generating Enhanced and Optimized Specific T-Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Holgado, María Pía; Falivene, Juliana; Maeto, Cynthia; Amigo, Micaela; Pascutti, María Fernanda; Vecchione, María Belén; Bruttomesso, Andrea; Calamante, Gabriela; del Médico-Zajac, María Paula; Gherardi, María Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    MVA is an attenuated vector that still retains immunomodulatory genes. We have previously reported its optimization after deleting the C12L gene, coding for the IL-18 binding-protein. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of MVA vectors harboring the simultaneous deletion of A44L, related to steroid synthesis and A46R, a TLR-signaling inhibitor (MVAΔA44L-A46R); or also including a deletion of C12L (MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R). The absence of biological activities of the deleted genes in the MVA vectors was demonstrated. Adaptive T-cell responses against VACV epitopes, evaluated in spleen and draining lymph-nodes of C57Bl/6 mice at acute/memory phases, were of higher magnitude in those animals that received deleted MVAs compared to MVAwt. MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R generated cellular specific memory responses of higher quality characterized by bifunctionality (CD107a/b+/IFN-γ+) and proliferation capacity. Deletion of selected genes from MVA generated innate immune responses with higher levels of determining cytokines related to T-cell response generation, such as IL-12, IFN-γ, as well as IL-1β and IFN-β. This study describes for the first time that simultaneous deletion of the A44L, A46R and C12L genes from MVA improved its immunogenicity by enhancing the host adaptive and innate immune responses, suggesting that this approach comprises an appropriate strategy to increase the MVA vaccine potential. PMID:27223301

  9. Normality, therapy, and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    According to human enhancement advocates, it is morally permissible (and sometimes obligatory) to use biomedical means to modulate or select certain biological traits in order to increase people's welfare, even when there is no pathology to be treated or prevented. Some authors have recently proposed to extend the use of biomedical means to modulate lust, attraction, and attachment. I focus on some conceptual implications of this proposal, particularly with regard to bioconservatives' understanding of the notions of therapy and enhancement I first explain what makes the proposal of medicalizing love interesting and unique, compared to the other forms of bioenhancement usually advocated. I then discuss how the medicalization of love bears on the more general debate on human enhancement, particularly with regard to the key notion of "normality" that is commonly used to define the therapy-enhancement distinction. This analysis suggests that the medicalization of love, in virtue of its peculiarity, requires bioconservatives to reconsider their way of understanding and applying the notions of "therapy" and "enhancement." More in particular, I show that, because a non-arbitrary and value-free notion of "therapy" cannot be applied to the case of love, bioconservatives have the burden of either providing some new criterion that could be used for drawing a line between permissible and impermissible medicalization, or demonstrating that under no circumstances-including the cases in which love is already acknowledged to require medical intervention-can love fall within the domain of medicine. PMID:26059959

  10. Association between Interleukin-18 Polymorphisms and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Occurrence and Clinical Progression.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hon-Kit; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Hsiang-Ling; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between interleukin-18 (IL-18) polymorphisms and the susceptibility and clinicopathological state of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In total, 901 participants, including 559 healthy controls and 342 patients with HCC, were recruited. The allelic discrimination of -607A/C (rs1946518) and -137G/C (rs187238) polymorphisms of IL-18 was assessed through real-time polymerase chain reaction by performing the TaqMan assay. The IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism but not the -607A/C polymorphism showed a significant association with the risk of HCC. Participants carrying the IL-18 -137 polymorphism with heterozygous G/C and homozygous CC genotypes showed a 1.987-fold increase (95% CI = 1.301-3.032; p = 0.001) in the risk of HCC compared with those homozygous for wild-type G/G. The 342 patients with HCC carrying the IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism were positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.668. Moreover, the 142 HBV positive patients with HCC and the IL-18 -137 polymorphism were positive for at least one C genotype and showed significant vascular invasion (p = 0.018). Furthermore, the level of α-fetoprotein was high in the patients carrying the IL-18 -137 polymorphism with GC+CC alleles (p = 0.011). In conclusion, the IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism with a GC+CC genotype could be a factor that increases the risk of HCC. Furthermore, the correlation between the IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism and HCC-related HBV infection is a risk factor for vascular invasion and has a synergistic effect that can further enhance HCC prognosis. PMID:27429592