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1

Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal reservoir: pathological and histochemical study of mucosal biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal biopsy specimens from the ileal reservoirs of 92 patients who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy (12 with familial adenomatous polyposis, 78 with ulcerative colitis, and two with functional bowel disease) were studied. Chronic inflammation was found in almost all, as was villous atrophy of varying severity. Other changes included pyloric metaplasia and mucosal prolapse. Acute inflammatory changes and ulceration were

N A Shepherd; J R Jass; I Duval; R L Moskowitz; R J Nicholls; B C Morson

1987-01-01

2

Terminal ileal mucosal mast cells in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal ileal biopsies were prospectively obtained and stained specifically for mast cells in 20 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 15 controls. The number of terminal ileal mast cells per high powered field (MC\\/HPF) (mean ±SEM) was 23.3±3.1 for, IBS and 6.8±1.1 for controls (P=0.0001). The diarrhea IBS subgroup had the greatest number of MC\\/HPF. No correlation was found

Allan P. Weston; Wendy L. Biddle; Paramjit S. Bhatia; Philip B. Miner

1993-01-01

3

Ileal mucosal absorption of bile acid in man: validation of a miniature flux chamber technique.  

PubMed Central

A method that allows the quantitative assessment of ileal mucosal cell uptake and transport of bile acids in mucosal biopsy specimens has been validated. Viability of the tissue was confirmed by maintenance of normal cell morphology, wet weight, extracellular space, porosity to polyethylene glycol-900, lactate dehydrogenase release, and transmucosal potential difference. Using 14C-taurocholic acid, absorption was shown to be directional, capable of working against a concentration gradient, reduced by metabolic inhibitors, and sodium dependent. The system showed saturation kinetics with an estimated Km of 10 mumol/l. At a standard substrate concentration of 10 mumol/l ileal mucosal bile acid absorption was compared in patients with colorectal cancer (n = 6), ulcerative colitis (n = 10), and slow transit constipation (n = 8). There was no significant difference in tissue uptake or transport between the three groups. Images Figure 2 PMID:1582593

Hosie, K B; Davie, R J; Panagamuwa, B; Grobler, S; Keighley, M R; Birch, N J

1992-01-01

4

Protective role of intracellular glutathione against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated whether intracellular glutathione is cytoprotective against ethanol-induced injury to cultured rat gastric mucosal cells in vitro. Secondly, it investigated whether reduced glutathione or oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. Cytolysis was quantified by measuring 51Cr release from prelabeled cells. Concentrations of ethanol greater than 12% caused cell damage and increased 51Cr release in a dose-dependent and time-related fashion. When a substrate for glutathione synthesis, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, was provided to cultured cells for 4 h before challenge with ethanol, cytolysis was significantly decreased corresponding with an increase in cellular glutathione content. Pretreatment with diethyl maleate, which depletes reduced glutathione without forming oxidized glutathione, potentiated ethanol-induced cell damage in a dose-dependent manner with the decrease of cellular glutathione content. The administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (which is specifically reduced by glutathione peroxidase to generate oxidized glutathione from reduced glutathione) or diamide (which nonenzymatically oxidizes reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione) enhanced ethanol injury. We conclude that in cultured gastric mucosal cells, (a) intracellular glutathione maintains integrity of gastric mucosal cells against ethanol in vitro; and (b) reduced glutathione rather than oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. We postulate that the presence of reduced glutathione is essential to allow glutathione peroxidase to catalyze the ethanol-generated toxic oxygen radical, hydrogen peroxide.

Mutoh, H.; Hiraishi, H.; Ota, S.; Yoshida, H.; Ivey, K.J.; Terano, A.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1990-06-01

5

Reduced glutathione protects cultured gastric mucosal cells from suckling rats against acid.  

PubMed

We examined the role of reduced glutathione as a defense mechanism against acid-induced gastric mucosal cell damage in vitro. Cellular stores of reduced glutathione were depleted by reaction with diethyl maleate (DEM) or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and increased by reaction with L-cysteine. Depletion of cellular glutathione by reaction with DEM or CDNB potentiated gastric mucosal cell lysis by acid. Increase of cellular glutathione by L-cysteine decreased cell lysis by acid. Altering the cellular reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or diamide increased cellular susceptibility to acid. Reduced glutathione is essential for glutathione peroxidase to catalyze hydrogen peroxide. We further studied whether oxygen free radicals were involved in the pathogenesis of acid-induced gastric mucosal injury in vitro. Neither superoxide dismutase, catalase, nor dimethyl sulfoxide decreased acid-induced gastric mucosal cell damage. We conclude that reduced glutathione plays an important role as a defense mechanism against acid-induced injury in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells. Production of oxygen radical in response to acid exposure may occur intracellularly, since exogenous oxygen radical scavengers, which do not gain access to the interior of cells, had no protective effect. Reduced glutathione might protect gastric mucosal cells by mechanisms other than the elimination of oxygen free radicals. PMID:1858888

Mutoh, H; Ota, S; Hiraishi, H; Ivey, K J; Terano, A; Sugimoto, T

1991-07-01

6

Optimal dietary true ileal digestible threonine for supporting the mucosal barrier in small intestine of weanling pigs.  

PubMed

Threonine is of great importance for the maintenance of intestinal health. However, little is known about the optimal level of dietary threonine for neonates or the underlying mechanisms of its beneficial action. Our objective in this study was to determine the effects of graded levels of true ileal digestible (TID) threonine on the intestinal mucosal barrier in weanling pigs. Four groups of piglets (n = 8/group) were fed for 14 d diets containing 0.37, 0.74, 0.89, or 1.11% TID threonine. The duodenal mucosa of piglets fed the 0.37 and 1.11% TID threonine diets exhibited distorted villus architecture. Compared with pigs fed the 0.74 and 0.89% TID threonine diets, apoptosis was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the 1.11% TID threonine diet. Feeding 0.37 and 1.11% TID threonine reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of ileal acidomucins and duodenal sulfomucins, respectively, compared with the 0.74% TID threonine group. Compared with piglets fed the 0.89% TID threonine diet, the total amounts of mucins in duodenum, as well as expression of MUC2 mRNA in duodenum and jejunum, were reduced (P < 0.05) in piglets fed the 0.37 and 1.11% TID threonine diets. Collectively, these findings indicate that a deficiency or excess of dietary threonine affects the intestinal mucosal barrier and that the optimal level of dietary TID threonine for supporting gut barrier function is 0.89% for weanling pigs. These new findings have important implications for both the maintenance of normal physiological functions and the prevention of gut-related diseases in neonates. PMID:20335627

Wang, Weiwei; Zeng, Xiangfang; Mao, Xiangbing; Wu, Guoyao; Qiao, Shiyan

2010-05-01

7

Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility  

SciTech Connect

The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little of the pathways of intestinal transport, metabolism, and luminal disposition of dietary peroxides in vivo or of the underlying mechanisms of lipid peroxide-induced genesis of intestinal disease processes. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the determinants of intestinal absorption and metabolism of peroxidized lipids. I will review experimental evidence from our laboratory and others (Table 1) supporting the pivotal role that glutathione (GSH) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) play in mucosal transport and metabolism of lipid hydroperoxides and how reductant availability can be compromised under chronic stress such as hypoxia, and the influence of GSH on oxidative susceptibility, and redox contribution to genesis of gut disorders. The discussion is pertinent to understanding dietary lipid peroxides and GSH redox balance in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the significance of luminal GSH in preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium.

Aw, Tak Yee [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States)]. E-mail: taw@lsuhsc.edu

2005-05-01

8

Intestinal barrier function in response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome. Our aim was to determine whether depletion or maintenance of intestinal glutathione changes

Marleen TJ van Ampting; Arjan J Schonewille; Carolien Vink; Robert Jan M Brummer; Roelof Meer; Ingeborg MJ Bovee-Oudenhoven

2009-01-01

9

Investigation of the effects of local glutathione and chitosan administration on incisional oral mucosal wound healing in rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of local glutathione (GSH) and chitosan applications on the oxidant events and histological changes that occur, during healing processes in rabbits with incisional intraoral mucosal wounds. For this purpose, discs containing glutathione and chitosan (1:1) were prepared and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. New Zealand white rabbits were used in in vivo studies. A standard incision was applied to the oral mucosa of rabbits. The rabbits were divided into four groups, being: an untreated incisional group (n=6), a group treated with discs containing GSH+chitosan (n=6), a group treated with discs containing solely chitosan (n=5) and a group treated with discs containing solely GSH (n=5). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione and nitric oxide (NOx) in the oral wound tissues were measured on the fifth day after the injury. Histological changes in the wound tissues were also investigated. The tissue MDA levels in the group treated with the disc containing GSH+chitosan were found to be lower than those in the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tissue GSH and NOx levels between the group treated with the disc comprising GSH+chitosan and the control group that had untreated incision wounds. According to the histological findings, wound healing in the group treated with the disc containing solely chitosan was found to be better than in the other groups. The results of the experiments showed that the local application to the intraoral incision wounds of chitosan+GSH, and chitosan alone, can be effective in the wound healing processes of soft tissues and dental implants. PMID:24119774

K?l?ç, Ci?dem; Güleç Peker, Emine Gülçeri; Acartürk, Füsun; K?l?çaslan, Seda M Sar?; Ço?kun Cevher, ?ule

2013-12-01

10

Glutathione  

PubMed Central

Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores. PMID:22303267

Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H.

2011-01-01

11

Assessments of Anal Canal Sensitivity in Patients with Soiling 5 Years or More after Colectomy, Mucosal Proctectomy, and Ileal J Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  To clarify the significance of anal canal sensitivity contribution to soiling in patients after ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis\\u000a (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC), we studied the sensory function of the anal canal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty patients with UC who had undergone IPAA with ileostomy closure at least 60 to 132 months (mean 103.6 months) previously,\\u000a and who had no preoperative or postoperative

Ryouichi Tomita; Seigo Igarashi

2007-01-01

12

NOD2 Status and Human Ileal Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Background NOD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk of ileal Crohn’s disease. This exploratory study was conducted to compare ileal mucosal gene expression in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients with and without NOD2 risk alleles. Methods Ileal samples were prospectively collected from eighteen non-smoking CD patients not treated with anti-TNF? biologics and nine non-smoking control patients without inflammatory bowel disease undergoing initial resection, and genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, Leu1007fs). Microarray analysis was performed in samples from four NOD2R (at least one risk allele) CD patients, four NOD2NR (no risk alleles) CD patients and four NOD2NR controls. Candidate genes selected by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of all the samples. Results SAM detected upregulation of 18 genes in affected ileum in NOD2R compared to NOD2NR CD patients, including genes related to lymphocyte activation. SAM also detected altered ileal gene expression in unaffected NOD2NR ileal mucosal CD samples compared to NOD2NR control samples. QRT-PCR conducted on all the samples confirmed that increased CD3D expression in affected samples was associated with NOD2R status, and that increased MUC1, DUOX2, DMBT1 and decreased C4orf7 expression in unaffected samples was associated with CD, independent of NOD2 status. Conclusions The results support the concept that NOD2 risk alleles contribute to impaired regulation of inflammation in the ileum. Furthermore, altered ileal gene expression, independent of NOD2 status, is detected in the unaffected proximal margin of resected ileum from CD patients. PMID:20155851

Hamm, Christina M.; Reimers, Melissa A.; McCullough, Casey K.; Gorbe, Elizabeth B.; Lu, Jianyun; Gu, C. Charles; Li, Ellen; Dieckgraefe, Brian K.; Gong, Qingqing; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Stone, Christian D.; Dietz, David W.; Hunt, Steven R.

2014-01-01

13

Mucosal microenvironment and mucosal response.  

PubMed

Considerable investigative effort is currently being directed towards the use of oral immunization for the prevention of mucosal infections, including otitis media, in infancy and childhood. The development of immune response to mucosally introduced vaccines or environmental antigens is significantly influenced by the mucosal microflora, enzymatic activity, factors influencing epithelial permeability and the nature of vaccine antigens administered. Studies carried out during the past several years have suggested that antigen uptake, antigen processing, and immune response to environmental antigens in the respiratory and intestinal mucosa are greatly altered by coexisting mucosal infections. High levels of ovalbumin or ragweed antigens were often observed in the serum associated with increased IgE-specific antibody responses following concurrent infection with respiratory syncytial virus, or rotavirus, respectively. The influence of the mucosal enzymatic environment has been recently evaluated after oral immunization with replicating poliovaccine or parenteral immunization with inactivated poliovaccines. High levels of neutralizing and VP3-specific antibody response and antibody activity against antigenic determinants generated in the intestine were observed characteristically after oral immunization with replicating virus. Such responses were conspicuously absent after parenteral immunization. These observations suggest that diverse elements of the mucosal microenvironment play an important role in the outcome of infections and development of immune responses at mucosal surfaces. PMID:8203721

Abraham, R; Ogra, P L

1994-01-01

14

Tubercular versus Crohn's ileal strictures: role of endoscopic balloon dilatation without fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Benign ileal strictures can cause considerable morbidity and they have been conventionally treated with surgery. The aim of this study was to report our experience of endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) in patients with terminal ileal strictures because of Crohn’s disease and tuberculosis. Methods Over the last 8 years, 9 patients (6 males; mean age 39.7±13.2 years) with benign terminal ileal strictures were treated by EBD using a colonoscope and through-the-scope controlled radial expansion balloon dilators. Results The etiology of benign ileal stricture was Crohn’s disease in 5 and tuberculosis in 4 patients. All the patients with Crohn’s disease had no or partial response to 4 weeks of steroid therapy and there were no mucosal ulcerations on ileoscopy. Three patients with ileal strictures due to tuberculosis underwent dilatation after completion of the antitubercular therapy (ATT) while one patient required dilatation 3 months after starting ATT. All patients had single ileal stricture with length of stricture ranging from 0.6-1.8 cm. EBD was successful in all 9 patients with a median number of dilating sessions required of 2 (range: 1-5 sessions). Patients with Crohn’s disease required more endoscopic sessions as compared to patients with tuberculosis but this difference was not statistically significant (mean number of session being 3.0±1.58 vs. 1.75±0.5 sessions respectively; P=0.1). One patient with ileal tuberculosis had enterolith proximal to the stricture that could be removed with dormia. There were no complications of the endoscopic procedure. Conclusions EBD is an effective, safe, and minimally invasive treatment modality for benign ileal strictures. PMID:24714760

Singh Rana, Surinder; Kumar Bhasin, Deepak; Rao, Chalapathi; Singh, Kartar

2013-01-01

15

[Rupture of ileal varices in a type C liver cirrhosis patient: a case report].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with recurrent massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding. She had a history of type C liver cirrhosis and appendectomy, and had undergone endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices one year before. Three-dimensional CTA revealed ileal varices in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. Superior mesenteric arteriography demonstrated varices at the corresponding area and collateral veins from the superior mesenteric vein to the right ovarian vein. Ileal varices were diagnosed and ileal resection was performed. At surgery, exposed vessels were present at the mucosal surface of the resected specimen and they were thought to be the origin of hemorrhage. In conclusion, bleeding from small intestinal varices, though uncommon, should be considered when the origin of melena is unidentified in a patient with liver cirrhosis. PMID:19654470

Suzuki, Takahisa; Murayama, Mutsumi; Shinoda, Masataka; Takashi, Hitomi; Uchiyama, Isako; Morise, Kazuhiro; Usami, Akihisa; Tsuji, Hideki; Haruki, Nobuhiro; Tashiro, Kazuhiro; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi

2009-08-01

16

Mucosal immunology  

PubMed Central

In this review, we shall highlight some recent advances in mucosal immunology and also those concepts which seem to us to merit more attention than they normally receive. Since we cannot hope to be all inclusive, we recommend the following articles and books to the reader (Tomasi & Bienenstock, 1968; Tomasi & Grey, 1972; Bienenstock, 1974; Heremans, 1974; Mestecky & Lawton, 1974; Lamm, 1976; Tomasi, 1976; Waksman & Ozer, 1976; Porter & Knight, 1977; McGhee, Mestecky & Babb, 1978; Ogra & Dayton, 1979; Befus & Bienenstock, 1980). PMID:7002769

Bienenstock, J.; Befus, A. D.

1980-01-01

17

Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucosal injury in rat  

PubMed Central

Background Arginine (ARG) and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Methods Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Results MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum, compared to MTX animals. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in the ileum of MTX-ARG rats (vs MTX) was accompanied by decreased bax mRNA and protein expression and increased bcl-2 protein levels. Conclusions Treatment with oral ARG prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following MTX- injury in the rat. PMID:22545735

2012-01-01

18

Mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

Mucosal defense is provided by a number of host factors countering the specific virulence factors of the many microorganisms infecting the mucous membranes. Secretory IgA antibodies presumably play an important role. Increase of the sIgA antibodies may most advantageously be attained by parenteral immunization, following mucosal priming. This was demonstrated in a rat model, where it was also noted that antigen injection into PP induced high milk IgA antibody levels. In man, parenteral vaccination against polio increased the sIgA antibody levels in the milk of mothers previously exposed naturally to the poliovirus. The response was relatively short-lived. In the previously unexposed, there was little or no response. By contrast peroral immunization with live poliovirus vaccine did not increase, or even decrease, the milk sIgA poliovirus antibody levels. Although salivary sIgA antibodies against antigens of colonizing E. coli appear during the first days of life, they are slow to increase. This deficiency is richly compensated for by all the sIgA antibodies that are provided the baby through the milk. No transfer of dimeric IgA into the milk could be shown in lactating rats, in contrast to what has been reported in mice. There is no evidence for a contribution to milk sIgA from serum in man. Close to parturition, human milk often contains some 7S IgA and various sizes of free SC, in addition to the dominating 11S sIgA. A few days later there is almost exclusively monomeric SC and 11S sIgA. IgG antibodies also play a role at the mucosal level. IgG2 antibodies against the bacterial polysaccharide capsule are as slow to appear as sIgA in ontogeny, possibly explaining the prevalence of infections with encapsulated bacteria and the poor response to polysaccharide vaccines in early childhood. Other defense factors preventing infections by way of mucous membranes may be important. Thus, oligosaccharides present in human milk seem to specifically prevent pneumococcal attachment to retropharyngeal cells. This anti-attachment capacity, in addition to that provided by milk and salivary IgA antibodies, may explain why breast-fed babies have less otitis media than formula-fed ones. PMID:6191608

Hanson, L A; Ahlstedt, S; Andersson, B; Carlsson, B; Cole, M F; Cruz, J R; Dahlgren, U; Ericsson, T H; Jalil, F; Khan, S R; Mellander, L; Schneerson, R; Edén, C S; Söderström, T; Wadsworth, C

1983-06-30

19

Intestinal Lymphocyte Populations in Children with Regressive Autism: Evidence for Extensive Mucosal Immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory intestinal pathology has been reported in children with regressive autism (affected children). Detailed analysis of intestinal biopsies in these children indicates a novel lymphocytic enterocolitis with autoimmune features; however, links with cognitive function remain unclear. To characterize further, the nature and extent of this disease we examined the mucosal infiltrate using flow cytometry. Duodenal, ileal, and colonic biopsies were

Paul Ashwood; Andrew Anthony; Alicia A. Pellicer; Franco Torrente; John A. Walker-Smith; Andrew J. Wakefield

2003-01-01

20

Ileal hyperplastic response to starvation in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The ability to respond to changes in the external and internal environments is a fundamental characteristic of intestinal structure and function. The authors compared the responses of the rat proximal and distal small intestine to the stresses of fasting and refeeding in the rat. In the duodenum, 3 days of starvation caused villus and crypt hypoplasia, reduced incorporation of (TH)thymidine into crypt cells, decreased cell migration rate on the villus, and lowered specific and total activities of several cellular enzymes. These changes were reversed by 1 day of refeeding. In contrast, mucosal hypoplasia did not occur in the ileum during fasting, and the specific activities of the disaccharidases were increased after 3 days of starvation. However, ileal (TH)thymidine incorporation, thymidine kinase activity, and ornithine decarboxylase activity decreased during starvation. These effects were also reversed by refeeding. The results of these studies illustrate differing responses for the proximal and distal small intestine and suggest the presence of distinctly differing mechanisms for the control of their mucosal mass and enzyme activities.

Holt, P.R.; Wu, S.; Yeh, K.Y.

1986-07-01

21

Alterations in Ileal Mucosa Bacteria Related to Diet Complexity and Growth Performance in Young Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of the prolonged impact of weaning diet on ileal mucosa bacteria and during periods of reduced and improved growth was conducted using 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings Weaned pigs were fed HIGH or LOW complexity diets, with or without antibiotics, for 6 weeks, followed by a common grower diet. Pigs were killed at 2 (n?=?4 or 5) and 8 (n?=?6) weeks post-weaning (periods of reduced and improved growth, respectively). Mucosal bacteria were removed; DNA was extracted and amplified using the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Mucosal bacteria clustered more closely by week post-weaning than diet but 44% of bacterial species did not change from week 2 to 8. There was no effect of diet complexity or antibiotic inclusion on indices of bacterial diversity. Firmicutes made up 91 and 96% of total reads at week 2 and 8, respectively. The proportion of Clostridium paraputrificum increased (P?=?0.003) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH; whereas Clostridium leptum decreased (P?=?0.02) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH. The proportion of Sarcina genus was 3-fold higher in pigs fed A+ compared to A? at week 2 and 5-fold higher at week 8 despite the lack of in-feed antibiotics at that time. Conclusions/Significance Shifts in mucosal bacteria populations may be related to dietary induced changes in growth performance during reduced and improved growth but further studies are required to confirm causative relationship. Weaning diet results in species specific prolonged alterations in mucosal bacteria, particularly where high levels of in-feed antibiotics are used. A considerable portion of ileal mucosal bacteria colonize early and remain stable over time despite changes in diet. PMID:25247930

Levesque, Crystal L.; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S.; de Lange, Kees

2014-01-01

22

Mucosal vaccine adjuvants update  

PubMed Central

Mucosal vaccination, capable of inducing protective immune responses both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments, has many advantages and is regarded as a blue ocean in the vaccine industry. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessability, needle-free delivery, and higher capacity of mass immunizations during pandemics. However, only very limited number of mucosal vaccines was approved for human use in the market yet. Generally, induction of immune responses following mucosal immunization requires the co-administration of appropriate adjuvants that can initiate and support the effective collaboration between innate and adaptive immunity. Classically, adjuvant researches were rather empirical than keenly scientific. However, during last several years, fundamental scientific achievements in innate immunity have been translated into the development of new mucosal adjuvants. This review focuses on recent developments in the concepts of adjuvants and innate immunity, mucosal immunity with special interest of vaccine development, and basic and applied researches in mucosal adjuvant. PMID:23596577

Lee, Shee Eun; Kim, Soo Young

2012-01-01

23

Immunity at Mucosal Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosae form a barrier between our bodies and a hostile external environment. Diseases and extrinsic factors which impair mucosal function may lead to serious consequences. The mucosal immune system is the primary mediator of specific immunity at mucosal surfaces. As such, it is responsible for maintaining homeostasis and for defense against both overt and opportunistic pathogens. For this reason,

T. A. Brown

1996-01-01

24

Host Responses to Persistent Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection in Surgically Isolated Bovine Ileal Segments  

PubMed Central

A lack of appropriate disease models has limited our understanding of the pathogenesis of persistent enteric infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A model was developed for the controlled delivery of a defined dose of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves. The stable intestinal segments enabled the characterization of host responses to persistent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections after a 9-month period, including an analysis of local mucosal immune responses relative to an adjacent uninfected intestinal compartment. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained localized at the initial site of intestinal infection and was not detected by PCR in the mesenteric lymph node. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T cell proliferative responses included both CD4 and ?? T cell receptor (??TcR) T cell responses in the draining mesenteric lymph node. The levels of CD8+ and ??TcR+ T cells increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lamina propria, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and gamma interferon secretion by lamina propria leukocytes was also significantly (P < 0.05) increased. There was a significant (P < 0.05) accumulation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria, but the expression of mucosal toll-like receptors 1 through 10 was not significantly changed by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. In conclusion, surgically isolated ileal segments provided a model system for the establishment of a persistent and localized enteric M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and facilitated the analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific changes in mucosal leukocyte phenotype and function. The accumulation of DC subpopulations in the lamina propria suggests that further investigation of mucosal DCs may provide insight into host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and improve vaccine strategies to prevent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID:23221000

Charavaryamath, Chandrashekhar; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Fries, Patrick; Gomis, Susantha; Doig, Kimberley; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Napper, Scott

2013-01-01

25

Fucoidin prevents Clostridium difficile toxin-A-induced ileal enteritis in mice.  

PubMed

Recent reports suggest increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated diseases. These facts have raised the need for additional clarification of pathogenesis and for a search for new therapeutic strategies. This study evaluated the effects of the polysaccharide fucoidin, an L-selectin blocker, on toxin-A-induced mouse enteritis. Fucoidin (25 mg/kg) or saline (0.1 ml) were injected systemically (ocular plexus) 5 min prior to local challenge with toxin A (5 microg/ileal loop) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Intestinal fluid volume/length and ileal loop weight/length ratios were calculated 3 h later. Ileal tissues were collected for histopathology and measurement of myeloperoxidase and adenosine deaminase activity. Fucoidin significantly (P < 0.05) prevented the toxin-A-induced increase in weight/length and volume/length ratios and reduced mucosal disruption, as shown in histopathology. Fucoidin also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced toxin-A-induced myeloperoxidase and adenosine deaminase activities. In conclusion, fucoidin reduces tissue injury and inflammation in toxin-A-induced mouse enteritis. PMID:17805968

Barreto, A R F; Cavalcante, I C; Castro, M V; Junqueira, A F T A; Vale, M R; Ribeiro, R A; Souza, M H L P; Brito, G A C

2008-04-01

26

Glutathione Transferases  

PubMed Central

The 55 Arabidopsis glutathione transferases (GSTs) are, with one microsomal exception, a monophyletic group of soluble enzymes that can be divided into phi, tau, theta, zeta, lambda, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and TCHQD classes. The populous phi and tau classes are often highly stress inducible and regularly crop up in proteomic and transcriptomic studies. Despite much study on their xenobiotic-detoxifying activities their natural roles are unclear, although roles in defence-related secondary metabolism are likely. The smaller DHAR and lambda classes are likely glutathione-dependent reductases, the zeta class functions in tyrosine catabolism and the theta class has a putative role in detoxifying oxidised lipids. This review describes the evidence for the functional roles of GSTs and the potential for these enzymes to perform diverse functions that in many cases are not “glutathione transferase” activities. As well as biochemical data, expression data from proteomic and transcriptomic studies are included, along with subcellular localisation experiments and the results of functional genomic studies. PMID:22303257

Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

2010-01-01

27

Mucosal dendritic cells shape mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases. PMID:24626170

Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kweon, Mi-Na

2014-01-01

28

Peptide Absorption after Massive Proximal Small Bowel Resection: Mechanisms of Ileal Adaptation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Protein absorption occurs as di- and tri-peptides via H+/peptide cotransporter-1 (PepT1). AIM To identify mechanisms of ileal adaptation after massive proximal enterectomy. HYPOTHESIS Ileal adaptation in uptake of peptides is mediated through upregulation of PepT1 gene expression. STUDY DESIGN Rats underwent 70% jejunoileal resection. Total mucosal cellular levels of mRNA and protein and transporter-mediated uptake per cm of the di-peptide Gly-Sar were compared in remnant ileum 1 and 4 wk postoperatively to control and 1-wk sham laparotomy rats. Histomorphology; food consumption, and weights of rats were monitored. RESULTS After 70% resection, although mRNA per cell for PepT1 decreased at 1-wk (p=0.002), expression of mRNA at 4 wk and protein at 1 and 4 wk in remnant ileum were unchanged (p>0.1). Ileal Gly-Sar uptake (Vmax-nmol/cm/min, i.e. number of transporters per cm) increased at 1 and 4 wk compared to control and 1-wk sham (P<0.05 each); Km (i.e. transporter function) was unchanged. Villous heights (mm) in remnant ileum increased at 1-wk and 4-wk time-points over controls (0.45 and 0.57 vs 0.21, resp; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Ileal adaptation to proximal resection for peptide absorption occurs through cellular proliferation (hyperplasia) and not through cellular upregulation of PepT1 mRNA or protein per enterocyte. PMID:21647767

Qandeel, Hisham G.; Alonso, Fernando; Hernandez, David J.; Madhavan, Srivats; Duenes, Judith A.; Zheng, Ye; Sarr, Michael G.

2011-01-01

29

Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity  

PubMed Central

Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

2013-01-01

30

Volvulus of ileal S-pouch: A rare complication of ileal pouch anal anastomoses  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) after total proctocolectomy is a frequently performed surgery for medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Volvulus of the ileal pouch as a complication of IPAA is extremely rare. We present a case of volvulus of S-type ileal pouch. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28 year old male, with history of total proctocolectomy with IPAA for severe UC in 2009 presented with signs of bowel obstruction. Emergency laparotomy was done and a volvulus of the S-type ileal pouch was derotated and pouchpexy done. DISCUSSION The IPAA has a wide spectrum of complications, with obstruction of proximal small bowel occurring frequently. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is extremely rare with only 3 reported cases. Early diagnosis and intervention is important to salvage the pouch. Computed tomography (CT) may aid the diagnosis in stable patients. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of ileal pouch volvulus although rare, should be kept in mind when dealing with patients complaining of recurrent obstruction following IPAA. PMID:25212904

Tyagi, Gaurav; Gupta, Utsav; Verma, Ankit; Saxena, Dhananjay; Mittal, Atul; Goyal, Amit; Kankaria, Jeevan; Jenaw, R.K.

2014-01-01

31

Renal transplantation into an ileal conduit.  

PubMed

Since the selection criteria for renal transplantation have become less stringent as a consequence of improved graft survival and decreased mortality, patients with severe structural anomalies of the lower urinary tract can now benefit from renal transplantation into an ileal conduit. This is illustrated by two succesful cases. The opertative procedure is discussed, and the possibilities for the future are mentioned. PMID:332087

Debruyne, F M; Koene, R A; Dam, V; Arendsen, H J; Moonen, W A; Michiels, H G

1977-01-01

32

Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione and glutathione precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective antibodies were used to assess the cellular and subcellular localization of glutathione, and the glutathione precursors %-glutamylcysteine, glutamate, and cysteine, in neuronal (photoreceptors) and non-neuronal (pigment epithelial cells and Müller cells) cell types in the outer retina of the guinea pig. In each cell type the highest level of glutathione immunoreactivity occurred in the mitochondria. The labeling density in

Dominik Huster; Ole P. Hjelle; Finn-Mogens Haug; Erlend A. Nagelhus; Winfried Reichelt; O. P. Ottersen

1998-01-01

33

Glutathione Content of Colonic Mucosa (Evidence for Oxidative Damage in Active Ulcerative Colitis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress appears to play a role in thetissue damage of active ulcerative colitis, and it hasbeen suggested that a defect in mucosal antioxidantdefenses is a etiological factor in the disease. This study was undertaken to investigate themucosal content and oxidation state of glutathione inulcerative colitis in the active and inactive states andto examine the relationship between glutathione content and

E. W. Holmes; S. L. Yong; D. Eiznhamer; A. Keshavarzian

1998-01-01

34

Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

When colorectal cancer complicates chronic ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis, the role of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is uncertain because of concerns that the procedure may compromise oncologic therapy and that oncologic therapy may compromise ileal pouch-anal anastomosis function. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate the impact both of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis on cancer outcomes and of cancer treatments

Elisabetta Radice; Heidi Nelson; Richard M. Devine; Roger R. Dozois; Santhat Nivatvongs; John H. Pemberton; Bruce G. Wolff; J. Basil J. Fozard; Duane Ilstrup

1998-01-01

35

GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22995213

Lu, Shelly C.

2012-01-01

36

Nasal mucosal biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

37

Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature.  

PubMed

Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25003194

Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N; Noe, Joshua D; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B; Griffiths, Anne M; Crandall, Wallace V; Mack, David R; Baker, Susan S; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A

2014-08-01

38

Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25003194

Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L.; Dexheimer, Phillip J.; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N.; Noe, Joshua D.; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B.; Griffiths, Anne M.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Mack, David R.; Baker, Susan S.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D.; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A.

2014-01-01

39

Comparison of Ileal Conduit and Transureteroureterostomy with Ureterocutaneostomy Urinary Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We compare the postoperative early and late complications of patients who had undergone ileal conduit (IC) urinary diversion and transureteroureterostomy (TUU) with ureterocutaneostomy (UC) urinary diversion during the same interval and by the same surgeons. Materials and Methods: Between 1992 and 2004, we performed TUU with UC urinary diversion in 27 men and 7 women (group I) and ileal

Mete Kilciler; Selahattin Bedir; Fikret Erdemir; Nazif Zeybek; Koray Erten; Yasar Ozgok

2006-01-01

40

New frontiers in mucositis.  

PubMed

Mucositis is among the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted anticancer therapy. Research continues to escalate regarding key issues such as etiopathology, incidence and severity across different mucosae, relationships between mucosal and nonmucosal toxicities, and risk factors. This approach is being translated into enhanced management strategies. Recent technology advances provide an important foundation for this continuum. For example, evolution of applied genomics is fostering development of new algorithms to rapidly screen genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for patient-associated risk prediction. This modeling will permit individual tailoring of the most effective, least toxic treatment in the future. The evolution of novel cancer therapeutics is changing the mucositis toxicity profile. These agents can be associated with unique mechanisms of mucosal damage. Additional research is needed to optimally manage toxicity caused by agents such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, without reducing antitumor effect. There has similarly been heightened attention across the health professions regarding clinical practice guidelines for mucositis management in the years following the first published guidelines in 2004. New opportunities exist to more effectively interface this collective guideline portfolio by capitalizing upon novel technologies such as an Internet-based Wiki platform. Substantive progress thus continues across many domains associated with mucosal injury in oncology patients. In addition to enhancing oncology patient care, these advances are being integrated into high-impact educational and scientific venues including the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ) portfolio as well as a new Gordon Research Conference on mucosal health and disease scheduled for June 2013. PMID:24451793

Peterson, Douglas E; Keefe, Dorothy M; Sonis, Stephen T

2012-01-01

41

Electrochemical Determination of Glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures were developed for determining glutathione by voltammetry and coulometric titration with electrogenerated oxidants using the biamperometric indication of the titration end-point. Possible mechanisms of the glutathione reaction with electrogenerated halogens are discussed. Microgram amounts of glutathione can be determined in model solutions with an RSD of 1–2%. The oxidation wave of glutathione in the voltammogram is observed at 0.95

G. K. Budnikov; G. K. Ziyatdinova; Ya. R. Valitova

2004-01-01

42

Exercise effects on mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review examines the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity in recreational and elite athletes and the role of mucosal immunity in respiratory illness. Habitual exercise at an intense level can cause suppression of mucosal immune parameters, while moderate exercise may have positive effects. Saliva is the most commonly used secretion for measurement of secretory antibodies in the assessment

Maree Gleeson; David B Pyne

2000-01-01

43

Vaccines against mucosal infections.  

PubMed

There remains a great need to develop vaccines against many of the pathogens that infect mucosal tissues or have a mucosal port of entry. Parenteral vaccination may protect in some instances, but usually a mucosal vaccination route is necessary. Mucosal vaccines also have logistic advantages over injectable vaccines by being easier to administer, having less risk of transmitting infections and potentially being easier to manufacture. Still, however, only relatively few vaccines for human use are available: oral vaccines against cholera, typhoid, polio, and rotavirus, and a nasal vaccine against influenza. For polio, typhoid and influenza, in which the pathogens reach the blood stream, there is also an injectable vaccine alternative. A problem with available oral live vaccines is their reduced immunogenicity when used in developing countries; for instance, the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines correlates closely with the national per capita income. Research is needed to define the impact of factors such as malnutrition, aberrant intestinal microflora, concomitant infections, and preexisting immunity as well as of host genetic factors on the immunogenicity of these vaccines. PMID:22580196

Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

2012-06-01

44

Mucosal immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host gastrointestinal tract is exposed to countless numbers of foreign antigens and has embedded a unique and complex network of immunological and non-immunological mechanisms, often termed the gastrointestinal ‘mucosal barrier’, to protect the host from potentially harmful pathogens while at the same time ‘tolerating’ other resident microbes to allow absorption and utilization of nutrients. Of the many important roles

David W. K Acheson; Stefano Luccioli

2004-01-01

45

Flow cytometric analysis of gut mucosal lymphocytes supports an impaired Th1 cytokine profile in spondyloarthropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To quantify the fraction of gut mucosal lymphocytes expressing the T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines, interferon ? (IFN?) and interleukin (IL)2, and the Th2 cytokines, IL4 and IL10, at the single cell level in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA) in comparison with healthy controls.?METHODS—An improved extraction protocol was used for the enrichment of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) from colonic and ileal biopsy specimens obtained from patients with SpA (n=20) and healthy controls (n=13). After stimulation with phorbol ester/ionomycin, expression of the intracellular cytokines IFN?, IL2, IL4, and IL10 was determined in CD3+, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD8? T cells by flow cytometry.?RESULTS—In colonic LPLs, a significant decrease in IFN?-producing CD3+ cells was observed (p=0.02) in patients with SpA. In the CD3+CD8? subset, the proportion of cells producing IFN? and IL2 was decreased in patients with SpA (p=0.021 and p=0.027 respectively). In ileal LPLs, the percentage of IL10-producing CD3+CD8? cells was significantly increased (p=0.046).?CONCLUSION—An impaired Th1 cytokine profile is observed in gut mucosal lymphocytes from patients with SpA. This adds to the existing evidence that the gut mucosal immune apparatus is involved in the pathogenesis of SpA.?? PMID:11302872

Van Damme, N; De Vos, M; Baeten, D; Demetter, P; Mielants, H; Verbruggen, G; Cuvelier, C; Veys, E; De Keyser, F

2001-01-01

46

Minilaparotomy approach to terminal ileal Crohn’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and safety of a minilaparotomy approach to terminal ileal Crohn’s disease have not been fully elucidated.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to compare early outcomes utilizing this technique as an alternative to conventional approaches.\\u000a Nine patients with terminal ileal Crohn’s disease (but no complicating enteric fístulas) who underwent minilaparotomy between\\u000a January 1998 and September 2000 were studied

Tohru Nakagoe; Terumitsu Sawai; Takashi Tsuji; Masa-aki Jibiki; Atsushi Nanashima; Hiroyuki Yamaguchi; Toru Yasutake; Hiroyoshi Ayabe

2002-01-01

47

Mucosal Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting mucosal tissues from infection and inflammation is one of the most important challenges to immunology research\\u000a today (1,2). Vaccines against pathogens that enter or target the mucosa include those for poliomyelitis, influenza, rotavirus, and genital\\u000a papillomavirus, demonstrating the enormous benefits of protecting those complex tissues and using their potential as effective\\u000a barriers against the entry of pathogenic microbes into

Vassil St. Georgiev

48

Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Protects against Increase in Gut Permeability ex vivo and Up-Regulates Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and 2 in Hyperthermally-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + ?-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress. PMID:24962481

Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

2014-01-01

49

ILEAL URETERAL SUBSTITUTION IN RECONSTRUCTIVE UROLOGICAL SURGERY: IS AN ANTIREFLUX PROCEDURE NECESSARY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWhether antireflux implantation techniques are necessary in adults who undergo ileal ureteral substitution is controversial. We prospectively evaluated the correlation between reflux and renal function in 19 patients who underwent ileal ureteral substitution with no antireflux implantation technique.

MICHAEL WALDNER; LOTHAR HERTLE; STEPHAN ROTH

1999-01-01

50

Stimulation of chloride secretion by N-formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP) in rabbit ileal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

1. Formyl-methionyl peptides are potent neutrophil chemoattractants which may be involved in inflammatory responses in the intestine. Effects of formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP) on electrical properties and Cl- fluxes were examined with the Ussing chamber technique employing stripped segments of rabbit ileal mucosa. 2. Serosal but not mucosal addition of FMLP elicited a transient (peak effect within 2 min), concentration-dependent (maximal effect at 30 nM and half-maximal effect at 3 nM) increase in short-circuit current (Isc) which was not inhibited by pretreatment of the tissue with mepyramine (10 microM), tetrodotoxin (0.1 microM) or atropine (10 microM). The related peptides FMLP-benzylamide (FMLP-benz) and methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (MLP) produced concentration-dependent increases in Isc which were qualitatively similar to FMLP. The order of potencies of these peptides was FMLP-benz greater than FMLP greater than MLP. 3. The lack of an effect of mucosal FMLP (300 nM) on Isc does not appear to be due to metabolism since addition of an aliquot of this bathing solution to the serosal bathing solution of a naive tissue increased Isc as expected. Addition of FMLP (30 nM) to the serosal bathing solution of a tissue pre-stimulated with serosal FMLP (30 nM) failed to elicit a response. 4. The increase in Isc produced by FMLP (30 nM) was inhibited by removal of Ca2+ from the serosal bathing solution and by removal of Cl- from both bathing solutions. FMLP (30 nM) increased the serosal-to-mucosal flux of Cl- and decreased the transepithelial conductance (Gt). 5. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin (1 microM), mefenamate (10 microM) or piroxicam (30 microM) added to both the serosal and mucosal bathing solutions inhibited the increase in Isc elicited by FMLP (30 nM). 6. Measurement of release of immunoreactive thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and PGE2 revealed that FMLP (30 nM) selectively increased PGE2 release by an indomethacin-sensitive pathway. 7. Thus, in addition to being potent chemoattractants, formyl-methionyl peptides stimulate electrogenic Cl- secretion and also increase prostaglandin production. PMID:2621602

Finley, R B; Smith, P L

1989-01-01

51

NKT cells in mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal tract allows the residence of an almost enumerable number of bacteria. To maintain homeostasis, the mucosal immune system must remain tolerant to the commensal microbiota and eradicate pathogenic bacteria. Aberrant interactions between the mucosal immune cells and the microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, we

S Middendorp; E E S Nieuwenhuis; EES Nieuwenhuis

2009-01-01

52

Chloroplast glutathione reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity is present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. The pH dependence and substrate concentration for half-maximal rate are reported and a possible role in chloroplasts is proposed.

M. Schaedle; J. A. Bassham

1977-01-01

53

Marine Glutathione S -Transferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic environment is generally affected by the presence of environmental xenobiotic compounds. One of the major xenobiotic\\u000a detoxifying enzymes is glutathione S-transferase (GST), which belongs to a family of multifunctional enzymes involved in catalyzing nucleophilic attack of the\\u000a sulfur atom of glutathione (?-glutamyl-cysteinylglycine) to an electrophilic group on metabolic products or xenobiotic compounds.\\u000a Because of the unique nature of

Brian Blanchette; Xia Feng; Bal Ram Singh

2007-01-01

54

Multiphasic analysis of the temporal development of the distal gut microbiota in patients following ileal pouch anal anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Background The indigenous gut microbiota are thought to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the abnormal inflammatory responses that are the hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease. Direct tests of the role of the gut microbiome in these disorders are typically limited by the fact that sampling of the microbiota generally occurs once disease has become manifest. This limitation could potentially be circumvented by studying patients who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for the definitive treatment of ulcerative colitis. A subset of patients who undergo IPAA develops an inflammatory condition known as pouchitis, which is thought to mirror the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Following the development of the microbiome of the pouch would allow characterization of the microbial community that predates the development of overt disease. Results We monitored the development of the pouch microbiota in four patients who underwent IPAA. Mucosal and luminal samples were obtained prior to takedown of the diverting ileostomy and compared to samples obtained 2, 4 and 8 weeks after intestinal continuity had been restored. Through the combined analysis of 16S rRNA-encoding gene amplicons, targeted 16S amplification and microbial cultivation, we observed major changes in structure and function of the pouch microbiota following ileostomy. There is a relative increase in anaerobic microorganisms with the capacity for fermentation of complex carbohydrates, which corresponds to the physical stasis of intestinal contents in the ileal pouch. Compared to the microbiome structure encountered in the colonic mucosa of healthy individuals, the pouch microbial community in three of the four individuals was quite distinct. In the fourth patient, a community that was much like that seen in a healthy colon was established, and this patient also had the most benign clinical course of the four patients, without the development of pouchitis 2 years after IPAA. Conclusions The microbiota that inhabit the ileal-anal pouch of patients who undergo IPAA for treatment of ulcerative colitis demonstrate significant structural and functional changes related to the restoration of fecal flow. Our preliminary results suggest once the pouch has assumed the physiologic role previously played by the intact colon, the precise structure and function of the pouch microbiome, relative to a normal colonic microbiota, will determine if there is establishment of a stable, healthy mucosal environment or the reinitiation of the pathogenic cascade that results in intestinal inflammation. PMID:24451366

2013-01-01

55

Mucosal vaccines: the promise and the challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most infectious agents enter the body at mucosal surfaces and therefore mucosal immune responses function as a first line of defence. Protective mucosal immune responses are most effectively induced by mucosal immunization through oral, nasal, rectal or vaginal routes, but the vast majority of vaccines in use today are administered by injection. As discussed in this Review, current research is

Pamela A. Kozlowski; Marian R. Neutra

2006-01-01

56

Mucosal immunology of geohelminth infections in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited data on the human mucosal immune response to geohelminths, but extensive data from experimental animals. Geohelminth infections may modulate mucosal immunity with effects on parasite expulsion or persistence and mucosal inflammation. Geohelminths are considered to have important effects on immunity to mucosal vaccines, infectious disease susceptibility, and anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. This review

P J Cooper

2009-01-01

57

Hypoxia stimulates CXCR4 signalling in ileal carcinoids.  

PubMed

Tumour hypoxia is associated with increased metastatic potential and resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Ileal carcinoids are usually metastatic at the time of diagnosis and respond poorly to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of hypoxia in ileal carcinoids and the response of tumour cells to induced hypoxia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), carbonic anhydrase (CA-IX), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha were studied by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from 24 patients with ileal carcinoids. All hypoxic markers were shown to be highly expressed in localized areas of the tumours irrespective of tumour location or stage. However, HIF-2alpha expression was significantly higher in distant metastases compared to primary tumours in the same patient. Global gene expression profiling of GOT1 carcinoid cells revealed a marked response to hypoxia. Expression of genes related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and development was altered including increased expression of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), an important regulator of invasive growth and metastasis formation. High expression of CXCR4 was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in tumour biopsies. Stimulation of GOT1 cells by the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)), activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p42/44 signalling pathway and increased tumour cell migration. We conclude that ileal carcinoids contain hypoxic areas expressing HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and CXCR4. Signalling through the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis may contribute to the metastatic potential of ileal carcinoids. Targeting of HIFs and/or the CXCR4 signalling pathway may offer new therapeutic strategies for carcinoid tumour disease. PMID:20071457

Arvidsson, Yvonne; Bergström, Anders; Arvidsson, Linda; Kristiansson, Erik; Ahlman, Håkan; Nilsson, Ola

2010-06-01

58

INTERACTION OF HALOACETONITRILES WITH GLUTATHIONE AND GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of reduced glutathione (GSH) with haloacetonitriles (HAH) were carried out under various conditions and the depletion of GSH was determined. Haloacetonitriles reacted directly with glutathione in the absence of tissue extracts. he reactivities of haloacetonitrile...

59

Glutathione in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, characterised mainly as an autoimmune neurodegenerative disorder. Its cause is unknown but multifactorial; however, some studies suggest that oxidative stress may be one of the sources, or a consequence of the disease, from loss of oxidant/antioxidant balance. This review studies glutathione, one of the most important agents of the endogenous antioxidant defence system, protecting cells from damage caused by oxidative stress. It evaluates glutathione and the enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in various forms and stages of the disease. Analysis of a literature search suggests that the scientific community is not unanimous in its views, so more studies are required of patients with different forms of the disease and its manifestations, taking into account that the body functions as a whole and reacts in a compensatory manner. It would seem imperative to achieve a consensus on the pathogenesis responsible for severe disability, and explore sensitive biomarkers of its progression and indicators of oxidative stress. It is also important to promote the development of new therapies, with more studies on other substances such as acrolein, lipoic acid and dimethyl fumarate. Clarification of the mechanisms involved in oxidative stress, in different forms of multiple sclerosis, could result in improvements in the monitoring and prognosis of the disease, with subsequent increases in a patient's quality of life. PMID:23888609

Ferreira, B; Mendes, F; Osório, N; Caseiro, A; Gabriel, A; Valado, A

2013-01-01

60

Alteration of the Redox State with Reactive Oxygen Species for 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Oral Mucositis in Hamsters  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis. PMID:24376587

Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Lee, Masaichi Chang-il

2013-01-01

61

Primary ileal villous atrophy is often associated with microscopic colitis  

PubMed Central

Three cases of apparent primary villous atrophy of the terminal ileum in women with chronic diarrhoea are reported. Eight cases have previously been reported in the literature. Clinical characteristics are the presence of severe chronic secretory diarrhoea with episodes of hypokalaemia combined with signs of ileal malabsorption and/or efficacy of cholestyramine. Diagnosis is based on ileoscopy and histology. An association with microscopic colitis was present in the three patients and in four cases in the literature. The pathogenesis of primary ileal villous atrophy remains unknown and may involve dysimmunity. Its association with microscopic colitis may indicate a common pathogenesis or support the hypothesis that the faecal stream or bile salts play a role in the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis. ?? Keywords: intestinal villous atrophy; ileum; secretory diarrhoea; bile acid malabsorption; microscopic colitis PMID:9391260

Marteau, P; Lavergne-Slove, A; Lemann, M; Bouhnik, Y; Bertheau, P; Becheur, H; Galian, A; Rambaud, J

1997-01-01

62

Ileal intussusception due to a parasite egg: A case report  

PubMed Central

Ileal intussusception is the invagination of the small intestine within itself and accounts for 1% of cases of acute obstruction. However, physicians do not initially consider intussusception as a possible diagnosis of obstruction due to its rarity in adults. Herein, we report the case of a 22-year-old male who was admitted to the Emergency Department with continuous abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed an ileal intussusception. The patient underwent surgical removal of the segment of the small bowel. Unexpectedly, pathology revealed that the invagination occurred due to a parasite egg, with features suggestive of Schistosoma species. Schistosomiasis, although considered a parasitic disease in tropical countries, is not absent from Europe and though it is highly improbable, it may be responsible for cases of intussusception in adults.

Pinto, Jose Pedro; Cordeiro, Agostinho; Ferreira, Ana Margarida; Antunes, Conceicao; Botelho, Patricia; Rodrigues, Ana Joao; Leao, Pedro

2014-01-01

63

Glutamine attenuates the inhibitory effect of methotrexate on TLR signaling during intestinal chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a rat  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is crucial in maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis, participates in a vigorous signaling process and heightens inflammatory cytokine output. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of glutamine (GLN) on TLR-4 signaling in intestinal mucosa during methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis in a rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups of 8 rats each: 1) control rats; 2) CONTR-GLN animals were treated with oral glutamine given in drinking water (2%) 48 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection; 3) MTX-rats were treated with a single IP injection of MTX (20 mg/kg); and 4) MTX-GLN rats were pre-treated with oral glutamine similar to group B, 48 hours before and 72 hours after MTX injection. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. The expression of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 in the intestinal mucosa was determined using real time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. MTX-GLN rats demonstrated a greater jejunal and ileal mucosal weight and mucosal DNA, greater villus height in ileum and crypt depth and index of proliferation in jejunum and ileum, compared to MTX animals. The expression of TLR-4 and MyD88 mRNA and protein in the mucosa was significantly lower in MTX rats versus controls animals. The administration of GLN increased significantly the expression of TLR-4 and MyD88 (vs the MTX group). In conclusion, treatment with glutamine was associated with up-regulation of TLR-4 and MyD88 expression and a concomitant decrease in intestinal mucosal injury caused by MTX-induced mucositis in a rat. PMID:24742067

2014-01-01

64

Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated mucositis.  

PubMed

We present a case of a young man with severe mucositis following an upper respiratory tract infection limited to the ophthalmic and oral mucosa while sparing the rest of the skin, genitalia and perianal regions. Investigations revealed that the mucositis was a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. He had progressive vision-threatening symptoms despite antibiotics and best supportive care and thus was treated with intravenous corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, temporary ocular amniotic membrane grafts and tarsorrhaphy. The patient made an almost complete recovery over 6 weeks. PMID:24626386

Varghese, Cyril; Sharain, Korosh; Skalski, Joseph; Ramar, Kannan

2014-01-01

65

Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology.  

PubMed

Inflammatory intestinal pathology has been reported in children with regressive autism (affected children). Detailed analysis of intestinal biopsies in these children indicates a novel lymphocytic enterocolitis with autoimmune features; however, links with cognitive function remain unclear. To characterize further, the nature and extent of this disease we examined the mucosal infiltrate using flow cytometry. Duodenal, ileal, and colonic biopsies were obtained from 52 affected children, 25 histologically normal, and 54 histologically inflamed, developmentally normal controls. Epithelial and lamina propria lymphocyte populations were isolated and examined by multicolor flow cytometry. Adjacent biopsies were assessed by semiquantitative histopathology. At all sites, CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) IEL as well as CD3(+) LPL were significantly increased in affected children compared with developmentally normal noninflamed control groups (p<0.01) reaching levels similar to inflamed controls. In addition, two populations--CD3(+)CD4(+) IEL and LP CD19(+) B cells--were significantly increased in affected children compared with both noninflamed and inflamed control groups including IBD, at all sites examined (p<0.01). Histologically there was a prominent mucosal eosinophil infiltrate in affected children that was significantly lower in those on a gluten- and casein-free diet, although lymphocyte populations were not influenced by diet. The data provide further evidence of a pan-enteric mucosal immunopathology in children with regressive autism that is apparently distinct from other inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:15031638

Ashwood, Paul; Anthony, Andrew; Pellicer, Alicia A; Torrente, Franco; Walker-Smith, John A; Wakefield, Andrew J

2003-11-01

66

Dehydroalanine analog of glutathione  

PubMed Central

Elimination of hydrogen sulfide from glutathione (GSH) converts a well-known cellular nucleophile to an electrophilic species, ?-glutamyldehydroalanylglycine (EdAG). We have found that a sulfonium metabolite formed from GSH and busulfan undergoes a facile ?-elimination reaction to give EdAG, which is an ??-unsaturated dehydroalanyl analog of GSH. EdAG was identified as a metabolite of busulfan in a human liver cytosol fraction. EdAG condenses with GSH in a Michael addition reaction to produce a lanthionine thioether (GSG), which is a non-reducible analog of glutathione disulfide (GSSG). EdAG was less cytotoxic than busulfan to C6 rat glioma cells. GSH and EdAG were equally effective in displacing a glutathione S-transferase isozyme (human GSTA1-1) from a GSH-Agarose column. The finding of an electrophilic metabolite of GSH suggests that alteration of cellular GSH concentrations, irreversible non-reducible glutathionylation of proteins, and interference with GST function may contribute to the toxicity of busulfan. PMID:18791061

Younis, Islam R.; Elliott, Meenal; Peer, Cody J.; Cooper, Arthur J.L.; Pinto, John T.; Konat, Gregory W.; Kraszpulski, Michal; Petros, William P.; Callery, Patrick S.

2008-01-01

67

Interleukin18 and oral mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosal cells such as epithelial cells and fibroblasts are the first cells encountered by bacteria in our body. In addition to acting as a physical barrier, oral mucosal cells appear to express adhesion molecules and secrete many proinflammatory mediators, implying that the cells actively participate in mucosal immunity. Oral epithelial cells express a precursor form of interleukin (IL)-18, an

Shunji Sugawara

2005-01-01

68

Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly  

PubMed Central

A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

Davis, Heather A.; Munsterman, Amelia

2012-01-01

69

Phospholipase A2 gene expression and activity in histologically normal ileal mucosa and in Crohn's ileitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in the ileal mucosa may contribute to the inflammation in Crohn's disease. The results of this study showed that (a) three months after ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease the neoterminal ileal mucosa showed endoscopically new inflammation and had higher PLA2 activity than at the time of the operation (n = 8); no such findings

I Lilja; K Smedh; G Olaison; R Sjödahl; C Tagesson; C Gustafson-Svärd

1995-01-01

70

Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. PMID:23071856

Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav

2012-01-01

71

Mitochondrial changes associated with glutathione deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione deficiency produced by giving buthionine sulfoximine (an inhibitor of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase) to animals, leads to biphasic decline in cellular glutathione levels associated with sequestration of glutathione in mitochondria. Liver mitochondria lack the enzymes needed for glutathione synthesis. Mitochondrial glutathione arises from the cytosol. Rat liver mitochondria have a multicomponent system (with Ks of approx. 60 ?M and 5.4 mM)

Alton Meister

1995-01-01

72

Vitamin B12 absorption in patients with ileal conduits.  

PubMed

The absorption of vitamin B12 was assessed using the 58Co-absorption test (Schilling test) in 39 patients in whom ileal loops had been used as urinary diversion after excision of the bladder for transitional cell carcinoma. 29% of the patients were found to absorb less than 12% of the offered dose of labelled vitamin B12 after excluding gastric-mediated malabsorption by the modified Schilling test. Examination of haemoglobin, MCV or vitamin B12 in the peripheral blood gave unreliable indications of the absorptive ability of these patients. PMID:1233167

Rogers, A C; Steyn, J H

1975-01-01

73

Spectrofluorimetric assay method for glutathione and glutathione transferase using monobromobimane  

PubMed Central

The primary role of glutathione transferase is to defend an organism from toxicities through catalyzing the reaction of glutathione (GSH) with potentially toxic compounds or metabolites to their chemically and biologically inert conjugates. The objective of the study was to develop a simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric assay method for glutathione transferase using monobromobimane (MBB), a non fluorescent compound with electrophilic site. MBB slowly reacted with glutathione to form fluorescent glutathione conjugate and that the reaction was catalysed by glutathione transferase. Both non-enzymatic and enzymatic reaction products of MBB, in presence of GSH in phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), were measured by following increase of fluorescence at wavelength of 475nm. For validation of the assay method, the kinetic parameters such as the apparent Michaelis-Mente constants and maximum rates of conjugate formation as well as the specific activity of rat hepatic glutathione transferase were determined. The method was found to be sensitive, thus, applied to measure glutathione contents of crude preparation of rat hepatic cytosol fraction PMID:24826016

Yakubu, S. I.; Yakasai, I. A.; Musa, A.

2011-01-01

74

Functions of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in immunology and immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even a moderate increase in the cellular cysteine supply elevates the intracellular glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and poten- tiates immunological functions of lymphocytes in vitro. At low GSSG levels, T cells cannot optimally activate the im- munologically important transcription factor NFxB, whereas high GSSG levels inhibit the DNA binding ac- tivity of NFxB. The effects of GSSG

KLAUS SCHULZE-OSTHOFF; SABINE MIHM; DAGMAR GALTER; HEIKE SCHENK; HANS-PETER ECK; STEFFEN ROTH; HELMUT GMUNDER

75

Population Pharmacokinetics of Melphalan and Glutathione S-transferase Polymorphisms in Relation to Side Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melphalan is associated with severe side effects such as mucositis, diarrhea, and myelosuppression. We investigated how much the individual severity of these side effects is predicted by pharmacokinetics. In addition, we studied glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms in relation to adverse events. A high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability was observed in 84 patients. There was a linear correlation between

A Kühne; O Sezer; U Heider; I Meineke; S Muhlke; W Niere; T Overbeck; K Hohloch; L Trümper; J Brockmöller; R Kaiser

2008-01-01

76

Antiretroviral Pharmacology in Mucosal Tissues  

PubMed Central

Strategies to prevent HIV infection using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are required to curtail the HIV pandemic. The mucosal tissues of the genital and rectal tracts play a critical role in HIV acquisition, but antiretroviral (ARV) disposition and correlates of efficacy within these tissues are not well understood. Pre-clinical and clinical strategies to describe ARV pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships (PK/PD) within mucosal tissues are currently being investigated. In this review, we summarize the physiochemical and biologic factors influencing ARV tissue exposure. Further, we discuss the necessary steps to generate relevant PK/PD data and the challenges associated with this process. Finally, we suggest how pre-clinical and clinical data might be practically translated into optimal PrEP dosing strategies for clinical trials testing using mathematical modeling and simulation. PMID:23764642

Thompson, Corbin G.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

2014-01-01

77

Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

2013-01-01

78

Nutritional biochemistry of cellular glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione (GSH) has emerged to be one of the most fascinating endogenous molecules virtually present in all animal cells often in quite high (mM) concentrations. In addition to the detoxicant, antioxidant, and cysteine-reservoir functions of cellular glutathione, the potential of this ubiquitous thiol to modulate cellular signal transduction processes has been recently evident. Lowered tissue GSH levels have been observed

Chandan K. Sen

1997-01-01

79

A plausible explanation for male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of consistent male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation (TIP) is not well understood. It cannot be explained on the basis of microbial virulence, Peyer's patch anatomy, ileal wall thickness, gastric acidity, host genetic factors, or sex-linked bias in hospital attendance. The cytokine response to an intestinal infection in males is predominantly proinflammatory as compared with that in females, presumably due to differences in the sex hormonal milieu. Sex hormone receptors have been detected on lymphocytes and macrophages, including on Peyer's patches, inflammation of which (probably similar to the Shwartzman reaction/Koch phenomenon) is the forerunner of TIP, and is not excluded from the regulatory effects of sex hormones. Hormonal control of host-pathogen interaction may override genetic control. Environmental exposure to Salmonella typhi may be more frequent in males, presumably due to sex-linked differences in hygiene practices and dining-out behavior. A plausible explanation of male dominance in TIP could include sex-linked differences in the degree of natural exposure of Peyer's patches to S. typhi. An alternative explanation may include sexual dimorphism in host inflammatory response patterns in Peyer's patches that have been induced by S. typhi. Both hypotheses are testable. PMID:23180972

Khan, Mohammad

2012-01-01

80

A Novel Antireflux Technique for Orthotopic Ileal Bladder Substitutes—Flat-Segment Technique: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Objective. Although a large debate exists regarding the need for reflux prevention in ileal orthotopic neobladders, it is our policy to continue performing nonrefluxing ureteroileal anastomoses for our patients. An ideal uretero-ileal anastomosis must be simple, nonrefluxing, as well as non-obstructive. Here, we present a new antireflux mechanism for orthotopic ileal neobladders. Methods. 12 radical cystectomy patients for muscle invasive bladder cancer were candidates for orthotopic urinary diversion and underwent a non-refluxing uretero-ileal anastomosis using the flat-segment technique with a follow up of 6 to 18 months. Results. Preliminary results after the short-term followup showed that the success rate in reflux prevention was 92% and no cases of obstruction. The upper tracts were preserved or improved in all 12 patients. Operative time for neobladder creation ranged between 120–240 minutes, with a mean of 165 minutes (±36 minutes). No diversion-related complications. Conclusions. Based on our early data, we believe that the flat-segment uretero-ileal anastomosis technique for reflux prevention in orthotopic ileal bladder substitutes is simple, easy to learn and carries no additional morbidity to a standard refluxing uretero-ileal anastomosis, but has the advantage of effective reflux prevention. A longer follow-up period study with more patient numbers is ongoing. PMID:22235380

ElFayoumy, Hany; Abou-Elela, Ashraf; Orban, Tamer; Emran, Ashraf; Elghoneimy, Mohamed; Morsy, Ahmed

2011-01-01

81

??Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT detects heart metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to the myocardium are rare and generally seen in patients with widespread metastatic NET disease. The objectives of this investigation were to describe the frequency of intracardiac metastases in ileal NET patients examined by (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT and to describe the cases in detail. All (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT examinations performed at the Karolinska University Hospital since 2010 until April 2012 were reviewed. In all, 128 out of 337 examinations were in patients with ileal NETs. Four patients had seven myocardiac metastases, yielding a frequency of 4.3 % in patients with ileal NETs. One patient had cardiac surgery while three were treated with somatostatin analogs. The cardiac metastases did not affect the patients' activity of daily life. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT is an established imaging modality in identifying cardiac metastases in ileal NETs. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the true clinical value of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT in detecting cardiac metastases in both ileal and non-ileal NETs. PMID:24272595

Calissendorff, Jan; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

2014-09-01

82

Intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The mucosal immune system acts as a first line of defense against bacterial and viral infections while also playing a crucial\\u000a role in the establishment and maintenance of mucosal homeostasis between the host and the outside environment. In addition\\u000a to epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), B and T lymphocytes form a dynamic mucosal\\u000a network for the

J. Kunisawa; H. Kiyono

2005-01-01

83

Quantification of Risk for Pouch Failure After Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify risk factors associated with ileal pouch failure and to develop a multifactorial model for quantifying the risk of failure in individual patients. Summary Background Data: Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the treatment choice for most patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis who require surgery. At present, there are no published studies that investigate collectively the interrelation of factors related to ileal pouch failure, nor are there any predictive indices for risk stratification of patients undergoing IPAA surgery. Methods: Data from 23 preoperative, 7 intraoperative, and 10 postoperative risk factors were recorded from 1,965 patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy in a single center between 1983 and 2001. Primary end point was ileal pouch failure during the follow-up period of up to 19 years. The “CCF ileal pouch failure” model was developed using a parametric survival analysis and a 70%:30% split-sample validation technique for model training and testing. Results: The median patient follow-up was 4.1 year (range, 0–19 years). Five-year ileal pouch survival was 95.6% (95% CI, 94.4–96.7). The following risk factors were found to be independent predictors of pouch survival and were used in the final multivariate model: patient diagnosis, prior anal pathology, abnormal anal manometry, patient comorbidity, pouch-perineal or pouch-vaginal fistulae, pelvic sepsis, anastomotic stricture and separation. The model accurately predicted the risk of ileal pouch failure with adequate calibration statistics (Hosmer Lemeshow ?2 = 3.001; P = 0.557) and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 82.0%. Conclusions: The CCF ileal pouch failure model is a simple and accurate way of predicting the risk of ileal pouch failure in clinical practice on a longitudinal basis. It may play an important role in providing risk estimates for patients wishing to make informed choices on the type of treatment offered to them. PMID:14530732

Fazio, Victor W.; Tekkis, Paris P.; Remzi, Feza; Lavery, Ian C.; Manilich, Elena; Connor, Jason; Preen, Miriam; Delaney, Conor P.

2003-01-01

84

Mucosal immunity of the gastrointestinal tract and oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To guard against disease, mucosal surfaces of the intestinal, respiratory and urogenital tracts are protected by a carefully regulated system of defenses known as the mucosal immune system. The hallmark of mucosal immunity is secretory IgA which can prevent infection and remove antigen crossing the mucosal barrier. IgE responses are also associated with mucosal immunity. In addition, a lymphocyte population

Jerry W Simecka

1998-01-01

85

Glutathione specifically labeled with isotopes  

SciTech Connect

A procedure for synthesis of glutathione selectivity labeled with isotopes is described. A strain of Escherichia coli enriched in its content of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase by recombinant DNA techniques is immobilized in a carrageenan matrix and treated with toluene to render the cells more permeable to the substrates. The immobilized cell matrix is incubated with a mixture containing the appropriately labeled amino acid, the other amino acid constituents of glutathione, ATP, and acetylphosphate. The radiolabeled product is isolated by column chromatography.

Murata, K.; Abbott, W.A.; Bridges, R.J.; Meister, A.

1985-10-01

86

Glutathione and mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25024695

Ribas, Vicent; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C.

2014-01-01

87

REGULATION OF GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation. GSH is synthesized in the cytosol of all mammalian cells in a tightly regulated manner. The major determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of cysteine, the sulfur amino acid precursor, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). GCL is composed for a catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit and they are regulated at multiple levels and at times differentially. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis, GSH synthase (GS) is also regulated in a coordinated manner as GCL subunits and its up-regulation can further enhance the capacity of the cell to synthesize GSH. Oxidative stress is well known to induce the expression of GSH synthetic enzymes. Key transcription factors identified thus far include Nrf2/Nrf1 via the antioxidant response element (ARE), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor ? B (NF?B). Dysregulation of GSH synthesis is increasingly being recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary fibrosis, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. Manipulation of the GSH synthetic capacity is an important target in the treatment of many of these disorders. PMID:18601945

Lu, Shelly C.

2009-01-01

88

Heterotopic Pancreas: A Rare Cause of Ileo-Ileal Intussusception  

PubMed Central

Background Heterotopic pancreas is a rare developmental anomaly defined as pancreatic tissue found on ectopic sites without contiguity with the main pancreas. An isolated heterotopic pancreas as a cause of bowel intussusception is extremely rare. Case Report A case of 47-year old male with multiple episodes of melena, constipation and abdominal pain for one year duration is presented. CT eneterography revealed a large circumferential lesion involving the terminal ileum that acted as a leading point to an ileo-ileal intussusception. The resection of the lesion and related bowel segment was carried out. The histopathological examination confirmed the excised lesion as a heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Conclusions Though a rare entity, heterotopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bowel intussusception. PMID:25302087

Monier, Ahmed; Awad, Ahmed; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Muneer, Mohamed; Alrashid, Amal; Darweesh, Adham; Hassan, Heba

2014-01-01

89

Mucosal wave measurement and visualization techniques.  

PubMed

Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical for high-quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so-called "mucosal wave." Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography, photoglottography, and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography, stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging. The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations and its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. PMID:20471798

Krausert, Christopher R; Olszewski, Aleksandra E; Taylor, Lindsay N; McMurray, James S; Dailey, Seth H; Jiang, Jack J

2011-07-01

90

Mucosal Wave Measurement and Visualization Techniques  

PubMed Central

Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical to high quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so called “mucosal wave”. Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography (EGG), photoglottography (PGG), and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography (VKG), stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations as well as its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. PMID:20471798

Krausert, Christopher R.; Olszewski, Aleksandra E.; Taylor, Lindsay N.; McMurray, James S.; Dailey, Seth H.; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

91

Importance of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has traditionally focused on improving symptoms, with the main objective of inducing and maintaining symptomatic remission. However, new evidence suggests that concentrating exclusively on clinical outcome measures may not be adequate to achieve long-term treatment success. Indeed, physicians should also be assessing the reduction of endoscopic activity, with the intention of achieving complete mucosal healing (defined as the absence of all mucosal ulceration, both microscopic and macroscopic, providing a sigmoidoscopy score of 0, as assessed on the Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index). As a consequence of the customary reliance on symptomatic outcome measures, relatively few clinical trials have used mucosal healing or a composite including mucosal healing as a primary endpoint. This situation may soon change as new guidelines recommend the incorporation of mucosal healing into the primary endpoint of all new clinical trials in patients with UC. These recommendations are derived, in part, from data that have illustrated a correlation between mucosal healing and several important factors including long-term remission rates, disease-related complications (e.g., risk of colorectal cancer), healthcare utilization (e.g., need for colectomy), and patient quality of life. We already have drugs available to us that can effectively induce and maintain complete mucosal healing over long periods of time. This review evaluates the effect of medical therapy on mucosal healing in patients with UC and explores the importance of this outcome measure, both from the patient's perspective and clinical trial experience. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009. PMID:19637362

Lichtenstein, Gary R; Rutgeerts, Paul

2010-02-01

92

Mucins in the mucosal barrier to infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts, and the surface of the eye present an enormous surface area to the exterior environment. All of these tissues are covered with resident microbial flora, which vary considerably in composition and complexity. Mucosal tissues represent the site of infection or route of access for the majority of viruses, bacteria,

S K Linden; P Sutton; N G Karlsson; V Korolik; M A McGuckin

2008-01-01

93

Flagellin: key target of mucosal innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal immune system is charged with defending the host's vast interfaces with the outside world from the enormous and diverse group of microbes that colonizes these surfaces. A key means by which the mucosal immune system protects the host from such diverse microbes is using germ-line-encoded receptors that target structurally conserved motifs that mediate important bacterial functions. This review

M Vijay-Kumar; A T Gewirtz

2009-01-01

94

Duodenal mucosal permeability: Relevance to ulcerogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal mucosal integrity is determined by the balance between physiological defense mechanisms and aggressive factors. Derangements in any of the defense mechanisms or excessive aggressive forces will most likely result in a disturbance of mucosal integrity and eventually in gastroduodenal disease. To better understand the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers and other gastrointestinal disorders, it is of importance to characterize the

Olof Nylander; Anneli Hällgren

1998-01-01

95

Microflora trigger colitis in mice deficient in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and induce Gpx2 gene expression.  

PubMed

Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase isoenzymes-1 and -2 are the major glutathione-dependent H2O2-reducing activities in the epithelium of the mid- to lower gastrointestinal tract. The two isoenzymes protect mice against ileocolitis. We have found that luminal microflora are required for colitis to develop in mice deficient in GPX-1 and GPX-2 activity (GPX-DKO). Within 7 days of association with microflora, previously asymptomatic germ-free GPX-DKO mice developed severe acute colitis while their littermates with at least one wild-type Gpx1 or Gpx2 gene remained virtually symptom-free. Microflora also affected Gpx2 gene expression. Gpx2, but not Gpx1, mRNA levels were elevated 4-5 fold in the ileum and colon in conventionally reared or microflora-associated adult mice compared with germ-free mice. Since the gastrointestinal tract microflora undergo major changes 2-3 weeks after birth, from relatively benign to a potentially stressful composition, we examined postnatal Gpx2 gene expression. The jejunal and ileal GPX-2 activity levels were low in two to three week-old mice and increased 5-7 fold during the next two weeks. GPX-2 activity levels were correlated with the mRNA levels. Colon Gpx2 mRNA levels held steady at about 50% of adult levels from 12-21 days of age but were several times higher than ileal levels. Our results suggest that ileal Gpx2 mRNA and GPX-2 activity levels are induced by luminal microflora. This response is consistent with a role for GPX as an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:12751789

Esworthy, R Steven; Binder, Scott W; Doroshow, James H; Chu, Fong-Fong

2003-04-01

96

Effects of selenium and methylmercury upon glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of selenium and methylmercury upon liver glutathione concentration and glutathione-S-transferase activity was investigated in mice. Intraperitoneal injections of methylmercury produced a decrease in liver glutathione and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase. The response to methylmercury was similar in both selenium-control and selenium-deficient animals. Selenium administered alone produced an increase in glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase activity in the selenium-deficient animals but

James E. Balthrop; Sylvia A. Braddon

1985-01-01

97

Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective.  

PubMed

The glutathione transferases (GSTs) are one of the most important families of detoxifying enzymes in nature. The classic activity of the GSTs is conjugation of compounds with electrophilic centers to the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), but many other activities are now associated with GSTs, including steroid and leukotriene biosynthesis, peroxide degradation, double-bond cis-trans isomerization, dehydroascorbate reduction, Michael addition, and noncatalytic "ligandin" activity (ligand binding and transport). Since the first GST structure was determined in 1991, there has been an explosion in structural data across GSTs of all three families: the cytosolic GSTs, the mitochondrial GSTs, and the membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG family). In this review, the major insights into GST structure and function will be discussed. PMID:21428697

Oakley, Aaron

2011-05-01

98

Role of sulfhydryls in mucosal injury caused by ethanol: relation to microvascular permeability, gastric motility and cytoprotection  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between gastric mucosal glutathione (GSH) levels, vascular permeability, gastric motility and mucosal injury caused by ethanol was investigated in rats. Oral administration of 50% ethanol (1 ml) produced elongated reddish bands of lesions in the mucosa with a significant reduction of GSH levels and increase of microvascular permeability. These lesions were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with s.c. administered diethylmaleate (DEM: 1 ml/kg), cysteamine (100 mg/kg) and 16, 16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2, 10 micrograms/kg) but worsened markedly by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM: 10 mg/kg). Irrespective of whether the animals were treated with 50% ethanol or not, the mucosal GSH levels were significantly decreased or increased, respectively, by DEM or cysteamine, and were not affected by both NEM and dmPGE2. NEM significantly enhanced the vascular permeability in the absence or presence of ethanol (greater than 10%), whereas other agents significantly inhibited only the increased vascular permeability caused by ethanol. On the other hand, gastric motility was potently and persistently inhibited by either DEM, cysteamine or dmPGE2 at the doses which prevented ethanol-induced mucosal injury, whereas NEM had no effect on the motility. These results suggest that 1) the mucosal GSH levels do not relate directly to either development or prevention of ethanol-induced gastric injury, 2) potentiation by NEM of the mucosal injury may be accounted for by its enhancement of the vascular permeability and 3) inhibition of gastric motility may be associated with prevention of mucosal lesions.

Takeuchi, K.; Okada, M.; Niida, H.; Okabe, S.

1989-02-01

99

Mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis using inert bioparticles.  

PubMed

Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens. PMID:23959722

Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A; Cutting, Simon M

2013-11-01

100

Evidence-based guidelines for managing mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To discuss implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for mucositis.DATA SOURCE: Published articles, book chapters, web sources, clinical experience, unpublished manuscripts.CONCLUSION: Nurses can implement evidence-based guidelines but must include an evaluation component to determine effect on clinical outcomes.IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses have an integral role implementing and evaluating evidence-based practice guidelines for managing mucositis. When evidence is lacking

Deborah B. McGuire; Edward B. Rubenstein; Douglas E. Peterson

2004-01-01

101

Intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The mucosal immune system maintains a delicate balance between providing robust defense against infectious pathogens and,\\u000a at the same time, regulating responses toward innocuous environmental and food antigens and commensal microbes. The Peyer’s\\u000a patch (PP) has been studied in detail as a major inductive site for mucosal immunity within the small intestine. While the\\u000a mechanisms responsible for the induction of

A. Sato; A. Iwasaki

2005-01-01

102

Intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Both innate immunity and mucosal surfaces provide the first line of defence against mucosal infections. Innate immunity is\\u000a a universal and evolutionarily conserved form of host defence that senses microbial organisms. Recent advances in the field\\u000a of immunology are due mainly to the discovery of the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize conserved microbial\\u000a molecules. TLR stimulation induces specific

L. Alexopoulou; D. Kontoyiannis

2005-01-01

103

Localized Pemphigus Vegetans without Mucosal Involvement.  

PubMed

Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris. A 62-year-old woman presented with erythematous moist vegetative plaque on the left breast and left groin. There was no mucosal involvement. Histopathological and direct immunofluorescence findings were suggestive of pemphigus vegetans. She showed excellent response to oral steroids. Literature is scarcely available on the limited involvement with pemphigus vegetans without mucosal involvement. PMID:24700958

Jain, Vk; Jindal, N; Imchen, S

2014-03-01

104

Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicting severe damage to mucosal barriers, resulting in tissue infiltration of ‘symbiotic’ intestinal bacteria and viruses that essentially become opportunistic infections promoting systemic immune activation. This leads to activation and recruitment or more target cells for perpetuating HIV infection, resulting in persistent, high level viral replication in lymphoid tissues, rapid evolution of resistant strains, and continued evasion of immune responses. However, vaccine studies and studies of spontaneous controllers are finally providing correlates of immunity from protection and disease progression, including virus-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, binding antibodies, innate immune responses, and generation of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Emerging correlates of immunity indicate that prevention of HIV infection may be possible through effective vaccine strategies that protect and stimulate key regulatory cells and immune responses in susceptible hosts. Further, immune therapies specifically directed towards boosting specific aspects of the immune system may eventually lead to a cure for HIV-infected patients. PMID:23772612

Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

2013-01-01

105

Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order \\u000ato gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used.\\u000a\\u000aChapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- \\u000atreatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood \\u000acancer, often causing severe mucositis. DOX-induced mucositis closely \\u000aresembles the characteristics of previously studied methotrexate (MTX)- \\u000ainduced mucositis. Both

Koning de B. A. E

2008-01-01

106

Glutathione peroxidase in bovine semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of selenium (Se) and glutathione peroxidase in reproductive function are poorly understood, but it is possible that they may be important for normal reproduction in the male. In rats fed a Se-deficient diet, the testes accumulated and retained more 75Se than did other tissues 1 week after injection (Brown & Burk, 1972; Burk, Brown, Seely & Scaief, 1972).

D. V. Brown; P. L. Senger; S. L. Stone; J. A. Froseth; W. C. Becker

1977-01-01

107

Vegetable cells in urinary samples of patients with bricker ileal conduit.  

PubMed

During routine cytopathological evaluation of urines for malignant cells we have occasionally noticed vegetable cells that were only present in patients with Bricker ileal conduit. We wanted to identify the means and sources of contamination of urinary samples from these patients. During the period between May and November 2010, 637 urinary samples were routinely evaluated for malignant cells. Among them were 13 urinary samples from Bricker ileal conduit which we rescreened. We prepared all urinary samples by membrane filtration and stained them according to Papanicolaou. Subsequently, we prepared samples from ostomy adhesives made by Coloplast and by ConvaTec which are used to secure the ostomy bag onto urostomy. We also took samples from different constituents (hydrocolloids) of ostomy adhesives. On the cytopathological review, we found vegetable cells along with intestinal mucosa cells in urinary samples of seven patients with Bricker ileal conduit. With the light microscopic examination of the samples prepared from different ostomy adhesives, we found vegetable cells only in Coloplast adhesives. In preparations of hydrocolloids, we found vegetable cells only in guar gum. They were morphologically identical to those found in urine samples of patients with Bricker ileal conduit and in Sensura and Sensura Xpro (Coloplast) ostomy adhesives. We determined that the origin of vegetable cells in urines from Bricker ileal conduit is the ostomy adhesive. The vegetable cells differ from human intestinal epithelial cells regarding size, shape, and color so it is difficult to misinterpret them as dysplastic cells. PMID:23687081

Planinšek, Tanja; Kladnik, Aleš; Pohar-Marinšek, Ziva; Fležar, Margareta Strojan

2014-02-01

108

Seasonal Variation of Glutathione and Glutathione Reductase in Needles of Picea abies 1  

PubMed Central

In spruce (Picea abies) needles glutathione and glutathione reductase show a periodic seasonal variation with significantly increased levels during the winter. It is proposed that glutathione and glutathione reductase play an important role for the winter hardiness of leaves from evergreen plants. PMID:16660223

Esterbauer, Hermann; Grill, Dieter

1978-01-01

109

Long-delayed gross hematuria due to portal hypertension in an alcoholic cirrhotic patient with ileal conduit urinary diversion.  

PubMed

Bleeding varices at the stomal site is an uncommon complication of ileal conduit urinary diversion in patients with portal hypertension. We describe a case with the longest delay reported in the literature, involving the onset of massive hematuria secondary to ectopic variceal bleeding in an alcoholic cirrhotic patient with external urinary ileal conduit. PMID:25332271

Dal Moro, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

110

Cluster analysis of genome-wide expression differences in disease-unaffected ileal mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole human genome (Agilent) expression profiling was conducted on disease-unaffected ileal RNA collected from the proximal margin of resected ileum from 47 ileal Crohn's disease (CD), 27 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 25 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Cluster analysis combined with significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and principal component analysis (PCA) and was used to reduce the data

Tianyi Zhang; Robert A. DeSimone; Hongyan Chen; Christina M Hamm; Jeffrey Yuan; Qing Qing Gong; Steven R. Hunt; Themistocles Dassopoulos; Rodney D. Newberry; Daniel N. Frank; Charles E. Robertson; Norman R. Pace; Erica Sodergren; George Weinstock; Xiangmin Jiao; Wei Zhu; Ellen Li

2011-01-01

111

Transoral Mucosal Excision Sutured Gastroplasty  

PubMed Central

Introduction. An outpatient transoral endoscopic procedure for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and obesity would be appealing if safe, effective, and durable. We present the first in human experience with a new system. Methods. Eight patients with GERD (3) and obesity (5) were selected according to a preapproved study protocol. All GERD patients had preprocedure manometry and pH monitoring to document GERD as well as quality of life and symptom questionnaires. Obese patients (body mass index >35) underwent a psychological evaluation and tests for comorbidities. Under general anesthesia, a procedure was performed at the gastroesophageal junction including mucosal excision, suturing of the excision beds for apposition, and suture knotting. Results. One patient with micrognathia could not undergo the required preprocedural passage of a 60 F dilator and was excluded. The first 2 GERD patients had incomplete procedures due to instrument malfunction. The subsequent 5 subjects had a successfully completed procedure. Four patients were treated for obesity and had an average excess weight loss of 30.3% at 2-year follow-up. Of these patients, one had an 8-mm outlet at the end of the procedure recognized on video review—a correctable error—and another vomited multiple times postoperatively and loosened the gastroplasty sutures. The treated GERD patient had resolution of reflux-related symptoms and is off all antisecretory medications at 2-year follow-up. Her DeMeester score was 8.9 at 24 months. Conclusion. The initial human clinical experience showed promising results for effective and safe GERD and obesity therapy. PMID:24623807

Legner, Andras; Altorjay, Aron; Juhasz, Arpad; Stadlhuber, Rudolph; Reich, Viktor; Hunt, Brandon; Rothstein, Richard

2014-01-01

112

Ten Years Clinical Experience with Partial Ileal Bypass in Management of the Hyperlipidemias  

PubMed Central

The first partial ileal bypass operation specifically for the reduction of plasma lipids was performed by us in 1963. Since then we have operated upon and followed for more than three months 126 hyperlipidemic patients. Clinical metabolic studies, before and after the procedure, have demonstrated a 60% decrease in cholesterol absorption, a 3.8-fold increase in total fecal steroid excretion, a 5.7-fold increase in cholesterol synthesis, a 3-fold increase in cholesterol turnover, and a one-third decrease in the miscible cholesterol pool. Circulating cholesterol levels have been lowered an average 41.1% from the preoperative but postdietary baseline. An average 53% cholesterol reduction has been achieved from a pretreatment baseline using a combination of dietary and surgical management. Plasma triglycerides have been reduced in primary hypertriglyceridemic patients (type IV) an average of 52.6% from their preoperative but postdietary baseline. One patient died in the hospital and there have been 13 late deaths over the past 10 years. Four cases of postoperative bowel obstruction required reoperation. Diarrhea following partial ileal bypass is, as a rule, transistory and not a significant problem. No appreciable weight loss results from partial ileal bypass, which is an obvious distinction from the results of the far more massive jejuno-ileal bypass procedure for obesity. We have not encountered hepatotoxic, lithogenic, or nephrolithiasis complications in our partial ileal bypass patients. Sixty-nine per cent of our patients with preoperative angina pectoris have postoperative improvement or total remission of this symptom complex. Serial appraisal of followup coronary arteriographic studies offers preliminary evidence for lesion regression. It is concluded that partial ileal bypass is the most effective means for lipid reduction available today; it is obligatory in its actions, safe, and associated with minimal side effects. PMID:4416064

Buchwald, Henry; Moore, Richard B.; Varco, Richard L.

1974-01-01

113

Jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches in pigs differ in their postnatal development.  

PubMed

The postnatal development of the jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches was studied before and after weaning in 1-, 1.5- and 2-month-old pigs. The follicles of the jejunal Peyer's patches grew with age and were two times longer and wider in specified pathogen-free and conventional pigs than in germ-free animals, thus indicating an influence of the living microbial antigens from the gut lumen. In germ-free pigs the size of the ileal Peyer's patch follicles increased between the 1st and 2nd month, whereas in the specified pathogen-free and conventional animals these follicles were comparable in size in all three age groups. In 1- to 1.5-month-old pigs the interfollicular area of jejunal Peyer's patches was wider (0.1 +/- 0.04 mm) than that of the ileal Peyer's patch (0.04 +/- 0.03 mm). Immunohistological studies showed that in germ-free pigs preferentially surface IgM+ but few IgA+ B cells were present in the follicles, domes and dome epithelia. In specified pathogen-free and conventional pigs the B cells expressed different levels of surface or cytoplasmic IgM or IgA. In all groups studied, more T cells were observed in the jejunal than in the ileal Peyer's patch. Here, few T lymphocytes were found because of the small interfollicular areas. Small numbers of Null cells were distributed in the interfollicular regions of all animals. The results show that living microbial antigens have a major influence on the jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches in pigs. The morphological differences between the two types of Peyer's patches are an indication that they develop differently during postnatal life. So far it remains unclear whether these morphological differences reflect a specific function of the pig's ileal Peyer's patch, such as the expansion of the genetically determined B cell repertoire as has been reported for sheep. PMID:9006714

Barman, N N; Bianchi, A T; Zwart, R J; Pabst, R; Rothkötter, H J

1997-01-01

114

Enterobacteria-mediated deconjugation of taurocholic acid enhances ileal farnesoid X receptor signaling.  

PubMed

Enterobacteria are known to deconjugate amino acid-conjugated bile acids in the intestine. Administration of ampicillin (ABPC; 3 days, 100mg/kg) decreased the expression of ileal farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) target genes, and increased the levels of total bile acids in the intestinal lumen. The primary tauro-conjugates of cholic acid (TCA) and beta-muricholic acid (T?MCA) levels were increased, whereas the primary unconjugates, cholic acid (CA) and beta-muricholic acid (?MCA), levels decreased to below detectable levels (<0.01?mol) in ABPC-treated mice. The effects of individual bile acid on expression of the ileal farnesoid X receptor target genes were examined in ABPC-treated mice. The expression of ileal farnesoid X receptor target genes in ABPC-treated mice was clearly enhanced after CA (500mg/kg), but not TCA (500mg/kg) cotreatment. Their levels in control mice were enhanced after either CA or TCA-cotreatment. Unconjugated CA levels in the intestinal lumen and portal vein were increased in both ABPC-treated and control mice. Reduced ileal Fgf15 and Shp mRNA levels in ABPC-treated mice were also increased after CA (100mg/kg) cotreatment at which luminal CA levels was restored to the level in controls, but was unaffected by ?MCA (100mg/kg) cotreatment. In addition, no increase in ileal Shp, Ibabp or Ost? mRNA levels was observed even after CA (500mg/kg) cotreatment in ABPC-treated farnesoid X receptor-null mice despite increased CA levels in the intestinal lumen. These results suggest the role of enterobacteria in bile acid-mediated enhancement of ileal farnesoid X receptor signaling by TCA deconjugation. PMID:23051670

Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

2012-12-15

115

Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. PMID:23201762

Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.

2012-01-01

116

Cholera Toxins: Purification and Preliminary Characterization of Ileal Loop Reactive Type 2 Toxin  

PubMed Central

Details for the preparation and partial purification of culture supernatant fluids of Vibrio cholerae (V. comma) 569B which retain rabbit ileal loop fluid-accumulating activity are presented. These preparations were fractionated on Sephadex G-200 and on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex. On the latter, two fractions were obtained by elution with a linear sodium chloride gradient. The fraction designated “fraction I” retains the toxic activity as demonstrated in the rabbit ileal loop model. Chemical and immunological properties of this active fraction are described. Images PMID:4971885

Coleman, William H.; Kaur, Jasbir; Iwert, Marian E.; Kasai, George J.; Burrows, William

1968-01-01

117

Low glutathione S -transferase dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver and kidney glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities to 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) as a substrate (GST-D activities) were measured in 280 dogs from five different breeders, and significant individual differences in this activity were observed in both organs. Interestingly, 34 out of the 280 dogs (i.e. 12.1%) were those in which liver GST-D activities were less than 10 nmol\\/min per mg cytosolic protein,

Toshiyuki Watanabe; Tomomi Sugiura; Sunao Manabe; Wataru Takasaki; Yoshihiko Ohashi

2004-01-01

118

Recent progress in mucosal vaccine development: potential and limitations.  

PubMed

Most pathogens access the body through the mucosal membranes. Therefore, effective vaccines that protect at these sites are much needed. However, despite early success with the live attenuated oral polio vaccine over 50 years ago, only a few new mucosal vaccines have been subsequently launched. This is partly due to problems with developing safe and effective mucosal adjuvants. In the past decade, however, the successful development of live attenuated mucosal vaccines against influenza virus and rotavirus infections has boosted interest in this field, and great expectations for new mucosal vaccines lie ahead. Here, I discuss the expanding knowledge and strategies used in the development of mucosal vaccines. PMID:22828912

Lycke, Nils

2012-08-01

119

Glutathione Transferases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a saprophytic basidiomycete, possesses a large number of cytosolic glutathione transferases, eight of them showing similarity to the Omega class. PcGSTO1 (subclass I, the bacterial homologs of which were recently proposed, based on their enzymatic function, to constitute a new class of glutathione transferase named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases) and PcGSTO3 (subclass II related to mammalian homologs) have been investigated in this study. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that both enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteinyl residue. This reaction leads to the formation of a disulfide bridge between the conserved cysteine and the removed glutathione from their substrate. The substrate specificity of each isoform differs. In particular PcGSTO1, in contrast to PcGSTO3, was found to catalyze deglutathionylation of S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone substrates. The three-dimensional structure of PcGSTO1 presented here confirms the hypothesis that it belongs not only to a new biological class but also to a new structural class that we propose to name GST xi. Indeed, it shows specific features, the most striking ones being a new dimerization mode and a catalytic site that is buried due to the presence of long loops and that contains the catalytic cysteine. PMID:21177852

Meux, Edgar; Prosper, Pascalita; Ngadin, Andrew; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Melanie; Dumarcay, Stephane; Lamant, Tiphaine; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Favier, Frederique; Gelhaye, Eric

2011-01-01

120

Connexins in respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

The mucosal lining forms the physical and chemical barrier that protects against pathogens and hostile particles and harbors its own population of bacteria, fungi and archea, known as the microbiota. The immune system controls tolerance of this population of microorganisms that have proven to be beneficial for its host. Keeping its physical integrity and a correct balance with the microbiota, the mucosa preserves its homeostasis and its protective function and maintains host's health. However, in some conditions, pathogens may succeed in breaching mucosal homeostasis and successfully infecting the host. In this review we will discuss the role the mucosa plays in the defense against bacterial pathogens by considering the gap junction protein connexins. We will detail their implication in mucosal homeostasis and upon infection with bacteria in the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:24631537

Bou Saab, Joanna; Losa, Davide; Chanson, Marc; Ruez, Richard

2014-04-17

121

Can a meta-analysis answer the question: is mucosectomy and handsewn or double-stapled anastomosis better in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis?  

PubMed

Although ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the procedure of choice for polyposis and ulcerative colitis with medically refractory disease or dysplasia, controversy exists concerning whether mucosal preservation with double-stapled (DS) IPAA is superior to mucosectomy and handsewn (HS) IPAA anastomosis for postoperative function. Prospective studies have shown no statistically significant differences. The use of meta-analysis can strengthen statistical power by combining the data from related studies. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference in functional and manometric outcome between HS-IPAA and DS-IPAA. Prospective, randomized studies were identified using a literature search. Functional outcome variables included number of normal continence, minor incontinence, nocturnal evacuation, the ability to discriminate flatus from stool, and antidiarrheal medication. Manometric outcomes included postoperative resting and squeeze anal pressures. Four prospective, randomized trials were identified. Of the 184 total patients, the HS-IPAA group included 86 patients (48 men and 38 women) and the DS-IPAA group included 98 patients (49 men and 49 women). There were no significant differences in functional outcome between HS-IPAA and DS-IPAA. In addition, there was no significant difference in sphincter resting and squeeze pressures between the two patient groups. This meta-analysis demonstrates that DS-IPAA offers no advantage in functional or manometric outcome when compared with HS-IPAA. PMID:17058734

Schluender, Stefanie J; Mei, Ling; Yang, Huiying; Fleshner, Phillip R

2006-10-01

122

Diagnostic dilemma of primary mucosal leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania protozoa. It is widely present in more than 88 countries worldwide, resulting in up to 80,000 deaths annually. Leishmaniasis occurs as visceral, cutaneous, or mucocutaneous variants. Mucosal involvement can occur secondarily to the cutaneous or visceral varieties. However, primary mucosal leishmaniasis (PML) occurs without any present or past cutaneous and or visceral disease. It is extremely rare, and its diagnosis may present a serious challenge. It may be difficult to differentiate it from granulomatous conditions like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, leprosy, fungal infections, Wegener's granuloma, and neoplasms. Here, we present a case of PML in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23147884

Al-Qahtani, Mubarak S; Malik, Nadeem W; Jamil, Salim; Mekki, Taj E

2012-11-01

123

Changes of reduced glutathion, glutathion reductase, and glutathione peroxidase after radiation in guinea pigs  

SciTech Connect

In this series of experiments the protective action of reduced glutathion due to ionizing radiation has been studied. In the experimental group 18 guinea pigs were exposed to successive radiations of 150 rad 3 or 4 days apart. Total dose given amounted to 750 rad which is the LD50 for guinea pigs. Blood samples were taken 30 min after each exposure. The control series were sham radiated but otherwise treated identically. The cells of the removed blood samples were separated by centrifugation and were subjected to the reduced glutathion stability test. GSSGR, GPer, and LDH enzyme activities were also measured of which the latter served as a marked enzyme. It was found that LDH did not show any alteration after radiation. The reduced glutathion stability test showed a consistent but minor reduction (P greater than 0.05), in the experimental group. GSSGR enzyme activity on the other hand was reduced significantly (from 176.48 +/- 11.32 to 41.34 +/- 1.17 IU/ml of packed erythrocytes, P less than 0.001) in the same group. GPer activity showed a consistent but minor elevation during the early phase of the experimental group. It was later increased significantly beginning after 600 rad total radiation on the fourth session (P less than 0.050).

Erden, M.; Bor, N.M.

1984-04-01

124

Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA): functional outcome after postoperative pelvic sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become a standard procedure for patients with ulcerative colitis requiring surgical intervention. The technique has greatly improved and, since 1990, all patients at Huddinge University Hospital have been oper- ated on with the double stapled tech- nique. Pelvic sepsis is one of the most serious complications postoperatively, and, according to previous reports, leads

Helena Hallberg; Dagny Ståhlberg; Jan-Erik Åkerlund

2005-01-01

125

LAPAROSCOPIC ASSISTED RADICAL CYSTECTOMY WITH ILEAL NEOBLADDER: A COMPARISON WITH THE OPEN APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:To date, there have been only a few reports regarding the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach to radical cystectomy. In none of these cases has the laparoscopic approach been contrasted with a contemporary cohort of open cystectomy and diversion. Recently, we initiated laparoscopic assisted radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal neobladder (LACINB) wherein the cystoprostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissections are performed

JAY B. BASILLOTE; COROLLOS ABDELSHEHID; THOMAS E. AHLERING; ALLAN M. SHANBERG

2004-01-01

126

Effect of systemic steroids on ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Long-term steroid therapy predisposes to postsurgical complications, especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine incidence of early septic complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPAA) in patients who are undergoing prolonged steroid therapy. METHODS: We reviewed charts of 692 patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA to treat ulcerative colitis. Incidence of early (within

Yehiel Ziv; James M. Church; Victor W. Fazio; Tai-Ming King; Ian C. Lavery

1996-01-01

127

Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination  

PubMed Central

In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV). Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations. PMID:24778651

Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Glausser, Margaret K.; Jaing, Crystal J.

2014-01-01

128

Evaluation of mobile nylon bag technique for determining apparent ileal digestibilities of protein and amino acids in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) may offer a simple, rapid means for assessing ileal AA digestibility of pig feed ingredients. In the present study, the effects of washing bags recovered from digesta, the amount and fineness of feeds, and feed trypsin inhibitor activity on apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of CP and AA were determined with the MNBT. Twenty-four ileorectal anastomosed pigs (Yorkshire x Chinese Black barrows, 30 kg initial BW), of which 12 were fitted with duodenal T-cannulas, were used. Not washing the bags recovered from ileal digesta resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in apparent ileal digestibilities of CP and AA determined by MNBT. Washing the bags for more than 4 min overestimated (P < 0.05) the apparent ileal digestibilities of CP and AA compared with those determined with the anastomosed pigs. Sample size and fineness of grinding also affected (P < 0.05) apparent ileal digestibilities of CP determined by MNBT. The apparent ileal digestibilities of CP determined by MNBT were reduced (P < 0.05) when sample size exceeded 0.75 g and when feed was ground through screens with a mesh size of more than 1.0 mm. The closest agreement between results obtained by MNBT and a conventional ileal digestibility assay occurred when 0.75 g of feed ground through a 1.0-mm mesh screen was used per bag and bags were washed for 2 min after retrieval from digesta. Further studies are warranted to investigate the use of the mobile nylon bag technique for predicting the ileal digestibilty of AA for feeds containing antinutritional factors. PMID:11883430

Yin, Y L; Huang, R L; Zhong, H Y; Li, T J; Souffrant, W B; de Lange, C F M

2002-02-01

129

Plasma Cell Mucositis of Oro- and Hypopharynx: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective. To raise awareness of plasma cell mucositis as a rare differential diagnosis for oral mucosal ulceration and its macroscopic similarity to malignancy. Method. We report a patient who presented with oral features suggestive of malignancy. A biopsy revealed plasma cell mucositis. Results. The patient successfully had a full excision of one lesion and a spontaneous resolution of the other. Conclusion. With the increasing incidence of oral mucosal pathology, physicians should be aware of this differential diagnosis. PMID:22953106

Puvanendran, Mark; Lieder, Anja; Issing, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

130

Mucosal Vaccines: Recent Progress in Understanding the Natural Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that protection against pathogens invading the organism via mucosal surfaces correlates better with\\u000a the presence of specific antibodies in local secretions than with serum antibodies. The most effective way to induce mucosal\\u000a immunity is to administer antigens directly to the mucosal surface. The development of vaccines for mucosal application requires\\u000a antigen delivery systems and immunopotentiators

Olga Borges; Filipa Lebre; Dulce Bento; Gerrit Borchard; Hans E. Junginger

2010-01-01

131

Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plants  

PubMed Central

This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana). Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer which is involved in many metabolic processes including plant defense. Thus information on the subcellular distribution in these model plants especially during stress situations provides a deeper insight into compartment specific defense reactions and reflects the occurrence of compartment specific oxidative stress. With immunogold cytochemistry and computer-supported transmission electron microscopy glutathione could be localized in highest contents in mitochondria, followed by nuclei, peroxisomes, the cytosol, and plastids. Within chloroplasts and mitochondria, glutathione was restricted to the stroma and matrix, respectively, and did not occur in the lumen of cristae and thylakoids. Glutathione was also found at the membrane and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. It was also associated with the trans and cis side of dictyosomes. None or only very little glutathione was detected in vacuoles and the apoplast of mesophyll and root cells. Additionally, glutathione was found in all cell compartments of phloem vessels, vascular parenchyma cells (including vacuoles) but was absent in xylem vessels. The specificity of this method was supported by the reduction of glutathione labeling in all cell compartments (up to 98%) of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana rml1 mutant. Additionally, we found a similar distribution of glutathione in samples after conventional fixation and rapid microwave-supported fixation. Thus, indicating that a redistribution of glutathione does not occur during sample preparation. Summing up, this study gives a detailed insight into the subcellular distribution of glutathione in plants and presents solid evidence for the accuracy and specificity of the applied method. PMID:20186447

Muller, Maria

2010-01-01

132

The Effects of HIV Infection on Oral Mucosal Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosal infections, especially candidiasis, are a feature of HIV disease, suggesting that compromised mucosal immunity within the oral cavity is a consequence of the viral infection. However, how this mucosal immunity is compromised and at what stage of HIV infection this occurs are unclear. Better understanding of the protection of the oral cavity against infection has allowed us to

S. J. Challacombe; J. R. Naglik

2006-01-01

133

Inflammatory Monocytes Are Required for Mucosal Resistance to the Pathogen  

E-print Network

this barrier to cause systemic infection. Mucosal immunity relies on dendritic cells (DCs) that are residentImmunity Article Gr1+ Inflammatory Monocytes Are Required for Mucosal Resistance to the Pathogen, 2005). CCR6+ DCs are important in regulating mucosal responses to antigens sampled by M cells, which

Arnold, Jonathan

134

Oral Mucositis: understanding the pathology and management  

PubMed Central

Oral Mucositis is a common complication of cancer therapy which may limit the completion of treatment and affect the quality of life of the patient. As we have come to understand its pathogenesis new developments in its management and prevention have allowed us minimize this side effect. PMID:23935285

Georgiou, M; Patapatiou, G; Domoxoudis, S; Pistevou-Gompaki, K; Papanikolaou, A

2012-01-01

135

Importance of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has tra- ditionally focused on improving symptoms, with the mainobjective of inducing and maintaining symptomatic remission. However, new evi- dence suggests that concentrating exclusively on clinical outcome measuresmay notbeadequatetoachievelong-termtreatmentsuccess. Indeed, physicians should also be assessing the reduction of endo- scopicactivity,withtheintentionofachievingcompletemucosal heal- ing (defined as the absence of all mucosal ulceration, both microscopic and

Gary R. Lichtenstein; Paul Rutgeerts

2009-01-01

136

Role of glutathione in winemaking: a review.  

PubMed

Glutathione is an important constituent of grapes, must, and wine. However, to date, no review has provided an integrated view of the role of this compound in wine-related systems. In this review, special emphasis is given to its occurrence in grapes, must, and wine and its role as an antioxidant in wine. The effect of glutathione on both desirable and undesirable aroma compounds is also outlined. Furthermore, the use of glutathione-enriched products in winemaking and the various analytical techniques for the quantification of glutathione in must and wine are discussed. Limitations in existing knowledge are also identified. PMID:23240621

Kritzinger, Engela C; Bauer, Florian F; du Toit, Wessel J

2013-01-16

137

Salivary mucins in oral mucosal defense.  

PubMed

1. Salivary mucins are well recognized as an important factor in the preservation of the health of the oral cavity. These large glycoproteins play a major role in the formation of protective coatings covering tooth enamel and oral mucosa, which act as a dynamic functional barrier capable of modulating the untoward effects of oral environment, and are of significance to the processes occurring within the epithelial perimeter of mucosal defense. 2. Based on macromolecular characteristics, the mucins in saliva fall into high (> 1000 kDa) and low (200-300 kDa) molecular weight forms. The two forms, although differ with respect to bacterial clearance ability, display virtually identical carbohydrate chain make-up, ranging in size from 3 to 16 sugar units. 3. Of the two mucin forms, the low molecular weight form more efficient in bacterial aggregation, predominates in saliva and oral mucosal mucus coat of caries-resistant individuals, while the level of the high molecular weight form is higher in caries-susceptible subjects. The saliva of caries-resistant individuals also exhibits greater activity of protease capable of conversion of the high molecular weight mucin to the low molecular weight form. 4. The bacterial aggregating activity of salivary mucins appears to be associated with sulfomucins rather than sialomucins. While the removal of sialic acid causes only partial loss in mucin aggregating capacity, a complete loss in the bacterial aggregating activity occurs following mucin desulfation. 5. The mucins in oral mucosal mucus coat interact with the epithelial surfaces through specific membrane receptors. This interaction apparently involves the carbohydrate moiety of mucin molecule and may be rendered vulnerable to disruption by opportunistic bacteria colonizing the oral mucosa. 6. Salivary sulfo- and sialomucins actively participate in the modulation of the oral mucosal calcium channel activity through the inhibition of EGF-stimulated channel protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This function of salivary mucins is of paramount importance to mucosal calcium homeostasis. PMID:8842677

Slomiany, B L; Murty, V L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A

1996-07-01

138

Role of glutathione on renal mitochondrial status in hyperoxaluria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of glutathione on kidney mitochondrial integrity and function during stone forming process in hyperoxaluric state was investigated in male albino rats of Wistar strain. Hyperoxaluria was induced by feeding ethylene glycol (EG) in drinking water. Glutathione was depleted by administering buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis. Glutathione monoester (GME) was administered for supplementing glutathione. BSO treatment

Alagarraju Muthukumar; Ramasamy Selvam

1998-01-01

139

The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: A proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both glutathione and an NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase are present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. It is proposed that glutathione functions to stabilise enzymes of the Calvin cycle, and it may also act to keep ascorbic acid in chloroplasts in the reduced form.

Christine H. Foyer; Barry Halliwell

1976-01-01

140

Levels of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase of human platelets in unstable angina and myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Levels of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were measured in the platelets of 30 patients, 10 of them affected by unstable angina, 10 of them reperfused after myocardial infarction and 10 matched healthy controls. The specific activities of both the enzymes were lowered in both group of patients. Glutathione reductase activity resulted markedly lowered. PMID:10622110

Kaur, G; Misra, M K; Sanwal, G G; Shanker, K; Chandra, M

1999-09-01

141

Prior mucosal exposure to heterologous cells alters the pathogenesis of cell-associated mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several lines of research suggest that exposure to cellular material can alter the susceptibility to infection by HIV-1. Because sexual contact often includes exposure to cellular material, we hypothesized that repeated mucosal exposure to heterologous cells would induce an immune response that would alter the susceptibility to mucosal infection. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model of HIV-1 mucosal

Surender B Kumar; Sarah Leavell; Kyle Porter; Barnabe D Assogba; Mary J Burkhard

2010-01-01

142

Ultrasonic fragmentation. A new technique for mucosal proctectomy  

SciTech Connect

A new technique is reported for mucosal proctectomy that does not require manual separation of the mucosa and submucosa from the underlying muscularis. Mucosal proctectomy using ultrasonic fragmentation of the rectal mucosa was performed in four patients. Three had severe ulcerative colitis, and one patient had radiation proctitis with a rectal stricture. In all cases an endorectal pullthrough with anastomosis to the area of the dentate line was performed. Healing after ultrasonic mucosal proctectomy occurred without infection or retraction. Ultrasonic fragmentation offers an alternative to the standard technique of mucosal proctectomy. This new method is useful in those patients in whom separation of the rectal mucosal layer is difficult to perform.

Heimann, T.M.; Kurtz, R.J.; Aufses, A.H. Jr.

1985-10-01

143

Mucosal immunology: from bench to the bedside and beyond.  

PubMed Central

This paper, written by the President of the Society for Mucosal Immunology, marks the 9th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology, in Sydney: Mucosal Solutions. Current molecular, cellular and animal work in mucosal immunity has great potential when applied to issues of human and animal health. However, practical and technical problems in the transfer of theoretical concepts into clinically based research must not be underestimated. Ideally, studies in disease need to be designed and run jointly by clinicians and scientists, as illustrated by examples drawn from Crohn's disease. Ethical aspects of research in mucosal physiology and disease are challenging, but not insurmountable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9014809

Ferguson, A

1996-01-01

144

Mechanism of Glyoxalase Activation by Glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE have investigated the specific co-glyoxalase action of glutathione, discovered by Lohmann1. Girsavicius and Heyfetz2 have shown that the spontaneous combination of glutathione and methyl glyoxal in aqueous solution leads to a state of equilibrium; formation and dissociation of the compound proceed, in not too acid solution, with great rapidity. The dependence of the velocity of the enzymic reaction on

J. Girsavicius; P. A. Heyfetz

1935-01-01

145

Role of glutathione in intracellular copper transport  

E-print Network

coeluted with oxidized glutathione (GSSG) on the HPLC column suggesting its identity to be a GSSG-CU or GS-CU-SG complex. The stoichiometry of glutathione-Cu complex was sought by uv titration on the spectrophotometer. Absorbance changed because of a Cu...

Ha, Chenxiang

2012-06-07

146

Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with either a handsewn or a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), with or without mucosectomy. The purpose of these surgeries is to stop progression to an adenoma-cancer sequence by eradicating the colon, a disease prone organ. Unfortunately, these surgical procedures, which excise the entire colon and rectum while maintaining transanal fecal continence, do not guarantee that patients still won't develop adenomas. Based on the available literature, we therefore reviewed reported incidences of pouch-related adenomas that occurred post prophylactic surgery for FAP. The review consists of a collection of case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports. Objectives To provide available data on the natural history of subsequent adenomas after prophylactic surgery (by type) for FAP. Methods A review was conducted of existing case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports for patients undergoing prophylactic surgery for FAP (1975 – August, 2013). In each case, the adenomas were clearly diagnosed in one of the following: the ileal pouch mucosa (above the ileorectal anastomosis), within the anorectal segment (ARS) below the ileorectal anastomosis, or in the afferent ileal loop. Results A total of 515 (36%) patients with pouch-related adenomas have been reported. Two hundred and eleven (211) patients had adenomas in the ileal pouch mucosa, 295 had them in the ARS and in 9 were in the afferent ileal loop. Patients with pouch adenomas without dysplasia or cancer were either endoscopically polypectomized or were treated with a coagulation modality using either a Nd:Yag laser or argon plasma coagulation (as indicated). Patients with dysplastic pouch adenomas or pouch adenomas with cancer had their pouch excised (pouchectomy). Conclusion In patients with FAP treated with IRA or RPC with IPAA, the formation of adenomas in the pouch-body mucosa or ARS/anastomosis and in the afferent ileal loop is apparent. Because of risks for adenoma recurrence, a life time endoscopic pouch-surveillance is warranted. PMID:24817992

M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

2014-01-01

147

Measurement of true ileal digestibility of phosphorus in some feed ingredients for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to estimate the true ileal digestibility of P in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each ingredient (wheat and sorghum: 236.5, 473, 709.5, and 946 g/kg; soybean meal and corn DDGS: 135, 270, 405, and 540 g/kg) to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 16 cages each (5 birds per cage). A total of 320 21-d-old broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to the 16 test diets with 4 replicates per diet. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of P were determined by the indicator method and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficients. The results showed that the apparent ileal P digestibility coefficients of wheat-based diets were not influenced (P > 0.05) by increasing dietary P concentrations, whereas those of diets based on sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS differed (P < 0.05) at different P concentrations. Apparent ileal P digestibility in broilers fed diets with soybean meal and corn DDGS linearly (P < 0.001) increased with increasing P concentrations. True ileal P digestibility coefficients of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 0.464, 0.331, 0.798, and 0.727, respectively. Ileal endogenous P losses in birds fed diets with wheat, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were estimated to be 0.080, 0.609, and 0.418 g/kg DMI, respectively. In birds fed sorghum-based diets, endogenous P losses were estimated to be negative (-0.087 g/kg DMI). True digestible P contents of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 1.49, 0.78, 5.16, and 5.94 g/kg, respectively. The corresponding nonphytate P contents in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were 1.11, 0.55, 2.15, and 4.36 g/kg, respectively. These differences between digestible P and nonphytate P contents may be suggestive, at least in part, of overestimation of P digestibility under the calcium-deficient conditions used in the regression method. PMID:25367524

Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

2014-12-01

148

Prospective Comparison of Small Bowel Meal with Pneumocolon versus Ileo-Colonoscopy for the Diagnosis of Ileal Crohn's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Both endoscopy and barium radiography are used routinely to diagnose terminal ileal (TI) Crohn's disease (CD). A prospective study was undertaken to compare ileoscopy with biopsy to small bowel meal with pneumocolon (SBMP) in patients with suspected TI CD.METHODS:A cohort of outpatients investigated for diarrhea with features of TI disease underwent SBMP followed by colonoscopy with ileal intubation

John K. Marshall; Ruth Cawdron; Ian Zealley; Robert H. Riddell; Sat Somers; E. Jan Irvine

2004-01-01

149

Single Anastomosis Duodeno–Ileal Bypass with Sleeve Gastrectomy (SADI-S). One to Three-Year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single anastomosis duodeno–ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) is a new operation for morbid obesity based on the\\u000a biliopancreatic diversion in which a sleeve gastrectomy is followed by an end-to-side duodeno–ileal diversion. The preservation\\u000a of the pylorus makes possible the reconstruction in one loop, which reduces operating time and needs no mesentery opening.\\u000a We review the results obtained on the

Andrés Sánchez-Pernaute; Miguel Angel Rubio Herrera; María Elia Pérez-Aguirre; Pablo Talavera; Lucio Cabrerizo; Pilar Matía; Luis Díez-Valladares; Ana Barabash; Estaban Martín-Antona; Alejandra García-Botella; Ester Martín Garcia-Almenta; Antonio Torres

2010-01-01

150

Risk of residual rectal mucosa after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal reconstruction with the double-stapling technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the risk of retained rectal mucosa after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with the double-stapling technique. METHODS: A total of 113 patients underwent proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal reconstruction. In 57 patients the anastomosis between pouch and proximal anal canal was performed using the double-stapling technique. In 26 patients the procedure was carried

J. F. M. Slors; A. E. Ponson; C. W. Taat; A. Bosma

1995-01-01

151

Incidence and subsequent impact of pelvic abscess after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to measure the impact of pelvic abscess on eventual pouch failure and functional outcome after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The outcome of 1,508 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis at the Mayo Clinic was determined from a central patient registry; data were collected

Ridzuan Farouk; Roger R. Dozois; John H. Pemberton; Dirk Larson

1998-01-01

152

Resuscitation With 100% Oxygen Causes Intestinal Glutathione Oxidation and Reoxygenation Injury in Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare mesenteric blood flow, oxidative stress, and mucosal injury in piglet small intestine during hypoxemia and reoxygenation with 21%, 50%, or 100% oxygen. Summary Background Data: Necrotizing enterocolitis is a disease whose pathogenesis likely involves hypoxia-reoxygenation and the generation of oxygen-free radicals, which are known to cause intestinal injury. Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns with 100% oxygen has been shown to increase oxidative stress, as measured by the glutathione redox ratio, and thus may predispose to free radical-mediated tissue injury. Methods: Newborn piglets subjected to severe hypoxemia for 2 hours were resuscitated with 21%, 50%, or 100% oxygen while superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow and hemodynamic parameters were continuously measured. Small intestinal tissue samples were analyzed for histologic injury and levels of oxidized and reduced glutathione. Results: SMA blood flow decreased to 34% and mesenteric oxygen delivery decreased to 9% in hypoxemic piglets compared with sham-operated controls. With reoxygenation, SMA blood flow increased to 177%, 157%, and 145% of baseline values in piglets resuscitated with 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen, respectively. Mesenteric oxygen delivery increased to more than 150% of baseline values in piglets resuscitated with 50% or 100% oxygen, and this correlated significantly with the degree of oxidative stress, as measured by the oxidized-to-reduced glutathione ratio. Two of eight piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen developed gross and microscopic evidence of pneumatosis intestinalis and severe mucosal injury, while all other piglets were grossly normal. Conclusions: Resuscitation of hypoxemic newborn piglets with 100% oxygen is associated with an increase in oxygen delivery and oxidative stress, and may be associated with the development of small intestinal hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns with lower oxygen concentrations may help to decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:15273563

Haase, Erika; Bigam, David L.; Nakonechny, Quentin B.; Jewell, Laurence D.; Korbutt, Gregory; Cheung, Po-Yin

2004-01-01

153

Oral Mucosal Lesions in Adult Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this analysis were to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OML) among adults in Southern China and to determine possible associations between OML and reported tobacco-smoking and alcohol-drinking habits. The sample consisted of 1573 35- to 44-year-old and 1515 65- to 74-year-old Chinese from both urban and rural areas of Guangdong Province. The subjects were interviewed

H. C. Lin; E. F. Corbet; E. C. M. Lo

2001-01-01

154

Intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The innate immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the intestine and protecting the host against\\u000a a vast number of potential microbial pathogens from resident and transient gut microflora. Mucosal epithelial cells and Paneth\\u000a cells produce a variety of antimicrobial peptides (defensins, cathelicidins, crytdinrelated sequence peptides, bactericidal\\/permeabilityincreasing\\u000a protein, chemokine CCL20) and bacteriolytic enzymes (lysozyme, group IIA

C. A. Müller; I. B. Autenrieth; A. Peschel

2005-01-01

155

Mucosal Immunity: from Allergy to Coeliac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

During evolution, the mucosal immune system has developed two homeostatic mechanisms: (i) immune exclusion mediated by secretory\\u000a antibodies to control epithelial colonization of microorganisms and inhibit penetration of potentially dangerous substances;\\u000a and (ii) immunosuppression to counteract hypersensitivity against innocuous antigens such as allergens and most food proteins.\\u000a The latter mechanism is referred to as ‘oral tolerance’ when induced via the

Per Brandtzaeg

156

Intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Intestinal mucosa integrates primary digestive functions with immune functions such as pathogen surveillance, antigen transport\\u000a and induction of mucosal immunity and tolerance. Intestinal adaptive immunity is elicited in organized mucosa-associated lymphoid\\u000a tissue (O-MALT) that is composed of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes and achieved by effector cells widely distributed\\u000a in mucosa (diffuse MALT or D-MALT). Interaction between the intestinal epithelium, the

M. Rumbo; E. J. Schiffrin

2005-01-01

157

Lung mucosal immunity: immunoglobulin-A revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Mucosal,defence mechanisms,are critical in preventing colonization of the respiratory tract by pathogens,and penetration of antigens through the epithelial barrier. Recent research has now,illustrated the active contribution of the respiratory epithelium to the exclusion of microbes and particles, but also to the control of the inflammatory,and immune,responses in the airways and in the alveoli. Epithelial cells also mediate,the active transport

C. Pilette; Y. Ouadrhiri; V. Godding; J. P. Vaerman; Y. Sibille

2001-01-01

158

Mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy with mucosal flaps  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe and assess the efficacy of mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (MENDCR). This is a new technique that involves creation of a large rhinostomy and mucosal flaps. The study involved a prospective non-randomised interventional case series with short perioperative follow up. Method: A prospective series of 104 consecutive endonasal DCRs performed from January 1999 to December 2001 were entered into the study. Patients included in the study had nasolacrimal duct obstruction and had not had previous lacrimal surgery. The technique involved anastomosis of nasal mucosal and lacrimal sac flaps and a large bony ostium. Surgery was performed by two surgeons (AT/PJW). Follow up assessment included nasoendoscopy as well as symptom evaluation. Success was defined as anatomical patency with fluorescein flow on nasoendoscopy and patency to lacrimal syringing. The average follow up time was 9.7 months (range 2–28, SD 6.7 months). Results: There were 104 DCRs performed on 86 patients (30 male, 56 female). The average age of the patients was 59 years (range 3–89, SD 24.1 years). Common presentations were epiphora (77%) and/or mucocele (19%). Septoplasty (SMR) was required in 48 DCRs (46%) and 13 DCRs (12.5%) needed other endoscopic surgery in conjunction with the lacrimal surgery. The surgery was successful in 93 cases (89%). Of the 11 cases that were classified as a failure six patients was anatomically patent but still symptomatic and another two had preoperative canalicular problems. The anatomical patency with this new technique was thus 95% (99 of 104 DCRs). Conclusion: MENDCR involves creation of a large ostium and mucosal preservation for the construction of flaps. The anatomical success is 95% and is similar to external DCR and better then other endonasal approaches. The authors suggest that creation of a large ostium as well as mucosal flaps improves the efficacy of this endonasal technique. PMID:12488261

Tsirbas, A; Wormald, P J

2003-01-01

159

Oral mucosal adhesive films containing royal jelly accelerate recovery from 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has an impact upon quality-of-life, is dose-limiting for chemotherapy, and causes considerable morbidity. We evaluated the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters through a combination of 5-FU treatment and mild abrasion of the cheek pouch. RJ was contained in chitosan-sodium alginate film (RJ film). Films were attached to the oral mucosa and the healing process examined by measuring the area of mucositis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, microscopic aspects, and RT-PCR for detection of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?). Furthermore, we evaluated the radical-scavenging activity of RJ and generation of keratinocyte growth factor from human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. RJ films (10%, 30%) significantly improved recovery from 5-FU-induced damage, reduced MPO activity and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, RJ showed radical-scavenging activity. These data suggest that topical application of films that contain RJ had a healing effect on the severe oral mucositis induced by 5-FU and that the effect was caused by the anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activities of RJ. PMID:23357874

Watanabe, Shinichi; Suemaru, Katsuya; Takechi, Kenshi; Kaji, Hiroaki; Imai, Kimie; Araki, Hiroaki

2013-01-01

160

Collaborative studies in mucosal immunology in Goroka.  

PubMed

A collaborative program between the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Institute of Medical Research and the Hunter Mucosal Group has completed studies relevant to protection of the airways against bacterial infection. Specifically, these studies addressed the mucosal capacity to produce local immunoglobulins and the capacity of the airways to respond to an oral vaccine containing inactivated nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The mucosal IgA response to NTHi antigens was blunted in both children and adults in PNG compared with that found in Australian children and adults, whose airways are colonized only intermittently. Despite this, when oral NTHi is given to Papua New Guinean adults with chronic airways disease, it is followed by a significant (50%) reduction in incidence of acute bronchitic episodes, and a 3-log reduction in density of colonization, which persisted about 10 months. The implications of these key findings are discussed with respect to both mechanism and wider control of pathology emanating from abnormal airways colonization in a PNG environment. PMID:23163182

Clancy, Robert

2010-01-01

161

Quality of life of patients after temporary ileostomy for ileal perforation- a questionnaire based study.  

PubMed

In India and some neighboring countries, ileal perforation is a leading indication for an emergent laparotomy, and making a temporary ileostomy is probably the safest practice for these patients with peritonitis. This apparently disfiguring surgery changes body image, and significantly influences physical, mental, emotional, and social life of the stoma patients. Further stress is added by the stoma related complications. The quality of life (QoL) issues of patients with temporary ileostomy for ileal perforations have not been addressed; hence, there is a gap in our existing knowledge about the various factors affecting the quality of life of these patients. This study aimed at assessing the QoL in this particular group of patients with the help of an objective standardized proforma-based interview. Despite being limited by its small sample size, the study identifies important associations and provides a platform for further research to improve QoL of these patients. PMID:24799782

Saini, Pradeep; Gaba, Rahul; Faridi, M S; Agarwal, Nitin; Kaur, Navneet; Gupta, Arun

2014-02-01

162

Challenges in mucosal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The mucosal surface is the largest route through which pathogens enter the human body. To control the outbreak of mucosal infectious diseases, we must use our knowledge of the mucosal immune system to create vaccines that elicit protective mucosal and systemic immunity. Mucosal vaccines have advantages over traditional injectable vaccines in that they not only induce effective mucosal immune responses, but they also do not cause physical or psychological discomfort. Mucosal vaccines currently licensed for human use include oral vaccines against Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, poliovirus and rotavirus, and nasal vaccines against influenza virus. To further improve the existing vaccines, it will be necessary to develop novel vaccine production, storage and delivery systems through innovative strategies derived from interdisciplinary scientific research. Our accumulated knowledge of the innate and acquired arms of the mucosal immune system and the recent scientific and technical advancements in the fields of molecular biology, plant biology, bio-engineering and chemical engineering, genome biology and systems biology have created a unique research and development platform for the development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. This review summarizes the current perspectives and future directions of mucosal vaccine development with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases. PMID:24914172

Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

163

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever  

PubMed Central

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

2014-01-01

164

Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog  

PubMed Central

Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty). In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically) in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03). Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. PMID:24644380

Ghahramani, Leila; Yazdani, Saeed; Derakhshani, Saeed; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Jalli, Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

2014-01-01

165

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K

2014-01-01

166

Renal Cell Carcinoma presenting as small bowel obstruction secondary to a metastatic ileal intussusception  

PubMed Central

We report a rare clinical presentation of renal cell carcinoma in the form of small bowel obstruction which was secondary to a metastatic ileal intussusception. Intussusception in the elderly is most commonly due to an underlying neoplasm, however metastases from a renal cell carcinoma is very uncommon. We present clinical details, radiological and pathological findings of the case followed by a discussion of the diagnosis and management of intussusception in the adult population. PMID:24967032

Hegde, Rahul G; Gowda, Harish K; Agrawal, Rachana D; Yadav, Vikas K; Khadse, Gopal J

2014-01-01

167

Gastroschisis, ileal atresia, and Hirschsprung's disease in a newborn: the first reported case.  

PubMed

Gastroschisis and intestinal atresia are rare congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies that coincide with each other in 5%-15% of cases. In contrast, there are only two reported cases of Hirschsprung's with simultaneous gastroschisis. We report the first case of gastroschisis, ileal atresia, and Hirschsprung's disease in a newborn. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with simultaneous congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies, surgical management of these patients is feasible. PMID:23164011

Goslin, Brent; Brown, Alex; Robertson, Daniel

2012-11-01

168

The Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Potentiates Intestinal Inflammation by Salmonella Typhimurium in Porcine Ileal Loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimsBoth deoxynivalenol (DON) and nontyphoidal salmonellosis are emerging threats with possible hazardous effects on both human and animal health. The objective of this study was to examine whether DON at low but relevant concentrations interacts with the intestinal inflammation induced by Salmonella Typhimurium.MethodologyBy using a porcine intestinal ileal loop model, we investigated whether intake of low concentrations of

Virginie Vandenbroucke; Siska Croubels; An Martel; Elin Verbrugghe; Joline Goossens; Kim Van Deun; Filip Boyen; Arthur Thompson; Neil Shearer; Patrick De Backer; Freddy Haesebrouck; Frank Pasmans

2011-01-01

169

Laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy with ileal conduit performed completely intracorporeally: the initial 2 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To present the initial 2 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy, bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, and ileal conduit urinary diversion, with the entire procedure performed exclusively by intracorporeal laparoscopic techniques.Methods. Two male patients, 78 and 70 years old, with muscle-invasive, organ-confined, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder underwent the procedure. The entire procedure, including radical cystoprostatectomy, pelvic node dissection,

Inderbir S Gill; Amr Fergany; Eric A Klein; Jihad H Kaouk; Gyung Tak Sung; Anoop M Meraney; Stephen J Savage; James C Ulchaker; Andrew C Novick

2000-01-01

170

Balsalazine decreases intestinal mucosal permeability of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the effect of balsalazine treatment on intestinal mucosal permeability in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and to determine the mechanism of the balsalazine-induced changes. Methods: Experimental colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by the administration of 5% DSS. Balsalazine was administered intragastrically at doses of 42, 141, and 423 mg/kg. The disease activity index (DAI) score was evaluated and colon tissue was collected for the assessment of histological changes. The amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the colon was determined, along with the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Mucosa from the small intestine was collected to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-?. The mucosa was ultrastructurally examined with transmission electron microscopy and intestinal permeability was assayed using Evans blue. Results: Balsalazine was found to reduce the DAI score and the histological index (HI) score, decrease the MDA content and the activity of MPO, and increase the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in colitis mice. At the same time, balsalazine ameliorated microvillus and tight junction structure, resulting in a decrease in the amount of Evans blue permeating into the intestinal wall and the levels of TNF-? and IFN-? in colitis mice. Conclusion: In colitis mice, the anti-colitis effect of balsalazine results in a decrease in intestinal mucosal permeability. The mechanism of this effect is partly associated with balsalazine's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:19575002

Liu, Xiao-chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-ming; Hu, Jing

2009-01-01

171

Pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis occurs with increased frequency in patients with associated primary sclerosing cholangitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), present in 5% of patients with ulcerative colitis, may be associated with pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The cumulative frequency of pouchitis in patients with and without PSC who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis was determined. A total of 1097 patients who had an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis, 54 with associated PSC,

C Penna; R Dozois; W Tremaine; W Sandborn; N LaRusso; C Schleck; D Ilstrup

1996-01-01

172

Bone loss in patients with the ileostomy and ileal pouch for inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Low bone mineral density (BMD) or low bone mass is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that low BMD is also common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) even after colectomy and ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA). The reported frequency of osteopenia ranged from 26–55% and that of osteoporosis ranged from 13–32% in patients with IPAA. Increasing age, low body mass index, lack of calcium supplementation and high inflammatory activity with villous atrophy in the ileo-anal pouch are risk factors for low bone mass in pouch patients. Bone loss is also common in patients with IBD and ostomy. Current professional society guidelines do not specifically address the need for surveillance in patients with ileal pouches or ostomy. A growing body of evidence suggests that patients with ileal pouch or ostomy are at an increased risk of bone loss. Pending prospective studies, screening and surveillance using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) along with calcium/vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial in those patients. PMID:24759961

Gupta, Supriya; Shen, Bo

2013-01-01

173

Ileal duplication mimicking intestinal intussusception: a congenital condition rarely reported in adult.  

PubMed

Intestinal duplication is an uncommon congenital condition in young adults. A 25-year-old man complained of chronic, intermittent abdominal pain for 3 years following previous appendectomy for the treatment of suspected appendicitis. Abdominal discomfort and pain, suggestive of intestinal obstruction, recurred after operation. A tubular mass was palpable in the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography enterography scan identified suspicious intestinal intussusception, while Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy revealed a cluster of strip-like abnormal radioactivity in the right lower quadrant. On exploratory laparotomy, a tubular-shaped ileal duplication cyst was found arising from the mesenteric margin of the native ileal segment located 15 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. Ileectomy was performed along with the removal of the duplication disease, and the end-to-end anastomosis was done to restore the gastrointestinal tract continuity. Pathological examination showed ileal duplication with ectopic gastric mucosa. The patient experienced an eventless postoperative recovery and remained asymptomatic within 2 years of postoperative follow-up. PMID:24151372

Li, Bing-Lu; Huang, Xin; Zheng, Chao-Ji; Zhou, Jiao-Lin; Zhao, Yu-Pei

2013-10-14

174

Laparoscopic Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis in Patients with Chronic Ulcerative Colitis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Case-Matched Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  This study was designed to compare short-term outcomes after laparoscopic ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with those of open\\u000a ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with both sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis undergoing laparoscopic ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were\\u000a matched with 16 open ileal pouch control subjects by sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists’ score, age, and

Luis Benavente-Chenhalls; Kellie L. Mathis; Eric J. Dozois; Robert R. Cima; John H. Pemberton; David W. Larson

2008-01-01

175

Fasting and postprandial ileal function in adapted ileostomates and normal subjects.  

PubMed Central

The output of 11 established ileostomies was compared with ileal flow measured by intestinal perfusion in five normal volunteers when fasting and during the ileal passage of test meals containing different proportions of medium chain triglyceride and long chain triglyceride. Oroileal transit of the meal was the same in the two groups, but ileostomy output was less than ileal flow of normal persons both fasting (16.3 +/- 10.9 vs 62.4 +/- 24.7 ml/h, p less than 0.001) and after the long chain triglyceride rich meal (35.4 27.0 vs 96.1 +/- 20.2 ml/h, p less than 0.001). After ingestion of the medium chain triglyceride rich meal, ideal flow failed to increase in normal subjects but in ileostomates the changes in flow after medium chain triglyceride and long chain triglyceride rich meals were not significantly different. The fasting ileostomy effluent composition differed from that of normal fasting ileal content in having a higher concentration of potassium (8.0 +/- 2.9 vs 4.7 +/- 0.6 mmol/1, p less than 0.04) and a higher osmolality (353 +/- 63 vs 287 +/- 5 mosm/kg, p less than 0.05). Sodium concentration tended to be lower in ileostomy effluent, but in contrast to previous reports, ileostomy effluent was of consistently alkaline pH (7.2 +/- 0.3). These concentrations were not significantly altered by either type of meal. The long chain triglyceride rich meal increased the ileal flow of bile acids in both normal subjects and ileostomates, whereas the medium chain triglyceride rich meal increased bile acid flow in ileostomates but not in normal subjects, possibly reflecting a different amount of the bile acids in the ileum of the ileostomate. In the adapted ileostomate, the low volume and high potassium concentration of fasting effluent suggest that sodium and water absorption are continuously stimulated by chronic salt depletion. PMID:3732897

Ladas, S D; Isaacs, P E; Murphy, G M; Sladen, G E

1986-01-01

176

Measurement of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides  

SciTech Connect

The development of a sensitive and highly specific assay for the presence of mixed disulfides between protein thiol groups and endogenous thiols has been undertaken. Previous investigations on the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and protein glutathione mixed disulfides (ProSSG) have been of limited usefulness because of the poor specificity of the assays used. Our assay for these forms of glutathione is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and is an extension of an earlier method. After perchloric acid precipitation, the protein sample is washed with an organic solvent to fully denature the protein. Up to a 10-fold increase in GSH released from fetal bovine serum (FBS) protein has been found when the protein precipitate is washed with ethanol rather than ether, as earlier suggested. Similar effects have been observed with an as yet unidentified thiol which elutes in the chromatography system with a retention volume similar to cysteine.

Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

1984-09-01

177

Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

2006-03-01

178

Glutathione synthetase–deficient lymphocytes and acetaminophen toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic electrophilic metabolites of acetaminophen are detoxified by conjugation with glutathione. Cellular glutathione content of patients with glutathione synthetase deficiency (5-oxoprolinuria) is 10% to 20% of normal. These patients might be at increased risk for acetaminophen toxicity. The hypothesis was tested by challenging lymphocytes from normals and a patient with glutathione synthetase deficiency in vitro with acetaminophen metabolites generated by

Stephen P Spielberg; Gary B Gordon

1981-01-01

179

Ipilimumab for Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma  

PubMed Central

The outcome of patients with mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab is not defined. To assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in this melanoma subset, we performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 33 patients with unresectable or metastatic mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab. The clinical characteristics, treatments, toxicities, radiographic assessment of disease burden by central radiology review at each site, and mutational profiles of the patients' tumors were recorded. Available peripheral blood samples were used to assess humoral immunity against a panel of cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. By the immune-related response criteria of the 30 patients who underwent radiographic assessment after ipilimumab at approximately week 12, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 6 immune-related stable disease, and 22 immune-related progressive disease. By the modified World Health Organization criteria, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 5 immune-related stable disease, and 23 immune-related progressive disease. Immune-related adverse events (as graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0) consisted of six patients with rash (four grade 1, two grade 2), three patients with diarrhea (one grade 1, two grade 3), one patient with grade 1 thyroiditis, one patient with grade 3 hepatitis, and 1 patient with grade 2 hypophysitis. The median overall survival from the time of the first dose of ipilimumab was 6.4 months (range: 1.8–26.7 months). Several patients demonstrated serologic responses to cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. Durable responses to ipilimumab were observed, but the overall response rate was low. Additional investigation is necessary to clarify the role of ipilimumab in patients with mucosal melanoma. PMID:23716015

Postow, Michael A.; Luke, Jason J.; Bluth, Mark J.; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Panageas, Katherine S.; Lawrence, Donald P.; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Ott, Patrick A.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Harding, James J.; D'Angelo, Sandra P.; Dickson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Gary K.; Chapman, Paul B.; Gnjatic, Sacha; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Hodi, F. Stephen

2013-01-01

180

Cultivated limbal and oral mucosal epithelial transplantation.  

PubMed

Stem cells located at the limbus are the ultimate source for regeneration of the corneal epithelium in normal and traumatized states. When limbal stem cells are dysfunctional or deficient, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) develops. Its surgical management depends on laterality and severity of corneal-limbal involvement. Conventional methods of stem cell transplantation are conjunctival-limbal autograft (CLAU), conjunctival-limbal allograft (CLAL), and kerato-limbal allograft (KLAL) surgeries. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) and cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET) on a carrier such as amniotic membrane are current surgical alternatives. These new surgical procedures are effective in stabilizing the ocular surface. The theoretical advantage of ex-vivo expansions over conventional methods is that only a small limbal or mucosal biopsy is needed, thus minimizing the risk to the donor eye; there is also a lower risk of rejection. They can be used in cases with unilateral or bilateral total stem cell deficiency. In the unilateral cases, the source for CLET is a healthy fellow eye and in bilateral cases the source can be living-related or cadaveric eyes. The oral explants do not have limbal stem cells, but they seem to be a source of limbal stem cell equivalents that are able to generate cornea-like epithelium under the proper culture conditions. The main advantage of COMET is that patients with bilateral LSCD can be treated with grafts derived from their own autologous oral mucosal cells. The long-term outcomes of COMET have to be elucidated. PMID:22784272

Eslani, Medi; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Ahmad, Sajjad

2012-01-01

181

The Gut Microbiota and Mucosal T Cells  

PubMed Central

It is intuitive that immune cells in the gut may require microbiota-derived cues for their differentiation. The proximity between host and microbe in the intestine would seemingly necessitate co-adaptation. However, it has been challenging to determine the members and features of the gut microbiota that influence immune system development and function. The recent identification of immunomodulatory members of the commensal microbiota is providing insight into the dependence of select, intestinal immune cell subsets on specific microbial species. In this review, we focus on the gut microbiota's influence on the development and function of mucosal T cells subsets, specifically intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria CD4 T cells. PMID:21833339

Smith, Patrick M.; Garrett, Wendy S.

2011-01-01

182

Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.  

PubMed

The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-?-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

2013-08-15

183

Zinc prevents Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-induced loss of intestinal mucosal barrier function in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to evaluate the beneficial effects of supplemental zinc (Zn) on the intestinal mucosal barrier function in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-challenged broiler chickens in a 42-day experiment. A total of 336 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were assigned to eight treatment groups. A 4×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a completely randomized experimental design to study the effects of levels of supplemental Zn (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet), pathogen challenge (with or without S. Typhimurium challenge), and their interactions. S. Typhimurium infection caused reduction of growth performance (P<0.05) and intestinal injury, as determined by reduced (P<0.05) villus height/crypt depth ratio and sucrase activity in the ileum, increased (P<0.05) plasma endotoxin levels, and reduced (P<0.05) claudin-1, occludin and mucin-2 mRNA expression in the ileum at day 21. Zn pre-treatment tended to improve body weight gain (P=0.072) in the starter period, to increase the activity of ileal sucrase (P=0.077), to reduce plasma endotoxin levels (P=0.080), and to significantly increase (P<0.05) the villus height/crypt depth ratio and mRNA levels of occludin and claudin-1 in the ileum at day 21. The results indicated that dietary Zn supplementation appeared to alleviate the loss of intestinal mucosal barrier function induced by S. Typhimurium challenge and the partial mechanism might be related to the increased expression of occludin and claudin-1 in broiler chickens. PMID:22834550

Zhang, Bingkun; Shao, Yuxin; Liu, Dan; Yin, Peihui; Guo, Yuming; Yuan, Jianmin

2012-01-01

184

Mucosal Imprinting of Vaccine-Induced CD8+ T Cells Is Crucial to Inhibit the Growth of Mucosal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Although many human cancers are located in mucosal sites, most cancer vaccines are tested against subcutaneous tumors in preclinical models. We therefore wondered whether mucosa-specific homing instructions to the immune system might influence mucosal tumor outgrowth. We showed that the growth of orthotopic head and neck or lung cancers was inhibited when a cancer vaccine was delivered by the intranasal mucosal route but not the intramuscular route. This antitumor effect was dependent on CD8+ T cells. Indeed, only intranasal vaccination elicited mucosal-specific CD8+ T cells expressing the mucosal integrin CD49a. Blockade of CD49a decreased intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration and the efficacy of cancer vaccine on mucosal tumor. We then showed that after intranasal vaccination, dendritic cells from lung parenchyma, but not those from spleen, induced the expression of CD49a on cocultured specific CD8+ T cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human mucosal lung cancer also expressed CD49a, which supports the relevance and possible extrapolation of these results in humans. We thus identified a link between the route of vaccination and the induction of a mucosal homing program on induced CD8+ T cells that controlled their trafficking. Immunization route directly affected the efficacy of the cancer vaccine to control mucosal tumors. PMID:23408053

Sandoval, Federico; Bureau, Michel-Francis; Freyburger, Ludovic; Clement, Olivier; Marcheteau, Elie; Gey, Alain; Fraisse, Guillaume; Bouguin, Cecilia; Merillon, Nathalie; Dransart, Estelle; Tran, Thi; Quintin-Colonna, Francoise; Autret, Gwennhael; Thiebaud, Marine; Suleman, Muhammad; Riffault, Sabine; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Launay, Odile; Danel, Claire; Taieb, Julien; Richardson, Jennifer; Zitvogel, Laurence; Fridman, Wolf H.; Johannes, Ludger; Tartour, Eric

2014-01-01

185

Mucosal imprinting of vaccine-induced CD8? T cells is crucial to inhibit the growth of mucosal tumors.  

PubMed

Although many human cancers are located in mucosal sites, most cancer vaccines are tested against subcutaneous tumors in preclinical models. We therefore wondered whether mucosa-specific homing instructions to the immune system might influence mucosal tumor outgrowth. We showed that the growth of orthotopic head and neck or lung cancers was inhibited when a cancer vaccine was delivered by the intranasal mucosal route but not the intramuscular route. This antitumor effect was dependent on CD8? T cells. Indeed, only intranasal vaccination elicited mucosal-specific CD8? T cells expressing the mucosal integrin CD49a. Blockade of CD49a decreased intratumoral CD8? T cell infiltration and the efficacy of cancer vaccine on mucosal tumor. We then showed that after intranasal vaccination, dendritic cells from lung parenchyma, but not those from spleen, induced the expression of CD49a on cocultured specific CD8? T cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human mucosal lung cancer also expressed CD49a, which supports the relevance and possible extrapolation of these results in humans. We thus identified a link between the route of vaccination and the induction of a mucosal homing program on induced CD8? T cells that controlled their trafficking. Immunization route directly affected the efficacy of the cancer vaccine to control mucosal tumors. PMID:23408053

Sandoval, Federico; Terme, Magali; Nizard, Mevyn; Badoual, Cécile; Bureau, Michel-Francis; Freyburger, Ludovic; Clement, Olivier; Marcheteau, Elie; Gey, Alain; Fraisse, Guillaume; Bouguin, Cécilia; Merillon, Nathalie; Dransart, Estelle; Tran, Thi; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Autret, Gwennhael; Thiebaud, Marine; Suleman, Muhammad; Suleman, Muhammed; Riffault, Sabine; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Launay, Odile; Danel, Claire; Taieb, Julien; Richardson, Jennifer; Zitvogel, Laurence; Fridman, Wolf H; Johannes, Ludger; Tartour, Eric

2013-02-13

186

Liver glutathione content and glutathione?dependent enzymes of two species of freshwater fish as bioindicators of chemical pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione content and glutahione?dependent enzymes were measured in the liver of two fish species, gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and roach (Rutilus arcasii), from the river Bernesga (Spain) caught downstream and upstream of the waste site of several chemical industries. Animals from contaminated sites display a reduced glutathione concentration and a tendency to the decrease of glutathione S?transferase activity. Glutathione peroxidase activity

M. Almar; L. Otero; C. Santos; J. Gonzalez Gallego

1998-01-01

187

Decreased Glutathione Peroxidase Activities with Concomitant Increased Oxidized Glutathione Levels among Residents in an Arsenic Contaminated Community of Southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione are important antioxidants responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been shown that changes in GPx activities and glutathione levels are associated with various diseases including toxic chemical related diseases and cancers. The study aimed to determine the levels of GPx activity and glutathione among residents in Ron Phibun district, an

Warangkana CHUNGLOK

188

Changes in bacterial composition and enzymatic activity in ileostomy and ileal reservoir during intermittent occlusion: a study using dogs.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial flora, activities of 10 potential mucus- and dietary polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, blood group antigenicity of the intestinal glycoproteins, and proteolytic activity in the output from experimentally colectomized dogs with conventional ileostomies and dogs with valveless ileal reservoirs (pouches) were determined. The ileostomies of dogs with conventional surgery (group II) and with pouches (group III) were occluded intermittently during a 6-week period. The duration of occlusion was progressively increased. Group I, five dogs with conventional ileostomies, served as a control group. After occlusion of the ileal pouch for 7 h, total numbers of bacteria increased threefold, glycosidase activity increased fivefold, and blood group antigenicity of the intestinal glycoproteins, which was high in the output from the nonoccluded pouch, was no longer detectable. Proteolytic activity was not influenced by occlusion of the pouch. Significantly lower numbers of bacteria, only minor glycosidase activity, high blood group antigenicities of the intestinal glycoproteins, and higher proteolytic activity were found in ileostomy effluents from groups I and II. Histopathological examination showed chronic inflammation and changes in crypt-villus ratio in all dogs with ileal reservoirs; the ileal mucosa from the dogs with conventional ileostomies did not show any abnormalities. Consequences of the flora-related enzyme activities for the ileal mucosa are discussed. PMID:1539967

Ruseler-van Embden, J G; Schouten, W R; van Lieshout, L M; Auwerda, H J

1992-01-01

189

Cloning and molecular characterization of the ontogeny of a rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.  

PubMed Central

Sodium-dependent bile acid transport in the rat ileum is abruptly expressed at weaning. Degenerate oligonucleotides, based on amino acid sequence identities between the rat liver and hamster ileal transporters, were used to amplify a rat ileal probe. A 1.2-kb cDNA clone, which contains the full coding region (348 amino acids, 38 kD), was isolated by hybridization screening. In vitro translation yielded a 38-kD protein which glycosylated to 48 kD. Sodium-dependent uptake of taurocholate was observed in oocytes injected with cRNA. Northern blot analysis revealed a 5.0-kb mRNA in ileum, kidney, and cecum. A 48-kD protein was detected in ileal brush border membranes and localized to the apical border of villus ileal enterocytes. mRNA and protein expression, which were negligible before weaning, increased dramatically at weaning. Nuclear transcription rates for the transporter increased 15-fold between postnatal days 7 and 28. The apparent molecular weight of the transporter also increased between days 19 and 28. In summary, the developmental regulation of the rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter is characterized by transcriptionally regulated increases in mRNA and protein levels at the time of weaning with changes in apparent molecular weight of the protein after weaning. Images PMID:7860756

Shneider, B L; Dawson, P A; Christie, D M; Hardikar, W; Wong, M H; Suchy, F J

1995-01-01

190

Diet, exercise and gut mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

Diet and exercise are primary strategies recommended for the control of the obesity epidemic. Considerable attention is being paid to the effect of both on the immune system. However, little research has been done on the effect of diet, nutrients or exercise on the mucosal immune system. The gastrointestinal tract (gut) is not only responsible for the entry of nutrients into the organism, but also for triggering the primary immune response to orally ingested antigens. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue contains a large amount of immune cells, disseminated all along the intestine in Peyer's patches and lamina propria. Specific nutrients or their combinations, as well as the microflora, are capable of modulating the immune system through cell activation, production of signalling molecules or gene expression. We have observed an increase in T-cells as well as a decrease in B-cells from Peyer's patches, induced by diets high in fats or carbohydrates in Balb/c mice. It has also been demonstrated that exercise modulates the immune system, where moderate levels may improve its function by increasing the proliferation of lymphocytes from various sites, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue, whereas exhaustive acute exercise may cause immunosuppression. High-fat diets combined with exercise are able to induce an increase in CD3+ lymphocytes due to increased CD8+ cells and a decrease in B-cells. Explanations and consequences of the effects of diet and exercise on the gut mucosal immunity are still being explored. PMID:20860856

Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatriz E; Aranda-González, Irma I; Guadarrama, Ana Laura; Pardo-Morales, Rosa Virgen; Tlatempa, Patricia; Jarillo-Luna, Rosa A

2010-11-01

191

IgA, B Cells and Epithelial Cells in Mucosal Immunity  

E-print Network

mucosal immune system are known to regulate tight junction barriermucosal immune system responds to pathogens and commensals on mucosal surfaces by forming a tight barriermucosal surfaces is governed by dynamic interaction between the epithelial barrier, commensals microbiota, and mucosal immune

Gusti, Veronica

2014-01-01

192

Abiotic stress alters transcript profiles and activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in Euphorbia esula.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) are enzymes that utilize glutathione to play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. In leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), transcript and activity profiles for these enzymes are differentially influenced in tissue exposed to xenobiotic (diclofop-methyl) and environmental stress (cold and drought). Five different EeGST cDNA (including phi, tau, theta, and zeta class GSTs), one EeGPX cDNA, and one EeGR cDNA showed differential expression patterns in leafy spurge plants exposed to diclofop-methyl-, cold- and drought-stress. Tissue treated with diclofop-methyl also had increased GST, GPX and GR activities that were preceded or paralleled by increased gene expression. Transcript profiles resulting from drought-stressed plants were similar to transcript profiles from diclofop-methyl-treated plants but not cold-stressed plants. GPX activity in leafy spurge protein extracts was not bound to either S-hexylglutathione- or glutathione-agarose columns but instead co-migrated with fractions of GST activity that also were not bound by affinity chromatography. Fractions of GST proteins that were bound to S-hexylglutathione revealed that increased GST activity in diclofop-methyl-treated tissue could be identified as phi- and tau-type GSTs. PMID:15032839

Anderson, James V.; Davis, David G.

2004-03-01

193

Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis  

PubMed Central

Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle. PMID:24885874

2014-01-01

194

The Glutathione System of Aspergillus nidulans Involves a Fungus-specific Glutathione S-Transferase*S?  

PubMed Central

The tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. This study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. A recombinant dimeric protein of A. nidulans glutathione reductase (GR) contained FAD and reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using NADPH as an electron donor. A deletion strain of the GR gene (glrA) accumulated less intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), indicating that the fungal GR contributes to GSSG reduction in vivo. Growth of the deletion strain of glrA was temperature-sensitive, and this phenotype was suppressed by adding GSH to the medium. The strain subsequently accumulated more intracellular superoxide, and cell-free respiration activity was partly defective. Growth of the strain decreased in the presence of oxidants, which induced glrA expression 1.5-6-fold. These results indicated that the fungal glutathione system functions as an antioxidant mechanism in A. nidulans. Our findings further revealed an initial proteomic differential display on GR-depleted and wild type strains. Up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxins, catalases, and cytochrome c peroxidase in the glrA-deletion strain revealed interplay between the glutathione system and both the thioredoxin system and hydrogen peroxide defense mechanisms. We also identified a hypothetical, up-regulated protein in the GR-depleted strains as glutathione S-transferase, which is unique among Ascomycetes fungi. PMID:19171936

Sato, Ikuo; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

2009-01-01

195

Epidemiology of Mucosal Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the epidemiology of mucosal human papillomavirs (HPV) in adults and children, its mode of transmission and its associated diseases. Over 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection globally, with high prevalences found in both females and males.

Helen Trottier; Ann N. Burchell

2009-01-01

196

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY RORt is dispensable for the development of intestinal  

E-print Network

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY RORt is dispensable for the development of intestinal mucosal T cells. Naito, T counterparts of RORt (retinoic- acid-receptor-related orphan receptor-t)+ fetal lymphoid-tissue- inducer (LTi of cryptopatches and suggest that LTi-like cells support the development of cryptopatch T-cell progenitors

Cai, Long

197

Evaluation of an Alternative Mucosal Irritation Test Using Slugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate an alternative mucosal irritation test using the slug Arion lusitanicus as test organism. The effect of 28 reference substances on the mucosal tissue of the slugs was determined by the amount of mucus produced, the reduction in body weight, and the release of proteins from the body wall. The data of the

E. Adriaens; J. P. Remon

2002-01-01

198

Postdoctoral Research Positions in Mucosal Immunology and Molecular Microbiology  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Research Positions in Mucosal Immunology and Molecular Microbiology Two post-doctoral research positions are available at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University, New and microbiologists that have broad interests in mucosal immunology and host-commensal interactions and enjoy

Symington, Lorraine S.

199

Transplantable cultivated mucosal epithelial sheet for ocular surface reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular surface reconstruction by tissue engineering using somatic stem cells is a second-generation therapeutic modality. In view of future treatment of bilaterally affected, severe ocular surface disorders, two types of transplantable cultivated mucosal epithelial sheets can be used for reconstruction. One is an allogeneic corneal epithelial stem cell sheet, and the other is an autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet.

Shigeru Kinoshita; Noriko Koizumi; Takahiro Nakamura

2004-01-01

200

Glutathione Reductase, Selenium-Dependent Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Levels, and Lipid Peroxidation in Freshwater Bivalves, Unio tumidus,as Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination in Field Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of antioxidant parameters in the freshwater bivalve,Unio tumidus,as biomarkers of exposure to pollutants and to study their potential interest in predicting toxicity. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), non-selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (non-Se-GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities; reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione levels; and lipid peroxidation were

C. Cossu; A. Doyotte; M. C. Jacquin; M. Babut; A. Exinger; P. Vasseur

1997-01-01

201

Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in egg from hyperimmunized hens fed to weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in egg from hens hyperimmunized with Escherichia coli K88 antigens (EGG) fed to weaned pigs. Spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) was included for comparison. Eight barrows (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc; initial BW of 17 ± 1 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 2 diets in a completely randomized design to give 4 replicates per diet. The diets were corn (Zea mays) starch based with either EGG or SDPP as the sole source of protein and were formulated to contain 130 g/kg CP. At the end of the study, a 50 g/kg casein diet was fed to all pigs (n = 8) to quantify endogenous N and AA losses to determine SID. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was included in the diets as an indigestible maker. Each period lasted for 7 d. Pigs were adapted to their respective diets for 5 d followed by 12 h of continuous ileal digesta collection on days 6 and 7. Daily feed allowance was set at 4% BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs had unlimited access to water via low pressure nipple drinkers. The AID (%) of CP and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in EGG compared with SDPP. The SID (%) of CP (82 vs. 96) and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed EGG compared with SDPP. In conclusion, the average AID and SID of N and indispensable AA in EGG are lower than in SDPP when fed at high levels. PMID:23365342

Heo, J M; Kiarie, E; Kahindi, R K; Maiti, P; Woyengo, T A; Nyachoti, C M

2012-12-01

202

Prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). It is an inflammatory process that affects the mucosa of the oral cavity, giving rise to erythematous areas in combination with ulcers that can reach a large size. The true importance of oral mucositis is the complications it causes – fundamentally intense pain associated to the oral ulcers, and the risk of overinfection. This in turn may require reduction or even suspension of the antineoplastic treatment, with the risk of seriously worsening the patient prognosis. This points to the importance of establishing therapeutic tools of use in the prevention and/or treatment of mucositis. The present study offers a literature review of all the articles published over the last 10 years referred to the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis associated to chemotherapy. Key words:Oral mucositis, management, prevention, treatment, chemotherapy. PMID:24596640

Sarrion-Perez, Maria G.

2014-01-01

203

[A case of ileal duplication cyst lined by ciliated columnar and squamous epithelium].  

PubMed

Duplication is a rare congenital abnormality and may occur in any region of the gastrointestinal tract. A 19-year-old woman was admitted due to lower abdominal pain. Abdomino-pelvic CT scan showed a cystic mass interpreted as mesenteric cyst or duplication cyst. On the operation finding, it seemed to be arised from mesentery but attached to the ileum. Microscopically, the cystic wall was lined by non-keratinizing squamous, ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, and ectopic gastric mucosa with two distinct muscular layers and a serosa. We report the first case of ileal duplication cyst lined by squamous and ciliated columnar epithelium in Korea. PMID:19696549

Kim, Ki Hoon; Choi, Suck Chei; Kang, Dong Baek; Yun, Ki Jung

2009-07-01

204

Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is

J W Konturek; A Dembinski; R Stoll; W Domschke; S J Konturek

1994-01-01

205

Characterization of subtype of propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM)-sensitive and -resistant muscarinic cholinoceptors in guinea pig ileal muscle.  

PubMed

The subtype of propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM)-sensitive and -resistant muscarinic cholinoceptors in guinea pig ileal muscle was examined using four selective muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116, himbacine and 4-DAMP. The pA2 values of the four antagonists against pilocarpine were not different from their values against carbachol after the treatment with PrBCM and was identified with the values for the m3 subtype. These results suggest that the subtype of PrBCM-sensitive and -resistant muscarinic cholinoceptors in guinea pig ileal muscle is the m3 subtype only and not other subtypes. PMID:1434144

Harada, M; Koike, K; Takayanagi, I

1992-08-01

206

Mucosal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, and following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the etiological agent of the disease, it was clear that the virus gains access to the human host predominantly through the mucosal tissue after sexual exposure. As a consequence, the female genital tract (vaginal and cervical), as well as the rectal, penile, and oral mucosae have been extensively studied over the last thirty years towards a better understanding of - and to develop strategies to prevent - sexual HIV transmission. This review seeks to describe the biology of the events leading to HIV infection through the human mucosa and introduce some of the approaches attempted to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:22264040

Tebit, Denis M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Weinberg, Aaron; Quinones-Mateu, Miguel E.

2013-01-01

207

Helminthic therapy: improving mucosal barrier function  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections led to suggestions that helminths could improve inflammatory conditions, which was then tested using animal models. This has translated to clinical investigations aimed at the safe and controlled reintroduction of helminthic exposure to patients suffering from autoimmune diseases (so-called “helminthic therapy”) in an effort to mitigate the inflammatory response. In this review, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials of helminthic therapy, with particular attention to mechanisms of action. Whereas previous reviews have emphasized immune regulatory mechanisms activated by helminths, we propose that enhancement of mucosal barrier function may have an equally important role in improving conditions of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:22464690

Wolff, Martin J.; Broadhurst, Mara J.

2014-01-01

208

Head and neck mucosal melanoma: a review.  

PubMed

Head and neck mucosal melanoma (MM) is an aggressive and rare neoplasm of melanocytic origin. To date, few retrospective series and case reports have been reported on MM. This article reviews the current evidence on head and neck MM and the molecular pathways that mediate the pathogenesis of this disease. Head and neck MM accounts for 0.7%-3.8% of all melanomas and involve (in decreasing order of frequency) the sinonasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus. Although many studies have examined MM of the head and neck and the underlying molecular pathways, individual genetic and molecular alterations were less investigated. Further studies are needed to complement existing data and to increase our understanding of melanocytes tumorigenesis. PMID:24423929

Lourenço, Silvia V; Fernandes, Juliana D; Hsieh, Ricardo; Coutinho-Camillo, Claudia M; Bologna, Sheyla; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

2014-07-01

209

[March hemoglobinuria. One case with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase deficiency].  

PubMed

A new case of march haemoglobinuria seen in a 21-year-old man is reported. A deficiency in two erythrocytic enzymes (glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxydase) was observed. Treatment with riboflavin corrected the glutathione reductase deficiency. The march haemoglobinuria and glutathione peroxydase deficiency persisted. Several months after resolution of the march haemoglobinuria, a new estimation of glutathione peroxydase showed that the deficiency had disappeared. The possible role of a transient deficiency in erythrocyte glutathione peroxydase in the pathogenesis of march haemoglobinuria is discussed. PMID:1134932

Bernard, J F; Galand, C; Boivin, P

1975-04-12

210

Topical and mucosal liposomes for vaccine delivery.  

PubMed

Mucosal (and in minor extent transcutanous) stimulation can induce local or distant mucosa secretory IgA. Liposomes and other vesicles as mucosal and transcutaneous adjuvants are attractive alternatives to parenteral vaccination. Liposomes can be massively produced under good manufacturing practices and stored for long periods, at high antigen/vesicle mass ratios. However, their uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APC) at the inductive sites remains as a major challenge. As neurotoxicity is a major concern in intranasal delivery, complexes between archaeosomes and calcium as well as cationic liposomes complexed with plasmids encoding for antigenic proteins could safely elicit secretory and systemic antigen-specific immune responses. Oral bilosomes generate intense immune responses that remain to be tested against challenge, but the admixing with toxins or derivatives is mandatory to reduce the amount of antigen. Most of the current experimental designs, however, underestimate the mucus blanket 100- to 1000-fold thicker than a 100-nm diameter liposome, which has first to be penetrated to access the underlying M cells. Overall, designing mucoadhesive chemoenzymatic resistant liposomes, or selectively targeted to M cells, has produced less relevant results than tailoring the liposomes to make them mucus penetrating. Opposing, the nearly 10 µm thickness stratum corneum interposed between liposomes and underlying APC can be surpassed by ultradeformable liposomes (UDL), with lipid matrices that penetrate up to the limit with the viable epidermis. UDL made of phospholipids and detergents, proved to be better transfection agents than conventional liposomes and niosomes, without the toxicity of ethosomes, in the absence of classical immunomodulators. PMID:21360692

Romero, Eder Lilia; Morilla, Maria Jose

2011-01-01

211

Mucosal barrier injury, fever and infection in neutropenic patients with cancer: introducing the paradigm febrile mucositis.  

PubMed

Infection remains one of the most prominent complications after cytotoxic treatment for cancer. The connection between neutropenia and both infections and fever has long been designated as 'febrile neutropenia', but treatment with antimicrobial agents and haematopoietic growth factors has failed to significantly reduce its incidence. Moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is becoming a concern that necessitates the judicious use of available antimicrobial agents. In addition to neutropenia, patients who receive cytotoxic therapy experience mucosal barrier injury (MBI) or 'mucositis'. MBI creates a port-de-entrée for resident micro-organisms to cause blood stream infections and contributes directly to the occurrence of fever by disrupting the highly regulated host-microbe interactions, which, even in the absence of an infection, can result in strong inflammatory reactions. Indeed, MBI has been shown to be a pivotal factor in the occurrence of inflammatory complications after cytotoxic therapy. Hence, the concept 'febrile neutropenia' alone may no longer suffice and a new concept 'febrile mucositis' should be recognized as the two are at least complementary. This review we summarizes the existing evidence for both paradigms and proposes new therapeutic approaches to tackle the perturbed host-microbe interactions arising from cytotoxic therapy-induced tissue damage in order to reduce fever in neutropenic patients with cancer. PMID:25196917

van der Velden, Walter J F M; Herbers, Alexandra H E; Netea, Mihai G; Blijlevens, Nicole M A

2014-11-01

212

Palytoxin-induced K+ efflux from ileal longitudinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig.  

PubMed

In guinea-pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle, both palytoxin (PTX) and carbachol (CCh) increased K+ efflux with an EC50 of 1.8 X 10(-10) M and 4.1 X 10(-7) M, respectively. Atropine (10(-6) M) did not inhibit the K+ efflux due to PTX (3 X 10(-9) M), but completely inhibited the efflux due to CCh (10(-5) M). External Ca2+ removal and verapamil (10(-5) M) did not change the PTX-induced K+ efflux, although the CCh-induced K+ efflux was inhibited about 77% and 71%, respectively. PTX-induced K+ efflux was reduced to 31% by a depletion of intracellular Ca2+. Tetraethylammonium (15 mM) inhibited the K+ efflux due to PTX or CCh to 61% or 75%, respectively. The PTX-induced K+ efflux was also inhibited by cymarin (3 X 10(-8) M), ouabain (10(-5) M) and digitoxin (10(-5) M). These results suggest that the PTX-induced K+ efflux is less dependent on Ca2+ influx than that due to CCh. Furthermore, the binding sites for PTX in the ileal muscle of guinea-pig may be Na+, K+-ATPase, as has been suggested in other types of cells. PMID:2898032

Hori, M; Shimizu, K; Nakajyo, S; Urakawa, N

1988-03-01

213

Efflux of glutathione and glutathione complexes from human erythrocytes in response to vanadate.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to investigate if vanadate is extruded from the cells in a glutathione dependent manner resulting in the appearance of extracellular glutathione and complexes of glutathione with vanadium. Vanadate significantly depleted intracellular non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The intracellular NPSH level was decreased to 0.0 ± 0.0 ?mol/ml erythrocyte when exposed to 10 mM of vanadate for 4h. Extracellular NPSH level was increased concomitantly with the intracellular decrease and reached to 0.1410 ± 0.005 ?mol/ml erythrocyte in 4h. Intracellular decrease and extracellular increase in NPSH levels were significantly inhibited in the presence of DIDS, a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger which also mediates phosphate and arsenate transport in erythrocytes. In parallel with the increase in extracellular NPSH levels, significant increases in extracellular glutathione levels were detected following exposure to vanadate. Extracellular glutathione levels reached to 0.0150 ± 0.0.001, 0.0330 ± 0.001, and 0.0576 ± 0.002 ?mol/ml erythrocyte with 1, 5, and 10 mM of vanadate respectively. Dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment of supernatants significantly increased the glutathione levels measured in the extracellular media. Utilization of MK571 an MRP inhibitor decreased the rate of glutathione efflux from erythrocytes suggesting a role for this membrane transporter in the process. A known methylation inhibitor periodate oxidized adenosine decreased the rate of glutathione efflux from erythrocytes. This observed decrease in extracellular GSH levels suggests that GSH release partly requires a proper cellular methylation process and that part of GSH detected in the extracellular media may arise from GSH-vandium complexes. The results of the present study indicate that human erythrocyte efflux glutathione in reduced free form and in conjugated form/s that can be recovered with dimercaptosuccinic acid when exposed to vanadate. PMID:22824382

Cakir, Yeliz; Yildiz, Deniz

2013-01-01

214

Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium  

SciTech Connect

Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.

1986-08-01

215

Glutathione-binding site of a bombyx mori theta-class glutathione transferase.  

PubMed

The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily plays key roles in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a silkworm protein belonging to a previously reported theta-class GST family. The enzyme (bmGSTT) catalyzes the reaction of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)-propane, and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the catalytic site revealed that Glu66 and Ser67 are important for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTT and into the metabolism of exogenous chemical agents. PMID:24848539

Hossain, M D Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Kohji

2014-01-01

216

Water and electrolyte balance after ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water and electrolyte balance was studied in 31 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 22 with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) who underwent staged surgery involving colectomy and ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis (IAA), preoperatively, after terminal ileostomy, after high ileostomy, and after ileostomy closure. Serum electrolytes did not differ between each surgical stage. After terminal or high ileostomy, daily urine

T. Okamoto; M. Kusunoki; K. Kusuhara; T. Yamamura; J. Utsunomiya

1995-01-01

217

Evaluation of two external markers for measurement of ileal and total tract digestibility of pigs fed human-type diets.  

PubMed

External markers for determination of nutrient digestibility have often been evaluated in conventional dry feeds but less often in conventional feeds such as human-type diets used in animal model studies. In the present study, 5 ileal-cannulated pigs were fed 5 types of soft bread-based diets supplemented with Cr(2)O(3) and AIA as digestibility markers for 1 wk in a Latin square design. Ileal contents were collected twice for 5 h and a fecal grab sample was obtained once per week. Ileal and total tract digestibility of OM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) based on the 2 markers were compared by linear regression. Across dietary treatments and site of collection, high correlation existed between digestibility values obtained with Cr(2)O(3) and AIA, resulting in a R(2) > 0.77 (P < 0.001) and a linear relation close to unity. For ileal samples, the correlation was poor, particularly for NSP, which had R(2) = 0.09 (P = 0.14) whereas OM had an R(2) = 0.52 (P <0.001). On the other hand, fecal grab samples led to R(2) > 0.92 (P < 0.001) for both OM and NSP. However, AIA gave higher values than Cr(2)O(3), particularly in samples with lower digestibility. The discrepancy is presumably caused by analytical difficulties due to a high fecal ash contents or interference with other components in the human-type diets. PMID:23365387

Lærke, H N; Kasprzak, M M; Bach Knudsen, K E

2012-12-01

218

Risk Factors for Low Bone Mass in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Following Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Bone mineral density (BMD) can be adversely affected by the chronic nature of inflammatory bowel disease. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require proctocolectomy. There are few data on BMD in UC patients with IPAA. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated

Bo Shen; Feza H Remzi; Ioannis K Oikonomou; Hong Lu; Bret A Lashner; Jeffrey P Hammel; Mario Skugor; Ana E Bennett; Aaron Brzezinski; Elaine Queener; Victor W Fazio

2009-01-01

219

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium  

E-print Network

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP. In chicks and rats, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD,) is the major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Molecular analysis of jejunal, ileal, caecal and recto sigmoidal human colonic microbiota using 16S rRNAgenelibrariesandterminalrestrictionfragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

lengths of the terminal restriction fragments were analysed after digestion with HhaI and MspI. The jejunal and ileal microbiota consisted of simple microbial communities of streptococci, lactobacilli, 'Gammaproteobacteria', the Enterococcus group and the Bacteroides group. Most of the species were facultative anaerobes or aerobes. The Clostridium coccoides group and the Clostridium leptum subgroup, which are the most predominant groups in

Hidenori Hayashi; Rei Takahashi; Takahiro Nishi; Mitsuo Sakamoto; Yoshimi Benno

221

Risk Factors for Abnormal Liver Function Tests in Patients With Ileal Pouch–Anal Anastomosis for Underlying Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Liver involvement is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the frequency and the significance of liver function test (LFT) abnormalities in patients with ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) for underlying IBD have not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and to identify risk factors for abnormal LFTs in patients with IPAA and

Udayakumar Navaneethan; Feza H Remzi; Benjamin Nutter; Victor W Fazio; Bo Shen

2009-01-01

222

Glutathione system in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) forms a part of the antioxidant system that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress, and an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of the GSH system in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Components of the GSH system, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and total GSH content, were measured in the kidneys of 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Systolic blood pressure of SHR was significantly higher from the age of 6 weeks onwards compared with age-matched WKY rats. GPx activity in the SHR was significantly lower from the age of 8 weeks onwards when compared to that in age-matched WKY rats. No significant differences were evident in the GPx-1 protein abundance, and its relative mRNA levels, GR, GST activity, and total GSH content between SHR and age-matched WKY rats. The lower GPx activity suggests of an impairment of the GSH system in the SHR, which might be due to an abnormality in its protein rather than non-availability of a cofactor. Its role in the development of hypertension in SHR however remains unclear. PMID:20680541

Lee, S K; Arunkumar, Sundaram; Sirajudeen, K N S; Singh, H J

2010-12-01

223

Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection by RNA virus induces oxidative stress in host cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that cellular redox status plays an important role in regulating viral replication and infectivity. In this study, experiments were performed to determine whether the thiol antioxidant glutathione (GSH) blocked influenza viral infection in cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells or human small airway epithelial cells. Protection against

Jiyang Cai; Yan Chen; Shaguna Seth; Satoru Furukawa; Richard W Compans; Dean P Jones

2003-01-01

224

Glutathione, iron and Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), a part of the midbrain. Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a major role in the neuronal cell death associated with PD. Importantly, there is a drastic depletion in cytoplasmic levels of the thiol tripeptide glutathione within the SN of PD

Srinivas Bharath; Michael Hsu; Deepinder Kaur; Subramanian Rajagopalan; Julie K Andersen

2002-01-01

225

Population study of erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of erythrocyte glutathione reductase (GR) was determined in a group of 87 prisoners from northern Thailand (65 with normal, 22 with deficient erythrocyte G-6-PD) without and with added FAD. The amount of stimulation by FAD was inversely related to the original activity suggesting that FAD stimulation in vivo is one of the main determinants of GR activity. 4

Gebhard Flatz

1971-01-01

226

Uptake through glycoprotein 2 of FimH+ bacteria by M cells initiates mucosal immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal immune system forms the largest part of the entire immune system, containing about three-quarters of all lymphocytes and producing grams of secretory IgA daily to protect the mucosal surface from pathogens. To evoke the mucosal immune response, antigens on the mucosal surface must be transported across the epithelial barrier into organized lymphoid structures such as Peyer's patches. This

Koji Hase; Kazuya Kawano; Tomonori Nochi; Gemilson Soares Pontes; Shinji Fukuda; Masashi Ebisawa; Kazunori Kadokura; Toru Tobe; Yumiko Fujimura; Sayaka Kawano; Atsuko Yabashi; Satoshi Waguri; Gaku Nakato; Shunsuke Kimura; Takaya Murakami; Mitsutoshi Iimura; Kimiyo Hamura; Shin-Ichi Fukuoka; Anson W. Lowe; Kikuji Itoh; Hiroshi Kiyono; Hiroshi Ohno

2009-01-01

227

Substitution Urethroplasty for Anterior Urethral Strictures: Buccal versus Lingual Mucosal Graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To compare the results of substitution urethroplasty and donor site morbidity between buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and lingual mucosal graft (LMG). Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft substitution urethroplasty by Barbagli’s technique between January 2004 and August 2008 were included in this study. Patients who underwent buccal (cheek, lip) mucosal graft urethroplasty

Abhay Kumar; Suren K. Das; Sameer Trivedi; Udai S. Dwivedi; Pratap B. Singh

2010-01-01

228

Linking ileal digestible phosphorus and bone mineralization in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase and highly soluble calcium.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P < 0.05) at 5 than at 6 g of HSC/kg. Added P from KH2PO4 or added phytase linearly increased (P < 0.001) weight gain, G:F, tibia ash, and IPD. The IPD of KH2PO4 derived from multiple linear regressions of digestible on total P intake for the diets without added phytase showed a reduction (P < 0.05) from 89.5 to 84.5% with increased HSC from 5 to 6 g/kg. Polynomial regressions of digestible P intake on phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. PMID:23873559

Adeola, O; Walk, C L

2013-08-01

229

Nephrotoxicity of 4-aminophenol glutathione conjugate.  

PubMed

4-Aminophenol (p-aminophenol, PAP) causes selective necrosis to the pars recta of the proximal tubule in Fischer 344 rats. The basis for this selective toxicity is not known, but PAP can undergo oxidation in a variety of systems to form the 4-aminophenoxy free radical. Oxidation or disproportionation of this radical will form 1,4-benzoquinoneimine which can covalently bind to tissue macromolecules. Recent studies have shown that certain benzoquinol-glutathione conjugates can cause renal necrosis in rats. We have synthesized a putative glutathione conjugate of PAP. The effect on the kidney of this conjugate and the sulphate and N-acetyl conjugates, known metabolites of PAP, have been examined in Fischer 344 rats. 4-Amino-3-S-glutathionylphenol produced a dose-dependent (92-920 mumol kg-1) necrosis of the proximal tubular epithelium and altered renal excretory function. The lesion at the low dose was restricted to the pars recta of the proximal tubule in the medullary rays, while at the higher doses it affected the pars recta region of all nephrons. In contrast, PAP-O-sulphate and N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) caused no histological or functional alteration to the kidney at 920 mumol kg-1. The renal necrosis produced by 4-amino-3-S-glutathionylphenol was very similar to that produced by PAP (367-920 mumol kg-1), both functionally and histologically, except that smaller doses of the glutathione conjugate were required. These studies indicate that glutathione conjugation of PAP generates a metabolite that is more toxic to the kidney than the parent compound. A possible mechanism of toxicity (analogous to that reported for glutathione conjugates of certain quinones) involving oxidation to form a 1,4-benzoquinoneimine thioether that could redox cycle is discussed. PMID:1687859

Fowler, L M; Moore, R B; Foster, J R; Lock, E A

1991-11-01

230

Response of Glutathione and Glutathione S-transferase in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Cadmium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydroponic culture experiment was done to investigate the effect of Cd stress on glutathione content (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) activity in rice seedlings. The rice growth was severely inhibited when Cd level in the solution was higher than 10 mg\\/L. In rice shoots, GSH content and GST activity increased with the increasing Cd level, while in

Chun-hua ZHANG; Ying GE

2008-01-01

231

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIETARY INTAKE AND GLUTATHIONE IN OLDER ADULTS  

E-print Network

with progression of cognitive decline and under stress conditions dietary intake can help to improve glutathione levels. 22 Chapter 3: Methods Overview The purpose of this thesis is to determine the effect dietary intake has on brain... Glutathione and Alzheimer’s Disease…………………………………………………………… 17 Glutathione Levels and Oxidative Stress………………………………………………………. 18 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 Chapter 3: Methods ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22 Overview...

Evans, Randall Gene

2012-08-31

232

Anethole dithiolethione prevents oxidative damage in glutathione-depleted astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrocytes protect neurons against reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, a capacity which reportedly is abolished following loss of the antioxidant glutathione. Anethole dithiolethione, a sulfur-containing compound which is used in humans, is known to increase cellular glutathione levels and thought thereby to protect against oxidative damage. In the present study we found that anethole dithiolethione increased the glutathione

Benjamin Drukarch; Eric Schepens; Johannes C. Stoof; Cornelis H. Langeveld

1997-01-01

233

Mucosal environmental sensors in the pathogenesis of dry eye.  

PubMed

The 4th Cullen Symposium, held April 17 and 18, 2014, included expert researchers in mucosal immunity of the eye and other mucosal surfaces, particularly the gut. The theme of the meeting was environmental sensing mechanisms in mucosal tissues and their relevance for initiating ocular surface inflammation in dry eye. There are a number of shared features between the ocular surface and other mucosal surfaces, but distinct differences may exist in the type and distribution of mucins and microbiota. Mechanisms to regulate DC maturation and prevent tissue-damaging inflammation are shared among these sites. Epithelial and dendritic cells are key environmental sensors participating in initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses in response to a variety of environmental stresses. PMID:25075545

Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E

2014-09-01

234

Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, feed was removed and excreta were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 h after feed withdrawal. Results indicated that 8 h of feed withdrawal was sufficient to empty the ileum of feed residues. In a subsequent experiment, chicks were fasted overnight for 10 h and then tube-fed various amounts (from 6 to 15 g) of a corn-soybean meal mixture (60:40). Ileal digesta from Meckel's diverticulum to the ileo-cecal junction were then collected at various collection times between 3 and 7 h postfeeding. Results indicated that the amount of digesta in the distal ileum was generally maximized by 4 h postfeeding and by feed intakes of 9 g or greater. Based on the results of the previous study, apparent and standardized ileal digestibility values of AA in a corn-soybean meal chick starter diet were then determined at 2, 3, and 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility values were similar for the 3- and 4-h collection times, but were numerically or significantly (P ? 0.05) lower at the 2-h collection time. The results of this study indicate that ileal AA digestibility can easily be determined in 3-wk-old broiler chicks when using a precision-fed assay. For such an assay, it is recommended that the chicks be fasted for at least 8 h before tube-feeding, that they be precision-fed approximately 10 g of feed, and that the ileal contents be collected at approximately 4 h postfeeding. PMID:21248337

Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

2011-02-01

235

Novel interaction of diethyldithiocarbamate with the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system  

SciTech Connect

Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) exhibits a variety of pharmacologic activities, including both radioprotective and sensitizing properties. Since the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system may be a significant factor in determining radiation sensitivity, the potential mechanisms of action of DDC in relation to this system were examined in vitro. The interaction of DDC with reduced glutathione (GSH) was tested using a simple system based on the reduction of cytochrome c. When DDC(0.005 mM) was incubated with GSH(0.5mM), the reduction of cytochrome c was eightfold greater than that expected from an additive effect of DDC and GSH could be replaced by oxidized glutathione and glutathione reductase. Cytochrome c reduced by DDC was oxidized by mitochondria. The interaction of DDC with both the hexosemonophosphate shunt pathway and the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggests the possibility of linking these two pathways through DDC. Oxidation of DDC. Oxidation of DDC by peroxide and reversal by GSH indicated that the drug can engage in a cyclic reaction with peroxide and GSH. This was confirmed when DDC was used in the assay system for glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) without GSHPx DDC at a concentration of 0.25 mM was more active than 0.01 unit of pure GSHPx in eliminating peroxide, and much more active than the other sulfhydryl compounds tested. These studies indicate that DDC can supplement GSHPx activity or substitute for it in detoxifying peroxides, and suggests a unique role in the chemical modification of radiation sensitivity.

Kumar, K.S.; Sancho, A.M.; Weiss, J.F.

1986-08-01

236

Novel interaction of diethyldithiocarbamate with the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system  

SciTech Connect

Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) exhibits a variety of pharmacologic activities, including both radioprotective and sensitizing properties. Since the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system may be a significant factor in determining radiation sensitivity, the potential mechanisms of action of DDC in relation to this system were examined in vitro. The interaction of DDC with reduced glutathione (GSH) was tested using a simple system based on the reduction of cytochrome c. When DDC (0.005 mM) was incubated with GSH (0.5 mM), the reduction of cytochrome c was eightfold greater than that expected from an additive effect of DDC and GSH. GSH could be replaced by oxidized glutathione and glutathione reductase. Cytochrome c reduced by DDC was oxidized by mitochondria. The interaction of DDC with both the hexosemonophosphate shunt pathway and the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggests the possibility of linking these two pathways through DDC. Oxidation of DDC by peroxide and reversal by GSH indicated that the drug can engage in a cyclic reaction with peroxide and GSH. This was confirmed when DDC was used in the assay system for glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) without GSHPx. DDC at a concentration of 0.25 mM was more active than 0.01 unit of pure GSHPx in eliminating peroxide, and much more active than the other sulfhydryl compounds tested. These studies indicate that DDC can supplement GSHPx activity or substitute for it in detoxifying peroxides, and suggests a unique role in the chemical modification of radiation sensitivity.

Kumar, K.S.; Sancho, A.M.; Weiss, J.F.

1986-08-01

237

Effect of Cholera Enterotoxin on Ion Transport across Isolated Ileal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The effects of cholera enterotoxin on intestinal ion transport were examined in vitro. Addition of dialyzed filtrate of Vibrio cholerae (crude toxin) to the luminal side of isolated rabbit ileal mucosa caused a delayed and gradually progressive increase in transmural electric potential difference (PD) and shortcircuit current (SCC). A similar pattern was observed upon addition of a highly purified preparation of cholera toxin, although the changes in PD and SCC were smaller. Na and Cl fluxes across the short-circuited mucosa were determined with radioisotopes 3-4 hr after addition of crude toxin or at a comparable time in control tissues. The toxin caused a net secretory flux of Cl and reduced to zero the net absorptive flux of Na. Similar flux changes were observed when either crude or purified toxin was added in vivo and tissues were mounted in vitro 3-4 hr later. Additon of D-glucose to the luminal side of toxin-treated mucosa produced a large net absorptive flux of Na without altering the net Cl and residual ion fluxes. Adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic phosphate (cyclic AMP) and theophylline had previously been shown to cause a rapid increase in SCC and ion flux changes similar to those induced by cholera toxin. Pretreatment of ileal mucosa with either crude or purified cholera toxin greatly reduced the SCC response to theophylline and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, which, together with the flux data, suggest that both cyclic AMP and cholera toxin stimulate active secretion by a common pathway. Inhibition of the SCC response to theophylline was observed after luminal but not after serosal addition of toxin. In vitro effects of cholera toxin correlated closely with in vivo effects: heating toxin destroyed both; two V. cholerae filtrates which were inactive in vivo proved also to be inactive in vitro; PD and volume flow measurements in isolated, in vivo ileal loops of rabbit revealed that the PD pattern after addition of toxin is similar to that seen in vitro and also correlates closely with changes in fluid movement. The results suggest that stimulation by cholera toxin of a cyclic AMP-dependent active secretory process of the intestinal epithelial cells is a major cause of fluid loss in cholera. PMID:4335444

Field, Michael; Fromm, David; Al-Awqati, Qais; Greenough, William B.

1972-01-01

238

Purified g-Glutamyl Transpeptidases from Tomato Exhibit High Affinity for Glutathione and Glutathione S-Conjugates1  

Microsoft Academic Search

g-Glutamyl transpeptidases (g GTases) are the only enzymes known to hydrolyze the unique N-terminal amide bonds of reduced glutathione (g-L-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine), oxidized glutathione, and glutathione S-conjugates. Two g GTases (I and II) with Km values for glutathione of 110 and 90 mM were purified 2,977-fold and 2,152-fold, respectively, from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon escu- lentum) pericarp. Both enzymes also hydrolyze dipeptides and

Melinda Neal Martin; Janet P. Slovin

2000-01-01

239

Effects of redox cycling compounds on glutathione content and activity of glutathione-related enzymes in rainbow trout liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fish, as in other aerobic organisms, glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes are important components in the defences against oxidative stress. To study if hepatic glutathione levels and\\/or activities of glutathione-related enzymes can act as indicators of oxidative stress in fish, we injected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intraperitoneally with paraquat (PQ), menadione (MD), naphthazarin (DHNQ), or ?-naphthoflavone (?-NF), all known to

Eir??kur Stephensen; Joachim Sturve; Lars Förlin

2002-01-01

240

5 Morphology of the mucosal lesion in gluten sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluten sensitivity is associated with a spectrum of mucosal lesions, arbitrarily termed pre-infiltrative, infiltrative-hyperplastic, flat-destructive and atrophic-hypoplastic. Histologically and immunohistologically these lesions are all compatible with T-cell-driven events operative at a local mucosal level. They are classifiable either in terms of antibody titres (pre-infiltrative) (see Chapter 10) or by the characteristic disposition of IELs throughout the surface and crypt epithelium.

Michael N. Marsh; Peter T. Crowe

1995-01-01

241

Microencapsulation of Vaccine Antigens and Adjuvants for Mucosal Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of vaccine antigens that can trigger potent mucosal immune response is one of the effective strategies to overcome a wide array of infectious diseases. Microencapsulation of vaccine antigens with Poly(lactide-co-glycolic acids) (PLGA), an FDA approved biodegradable polymer, has been investigated for targeted M-cell uptake. While PLGA possesses many attractive properties, a successful PLGA based mucosal-targeted vaccine has yet to

Thejani E. Rajapaksa; David D. Lo

2010-01-01

242

Polymeric penetration enhancers promote humoral immune responses to mucosal vaccines.  

PubMed

Protective mucosal immune responses are thought best induced by trans-mucosal vaccination, providing greater potential to generate potent local immune responses than conventional parenteral vaccination. However, poor trans-mucosal permeability of large macromolecular antigens limits bioavailability to local inductive immune cells. This study explores the utility of polymeric penetration enhancers to promote trans-mucosal bioavailability of insulin, as a biomarker of mucosal absorption, and two vaccine candidates: recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Responses to vaccinating antigens were assessed by measurement of serum and the vaginal humoral responses. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), Dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin (DM-?-CD) and Chitosan enhanced the bioavailability of insulin following intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL), intravaginal (I.Vag) and intrarectal (IR) administration. The same penetration enhancers also increased antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses to the model vaccine antigens in serum and vaginal secretions following IN and SL application. Co-delivery of both antigens with PEI or Chitosan showed the highest increase in systemic IgG and IgA responses following IN or SL administration. However the highest IgA titres in vaginal secretions were achieved after IN immunisations with PEI and Chitosan. None of the penetration enhancers were able to increase antibody responses to gp140 after I.Vag immunisations, while in contrast PEI and Chitosan were able to induce TT-specific systemic IgG levels following I.Vag administration. In summary, we present supporting data that suggest appropriate co-formulation of vaccine antigens with excipients known to influence mucosal barrier functions can increase the bioavailability of mucosally applied antigens promoting the induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses. PMID:24657807

Klein, Katja; Mann, Jamie F S; Rogers, Paul; Shattock, Robin J

2014-06-10

243

Laser Doppler measurement of rectal mucosal blood flow  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Gut mucosal blood flow measurement is used to study a variety of disorders and possibly extrinsic neural function.?AIMS—To determine optimal measurement criteria and validate this technique as a measure of level of activity of extrinsic autonomic gut innervation.?METHODS—In 26 healthy volunteers a laser Doppler mucosal probe was applied 10 cm from the anus. Response to inhaled salbutamol 200 µg and ipratropium 40 µg, intravenous metoprolol 2.5 mg, and direct sacral nerve electrostimulation (in nine incontinent patients) was also studied.?RESULTS—The coefficient of variation for subjects studied under identical conditions on two, three, and four days was 0.06, 0.05, and 0.06, respectively. Mean mucosal blood flow increased after a standard meal. Blood flow decreased for 15 minutes after smoking and returned to baseline at 30 minutes. Fasted measurements at 0900, 1200, 1600, and 2200 were similar. There was a negative correlation between blood flow and body size but not age. Follicular phase mucosal flow was less and more reproducible than luteal. Mucosal blood flow was highest in men and lowest in postmenopausal women. Inhaled salbutamol did not change blood flow; ipratropium significantly reduced, and metoprolol and sacral nerve stimulation increased flow.?CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of gut mucosal blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry is highly reproducible. Eating, smoking, body size, sex, ovulatory status, and menstrual phase influence blood flow. Changes in mucosal blood flow induced by autonomically active drugs and nerve stimulation confirm the role of the mucosal microcirculation as a measure of extrinsic nerve activity.???Keywords: laser Doppler flowmetry; rectum; autonomic nervous system; blood flow PMID:10369706

Emmanuel, A; Kamm, M

1999-01-01

244

Particulate Carrier Systems for Mucosal DNA Vaccine Delivery  

E-print Network

1 GPEN 2006 Particulate carrier systems for mucosal DNA vaccine delivery Gerrit Borchard School of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Geneva, Switzerland gerrit.borchard@pharm.unige.ch GPEN 2006 Why mucosal? 2 GPEN 2006 ``Improvements... that make vaccine delivery easier and safer, decrease dependency on the cold chain or reduce number of immunization interventions needed, could have a significant impact?`` Friede & Aguado, ADDR 57 (2005) 325-331 Initiative for Vaccine Research , WHO GPEN...

Borchard, Gerrit

2006-10-26

245

[Clinicopathological study of acute esophageal mucosal lesion].  

PubMed

Acute esophageal mucosal lesion (AEML) is a comprehensive disease that includes necrotizing esophagitis and acute erosive esophagitis, which result in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, little is known about AEML. We examined the clinicopathological features of 57 AEML cases. AEML presented as acute diffuse esophagitis showing an endoscopically erosive mucosa. The disease did not include corrosive injury, radiation-induced damage, infectious esophagitis, or acute exacerbation of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease. AEML predominantly affected elderly men, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding was the frequent presenting symptom. Severe underlying diseases such as cranial nerve disease or pneumonia were observed in 98% of the patients. Esophageal sliding hernia and gastroduodenal ulcers were endoscopically observed in 67% and 63% of the patients, respectively. Deaths due to exacerbation of the underlying diseases accounted for 16%. Most cases rapidly improved with conservative management using a proton pump inhibitor or an H2 blocker. Therefore, AEML should be considered a disease having characteristics different from those of common gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:23831655

Kawauchi, Hirohito; Ohta, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Yu; Yoshizaki, Koji; Sakamoto, Jun; Amitsuka, Hisato; Kimura, Keisuke; Maemoto, Atsuo; Orii, Fumika; Ashida, Toshifumi

2013-07-01

246

Using Light to Treat Mucositis and Help Wounds Heal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuing program of research and development is focusing on the use of controlled illumination by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to treat mucositis and to accelerate healing of wounds. The basic idea is to illuminate the affected area of a patient with light of an intensity, duration, and wavelength (or combination of wavelengths) chosen to produce a therapeutic effect while generating only a minimal amount of heat. This method of treatment was originally intended for treating the mucositis that is a common complication of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer. It is now also under consideration as a means to accelerate the healing of wounds and possibly also to treat exposure to chemical and radioactive warfare agents. Radiation therapy and many chemotherapeutic drugs often damage the mucosal linings of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, leading to mouth ulcers (oral mucositis), nausea, and diarrhea. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy is currently the standard of care for ischemic, hypoxic, infected, and otherwise slowlyhealing problem wounds, including those of oral mucositis. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy increases such cellular activities as collagen production and angiogenesis, leading to an increased rate of healing. Biostimulation by use of laser light has also been found to be effective in treating mucositis. For hyperbaricoxygen treatment, a patient must remain inside a hyperbaric chamber for an extended time. Laser treatment is limited by laser-wavelength capabilities and by narrowness of laser beams, and usually entails the generation of significant amounts of heat.

Ignatius, Robert W.; Martin, Todd S.; Kirk, Charles

2008-01-01

247

Gastroprotection Studies of Schiff Base Zinc (II) Derivative Complex against Acute Superficial Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. Methodology/Principal Finding The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v), orally. Ethanol (95% v/v) was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10?5 M/kg) was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II) complex (2.181×10?5 and 4.362×10?5 M/kg) protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10?5 M/kg). Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism. PMID:24058648

Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hadi, A. Hamid A; Majid, Nazia Abdul

2013-01-01

248

Biotransformation of the Fungicide Chlorthalonil by Glutathione Conjugation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotransformation of the nephrotoxic fungicide chlorthalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitril) has been studied in the rat and in rat liver subcellular fractions. In rat liver cytosol, chlorthalonil was rapidly transformed to 4,6-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-2,5-dichloroisophthalonitril in the presence of glutathione in a reaction catalysed by glutathioneS-transferases. 4-(Glutathion-S-yl)-2,5,6-trichloroisiphthalonitril was observed as an intermediate in the glutathione-dependent biotransformation of chlorthalonil. In the bile of rats dosed with

Elisabeth Rosner; Christa Klos; Wolfgang Dekant

1996-01-01

249

Surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis: Ileorectal vs ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the current gold standard in the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) refractory to medical management. A procedure of significant magnitude carries its own risks including anastomotic failure, pelvic sepsis and a low rate of neoplastic degeneration overtime. Recent studies have shown that total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) has been associated with good long-term functional results in a selected group of UC patients amenable to undergo a strict surveillance for the relatively high risk of cancer in the rectum. This manuscript will review and compare the most recent literature on IRA and IPAA as it pertains to postoperative morbidity and mortality, failure rates, functional outcomes and cancer risk. PMID:25309058

Scoglio, Daniele; Ahmed Ali, Usama; Fichera, Alessandro

2014-01-01

250

Simultaneous determination of reduced glutathione, glutathione disulphide and glutathione sulphonamide in cells and physiological fluids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneously quantifying glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) and glutathione sulphonamide (GSA) from biological samples. GSA is a selective product of the reaction of GSH with hypochlorous acid and a potential biomarker of myeloperoxidase activity. GSH was detected as the N-ethylmaleimide alkylated adduct, as formation

D. Tim Harwood; Anthony J. Kettle; Siobhain Brennan; Christine C. Winterbourn

2009-01-01

251

Association between gastro-intestinal symptoms and menstruation in patients with ileal pouches  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients. Methods: Adult women recorded in the Pouchitis Registry were invited to participate in a mailed survey. Participants reported on GI symptoms 1–5 days prior to- (pre-menses) and during the days of their menses in recent months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained through the survey and chart review. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight (21.3%) out of 600 women with IPAA responded to the survey questionnaire. Forty-three (33.5%) were excluded for reasons including post-menopausal (n = 25), hysterectomy (n = 14) and use of contraceptives (n = 4). Abdominal pain (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.021), and urgency (P = 0.031) were more commonly reported during menses than pre-menses by the participants. Only a history of painful menses was significantly associated with increased GI symptoms during menses for patients with ileal pouch (odds ratio = 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.41–22.88; P = 0.015). Conclusion: GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency are commonly associated with menses in patients with ileo-anal pouch. Painful menses may be associated with worsening of GI symptoms. PMID:25016379

Bharadwaj, Shishira; Wu, Xian-rui; Barber, Matthew D.; Queener, Elaine; Graff, Lesley; Shen, Bo

2014-01-01

252

Effects of dietary supplementation with a protease on the apparent ileal digestibility of the weaned piglet.  

PubMed

The effects of an acid-stable protease (RONOZYME ProAct) supplemented to a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients were evaluated in 120 weaned piglets (28 d old; 8.17 ± 0.90 kg). Pigs were divided into 2 equal groups and had free access to mash diet containing 0.4% Cr(2)O(3) as indigestible marker [basal diet (Std)] or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME ProAct at 15,000 PROT [the amount of enzyme that releases 1 ?mol of pnitroaniline from 1 ?M of substrate (Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroaniline) per min at pH 9.0 and 37°C)/kg (ProA). The ileal content was collected for the digestibility determination after euthanasia of 35 piglets of each group after 14 d of study and 25 piglets of each group after 29 d. Compared to group Std, AID of CP was increased (P < 0.05) after 29 d of treatment in group ProA. The AID of the indispensable AA, Met + Cys, and branched-chain AA was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the study. In the protease supplemented pigs, the AID of the individual AA was not improved after 14 d of treatment whereas it was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the experiment for Arg, Asp + Asn, Glu + Gln, His, Ile, Lys, Phe, Thr, Tyr ,and Val. In conclusion, dietary protease supplementation increased AID of AA in piglets. PMID:23365313

Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Wilson, J W

2012-12-01

253

Complete glutathione system in probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3.  

PubMed

There is much information about glutathione (GSH) in eukaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about GSH in prokaryotes. Without GSH and glutathione redox cycle lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cannot protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Previously we have shown the presence of GSH in Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (DSM14241). Results of this study show that probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 contains both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. We also present that L. fermentum ME-3 can transport GSH from environment and synthesize GSH. This means that it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover ability that makes L. fermentum ME-3 a perfect protector against oxidative stress. To our best knowledge studies on existence of the complete glutathione system in probiotic LAB strains are still absent and glutathione synthesis in them has not been demonstrated. PMID:21058502

Kullisaar, T; Songisepp, E; Aunapuu, M; Kilk, K; Arend, A; Mikelsaar, M; Rehema, A; Zilmer, M

2010-01-01

254

Morbidity and Quality of Life in Elderly Patients Receiving Ileal Conduit or Orthotopic Neobladder After Radical Cystectomy for Invasive Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe objectives of the study were to evaluate morbidity, survival, and quality of life (QoL) in elderly patients with invasive bladder cancer who received an orthotopic neobladder or an ileal conduit.

Filippo Sogni; Maurizio Brausi; Bruno Frea; Carlo Martinengo; Fabrizio Faggiano; Alessandro Tizzani; Paolo Gontero

2008-01-01

255

Redo Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis combined with anti-TNF-? maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease with pelvic fistula: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Pouch failure has been reported to occur after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's disease. We report two cases of patients with Crohn's disease, who underwent redo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (redo-IPAA) combined with anti-TNF-? maintenance therapy, with good functional results. The first patient, a man with presumed ulcerative colitis, suffered pelvic fistula recurrence and anastomotic dehiscence. He underwent redo-IPAA, at which time longitudinal ulcers were found. Infliximab was started 4 days postoperatively and continued. The second patient, a woman treated for ulcerative colitis, underwent laparoscopic IPAA 8 years later. After the development of a pelvic fistula, twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch was found intraoperatively and Crohn's disease was diagnosed. Adalimumab therapy resulted in fistula closure. Redo-IPAA was performed to normalize the twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch. No complications have been observed in either patient, both of whom have experienced good functional results after closure of the covering stomas. PMID:24442570

Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

2014-10-01

256

Redox state of glutathione in human plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiol and disulfide forms of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were measured in plasma from 24 healthy individuals aged 25–35 and redox potential values (Eh) for thiol\\/disulfide couples were calculated using the Nernst equation. Although the concentration of GSH (2.8 ± 0.9 ?M) was much greater than that of GSSG (0.14 ± 0.04 ?M), the redox potential of the GSSG\\/2GSH

Dean P Jones; Joanne L Carlson; Vino C Mody; Jiyang Cai; Michael J Lynn; Paul Sternberg

2000-01-01

257

Glutathione Resins I. List of Components  

E-print Network

-1) Purchase of the GST Purification Kit provides sufficient reagents for performing five batch/gravity flow Clontech · www.clontech.com · 800-662-2566 #12;GlutathioneResinProtocol · Polypropylene tubes · Centrifuge (pre-chilled to 4ºC) · TALONTM 2-ml Disposable Gravity Columns (#8903-1) · Deionized H2O · Ice · Column

Lebendiker, Mario

258

Expression of bacterial glutathione reductase in tobacco  

SciTech Connect

Glutathione reductase is the enzyme catalyzing the reduction of oxidized gluthione (GSSG) by NADP. In higher plants glutathione reductase (GR) activity has been associated with several subcellular fractions, but is most notably identified as a chloroplast protein. The enzyme functions in the maintenance of the redox state inside chloroplasts where nearly all of the glutathione present is thought to exist in the reduced form, GSH. Since oxidative stress disturbs the redox status of a chloroplast, GR may play a role in a plant's response to this adversity. We are studying this potential role of GR in transgenic plants. The coding region of the E. coli GR gene was ligated to the coding region of a chloroplast (stromal) transit peptide coding sequence thereby targeting the gene product to the correct subcellular location. This new gene construct was cloned in the Ti plasmid binary vector, pH575, and introduced into the tobacco genome. Expression of this gene product in stress-challenged plants is under investigation.

Unger, E.A.; Talbot, D.R. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (USA))

1989-04-01

259

Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated; whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid, retinol and ?-carotene levels were measured in all the groups. RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid, retinol and ?-carotene levels. CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity. PMID:17278229

Birdane, Fatih Mehmet; Cemek, Mustafa; Birdane, Yavuz Osman; Gulcin, Ilhami; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin

2007-01-01

260

Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed Extracts Protects Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Mucosal Injury  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption. PMID:24868202

Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

261

Clinicopathological evaluation of anoxic mucosal injury in strangulation ileus  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with strangulation ileus, the severity of bowel ischemia is unpredictable before surgery. To consider a grading scale of anoxic damage, we evaluated the pathological findings and investigated predictive factors for bowel gangrene. Methods We assessed 49 patients with strangulation ileus who underwent a laparotomy between January 2004 and November 2012. Laboratory tests and the contrast computed tomography (CT) were evaluated before surgery. According to the degree of mucosal degeneration, we classified anoxic damages into the following 3 grades. Ggrade 1 shows mild mucosal degeneration with extended subepithelial space. Grade 2 shows moderate degeneration and mucosal deciduation with residual mucosa on the muscularis mucosae. Grade 3 shows severe degeneration and mucosal digestion with disintegration of lamina propria. Results Resected bowel specimens were obtained from the 36 patients with severe ischemia, while the remaining 13 patients avoided bowel resection. The mucosal injury showed grade 1 in 11 cases, grade 2 in 10 cases, and grade 3 in 15 cases. The patients were divided into two groups. One group included grade 1 and non-resected patients (n?=?24) while the other included grades 2 and 3 (n?=?25). When comparing the clinical findings for these groups, elevated creatine kinase (P?=?0.017), a low base excess (P?=?0.021), and decreased bowel enhancement on the contrast CT (P?=?0.001) were associated with severe mucosal injury. Conclusion In strangulation ileus, anoxic mucosal injury progresses gradually after rapid spreading of bowel congestion. Before surgical intervention, creatine kinase, base excess, and bowel enhancement on the contrast CT could indicate the severity of anoxic damage. These biomarkers could be the predictor for bowel resection before surgery. PMID:25319494

2014-01-01

262

Experience in 100 patients with an ileal low pressure bladder substitute combined with an afferent tubular isoperistaltic segment.  

PubMed

Between April 1985 and April 1993, 100 consecutive men underwent lower urinary tract reconstruction after cystectomy. An ileal low pressure reservoir using the Goodwin cup-patch principle was combined with an afferent ileal tubular segment. The early complication rate was 11%, including 2 postoperative deaths due to septicemia. After a median followup of 27 months (range 3 to 96) 14 patients required surgery for late complications (intestinal obstruction, urethral stricture or tumor recurrence, hernia or ureteral stenosis). A total of 32 patients died of metastatic bladder cancer and 7 died of other causes. The functional capacity of the bladder substitute was increased to the desired 450 to 500 ml. after 3 to 12 months, which was paralleled by improving urinary continence. After 1 year 92% of the patients were continent by day and after 2 years 80% were continent at night. Upper tract surveillance with excretory urography, renal ultrasound and serum creatinine estimation has shown 4 left ureteral strictures but not significant upper tract deterioration or ureteral recurrence. Significant reflux was not observed during video urodynamics unless the reservoir was overfilled. During voiding, by outlet relaxation and straining if necessary, the intra-abdominal pressure increase with straining acted equally on the reservoir and ureters. Therefore, unlike voiding with a normal bladder, no isolated intravesical pressure increase occurred and, thus, there was no reflux from the reservoir. The combination of an ileal low pressure reservoir with an afferent isoperistaltic ileal segment and an open end-to-side ureteroileal anastomosis allows for radical cancer surgery with resection of the ureters where they cross the iliac vessels and minimizes the risk of ureteral stenosis. The unidirectional peristalsis of the ureters and the afferent tubular ileal segment seem to protect the upper urinary tract sufficiently. The surgical technique is straightforward and allows for later conversion to an ileal conduit if necessary. The functional results of the bladder substitute are comparable to other similar reservoir techniques, provided that the patients are carefully selected, well rehabilitated and meticulously followed. PMID:7776455

Studer, U E; Danuser, H; Merz, V W; Springer, J P; Zingg, E J

1995-07-01

263

Formation of styrene glutathione adducts catalyzed by prostaglandin H synthase. A possible new mechanism for the formation of glutathione conjugates  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of styrene by prostaglandin hydroperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase was examined. Ram seminal vesicle microsomes in the presence of arachidonic acid or hydrogen peroxide and glutathione converted styrene to glutathione adducts. Neither styrene 7,8-oxide nor styrene glycol was detected as a product in the incubation. Also, the addition of styrene 7,8-oxide and glutathione to ram seminal vesicle microsomes did not yield styrene glutathione adducts. The peroxidase-generated styrene glutathione adducts were isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by NMR and tandem mass spectrometry as a mixture of (2R)- and (2S)-S-(2-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl)glutathione. (1R)- and (1S)-S-(1-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl)glutathione were not formed by the peroxidase system. The addition of phenol or aminopyrine to incubations, which greatly enhances the oxidation of glutathione to a thiyl radical by peroxidases, increased the formation of styrene glutathione adducts. We propose a new mechanism for the formation of glutathione adducts that is independent of epoxide formation but dependent on the initial oxidation of glutathione to a thiyl radical by the peroxidase, and the subsequent reaction of the thiyl radical with a suitable substrate, such as styrene.

Stock, B.H.; Bend, J.R.; Eling, T.E.

1986-05-05

264

Selective neutralization of a bacterial enterotoxin by serum immunoglobulin A in response to mucosal disease.  

PubMed Central

One-third of convalescent-phase serum samples (6 of 18) from patients with Clostridium difficle-associated diarrhea demonstrated neutralization of the clostridial enterotoxin, toxin A. Although appreciable amounts of toxin A-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA were present in these sera, the ability to neutralize the cytotoxic activity of toxin A on OTF9-63 cells in vitro was confined to the IgA fraction and the IgA1 subclass in serum samples from all six patients. In contrast to the patients with C. difficile diarrhea, this activity was present in both the IgA and IgG fractions in sera from two C. difficile-infected patients without diarrhea, one of whom presented with a splenic abscess. Sera and purified IgA which neutralized the cytotoxicity of toxin A on OTF9-63 cell cultures in vitro also neutralized the enterotoxicity of toxin A in rabbit ileal loops in vivo. This activity was not Fc dependent, since IgA retained neutralizing activity after pepsin digestion and F(ab')2 purification. The transition from nonneutralizing toxin A-specific IgA in the acute-phase sera to neutralizing specific IgA in the convalescent-phase sera was accompanied by a shift from a polymeric to a predominantly monomeric form of specific IgA. However, the neutralizing activity in convalescent-phase sera was present as both monomeric and polymeric IgA. Convalescent-phase sera from other patients with C. difficile diarrhea that failed to neutralize toxin A also failed to produce a predominantly monomeric-form specific IgA response. We conclude that serum IgA, not IgG, characteristically neutralizes toxin A in patients with C. difficile diarrhea who develop neutralizing systemic responses. This neutralization of an enteric bacterial toxin is a unique and selective role for serum IgA which provides a novel functional link between the systemic and mucosal immune systems. PMID:7622244

Johnson, S; Sypura, W D; Gerding, D N; Ewing, S L; Janoff, E N

1995-01-01

265

Simultaneous analysis of reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide by capillary zone electrophoresis.  

PubMed

This report describes modifications to a CZE method developed by Serru et al. (Clinical Chemistry 2001, 47, 1321-1324) for the simultaneous analysis of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Lowering the pH of the run buffer (75 mmol/L boric acid, 25 mmol/L bis-Tris) from pH 8.4 to 7.8 markedly improved GSH peak area reproducibility and allowed multiple samples to be analyzed without changing run buffers due to ion depletion. Sample preparation using red blood cells (RBC) instead of whole blood, combined with glutathione extraction at a lower concentration of metaphosphoric acid (5%), increased assay sensitivity and decreased interference. CZE assay results for clinical samples containing 1000 to 3200 ?mol GSH/L RBC and 100 to 400 ?mol GSSG/L RBC were highly correlated (r(2) ? 0.95) with results obtained using a commercial dithionitrobenze-based glutathione assay. The modified CZE assay has proven useful for the analysis of glutathione in both mouse and human RBC. PMID:24338531

Hempe, James M; Ory-Ascani, Jeannine

2014-04-01

266

Intrahepatic transport and utilization of biliary glutathione and its metabolites.  

PubMed Central

Glutathione transported by hepatocytes into the bile canaliculi is metabolized by the actions of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidase located on the biliary ductular epithelium. This pathway is revealed by the finding of high levels of cyst(e)inylglycine, gamma-glutamylglutathione, gamma-glutamylcyst(e)ine, glutamate, glycine, and cyst(e)ine in bile, by studies in which intrahepatic metabolism of glutathione was inhibited by administration of a potent inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and by experiments in which glutathione synthesis was inhibited. Canalicular transport of glutathione, as estimated from totals of metabolites found, is much greater than the glutathione found in bile. Glutathione and glutathione metabolites found in bile increase with age, in association with an increase in hepatic glutathione. In younger rats there is apparent uptake of cysteine and glycine moieties that may reflect uptake of cysteinylglycine at the ductular level. This intrahepatic pathway of glutathione transport and metabolism, which resembles that which occurs in the kidney, seems to function as a cellular protective mechanism in the processing of glutathione conjugates and as a recovery system for cysteine moieties. PMID:2869485

Abbott, W A; Meister, A

1986-01-01

267

Glutathione is a Physiologic Reservoir of Neuronal Glutamate  

PubMed Central

Glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain, participates in a multitude of physiologic and pathologic processes, including learning and memory. Glutathione, a tripeptide composed of the amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, serves important cofactor roles in antioxidant defense and drug detoxification, but glutathione deficits occur in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Glutathione synthesis and metabolism are governed by a cycle of enzymes, the ?-glutamyl cycle, which can achieve intracellular glutathione concentrations of 1-10 millimolar. Because of the considerable quantity of brain glutathione and its rapid turnover, we hypothesized that glutathione may serve as a reservoir of neural glutamate. We quantified glutamate in HT22 hippocampal neurons, PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons after treatment with molecular inhibitors targeting three different enzymes of the glutathione metabolic cycle. Inhibiting 5-oxoprolinase and ?-glutamyl transferase, enzymes that liberate glutamate from glutathione, leads to decreases in glutamate. In contrast, inhibition of ?-glutamyl cysteine ligase, which uses glutamate to synthesize glutathione, results in substantial glutamate accumulation. Increased glutamate levels following inhibition of glutathione synthesis temporally precede later effects upon oxidative stress. PMID:21539809

Koga, Minori; Serritella, Anthony V.; Messmer, Marcus M.; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Hester, Lynda D.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Sawa, Akira; Sedlak, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

268

Airway structural cells regulate TLR5-mediated mucosal adjuvant activity.  

PubMed

Antigen-presenting cell (APC) activation is enhanced by vaccine adjuvants. Most vaccines are based on the assumption that adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists depends on direct, functional activation of APCs. Here, we sought to establish whether TLR stimulation in non-hematopoietic cells contributes to flagellin's mucosal adjuvant activity. Nasal administration of flagellin enhanced T-cell-mediated immunity, and systemic and secretory antibody responses to coadministered antigens in a TLR5-dependent manner. Mucosal adjuvant activity was not affected by either abrogation of TLR5 signaling in hematopoietic cells or the presence of flagellin-specific, circulating neutralizing antibodies. We found that flagellin is rapidly degraded in conducting airways, does not translocate into lung parenchyma and stimulates an early immune response, suggesting that TLR5 signaling is regionalized. The flagellin-specific early response of lung was regulated by radioresistant cells expressing TLR5 (particularly the airway epithelial cells). Flagellin stimulated the epithelial production of a small set of mediators that included the chemokine CCL20, which is known to promote APC recruitment in mucosal tissues. Our data suggest that (i) the adjuvant activity of TLR agonists in mucosal vaccination may require TLR stimulation of structural cells and (ii) harnessing the effect of adjuvants on epithelial cells can improve mucosal vaccines. PMID:24064672

Van Maele, L; Fougeron, D; Janot, L; Didierlaurent, A; Cayet, D; Tabareau, J; Rumbo, M; Corvo-Chamaillard, S; Boulenouar, S; Jeffs, S; Vande Walle, L; Lamkanfi, M; Lemoine, Y; Erard, F; Hot, D; Hussell, T; Ryffel, B; Benecke, A G; Sirard, J-C

2014-05-01

269

Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and protein oxidation in patients with glioblastoma multiforme and transitional meningioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) and protein oxidation (POx)\\u000a levels in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and transitional meningioma (TM) and to compare with normal brain tissues.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  GPx, GRx and POx levels were measured in 48 brain tumors obtained during surgery and 15 normal brain tissues that were collected\\u000a during autopsy.

Taner Tanriverdi; Hakan Hanimoglu; Tibet Kacira; Galip Zihni Sanus; Rahsan Kemerdere; Pinar Atukeren; Koray Gumustas; Bulent Canbaz; Mehmet Yasar Kaynar

2007-01-01

270

The metabolic availability of threonine in common feedstuffs fed to adult sows is higher than published ileal digestibility estimates.  

PubMed

Amino acid (AA) requirements for sows during pregnancy are currently under review. However, requirement recommendations must be accompanied by an estimate of the bioavailability of AA from feeds to ensure adequate supply of AA and to minimize excess nitrogen excretion. Current ileal AA digestibility estimates are based on growing pig data; however, availability of AA in adult pigs may be different from that in growing pigs. The metabolic availability (MA) of threonine (Thr) in corn and barley was determined in 6 pregnant sows using the indicator AA oxidation method and L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine as the tracer AA. Sows were fed reference diets formulated from 30 to 75% of the breakpoint derived in Expt. 1; all other nutrients were set at 120% of requirement. Test ingredients diets were formulated to supply Thr at 75% of the determined requirement. Tracer phenylalanine was given orally in 8 one-half-hourly meals and expired (13)CO(2) was quantified. The determined MA of Thr from corn and barley fed to pregnant sows was 88.0 and 89.3%, respectively. The determined MA was 7 and 9% greater than the published standard ileal digestibility estimates of Thr in corn (82%) and barley (81%), respectively. Mature animals have a greater capacity to digest and absorb nutrients from feed ingredients than previously assumed based on ileal digestibility studies. Sow diets formulated based on published ileal digestibility estimates are overformulated with respect to available protein and AA and thus increase excess nitrogen excretion and potential environmental concerns. PMID:21248193

Levesque, Crystal L; Moehn, Soenke; Pencharz, Paul B; Ball, Ronald O

2011-03-01

271

Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations\\u000a and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire\\u000a piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or\\u000a 2 g\\/kg of the powder,

X. F. Kong; Y. L. Yin; Q. H. He; F. G. Yin; H. J. Liu; T. J. Li; R. L. Huang; M. M. Geng; Z. Ruan; Z. Y. Deng; M. Y. Xie; G. Wu

2009-01-01

272

Amelioration of DSS-induced murine colitis by VSL#3 supplementation is primarily associated with changes in ileal microbiota composition.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel diseases encompass gastrointestinal illnesses typified by chronic inflammation, loss of epithelial integrity and gastrointestinal microbiota dysbiosis. In an effort to counteract these characteristic perturbations, we used stem cells and/or a probiotic therapy in a murine model of Dextran Sodium Sulfate induced colitis to examine both their efficacy in ameliorating disease and impact on niche-specific microbial communities of the lower GI tract. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administering 3% DSS in drinking water for 10 days prior to administering one of three treatment plans: daily probiotic (VSL#3) supplementation for 3 days, a single tail vein injection of 1x10 (6) murine mesenchymal stem cells, or both. Ileal, cecal and colonic sections were collected for microbiota and histological analyses. Microbiota profiling revealed distinct bacterial community compositions in the ileum, cecum and colon of control untreated animals, all of which were predicted in silico to be enriched for a number of discrete KEGG pathways, indicating compositional and functional niche specificity in healthy animals. DSS-treatment perturbed community composition in all three niches with ileal communities exhibiting the greatest change relative to control animals. Each treatment group exhibited treatment-specific alterations in microbiota composition in the lower GI tract, though disease scores were only improved in VSL#3-treated animals. The ileal microbiota were most profoundly altered in composition in this group of animals and characterized by significant Enterobacteriaceae enrichment compared with colitic mice (P<0.05). PMID:25144681

Mar, Jordan S; Nagalingam, Nabeetha A; Song, Yuanlin; Onizawa, Michio; Lee, Jae Woo; Lynch, Susan V

2014-07-01

273

Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice.  

PubMed

Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis. PMID:24688219

Nakahashi, Otoki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tanaka, Sarasa; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Kaneko, Ichiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Takeda, Eiji

2014-03-01

274

Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice  

PubMed Central

Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis. PMID:24688219

Nakahashi, Otoki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tanaka, Sarasa; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Kaneko, Ichiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

2014-01-01

275

Glutathione, a first line of defense against cadmium toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental modulation of cellular glutathione levels has been used to explore the role of glutathione in cadmium toxicity. Mice treated with buthionine sulfoximine (an effective irreversible inhibitor of ..gamma..-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC 6.3.2.2) that decreases cellular levels of glutathione markedly) were sensitized to the toxic effects of CdClâ. Mice pretreated with a sublethal dose of Cd\\/sup 2 +\\/ to induce metallothionein

RAKESH K. SINGHAL; MARY E. ANDERSON; ALTON MEISTER

1987-01-01

276

Role for Recombinant  -Glutamyltransferase from Treponema denticola in Glutathione Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulfur compounds, including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), have been implicated in the development of periodontal disease. Glutathione is an important thiol source for H2S production in periodontal pockets. Our recent studies have delineated a pathway of glutathione metabolism in Treponema denticola that releases H2S. In this pathway, -glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been proposed to catalyze the first step of glutathione degradation.

Lianrui Chu; Xiaoping Xu; Zheng Dong; David Cappelli; Jefferey L. Ebersole

2003-01-01

277

Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed,

Kenny K. Wong; Maria A. Vanoni; John S. Blanchard

1988-01-01

278

Biosynthesis, Compartmentation and Cellular Functions of Glutathione in Plant Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione is the most abundant low molecular weight thiol in all plant cells with the only exception of some plant species\\u000a that produce and accumulate homologous tripeptides to similar levels. The broad range of functions of glutathione in terms\\u000a of detoxification of heavy metals, xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been highlighted in numerous reviews\\u000a before. Glutathione S-conjugates formed

Andreas J. Meyer; Thomas Rausch

279

Influence of age on the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in 8 feed ingredients was determined using 14-, 28- and 42-d-old male broiler chickens. The ingredients included three cereals (wheat, sorghum and maize), one cereal by-product (mill run), three oilseed meals (canola, cottonseed and soybean meals) and one animal protein meal (meat and bone meal). Dietary crude protein in the assay diets was supplied solely by the test ingredient. All diets contained 20 g/kg acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker, and each diet was offered ad libitum in mash form to 5 replicate pens from 11 to 14 d, 25 to 28 d and 39 to 42 d post-hatching. There were 12, 6 and 6 birds per pen for the 14, 28 and 42 d samplings, respectively. The results suggest that the age of broilers significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids. The effects, however, varied among amino acids and ingredients. In wheat, the digestibility of most amino acids was higher in 14- than in 28- and 42-d-old broilers. In maize, the digestibility coefficients of amino acids were higher at 28 and 42 d than at 14 d. The digestibility coefficients in maize and wheat at 28 and 42 d were similar. The digestibility of amino acids in sorghum at 42 d was higher than those at 28 d, but similar to those at 14 d except for histidine, lysine, serine and glycine, which were significantly higher at 42 d. Digestibility of amino acids in sorghum was similar between 14 and 28 d except for isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and alanine. The digestibility of amino acids in mill run at 42 d was significantly higher than those at 14 and 28 d. There were no differences in digestibility between 14 and 28 d. In general, the digestibility of amino acids in canola meal, soybean meal and, meat and bone meal was higher at 28 and 42 d compared to those at 14 d, and similar between 28 and 42 d of age. In cottonseed meal, age had no effect on the digestibility coefficient of amino acids, except for lysine and arginine, which increased with age. Analysis of the combined results for the 8 feed ingredients showed that, in general, the digestibility coefficients of amino acids increased with advancing age of broiler chickens. PMID:15957446

Huang, K H; Ravindran, V; Li, X; Bryden, W L

2005-04-01

280

The mucosal inflammatory response to non-typhoidal Salmonella in the intestine is blunted by IL-10 during concurrent malaria parasite infection.  

PubMed

Coinfection can markedly alter the response to a pathogen, thereby changing its clinical presentation. For example, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes are associated with gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. In contrast, individuals with severe pediatric malaria can develop bacteremic infections with NTS, during which symptoms of gastroenteritis are commonly absent. Here we report that, in both a ligated ileal loop model and a mouse colitis model, malaria parasites caused a global suppression of gut inflammatory responses and blunted the neutrophil influx that is characteristic of NTS infection. Further, malaria parasite infection led to increased recovery of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from the draining mesenteric lymph node (MLN) of mice. In the mouse colitis model, blunted intestinal inflammation during NTS infection was independent of anemia but instead required parasite-induced synthesis of interleukin (IL)-10. Blocking of IL-10 in coinfected mice reduced dissemination of S. Typhimurium to the MLN, suggesting that induction of IL-10 contributes to development of disseminated infection. Thus IL-10 produced during the immune response to malaria in this model contributes to suppression of mucosal inflammatory responses to invasive NTS, which may contribute to differences in the clinical presentation of NTS infection in the setting of malaria. PMID:24670425

Mooney, J P; Butler, B P; Lokken, K L; Xavier, M N; Chau, J Y; Schaltenberg, N; Dandekar, S; George, M D; Santos, R L; Luckhart, S; Tsolis, R M

2014-11-01

281

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

282

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a)...

2011-04-01

283

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a)...

2014-04-01

284

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a)...

2012-04-01

285

GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE AND GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT LUNG AND LIVER FOLLOWING CADMIUM INHALATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2 hr inhalation exposure to 4.6 mg Cd/cu m decreased pulmonary total glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity and non-selenium peroxidase (GSH non-Se-Px) activity but had no effect on GSH selenium peroxidase (Se-Px) activity. Seventy-two hrs after exposure there was an increase...

286

Gastric invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and induction of protective mucosal immune responses.  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite transmitted from a reduviid insect vector to humans by exposure of mucosal surfaces to infected insect excreta. We have used an oral challenge murine model that mimics vector-borne transmission to study T. cruzi mucosal infection. Although gastric secretions have microbicidal activity against most infectious pathogens, we demonstrate that T. cruzi can invade and replicate in the gastric mucosal epithelium. In addition, gastric mucosal invasion appears to be the unique portal of entry for systemic T. cruzi infection after oral challenge. The mucosal immune responses stimulated by T. cruzi gastric infection are protective against a secondary mucosal parasite challenge. This protective mucosal immunity is associated with increased numbers of lymphocytes that secrete parasite-specific immunoglobulin A. Our results document the first example of systemic microbial invasion through gastric mucosa and suggest the feasibility of a mucosal vaccine designed to prevent infection with this important human pathogen. PMID:8751932

Hoft, D F; Farrar, P L; Kratz-Owens, K; Shaffer, D

1996-01-01

287

Fermentable non-starch polysaccharides increases the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas in ileal microbial community of growing pigs.  

PubMed

Most plant-origin fiber sources used in pig production contains a mixture of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The knowledge about effects of these sources of NSP on the gut microbiota and its fermentation products is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of feeding diets with native sources of NSP on the ileal and fecal microbial composition and the dietary impact on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid. The experiment comprised four diets and four periods in a change-over design with seven post valve t-cecum cannulated growing pigs. The four diets were balanced to be similar in NSP content and included one of four fiber sources, two diets were rich in pectins, through inclusion of chicory forage (CFO) and sugar beet pulp, and two were rich in arabinoxylan, through inclusion of wheat bran (WB) and grass meal. The gut microbial composition was assessed with terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism and the abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and the ?-xylosidase gene, xynB, were assessed with quantitative PCR. The gut microbiota did not cluster based on NSP structure (arabinoxylan or pectin) rather, the effect was to a high degree ingredient specific. In pigs fed diet CFO, three TRFs related to Prevotellaceae together consisted of more than 25% of the fecal microbiota, which is about 3 to 23 times higher (P<0.05) than in pigs fed the other diets. Whereas pigs fed diet WB had about 2 to 22 times higher abundance (P<0.05) of Megasphaera elsdenii in feces and about six times higher abundance (P<0.05) of Lactobacillus reuteri in ileal digesta than pigs fed the other diets. The total amount of digested NSP (r=0.57; P=0.002), xylose (r=0.53; P=0.004) and dietary fiber (r=0.60; P=0.001) in ileal digesta were positively correlated with an increased abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas. The effect on SCFA was correlated to specific neutral sugars where xylose increased the ileal butyric acid proportion, whereas arabinose increased the fecal butyric acid proportion. Moreover, chicory pectin increased the acetic acid proportion in both ileal digesta and feces. PMID:25046106

Ivarsson, E; Roos, S; Liu, H Y; Lindberg, J E

2014-11-01

288

Ileal apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities and endogenous nitrogen losses in pigs fed soybean and rapeseed products.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of various protein sources on the apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of CP and amino acids (AA) and on the recoveries of ileal endogenous nitrogen (N) in pigs. Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured using the 15N-isotope dilution method. Thirteen pigs (BW of 13 to 20 kg) were fitted with a post-valve-T-cecal cannula and two indwelling blood catheters. They were fed twice daily at a level of 2.6 times ME for maintenance. Cornstarch-based diets contained a soy concentrate (SC; 180.5 g/kg), soybean meal (SBM; 295 g/kg), or a mixture of toasted and untoasted soybean meal (mSBM; 330.4 g/kg) in Trial I or three rapeseed cakes, dehulled-toasted (RC1; 395 g/kg), non-dehulled-toasted (RC2; 458 g/kg), and dehulled-untoasted (RC3; 390 g/kg) in Trial II. The protein sources provided diets with similar levels of apparent ileal digestible CP (108 g/kg as-fed diet) and Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, and Trp. The AID of CP was greater (P < .05) for the SC (86.8%) and SBM (82.8%) than for the SBM (68.1%) diet. In Trial II, the AID of CP was greater (P < .05) for RC1 (76.2%) and RC3 (75.8%) than for the RC2 (69.5%) diet. For all diets, the differences in the AID for most of the AA corresponded to the differences in the AID of CP. The ENL (g/kg DMI) were greater (P < .05) for the mSBM diet (3.75) than for the SC (2.53) and SBM (2.53) diets in Trial I but were similar (P > .05; 2.24, 3.03, and 2.89 for RC1, RC2, and RC3, respectively) among diets in Trial II. We concluded that AID of CP of the soybean diets were associated with endogenous and dietary N losses. For these diets, increased ENL and dietary N losses were associated with a higher dietary trypsin inhibitor activity. For the rapeseed diets, dehulling increased AID of CP and AA, due to reduced ENL (P = .08) and dietary N losses (P < .05). Toasting of dehulled rapeseed cake did not affect the AID of CP and AA (P > .05) while reducing the true ileal CP digestibility (P < .05). PMID:9498366

Grala, W; Verstegen, M W; Jansman, A J; Huisman, J; van Leeusen, P

1998-02-01

289

Effect of dietary neutral detergent fiber on ileal digestibility and portal flux of nitrogen and amino acids and on nitrogen utilization in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary NDF on apparent ileal and fecal digestibility and portal flux of nitrogen (N) and amino acids, and on N retention in growing pigs. In four equal portions (at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400) barrows on Treatment B received a basal diet, based on casein, cornstarch, and dextrose, at a feeding level of 2.6 times energy for maintenance. Barrows on Treatment B+NDF received an additional amount of 15% (wt/wt) of purified wheat bran NDF (pNDF). In Exp. 1, four ileally cannulated barrows (40 to 75 kg) were used in a crossover arrangement comprising two treatments and three periods. The addition of pNDF decreased ileal N digestibility from 94.1 to 88.9% (P < .001), whereas ileal digestibility of most amino acids was 2 to 5.5 percentage units lower (P < .001). Utilization of ileally digested N increased from 64 to 72% with the addition of pNDF, presumably because of the contribution of pNDF to the energy supply. In Exp. 2, three barrows (30 to 54 kg) fitted with catheters in the portal vein and the mesenteric vein and artery were used in a crossover arrangement comprising two treatments and five periods. Portal absorption of nutrients was derived by multiplying the porto-arterial plasma concentration differences by portal vein plasma flow. The pNDF did not significantly affect the absorption of ileally digested amino acids and the portal flux of ammonia and urea. The results showed that addition of NDF reduced amino acid digestibility, but not the portal flux of digested amino acids, and NDF energy presumably improved utilization of ileally digested amino acids. PMID:8923183

Lenis, N P; Bikker, P; van der Meulen, J; van Diepen, J T; Bakker, J G; Jongbloed, A W

1996-11-01

290

Oral cryotherapy reduces mucositis and opioid use after myeloablative therapy—a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Mucositis is a major complication in myeloablative therapy, which often necessitates advanced pharmacological pain treatment,\\u000a including i.v. opioids. Attempts to prevent oral mucositis have included oral cryotherapy, which has been shown to reduce\\u000a mucositis, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the effect of oral cryotherapy on opioid use by reducing the mucositis\\u000a for patients treated with myeloablative therapy

Anncarin Svanberg; Gunnar Birgegård; Kerstin Öhrn

2007-01-01

291

Aggravation of gastric mucosal lesions in rat stomach by tobacco cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the model of gastric mucosal injury induced by 2 mol\\/liter hypertonic saline in rats, we tested the hypothesis that tobacco cigarette smoke aggravates gastric mucosal lesions by inhibition of injury-induced gastric mucosal hyperemia. Experimental rats were treated with tobacco cigarette smoke or nicotine-free smoke from nontobacco cigarettes, and controls breathed room air. Gastric mucosal blood flow was measured by

Fumihiro Iwata; Xiang-Yang Zhang; Felix W. Leung

1995-01-01

292

Hypoxia increases plasma glutathione disulfide in rats.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia causes cellular oxidative stress by measuring plasma concentrations of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in rats exposed to acute and subacute hypoxia. In awake, unanesthetized, catheter-implanted rats, exposure to 8% O2 for 10 min caused pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased plasma GSSG. This increase in plasma GSSG was reversible upon re-exposure to room air. In another group of rats exposed to 48 hours of hypobaric hypoxia (Pb 450 mmHg, equivalent to about 14,500 feet altitude), plasma GSSG, but not total glutathione, was significantly increased over control values (2.83 +/- 0.24 vs 1.84 +/- 0.14 nmol/ml, p less than 0.05). While lung tissue GSSG in high altitude-exposed rats were somewhat higher than in controls (17.4 +/- 7.0 vs 11.9 +/- 3.6 nmol/g wet lung wt.), the difference was not statistically significant. Treatment of the rats with a radical scavenger, DMSO, before altitude exposure, blocked the increase in plasma GSSG (1.86 +/- 0.16 nmol/ml). We conclude that both acute and subacute hypoxia increase plasma GSSG in rats and speculate that hypoxia induces cellular oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:2507832

Chang, S W; Stelzner, T J; Weil, J V; Voelkel, N F

1989-01-01

293

Ileal malignant hemangioendothelioma as a hypervascular lesion on computed tomography scan?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an uncommon and grave vascular tumor. EHE is frequently angiocentric and is associated with a medium sized vessel, especially a vein. No definite etiological associations have been ascribed to this tumor so far, except an association with oral contraceptives in EHE of liver. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 47 year old man presented with the complaint of intermittent black stool over the past two weeks. Occasionally, he experienced pain in left lower abdomen. On Computed Tomography (CT), it showed hypervascular lesion in the ileum with persistent enhancement. An exploratory laparotomy was performed with short segmental resection and functional end-to-end anastomosis. It was diagnosed finally with the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis as a malignant EHE. DISCUSSION EHE is an uncommon endothelial tumor that most frequently arises in soft tissue, liver, lung and skeleton. It behaves biologically in between benign epithelioid hemangioma and the more aggressive epithelioid angiosarcoma. Although a standard systemic treatment for malignant EHE has not been fully established, complete surgical excision is strongly recommended if feasible. CONCLUSION EHE has a variable presentation and CT is helpful in identifying ileal EHE timely in the early stage, even when there is no obvious mass formation, however the diagnosis can be confirmed only after histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. PMID:24394857

Li, Hang; Shah, Deepa; Shah, Abhishek; Qiu, Xiang; Cao, Dianbo

2013-01-01

294

K? absorption by locust gut and inhibition of ileal K? and water transport by FGLamide allatostatins.  

PubMed

The scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) was utilized for the first time in Locusta migratoria to characterize K(+) transport along the digestive tract and to determine the effect of two locust FGLamide allatostatins (FGLa/ASTs) on K(+) transport: a previously sequenced FGLa/AST from Schistocerca gregaria (Scg-AST-6; ARPYSFGL-NH2) and a newly sequenced FGLa/AST from L. migratoria (Locmi-FGLa/AST-2; LPVYNFGL-NH2). Regional differences in K(+) fluxes along the gut were evident, where K(+) efflux in vitro (or absorption into the hemolymph in vivo) was greatest at the anterior ileum, and lowest at the colon. Ileal K(+) efflux was inhibited by both Scg-AST-6 and Locmi-FGLa/AST-2, with maximal inhibition at 10(-10) and 10(-11) mol l(-1), respectively. Both FGLa/ASTs also inhibited cAMP-stimulated K(+) efflux from the ileum. Locmi-FGLa/AST-2 also inhibited efflux of water across the ileum. Locusts are terrestrial insects living in dry climates, risking desiccation and making water conservation a necessity. The results suggest that FGLa/ASTs may be acting as diuretics by increasing K(+) excretion and therefore increasing water excretion. Thus it is likely that FGLa/ASTs are involved in the control of hemolymph water and ion levels during feeding and digestion, to help the locust deal with the excess K(+) load (and subsequently fluid) when the meal is processed. PMID:25013112

Robertson, Lisa; Donini, Andrew; Lange, Angela B

2014-09-15

295

Psychosocial adjustment and general state of health in patients with ileal conduit urinary diversion.  

PubMed

The psychosocial adjustment and general state of health were investigated in 66 patients (40 males, 26 females) who had been subjected to an ileal conduit urinary diversion on account of bladder cancer (44 patients) or incontinence or bladder dysfunction (22 patients). Seventy per cent of the patients reported unchanged, overall, social activity (OSA) after the operation. Twenty per cent reported less and 10% more activity. Bladder-cancer patients were more likely to curtail their social activities compared with the patients with incontinence or bladder dysfunction. Appliance-related problems were mentioned by half of the patients who reported decreased OSA. One-third of the patients considered accidental leakage or fear of such leakage as the most negative aspect of surgery. Factors related to an altered body image were the most common negative aspect reported by females. Despite psychosocial problems, the majority of the patients (80%) considered their health to be good. Males, individuals working full-time and patients with unchanged OSA scored higher on a Health Index, i.e. considered themselves healthier than the rest of the patients. PMID:1626203

Nordström, G; Nyman, C R; Theorell, T

1992-01-01

296

Ileal digestibility of sunflower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs.  

PubMed

The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and field pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fitted with either a T-cannula or a steered ileocecal valve-cannula. Diets contained 170 to 186 g CP/kg DM. Endogenous losses of CP and AA were estimated by feeding a N-free diet. The SID was calculated using the average of Cr(2)O(3) and TiO(2) as indigestible markers and corrected for type of cannula. The SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P < 0.05) in sunflower meal, and the SID of Met and Val were lowest (P < 0.05) in lupine. These results imply soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs. PMID:23365330

Nørgaard, J V; Fernández, J A; Jørgensen, H

2012-12-01

297

Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. Methods We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. Results We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione concentration affects the interpretation of experimental studies that last hours. Conclusions The mathematical model aids in the interpretation of data from recent experimental studies and shows that the Challenger pathway of arsenic methylation, supplemented by the glutathione effects described above, is sufficient to understand and predict recent experimental data. More experimental studies are needed to explicate the detailed mechanisms of action of glutathione on arsenic methylation. Recent experimental work on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation and our modeling study suggest that supplements that increase hepatic glutathione production should be considered as strategies to reduce adverse health effects in affected populations. PMID:24885596

2014-01-01

298

Proposed reductive metabolism of artemisinin by glutathione transferases in vitro.  

PubMed

Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone containing an endoperoxide bridge. It is a promising new antimalarial and is particularly useful against the drug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. It has unique antimalarial properties since it acts through the generation of free radicals that alkylate parasite proteins. Since the antimalarial action of the drug is antagonised by glutathione and ascorbate and has unusual pharmacokinetic properties in humans, we have investigated if the drug is broken down by a typical reductive reaction in the presence of glutathione transferases. Cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) detoxify electrophilic xenobiotics by catalysing the formation of glutathione (GSH) conjugates and exhibit glutathione peroxidase activity towards hydroperoxides. Artemisinin was incubated with glutathione, NADPH and glutathione reductase and GSTs in a coupled assay system analogous to the standard assay scheme with cumene hydroperoxide as a substrate of GSTs. Artemisinin was shown to stimulate NADPH oxidation in cytosols from rat liver, kidney, intestines and in affinity purified preparations of GSTs from rat liver. Using human recombinant GSTs hetelorogously expressed in Escherichia coli, artemisinin was similarly shown to stimulate NADPH oxidation with the highest activity observed with GST M1-1. Using recombinant GSTs the activity of GSTs with artemisinin was at least two fold higher than the reaction with CDNB. Considering these results, it is possible that GSTs may contribute to the metabolism of artemisinin in the presence of NADPH and GSSG-reductase. We propose a model, based on the known reactions of GSTs and sesquiterpenes, in which (1) artemisinin reacts with GSH resulting in oxidised glutathione; (2) the oxidised glutathione is then converted to reduced glutathione via glutathione reductase; and (3) the latter reaction may then result in the depletion of NADPH via GSSG-reductase. The ability of artemisinin to react with GSH in the presence of GST may be responsible for the NADPH utilisation observed in vitro and suggests that cytosolic GSTs are likely to be contributing to metabolism of artemisinin and related drugs in vivo. PMID:11697139

Mukanganyama, S; Naik, Y S; Widersten, M; Mannervik, B; Hasler, J A

2001-10-01

299

Mucosal interplay among commensal and pathogenic bacteria: lessons from Flagellin and Toll-like receptor 5  

E-print Network

immunity. Due to their large surfaces in direct contact with the environment, mucosal tissues are the major prevented by i/ the barrier function of the mucosal epithelia (tight junctions, glycocalyx and mucus), ii1 Mucosal interplay among commensal and pathogenic bacteria: lessons from Flagellin and Toll

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Preventing Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients undergoing combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiotherapy) for advanced head and neck cancer will receive intravenous palifermin or placebo before and during cancer treatment to prevent mucositis, a common but serious side effect of chemoradiotherapy for this type of cancer.

301

Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-07-15

302

Clinical implications of mucosal healing for the management of IBD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal healing (MH) has emerged as an important treatment goal for patients with IBD. Historically, the therapeutic goals of induction and maintenance of clinical remission seemed insufficient to change the natural history of IBD. Evidence has now accumulated to show that MH can alter the course of IBD, as it is associated with sustained clinical remission, and reduced rates of

Guillaume Pineton de Chambrun; Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet; Marc Lémann; Jean-Frédéric Colombel

2009-01-01

303

Changes in Rat Gastric Mucosal Glycoproteins in Portal Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of portal hypertension (PHT) on gastric mucosal glycoproteins in rats. PHT was induced experimentally by partial ligation of the portal vein (PVL) in 20 male Wistar rats: 10 rats (PVL4 group) were analyzed after 4 weeks and the remaining 10 (PVL8 group) after 8 weeks. In another group of 10

J. Y. Wang; J. S. Hsieh; T. J. Huang

1997-01-01

304

Metagenomics of the mucosal microbiota of European eels.  

PubMed

European eels are an economically important and threatened species that are prone to rapid collapse in farm conditions. Using metagenomics, we show that the eel mucosal microbiota has specific features distinguishing it from the surrounding aquatic community. This is a first step in dissecting the resident microbiota of this critical barrier that may have implications for maintenance of healthy eel populations. PMID:25377710

Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amaro, Carmen

2014-01-01

305

Role of Intestinal Permeability in Monitoring Mucosal Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal barrier function is considered to play an important role in protecting the penetration of luminal antigens, associated with the development of secondary infection and sepsis and the initiation of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The intestinal mucosal barrier against luminal macromolecules and microorganisms consists of both non-immunological and immunological defence mechanisms. The main constituents of the intestinal barrier

Zhengwu Sun; Xiangdong Wang; Roland Andersson

1998-01-01

306

Differential Injury Responses in Oral Mucosal and Cutaneous Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosa heals faster than does skin, yet few studies have compared the repair at oral mucosal and cutaneous sites. To determine whether the privileged healing of oral injuries involves a differential inflammatory phase, we compared the inflammatory cell infiltrate and cytokine production in wounds of equivalent size in oral mucosa and skin. Significantly lower levels of macrophage, neutrophil, and

A. M. Szpaderska; J. D. Zuckerman; L. A. DiPietro

2003-01-01

307

Regulation of Th17 cells in the mucosal surfaces  

PubMed Central

The mucosal surfaces represent the main intersection between jawed vertebrates and the environment. The mucosal surface of the intestine alone forms the largest surface that is exposed to exogenous antigens as well as the largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body. Therefore, a protective immune activity must coexist with efficient regulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a health status of these organisms. The discovery of a new lineage of helper T cells that produce interleukin (IL)-17 has provided valuable new insight into host defense and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases at the mucosal surfaces. Of particular interest for these surfaces, it has been reported that peripherally-induced regulatory T cells and Th17 effector cells arise in a mutually exclusive fashion, depending on whether they are activated in the presence of TGF-? or TGF-? plus inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. This review will address the protective and pathogenic roles of Th17 cells in the mucosal surfaces and potential regulatory mechanisms that control their development. PMID:19362732

Mucida, Daniel; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram

2009-01-01

308

Metagenomics of the Mucosal Microbiota of European Eels  

PubMed Central

European eels are an economically important and threatened species that are prone to rapid collapse in farm conditions. Using metagenomics, we show that the eel mucosal microbiota has specific features distinguishing it from the surrounding aquatic community. This is a first step in dissecting the resident microbiota of this critical barrier that may have implications for maintenance of healthy eel populations. PMID:25377710

Carda-Dieguez, Miguel; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2014-01-01

309

Neural fibrolipoma in pharyngeal mucosal space: A rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

Neural fibrolipoma is a rare lesion presenting in early childhood, as a slow-growing fusiform swelling of a nerve, usually in the forearm or wrist (median nerve), associated with symptoms of compression neuropathy. There are only few case reports of neural fibrolipoma in neck and no such case has been reported in pharyngeal mucosal space. PMID:23833429

Kumar, Nishith; Mittal, MK; Sinha, Mukul; Thukral, BB

2012-01-01

310

Neural fibrolipoma in pharyngeal mucosal space: A rare occurrence.  

PubMed

Neural fibrolipoma is a rare lesion presenting in early childhood, as a slow-growing fusiform swelling of a nerve, usually in the forearm or wrist (median nerve), associated with symptoms of compression neuropathy. There are only few case reports of neural fibrolipoma in neck and no such case has been reported in pharyngeal mucosal space. PMID:23833429

Kumar, Nishith; Mittal, Mk; Sinha, Mukul; Thukral, Bb

2012-10-01

311

Mucosal Immunity: Its Role in Defense and Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between the organism and the outside world, which is the site of exchange of nutrients, export of products and waste components, must be selectively permeable and at the same time, it must constitute a barrier equipped with local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g. invading pathogens). The boundaries with the environment (mucosal and skin surfaces) are therefore covered

Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová; Bozena Cukrowska; David P. Funda; Hana Kozáková; Ilja Trebichavský; Dan Sokol; Petra Fundová; Dana Horáková; Lenka Jelínková; Daniel Sánchez

2002-01-01

312

Ups and Downs of Mucosal Cellular Immunity against Protozoan Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal mucosa provides both a physiologic and im- munologic barrier to a wide range of microorganisms and foreign substances. In general, the mucosal immune system is homeostatic despite the considerable antigenic load in the intestine. When an imbalance does occur in the regulation of this response, gut barrier dysfunction and inflammatory bowel disease are observed. Protozoan parasites that gain

LLOYD H. KASPER; DOMINIQUE BUZONI-GATEL

2001-01-01

313

Current aspects of mucosal immunology and its influence by nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A significant body of clinical literature demonstrates that enteral feeding significantly reduces the incidence of pneumonia compared to patients fed parenterally. An immunologic link between the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract is postulated via the common mucosal immune hypothesis. This hypothesis states that cells are sensitized within the Peyer’s patches of the small intestine and are subsequently distributed to

Kenneth A Kudsk

2002-01-01

314

Oral Mucosal Immunity and HIV\\/SIV Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through genital and rectal mucosa has led to intensive study of mucosal immune responses to HIV and to the development of a vaccine administered locally. However, HIV transmission through the oral mucosa is a rare event. The oral mucosa represents a physical barrier and contains immunological elements to prevent the invasion of pathogenic organisms. This

F. X. Lü; R. S. Jacobson

2007-01-01

315

Management of chronic mucosal otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic mucosal otitis media (COM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children worldwide. As it causes considerable morbidity and is a major global cause of hearing impairment, establishing its most effective treatment is important. It is generally accepted that antibiotic eardrops should be the first step in treating COM, and surgery the last when optimal medical treatment

E. L. van der Veen

2010-01-01

316

THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF  

E-print Network

of distribution of the mucosal disaccharidases, lactase, cellobiase, trehalase, maltase, and sucrase have been of age. In the newborn calf, lactase had the highest level of activity, followed by cellobiase, trehalase thereafter. Lactase, cellobiase and trehalase activities were highest in the proximal jejunum, rather lower

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Gastric blood flow and the gastric mucosal barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic mechanisms underlying cytoprotection of gastrointestinal mucosae against damage are not understood. One hypothesis is that the initial and primary system affected by a cytoprotective agent is the local circulation of the tissue that is being protected. According to this circulatory hypothesis, a cytoprotective prostaglandin would increase gastric mucosal blood flow, thereby ameliorating the effect of topical damaging agents,

Eugene D. Jacobson

1985-01-01

318

Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23778491

Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

2013-01-01

319

Glutathione Redox System in ?-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients  

PubMed Central

?-thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in ?-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 ?-thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body's first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores. PMID:24223032

Tangjaidee, Thongchai; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Fucharoen, Suthat

2013-01-01

320

Glutathione S-transferase: genetics and role in toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a supergene family of dimeric, enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to a variety of electrophiles including arene oxides, unsaturated carbonyls, organic halides and other substrates. Their importance is suggested by the finding that GST enzymes are expressed in probably all life forms. In humans, polymorphism in GST genes has been associated with

Richard C. Strange; Peter W. Jones; Anthony A. Fryer

2000-01-01

321

Synthesis of Glutathione in the Preimplantation Mouse Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depletion and repletion of glutathione in two-cell to blastocyst stage mouse embryos was examined, Reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were measured by fluorimetric HPLC after derivatization of extracted embryo samples with dansyl chloride, Addition of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to culture medium for 16 h decreased GSH levels in both two-cell and blastocyst stage embryos; however, GSH decreased more drastically

C. S. Gardiner; D. J. Reed

1995-01-01

322

Glutathione redox potential in response to differentiation and enzyme inducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduced glutathione (GSH)\\/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) redox state is thought to function in signaling of detoxification gene expression, but also appears to be tightly regulated in cells under normal conditions. Thus it is not clear that the magnitude of change in response to physiologic stimuli is sufficient for a role in redox signaling under nontoxicologic conditions. The purpose of this

Ward G Kirlin; Jiyang Cai; Sally A Thompson; Dolores Diaz; Terrance J Kavanagh; Dean P Jones

1999-01-01

323

Inhibitors of glutathione S-transferases as therapeutic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of phase II detoxification enzymes with broad substrate specificities. They catalyze the conjugation of glutathione with many different types of xenobiotics, rendering the compound more water soluble and thus more easily eliminated. Resistance to cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, such as the alkylating agents, has been directly correlated with the overexpression of GSTs. Subsequently, a rationale

Mary Schultz; Seema Dutta; Kenneth D Tew

1997-01-01

324

Glutathione-associated Enzymes in Anticancer Drug Resistance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of thiol-mediated detoxification of anticancer drugs that produce toxic electrophiles has been of considerable interest to many investigators. Glutathione and glutathione S-transferases (GST) are the focus of much attention in characterizing drug resistant cells. However, ambiguous and sometimes conflicting data have complicated the field. This article attempts to clarify some of the confusion. The following observations are well

Kenneth D. Tew

1994-01-01

325

The follicle-associated epithelium of the ileal Peyer's patch in ruminants is distinguished by its shedding of 50 nm particles.  

PubMed

Significant differences were found between the follicle-associated epithelial cells (FAE) covering the domes of the jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches (PP) in calves. Whereas the FAE of the jejunal PP had scattered membraneous (M) cells among absorptive epithelial cells, the FAE of the ileal PP constituted a homogeneous population of cells different from both absorptive cells and M cells. The FAE of the ileal PP had short microvilli or folds, cytoplasmic vesicles and vacuoles containing acid phosphatase. Fifty nanometer membrane-bounded particles were found in lacunae extending from the lateral cell border. These particles appeared to have been shed from the FAE. Finger-like projections, rich in microfilaments, extended into the lacunae. M cells had short, sparse microvilli, many vesicles, few lysosomal structures, and they enfolded groups of mononuclear leucocytes. Transcytosis of macromolecular tracers occurred in both M cells and in the FAE of the ileal PP, though the uptake was greater in the latter. The 50 nm particles were also found between cells in the lymphoid tissue underneath the FAE of the ileal PP. The FAE of PP in pre- and post-natal lambs from 115 days of gestation and onwards, and goat kids, showed similar structural features. PMID:3623609

Landsverk, T

1987-06-01

326

Mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion-related hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-induced glutathione depletion is thought to be caused by two types of toxicological mechanisms: PHO-type glutathione depletion [glutathione conjugated with chemicals such as phorone (PHO) or diethyl maleate (DEM)], and BSO-type glutathione depletion [i.e., glutathione synthesis inhibited by chemicals such as l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO)]. In order to identify mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion in rat liver, male SD rats

Weihua Gao; Yumiko Mizukawa; Noriyuki Nakatsu; Yosuke Minowa; Hiroshi Yamada; Yasuo Ohno; Tetsuro Urushidani

2010-01-01

327

Measurement of oral mucositis in children: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of work  The assessment of oral mucositis is important. There is a paucity of validated oral mucositis assessment instruments for use\\u000a in children. This paper reviews the available mucositis measurement tools and their applicability to a paediatric population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Literature search of PUBMED™ and bibliography searches identified articles relevant to mucositis measurement tools and the\\u000a measurement of mucositis in

Deborah Tomlinson; Peter Judd; Eleanor Hendershot; Anne-Marie Maloney; Lillian Sung

2007-01-01

328

Dinitrosyl-Dithiol-Iron Complexes, Nitric Oxide (NO) Carriers In Vivo, as Potent Inhibitors of Human Glutathione Reductase and Glutathione S-Transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human glutathione reductase (GR) and rat liver glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) had been shown to be inhibited by the nitric oxide (NO) carrier S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO). We have now extended these studies by measuring the effects of dinitrosyl-iron complexed thiols (DNIC-[RSH]2) on human GR, GST and glutathione peroxidase. DNIC-[RSH]2 represent important transport forms of NO but also of iron ions and glutathione in

Michael A Keese; Matthias Böse; Alexander Mülsch; R. Heiner Schirmer; Katja Becker

1997-01-01

329

Glutathione peroxidase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase in tissues of Balb/C mice  

SciTech Connect

The two selenium (Se) enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxide (PHGPx) were assayed in tissues and organ homogenates of female Balb/C mice fed torula yeast diets containing 0.008, 0.2 and 1.0 ug/g Se as selenite for nine months. GPx activity was detected in all tissues and organs whereas PHGPx activity was not detectable in lung, large intestine, eye or thymus tissue. GPx activity nearly always exceeded PHGPx activity when tissues or organs contained both enzymes irrespective of dietary Se treatment. GPx activity in tissues was generally more susceptible to the dietary Se deficiency than was PHGPx activity when expressed as a percentage of the activity found in tissues and organs of mice fed supplemented Se diets. This limited study suggests that dietary Se may be more valued in supporting PHGPx activity than GPx activity in the course of a protracted dietary Se deficiency.

Spallholz, J.E.; Roveri, A.; Yan, L.; Boylan, L.M.; Kang, C.R.; Ursini, F. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States) Univ. of Padua (Italy))

1991-03-11

330

Pro-oxidant activity of flavonoids: effects on glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in isolated rat liver nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three representative flavonoids, quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol, on the nuclear antioxidant defense glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were investigated in a model system of isolated rat liver nuclei. The three flavonoids induced a concentration-dependent decrease of both the nuclear GSH content and GST activity. Myricetin, which has the maximum number of hydroxyl groups, was the most

Saura C. Sahu; George C. Gray

1996-01-01

331

Glutathione and glutathione disulfide affect adventitious root formation and growth in tomato seedling cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the relationship between glutathione and rooting, tomato seedling cuttings, grown on basal- or on auxin-supplemented\\u000a media, were treated with the reduced (GSH) or oxidized (GSSG) form of this antioxidant. In turn, the consequences of the depletion\\u000a of GSH pool on rooting were tested using l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis. Effects of the aforementioned treatments

Jaros?aw Tyburski; Andrzej Tretyn

2010-01-01

332

Inhibitions of acid secretion by E3810 and omeprazole, and their reversal by glutathione.  

PubMed

A substituted benzimidazole ([4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridine-2-yl]methylsulfinyl)- 1H-benzimidazole sodium salt (E3810), is a gastric proton pump (H+, K(+)-ATPase) inhibitor. E3810 and omeprazole inhibited acid accumulation dose dependently as measured with aminopyrine uptake in isolated rabbit gastric glands, their IC50 values being 0.16 and 0.36 microM, respectively. The addition of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) to the gland suspension reactivated dose dependently the acid secretion which had been inhibited by 2 microM E3810 or omeprazole as a function of the incubation time. Furthermore, GSH at 1 and 3 mM reversed the antisecretory effect of E3810 more quickly than it did that of omeprazole. The antisecretory effect of E3810 was slightly greater than that of omeprazole in histamine-stimulated fistula dogs in vivo. The duration of the antisecretory activity of E3810 at concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/kg was shorter than that of omeprazole at the same concentrations in pentagastrin-stimulated fistula dogs. The reversal of the antisecretory activity of the inhibitors in dogs is suggested to be due to the action of endogenous extracellular GSH, in addition to de novo synthesis of the proton pump, because bullfrog gastric mucosae were found in the present study to secrete GSH into the mucosal solution at the rate of about 0.25 nmol/min/g tissue. PMID:1650210

Fujisaki, H; Shibata, H; Oketani, K; Murakami, M; Fujimoto, M; Wakabayashi, T; Yamatsu, I; Yamaguchi, M; Sakai, H; Takeguchi, N

1991-07-01

333

Induction of antibody responses in the common mucosal immune system by respiratory syncytical virus immunostimulating complexes.  

PubMed

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) containing envelope proteins of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were explored as a mucosal delivery system for the capacity of inducing a common mucosal antibody response. Two intranasal (i.n.) administrations of BALB/c mice with ISCOMs induced potent serum IgG, and strong IgA responses to RSV locally in the lungs and the upper respiratory, and remotely in the genital and the intestinal tracts. Virtually no measurable IgA response was found in these mucosal organs after two subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations. Virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were detected in serum and in all of the mucosal organ extracts after both s.c. and i.n. immunizations indicating that the neutralizing epitopes were preserved after both mucosal and parenteral modes of administration. While the mucosal IgA response appears to be of mucosal origin, the IgG antibodies to RSV detected in the mucosal organs were likely of serum origin. However, the mucosal VN antibodies correlated with the IgG rather than the IgA levels. An enhanced IgA response to gp120 in various mucosal organs was recorded after i.n. immunization with gp120 incorporated in RSV ISCOMs, indicating a role of RSV envelope proteins in enhancing and targeting mucosal responses to passenger antigens. PMID:10363675

Hu, K F; Ekström, J; Merza, M; Lövgren-Bengtsson, K; Morein, B

1999-05-01

334

Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors.  

PubMed

Thimerosol is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosol toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Pretreatment with 100 microM glutathione ethyl ester or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not methionine, resulted in a significant increase in intracellular GSH in both cell types. Further, pretreatment of the cells with glutathione ethyl ester or NAC prevented cytotoxicity with exposure to 15 microM Thimerosal. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children's vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries. The potential protective effect of GSH or NAC against mercury toxicity warrants further research as possible adjunct therapy to individuals still receiving Thimerosal-containing vaccinations. PMID:15527868

James, S J; Slikker, William; Melnyk, Stepan; New, Elizabeth; Pogribna, Marta; Jernigan, Stefanie

2005-01-01

335

Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P?

2014-01-01

336

Behavioural profile and human adaptation of survivors after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of good data in the literature evaluating the Health-Related Quality of Life (HR- QoL) in patients with urinary diversions. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in expectation and needs in terms of human adaptation and behavioural profiles in patients with ileal conduit (IC) after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (BC). Materials and methods A qualitative, multicenter cross-sectional study using a “narrative based” approach was planned. We proceed with a sampling reasoned choice (purposive), selecting groups of patients with follow-up from one up to more than 7 years after surgery. Data were collected through individual interviews. Results Thirty patients participated in the study. The processing of the interviews allowed us to identify 2 major profiles: positive and negative. Patients with a positive profile resumed normal daily activities with no or limited restrictions both on the personal and the social level. This profile reflects a good HR-QoL. The negative profile reflects the patients for whom the ostomy has meant a worsening of HR-QoL. A positive profile was statistically more frequent in older patients (p?=?0.023), with a longer follow-up (p?=?0.042) and less complications rates (p?=?0.0002). According to the length of follow-up and the occurrence of complitations, we identified further 5 intermediate profiles. Conclusions Patients’ satisfaction is related to the degree of adaptation to their new life with an urinary stoma and its correct management. Live “with urinary diversion” represents a new phase of life and not a deterioration. PMID:24708662

2014-01-01

337

Sacral nerve function in child patients after ileal j-pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Abstract To clarify the neurological function of the puborectalis muscle (PM) in child patients with soiling after ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC), we examined the terminal motor latency in the sacral nerves that regulate the PM. Eight patients after IPAA for UC were studied (6 males and 2 females aged 11 to 13 years with a mean age of 12.8 years). All patients 6 months after IPAA showed soiling (group A) and these patients showed continence at 2 years after IPAA (group B). Group C serving as controls consisted of 16 subjects (10 males and 6 females aged 12 to 17 years with a mean age of 14.4 years). Left- and right-sided sacral nerve terminal motor latency (SNTML) tests were performed at 6 months and 2 years after IPAA in order to measure the latency of the response in the bilateral PM following magnetic stimulation of sacral nerve root segments 2 to 4 (S2-S4) of the spinal column overlying the cauda equina. The following results were obtained. (1) Right-sided SNTML: group A exhibited significant prolongation compared with groups B and C (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference between groups B and C (P = 0.2329). (2) Left-sided SNTML: group A exhibited significant prolongation compared with groups B and C (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference between groups B and C (P = 0.2315). Note that significant differences were not established between SNTML values measured on the right and left sides. Soiling in child patients 6 months after IPAA may be caused by damage to the bilateral sacral nerves during the operation. However, the damage to the sacral motor nerve improves within 2 years after IPAA. PMID:25216412

Tomita, Ryouichi; Sugito, Kiminobu; Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

2014-01-01

338

p-aminophenol nephrotoxicity: biosynthesis of toxic glutathione conjugates.  

PubMed

p-Aminophenol causes necrosis of the pars recta of the proximal tubules in rats, and its nephrotoxicity may be due to glutathione-dependent bioactivation reactions. We have investigated the hepatic metabolism of p-aminophenol in Wistar rats and the cytotoxicity of formed glutathione S-conjugates in rat renal epithelial cells. After ip application of p-aminophenol (100 mg/kg), the following metabolites were identified in rat bile: 4-amino-2-(glutathion-S-yl)phenol, 4-amino-3-(glutathion-S-yl)-phenol, 4-amino-2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)phenol, 4-amino-2,3,5(or 6)-tris(glutathion-S-yl)phenol, an aminophenol conjugate (likely a sulfate or glucuronide), acetaminophen glucuronide, and 3-(glutathion-S-yl)acetaminophen. 4-Amino-3-(glutathion-S-yl)phenol, 4-amino-2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)phenol, and 4-amino-2,3,5(or 6)-tris(glutathion-S-yl)phenol induced a dose- and time-dependent loss of cell viability in rat kidney cortical cells. Cell killing was significantly reduced by inhibition of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase with Acivicin. p-Aminophenol was also toxic to renal epithelial cells. Coincubation of p-aminophenol with tetraethylammonium bromide, a competitive inhibitor of the organic cation transporter, and with SKF-525A, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450, protected cells from p-aminophenol-induced toxicity. p-Aminophenol would thus be accumulated in the kidney mainly by organic cation transport systems, which are concentrated in the S-1 segment of the proximal tubule. However, p-aminophenol toxicity in vivo is directed toward the S-2 and S-3 segments, which are rich in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. These results and the observation that biliary cannulation and glutathione depletion reduce p-aminophenol nephrotoxicity suggest that the biosynthesis of toxic glutathione conjugates is responsible for p-aminophenol nephrotoxicity in vivo. The aminophenol glutathione S-conjugates formed induce p-aminophenol nephrotoxicity by a pathway dependent on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. PMID:1631900

Klos, C; Koob, M; Kramer, C; Dekant, W

1992-07-01

339

Release of mixed linkage (1-->3),(1-->4) beta-D-glucans from barley by protease activity and effects on ileal effluent.  

PubMed

The behaviour of barley beta-glucans in the upper gut has been assessed using ileal effluents recovered from a barley-based test meal. Results have been compared to in vitro treatments used to extract beta-glucans. In vitro, exposure to endogenous proteases led to a solubilisation of beta-glucan, ranging from 28% in the untreated to 83% following NSP isolation. In ileal effluent 60% of the beta-glucan was solubilised, similar to the in vitro treatment. However, the viscosity of the ileal effluent was low, comparable to a mucin standard. Although beta-glucan can be solubilised in the upper gut its viscosity would appear to have only a limited potential to affect nutrient bioavailability. PMID:9283016

Robertson, J A; Majsak-Newman, G; Ring, S G

1997-08-01

340

Effect of food matrix microstructure on stomach emptying rate and apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility of almond lipids.  

PubMed

Almond lipids can be consumed in different forms such as nuts, oil-in-water emulsions or oil. The stomach emptying rate (SER) of almond lipids (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) as a function of the food matrix was studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy based on the stomach emptying of a marker (AlCl3-6H2O) in the growing rat. Chyme and digesta samples were collected following serial gavaging (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) to study microstructural changes and determine the apparent ileal digestibility of almond fatty acids as a function of the native food matrix. The T(1/2) for the stomach emptying of crushed whole almonds and almond cream (194 ± 17 min and 185 ± 19 min, respectively) were not different (P > 0.05) from that of a gastric-stable Tween-oil emulsion (197 ± 19 min). The T(1/2) values for a sodium caseinate (NaCas)-oil emulsion (145 ± 11 min) and a gastric-unstable Span-oil emulsion (135 ± 7 min) were different (P < 0.05) from those for crushed whole almonds, almond cream and Tween-oil emulsion, while almond milk and oil emptied at an intermediate rate (157 ± 9 min and 172 ± 11 min, respectively). Extensively coalesced emulsions under gastric conditions (almond oil, almond cream and Span-oil) had lower (P < 0.05) overall apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility (85.8%, 75.8% and 74.3%, respectively) than crushed whole almonds, almond milk, NaCas-oil and Tween-oil emulsions (91.0%, 92.2%, 92.1% and 88.7%, respectively). The original food matrix and structural changes occurring within the gastrointestinal tract had an impact on SER and ileal fatty acid digestibility of the almond preparations. PMID:25066699

Gallier, Sophie; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

2014-10-24

341

Additivity of values for apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in mixed diets fed to growing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine whether the digestibility of CP and AA in a mixed diet fed to growing pigs is better predicted when based on standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) or apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AID). Eight growing pigs (initial BW = 92.1 +/- 3.19 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and arranged in an 8 x 8 Latin square design with eight diets and eight periods. Three of the diets contained corn, soybean meal (SBM), or canola meal (CM) as the sole source of CP and AA. Four mixed diets also were formulated using corn and soybean meal (CS); corn and canola meal (CCM); soybean meal and canola meal (SCM); or corn, soybean meal, and canola meal (CSCM). A N-free diet was used to measure the basal ileal endogenous losses (IAAend) of CP and AA. Pigs were fed each of the eight diets during one 7-d period, and ileal digesta were collected during two 10-h periods on d 6 and 7. The AID values were calculated for CP and AA in all diets, except the N-free diet. By correcting the AID for IAAend, the SID for CP and AA in each of the seven protein-containing diets were calculated. As expected, the AID for CP and the majority of AA were greater in SBM than in corn and CM (P < 0.05); however, the SID for CP and most AA did not differ between corn and SBM. For the majority of the AA, SID were less (P < 0.05) in CM than in the other two ingredients. Using the AID and the SID that were measured for CP and AA in corn, SBM, and CM, the AID and the SID in the four mixed diets were predicted and compared with the measured values for these diets. For the three mixed diets containing corn, the measured AID for CP and most AA were greater (P < 0.05) than the predicted AID, but with a few exceptions, no differences between predicted and measured values for SID were observed. For the diet based on SCM, there were no differences between predicted and measured values regardless of the procedure used, except for the AID of Ser. The results of this experiment demonstrate that the digestibility coefficients for a mixed diet containing low-protein feed ingredients, such as corn, are more accurately predicted using SID than AID. PMID:16160051

Stein, H H; Pedersen, C; Wirt, A R; Bohlke, R A

2005-10-01

342

Long segment jejuno-ileal duplication cyst with ectopic gastric mucosa detected on 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy  

PubMed Central

Enteric duplication cysts (EDC) are uncommon congenital anomalies that may occur anywhere along the digestive tract. Ectopic gastric mucosa (EGM), another rare condition, is usually present as short segments in the small intestine and may be associated with EDC. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc pertechnetate may be useful in the diagnosis, since the radiotracer is concentrated by functioning gastric mucosa. In this case report, the authors describe a child with a 150 cm long jejuno-ileal duplication cyst containing EGM identified by intense 99mTc pertechnetate uptake on scintigraphy without any pharmacological intervention. PMID:24163514

Bhattacharya, Anish; Samujh, Ram; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

2013-01-01

343

Influence of limestone and phytase on broiler performance, gastrointestinal pH, and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of 2 levels of dietary Ca from limestone and 3 levels of phytase on broiler performance, bone ash, gastrointestinal pH, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Ca, P, and amino acids. Cobb 500 broilers (n = 576) were allowed access to one of 6 corn-soy diets from 0 to 16 d. Experimental diets contained 1.03% or 0.64% Ca from limestone and 0.61% total P. Each diet was supplemented with 0, 500, or 5,000 FTU/kg of phytase to create a 2 × 3 factorial experiment. Broiler feed intake (FI) and BW gain were not affected by dietary Ca or phytase. Feed conversion ratio was improved (P < 0.05) as dietary phytase increased (1.36, 1.34, and 1.31, respectively). Tibia ash percent was reduced (P < 0.05) from 41.4 to 40.0% as dietary Ca decreased but increased with phytase addition (P < 0.05). Gizzard and ileal pH were reduced (P < 0.05) in broilers fed 0.64% Ca compared with broilers fed 1.03% Ca. Phytase at 5,000 FTU/kg increased (P < 0.05) pH in the gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Apparent ileal P digestibility was increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed 0.64% Ca compared with broilers fed 1.03% Ca (0.68 vs. 0.73, respectively). Apparent ileal Ca digestibility was increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed 1.03% Ca compared with broilers fed 0.64% Ca (0.67 vs. 0.53, respectively). Phytase improved AID of CP in broilers fed 1.0% Ca but did not have an effect on AID of CP in broilers fed 0.64% Ca, which resulted in a Ca × phytase interaction (P < 0.05). In conclusion, high dietary Ca increased pH in gizzard and ileum and interfered with the AID of P and CP. The interactions between Ca and phytase in the gastrointestinal tract are complex, and feeding phytase at doses above industry recommendations may allow for reduced-Ca diets while maintaining broiler performance, bone ash, and improving amino acid digestibility. PMID:22582295

Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; McElroy, A P

2012-06-01

344

Glutathione and the gated potassium channels of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Glutathione-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli were found to require high potassium concentrations for growth, unless supplemented with glutathione. The unsupplemented mutants exhibited a rapid leak of potassium when transferred to a K+-free medium and a fast K+ turnover at the steady state of K+ accumulation, contrasting with the slow rate of the same processes in the wild-type. The steady-state level of K+ accumulation in low potassium medium increased immediately upon addition of glutathione, even in the absence of protein synthesis. K+-independent revertants were found to possess restored glutathione synthesis. Many properties of the glutathione-deficient mutants were identical with those of the potassium leaky K-B- and K-C- mutants, which, however, have a normal glutathione content. Both types of mutants differ from the wild-type in their response to thiol reagents in that no rapid loss of K+ is observed: they have, however, clear-cut differences under these circumstances. These results suggest that the products of trkB and trkC genes are essential for the formation of the potassium channel and glutathione plays an important role in the gating process. PMID:6325160

Meury, J; Kepes, A

1982-01-01

345

Development of a method for collection of ileal digesta in finishing pigs and determination of lysine availability in direct solvent cottonseed meal by chemical and chick growth assays  

E-print Network

catheter positioned caudal to the ileal anus'tomosis 27 10 Ileostomy appliance showing the collection bag (A), face plate (B) and PVC tubing attached to face plate insert (C) . 28 (A) Return of ileal digests to the cecum via the cecal cannula. (B...) Collection appliances attached to the pig . 28 Bolt plate showing the PVC washers and nuts (A), outside plate (B), PVC bolts (C), PVC tubing (D), and PVC bolt with 3. 5 cm flange (B) . 30 Figure Page 13 (A) Primary incision site. (B) ?leal fistula...

Corley, Jimmie Ray

2012-06-07

346

Langerhans Cells and Their Role in Oral Mucosal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response. The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the “sentinels” of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes. Oral mucosal Langerhans cells are capable of engaging and internalizing a wide variety of pathogens and have been found responsive to nickel in patients with nickel allergies, oral Candida species, oral lichen planus, lichenoid drug eruptions, graft versus host diseases, periodontal diseases median rhomboid glossitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses. In this review, comprehensive detail about mucosal diseases has been compiled using the PubMed database and through textbooks. PMID:24251267

Upadhyay, Juhi; Upadhyay, Ram B; Agrawal, Pankaj; Jaitley, Shweta; Shekhar, Rhitu

2013-01-01

347

Microbiota: host interactions in mucosal homeostasis and systemic autoimmunity.  

PubMed

The vertebrate intestinal tract is colonized by hundreds of species of bacteria that must be compartmentalized and tolerated to prevent invasive growth and harmful inflammatory responses. Signaling initiated by commensal bacteria shapes antigen-specific mucosal and systemic adaptive immunity. A distinct type of effector CD4(+) T cells, Th17 cells, have a key role in coordinating the inflammatory immune responses that afford protection to pathogens at the mucosal interface. Balancing this powerful inflammatory response, regulatory T cells limit collateral damage and provide antigen-specific tolerance to both food and microbial antigens. Here, we discuss the implications for how the microbiota as a whole contributes to compartmentalization from the host and how individual constituents of the microbiota influence the functions and repertoire of effector T cells and organ-specific autoimmune disease. PMID:24913313

Longman, Randy S; Yang, Yi; Diehl, Gretchen E; Kim, Sangwon V; Littman, Dan R

2013-01-01

348

Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana

2014-01-01

349

What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?  

PubMed Central

The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

Gibbins, Hannah L.; Yakubov, Gleb E.; Proctor, Gordon B.; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H.

2014-01-01

350

Mucosal inflammation in severe glucocorticoid-dependent asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: To improve,our understanding,of the inflammatory,mechanisms,under- erlying severe disease, a biopsy study was performed comparing 15 clinically unstable glucocorticoid-dependent asthmatics, 10 mild asthmatics, and 10 control subjects. Compared with mild asthma, severe asthma was characterized by reduced mucosal eosinophilia. Whilst no significant differences were found in the numbers of mast cells, neutrophils, CD3+ and CD4+ T-cells between the three groups,

B. Vrugt; S. Wilson; J. Underwood; A. Bron; R. de Bruyn; P. Bradding; S. T. Holgate; R. Djukanovic; R. Aalbers

1999-01-01

351

Oral mucosal blood flow in patients with burning mouth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathophysiology of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is largely unknown. Thus, the aim was to study oral mucosal blood flow in BMS-patients using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Thirteen BMS patients (11 female, two male; mean age±SD 64.3±7.9 years, mean disease duration 18.9±6.2 months) and 13 healthy non-smoking controls matched for age and gender (11 female, two male; mean age 64.7±8.1

S. M Heckmann; J. G Heckmann; M. J HiIz; M Popp; H Marthol; B Neundörfer; T Hummel

2001-01-01

352

T H 17 Cytokines in Primary Mucosal Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a T helper type 17 (TH17) cells are a recently discovered lineage of T cells that produce several effector molecules including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21,\\u000a and IL-22. Scientific evidence to date strongly implicates that this arm of the immune system plays a critical role in mucosal\\u000a immunity to many extracellular pathogens as well as coordinate adaptive immunity to some intracellular pathogens. In

Jay K. Kolls; Shabaana A. Khader

353

Intestinal epithelial cells and their role in innate mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts are covered by a layer of epithelial cells\\u000a that are responsible for sensing and promoting a host immune response in order to establish the limits not only for commensal\\u000a microorganisms but also for foreign organisms or particles. This is a remarkable task as the human body represents a composite\\u000a of

A. L. Maldonado-Contreras; Beth A. McCormick

2011-01-01

354

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: A problem of the mucosal immune system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal immune system is a major component of the mucosal barrier, which provides an appropriate immunologic\\u000a homeostasis between host and numerous foreign antigens, including microbial and dietary antigens. However, under certain pathological\\u000a circumstances created by disturbance of the immunologic balance, allergic responses associated with the gastrointestinal tract\\u000a can be triggered by abnormal immune responses against selected food protein antigens.

Mi-Na Kweon; Hiroshi Kiyono

2003-01-01

355

Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Osseointegrated dental implants have a ong-term success rate of over 90%, but may be threatened by peri-implant mucostis and peri-implantitis, bacteria biofilm-induced inflammatory conditions. While peri-implant mucositis is a reversible inflammatory condition confined to the peri-implant soft-tissue unit, peri-implantitis is characterised by progressive inflammatory destruction of the crest of the alveolar bone supporting the implant, by increased peri-implant probing depths, and by bleeding and/or suppuration on probing. Effective treatment of peri-implant mucositis will prevent the development of peri-implantitis. Plaque accumulation on the implant/abutment surface juxtaposed to the junctional epithelium and to the connective tissue zone of the peri-implant soft-tissue unit induces the development of peri-implant mucositis which can subsequently progress to peri-implantitis. The aim of this paper is to review some aspects of bacterial infection of the tissue supporting dental implants, and to explore how to maintain the healthy peri-implant soft-tissue unit. PMID:23189895

Khammissa, R A G; Feller, L; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2012-03-01

356

Mucosal transmission and pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease in ferrets  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is almost certainly transmitted by mucosal contact with the causative prion, whether by direct (animal-to-animal) or indirect (environmental) means. Yet the sites and mechanisms of prion entry remain to be further understood. This study sought to extend this understanding by demonstrating that ferrets exposed to CWD via several mucosal routes developed infection, CWD prion protein (PrPCWD) amplification in lymphoid tissues, neural invasion and florid transmissible spongiform encephalopathy lesions resembling those in native cervid hosts. The ferrets developed extensive PrPCWD accumulation in the nervous system, retina and olfactory epithelium, with lesser deposition in tongue, muscle, salivary gland and the vomeronasal organ. PrPCWD accumulation in mucosal sites, including upper respiratory tract epithelium, olfactory epithelium and intestinal Peyer’s patches, make the shedding of prions by infected ferrets plausible. It was also observed that regionally targeted exposure of the nasopharyngeal mucosa resulted in an increased attack rate when compared with oral exposure. The latter finding suggests that nasal exposure enhances permissiveness to CWD infection. The ferret model has further potential for investigation of portals for initiation of CWD infection. PMID:23100363

Perrott, Matthew R.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Mason, Gary L.

2013-01-01

357

Oral mucositis in cancer treatment: Natural history, prevention and treatment  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is a condition that is characterized by ulcerative lesions in the mucosa of patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Oral mucositis is currently considered to be the most severe complication of anticancer therapy, affecting 40–80% of patients undergoing chemotherapy and almost all those undergoing radiotherapy of the head and neck. Although they do not prevent lesions from appearing, drugs for the treatment of oral mucositis are required to minimize its clinical aggressiveness and improve the nutritional status, hydration and quality of life of the affected patients. Furthermore, the prevention and control of oral ulcers is crucial for cancer prognosis, since the establishment of severe lesions may lead to temporary or permanent treatment discontinuation and compromise cancer control. The objective of this study was to present a review on this condition, its causes and its treatment to professional clinical dentists, in order to help minimize patient suffering. A search was conducted through PubMed, Lilacs and MedLine, to retrieve related articles published between 1994 and 2013. PMID:24772297

CAMPOS, MARIA INES DA CRUZ; CAMPOS, CELSO NEIVA; AARESTRUP, FERNANDO MONTEIRO; AARESTRUP, BEATRIZ JULIAO VIEIRA

2014-01-01

358

Mucosal Adjuvant Properties of the Shigella Invasin Complex  

PubMed Central

The Shigella invasin complex (Invaplex) is an effective mucosal vaccine capable of protecting against Shigella challenge in animal models. The major antigenic constituents of Invaplex are the Ipa proteins and lipopolysaccharide. The cell-binding capacity of the Ipa proteins prompted the investigation into the adjuvanticity of Invaplex. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, intranasal immunization with OVA combined with Invaplex was found to enhance anti-OVA serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA responses and induce OVA-specific mucosal antibody responses at sites located both proximal and distal to the immunization site. The immune responses induced with OVA and Invaplex were comparable in both magnitude and duration to the immune responses induced after immunization with OVA and cholera toxin. The OVA-specific immune response was characterized by high levels of serum IgG1 and increased production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, or IL-10 from lymphoid cells of immunized animals, suggesting a Th2 response. In addition to enhancing the immunogenicity of OVA, Invaplex-specific immune responses were also induced, indicating the potential for the development of a combination vaccine consisting of Invaplex and other immunogens. Preexisting Invaplex-specific immunity did not interfere with the capacity to enhance the immunogenicity of a second, unrelated vaccine antigen, suggesting that Invaplex could be used as a mucosal adjuvant in multiple vaccine regimens. PMID:16622224

Kaminski, Robert W.; Turbyfill, K. Ross; Oaks, Edwin V.

2006-01-01

359

Importance of innate mucosal immunity and the promises it holds.  

PubMed

The body defense mechanism has evolved to protect animals from invading pathogenic microorganisms and cancer. It is able to generate a diverse variety of cells and molecules capable of specifically recognizing and eliminating a limitless variety of foreign invaders. These cells and molecules act together in a dynamic network and are known as the immune system. Innate mucosal immunity consists of various recognition receptor molecules, including toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors. These recognition receptor molecules recognize various invading pathogens effectively, and generate an immune response to stop their entry and neutralize their adverse consequences, such as tissue damage. Furthermore, they regulate the adaptive response in cases of severe infection and also help generate a memory response. Most infections occur through the mucosa. It is important to understand the initial host defense response or innate immunity at the mucosal surface to control these infections and protect the system. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects and functions of various innate mucosal agents and their importance in understanding the physiological immune response, as well as their roles in developing new interventions. PMID:21556316

Dwivedy, Abhisek; Aich, Palok

2011-01-01

360

Oral complications of cancer therapies. Management of mucositis during therapy  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the purposes of an oral care protocol, the major components of an oral care regimen, and oral care protocols and studies done to date. Many questions remain in the area of optimal oral care for the patient experiencing mucositis as a sequela of cancer treatment. Research is needed on types and use of mouth rinses, effective, harmless, and pleasant lip lubricants, appropriate analgesic and anti-inflammatory combinations, and the effectiveness of a variety of devices for oral cleansing, to name a few areas. As outpatient oncology services grow, oral care protocols must be developed to meet the needs of ambulatory patient populations. Oral care regimens must be safe, easy to use, and economical as well as effective to ensure patient and staff compliance. Research on the management of mucositis must be conducted in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Finally, in order to obtain sufficient sample sizes and optimize data collection, these studies will need to be conducted by multidisciplinary teams (including dentists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and nurses) across multiple sites. Not until large-scale clinical trials are done on the treatment of mucositis will we be able to optimize the therapeutic regimen for the patient. 43 references.

Miaskowski, C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-01-01

361

Lead(II) Complex Formation with Glutathione  

PubMed Central

A structural investigation of complexes formed between the Pb2+ ion and glutathione (GSH, denoted AH3 in its triprotonated form) the most abundant non2protein thiol in biological systems, was carried out for a series of aqueous solutions at pH 8.5 and CPb2+ = 10 mM, and in the solid state. The Pb LIII-edge EXAFS oscillation for a solid compound with the empirical formula [Pb(AH2)]ClO4 was modeled with one Pb-S and two short Pb-O bond distances at 2.64 ± 0.04 Å and 2.28 ± 0.04 Å, respectively. In addition Pb···Pb interactions at 4.15 ± 0.05 Å indicate dimeric species in a network where the thiolate group forms an asymmetrical bridge between two Pb2+ ions. In aqueous solution at the mole ratio GSH / Pb(II) = 2.0 (CPb2+ = 10 mM, pH 8.5), lead(II) complexes with two thiolate ligands form, characterized by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer band (LMCT) S- ? Pb2+ at 317 nm in the UV-vis spectrum and mean Pb-S and Pb-(N/O) bond distances of 2.65 ± 0.04 Å and 2.51 ± 0.04 Å, respectively, from a Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectrum. For solutions with higher mole ratios, GSH / Pb(II) ? 3.0, ESI-MS spectra identified a trisglutathionyl lead(II) complex, for which Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy shows a mean Pb-S distance of 2.65 ± 0.04 Å in PbS3 coordination, 207Pb NMR spectroscopy displays a chemical shift of 2793 ppm, and in the UV-vis spectrum an S- ? Pb2+ LMCT band appears at 335 nm. The complex persists at high excess of glutathione, and also at ~25 K in frozen glycerol (33%) / water glasses for GSH / Pb(II) mole ratios from 4.0 to 10 (CPb2+ = 10 mM) measured by Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. PMID:22594853

Mah, Vicky

2012-01-01

362

Mutation accumulation in the intestine and colon of mice deficient in two intracellular glutathione peroxidases.  

PubMed

Mice deficient in two glutathione peroxidases (GPX), Gpx1 and Gpx2, [Gpx1/2-double knockout (DKO) mice] are prone to ileocolitis on a mixed C57BL/6 and 129S1/SvJ (B6.129) genetic background. We reported previously that approximately 25% of B6.129 Gpx1/2-DKO mice develop ileocolonic tumors by 6 to 9 months of age, when their non-DKO littermates [having at least one wild-type (WT) Gpx1 or Gpx2 allele] rarely have inflammation and none have tumors. Because genetic background affects tumor susceptibility, we have generated a B6 Gpx1/2-DKO colony and discovered that these mice have fewer inflammatory cells, milder ileocolitis, and low mortality, and only 2.5% of B6 mice developed tumors. The mutant frequency of a cII reporter gene was about 2- to 3-fold higher in 28-day-old Gpx1/2-DKO and 4-fold higher in 8-month-old Gpx1/2-DKO ileal mucosa than in controls in both genetic backgrounds. In contrast, mutant frequencies in the unaffected B6 liver were not significantly different between WT and Gpx1/2-DKO mice. The mutant frequency of 8-month-old B6.129 Gpx1/2-DKO ileum was 38.94 +/- 15.5(-5), which was not significantly higher than the age-matched B6 ileum, 25.54 +/- 10.33(-5). The mutation spectra analysis has shown that B6 Gpx1/2-DKO ileum had a 3-fold increase in small nucleotide deletions at mononucleotide repeats over control B6, which are a signature mutation associated with oxidative stress. Unexpectedly, B6 Gpx1/2-DKO mice had fewer C to T transitions at CpG dinucleotides than the WT B6 (18.0% versus 40.1%; P < 0.001). Our results suggest that inflammation drives gene mutations, which leads to neoplastic transformation of intestinal epithelium in the B6.129 Gpx1/2-DKO mice but rarely in the B6 Gpx1/2-DKO mice. PMID:17047045

Lee, Dong-Hyun; Esworthy, R Steven; Chu, Christy; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Chu, Fong-Fong

2006-10-15

363

IgG transport across mucosal barriers by neonatal Fc receptor for IgG and mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal secretions of the human gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genital tracts contain significant quantities of IgG. The neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) plays a major role in regulating host IgG levels and transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers. The FcRn can then recycle the IgG\\/antigen complex back across the intestinal barrier into the lamina propria for processing

Masaru Yoshida; Atsuhiro Masuda; Timothy T. Kuo; Kanna Kobayashi; Steven M. Claypool; Tetsuya Takagawa; Hiromu Kutsumi; Takeshi Azuma; Wayne I. Lencer; Richard S. Blumberg

2006-01-01

364

Unique microanatomy of ileal peyer's patches of the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) is not age-dependent.  

PubMed

The Peyer's patches (PP) have been intensely investigated in several species because this is an important entry site for antigens and infectious agents. There are many PP in the jejunum, and in some species such as ruminants, carnivores, and omnivores, a different continuous PP is found in the terminal ileum. This PP disappears with age in these species studied. So far the ileal PP (IPP) has only been examined in the camel by light microscopy. Therefore, the localization of ileal Peyer's patches in the dromedary camel at different ages, as well as the histology and ultrastructures were now investigated. The IPP were characteristically seen as dark rose-colored isolated structures in the shape of a cup, arranged in three irregular rows. The central row was antimesenteric. Each patch was formed by several mainly elongated dome regions flanked by intestinal villi. In cross-sections these domes appeared as short, wide villi. The domes were formed from lymphoid follicles covered with a typical dome-associated epithelium of enterocytes and M cells without any goblet cells. The M cells showed variable appearance depending on the functional status. The lymphoid follicles expressed clear germinal centers. High endothelial venules were localized in the interfollicular region. In contrast to other species the IPP were still present with a comparable macroscopic and histological structure in camels of 25 years of age. PMID:18449903

Zidan, Mohamed; Pabst, Reinhard

2008-08-01

365

Role of Meprins to Protect Ileal Mucosa of Crohn's Disease Patients from Colonization by Adherent-Invasive E. coli  

PubMed Central

Ileal lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), and to survive within macrophages. The interaction of AIEC with IEC depends on bacterial factors mainly type 1 pili, flagella, and outer membrane proteins. In humans, proteases can act as host defence mechanisms to counteract bacterial colonization. The protease meprin, composed of multimeric complexes of the two subunits alpha and beta, is abundantly expressed in IECs. Decreased levels of this protease correlate with the severity of the inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of the present study was to analyze the ability of meprin to modulate the interaction of AIEC with IECs. In patients with ileal CD we observed decreased levels of meprins, in particular that of meprin ?. Dose-dependent inhibition of the abilities of AIEC strain LF82 to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial T84 cells was observed when bacteria were pre-treated with both exogenous meprin ? and meprin ?. Dose-dependent proteolytic degradation of type 1 pili was observed in the presence of active meprins, but not with heat-inactivated meprins, and pretreatment of AIEC bacteria with meprins impaired their ability to bind mannosylated host receptors and led to decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by infected T84 cells. Thus, decreased levels of protective meprins as observed in CD patients may contribute to increased AIEC colonization. PMID:21698174

Vazeille, Emilie; Chambon, Christophe; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Pender, Sylvia L. F.; Jakob, Christine; Muller, Stefan; Lottaz, Daniel; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

2011-01-01

366

Twin studies reveal specific imbalances in the mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with ileal Crohn's disease  

SciTech Connect

Large inter-individual variation in the composition of the intestinal microbiota between unrelated individuals has made it challenging to identify specific aspects of dysbiosis that lead to Crohn's disease. To reduce variations in exposure during establishment of the gut flora and influence of genotype, we studied the mucosaassociated microbiota of monozygotic twin pairs that were discordant (n=6) or concordant (n=4) for Crohn's disease. DNA was extracted from biopsies collected from 5 locations between the ileum and rectum. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and community composition assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. The microbial compositions at all biopsy locations for each individual were similar, regardless of disease state, but there were differences between individuals. In particular, individuals with predominantly ileal Crohn's had a dramatically lower abundance (P<0.001) of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increased abundance (P<0.03) of Escherichia coli compared to healthy co-twins and those with Crohn's localized in the colon. This dysbiosis was significantly correlated to the disease phenotype rather than genotype. The reduced abundance of F. prausnitzii and increased abundance of E. coli are indicative of an ileal Crohn's disease phenotype, distinct from colonic Crohn's disease and the relative abundances of these specific bacterial populations are promising biomarker candidates for differential diagnosis of Crohn's and eventually customized treatment.

Willing, B.; Halfvarson, J.; Dicksved, J.; Rosenquist, M.; Jarnerot, G.; Engstrand, L.; Tysk, C.; Jansson, J. K

2008-08-15

367

Nonselenium Glutathione Peroxidase in Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase (NSGP) is a new member of the antioxidant family. Using antibodies to recombinant NSGP we have examined the distribution of this enzyme in normal, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB) brains. We have also co-localized this enzyme with ?-synuclein as a marker for Lewy bodies. In normal brains there was a very low level of NSGP staining in astrocytes. In PD and DLB there were increases in the number and staining intensity of NSGP-positive astrocytes in both gray and white matter. Cell counting of NSGP cells in PD and DLB frontal and cingulated cortices indicated there was 10 to 15 times more positive cells in gray matter and three times more positive cells in white matter than in control cortices. Some neurons were positive for both ?-synuclein and NSGP in PD and DLB, and double staining indicated that NSGP neurons contained either diffuse cytoplasmic ?-synuclein deposits or Lewy bodies. In concentric Lewy bodies, ?-synuclein staining was peripheral whereas NSGP staining was confined to the central core. Immunoprecipitation indicated there was direct interaction between ?-synuclein and NSGP. These results suggest oxidative stress conditions exist in PD and DLB and that certain cells have responded by up-regulating this novel antioxidant enzyme. PMID:12213717

Power, John H. T.; Shannon, John M.; Blumbergs, Peter C.; Gai, Wei-Ping

2002-01-01

368

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Glutathione measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain drug-induced hemolytic (erythrocyte destroying) anemias due to an inherited enzyme deficiency. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2010-04-01

369

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

370

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

371

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

372

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

373

Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Blood Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Concentrations in Bangladeshi Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment). Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: < 10 (n = 76), 10–100 (n = 104), 101–200 (n = 86), 201–300 (n = 67), and > 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, –25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: –45.3, –5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, –3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: –4.61, –1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys. Conclusions: The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine. Citation: Hall MN, Niedzwiecki M, Liu X, Harper KN, Alam S, Slavkovich V, Ilievski V, Levy D, Siddique AB, Parvez F, Mey JL, van Geen A, Graziano J, Gamble MV. 2013. Chronic arsenic exposure and blood glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentrations in Bangladeshi adults. Environ Health Perspect 121:1068–1074; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205727 PMID:23792557

Hall, Megan N.; Niedzwiecki, Megan; Liu, Xinhua; Harper, Kristin N.; Alam, Shafiul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ilievski, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Siddique, Abu B.; Parvez, Faruque; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph

2013-01-01

374

Ileal digestibility of amino acids of unheated and autoclaved pea protein concentrate in broilers.  

PubMed

The effects of autoclaving 2 varieties of micronized (fine grinding) pea protein concentrate (PPC) on the ileal digestibility (ID) of CP and amino acids (AA) were studied in broilers. There was a control diet based on fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and 4 extra diets in which the FSBM was substituted on a CP basis by PPC from 2 different pea cultivars (PPC-1 and PPC-2), either unheated or autoclaved. Chicks were fed a common diet from 1 to 17 d of age and, then, their respective experimental diets from 18 to 21 d of age. Each treatment was replicated 6 times. Autoclaving reduced trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) but had little effect on the saponin content of the PPC. The apparent ID (AID) of CP was similar for the FSBM and the unheated PPC and lower for both than for the autoclaved PPC. Autoclaving improved (P < 0.001) the AID of CP (87.6 vs. 82.2%) and most indispensable AA (e.g., 92.1 vs. 88.8% for Lys and 83.6 vs. 76.5% for Thr) of the PPC. The improvement in CP and AA digestibility with autoclaving varied with the PPC used and was consistent with the reduction in TIA observed (9.4 to 2.8 mg/g for PPC-1 vs. 9.1 to 5.3 mg/g for PPC-2). The standardized ID (SID) of most indispensable AA was similar for the FSBM and the PPC-2 and higher for both than for the PPC-1 (P < 0.05). For Lys, the lowest SID value was observed for the FSBM and the highest for the PPC-2 either unheated or autoclaved. It is concluded that the ID of the AA of the PPC improved with heating and was in general higher for the autoclaved PPC than for the FSBM. Consequently, heat processed PPC is a good alternative to FSBM and unheated PPC in starter diets for broilers. PMID:23776273

Frikha, M; Valencia, D G; de Coca-Sinova, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

2013-07-01

375

An evolutionary approach to the design of glutathione-linked enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of protein structure provide information about principles of protein design that have come into play in natural evolution. This information can be exploited in the redesign of enzymes for novel functions. The glutathione-binding domain of glutathione transferases has similarities with structures in other glutathione-linked proteins, such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin (glutaredoxin), suggesting divergent evolution from a common ancestral

Bengt Mannervik; Alexander D Cameron; Eleanor Fernandez; Ann Gustafsson; Lars O Hansson; Per Jemth; Fanyi Jiang; T Alwyn Jones; Anna-Karin Larsson; Lisa O Nilsson; Birgit Olin; Pär L Pettersson; Marianne Ridderström; Gun Stenberg; Mikael Widersten

1998-01-01

376

Glutathione Restoration as Indicator for Cellular Metabolism of Astroglial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration of glutathione in astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from the brains of newborn rats was used to indicate metabolic properties of astroglial cells. At a culture age of 14–21 days these cultures contain an average total glutathione content of 32.8 ± 3.2 nmol\\/mg protein and a cytosolic volume, estimated with the 3-O-methylglucose method, of 4.1 ± 0.1 µl\\/mg protein.

Ralf Dringen; Bernd Hamprecht

1998-01-01

377

Carnitine, carnitine acetyltransferase, and glutathione in Alzheimer brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione and “total” carnitine (i.e., free carnitine plus acid-soluble carnitine esters) were measured in an affected (superior frontal gyrus; SFG) and unaffected (cerebellum: CBL) region of Alzheimer disease (AD) and control brains. Average glutathione content in AD SFG (n=13) and AD CBL (n=7) (7.9±2.1 and 11.9±4.0 nmol\\/mg protein, respectively (mean ±S.D.)) was similar to that in control SFG (n=13) and

Tapas K. Makar; Arthur J. L. Cooper; Beth Tofel-Grehl; Howard T. Thaler; John P. Blass

1995-01-01

378

Transport of bimane-S-glutathione in human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Export of glutathione S-conjugate of bimane (BSG) was studied in human erythrocytes. Characteristics of the BSG transport is similar to that of dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG). BSG transport has two kinetic components, one of high affinity and low capacity (Km = 7.4 ± 0.2 ?mol\\/ml cells, Vm = 2.7 ± 0.1 nmol\\/min per ml RBC) and another of low affinity and high

?ukasz Pu?aski; Grzegorz Bartosz

1995-01-01

379

The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.  

PubMed

Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier. PMID:24569801

Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

2014-05-01

380

Influence of supplemental high molecular weight pullulan or gamma-cyclodextrin on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and microbial populations in the dog.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine if supplemental pullulan and gamma-cyclodextrin affect canine nutrient digestibility, microbial populations, and fecal characteristics. Ileal cannulated dogs were fed a commercial diet, and treatments were administered daily in a 5 x 5 Latin square design: (i) no supplement; (ii) 2 g pullulan; (iii) 4 g pullulan; (iv) 2 g gamma-cyclodextrin; (v) 4 g gamma-cyclodextrin. Ileal and fecal samples were collected the last 4 d of each 14-d period. Increasing pullulan tended (p < 0.10) to linearly increase ileal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and quadratically increase fecal lactobacilli. A similar response was noted in ileal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli with gamma-cyclodextrin. Gamma-Cyclodextrin resulted in a quadratic decrease (p < 0.05) in fecal Clostridium perfringens. Increasing pullulan linearly increased (p < 0.05) fecal score, while gamma-cyclodextrin resulted in a linear decrease (p < 0.05). Pullulan and gamma-cyclodextrin supplementation may have beneficial effects on the microbial ecology of dogs. PMID:16320814

Spears, Julie K; Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K; Fahey, George C

2005-08-01

381

Quality-of-Life Assessment of Patients After Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Slow-Transit Constipation With Rectal Inertia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Severe idiopathic constipation with rectal inertia represents a challenging medical problem that, in extremis, might warrant surgery. We studied a group of patients who have undergone proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for this problem. The purpose was to assess the functional success of this procedure and its impact on the social function of the patients. METHODS: Patients with functional,

M. R. Kalbassi; D. C. Winter; J. M. Deasy

2003-01-01

382

Lupinus luteus, Vicia sativa and Lathyrus cicera as protein sources for piglets: ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of amino acids and antigenic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four male piglets, weaned at 28 days of age, were used to measure the total and ileal digestibility and serum immune responses to dietary leguminous seeds. The experimental diets consisted of a control starter (C) and three other diets prepared by replacing 30% of the crude protein content of the C diet by the protein of Lupinus luteus (LL), Vicia

M Seabra; S Carvalho; J Freire; R Ferreira; M Mourato; L Cunha; F Cabral; A Teixeira; A Aumaitre

2001-01-01

383

Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.2. The experimental design was a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and

A. M. Amerah; A. Péron; F. Zaefarian; V. Ravindran

2011-01-01

384

Effect of Dietary Neutral Detergent Fiber on Ileal Digestibility and Portal Flux of Nitrogen and Amino Acids and on Nitrogen Utilization in Growing Pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary NDF on apparent ileal and fecal digestibility and portal flux of nitrogen ( N ) and amino acids, and on N retention in growing pigs. In four equal portions (at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400) barrows on Treatment B received a basal diet, based on casein, cornstarch, and dextrose, at

N. P. Lenis; P. Bikker; J. van der Meulen; M. van Diepen; J. G. M. Bakker; A. W. Jongbloed

2010-01-01

385

Effects of Species Raw Material Source, Ash Content, and Processing Temperature on Amino Acid Digestibility of Animal By-Product Meals by Cecectomized Roosters and Ileally Cannulated Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted experiments to deter- mine amino acid (AA) digestibility of nine animal by- product meals using precision-fed cecectomized roosters and ileally cannulated dogs. The products initially evaluated in roosters were meat and bone meals (MBM) containing 24 or 34% ash, poultry by- product meals (PBP) containing 7 or 16% ash, lamb meals (LM) containing 15 or 24% ash, a

M. L. Johnson; C. M. Parsons; G. C. Fahey; N. R. Merchen; C. G. Aldrich

2010-01-01

386

The gut as a lymphoepithelial organ: The role of intestinal epithelial cells in mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces covered by a layer of epithelial cells represent the largest and most critical interface between the organism\\u000a and its environment. The barrier function of mucosal surfaces is performed by the epithelial layer and immune cells present\\u000a in the mucosal compartment. As recently found, epithelial cells, apart from their participation in absorptive, digestive and\\u000a secretory processes perform more than

H. Tlaskalová-Hogenová; M. A. Farré-Castany; R. Št?pánková; H. Kozáková; L. Tu?ková; D. P. Funda; R. Barot; B. Cukrowska; J. Šinkora; L. Mandel; K. Karská; J. Kolínská

1995-01-01

387

Protective Effect of a Novel Rice Extract Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of rice extract on ethanol-induced mucosal damage in vivo and\\u000a wound healing of epithelial cells in vitro. Also, the effect of rice extract on gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, HSP72 expression, gastric acid secretion, and contribution of vanilloid receptor-mediated action was studied. In addition,\\u000a using cultured gastric mucosal cells

Tamotsu Matsuhashi; Michiro Otaka; Masaru Odashima; Mario Jin; Koga Komatsu; Isao Wada; Youhei Horikawa; Reina Ohba; Jinko Oyake; Natsumi Hatakeyama; Sumio Watanabe

2007-01-01

388

Modulation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Ceratophyllum demersum by zinc involves ascorbate–glutathione cycle and glutathione metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the interaction between Zn, an essential micronutrient and Cd, a non-essential element, Cd-10 ?M and Zn supplemented (10, 50, 100, and 200 ?M) Cd 10 ?M treated Ceratophyllum demersum L. (Coontail), a free floating freshwater macrophyte was chosen for the study. Cadmium at 10 ?M concentration decreased thiol content, enhanced oxidation of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) to dehydroascorbate (DHA) and glutathione

Parameswaran Aravind; Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

2005-01-01

389

Glutathione and glutathione-related enzyme activities of male and female rat hepatocytes under various culture conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of culture medium on glutathione (GSH) dependent detoxification defence system of primary cultured hepatocyte\\u000a from either male or female rats was studied. Intracellular reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and six GSH-related\\u000a enzyme activities, including GSH peroxidase (GSH Px), GSH reductase (GSH Rd), cytosolic GSH S-transferase (cGST), microsomal\\u000a GSH S-transferase (mGST), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP), and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS),

C.-K. Lii; Shih-Tsung Wang; Haw-Wen Chen; Lee-Yan Sheen

1996-01-01

390

EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, AND CHLORITE ON OSMOTIC FRAGILITY OF RAT BLOOD IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), chlorite (ClO2(-1)), and chlorate (ClO3(-1)) in drinking water decreased blood glutathione and RBC osmotic fragility in vivo. The osmotic fragility and glutathione content were also studied in rat blood treated with ClO2, ClO2(-1), ClO3(-1) in vitro. RBC ...

391

Effect of depletion of reduced glutathione and its supplementation by glutathione monoester on renal oxalate retention in hyperoxaluria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by administration of glutathione monoester (GME) on the metabolism of oxalate in hyperoxaluric condition was investigated. Renal GSH was depleted by intraperitoneal administration of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 4 mmol\\/kg b.w) twice a day for 20 days to rats with or without hyperoxaluria induced by adding 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) in drinking water. GME

A. Muthukumar; R. Selvam

1997-01-01

392

Detoxification of Vinyl Carbamate Epoxide by Glutathione: Evidence for Participation of Glutathione S-Transferases in Metabolism of Ethyl Carbamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinyl carbamate epoxide (VCO) is believed to be the metabolite of ethyl carbamate (EC) ultimately responsible for its carcinogenic effects. This study investigates the role of glutathione (GSH) in protection against VCO-mediated adduct formation, and the involvement of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in detoxification of VCO. Formation of 1, N6-ethenoadenosine from VCO and adenosine in vitro was employed as a measure

R. A. Kemper; S. R. Myers; H. E. Hurst

1995-01-01

393

Effects of corn gluten feed inclusion at graded levels in a corn-soybean diet on the ileal and fecal digestibility of growing pigs  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to determine the effect of the inclusion of corn gluten feed (CGF) on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids and the apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of energy in growing pigs. The study was performed using 16 barrows (weight, 45.3?±?4.5 kg) that were fitted with a T cannula at the terminal ileum. There were four treatments: a corn-soybean diet without CGF and three corn-soybean diets containing increasing levels of CGF (65, 130, and 195 g/kg). Data were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design, four blocks with four pigs each (one pig per treatment). The trend of the response (linear or quadratic) was determined using orthogonal contrasts, and when a linear effect was determined, a linear equation was obtained. Results The results showed that the inclusion up to 195 g/kg of CGF in the corn-soybean diet did not diminish the ileal digestibility (apparent and standardized) of protein and amino acids (P?>?0.05), except that of phenylalanine, cystine, and proline. A linear decrease (P?ileal digestibility of phenylalanine (0.011 and 0.015 percentage units, respectively), cystine (0.048 and 0.043 percentage units, respectively), and proline (0.045 and 0.047 percentage units, respectively) was noted. Similarly, ileal digestibility of dry matter and energy were adversely affected (reduced by 0.028 and 0.025 percentage units, respectively, per gram of CGF increment in the diet). A significant (P?ileal digestibility of protein and most amino acids but reduced the ileal and total tract digestibility of energy. PMID:25279142

2014-01-01

394

Chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: pathobiology, epidemiology and management.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a debilitating complication of anticancer treatment, characterised by erythematous, atrophic, erosive or ulcerative lesions. Oral mucositis is almost always painful, affects eating, sleeping, and speech and affects the physiological and social well-being of the patient. The pathophysiology of the condition is not well understood. Guidelines to the treatment of oral mucositis are often contradictory so that there is no evidence based standard treatment protocol. Therefore the treatment is empiric. This paper offers a brief review of current knowledge of the pathophysiology and treatment of oral mucositis. PMID:21133051

Feller, L; Essop, R; Wood, N H; Khammissa, R A G; Chikte, U M E; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2010-09-01

395

Mucosal fibrosis in intestinal transplant biopsies correlates positively with the development of chronic rejection.  

PubMed

Endoscopic biopsies of intestinal allografts are limited to the superficial layers of the bowel. We investigated whether the presence of mucosal fibrosis in graft biopsies was indicative of chronic allograft rejection. We examined graft biopsies of 182 intestinal transplant recipients for the presence of mucosal fibrosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that within 5 years posttransplantation 33% of intestinal transplant patients had graft biopsies positive for mucosal fibrosis. Although the presence of mucosal fibrosis did not affect patient or graft survival, patients with this lesion were at higher risk of developing chronic allograft enteropathy. PMID:16908247

Tryphonopoulos, P; Weppler, D; Nishida, S; Kato, T; Levi, D; Selvaggi, G; Moon, J; Madariaga, J R; Delagarza, J; Tzakis, A; Ruiz, P

2006-01-01

396

Current Trends in the Management of Oral Mucositis Related to Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the most common toxicities observed during radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for cancers. Mucositis results in sore mouth, altered taste sensation, pain and dysphagia leading to malnutrition. Left untreated, oral mucositis leads to ulceration, orodental infection, bleeding and discontinuation of effective radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Frequent hospitalization, enteral or parenteral nutrition, increased demand for analgesics ultimately account for increased cost of healthcare. Quantification of oral mucositis using standardized grading system is important for appropriate evaluation, reporting and management. In the recent past there is a paradigm shift in the pathobiology of cancer therapy related mucositis. Clear understanding of its pathogenesis is essential for the formulation of effective mucositis care. Numerous drug therapies, radiation techniques and oral care protocols have been tried in the past to reduce oral mucositis, None have proven to be consistently effective. Current trends for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis is multi-targeted treatment supplemented by aggressive oral hygiene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, growth factors and use of specific topical agents to improve treatment of oral mucositis in future. PMID:22570584

Biswal, Biswa Mohan

2008-01-01

397

Role of the mucosal barrier in toxin/microbial attachment to the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

An important component of bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly when enterotoxin disruption of gut function occurs, relates to the interaction of the bacterium and toxin with the intestinal surface. Adherence or attachment of bacteria lead to colonization and toxic/invasive diarrhoeal states. The purpose of this review is to consider the intestinal mucosal barrier as a deterrent to microbial/toxin attachment, particularly emphasizing the mucosal surface itself, which includes the mucus coat and microvillous membrane. Consequences of mucosal barrier deficiency, particularly the incomplete development of the mucosal barrier, result in bacterially induced diarrhoeal states such as toxigenic diarrhoea and necrotizing enterocolitis. To illustrate the importance of the mucosal barrier as a factor in controlling the external environment containing bacteria and bacterial toxins, recent research in our laboratory on the development of the mucosal barrier is presented. This compares mucosal surface functional control of antigen/toxin attachment and penetration with mucosal surface compositional changes. Finally, evidence of a preliminary nature will be provided to suggest that modifications of the underdeveloped mucosal barrier of the immature intestine by the ingestion of breast milk may act to prevent pathological interactions between the gut and microbes/toxins. PMID:3891256

Walker, W A

1985-01-01

398

Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.  

PubMed

A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75)  day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p < 0.05) with increasing FI level. The net disappearance in the large intestine (in % of ileal recovery) decreased for DM, N and energy (p < 0.05) with increasing FI level. The design of the study allowed for estimating ileal endogenous loss of N and total tract endogenous loss of ash, N and EE, for estimating corresponding true ileal and total tract digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. PMID:24589011

Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

2014-12-01

399

Management of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.  

PubMed

Peri-implant diseases are defined as inflammatory lesions of the surrounding peri-implant tissues and include peri-implant mucositis (an inflammatory lesion limited to the surrounding mucosa of an implant) and peri-implantitis (an inflammatory lesion of the mucosa that affects the supporting bone with resulting loss of osseointegration). This review aims to describe the different approaches to manage both entities and to provide a critical evaluation of the evidence available on their efficacy. Therapy of peri-implant mucositis and nonsurgical therapy of peri-implantitis usually involve mechanical debridement of the implant surface using curettes, ultrasonic devices, air-abrasive devices or lasers, with or without the adjunctive use of local antibiotics or antiseptics. The efficacy of these therapies has been demonstrated for mucositis: controlled clinical trials show an improvement in clinical parameters, especially in bleeding on probing. For peri-implantitis, the results are limited, especially in terms of probing pocket-depth reduction. Surgical therapy of peri-implantitis is indicated when nonsurgical therapy fails to control the inflammatory changes. Selection of the surgical technique should be based on the characteristics of the peri-implant lesion. In the presence of deep circumferential and intrabony defects, surgical interventions should aim to provide thorough debridement, implant-surface decontamination and defect reconstruction. In the presence of defects without clear bony walls or with a predominant suprabony component, the aim of the surgical intervention should be the thorough debridement and the repositioning of the marginal mucosa to enable the patient to perform effective oral-hygiene practices, although this aim may compromise the esthetic result of the implant-supported restoration. PMID:25123773

Figuero, Elena; Graziani, Filippo; Sanz, Ignacio; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

2014-10-01

400

Equine Stomachs Harbor an Abundant and Diverse Mucosal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the gastric mucosal microbiota in healthy horses, and its role in gastric disease has not been critically examined. The present study used a combination of 16S rRNA bacterial tag-encoded pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize the composition and spatial distribution of selected gastric mucosal microbiota of healthy horses. Biopsy specimens of the squamous, glandular, antral, and any ulcerated mucosa were obtained from 6 healthy horses by gastroscopy and from 3 horses immediately postmortem. Pyrosequencing was performed on biopsy specimens from 6 of the horses and yielded 53,920 reads in total, with 631 to 4,345 reads in each region per horse. The microbiome segregated into two distinct clusters comprised of horses that were stabled, fed hay, and sampled at postmortem (cluster 1) and horses that were pastured on grass, fed hay, and biopsied gastroscopically after a 12-h fast (cluster 2). The types of bacteria obtained from different anatomic regions clustered by horse rather than region. The dominant bacteria in cluster 1 were Firmicutes (>83% reads/sample), mainly Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and, Sarcina spp. Cluster 2 was more diverse, with predominantly Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, consisting of Actinobacillus spp. Moraxella spp., Prevotella spp., and Porphyromonas spp. Helicobacter sp. sequences were not identified in any of 53,920 reads. FISH (n = 9) revealed bacteria throughout the stomach in close apposition to the mucosa, with significantly more Streptococcus spp. present in the glandular region of the stomach. The equine stomach harbors an abundant and diverse mucosal microbiota that varies by individual. PMID:22307294

Perkins, G. A.; Burton, A. J.; Erb, H. N.; McDonough, S. P.; McDonough, P. L.; Parker, J.; Rosenthal, R. L.; Wiedmann, M.; Dowd, S. E.

2012-01-01

401

Activation of rat intestinal mucosal mast cells by fat absorption  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have linked certain types of gut mucosal immune cells with fat intake. We determined whether fat absorption activates intestinal mucosal mast cells (MMC), a key component of the gut mucosal immune system. Conscious intestinal lymph fistula rats were used. The mesenteric lymph ducts were cannulated, and the intraduodenal (i.d.) tubes were installed for the infusion of Liposyn II 20% (an intralipid emulsion). Lymphatic concentrations of histamine, rat MMC protease II (RMCPII), a specific marker of rat intestinal MMC degranulation, and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) were measured by ELISA. Intestinal MMC degranulation was visualized by immunofluorescent microscopy of jejunum sections taken at 1 h after Liposyn II gavage. Intraduodenal bolus infusion of Liposyn II 20% (4.4 kcal/3 ml) induced approximately a onefold increase in lymphatic histamine and PGD2, ?20-fold increase in lymphatic RMCPII, but only onefold increase in peripheral serum RMCPII concentrations. Release of RMCPII into lymph increased dose dependently with the amount of lipid fed. In addition, i.d. infusion of long-chain triacylglycerol trilinolein (C18:2 n-6, the major composite in Liposyn II) significantly increased the lymphatic RMCPII concentration, whereas medium-chain triacylglycerol tricaprylin (C8:0) did not alter lymph RMCPII secretion. Immunohistochemistry image revealed the degranulation of MMC into lamina propria after lipid feeding. These novel findings indicate that intestinal MMC are activated and degranulate to release MMC mediators to the circulation during fat absorption. This action of fatty acid is dose and chain length dependent. PMID:22461027

Sakata, Yasuhisa; Yang, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Min; Yoder, Stephanie; Langhans, Wolfgang; Tso, Patrick

2012-01-01

402

Dietary plant extracts modulate gene expression profiles in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs after an Escherichia coli infection.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to characterize the effects of infection with a pathogenic F-18 Escherichia coli and 3 different plant extracts on gene expression of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (total = 64, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21-d old) were housed in individual pens for 15 d, 4 d before and 11 d after the first inoculation (d 0). Treatments were in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement: with or without an F-18 E. coli challenge and 4 diets (a nursery basal, control diet [CON], 10 ppm of capsicum oleoresin [CAP], garlic botanical [GAR], or turmeric oleoresin [TUR]). Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea in challenged pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 5 post inoculation. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray, and data were analyzed in R. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model in a 2 × 4 factorial ANOVA. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 (DAVID; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID, NIH], http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov). The E. coli infection altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 240 genes in pigs fed the CON (148 up- and 92 down-regulated). Compared with the infected CON, feeding CAP, GAR, or TUR altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 52 genes (18 up, 34 down), 117 genes (34 up- and 83 down-regulated), or 84 genes (16 up- and 68 down-regulated), respectively, often counteracting the effects of E. coli. The E. coli infection up-regulated (P < 0.05) the expression of genes related to the activation of immune response and complement and coagulation cascades, but down-regulated (P < 0.05) the expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and accumulation. Compared with the CON, feeding CAP and GAR increased (P < 0.05) the expression of genes related to integrity of membranes in infected pigs, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health. Moreover, feeding all 3 plant extracts reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of genes associated with antigen presentation or other biological processes of immune responses, indicating they attenuated overstimulation of immune responses caused by E. coli. These findings may explain why diarrhea was reduced and clinical immune responses were ameliorated in infected pigs fed plant extracts. In conclusion, plant extracts altered the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of E. coli-infected pigs, perhaps leading to the reduction in diarrhea reported previously. PMID:24663182

Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Lee, J J; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

2014-05-01

403

Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 490 genes (280 up, 210 down), and feeding garlic botanical altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 64 genes (33 up, 31 down), while feeding turmeric oleoresin altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 327 genes (232 up, 95 down). Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin increased [Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) < 0.05] the expression of genes related to integrity of membranes and tight junctions, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health, but decreased (EASE < 0.05) the cell cycle pathway. Feeding each of the 3 plant extracts enhanced (EASE < 0.05) the expression of genes associated with immune responses, indicating that feeding these plant extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions. In conclusion, plant extracts regulated the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of pigs, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the gut mucosa health and stimulating the immune system. PMID:24948650

Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

2014-08-01

404

Mucosal immunity and chronic idiopathic enteropathies in dogs.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal disorders, including chronic diarrhea, are common in canine general practice. Many of these diseases do not have a clearly defined underlying cause, despite thorough diagnostic investigation. This article reviews several syndromes with poorly understood causes that are associated with chronic diarrhea in dogs. Because the immune system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many of these syndromes, gastrointestinal mucosal immunity is also reviewed. Therapeutic interventions discussed in this article, including diet, immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics, are mostly aimed at modulating the intestinal immune response. PMID:17724983

Fogle, Jonathan E; Bissett, Sally A

2007-05-01

405

Urothelial mucosal malformation: a rare cause for ureteropelvic junction obstruction.  

PubMed

Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) constitutes a significant cause of morbidity in children and exists in a wide range of severity and clinical manifestations. The cause of UPJO remains largely unknown except for a small group, in which crossing vessels have been considered etiological. Herein we describe a unique case in which intraluminal occlusion was the result of mucosal malformation, characterized by invaginated and branching urothelial epithelium present in the lamina propria. We believe that the present case is the first such description of this type of alteration. PMID:16808629

Huang, Weei-Yuarn; Olumi, Aria F; Rosen, Seymour

2006-01-01

406

Endoscopic mucosal resection for early cardia cancer by minimum laparotomy.  

PubMed

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been widely accepted as a minimally invasive and standard treatment for early gastric cancers without ulceration or signs of submucosal invasion and meeting the criteria for diameter, macroscopic appearance, and well- or moderately differentiated histology. However, EMR cannot be applied to some cases owing to technical difficulties relating to the intragastric location of the cancers even when the above criteria are satisfied. We report here a new approach to EMR for early cancers of the cardia located close to the esophagocardia junction that are outside the indications for ordinary EMR. PMID:12620572

Endo, Kazuya; Kawamoto, Kenji; Baba, Hideo; Yamamoto, Manabu; Ikeda, Yasuharu; Toh, Yasushi; Kohnoe, Shunji; Okamura, Takeshi

2003-03-01

407

Journal of General Microbiology ( I 988), 134, 807-8 17. Printed in Great Britain 807 Levels of Polyamines, Glutathione and Glutathione-Spermidine Conjugates  

E-print Network

of Polyamines, Glutathione and Glutathione-Spermidine Conjugates during Growth of the Insect Trypanosomatid of the polyamines spermidine and putrescine and the major intracellular thiols glutathione (GSH), glutathionylspermidine (GSH-SPD) and dihydrotrypanothione [bis- (glutathiony1)spermidine);T[SH],] were measured by high

Schnaufer, Achim

408

Kinetic mechanism of human glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde, a major industrial chemical, is classified as a carcinogen because of its high reactivity with DNA. It is inactivated by oxidative metabolism to formate in humans by glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase. This NAD(+)-dependent enzyme belongs to the family of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases with 40 kDa subunits and is also called ADH3 or chi-ADH. The first step in the reaction involves the nonenzymatic formation of the S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione adduct from formaldehyde and glutathione. When formaldehyde concentrations exceed that of glutathione, nonoxidizable adducts can be formed in vitro. The S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione adduct will be predominant in vivo, since circulating glutathione concentrations are reported to be 50 times that of formaldehyde in humans. Initial velocity, product inhibition, dead-end inhibition, and equilibrium binding studies indicate that the catalytic mechanism for oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione and 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid (12-HDDA) with NAD(+) is random bi-bi. Formation of an E.NADH.12-HDDA abortive complex was evident from equilibrium binding studies, but no substrate inhibition was seen with 12-HDDA. 12-Oxododecanoic acid (12-ODDA) exhibited substrate inhibition, which is consistent with a preferred pathway for substrate addition in the reductive reaction and formation of an abortive E.NAD(+).12-ODDA complex. The random mechanism is consistent with the published three-dimensional structure of the formaldehyde dehydrogenase.NAD(+) complex, which exhibits a unique semi-open coenzyme-catalytic domain conformation where substrates can bind or dissociate in any order. PMID:10978156

Sanghani, P C; Stone, C L; Ray, B D; Pindel, E V; Hurley, T D; Bosron, W F

2000-09-01

409

Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cell Expression of Glutathione Transferase P1, Glutathione Transferase M3, and Glutathione Peroxidase Is Low in Subjects with Bronchogenic Carcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBECs) are at risk for damage from inhaled and endogenous oxidative species and from epoxide metabolites of inhaled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Epidemiological and in vitro data suggest that interindividual variation in this risk may result from variation in NBEC expression of enzymes that inactivate reactive species by conjugating them to glutathione. Quantitative competitive reverse transcription-PCR was

Erin L. Crawford; Sadik A. Khuder; Samual J. Durham; Mark Frampton; Mark Utell; William G. Thilly; David A. Weaver; William J. Ferencak; Constance A. Jennings; Jeffrey R. Hammersley; Daniel A. Olson; James C. Willey

2000-01-01

410

A Clinicopathologic Study of 24 Cases of Systemic Mastocytosis Involving the Gastrointestinal Tract and Assessment of Mucosal Mast Cell Density in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Asymptomatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Counting mast cells in gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal biopsies is becoming an increasingly common practice. The primary reason for this exercise is to evaluate for possible involvement by systemic mastocytosis (SM). However, the features of mastocytosis in GI biopsies are not well described. In addition, recent studies have suggested that increased mast cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of some cases of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); the term “mastocytic enterocolitis” has been proposed for such cases. As the baseline mast cell density in colonic biopsies from normal patients has not been established in large cohorts, there is no widely accepted threshold for what constitutes increased mucosal mast cells. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the utility of GI biopsies for the diagnosis of SM, (2) to characterize the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of mastocytosis in the GI tract, (3) to determine mast cell density in normal colonic mucosa from a large cohort of asymptomatic patients, and (4) to compare these findings with those from patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. Twenty-four patients with SM involving the GI tract, 100 asymptomatic patients, and 100 patients with IBS (the latter 2 groups with histologically normal colonic biopsies) were included. For the mastocytosis group, 107 biopsies (70 involved by mastocytosis; 67 mucosal, 3 liver) from 20 women and 4 men were evaluated (median age 59 y). The most commonly involved site was the colon (19 patients, 95%), followed by ileum (86%), duodenum (80%), and stomach (54%). In 16 cases (67%), the first diagnosis of SM was made on the basis of GI biopsies. Seventeen patients had documented cutaneous mastocytosis. Fifteen of 17 patients who underwent bone marrow biopsy had marrow involvement by SM. Eighteen patients had indolent disease, and 6 had aggressive disease (including all 3 with liver involvement). The most common GI symptom was diarrhea, followed by abdominal pain, nausea, weight loss, bloating, vomiting, or reflux. Liver disease presented with hepatomegaly and ascites. Endoscopic abnormalities (observed in 62%) included erythema, granularity, and nodules. Histologically, involved biopsies were characterized by infiltrates of ovoid to spindle-shaped mast cells in aggregates or sheets in the lamina propria, sometimes forming a confluent band underneath the surface epithelium; 25% of biopsies had only focal involvement (single aggregate). Prominent eosinophils were seen in 44% of involved colonic/ileal biopsies and 16% of duodenal biopsies. Mast cells were highlighted by diffuse membranous staining for KIT and CD25. In the nonmastocytosis groups, all biopsies contained singly dispersed mast cells with no aggregates. The mean highest mast cell counts (in a single high-power field) for asymptomatic patients and IBS patients were 26 (range, 11 to 55) and 30 (range, 13 to 59), respectively. In summary, GI (especially colonic) biopsies can establish a diagnosis of SM in patients with GI symptoms. GI involvement is usually subtle and is often associated with prominent eosinophils, which may obscure the mast cell infiltrate. KIT and CD25 are invaluable markers for the diagnosis. Mast cell density in colonic mucosa from asymptomatic patients is highly variable. Although patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS on average have mildly increased mast cells, the overlap in range with that of control patients is too great for this difference to be clinically useful. These findings argue against the utility of counting GI mucosal mast cell in patients with chronic diarrhea. PMID:24618605

Doyle, Leona A.; Sepehr, Golrokh J.; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Akin, Cem; Castells, Mariana C.; Hornick, Jason L.

2014-01-01

411

Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible lysine requirement of nursery pigs from seven to fourteen kilograms.  

PubMed

Four experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys requirement of pigs (Sus scrofa) from 7 to 14 kg. In Exp. 1, 294 pigs (6.8 kg BW) were used in a 28-d growth trial with 7 pigs per pen and 7 pens per treatment. Treatment diets were fed from d 0 to 14, and a common diet was fed from d 14 to 28. The 6 SID Lys levels tested were 1.15, 1.23, 1.30, 1.38, 1.45, and 1.53%. The diets were corn- and soybean-meal [Zea mays L. and Glycine max (L.) Merr.] based, with 10% spray-dried whey, 4.5% fish meal, and contained 3.37 Mcal of ME/kg. From d 0 to 14, ADG increased (quadratic, P < 0.001) as SID Lys increased from 1.15 to 1.30% with no further increase at greater levels. Gain:feed increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing SID Lys. Experiments 2 to 4 were 14-d growth trials with diets containing 1.22, 1.32, 1.42, 1.52, or 1.62% SID Lys. Diets were corn- and soybean-meal based with 3.45 Mcal of ME/kg. Soybean meal and lactose were constant in all diets at 30 and 7% of the diet, respectively. In Exp. 2, 840 pigs (7.6 kg BW) were used, with 24 pigs per pen and 7 pens per treatment. Increasing SID Lys from 1.22 to 1.42% increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) ADG and G:F with no further improvement observed in pigs fed the 1.52 or 1.62% SID Lys diets during d 0 to 14. In Exp. 3, 1,260 pigs (8.5 kg BW) were used with 42 pigs per feeder (2 pens per feeder) and 6 feeders per treatment. Increasing dietary Lys increased (quadratic, P < 0.02) ADG and G:F with the greatest response observed as SID Lys increased from 1.22 to 1.32% and, then, slight improvements with 1.42 and 1.52% during d 0 to 14. In Exp. 4, 770 pigs (7.4 kg BW) were used with 22 pigs per pen and 7 pens per treatment. Increasing SID Lys increased (quadratic, P = 0.05) ADG with pigs fed 1.32 and 1.42% SID Lys diets having the greatest BW gains during d 0 to 14. Increased SID Lys decreased (linear, P < 0.001) ADFI and increased (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P = 0.02) G:F. In conclusion, results of these experiments indicate that the 1998 NRC Lys recommendations (e.g., 1.19% SID Lys for 5 to 10 kg pigs) are less than required for optimal growth for 7 to 14 kg pigs. One-slope straight broken-line analysis indicated that the SID Lys requirement for optimal growth was at least 1.30% for ADG and 1.37% for G:F, or at least 3.86 and 4.18 g SID Lys/Mcal ME, respectively. Quadratic broken-line analysis indicated that the SID Lys requirement for optimal growth was at least 1.37% for ADG and 1.54% for G:F, or at least 4.19 and 4.92 g SID Lys/Mcal ME, respectively. PMID:23255816

Nemechek, J E; Gaines, A M; Tokach, M D; Allee, G L; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L; Usry, J L; Gourley, G; Dritz, S S

2012-12-01

412

The role of glutathione in detoxication  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is a strong nucleophile which reacts well with soft electrophiles, but poorly with both weak and strong electrophiles. Weak electrophiles have low reactivity with all nucleophiles while strong electrophiles react well with weak nucleophiles including superabundant H2O. There are enzymes, the GSH transferases, which catalyze GSH conjugation with all the types of electrophiles described above. In order to deal with the wide variety of potential substrates, a multiplicity of GSH transferases exists—each tissue having its own collection and each enzyme having a different substrate specificity. These enzymes are often very abundant, e.g., in the rat liver cytosol, their concentration is 0.2 mM. The following substrates are considered in some detail: 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, the electrophile derived metabolically from paracetamol N-acetyliminoquinone?), benzo(a)pyrene-4-5-oxide, cholesterol-5?,6?-oxide, benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-oxide and the electrophiles derived metabolically from aflatoxin B1 (the 2,3-oxide?). According to the substrate, optimal enzyme rates vary over seven orders of magnitude from 10?5 to 10?12 mole/min/mg. Despite the wide embrace of the GSH transferases, not all metabolically produced electrophiles are substrates. We know of the following examples: N-methylol-4-aminoazobenzene and its 4?-hydroxy derivative (these are soft electrophiles and react well with GSH noncatalytically), N-sulfonyloxy-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene, N-sulfonyloxy-N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (these are strong electrophiles which do not react selectively with GSH) and N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene which appears to react only slowly with GSH. It is of interest in the present context that all these compounds are derived from either arylamine or arylamide carcinogens. Whether the reaction be enzymic or nonenzymic, conjugation with GSH is a very important means of detoxication accounting in some cases for up to 60% of the biliary metabolites. As seen in the example of aflatoxin B1, very low enzymic rates observed in vitro are sufficient to account for apparently high rates of biliary excretion of GSH conjugates. GSH transferases have evolved other functions apart from the catalysis of GSH conjugation. GSH transferase B participates in the hepatic uptake of bilirubin and the intracellular distribution of the heme prosthetic group. It also has GSH peroxidase activity which suggests that it might participate in the detoxication of by-products of oxygen utilization including those produced by the action of cytochrome P-450. It is shown that GSH transferase B inhibits lipid peroxidation in vitro. PMID:6339228

Ketterer, Brian; Coles, Brian; Meyer, David J.

1983-01-01

413

Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick  

SciTech Connect

First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T{sub CDNB} activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} and GSH concentration regardless of VE status.

Kim, Y. S.

1989-01-01

414

Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs.  

PubMed

Two experiments using soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) were conducted to investigate whether the choice of digestibility marker influenced the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N and AA in diets supplemented with phytase. In each experiment, 18 barrows fitted with T-cannulas at the ileocecal junction were assigned to 3 diets consisting of a N-free diet to determine endogenous losses of N and AA, a semipurified diet (SBM in Exp. 1 or CM in Exp. 2), and the semipurified diet supplemented with phytase at 1,000 phytase units/kg. Three digestibility markers including acid-insoluble ash (AIA), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to each diet at 3 g/kg. Each diet was fed for 7 d, consisting of a 5-d adjustment and a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. In both studies, basal ileal endogenous losses determined with Cr2O3 as a digestibility marker were lower (P < 0.01) than with those determined with AIA or TiO2 digestibility markers. Using SBM as the protein source in Exp. 1, there was no interaction between phytase and digestibility marker on AID or SID of AA. The AID of N and AA in SBM using AIA as a digestibility marker tended to be lower (P < 0.1) compared with Cr2O3 or TiO2 digestibility markers. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.001) the AID of Ca and P. The use of AIA or Cr2O3 digestibility marker tended to be associated with lower (P < 0.1) SID values compared with TiO2. Phytase did not affect the SID of N or any AA in SBM except for Met, for which there was an increase (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Using CM as the protein source in Exp. 2, there were significant interactions between digestibility marker and phytase. Phytase supplementation had effects (P < 0.01) on AID or SID when Cr2O3 or TiO2 was used as the digestibility marker. With Cr2O3 or TiO2 as the digestibility marker in the CM diets, phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the SID of N and all AA (except Trp). There was no SID of N or AA response to phytase supplementation of CM when AIA was used as a digestibility marker. In contrast, there were no clear improvements in AA digestibility from phytase supplementation for SBM. Phytase effects on AID or SID of AA were dependent on the digestibility marker used in diets when CM was used as the protein source but not when SBM was used as the protein source. Therefore, AA digestibility response to phytase supplementation may depend on the protein being evaluated as well as the choice of digestibility marker. PMID:25403199

Favero, A; Ragland, D; Vieira, S L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Adeola, O

2014-12-01

415

The distribution, induction and isoenzyme profile of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in isolated rat liver parenchymal, Kupffer and endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

The distribution and inducibility of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.19) activities in rat liver parenchymal, Kupffer and endothelial cells were studied. In untreated rats glutathione S-transferase activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 4-hydroxynon-2-trans-enal as substrates was 1.7-2.2-fold higher in parenchymal cells than in Kupffer and endothelial cells, whereas total, selenium-dependent and non-selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities were similar in all three cell types. Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells isolated from untreated rats were separated by chromatofocusing in an f.p.l.c. system: all glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes observed in the sinusoidal lining cells were also detected in the parenchymal cells, whereas Kupffer and endothelial cells lacked several glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes present in parenchymal cells. At 5 days after administration of Arocolor 1254 glutathione S-transferase activity was only enhanced in parenchymal cells; furthermore, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity decreased in parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells. At 13 days after a single injection of Aroclor 1254 a strong induction of glutathione S-transferase had taken place in all three cell types, whereas selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged (endothelial cells) or was depressed (parenchymal and Kupffer cells). Hence these results clearly establish that glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase are differentially regulated in rat liver parenchymal as well as non-parenchymal cells. The presence of glutathione peroxidase and several glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes capable of detoxifying a variety of compounds in Kupffer and endothelial cells might be crucial to protect the liver from damage by potentially hepatotoxic substances. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2619713

Steinberg, P; Schramm, H; Schladt, L; Robertson, L W; Thomas, H; Oesch, F

1989-01-01

416

Effect of cobalt on biliary excretion of bilirubin and glutathione  

SciTech Connect

Adult male rats received cobaltous chloride (250 mol/kg, sc) at various times (1-72 h) prior to assessment of hepatic heme oxygenase activity, bile flow, biliary concentration of bilirubin-glucuronides, and hepatic and biliary glutathione concentrations. Hepatic heme oxygenase activity increased 360% 24 h after treatment but returned to control levels by 72 h. Total biliary concentrations of the mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin (BMG and BDG) were increased 47% at 24 h and returned to control levels more slowly than did heme oxygenase. Bile flow was not significantly changed at any time. Concentrations of hepatic reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) tended to increase after cobalt, but changes were not statistically significant. Biliary GSH and GSSG increased 1 h after cobalt treatment and were twice control values 3 h after treatment. These biliary glutathione concentrations declined to the control range by 6 h. These results demonstrate that increased liver heme oxygenase activity following cobalt treatment may be associated with elevated biliary excretion of bilirubin glucuronides. However, changes that occurred in biliary excretion of glutathione in response to cobalt treatment were not accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic glutathione levels.

Stelzer, K.J.; Klaassen, C.D.

1985-01-01

417

Glutathione is required for efficient production of infectious picornavirus virions  

SciTech Connect

Glutathione is an intracellular reducing agent that helps maintain the redox potential of the cell and is important for immune function. The drug L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) selectively inhibits glutathione synthesis. Glutathione has been reported to block replication of HIV, HSV-1, and influenza virus, whereas cells treated with BSO exhibit increased replication of Sendai virus. Pre-treatment of HeLa cell monolayers with BSO inhibited replication of CVB3, CVB4, and HRV14 with viral titers reduced by approximately 6, 5, and 3 log{sub 1}, respectively. The addition of glutathione ethyl ester, but not dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol, to the culture medium reversed the inhibitory effect of BSO. Viral RNA and protein synthesis were not inhibited by BSO treatment. Fractionation of lysates from CVB3-infected BSO-treated cells on cesium chloride and sucrose gradients revealed that empty capsids but not mature virions were being produced. The levels of the 5S and 14S assembly intermediates, however, were not affected by BSO treatment. These results demonstrate that glutathione is important for production of mature infectious picornavirus virions.

Smith, Allen D. [Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: smitha@ba.ars.usda.gov; Dawson, Harry [Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: dawsonh@ba.ars.usda.gov

2006-09-30

418

Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids  

PubMed Central

The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis is restricted to the cytosol and the plastids and the product is distributed to the various organelles by unknown mechanisms. In the present study immunogold cytochemistry based on anti-glutathione antisera and transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the relative concentration of glutathione in different organelles of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root cells. Glutathione-specific labelling was detected in all cellular compartments except the apoplast and the vacuole. The highest glutathione content was surprisingly not found in plastids, which have been described before as a major site of glutathione accumulation, but in mitochondria which lack the capacity for glutathione biosynthesis. Mitochondria of both leaf and root cells contained 7-fold and 4-fold, respectively, higher glutathione levels than plastids while the density of glutathione labelling in the cytosol, nuclei, and peroxisomes was intermediate. The accuracy of the glutathione labelling is supported by two observations. First, pre-adsorption of the anti-glutathione antisera with glutathione reduced the density of the gold particles in all organelles to background levels. Second, the overall glutathione-labelling density was reduced by about 90% in leaves of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis mutant pad2-1 and increased in transgenic plants with enhanced glutathione accumulation. Hence, there was a strong correlation between immunocytochemical and biochemical data of glutathione accumulation. Interestingly, the glutathione labelling of mitochondria in pad2-1 remained very similar to wild-type plants thus suggesting that the high mitochondrial glutathione content is maintained in a situation of permanent glutathione-deficiency at the expense of other glutathione pools. High and constant levels of glutathione in mitochondria appear to be particularly important in cell survival strategies and it is predicted that mitochondria must have highly competitive mitochondrial glutathione uptake systems. The present results underline the suggestion that subcellular glutathione concentrations are not controlled by a global mechanism but are controlled on an individual basis and it is therefore not possible to conclude from global biochemical glutathione analysis on the status of the various organellar pools. PMID:18977750

Zechmann, B.; Mauch, F.; Sticher, L.; Muller, M.

2008-01-01

419

Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children.  

PubMed

Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of finding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a wide variability in the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in different regions of the world and have led researchers to draw disparate conclusions. Moreover, studies have not been designed using standard criteria, further explaining the wide variability in the percentage of different groups of children with oral lesions, which ranges from 4.1 to 52.6%. The lesions most frequently considered by authors and that most often appear in the different studies are: recurrent aphthous stomatitis (0.9-10.8%), labial herpes (0.78-5.2%), fissured tongue (1.49-23%), geographic tongue (0.60-9.8%), oral candidiasis (0.01-37%) and traumatic injury (0.09%-22.15%). Dentists must be able to detect any of the numerous possible disorders and perform the correct differential diagnosis, key to the treatment plan. The aim of this paper, based on a review of the different national and international studies, is to contribute data on the most important oral mucosal diseases in the paediatric population in terms of prevalence and differential diagnosis. PMID:16264385

Rioboo-Crespo, Maria del Rosario; Planells-del Pozo, Paloma; Rioboo-García, Rafael

2005-01-01

420

Cyclic GMP-AMP Displays Mucosal Adjuvant Activity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity – a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines. PMID:25295996

Škrnjug, Ivana

2014-01-01