These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal reservoir: pathological and histochemical study of mucosal biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal biopsy specimens from the ileal reservoirs of 92 patients who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy (12 with familial adenomatous polyposis, 78 with ulcerative colitis, and two with functional bowel disease) were studied. Chronic inflammation was found in almost all, as was villous atrophy of varying severity. Other changes included pyloric metaplasia and mucosal prolapse. Acute inflammatory changes and ulceration were

N A Shepherd; J R Jass; I Duval; R L Moskowitz; R J Nicholls; B C Morson

1987-01-01

2

Ileal mucosal absorption of bile acid in man: validation of a miniature flux chamber technique.  

PubMed Central

A method that allows the quantitative assessment of ileal mucosal cell uptake and transport of bile acids in mucosal biopsy specimens has been validated. Viability of the tissue was confirmed by maintenance of normal cell morphology, wet weight, extracellular space, porosity to polyethylene glycol-900, lactate dehydrogenase release, and transmucosal potential difference. Using 14C-taurocholic acid, absorption was shown to be directional, capable of working against a concentration gradient, reduced by metabolic inhibitors, and sodium dependent. The system showed saturation kinetics with an estimated Km of 10 mumol/l. At a standard substrate concentration of 10 mumol/l ileal mucosal bile acid absorption was compared in patients with colorectal cancer (n = 6), ulcerative colitis (n = 10), and slow transit constipation (n = 8). There was no significant difference in tissue uptake or transport between the three groups. Images Figure 2 PMID:1582593

Hosie, K B; Davie, R J; Panagamuwa, B; Grobler, S; Keighley, M R; Birch, N J

1992-01-01

3

Small-volume hypertonic saline/pentastarch improves ileal mucosal microcirculation in experimental peritonitis  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of hypertonic saline 7.2%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HSS-HES) and isotonic saline 0.9%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (ISS-HES) on ileal microcirculatory blood flow (MBF) at the initial phase of septic shock. Pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Catheters were inserted into right atrium, pulmonary artery, carotid artery, and portal vein for hemodynamic measurements and for blood sampling. Ileal mucosal and muscularis MBF was continuously measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Septic shock was obtained 240 min after induction of fecal peritonitis; then animals were randomized to receive 10 mL.kg?1 during 10 min of either HSS-HES or ISS-HES. Systemic and microcirculatory blood flow as well as systemic metabolism were assessed. Fecal peritonitis promoted a hypodynamic septic shock, with significant reduction of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI). Ileal mucosal MBF (?34%) and ileal muscularis MBF (?54%) significantly diminished from baseline. Contrary to ISS-HES group, mucosal MBF significantly augmented after HSS-HES (+192% at min 150 post-shock) despite low blood pressure. There was weak correlation with CI (r2= 0.2, P=0.01) . Muscularis MBF didn't change. HSS-HES-treated animals had a significantly higher osmolarity and sodium concentration than ISS-HES group. Other variables did not change. Small-volume resuscitation with HSS-HES, but not ISS-HES, improved ileal microcirculatory impairment in experimental peritonitis model of septic shock even when MAP was low. This beneficial microcirculatory effect could be valuable in the management of early severe sepsis. PMID:24470929

Assadi, Abdelnasser; Desebbe, Olivier; Rimmelé, Thomas; Florence, Arnal; Goudable, Joëlle; Chassard, Dominique; Allaouchiche, Bernard

2012-01-01

4

An ileal Crohn's disease gene signature based on whole human genome expression profiles of disease unaffected ileal mucosal biopsies.  

PubMed

Previous genome-wide expression studies have highlighted distinct gene expression patterns in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to control samples, but the interpretation of these studies has been limited by sample heterogeneity with respect to disease phenotype, disease activity, and anatomic sites. To further improve molecular classification of inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes we focused on a single anatomic site, the disease unaffected proximal ileal margin of resected ileum, and three phenotypes that were unlikely to overlap: ileal Crohn's disease (ileal CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and control patients without IBD. Whole human genome (Agilent) expression profiling was conducted on two independent sets of disease-unaffected ileal samples collected from the proximal margin of resected ileum. Set 1 (47 ileal CD, 27 UC, and 25 Control non-IBD patients) was used as the training set and Set 2 was subsequently collected as an independent test set (10 ileal CD, 10 UC, and 10 control non-IBD patients). We compared the 17 gene signatures selected by four different feature-selection methods to distinguish ileal CD phenotype with non-CD phenotype. The four methods yielded different but overlapping solutions that were highly discriminating. All four of these methods selected FOLH1 as a common feature. This gene is an established biomarker for prostate cancer, but has not previously been associated with Crohn's disease. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed increased expression of FOLH1 in the ileal epithelium. These results provide evidence for convergent molecular abnormalities in the macroscopically disease unaffected proximal margin of resected ileum from ileal CD subjects. PMID:22606341

Zhang, Tianyi; Song, Bowen; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiao; Gong, Qing Qing; Morando, Christopher; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Newberry, Rodney D; Hunt, Steven R; Li, Ellen

2012-01-01

5

Chitosan-zinc chelate improves intestinal structure and mucosal function and decreases apoptosis in ileal mucosal epithelial cells in weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan (CS)-Zn on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function in weanling pigs. A total of 150 weanling barrows with a body weight of 7.2 kg were randomly allocated into five groups. A basal diet without Zn supplementation was used as the control and other four groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 50 or 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn, 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 and 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO, respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 28 d. The results showed that serum diamine oxidase activities, d-lactate levels and endotoxin contents were lower in pigs fed dietary 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control or 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnSO4 diet. The ratios of the villus height:crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were higher in pigs that received 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or a high level of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control diet. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL)-stained ileal epithelial cells were found in the control group, and apoptotic cells did not appear prominently in pigs that received the 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO diet. Secretory IgA concentration in ileal mucus was increased in the dietary group that received 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO. These results indicated that dietary 100 mg CS-Zn/kg had similar biological effects to dietary 3000 mg ZnO/kg on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function. PMID:24387792

Han, Xin-Yan; Ma, Yuan-Fei; Lv, Meng-Yuan; Wu, Zhi-Peng; Qian, Li-Chun

2014-04-28

6

Optimal dietary true ileal digestible threonine for supporting the mucosal barrier in small intestine of weanling pigs.  

PubMed

Threonine is of great importance for the maintenance of intestinal health. However, little is known about the optimal level of dietary threonine for neonates or the underlying mechanisms of its beneficial action. Our objective in this study was to determine the effects of graded levels of true ileal digestible (TID) threonine on the intestinal mucosal barrier in weanling pigs. Four groups of piglets (n = 8/group) were fed for 14 d diets containing 0.37, 0.74, 0.89, or 1.11% TID threonine. The duodenal mucosa of piglets fed the 0.37 and 1.11% TID threonine diets exhibited distorted villus architecture. Compared with pigs fed the 0.74 and 0.89% TID threonine diets, apoptosis was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the 1.11% TID threonine diet. Feeding 0.37 and 1.11% TID threonine reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of ileal acidomucins and duodenal sulfomucins, respectively, compared with the 0.74% TID threonine group. Compared with piglets fed the 0.89% TID threonine diet, the total amounts of mucins in duodenum, as well as expression of MUC2 mRNA in duodenum and jejunum, were reduced (P < 0.05) in piglets fed the 0.37 and 1.11% TID threonine diets. Collectively, these findings indicate that a deficiency or excess of dietary threonine affects the intestinal mucosal barrier and that the optimal level of dietary TID threonine for supporting gut barrier function is 0.89% for weanling pigs. These new findings have important implications for both the maintenance of normal physiological functions and the prevention of gut-related diseases in neonates. PMID:20335627

Wang, Weiwei; Zeng, Xiangfang; Mao, Xiangbing; Wu, Guoyao; Qiao, Shiyan

2010-05-01

7

Changes in the pig small intestinal mucosal glutathione kinetics after weaning.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) serves as a major endogenous antioxidant and its kinetics have been poorly described in the weaned pig. This study was to assess the effect of birth weight, sex, and days postweaning on the small intestine (SI) mucosal GSH kinetics. At weaning (18.8 ± 0.44 d) 34 pairs of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) and normal birth weight sex-matched littermates were selected and fed a starter diet ad libitum until 1 h before sampling at 0, 2, 5, 12 and 28 d postweaning. Mucosa was collected from 2 SI sites, at 5% and at 75% of total length, to determine GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasm GSH-Px and MDA. At both 5 and 75% of total length, the GSH-Px activity and GSH concentrations increased gradually with increasing days postweaning to peak at day 12 (P < 0.05). The GSH-Px activity and GSH concentrations at 5% of SI length were consistently higher as compared to 75% of SI length (e.g., at day 12, 43.2 and 28.9 units/mg protein and 21.5 and 15.4 ?mol/g protein, respectively). The GSSG:GSH ratio at 5% of total length was 2-fold higher at day 5 compared to all other days (P < 0.05), possibly indicating that the mucosal redox balance was disturbed in that time window. The higher GSH-Px activity, GSH content, and GSSG:GSH ratio in the proximal SI might illustrate the higher need for antioxidant action at that site. Plasma MDA and GSH-Px activity followed a comparable pattern as in the small intestine. PMID:23365379

Degroote, J; Michiels, J; Claeys, E; Ovyn, A; De Smet, S

2012-12-01

8

Glutathione depletion impairs transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.  

PubMed Central

When primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells were exposed to heat (43 degree C), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or diamide, heat shock proteins (HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and HSC73) were rapidly synthesized. The extent of each HSP induction varied with the type of stress. Ethanol, H2O2, and diamide increased the syntheses of several other undefined proteins besides the HSPs. However, none of these proteins were induced by exposure to heat or the reagents, when intracellular glutathione was depleted to <10% of the control level by pretreatment with DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine. Gel mobility shift assay using a synthetic oligonucleotide coding HSP70 heat shock element showed that glutathione depletion inhibited the heat- and the reagent-initiated activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and did not promote the expression of HSP70 mRNA. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum against HSF1 demonstrated that the steady-state level of HSF1 was not changed in glutathione-depleted cells, but glutathione depletion inhibited the nuclear translocation of HSF1 after exposure to heat stress. These results suggest that intracellular glutathione may support early and important biochemical events in the acquisition by gastric mucosal cells of an adaptive response to irritants. PMID:8636403

Rokutan, K; Hirakawa, T; Teshima, S; Honda, S; Kishi, K

1996-01-01

9

Glutathione  

PubMed Central

Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores. PMID:22303267

Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H.

2011-01-01

10

Effect of added zinc in diets with ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, carcass yield, and loin weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, loin depth, percentage lean, and liver weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when ZnO was supplemented, while there was a linear increase when using ZnAA. Increasing Zn in diets containing RAC increased (linear, P < 0.05) plasma Zn on d 18 and 32. The expression of IL-1? was increased (P = 0.014) in mucosa of pigs fed the RAC diet compared with those fed the control diet. Expression of IL-1? decreased (linear, P = 0.026) in the mucosa of pigs fed increasing added Zn. In conclusion, adding Zn to diets containing RAC resulted in a trend for improved growth performance of pigs in 1 of 2 experiments. Also, additional Zn increased plasma Zn and reduced IL-1?. PMID:25568367

Paulk, C B; Burnett, D D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Hill, G M; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

2015-01-01

11

Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation  

PubMed Central

Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%), nonspecific inflammation(26%), obstruction(6%), tuberculosis(4%) and radiation enteritis (1%). Simple closure of the perforation (49%) and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42%) were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula. PMID:16759405

Wani, Rauf A; Parray, Fazl Q; Bhat, Nadeem A; Wani, Mehmood A; Bhat, Tasaduq H; Farzana, Fowzia

2006-01-01

12

NOD2 Status and Human Ileal Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Background NOD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk of ileal Crohn’s disease. This exploratory study was conducted to compare ileal mucosal gene expression in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients with and without NOD2 risk alleles. Methods Ileal samples were prospectively collected from eighteen non-smoking CD patients not treated with anti-TNF? biologics and nine non-smoking control patients without inflammatory bowel disease undergoing initial resection, and genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, Leu1007fs). Microarray analysis was performed in samples from four NOD2R (at least one risk allele) CD patients, four NOD2NR (no risk alleles) CD patients and four NOD2NR controls. Candidate genes selected by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of all the samples. Results SAM detected upregulation of 18 genes in affected ileum in NOD2R compared to NOD2NR CD patients, including genes related to lymphocyte activation. SAM also detected altered ileal gene expression in unaffected NOD2NR ileal mucosal CD samples compared to NOD2NR control samples. QRT-PCR conducted on all the samples confirmed that increased CD3D expression in affected samples was associated with NOD2R status, and that increased MUC1, DUOX2, DMBT1 and decreased C4orf7 expression in unaffected samples was associated with CD, independent of NOD2 status. Conclusions The results support the concept that NOD2 risk alleles contribute to impaired regulation of inflammation in the ileum. Furthermore, altered ileal gene expression, independent of NOD2 status, is detected in the unaffected proximal margin of resected ileum from CD patients. PMID:20155851

Hamm, Christina M.; Reimers, Melissa A.; McCullough, Casey K.; Gorbe, Elizabeth B.; Lu, Jianyun; Gu, C. Charles; Li, Ellen; Dieckgraefe, Brian K.; Gong, Qingqing; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Stone, Christian D.; Dietz, David W.; Hunt, Steven R.

2014-01-01

13

Consequences of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Crohn's colitis are generally not considered candidates for the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). procedure. We reviewed 362 consecutive patients undergoing IPAA and analyzed the outcome of this procedure on 25 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of mucosal ulcerative colitis who were subsequently proven to have Crohn's disease. The mean follow-up was 38.1 months. Sixteen patients have a functioning

Neil H. Hyman; Victor W. Fazio; Wayne B. Tuckson; Ian C. Lavery

1991-01-01

14

Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch  

MedlinePLUS

... Pelvic pouch; Ileal-anal pouch; Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; IPAA; Ileal-anal reservoir surgery ... is sewn to the anus may come open ( anastomosis ), which can be life threatening Wound breaks open Wound infections

15

Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum. Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission. Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery, management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure. PMID:17659667

Bach, Simon P; Mortensen, Neil J

2007-01-01

16

[Complications of ileal lymphoma].  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the ileum accounts for some 3% of all extranodal onset lymphoma and 20% of gastrointestinal lymphoma given that the ileum is more frequently affected than the jejunum and duodenum. The large majority of primary extranodal lymphomas present a diffuse histological structure and in particular involve the cervico-fascial and gastrointestinal regions. Moreover, it is not uncommon to find an association between gastroenteric involvement and Waldeyer's ring (cervico-fascial region). Primary intestinal involvement may not present specific symptoms and remain silent for some time. It is manifested by the onset of complications caused by occlusion and perforation. Two cases of ileal lymphoma were treated at the Institute of Emergency Surgery of Catania University between 1992 and 1993. They were complicated by intestinal perforation and occlusion respectively. Both patients underwent emergency intestinal resection. Surgery represents the elective treatment for primary forms, followed by polychemotherapy and radiotherapy. Prognosis depends on the spread of disease and the hystotype. The administration of NTP and somatopstatin resulted in a shorter postoperative period with fewer surgical complications. PMID:8710149

Vadalà, G; Salice, M; L'Anfusa, G; Caragliano, P; Vadalà, F; Mangiameli, A

1995-11-01

17

Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma developing in orthotopic ileal neobladder is an extremely rare entity. Fewer than 10 cases have been reported in the literature describing urothelial carcinoma recurrence in orthotopic ileal neobladder. We report a case of transitional cell carcinoma recurrence in orthotopic ileal neobladder after 11 years of surgery. PMID:25506034

Cakmak, Ozgur; Tarhan, Huseyin; Celik, Orcun; Kucuk, Ulku; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

2014-01-01

18

Oral Mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucositis is a common, painful, treatment-disrupting toxicity of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Patients with cancers\\u000a of the head and neck receiving radiation therapy with and without induction or concomitant chemotherapy, and individuals being\\u000a treated with high-dose chemotherapy regimens are at particularly high risk. Importantly, even patients receiving conventional\\u000a dosing schemes for other forms of cancer have a meaningful chance of

Nathaniel Treister

19

Intestinal Lymphocyte Populations in Children with Regressive Autism: Evidence for Extensive Mucosal Immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory intestinal pathology has been reported in children with regressive autism (affected children). Detailed analysis of intestinal biopsies in these children indicates a novel lymphocytic enterocolitis with autoimmune features; however, links with cognitive function remain unclear. To characterize further, the nature and extent of this disease we examined the mucosal infiltrate using flow cytometry. Duodenal, ileal, and colonic biopsies were

Paul Ashwood; Andrew Anthony; Alicia A. Pellicer; Franco Torrente; John A. Walker-Smith; Andrew J. Wakefield

2003-01-01

20

Nod2: a key regulator linking microbiota to intestinal mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

The human intestine harbors a large number of bacteria that are constantly interacting with the intestinal immune system, eliciting non-pathological basal level immune responses. Increasing evidence points to dysbiosis of microbiota in the intestine as an underlying factor in inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility. Loss of function mutations in NOD2 are among the stronger genetic factors linked to ileal Crohn’s disease. Indeed, Nod2 is a key regulator of microbiota in the intestine, as microflora in the terminal ileum is dysregulated in Nod2-deficient mice. Nod2 is highly expressed in Paneth cells, which are responsible for the regulation of ileal microflora by anti-microbial compounds, and Nod2-deficient ileal intestinal epithelia are unable to kill bacteria efficiently. It is therefore likely that NOD2 mutations in Crohn’s disease may increase disease susceptibility by altering interactions between ileal microbiota and mucosal immunity. PMID:21861185

Biswas, Amlan; Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

2012-01-01

21

Mucosal vaccine adjuvants update  

PubMed Central

Mucosal vaccination, capable of inducing protective immune responses both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments, has many advantages and is regarded as a blue ocean in the vaccine industry. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessability, needle-free delivery, and higher capacity of mass immunizations during pandemics. However, only very limited number of mucosal vaccines was approved for human use in the market yet. Generally, induction of immune responses following mucosal immunization requires the co-administration of appropriate adjuvants that can initiate and support the effective collaboration between innate and adaptive immunity. Classically, adjuvant researches were rather empirical than keenly scientific. However, during last several years, fundamental scientific achievements in innate immunity have been translated into the development of new mucosal adjuvants. This review focuses on recent developments in the concepts of adjuvants and innate immunity, mucosal immunity with special interest of vaccine development, and basic and applied researches in mucosal adjuvant. PMID:23596577

Lee, Shee Eun; Kim, Soo Young

2012-01-01

22

Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity  

PubMed Central

Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

2013-01-01

23

Mucosal dendritic cells shape mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases. PMID:24626170

Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kweon, Mi-Na

2014-01-01

24

GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22995213

Lu, Shelly C.

2012-01-01

25

IN VITRO INHIBITION OF GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE BY ARSENOTRI-GLUTATHIONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenotriglutathione, a product of the reduction of arsenate and the complexation of arsenite by glutathione, is a mixed type inhibitor of the reduction of glutathione disulfide by purified yeast glutathione reductase or the glutathione reductase activity in rabbit erythrocyte ly...

26

Ileal cannulation and associated complications in dogs.  

PubMed

Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestibility is important in dogs because it allows the formulation of pet foods that provide optimal nutrition at minimal cost. Digestibility measured by comparing nutrient intake to fecal excretion in intact animals does not distinguish small intestinal digestion from large intestinal bacterial fermentation. Ileal cannulation allows small intestinal digestion to be measured alone by comparing nutrient intake with ileal excretion of chyme. Nevertheless, ileal cannulation and its associated complications are not well documented in dogs. We describe the implantation of a simple T-cannula in the ileum of nine dogs for an average duration of 26 weeks. Established cannulas were well tolerated, and one dog retained the cannula for 14 months. Nevertheless, ileal effluent proved extremely caustic, and the incidence of complications in the immediate postoperative period was high. Only one dog had an unremarkable postoperative course. Complications included abscessation and cannula extrusion, followed by severe excoriation and ulceration of the skin. This excoriation could be prevented only by immediate surgical closure of the fistula. Chronic ileal cannulation is therefore a viable technique in dogs, but careful monitoring of the cannula site is essential. Dogs should be subjected to this procedure only if adequate veterinary and nursing care is available. It is preferable to maintain a colony of long-term cannulated dogs rather than to implant cannulas as needed. PMID:8699825

Hill, R C; Ellison, G W; Burrows, C F; Bauer, J E; Carbia, B

1996-02-01

27

The pathobiology of mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral and gastrointestinal mucositis is a toxicity of many forms of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has a significant impact on health, quality of life and economic outcomes that are associated with treatment. It also indirectly affects the success of antineoplastic therapy by limiting the ability of patients to tolerate optimal tumoricidal treatment. The complex pathogenesis of mucositis has only recently

Stephen T. Sonis

2004-01-01

28

Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-01-01

29

Association of a Functional Variant in the Wnt Co-Receptor LRP6 with Early Onset Ileal Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Ileal Crohn's Disease (CD), a chronic small intestinal inflammatory disorder, is characterized by reduced levels of the antimicrobial peptides DEFA5 (HD-5) and DEFA6 (HD-6). Both of these ?-defensins are exclusively produced in Paneth cells (PCs) at small intestinal crypt bases. Different ileal CD–associated genes including NOD2, ATG16L1, and recently the ?-catenin–dependant Wnt transcription factor TCF7L2 have been linked to impaired PC antimicrobial function. The Wnt pathway influences gut mucosal homeostasis and PC maturation, besides directly controlling HD-5/6 gene expression. The herein reported candidate gene study focuses on another crucial Wnt factor, the co-receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). We analysed exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large cohort (Oxford: n?=?1,893) and prospectively tested 2 additional European sample sets (Leuven: n?=?688, Vienna: n?=?1,628). We revealed an association of a non-synonymous SNP (rs2302685; Ile1062Val) with early onset ileal CD (OR 1.8; p?=?0.00034; for homozygous carriers: OR 4.1; p?=?0.00004) and additionally with penetrating ileal CD behaviour (OR 1.3; p?=?0.00917). In contrast, it was not linked to adult onset ileal CD, colonic CD, or ulcerative colitis. Since the rare variant is known to impair LRP6 activity, we investigated its role in patient mucosa. Overall, LRP6 mRNA was diminished in patients independently from the genotype. Analysing the mRNA levels of PC product in biopsies from genotyped individuals (15 controls, 32 ileal, and 12 exclusively colonic CD), we found particularly low defensin levels in ileal CD patients who were carrying the variant. In addition, we confirmed a direct relationship between LRP6 activity and the transcriptional expression of HD-5 using transient transfection. Taken together, we identified LRP6 as a new candidate gene in ileal CD. Impairments in Wnt signalling and Paneth cell biology seem to represent pathophysiological hallmarks in small intestinal inflammation and should therefore be considered as interesting targets for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22393312

Koslowski, Maureen J.; Teltschik, Zora; Beisner, Julia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Wang, Guoxing; Kübler, Irmgard; Gersemann, Michael; Cooney, Rachel; Jewell, Derek; Reinisch, Walter; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Schwab, Matthias; Stange, Eduard F.; Wehkamp, Jan

2012-01-01

30

Endogenous Nitric Oxide Promotes Ileal Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aims. Nitric oxide (NO) is generated in vascular endothelium and enteric neural plexuses from L-arginine by the action of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). This study tested the hypothesis that NO is a modulator of ileal water and ion transport. Methods. NADPH diaphorase staining was performed on fixed frozen sections of canine ileum. Absorption studies (n = 80) were performed in

Michael M. Maher; Jacqueline D. Gontarek; Ramon E. Jimenez; Paul A. Cahill; Charles J. Yeo

1995-01-01

31

Male Issues of the Ileal Pouch.  

PubMed

: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the standard surgical treatment modality for patients with ulcerative colitis who require colectomy. There are special issues related to male gender. We performed systemic literature review on the topic, incorporating the experience in our specialized Center for Ileal Pouch Disorders, and provide recommendations for the identification and management for the gender-specific issues in male patients with ileal pouches. Chronic pouchitis, particularly ischemic pouchitis, anastomotic leak, and presacral sinus are more common in male patients than their female counterparts. Sexual dysfunction can occur after pouch surgery, particularly in those with pouch failure. Diagnosis and management of benign and malignant prostate diseases can be challenging due to the altered pelvic anatomy from the surgery. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer screening is not reliable. Transpouch biopsy of prostate may lead to pouch fistula or abscess. Pelvic radiation therapy may have an adverse impact on the pouch function. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction and enlarged prostate can occur in patients with the ileal pouch. The measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen is a preferred method for the screening of prostate cancer. If biopsy of the prostate is needed, the perineal route is recommended. The risk for pouch dysfunction and the benefit for oncologic survival of pelvic radiation for prostate cancer should be carefully balanced. PMID:25437820

Kani, Haluk T; Shen, Bo

2014-11-27

32

The Analysis of Factors Associated with Progression of Isolated Terminal Ileal Lesions  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the factors associated with the progression of isolated terminal ileal lesions (ITILs) at colonoscopy in Chinese patients. Methods Patients diagnosed with ITILs were enrolled. The ileoscopy was performed by two experienced gastroenterologists every 52 weeks. A logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate the factors associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and mucosal healing. A log rank test was used to assess the differences of the cumulative proportion of CD and mucosal healing in different groups at different times. Results (1) A total of 34 patients were included and no patient had taken nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the last 6 months; eight (23.5%) patients had a clinical diagnosis of CD, 14 (41.2%) patients achieved mucosal healing, and 12 (35.3%) patients showed no significant changes in the lesions at last follow-up. (2) The logistic regression analysis showed that only abdominal pain was a factor in the ITIL disease outcomes. (3) The cumulative proportion of CD in the abdominal pain group after 3 years was statistically higher than that in the non-abdominal pain group (42.7% vs. 6.2%, ?2?=?10.129, P?=?0.001). However, the cumulative proportion of mucosal healing in the non-abdominal pain group was statistically higher than that in the abdominal pain group (73.3% vs. 5.6%, ?2?=?5.225, P?=?0.022). (4) The numbers of lesions observed on the initial colonoscopy exams and the initial histologic findings were not related to the ITIL disease outcomes. Conclusions Clinical symptoms may be related to ITIL disease outcomes. Patients with abdominal pain had a high likelihood of CD, whereas those without abdominal pain had a high likelihood of mucosal healing. PMID:24625578

Fangbin, Zhang; Weiwei, Hao; Wugan, Zhao; Cong, Zheng; Yanjun, Chu; Feng, Xu

2014-01-01

33

Mucosal immunization and adjuvants.  

PubMed

The goal of the influenza vaccine is to prevent influenza virus infection and control the yearly seasonal epidemic and pandemic. However, the presently available parenteral influenza vaccine induces only systemic humoral immunity, which does not prevent influenza virus infection on the mucosal surface. Secretary IGA antibodies play an important role in preventing natural infection. Moreover, the IgA antibody response mediates cross-protection against variant viruses in animal models. Thus, a mucosal influenza vaccine that induces mucosal immunity would be a powerful tool to protect individuals from the influenza virus. Although the function of the mucosal immune system, especially in the respiratory tract, is not completely understood, there are several studies underway to develop mucosal influenza vaccines. Here, we will review current knowledge concerning the induction of IgA, the role of B-cell production of influenza virus specific IgA antibodies in anti-influenza immunity, and the role of humoral memory responses induced upon vaccination. PMID:25015787

Hasegawa, Hideki; van Reit, Elly; Kida, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

34

Mucosal Leishmania infantum infection.  

PubMed

Mucosal leishmaniasis is a well-known clinical manifestation of infections caused by species belonging to the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus in Central and South America but not of Leishmania species endemic in the so-called Old World. We report on three cases of mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum contracted in southern Europe. Two patients were immunocompromised; one patient had no underlying condition. Lesions were located in the oral mucosa, oesophagus and nose. All lesions relapsed under standard treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. A cure was achieved after secondary and extended treatment with liposomal amphotericin B or miltefosine. Mucosal leishmaniasis contracted in southern Europe has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the naso-buccal-oesophageal mucosa and may occur in previously healthy persons. PMID:21499751

Richter, Joachim; Hanus, Ingrid; Häussinger, Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Harms, Gundel

2011-09-01

35

Glutathione and glutathione S-transferases in Barrett's epithelium.  

PubMed Central

Glutathione content, enzyme activity and isoenzyme composition of glutathione S-transferases were assayed in normal and Barrett's esophageal epithelium of ten patients with Barrett's esophagus. In addition, gastric and duodenal specimens from the same patients were also investigated. Glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity as well as glutathione S-transferase pi content were all significantly lower in Barrett's epithelium as compared to normal esophageal mucosa. In contrast, glutathione S-transferase class alpha enzymes are markedly expressed in Barrett's epithelium, whereas only low amounts are present in normal esophageal epithelium. Glutathione and glutathione S-transferase composition in Barrett's epithelium show striking similarities with gastric epithelium, whereas duodenal epithelium is provided with considerable higher amounts of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases, except for levels of glutathione S-transferase class pi, which are lower. A significant negative correlation exists between glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity in the mucosa along the gastrointestinal tract, and the tumour incidence. Since glutathione and glutathione S-transferase are correlated with protection against cellular or cytogenetic damage, the low content of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases in the Barrett's esophagus may be a factor of relevance for the increased tumour risk in this tissue. Images Figure 2 PMID:8512826

Peters, W. H.; Roelofs, H. M.; Hectors, M. P.; Nagengast, F. M.; Jansen, J. B.

1993-01-01

36

Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + ?-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress. PMID:24962481

Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

2014-06-01

37

Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Protects against Increase in Gut Permeability ex vivo and Up-Regulates Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and 2 in Hyperthermally-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + ?-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress. PMID:24962481

Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

2014-01-01

38

The ileal brake--inhibition of jejunal motility after ileal fat perfusion in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that malabsorbed fat passing through the human ileum exerts an inhibitory feedback control on jejunal motility has been investigated in 24 normal subjects by perfusing the ileum with a fat containing solution designed to produce ileal luminal fat concentrations similar to those in steatorrhoea (30-40 mg\\/ml). Mean transit times through a 30 cm saline perfused jejunal segment were

R C Spiller; I F Trotman; B E Higgins; M A Ghatei; G K Grimble; Y C Lee; S R Bloom; J J Misiewicz; D B Silk

1984-01-01

39

Original article Ileal true digestibility of amino acids  

E-print Network

Original article Ileal true digestibility of amino acids in wheat milling by-products for pigs (WF), 3 of wheat bran (WB) ­ were analysed and studied for their protein and amino acid ileal true the least digestible amino acids, whereas methionine was among the most digestible ones. N and all amino

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Pseudomembranous colitis associated with changes in an ileal conduit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis following total cystectomy is reported, in which there was involvement of the ileal conduit. The small bowel remaining in situ was uninvolved. Bacteriological studies revealed Clostridium difficile and the toxin in both colon and ileal conduit. Relevant publications concerning pathogenesis are discussed, in relation to the unusual site described in this case. Epidemiological

J R Shortland; R C Spencer; J L Williams

1983-01-01

41

Prognostic factors in jejuno-ileal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Primarily to study morbidity and mortality in jejuno-ileal atresias (JIA) and prognostic factors for outcome. Secondarily\\u000a to look at the incidence of reintervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective review of 63 patients diagnosed with JIA over a 30-year period (1975–2005).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Sixty-three patients (34 male) of mean gestational age 36 weeks and mean birth weight 2,858 g with JIA were studied. There\\u000a were 14 type I, 14

Sathyaprasad C. Burjonrappa; Elise Crete; Sarah Bouchard

2009-01-01

42

Bile salts and ileal calcium transport in rats: a neglected factor in intestinal calcium absorption.  

PubMed

Ileum displays little active transcellular calcium (Ca2+) absorption but is credited with the bulk of Ca2+ absorbed in vivo. We examined the effect of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC, 2 mM), a bile salt, on mannitol (MN, a marker of intercellular solute traffic) and Ca2+ fluxes in rat ileum. In the absence of electrochemical gradients between the mucosal (M) and serosal (S) bathing media in an Ussing chamber, net flux (Jnet) was observed in the S-to-M direction for both MN and Ca2+, i.e., the unidirectional secretory S-to-M flux (Js-->m) exceeded the absorptive M-to-S flux (Jm-->s). Mucosal TDC caused simultaneous increase in transepithelial conductance and Js-->m for both MN and Ca2+. This was followed by even greater increases in MN and Ca2+ Jm-->s, so that ultimately Jm-->s equaled Js-->m in each case. In control tissue, Js-->m for Ca2+ appeared to permeate exclusively through the intercellular MN pathway while part of Jm-->s for Ca2+ appeared to traverse through a non-MN route. After the TDC-induced increase in intercellular solute permeability, both Ca2+ fluxes appeared to traverse through the aqueous MN conduit. During the postprandial state, the presence of bile salts and the relative abundance of Ca2+ in ileal lumen can cause bulk Ca2+ absorption through the intercellular pathway. PMID:8447415

Hu, M S; Kayne, L H; Willsey, P A; Koteva, A B; Jamgotchian, N; Lee, D B

1993-02-01

43

Igf-I accelerates ileal epithelial cell migration in culture and newborn mice and may be a mediator of steroid-induced maturation.  

PubMed

We have previously hypothesized that IGF-I is a mediator of dexamethasone (DEX) effect in the newborn mouse ileum-a model designed to mimic the precocious mucosal maturation associated with spontaneous ileal perforations in extremely premature neonates. We have further investigated this hypothesis using in vivo and in vitro models of accelerated epithelial migration (a transient property, temporally associated with mucosal maturation). These experiments include a steroid-treatment model comparing IGF-I immunolocalization with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-pulse-labeling, as a means of assessing epithelial cell migration, within the ileum of newborn mice that received either daily intraperitoneal injections of DEX (1 microg/gm) or vehicle. Likewise, a transgenic newborn mouse model was used to compare the effect of IGF-I overexpression upon the clearance of BrdU-pulse-labeled epithelial cells traveling up the villus during the same time period. For our in vitro model, rat ileal epithelial cells (IEC-18) were cultured to confluence in serum-free media then treated with DEX, a stable IGF-I agonist, or nothing before being subjected to linear scarification. Serial photomicrographs of migrating cells were taken over time and the average speed was determined for each treatment condition. Our data demonstrate that IGF-I accelerates ileal epithelial cell migration in every model. However, DEX was only associated with accelerated epithelial cell migration in models where IGF-I (or a synthetic agonist) was highly abundant. In contrast, DEX by itself slowed migration speed in cell culture. These findings suggest that IGF-I may be a mediator of steroid effect during precocious maturation of the ileal mucosa. PMID:14605256

Gordon, Phillip V; Paxton, Jessica B; Herman, Andrew C; Carlisle, Erica M; Fox, Nena S

2004-01-01

44

INTERACTION OF HALOACETONITRILES WITH GLUTATHIONE AND GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of reduced glutathione (GSH) with haloacetonitriles (HAH) were carried out under various conditions and the depletion of GSH was determined. Haloacetonitriles reacted directly with glutathione in the absence of tissue extracts. he reactivities of haloacetonitrile...

45

Adenocarcinoma in Ileal Pouch after Proctocolectomy for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Report of A Case  

PubMed Central

Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is one of the surgical treatments of choice for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Although the risk of cancer developing in an ileal pouch is not yet clear, a few cases of adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal pouch have been reported. We report a case of adenocarcinoma in ileal pouch after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. A 56-yr-old woman was diagnosed as having familial adenomatous polyposis. Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis was performed. Six years later, she underwent completion-proctectomy with ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis including anorectal mucosectomy for rectal cancer. After 7 yr, she presented with anal spotting. Endoscopic biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma at the ileal pouch. Resection of the ileal pouch and permanent ileostomy were performed. The risk of cancer in an ileal pouch and its prevention with regular surveillance must be emphasized. PMID:19795007

Lee, Seung Hyun; Ahn, Byung Kwon; Chang, Hee-Kyung

2009-01-01

46

Mucosal AIDS vaccines.  

PubMed

Debates are still being waged over what is the best strategy for developing a potent AIDS vaccine. All the obvious approaches to making AIDS vaccines have been tried in the past two decades without much success. It is clear that new thinking and a revision of prevailing dogmas needs to be in place if we really want a vaccine. Conventional envelope-based antibody-inducing vaccines do not appear to hold promise, and broadly-neutralizing antibodies are now being searched as an alternative to the failed approach with subunit vaccines. The current consensus is that cellular immune responses, especially those mediated by CD8 cytotoxic/suppressor (CTL) and CD4 helper T lymphocytes, are needed to control HIV. Vaccines capable of inducing cell-mediated responses are, therefore, considered critical for controlling the spread of HIV. DNA-based vaccines triggering CTL reaction are currently thought to be an answer, but will they fulfill the promise? In the following paragraphs, a critical assessment of the state of the art will be provided in an attempt to analyze what we know and still don't know. The focus of this review is primarily on mucosal vaccines-a relatively new area in AIDS research. The update on V-1 Immunitor, the first mucosal AIDS vaccine available commercially, is provided within this context. Some of the reviewed concepts may be disputable, but without departure from the uninspiring consensus no substantial progress in the AIDS vaccine field can be envisioned. PMID:14733732

Bourinbaiar, Aldar S; Metadilogkul, Orapun; Jirathitikal, Vichai

2003-01-01

47

Characterization of basal pseudopod-like processes in ileal and colonic PYY cells  

PubMed Central

The peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) is produced and secreted from L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. To study the anatomy and function of PYY-secreting L cells, we developed a transgenic PYY-green fluorescent protein mouse model. PYY-containing cells exhibited green fluorescence under UV light and were immunoreactive to antibodies against PYY and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone also secreted by L cells). PYY-GFP cells from 15 ?m thick sections were imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed. Results revealed unique details of the anatomical differences between ileal and colonic PYY-GFP cells. In ileal villi, the apical portion of PYY cells makes minimal contact with the lumen of the gut. Long pseudopod-like basal processes extend from these cells and form an interface between the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria. Some basal processes are up to 50 ?m in length. Multiple processes can be seen protruding from one cell and these often have a terminus resembling a synapse that appears to interact with neighboring cells. In colonic crypts, PYY-GFP cells adopt a spindle-like shape and weave in between epithelial cells, while maintaining contact with the lumen and lamina propria. In both tissues, cytoplasmic granules containing the hormones PYY and GLP-1 are confined to the base of the cell, often filling the basal process. The anatomical arrangement of these structures suggests a dual function as a dock for receptors to survey absorbed nutrients and as a launching platform for hormone secretion in a paracrine fashion. PMID:21061049

Bohórquez, Diego V.; Chandra, Rashmi; Samsa, Leigh Ann; Vigna, Steven R.

2014-01-01

48

Detection of epithelial apoptosis in pelvic ileal pouches for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis  

PubMed Central

Background Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) and for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) with many rectal polyps. Pouchitis is one of the more frequent complications after IPAA in UC patients; however, it is rare in FAP. Objective Evaluate pro-apoptotic activity in endoscopically and histological normal mucosa of the ileal pouch in patients with UC and FAP. Methods Eighteen patients (nine with UC and nine with FAP) with J pouch after total rectocolectomy were studied. Biopsies were obtained from the mucosa of the pouch and from normal ileum. The specimens were snap-frozen and the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by immunoblot of protein extracts and by immunohistochemistry analysis. FADD, Caspase-8, APAF-1 and Caspase-9 were evaluated by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot. Results Patients with UC had significantly higher protein levels of Bax and APAF-1, Caspase-9 than patients with FAP, but were similar to controls. The expressions of Bcl-2 and FADD, Caspase-8 were similar in the groups. Immunohistochemistry for Bax showed less intensity of immunoreactions in FAP than in UC and Controls. Bcl-2 immunostaining was similar among the groups. Conclusion Patients with FAP present lower levels of pro-apoptotic proteins in all methods applied, even in the absence of clinical and endoscopic pouchitis and dysplasia in the histological analysis. These findings may explain a tendency of up-regulation of apoptosis in UC patients, resulting in higher rates of progression to pouchitis in these patients, which could correlate with mucosal atrophy that occurs in inflamed tissue. However, FAP patients had low pro-apoptotic activity in the mucosa, and it could explain the tendency to low cell turn over and presence of adenomas in this syndrome. PMID:20113505

2010-01-01

49

Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?  

PubMed

Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ileal infusion of sucrose and casein on food intake, release of GI peptides, gastric emptying rate and small-bowel transit time with safflower oil as positive control.Design:This randomized, single-blind, crossover study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26.4±2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8±0.4?kg?m(-2)) who were intubated with a naso-ileal catheter. Thirty minutes after the intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing control ((C) saline), safflower oil ((HL) 51.7?kcal), low-dose casein ((LP) 17.2?kcal) or high-dose casein ((HP) 51.7?kcal), low-dose sucrose ((LC) 17.2?kcal) and high-dose sucrose ((HC) 51.7?kcal), over a period of 90?min. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal. Visual analogue score questionnaires for hunger and satiety and blood samples were collected at regular intervals.Results:Ileal infusion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate resulted in a significant reduction in food intake compared with control (HL: 464.3±90.7?kcal, P<0.001; HP: 458.0±78.6?kcal, P<0.005; HC: 399.0±57.0?kcal, P<0.0001 vs control: 586.7±70.2?kcal, P<0.001, respectively). A reduction in energy intake was still apparent when the caloric amount of infused nutrients was added to the amount eaten during the ad libitum meal.Secretion of cholecystokinin and peptide YY but not of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) was increased during ileal perfusion of fat, carbohydrates and protein. During ileal perfusion of all macronutrients, a delay in gastric emptying and intestinal transit was observed, but differences were not significant compared with control.Conclusion:Apart from lipids, also sucrose and casein reduce food intake on ileal infusion, thereby activating the ileal brake. In addition to food intake, also satiety and GI peptide secretion were affected.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 29 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.112. PMID:24957485

van Avesaat, M; Troost, F J; Ripken, D; Hendriks, H F; Masclee, A A M

2014-06-24

50

Intestinal adaptation after ileal interposition surgery increases bile acid recycling and protects against obesity-related comorbidities.  

PubMed

Surgical interposition of distal ileum into the proximal jejunum is a bariatric procedure that improves the metabolic syndrome. Changes in intestinal and hepatic physiology after ileal interposition (transposition) surgery (IIS) are not well understood. Our aim was to elucidate the adaptation of the interposed ileum, which we hypothesized, would lead to early bile acid reabsorption in the interposed ileum, thus short circuiting enterohepatic bile acid recycling to more proximal bowel segments. Rats with diet-induced obesity were randomized to IIS, with 10 cm of ileum repositioned distal to the duodenum, or sham surgery. A subgroup of sham rats was pair-fed to IIS rats. Physiological parameters were measured until 6 wk postsurgery. IIS rats ate less and lost more weight for the first 2 wk postsurgery. At study completion, body weights were not different, but IIS rats had reversed components of the metabolic syndrome. The interposed ileal segment adapted to a more jejunum-like villi length, mucosal surface area, and GATA4/ILBP mRNA. The interposed segment retained capacity for bile acid reabsorption and anorectic hormone secretion with the presence of ASBT and glucagon-like-peptide-1-positive cells in the villi. IIS rats had reduced primary bile acid levels in the proximal intestinal tract and higher primary bile acid levels in the serum, suggesting an early and efficient reabsorption of primary bile acids. IIS rats also had increased taurine and glycine-conjugated serum bile acids and reduced fecal bile acid loss. There was decreased hepatic Cyp27A1 mRNA with no changes in hepatic FXR, SHP, or NTCP expression. IIS protects against the metabolic syndrome through short-circuiting enterohepatic bile acid recycling. There is early reabsorption of primary bile acids despite selective "jejunization" of the interposed ileal segment. Changes in serum bile acids or bile acid enterohepatic recycling may mediate the metabolic benefits seen after bariatric surgery. PMID:20595624

Kohli, Rohit; Kirby, Michelle; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Jha, Pinky; Klustaitis, Kori; Woollett, Laura A; Pfluger, Paul T; Balistreri, William F; Tso, Patrick; Jandacek, Ronald J; Woods, Stephen C; Heubi, James E; Tschoep, Matthias H; D'Alessio, David A; Shroyer, Noah F; Seeley, Randy J

2010-09-01

51

Duodenal Chemosensing and Mucosal Defenses  

PubMed Central

The duodenal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including acid, CO2, bile acids and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We propose a mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed via mucosal acid sensors and G-protein-coupled receptors. Luminal acid/CO2 sensing consists of ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases, epithelial ion transporters, and acid sensors expressed on the afferent nerves in the duodenum. Furthermore, a luminal L-glutamate signal is mediated via mucosal L-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca2+ is differently sensed via the calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. Recent studies also show the involvement of enteroendocrine G-protein-coupled receptors in bile acid and fatty acid sensing in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help activate mucosal defense mechanisms in or- der to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism, and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:21389725

Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

2011-01-01

52

Maintenance of superior mesenteric arterial perfusion prevents increased intestinal mucosal permeability in endotoxic pigs  

SciTech Connect

Lipopolysaccharide increases intestinal mucosal permeability to hydrophilic compounds such as chromium 51-labeled edetate (51Cr-EDTA). The authors sought to determine whether this phenomenon is partly mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induced mesenteric hypoperfusion. They assessed permeability in an isolated segment of ileum by measuring plasma-to-lumen clearances (C) for two probes, 51Cr-EDTA and urea, and expressing the results as a ratio (CEDTA/CUREA). In control pigs (n = 6) resuscitated with Ringer's lactate (RL), mucosal permeability was unchanged during the 210-minute period of observation. In pigs (n = 7) infused with lipopolysaccharide (50 micrograms/kg) and similarly resuscitated with RL, mesenteric perfusion (Qsma) decreased significantly and permeability increased progressively and significantly. When endotoxic pigs (n = 6) were resuscitated with a regimen (RL plus hetastarch plus dobutamine) that preserved normal Qsma, lipopolysaccharide-induced mucosal hyperpermeability was prevented. Resuscitation of endotoxic pigs (n = 6) with RL plus hetastarch provided intermediate protection against both mesenteric hypoperfusion and increased permeability. These data suggest that diminished Qsma contributes to impaired ileal mucosal barrier function in experimental endotoxicosis.

Fink, M.P.; Kaups, K.L.; Wang, H.L.; Rothschild, H.R. (Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (USA))

1991-08-01

53

Evidence for validity of ileal digestibility coefficients in monogastrics.  

PubMed

Measures of amino acid (AA) digestibility are used widely to estimate bioavailability of AA in feed and food ingredients for monogastric animals. In principle, the digestibility assay is simpler than in vivo assessments of AA bioavailability and allows for simultaneous estimation of the bioavailability of all AA in an experimental diet. It is generally assumed that absorption of intact AA in the hindgut of monogastrics is minimal, even though colonocytes do contain AA transporters and have been shown to absorb AA. This assumption is supported by the observation that infusion of AA into the hindgut does not improve nitrogen balance in monogastrics. In addition, growth performance of monogastrics is more highly correlated with ileal than faecal AA digestibility. Therefore, ileal digestibility coefficients provide better estimates of AA bioavailability than faecal digestibility coefficients. Measures of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA are confounded with endogenous gut AA losses (EAAL). The curvilinear increase in AID of AA with increasing dietary AA level has been attributed to the relatively large contribution of EAAL to total ileal AA flows at low dietary AA levels. Subtracting basal EAAL from total ileal AA flows yields standardized ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients that appear to be more additive than AID coefficients in mixtures of feed ingredients. An implicit assumption when using SID AA coefficients in diet formulation is that the post-absorptive utilization of AA is not influenced by the dietary protein source. This assumption appears inappropriate when using feed or food ingredients that have been over-heated, induce large amounts of EAAL, or contain substantial amounts of fermentable fibre. Improved understanding of processes that contribute to the discrepancy between bioavailability and ileal digestibility will allow a more effective use of AA digestibility coefficients in diet formulation. PMID:23107537

Columbus, Daniel; de Lange, Cornelis F M

2012-08-01

54

Mucosal Vaccination Against HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual mucosal transmission of HIV-1 is the most common means of spread of HIV\\/AIDS throughout the world. Although it may\\u000a be reasonable to assume that a vaccine that works to eliminate viral replication in the systemic lymphoid tissue may be partially\\u000a protective, there is still a reasonable belief that a vaccine that engenders high level of immune defenses at mucosal

Tom Evans

55

[A case of adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal conduit].  

PubMed

We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma developing in an ileal conduit. A 78-year-old woman was referred complaining of abdominal pain. She had undergone radical cystectomy and ileal conduit formation for invasive bladder cancer 8 years previously. The pathological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma, and distant metastasis was not found. She was lost to follow-up over 2 years postoperatively. Computed tomography at this time showed bilateral hydronephrosis. Metastasis was not revealed. Because renal failure progressed and gross hematuria developed, endoscopic examination through the stoma was performed. A mass adjacent to the ureteroileal anastomosis site was found. Biopsy led to a diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. She died of renal failure 1.5 months after admission. To our knowledge, 9 cases of adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal conduit have previously been reported. PMID:23719138

Mizusawa, Hiroya; Mimura, Yuji; Saito, Tetsuichi

2013-05-01

56

Tracking (Poly)phenol components from raspberries in ileal fluid.  

PubMed

The (poly)phenols in ileal fluid after ingestion of raspberries were analyzed by targeted and nontargeted LC-MS(n) approaches. Targeted approaches identified major anthocyanin and ellagitannin components at varying recoveries and with considerable interindividual variation. Nontargeted LC-MS(n) analysis using an orbitrap mass spectrometer gave exact mass MS data which were sifted using a software program to select peaks that changed significantly after supplementation. This method confirmed the recovery of the targeted components but also identified novel raspberry-specific metabolites. Some components (including ellagitannin and previously unidentified proanthocyanidin derivatives) may have arisen from raspberry seeds that survived intact in ileal samples. Other components include potential breakdown products of anthocyanins, unidentified components, and phenolic metabolites formed either in the gut epithelia or after absorption into the circulatory system and efflux back into the gut lumen. The possible physiological roles of the ileal metabolites in the large bowel are discussed. PMID:24998385

McDougall, Gordon J; Conner, Sean; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Gonzalez-Barrio, Rocio; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Moffet, Tanya; Ibars, Maria; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

2014-07-30

57

Functions of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in immunology and immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even a moderate increase in the cellular cysteine supply elevates the intracellular glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and poten- tiates immunological functions of lymphocytes in vitro. At low GSSG levels, T cells cannot optimally activate the im- munologically important transcription factor NFxB, whereas high GSSG levels inhibit the DNA binding ac- tivity of NFxB. The effects of GSSG

KLAUS SCHULZE-OSTHOFF; SABINE MIHM; DAGMAR GALTER; HEIKE SCHENK; HANS-PETER ECK; STEFFEN ROTH; HELMUT GMUNDER

58

Recent advances in mucosal vaccine development.  

PubMed

Proper stimulation of the mucosal immune system is critical for the effective protection of mucosal surfaces against colonization and invasion of infectious agents. This requires administration of vaccine antigens directly to various mucosal sites. Due to the low absorption efficiency of mucosally delivered vaccines, however, almost all of the currently marketed vaccines are administered parentally. In addition, sub-optimal immune responses are frequently induced by mucosal immunization and the use of mucosal adjuvants is commonly required. As a result, development of successful mucosal vaccines depends largely on the improvement of mucosal antigen delivery and on the discovery of new and effective mucosal adjuvants. In this review, recent advances in both areas are briefly discussed. PMID:10825547

Chen, H

2000-07-01

59

Selective Modification of Glutathione Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione, a tripeptide thiol found in virtually all cells, functions in metabolism, transport, and cellular protection. It participates in the reduction of disulfides and other molecules, and conjugates with compounds of exogenous and endogenous origin. It protects cells against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen intermediates and free radicals. Modifications of glutathione metabolism may be achieved by administration of selective

Alton Meister

1983-01-01

60

Genetics Home Reference: Glutathione synthetase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... been described in about 70 people worldwide. What genes are related to glutathione synthetase deficiency? Mutations in the GSS gene cause glutathione synthetase deficiency. The GSS gene provides ...

61

Swallowed dental bridge causing ileal perforation: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 53 year old gentleman who had accidentally swallowed his dental bridge. One week following this he experienced a sudden onset of generalised abdominal pain and underwent laparotomy. At operation he was found to have a distal ileal perforation and an ileocaecal resection was performed. Although most swallowed foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract

Farhan Rashid; John Simpson; G Ananthakrishnan; Gillian M Tierney

2008-01-01

62

Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal reservoir: a pathophysiological assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metabolic and physiological assessment was carried out in 14 patients who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy with ileal reservoir more than six months previously. The haemoglobin was normal in all but one and plasma electrolytes and serum albumin, calcium, phosphorus, and red cell folate estimations were normal in all. Five patients had low serum iron levels of whom one had

R J Nicholls; P Belliveau; M Neill; M Wilks; S Tabaqchali

1981-01-01

63

Intracorporeal ileal ureter replacement using laparoscopy and robotics  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ileal ureter is a suitable treatment option for patients with long ureteric strictures. Minimally invasive techniques have been shown to be as safe as open techniques but superior in terms of post–operative recovery. We report our experience using minimally invasive techniques for total intracorporeal ureteral replacement. Material and methods A chart review revealed five patients who underwent intracorporeal ileal ureter using minimally invasive techniques in the preceding 5 years. 4 patients underwent conventional laparoscopic surgery and 1 patient underwent robotic–assisted surgery. Patient's characteristics, perioperative data and functional outcomes as well as a detailed description of surgical technique are reported. In all 5 of these patients, the ileal ureter was performed completely intracorporeally. Results The median age of our patients is 61 (range 42–73). The median operative time was 250 minutes (range 150–320) and median blood loss was 100 ml (range 50–200). The median hospital stay was 8 days (range 6–10) and there were no major perioperative complications reported. At median follow up of 22 months (range 4–38), there were no recurrences of strictures or any other complications. Conclusions We have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of minimally invasive intracorporeal ileal ureter. Numbers are still small but its application is likely to grow further.

Sim, Allen; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Mischinger, Johannes; Halalsheh, Omar; Boettge, Johannes; Rausch, Steffen; Bier, Simone; Aufderklamm, Stefan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

2014-01-01

64

Intestinal mucosal tolerance and impact of gut microbiota to mucosal tolerance  

PubMed Central

The mucosal barriers are very sensitive to pathogenic infection, thereby assuming the capacity of the mucosal immune system to induce protective immunity to harmful antigens and tolerance against harmless substances. This review provides current information about mechanisms of induction of mucosal tolerance and about impact of gut microbiota to mucosal tolerance. PMID:25628617

Chistiakov, Dimitry A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Kozarov, Emil; Sobenin, Igor A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

2015-01-01

65

Glutathione reductase activity with an oxidized methylated glutathione analog.  

PubMed

The activity of glutathione reductase with an unnatural analog of oxidized glutathione was explored. The analog, L-?-glutamyl-2-methyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine disulfide, places an additional methyl group on the alpha position of each of the central cysteine residues, which significantly increases steric bulk near the disulfide bond. Glutathione reductase was completely unable to catalyze the sulfur-sulfur bond reduction of the analog. Additionally, enzyme kinetics experiments indicated that the analog acts as a competitive inhibitor of glutathione reductase. Computational studies confirm that the methylated analog fits within the active site of the enzyme but its disulphide bond geometry is altered, preventing reduction by the enzyme. The substitution of (R)-2-methylcysteine in place of natural (R)-cysteine in peptides constitutes a new strategy for stabilizing disulphide bonds from enzyme-catalyzed degradation. PMID:23808802

Kedrowski, Brant L; Gutow, Jonathan H; Stock, Gorman; Smith, Maureen; Jordan, Chondrea; Masterson, Douglas S

2014-08-01

66

Glutathione specifically labeled with isotopes.  

PubMed

A procedure for synthesis of glutathione selectivity labeled with isotopes is described. A strain of Escherichia coli enriched in its content of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase by recombinant DNA techniques is immobilized in a carrageenan matrix and treated with toluene to render the cells more permeable to the substrates. The immobilized cell matrix is incubated with a mixture containing the appropriately labeled amino acid, the other amino acid constituents of glutathione, ATP, and acetylphosphate. The radiolabeled product is isolated by column chromatography. PMID:2867714

Murata, K; Abbott, W A; Bridges, R J; Meister, A

1985-10-01

67

Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

2011-01-01

68

Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

2011-01-01

69

PRION INFECTION OF MUCOSAL TISSUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To investigate the site(s) of agent shedding in prion disease we determined the distribution of the prion agent in tongue mucosal tissue from sheep, elk, and rodents with experimental prion disease. We examined the tongue as a peripheral target of prion infection since it is a densely innervated ti...

70

Ileal intussusception due to a parasite egg: A case report  

PubMed Central

Ileal intussusception is the invagination of the small intestine within itself and accounts for 1% of cases of acute obstruction. However, physicians do not initially consider intussusception as a possible diagnosis of obstruction due to its rarity in adults. Herein, we report the case of a 22-year-old male who was admitted to the Emergency Department with continuous abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed an ileal intussusception. The patient underwent surgical removal of the segment of the small bowel. Unexpectedly, pathology revealed that the invagination occurred due to a parasite egg, with features suggestive of Schistosoma species. Schistosomiasis, although considered a parasitic disease in tropical countries, is not absent from Europe and though it is highly improbable, it may be responsible for cases of intussusception in adults. PMID:25278716

Pinto, José Pedro; Cordeiro, Agostinho; Ferreira, Ana Margarida; Antunes, Conceição; Botelho, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Ana João; Leão, Pedro

2014-01-01

71

Dendritic cell-targeting DNA-based mucosal adjuvants for the development of mucosal vaccines  

PubMed Central

In order to establish effective mucosal immunity against various mucosal pathogens, vaccines must be delivered via the mucosal route and contain effective adjuvant(s). Since mucosal adjuvants can simply mix with the antigen, it is relatively easy to adapt them for different types of vaccine development. Even in simple admixture vaccines, the adjuvant itself must be prepared without any complications. Thus, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or plasmids encoding certain cDNA(s) would be potent mucosal adjuvant candidates when compared with other substances that can be used as mucosal adjuvants. The strategy of a DNA-based mucosal adjuvant facilitates the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells, and thus is an effective and safe approach. It would also provide great flexibility for the development of effective vaccines for various mucosal pathogens. PMID:19722892

Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

2009-01-01

72

Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions.  

PubMed

Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content is small in broiler chickens. PMID:24046419

van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H

2013-10-01

73

Ileal impaction in 245 horses: 1995–2007  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify parameters that would assist in determining the probability of a successful outcome with medical management versus surgical intervention in horses with ileal impaction. Medical records of 245 horses admitted for ileal impaction were reviewed and placed into 2 groups: medical (med) and surgical (sx) treatment. Persistence of abdominal pain, gastric reflux, frequency of analgesic administration, and 1-year survival were evaluated. There were no differences in signalment, abdominal pain, or heart rate among groups; however, significantly more sx horses had peritoneal fluid abnormalities (51%) and produced gastric reflux (62%) than did med horses (38% and 15%, respectively). Eighty-nine percent of med horses required repeated analgesic administration for successful resolution. One-year survival was 91% for sx horses and 92% for med horses. Horses with ileal impaction responsive to analgesic therapy with minimal gastric reflux are likely to be managed successfully with medical treatment. Horses with persistent abdominal pain and gastric reflux are candidates for surgery. PMID:22210940

Fleming, Kelly; Mueller, P.O. Eric

2011-01-01

74

Effects of selenium and methylmercury upon glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of selenium and methylmercury upon liver glutathione concentration and glutathione-S-transferase activity was investigated in mice. Intraperitoneal injections of methylmercury produced a decrease in liver glutathione and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase. The response to methylmercury was similar in both selenium-control and selenium-deficient animals. Selenium administered alone produced an increase in glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase activity in the selenium-deficient animals but

James E. Balthrop; Sylvia A. Braddon

1985-01-01

75

Antiretroviral Pharmacology in Mucosal Tissues  

PubMed Central

Strategies to prevent HIV infection using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are required to curtail the HIV pandemic. The mucosal tissues of the genital and rectal tracts play a critical role in HIV acquisition, but antiretroviral (ARV) disposition and correlates of efficacy within these tissues are not well understood. Pre-clinical and clinical strategies to describe ARV pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships (PK/PD) within mucosal tissues are currently being investigated. In this review, we summarize the physiochemical and biologic factors influencing ARV tissue exposure. Further, we discuss the necessary steps to generate relevant PK/PD data and the challenges associated with this process. Finally, we suggest how pre-clinical and clinical data might be practically translated into optimal PrEP dosing strategies for clinical trials testing using mathematical modeling and simulation. PMID:23764642

Thompson, Corbin G.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

2014-01-01

76

Chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of systemic chemotherapy and of radiation therapy to the head and neck region. The morbidity of oral mucositis can include pain, nutritional compromise, impact on quality of life, alteration in cancer therapy, risk for infection, and economic costs. Management includes general symptomatic support and targeted therapeutic interventions for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are available to guide clinicians in the selection of effective management strategies. PMID:24655526

Lalla, Rajesh V; Saunders, Deborah P; Peterson, Douglas E

2014-04-01

77

The effect of N -acetyl- L -cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a refrigerator. After precipitation, the urine was decanted. The residue was

B. P. Schrier; W. J. Lichtendonk; J. A. Witjes

2002-01-01

78

Presence of adherent Escherichia coli strains in ileal mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Infectious agents are suspected of being involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. This study was designed to look for the presence of virulent Escherichia coli strains associated with the ileal mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Methods:E. coli strains were recovered from resected chronic ileal lesions (n = 20), neoterminal ileum after surgery from patients with

Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud; Christel Neut; Nicolas Barnich; Emmanuel Lederman; Patrick Di Martino; Pierre Desreumaux; Luc Gambiez; Bernard Joly; Antoine Cortot; Jean-Frédéric Colombel

1998-01-01

79

Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly  

PubMed Central

A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

Davis, Heather A.; Munsterman, Amelia

2012-01-01

80

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir: Clinical results in 12 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir has been performed in 12 patients. An isolated ileal reservoir was constructed using the technique described for patients with a continent ileostomy. The ureters were implanted into an afferent segment provided with a reflux-preventing nipple valve. There were few operative complications and no operative mortality. Late complications involving malfunction of the nipple valves

N. G. Kock; A. E. Nilson; L. O. Nilsson; L. J. Norlén; B. M. Philipson

2002-01-01

81

Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance structures (larynx, pharynx and nasal and oral cavities) or even to compensation mechanisms caused by the presence of lesions in the upper airways and digestive tract. PMID:25055046

Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

2014-01-01

82

Characterization of a Glutathione Metabolic Mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Resistance to Glutathione and Nitrosoglutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione is a tripeptide and antioxidant, synthesized at high levels by cells during the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. Glutathione also serves as a carrier molecule for nitric oxide in the form of S-nitrosoglutathione. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that glutathione and S- nitrosoglutathione are directly toxic to mycobacteria. Glutathione is not transported into the cells

Yaswant K. Dayaram; Meliza T. Talaue; Nancy D. Connell; Vishwanath Venketaraman

2006-01-01

83

Seasonal Variation of Glutathione and Glutathione Reductase in Needles of Picea abies 1  

PubMed Central

In spruce (Picea abies) needles glutathione and glutathione reductase show a periodic seasonal variation with significantly increased levels during the winter. It is proposed that glutathione and glutathione reductase play an important role for the winter hardiness of leaves from evergreen plants. PMID:16660223

Esterbauer, Hermann; Grill, Dieter

1978-01-01

84

Influence of heated and nonheated partially hydrogenated dietary fats on ileal chyme fat and fatty acid composition of ileal mucosa in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effects of partially hydrogenated chemically processed fats (CPF) and non-CPF on the ileal chyme fat and the fatty acid (FA) profile of the ileal mucosa and the subcutaneous tissue were analyzed. Samples were collected via an ileocutaneous fistula. For three months pigs were fed a control meal or diets containing either non-CPF high on 16:0, non-CPF

SABINE BIJHNER; Eckhard Nagel; Hermann Stockhorst; Jürgen Körber; Angelos N. Sagredos; Rudolf Pichlmayr

1995-01-01

85

Ileal neuroendocrine tumors and heart: not only valvular consequences.  

PubMed

Ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) often progress slowly, but because of their generally nonspecific symptoms, they have often metastasized to local lymph nodes and to the liver by the time the patient presents. Biochemically, most of these patients have increased levels of whole blood serotonin, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and chromogranin A. Imaging work-up generally comprises computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, or in recent years positron emission tomography with (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs, allowing for detection of even sub-cm lesions. Carcinoid heart disease with affected leaflets, mainly to the right side of the heart, is a well-known complication and patients routinely undergo echocardiography to diagnose and monitor this. Multitasking surgery is currently recognized as first-line treatment for ileal NETs with metastases and carcinoid heart disease. Open heart surgery and valve replacement are advocated in patients with valvular disease and progressive heart failure. When valvulopathy in the tricuspid valve results in right-sided heart failure, a sequential approach, performing valve replacement first before intra-abdominal tumor-reductive procedures are conducted, reduces the risk of bleeding. Metastases to the myocardium from ileal NETs are seen in <1-4.3 % of patients, depending partly on the imaging technique used, and are generally discovered in those affected with widespread disease. Systemic treatment with somatostatin analogs, and sometimes alpha interferon, is first-line medical therapy in metastatic disease to relieve hormonal symptoms and stabilize the tumor. This treatment is also indicated when heart metastases are detected, with the addition of diuretics and fluid restriction in cases of heart failure. Myocardial metastases are rarely treated by surgical resection. PMID:25319177

Calissendorff, Jan; Maret, Eva; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

2014-10-16

86

ANTAGONIST DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN GANGLIONIC AND ILEAL MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS  

PubMed Central

The effects of four antagonists on the depolarization of isolated superior cervical ganglia and the contraction of isolated ileal segments of the rat were compared. pA2 values estimated from Schild plots indicated significantly higher affinities of stercuronium (× 100) and pirenzepine (× 23) and a significantly lower affinity of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (× 0.39) for the ganglion than for the ileum. The affinities of N-methylscopolamine for the two tissues were not significantly different. It is concluded that the two types of muscarinic receptor are not identical. PMID:9142423

Brown, DA; Forward, A; Marsh, S

1997-01-01

87

Stapled Mucosectomy: An Alternative Technique for the Removal of Retained Rectal Mucosa after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC), when performed with a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), allows the retention of the rectal mucosa above the dentate line and can result in disease persistence or recurrence, as well as neoplastic lesions in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We report the case of a patient with chronic UC who underwent staple mucosectomy, which is an alternative technique that evolved from stapled hemorrhoidopexy, rather than more traditional procedures. The patient had undergone laparoscopic RPC with a stapled IPAA 2 cm above the dentate line and a temporary loop ileostomy. Because the histopathology showed low-grade dysplasia in the proximal rectum, stapled mucosectomy with a 33-mm circular stapler kit at the time of ileostomy closure was scheduled. Following the application of a purse-string suture 1 cm above the dentate line, the stapler was inserted with its anvil beyond the purse-string and was fired. The excised rectal tissue was checked to ensure that it was a complete cylindrical doughnut. Histopathology of the excised tissue showed chronic inflammation. There were no complications during a follow-up period of 5 months. Because it preserves the normal rectal mucosal architecture and avoids a complex mucosectomy surgery, stapled mucosectomy seems to be a technically feasible and clinically acceptable alternative to the removal of rectal mucosa retained after RPC. PMID:22195257

Ertem, Metin

2011-01-01

88

Increased leukotriene B4 release from ileal pouch mucosa in ulcerative colitis compared with familial adenomatous polyposis.  

PubMed Central

Pouchitis may complicate the construction of an ileal pouch after colectomy for ulcerative colitis (UC) but not familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). To examine whether differences in eicosanoid metabolism might explain why pouchitis is largely confined to UC patients, this study compared arachidonic acid stimulated release of immunoreactive leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from macroscopically uninflamed pouch mucosal biopsy specimens incubated in vitro from patients with UC and FAP. The study also compared eicosanoid release from inflamed and uninflamed pouches in patients with UC. In uninflamed pouches, median LTB4 release was nearly twice as high in UC as in FAP (p = 0.001), but there was no significant difference in PGE2 production. In UC, stimulated eicosanoid release from uninflamed functioning pouch mucosa was not significantly different from that from either ileostomy or defunctioned pouch mucosa. LTB4 and PGE2 release were significantly greater from inflamed than uninflamed pouch mucosa in UC (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Leukotriene synthesis inhibition or receptor antagonism, or both merit therapeutic evaluation in pouchitis. Increased release of LTB4 from endoscopically normal pouch mucosa suggests increased 5-lipoxygenase activity in patients with UC and could contribute to their predisposition to pouchitis. PMID:7959200

Gertner, D J; Rampton, D S; Madden, M V; Talbot, I C; Nicholls, R J; Lennard-Jones, J E

1994-01-01

89

Mucosal Wave Measurement and Visualization Techniques  

PubMed Central

Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical to high quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so called “mucosal wave”. Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography (EGG), photoglottography (PGG), and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography (VKG), stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations as well as its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. PMID:20471798

Krausert, Christopher R.; Olszewski, Aleksandra E.; Taylor, Lindsay N.; McMurray, James S.; Dailey, Seth H.; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

90

Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. PMID:23201762

Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.

2012-01-01

91

Ulcer healing properties of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal defensive factors.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been reported to cause an increase in offensive and decrease in defensive gastric mucosal factors, the imbalance of which can cause ulceration and delay the ulcer healing. Eugenia jambolana has been documented to have both antidiabetic and antiulcer activities. The present study evaluates the effects of ethanolic extract of E. jambolana on gastric ulcer healing and on rat gastric mucosal defensive factors in gastric ulcer with co-occurring diabetes. E. jambolana extract was administered orally in the dose of 200 mg/kg once daily for 10 days. E. jambolana extract increased mucin secretion, mucosal glycoprotein and glutathione levels and decreased the lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats. Its treatment also reversed the decrease in life span of gastric mucosal cells as indicated by decreased cell shedding in the gastric juice but found to have no effect on cell proliferation, indicating enhanced defensive status. E. jambolana extract was effective in reversing the delayed healing of gastric ulcer in diabetic rats near to the normal level. E. jambolana showed better ulcer healing effect than glibenclamide, because of its both antihyperglycemic and mucosal defensive actions. It could thus, be a better choice for treating gastric ulcers co-occurring with diabetes. PMID:19810572

Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

2009-01-01

92

??Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT detects heart metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to the myocardium are rare and generally seen in patients with widespread metastatic NET disease. The objectives of this investigation were to describe the frequency of intracardiac metastases in ileal NET patients examined by (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT and to describe the cases in detail. All (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT examinations performed at the Karolinska University Hospital since 2010 until April 2012 were reviewed. In all, 128 out of 337 examinations were in patients with ileal NETs. Four patients had seven myocardiac metastases, yielding a frequency of 4.3 % in patients with ileal NETs. One patient had cardiac surgery while three were treated with somatostatin analogs. The cardiac metastases did not affect the patients' activity of daily life. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT is an established imaging modality in identifying cardiac metastases in ileal NETs. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the true clinical value of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT in detecting cardiac metastases in both ileal and non-ileal NETs. PMID:24272595

Calissendorff, Jan; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

2014-09-01

93

Long-lived cytotoxic T lymphocyte memory in mucosal tissues after mucosal but not systemic immunization  

PubMed Central

The induction and maintenance of long-term CTL memory at mucosal surfaces may be a critical component of protection against mucosal pathogens and is one goal towards development of effective mucosal vaccines. In these studies we have functionally evaluated short and long-term CTL memory in systemic and respiratory or genital-associated lymphoid tissues following mucosal or systemic routes of immunization. Our results indicate that shortly after immunizing mice with a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus (AdgB8), gB-specific CTL memory responses were observed in systemic and mucosal immune compartments regardless of the route of inoculation. In contrast, several months after immunization, anamnestic CTL responses compartmentalized exclusively to mucosal or systemic lymphoid tissues after mucosal or systemic immunization, respectively. Furthermore, the compartmentalized CTL memory responses in mucosal tissues were functionally observed for longer than 1.5 yr after intranasal immunization, and CTL precursor frequencies one year after immunization were comparable to those seen shortly after immunization. Therefore, to our knowledge, this is the first functional demonstration that the maintenance of anti-viral memory CTL in mucosal tissues is dependent on the route of immunization and the time of assessment. These results have important implications for our understanding of the development, maintenance, and compartmentalization of functional T cell memory and the development and evaluation of vaccines for mucosal pathogens, such as HSV and HIV. PMID:8920875

1996-01-01

94

Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881

Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

2012-01-01

95

Quantification of Risk for Pouch Failure After Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify risk factors associated with ileal pouch failure and to develop a multifactorial model for quantifying the risk of failure in individual patients. Summary Background Data: Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the treatment choice for most patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis who require surgery. At present, there are no published studies that investigate collectively the interrelation of factors related to ileal pouch failure, nor are there any predictive indices for risk stratification of patients undergoing IPAA surgery. Methods: Data from 23 preoperative, 7 intraoperative, and 10 postoperative risk factors were recorded from 1,965 patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy in a single center between 1983 and 2001. Primary end point was ileal pouch failure during the follow-up period of up to 19 years. The “CCF ileal pouch failure” model was developed using a parametric survival analysis and a 70%:30% split-sample validation technique for model training and testing. Results: The median patient follow-up was 4.1 year (range, 0–19 years). Five-year ileal pouch survival was 95.6% (95% CI, 94.4–96.7). The following risk factors were found to be independent predictors of pouch survival and were used in the final multivariate model: patient diagnosis, prior anal pathology, abnormal anal manometry, patient comorbidity, pouch-perineal or pouch-vaginal fistulae, pelvic sepsis, anastomotic stricture and separation. The model accurately predicted the risk of ileal pouch failure with adequate calibration statistics (Hosmer Lemeshow ?2 = 3.001; P = 0.557) and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 82.0%. Conclusions: The CCF ileal pouch failure model is a simple and accurate way of predicting the risk of ileal pouch failure in clinical practice on a longitudinal basis. It may play an important role in providing risk estimates for patients wishing to make informed choices on the type of treatment offered to them. PMID:14530732

Fazio, Victor W.; Tekkis, Paris P.; Remzi, Feza; Lavery, Ian C.; Manilich, Elena; Connor, Jason; Preen, Miriam; Delaney, Conor P.

2003-01-01

96

The effect of a commercial enzyme preparation on apparent metabolizable energy, the true ileal amino acid digestibility, and endogenous ileal lysine losses in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The effect of a commercial enzyme preparation containing xylanase, alpha-amylase, and beta-glucanase on dietary AME content and the apparent and true ileal amino acid digestibility of a corn-soy broiler diet and endogenous ileal lysine flow was determined. Two predominantly corn-soy diets also containing wheat bran and canola meal were formulated; one diet contained no added enzymes, whereas the other was supplemented with alpha-amylase, beta-glucanase, and xylanase. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. The diets were given to broiler chickens, and AME and true ileal amino acid digestibility were determined. Portions of the 2 test diets were guanidinated and fed to similar aged broiler chickens and endogenous lysine flows determined. The chickens appeared healthy throughout the study, and the mean bird weights at the time of slaughter were not significantly different (P < 0.05) among any of the treatment groups. Dietary AME content was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for the enzyme-supplemented corn-soy diet (2,829 kcal/kg) compared with its unsupplemented control diet (2,766 kcal/kg). True ileal amino acid digestibility was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all amino acids investigated. The increase ranged from 4% for arginine and glutamic acid to 12% for cystine. There was no significant difference in endogenous ileal lysine flow between broilers fed the unsupplemented diet and those fed the enzyme-supplemented diet. Overall, enzyme supplementation with an enzyme blend containing alpha-amylase, beta-glucanase, and xylanase increased the AME content of a corn-soy broiler diet as well as apparent and true ileal amino acid digestibility for all amino acids, but had no effect on endogenous ileal lysine flow. PMID:17369537

Rutherfurd, S M; Chung, T K; Moughan, P J

2007-04-01

97

Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activity of platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low Se intake in dietetically treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) or maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) leads to a marked reduction of the platelet glutathione peroxidase activity (GSHPx). The mean value amounted to 2.0 U\\/1011 platelets with t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) (2.2 U\\/1011 with H2O2) in patients and 5.8 U\\/1011 with t-BOOH (5.4 U\\/1011 with H2O2) in the control children.

H. Menzel; G. Steiner; I. Lombeck; F. K. Ohnesorge

1983-01-01

98

An African perspective on mucosal immunity and HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV prevention mandates an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal immunity with attention to some unique features of the epidemic and mucosal environment in the developing world. An effective vaccine will have to induce mucosal protection against a highly diverse virus, which is equipped with a number of immune evasion strategies. Its development will require assessment of mucosal immune responses,

P Pala; V R Gomez-Roman; J Gilmour; P Kaleebu

2009-01-01

99

The extended catalysis of glutathione transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione transferase reaches 0.5–0.8mM concentration in the cell so it works in vivo under the unusual conditions of, [S]?[E]. As glutathione transferase lowers the pKa of glutathione (GSH) bound to the active site, it increases the cytosolic concentration of deprotonated GSH about five times and speeds its conjugation with toxic compounds that are non-typical substrates of this enzyme. This acceleration

Raffaele Fabrini; Alessio Bocedi; Kutayba F. Dawood; Paola Turella; Lorenzo Stella; Michael W. Parker; Jens Z. Pedersen; Giorgio Federici; Giovanni Antonini; Giorgio Ricci

2011-01-01

100

Repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis to salvage septic complications of pelvic pouches: clinical outcome and quality of life assessment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for septic complications of pelvic pouch surgery; to assess the relationship between diagnosis and outcome; to assess quality of life after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic and perineal sepsis due to ileal pouch-anal anastomotic leaks frequently results in pouch loss. Many surgeons believe that pelvic sepsis and/or dense pelvic fibrosis makes salvage surgery unsafe or that pouches salvaged under these circumstances may not function well. As a result, there are few studies of pouch salvage procedures for septic indications. METHODS: The authors reviewed records of Cleveland Clinic Foundation patients who had undergone repeat IPAA surgery after septic complications from previous pelvic pouch surgery and who had completed at least 6 months of follow-up. Final diagnoses included ulcerative colitis (n = 22), Crohn's disease (n = 10), indeterminate colitis (n = 1), and familial polyposis (n = 2). Patients with functioning pouches were interviewed about functional problems and quality of life using an in-house questionnaire and the validated SF-36 Health Survey. RESULTS: Of 35 patients, 30 (86%) had a functioning pouch 6 months after repeat IPAA. In 4 patients, complications led to pouch removal or fecal diversion. One patient declined stoma closure. Of the patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC), 95% (21/22) had a functioning pouch 6 months after surgery. For patients with Crohn's disease (CD) 60% (6/10) have maintained a functioning pouch. Of the 30 patients with functioning pouches, 17 (57%) rated their quality of life as either "good" or "excellent," the remaining 13 (43%) selected "fair" or "poor." All said they would choose repeat IPAA surgery again. An SF-36 Health Survey completed by all patients with a functioning pouch at follow-up showed a mean physical component scale of 46.4 and a mean mental component scale of 47.6, scores well within the normal limit. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat IPAA can often salvage pelvic pouches in patients with MUC who suffer major chronic perianastomotic and pelvic sepsis. Patients who had successful repeat IPAA surgery often report functional problems but would still choose to have the surgery again. For patients with CD, ultimate pouch excision or fecal diversion have been required in 40% indicating a guarded prognosis for these patients. Data on the success of the procedure for patients with indeterminate colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis were inconclusive because of small sample sizes. Images Figure 1. PMID:9790348

Fazio, V W; Wu, J S; Lavery, I C

1998-01-01

101

Similar functional results after restorative proctocolectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and mucosal ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Restorative proctocolectomy (RP) is generally considered to achieve better results in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) than in those with mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC). We studied 39 pairs of patients (FAP versus MUC), individually matched for surgeon (n = 4), types of ileal pouch (19 S-pouches and 20 J-pouches), technique of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (21 stapled, 18 handsewn with mucosectomy), duration of follow-up after pouch function (median: 32 months; range: 6 months to 8.5 years), age (median: 30 years; range: 12 to 60 years), and gender (male-to-female ratio: 1.4:1.0). The median duration of operation (3.2 hours), hospital stay (9 days), and the amount of blood loss (about 650 mL) were similar between the two groups. The patients in the MUC group tended to have a higher overall complication rate (28% versus 21%) and more pouch-related septic complications (13% versus 8%, p = 0.6 by chi 2 analysis). Functional results were similar for daytime (median: 5 per day) and nighttime (median: 1 per night) stool frequency and the median duration that defecation could be deferred (median: about 1.5 hours). Perfect continence was present in 34 (87%) patients during the day and in 19 (49%) patients during the night in each group. The use of antidiarrheal medications did not differ between the two groups. According to an analogue scale (from 1 to 10, with 10 being best), the quality of life and health and satisfaction with outcome (median score: 9) were identical between the groups. Thus, in closely matched groups of patients with FAP and MUC, the functional outcome after RP was similar. However, pouchitis was more common in the MUC group (33% versus 10%, p < 0.05 by chi 2 analysis). PMID:8383471

Tjandra, J J; Fazio, V W; Church, J M; Oakley, J R; Milsom, J W; Lavery, I C

1993-03-01

102

Ileal Ganglioneuromatosis in a Piglet: Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies.  

PubMed

Ganglioneuromatosis (GNM) is a rare condition characterized by the benign proliferation of ganglion cells, nerve fibres and supporting cells of the enteric nervous system. Necropsy examination of a female piglet weighing 4 kg revealed a well-demarcated 20 cm segment of terminal ileum with thickening of the wall. Microscopically, the lamina propria was infiltrated by enteric glial cells and large ganglion cells. Within the submucosal and muscular layers, aggregates of neurons were interlaced by Schwann cells and enteric glial cells arranged in concentric rings. Immunohistochemically, the neurons were weakly labelled for S-100 and neuron-specific enolase, Schwann cells expressed S-100 and vimentin and enteric glial cells expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings supported the diagnosis of ileal GNM. PMID:25443431

Quiroga, M A; Lozada, M I; Madariaga, G; Cappuccio, J A; Machuca, M A; Barrales, H; Pérez, E M; Perfumo, C J

2014-11-10

103

Heterotopic Pancreas: A Rare Cause of Ileo-Ileal Intussusception  

PubMed Central

Background Heterotopic pancreas is a rare developmental anomaly defined as pancreatic tissue found on ectopic sites without contiguity with the main pancreas. An isolated heterotopic pancreas as a cause of bowel intussusception is extremely rare. Case Report A case of 47-year old male with multiple episodes of melena, constipation and abdominal pain for one year duration is presented. CT eneterography revealed a large circumferential lesion involving the terminal ileum that acted as a leading point to an ileo-ileal intussusception. The resection of the lesion and related bowel segment was carried out. The histopathological examination confirmed the excised lesion as a heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Conclusions Though a rare entity, heterotopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bowel intussusception. PMID:25302087

Monier, Ahmed; Awad, Ahmed; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Muneer, Mohamed; Alrashid, Amal; Darweesh, Adham; Hassan, Heba

2014-01-01

104

Mucosal Vaccination against Tuberculosis Using Inert Bioparticles  

PubMed Central

Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens. PMID:23959722

Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A.

2013-01-01

105

Relationship between Ileal symbiont intracellularis and porcine proliferative enteritis.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between Ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis, formerly known as a Campylobacter-like organism, and porcine proliferative enteritis (PE) was studied by use of pigs with experimentally transmitted PE. Twenty one pigs were experimentally inoculated with homogenized ileal mucosa from a pig that died with PE, and 7 were maintained as uninoculated controls. Fecal samples were collected, and pigs were necropsied weekly postinoculation. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to examine tissues for lesions of PE and infectious agents. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and assayed for the presence of sequences specific for IS intracellularis by dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction amplification. IS intracellularis was detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the feces of 20 of 21 inoculated pigs but not in the feces of uninoculated pigs. Seven inoculated pigs but no uninoculated pigs were detected shedding IS intracellularis by dot blot hybridization. Shedding was detected 1 to 5 weeks after inoculation, and clinical signs were seen in the second to fifth weeks after inoculation. Few pigs without lesions of PE were found to shed IS intracellularis. There was a highly significant association between the presence of IS intracellularis in feces or tissue and the presence of microscopic proliferative lesions and between the severity of the lesions of PE and the percentage of IS intracellularis-infected intestinal crypts. Pigs that ceased shedding IS intracellularis were significantly less likely to have proliferative lesions. These and previous reports are consistent with the hypothesis that IS intracellularis is a necessary causative agent of PE. Images PMID:8225599

Jones, G F; Ward, G E; Murtaugh, M P; Rose, R; Gebhart, C J

1993-01-01

106

Deletion of the ileal basolateral bile acid transporter identifies the cellular sentinels that regulate  

E-print Network

surface membrane of the ileal enterocyte. In a recent issue of PNAS, Rao et al. (4) identify Ost /Ost of Rao et al. (4) clearly show that the expression of Ost is necessary for the hetero- dimeric complex

Attie, Alan D.

107

Skin and mucosal manifestations in vitamin deficiency.  

PubMed

The skin and mucosal changes in vitamin deficiency are described. Pellagra, which is the oldest known cutaneous manifestation among vitamin deficiencies, is reviewed. Cutaneous alterations caused by deficiency of the water-soluble vitamins B6, C, B1 and biotin, B12, folic acid, and riboflavin result in more mucosal alterations and are discussed. Alterations caused by fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies (vitamins A and K) are also considered. PMID:2948974

Barthelemy, H; Chouvet, B; Cambazard, F

1986-12-01

108

Ileal Neobladder With Mucous Plugs as a Cause of Obstructive Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Emergent Hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Ileal neobladder is the preferred technique in the management of urinary diversion postradical cystectomy for bladder malignancy. The common complications associated with this procedure are atrophied kidney, chronic pyelonephritis, decreased renal function, ureteroileal or urethral anastomotic site stricture, urinary tract stones, incontinence, and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Mucous plugs are also seen in 2%-3% patients. We present a rare presentation of a patient who required hemodialysis for severe hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury caused by mucous plugging of ileal neobladder. PMID:25420078

Singla, Montish; Shikha, Deep; Lee, Sunggeun; Baumstein, Donald; Chaudhari, Ashok; Carbajal, Roger

2014-11-21

109

NK Cells in Mucosal Defense against Infection  

PubMed Central

Conventional natural killer cells (NK cells) provide continual surveillance for cancer and rapid responses to infection. They develop in the bone marrow, emerge as either NK precursor cells, immature, or mature cells, and disperse throughout the body. In the periphery NK cells provide critical defense against pathogens and cancer and are noted to develop features of adaptive immune responses. In the tightly regulated and dynamic mucosal tissues, they set up residency via unknown mechanisms and from sources that are yet to be defined. Once resident, they appear to have the ability to functionally mature dependent on the mucosal tissue microenvironment. Mucosal NK cells play a pivotal role in early protection through their cytolytic function and IFN? production against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasitic infections. This review presents what is known about NK cell development and phenotypes of mucosal tissue resident conventional NK cells. The question of how they come to reside in their tissues and published data on their function against pathogens during mucosal infection are discussed. Dissecting major questions highlighted in this review will be important to the further understanding of NK cell homing and functional diversity and improve rational design of NK cell based therapies against mucosal infection. PMID:25197644

Ivanova, Daria; Krempels, Ryan; Ryfe, Jennyfer; Weitzman, Kaitlyn; Stephenson, David; Gigley, Jason P.

2014-01-01

110

The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: A proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both glutathione and an NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase are present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. It is proposed that glutathione functions to stabilise enzymes of the Calvin cycle, and it may also act to keep ascorbic acid in chloroplasts in the reduced form.

Christine H. Foyer; Barry Halliwell

1976-01-01

111

Polyamines and Gut Mucosal Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The epithelium of gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa has the most rapid turnover rate of any tissue in the body and its integrity is preserved through the dynamic balance between cell migration, proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. To maintain tissue homeostasis of the GI mucosa, the rates of epithelial cell division and apoptosis must be highly regulated by various extracellular and intracellular factors including cellular polyamines. Natural polyamines spermidine, spermine and their precursor putrescine, are organic cations in eukaryotic cells and are implicated in the control of multiple signaling pathways and distinct cellular functions. Normal intestinal epithelial growth depends on the available supply of polyamines to the dividing cells in the crypts, and polyamines also regulate intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis. Although the specific molecular processes controlled by polyamines remains to be fully defined, increasing evidence indicates that polyamines regulate intestinal epithelial integrity by modulating the expression of various growth-related genes. In this review, we will extrapolate the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the roles of polyamines in gut mucosal homeostasis and highlight progress in cellular and molecular mechanisms of polyamines and their potential clinical applications. PMID:25237589

Timmons, Jennifer; Chang, Elizabeth T.; Wang, Jian-Ying; Rao, Jaladanki N.

2012-01-01

112

Mucosal immunology of HIV infection.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection, but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicting severe damage to mucosal barriers, resulting in tissue infiltration of 'symbiotic' intestinal bacteria and viruses that essentially become opportunistic infections promoting systemic immune activation. This leads to activation and recruitment or more target cells for perpetuating HIV infection, resulting in persistent, high-level viral replication in lymphoid tissues, rapid evolution of resistant strains, and continued evasion of immune responses. However, vaccine studies and studies of spontaneous controllers are finally providing correlates of immunity from protection and disease progression, including virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses, binding anti-bodies, innate immune responses, and generation of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Emerging correlates of immunity indicate that prevention of HIV infection may be possible through effective vaccine strategies that protect and stimulate key regulatory cells and immune responses in susceptible hosts. Furthermore, immune therapies specifically directed toward boosting specific aspects of the immune system may eventually lead to a cure for HIV-infected patients. PMID:23772612

Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S

2013-07-01

113

Evaluation through literature data on standardized ileal digestibility and basal ileal endogenous loss of amino acids associated with barley in pigs.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) and the basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses (IAAend) in barley for growing pigs. In total, 38 different barley treatments published in 26 peer-reviewed papers were used for the meta-analysis containing information on dietary composition including amino acid (AA) contents of the assay diets, and (or) barley samples, as well as apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA in barley. The SID of AA was determined by either correcting AID of AA for their IAAend or by regression analysis between the apparent ileal digestible and total dietary AA contents. The SID values obtained by correcting the AID values for their IAAend amounted to 70%, 77%, 74% and 63% for Lys, Met, Thr and Trp, whereas those based on regression analysis method were 82%, 82%, 69% and 55%, respectively. Estimates of basal ileal endogenous loss of CP in ileal digesta varied considerably and averaged 11.84 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), whereas IAAend for indispensable AA ranged from 0.05 g/kg DMI for Trp to 1.90 g/kg DMI for Leu. In most cases, these estimates were considerably higher than previously reported values for IAAend. The results of the present regression analysis indicate for most AA higher SID values compared with SID of most AA that were obtained by correcting AID values for IAAend. In view of the observed high variations in IAAend and the low CP content of the barley samples, estimating SID of AA based on literature data by means of the regression method may improve accuracy of SID coefficients for barley. In contrast, transformation of AID values into their corresponding SID values by using a constant correction factor for IAAend adds an additional source of error, thereby reducing the precision in estimating SID of AA. PMID:24923302

Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Eklund, M

2014-10-01

114

The Ileal Lipid Binding Protein Is Required for Efficient Absorption and Transport of Bile Acids in the Distal Portion of the Murine Small Intestine  

PubMed Central

The ileal lipid binding protein (ilbp) is a cytoplasmic protein that binds bile acids with high affinity. However evidence demonstrating the role of this protein in bile acid transport and homeostasis is missing. We created a mouse strain lacking ilbp (Fabp6?/? mice) and assessed the impact of ilbp deficiency on bile acid homeostasis and transport in vivo. Elimination of ilbp increased fecal bile acid excretion (54.2%, P<0.05) in female but not male Fabp6?/? mice. The activity of cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (cyp7a1), the rate-controlling enzyme of the classical bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was significantly increased in female (63.5%, P<0.05) but not in male Fabp6?/? mice. The amount of [3H]taurocholic acid (TCA) excreted by 24 h after oral administration was 102% (P<0.025) higher for female Fabp6?/? mice whereas it was 57.3% (P<0.01) lower for male Fabp6?/? mice, compared to wild-type mice. The retained fraction of the [3H]TCA localized in the small and large intestines was increased by 22% (P<0.02) and decreased by 62.7% (P<0.01), respectively, in male Fabp6?/? mice relative wild-type mice, whereas no changes were seen in female Fabp6?/? mice. Mucosal to serosal bile acid transport using everted distal gut sacs was decreased by 74% (P<0.03) in both sexes of Fabp6?/? mice as compared to wild-type mice. The results demonstrate that ilbp is involved in the apical to basolateral transport of bile acids in ileal enterocytes, and is vital for the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) in mice. PMID:23251388

Praslickova, Dana; Torchia, Enrique C.; Sugiyama, Michael G.; Magrane, Elijah J.; Zwicker, Brittnee L.; Kolodzieyski, Lev; Agellon, Luis B.

2012-01-01

115

Unusual production of glutathione in Actinobacteria  

PubMed Central

Most Actinobacteria produce mycothiol as the major thiol. In addition to mycothiol Rhodococcus AD45 generates a substantial level of glutathione possibly using genes acquired in a lateral transfer. Instead of mycothiol, Rubrobacter radiotolerans and Rubrobacter xylanophilus produce glutathione, whose synthesis appears to involve enzymes substantially different from those in other organisms. PMID:18719892

Johnson, Todd; Newton, Gerald; Fahey, R.C.; Rawat, Mamta

2008-01-01

116

Linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems in platyhelminths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thioredoxin and glutathione systems play a central role in thiol-disulfide redox homeostasis in many organisms by providing electrons to essential enzymes, and defence against oxidative stress. These systems have recently been characterized in platyhelminth parasites, and the emerging biochemical scenario is the existence of linked processes with the enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase supplying reducing equivalents to both pathways. In

Gustavo Salinas; Murray E. Selkirk; Cora Chalar; Rick M. Maizels; Cecilia Fernández

2004-01-01

117

Role of glutathione transferases in herbicide detoxification in weeds.  

E-print Network

??Glutathione transferases (GSTs) catalyse the conjugation of the electrophilic herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor and fluorodifen with the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). Maize (Zea mays L), contains… (more)

Hatton, Pamela J.

1996-01-01

118

Changes in glutathione and glutathione metabolizing enzymes in human erythrocytes and lymphocytes as a function of age of donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in animals have demonstrated that glutathione levels and the activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione\\u000a reductase decrease with advanced age in various tissues. We have examined the effects of donor age on erythrocyte and lymphocyte\\u000a levels of these three parameters in human subjects. The results indicate that glutathione content, and glutathione S-transferase\\u000a and glutathione reductase activities, are higher in

S. J. Stohs; F. H. El-Rashidy; T. Lawson; R. H. Kobayashi; B. G. Wulf; J. F. Potter

1984-01-01

119

Effect of Santoquin and oxidized fat on liver and intestinal glutathione in broilers.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine effects of Santoquin (ethoxyquin) and oxidized fat on liver and intestinal reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, and pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) mortality. Male broilers were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of 3.5% normal (NF) or oxidized (OxF) fat with or without ethoxyquin (E). Body weights and feed intake were monitored weekly, and tissues obtained at 3 and 7 wk for GSH and GSSG analysis. Compared to the NF group, NF/E gained more weight during the starter (0 to 3 wk), but not the grower (4 to 7 wk) period. Birds fed NF/E or NF exhibited greater feed efficiency in the starter period and greater gains during the starter and grower periods than birds fed OxF or OxF/E. No differences in PHS mortality between treatments were observed. Birds fed OxF exhibited lower liver GSSG at 3 wk than the other groups, but there were no differences in liver GSH. Duodenal GSH was higher in birds fed OxF/E than in birds of NF group at 3 and 7 wk. Ileal GSH was higher at 3 wk in OxF/E birds than in OxF birds, but no differences were observed at 7 wk. All tissues exhibited higher GSH levels at 7 wk than at 3 wk. Birds fed ethoxyquin, regardless of fat source, exhibited higher duodenal GSH at 3 and 7 wk and higher ileal GSH at 3 wk than birds that did not receive ethoxyquin. Higher GSH would be beneficial by enhancing protection of intestinal cells to deleterious effects of toxins or other forms of oxidative stress. PMID:9200231

Wang, S Y; Bottje, W; Maynard, P; Dibner, J; Shermer, W

1997-07-01

120

Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed. PMID:22380827

Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

2012-01-01

121

Oral mucosal diseases: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid. PMID:25443679

Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P

2014-11-01

122

Mucosal vaccines: recent progress in understanding the natural barriers.  

PubMed

It has long been known that protection against pathogens invading the organism via mucosal surfaces correlates better with the presence of specific antibodies in local secretions than with serum antibodies. The most effective way to induce mucosal immunity is to administer antigens directly to the mucosal surface. The development of vaccines for mucosal application requires antigen delivery systems and immunopotentiators that efficiently facilitate the presentation of the antigen to the mucosal immune system. This review provides an overview of the events within mucosal tissues that lead to protective mucosal immune responses. The understanding of those biological mechanisms, together with knowledge of the technology of vaccines and adjuvants, provides guidance on important technical aspects of mucosal vaccine design. Not being exhaustive, this review also provides information related to modern adjuvants, including polymeric delivery systems and immunopotentiators. PMID:19953309

Borges, Olga; Lebre, Filipa; Bento, Dulce; Borchard, Gerrit; Junginger, Hans E

2010-02-01

123

The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.  

PubMed

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a refrigerator. After precipitation, the urine was decanted. The residue was stirred to a homogeneous suspension. To samples of 4.5 ml mucus, 0.5 ml NAC 10% was added. To the control sample, 0.5 ml water was added. The samples were incubated in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 5, 30 and 60 min. Viscosity was measured in the Bohlin VOR Rheometer. The viscosity of the ileal neobladder mucus decreased quickly after incubating with NAC 10%. Viscosity increased slightly after I h of incubation. The viscosity in the control sample was higher than in the other incubated samples. NAC was found to decrease the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus, supporting the in vivo experience that NAC can be useful in patients with an ileal neobladder to facilitate the evacuation of mucus by decreasing viscosity. PMID:12088194

Schrier, B P; Lichtendonk, W J; Witjes, J A

2002-05-01

124

Risk of ileal pouch neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis  

PubMed Central

Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common surgical option for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch mucosa over time, and even carcinoma in the pouch has been reported. We therefore reviewed the prevalence, nature, and treatment of adenomas and carcinoma that develop after proctocolectomy in the ileal pouch mucosa in patients with FAP. In 25 reports that were reviewed, the incidence of adenomas in the ileal pouch varied from 6.7% to 73.9%. Several potential factors that favor the development of pouch polyposis have been investigated, but many remain controversial. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the age of the pouch is important. The risk appears to be 7% to 16% after 5 years, 35% to 42% after 10 years, and 75% after 15 years. On the other hand, only 21 cases of ileal pouch carcinoma have been recorded in the literature to date. The diagnosis of pouch carcinoma was made between 3 to 20 years (median, 10 years) after pouch construction. Although the risk of malignant transformation in ileal pouches is probably low, it is not negligible, and the long-term risk cannot presently be well quantified. Regular endoscopic surveillance, especially using chromoendoscopy, is recommended. PMID:24187452

Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yamao, Kenji

2013-01-01

125

Vegetable cells in urinary samples of patients with bricker ileal conduit.  

PubMed

During routine cytopathological evaluation of urines for malignant cells we have occasionally noticed vegetable cells that were only present in patients with Bricker ileal conduit. We wanted to identify the means and sources of contamination of urinary samples from these patients. During the period between May and November 2010, 637 urinary samples were routinely evaluated for malignant cells. Among them were 13 urinary samples from Bricker ileal conduit which we rescreened. We prepared all urinary samples by membrane filtration and stained them according to Papanicolaou. Subsequently, we prepared samples from ostomy adhesives made by Coloplast and by ConvaTec which are used to secure the ostomy bag onto urostomy. We also took samples from different constituents (hydrocolloids) of ostomy adhesives. On the cytopathological review, we found vegetable cells along with intestinal mucosa cells in urinary samples of seven patients with Bricker ileal conduit. With the light microscopic examination of the samples prepared from different ostomy adhesives, we found vegetable cells only in Coloplast adhesives. In preparations of hydrocolloids, we found vegetable cells only in guar gum. They were morphologically identical to those found in urine samples of patients with Bricker ileal conduit and in Sensura and Sensura Xpro (Coloplast) ostomy adhesives. We determined that the origin of vegetable cells in urines from Bricker ileal conduit is the ostomy adhesive. The vegetable cells differ from human intestinal epithelial cells regarding size, shape, and color so it is difficult to misinterpret them as dysplastic cells. PMID:23687081

Planinšek, Tanja; Kladnik, Aleš; Pohar-Marinšek, Ziva; Fležar, Margareta Strojan

2014-02-01

126

Plasma Cell Mucositis of Oro- and Hypopharynx: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective. To raise awareness of plasma cell mucositis as a rare differential diagnosis for oral mucosal ulceration and its macroscopic similarity to malignancy. Method. We report a patient who presented with oral features suggestive of malignancy. A biopsy revealed plasma cell mucositis. Results. The patient successfully had a full excision of one lesion and a spontaneous resolution of the other. Conclusion. With the increasing incidence of oral mucosal pathology, physicians should be aware of this differential diagnosis. PMID:22953106

Puvanendran, Mark; Lieder, Anja; Issing, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

127

Glutathione, Glutathione-Related Enzymes, and Catalase Activities in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this work was to provide basic data on the antioxidant defences in the annelid Eisenia fetida andrei (E. f. a.). Methods for measurement of three antioxidant enzymes—catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione\\u000a reductase (GR)—and of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were optimized. GPX activity differed according to the substrate used:\\u000a cumene hydroperoxide (CUOOH) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The

M. Saint-Denis; F. Labrot; J. F. Narbonne; D. Ribera

1998-01-01

128

Role of mast cells in gastrointestinal mucosal defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Gastrointestinal mucosal defense II. Mast cells II.1. Morphology II.2. Origin II.3. Subtypes and heterogeneity II.4. Mediators III. Mast cells and gastrointestinal mucosal defense IV. Mast cell stabilizers and gastrointestinal mucosal defense V. Intestinal mast cells in response to dehydroleucodine References ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review, based on studies from our laboratory as well as from others, is to

ALICIA B. PENISSI; MARÍA I. RUDOLPH; RAMÓN S. PIEZZI

2003-01-01

129

Effect of garlic on the hepatic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was attempted to observe the effect of garlic on the hepatic glutathione s-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity\\u000a in this study. Glutathione s-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18) are thought to play a physiological role in initiating the detoxication\\u000a of potential alkylating agents, inclnding pharmacologically active compounds. Glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) might play\\u000a an important role in the protection of cellular structures against

Keun Huh; Jong-Min Park; Sang-Il Lee

1985-01-01

130

Mechanisms of Neonatal Mucosal Antibody Protection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following an abrupt transition at birth from the sterile uterus to an environment with abundant commensal and pathogenic microbes, neonatal mammals are protected by maternal antibodies at mucosal surfaces. We show in mice that different antibody isotypes work in distinct ways to protect the neonatal...

131

Mucosal and glandular distribution of immunoglobulin components  

PubMed Central

Precise immunohistochemical information about the mucosal distribution of diffusible immunoglobulin (Ig) components and the local occurrence of Ig-containing cells can be obtained by studying in parallel directly fixed and saline-extracted biopsy specimens. This combined approach is useful for evaluating systemic and local contributions to the mucosal Ig supply in patients with immunodeficiency. Their mucosal populations of Ig-bearing cells can also be demonstrated immunohistochemically. A new model for the secretory Ig system is based on experience with this technique applied to normal mucosal specimens from various levels of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The serous-type secretory epithelial cell produces secretory component (SC) and is also responsible for the selective external transfer and molecular completion of secretory IgA and secretory IgM. Cell surface-associated SC most likely mediates the epithelial affinity for dimeric IgA and 19S IgM, and Ig—SC complexes are probably formed and mobilized in the cell membrane; they may then reach the cytoplasm outside the Golgi apparatus by pinocytosis or facilitated diffusion. The composite molecules finally appear to be extruded into the gland lumen along a general secretory pathway. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4604796

Brandtzaeg, P.

1974-01-01

132

Mucosal cytokine network in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are characterized by ongoing mucosal inflammation in which dysfunction of the host immunologic response against dietary factors and commensal bacteria is involved. The chronic in- flammatory process leads to disruption of the epithelial barrier, and the formation of epithelial ulceration. This permits easy access for the luminal microbiota and

Akira Andoh; Yuhki Yagi; Makoto Shioya; Atsushi Nishida; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Yoshihide Fujiyama

2008-01-01

133

Characterization of mucosal Candida albicans biofilms.  

PubMed

C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the alimentary tract mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Although the ability of C. albicans to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces has been well documented in recent years, no information exists on biofilms that form directly on mucosal surfaces. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure and composition of Candida biofilms forming on the oral mucosa. We found that oral Candida biofilms consist of yeast, hyphae, and commensal bacteria, with keratin dispersed in the intercellular spaces. Neutrophils migrate through the oral mucosa and form nests within the biofilm mass. The cell wall polysaccharide beta-glucan is exposed during mucosal biofilm growth and is more uniformly present on the surface of biofilm organisms invading the oral mucosa. We conclude that C. albicans forms complex mucosal biofilms consisting of both commensal bacterial flora and host components. These discoveries are important since they can prompt a shift of focus for current research in investigating the role of Candida-bacterial interactions in the pathogenesis of mucosal infections as well as the role of beta-glucan mediated signaling in the host response. PMID:19956771

Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Kashleva, Helena; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Diaz, Patricia; Vasilakos, John

2009-01-01

134

Oral Mucositis: understanding the pathology and management  

PubMed Central

Oral Mucositis is a common complication of cancer therapy which may limit the completion of treatment and affect the quality of life of the patient. As we have come to understand its pathogenesis new developments in its management and prevention have allowed us minimize this side effect. PMID:23935285

Georgiou, M; Patapatiou, G; Domoxoudis, S; Pistevou-Gompaki, K; Papanikolaou, A

2012-01-01

135

Laparoscopy-Assisted Resection of Ileocecal Intussusception Caused by Ileal Pedunculated Lipoma  

PubMed Central

We report on a case of ileal lipoma that prolapsed into the ascending colon and was resected by laparoscopy-assisted surgery. A 31-year-old male Japanese patient was admitted to our hospital because of hematochezia and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated polyp arising from the ileum. The surface was covered with slightly edematous mucosa. Abdominal computed tomography showed a low-density mass in the ascending colon. A diagnosis of pedunculated ileal lipoma with intussusception was made, and laparoscopy-assisted surgery was performed. The intussusception was reducted by resection of the lipoma. The surgical specimen was a 40 × 30 × 25 mm round tumor with a long stalk 11 cm in length. Microscopic examination of the specimen revealed ileal lipoma. Laparoscopic surgery is recommended for benign tumors of the small intestine because it is minimally invasive. PMID:24229019

Saito, Kana; Osawa, Hidenobu; Morohara, Koji; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kimura, Shintaro; Okada, Akiko; Sakai, Makoto; Wada, Wataru; Yasuda, Naokuni; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

136

Laparoscopy-assisted resection of ileocecal intussusception caused by ileal pedunculated lipoma.  

PubMed

We report on a case of ileal lipoma that prolapsed into the ascending colon and was resected by laparoscopy-assisted surgery. A 31-year-old male Japanese patient was admitted to our hospital because of hematochezia and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated polyp arising from the ileum. The surface was covered with slightly edematous mucosa. Abdominal computed tomography showed a low-density mass in the ascending colon. A diagnosis of pedunculated ileal lipoma with intussusception was made, and laparoscopy-assisted surgery was performed. The intussusception was reducted by resection of the lipoma. The surgical specimen was a 40 × 30 × 25 mm round tumor with a long stalk 11 cm in length. Microscopic examination of the specimen revealed ileal lipoma. Laparoscopic surgery is recommended for benign tumors of the small intestine because it is minimally invasive. PMID:24229019

Saito, Kana; Osawa, Hidenobu; Morohara, Koji; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kimura, Shintaro; Okada, Akiko; Sakai, Makoto; Wada, Wataru; Yasuda, Naokuni; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

137

Laparoscopic management of a small bowel herniation from an ileal conduit: report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Bladder carcinoma can be treated with cystectomy and urinary diversion. Ileal conduit is a popular technique, originally performed with closure of all mesenteric and peritoneal defects to minimize internal herniation. Recent advances in laparoscopic and robotic techniques often leave these defects open. We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman with a small bowel entrapment underneath an intraperitoneal ileal conduit and ureter causing obstruction. This internal hernia occurred 2 months after undergoing a DaVinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic cystoprostatectomy with an ileal conduit. Bowel obstruction is an important complication associated with the need for reoperation and patient mortality. Historical review shows a precedent for closure of the mesenteric defect, obliterating the peritoneal defect in the right lumbar gutter, and suturing the ileal conduit to the posterior peritoneum to prevent potential internal hernias. The literature involving ileal conduits is examined for consensus on the preferred method of treating these potential spaces. PMID:23579536

Coughlin, Lisa M; Orr, Dennis P

2013-04-01

138

Mucosal vaccines: non toxic derivatives of LT and CT as mucosal adjuvants.  

PubMed

Most vaccines are still delivered by injection. Mucosal vaccination would increase compliance and decrease the risk of spread of infectious diseases due to contaminated syringes. However, most vaccines are unable to induce immune responses when administered mucosally, and require the use of strong adjuvant on effective delivery systems. Cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) are powerful mucosal adjuvants when co-administered with soluble antigens. However, their use in humans is hampered by their extremely high toxicity. During the past few years, site-directed mutagenesis has permitted the generation of LT and CT mutants fully non toxic or with dramatically reduced toxicity, which still retain their strong adjuvanticity at the mucosal level. Among these mutants, are LTK63 (serine-to-lysine substitution at position 63 in the A subunit) and LTR72 (alanine-to-arginine substitution at position 72 in the A subunit). The first is fully non toxic, whereas the latter retains some residual enzymatic activity. Both of them are extremely active as mucosal adjuvants, being able to induce very high titers of antibodies specific for the antigen with which they are co-administered. Both mutants have now been tested as mucosal adjuvants in different animal species using a wide variety of antigens. Interestingly, mucosal delivery (nasal or oral) of antigens together with LTK63 or LTR72 mutants also conferred protection against challenge in appropriate animal models (e.g. tetanus, Helicobacter pylori, pertussis, pneumococci, influenza, etc). In conclusion, these LTK63 and LTR72 mutants are safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines at the mucosal level, and will be tested soon in humans. PMID:11257389

Pizza, M; Giuliani, M M; Fontana, M R; Monaci, E; Douce, G; Dougan, G; Mills, K H; Rappuoli, R; Del Giudice, G

2001-03-21

139

Ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy-the experience in China  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility and long-term functional outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy. METHODS: From January 2002 to March 2011, fourty-five patients underwent ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique and the clinical data obtained for these patients were reviewed. RESULTS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 29) and familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 16) underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy. Twenty-eight patients underwent one-stage restorative proctocolectomy, ileal pouch anal anastomosis, protective ileostomy and the ileostomy was closed 4-12 mo postoperatively. Two-stage procedures were performed in seventeen urgent patients, proctectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis were completed after previous colectomy with ileostomy. Morbidity within the first 30 d of surgery occurred in 10 (22.2%) patients, all of them could be treated conservatively. During the median follow-up of 65 mo, mild to moderate anastomotic narrowing was occurred in 4 patients, one patient developed persistent anastomotic stricture and need surgical intervention. Thirty-five percent of patients developed at least 1 episode of pouchitis. There was no incontinence in our patients, the median functional Oresland score was 6, 3 and 2 after 1 year, 2.5 years and 5 years respectively. Nearly half patients (44.4%) reported “moderate functioning”, 37.7% reported “good functioning”, whereas in 17.7% of patients “poor functioning” was observed after 1 year. Five years later, 79.2% of patients with good function, 16.7% with moderate function, only 4.2% of patients with poor function. CONCLUSION: The results of ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique are promising, with a low complication rate and good long-term functional results. PMID:23483639

Zhang, Ya-Jie; Han, Yi; Lin, Mou-Bin; He, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Hao-Bo; Yin, Lu; Huang, Liang

2013-01-01

140

Jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches in pigs differ in their postnatal development.  

PubMed

The postnatal development of the jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches was studied before and after weaning in 1-, 1.5- and 2-month-old pigs. The follicles of the jejunal Peyer's patches grew with age and were two times longer and wider in specified pathogen-free and conventional pigs than in germ-free animals, thus indicating an influence of the living microbial antigens from the gut lumen. In germ-free pigs the size of the ileal Peyer's patch follicles increased between the 1st and 2nd month, whereas in the specified pathogen-free and conventional animals these follicles were comparable in size in all three age groups. In 1- to 1.5-month-old pigs the interfollicular area of jejunal Peyer's patches was wider (0.1 +/- 0.04 mm) than that of the ileal Peyer's patch (0.04 +/- 0.03 mm). Immunohistological studies showed that in germ-free pigs preferentially surface IgM+ but few IgA+ B cells were present in the follicles, domes and dome epithelia. In specified pathogen-free and conventional pigs the B cells expressed different levels of surface or cytoplasmic IgM or IgA. In all groups studied, more T cells were observed in the jejunal than in the ileal Peyer's patch. Here, few T lymphocytes were found because of the small interfollicular areas. Small numbers of Null cells were distributed in the interfollicular regions of all animals. The results show that living microbial antigens have a major influence on the jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches in pigs. The morphological differences between the two types of Peyer's patches are an indication that they develop differently during postnatal life. So far it remains unclear whether these morphological differences reflect a specific function of the pig's ileal Peyer's patch, such as the expansion of the genetically determined B cell repertoire as has been reported for sheep. PMID:9006714

Barman, N N; Bianchi, A T; Zwart, R J; Pabst, R; Rothkötter, H J

1997-01-01

141

Strategies of mucosal immunotherapy for allergic diseases  

PubMed Central

Incidences of allergic disease have recently increased worldwide. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has long been a controversial treatment for allergic diseases. Although beneficial effects on clinically relevant outcomes have been demonstrated in clinical trials by subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), there remains a risk of severe and sometimes fatal anaphylaxis. Mucosal immunotherapy is one advantageous choice because of its non-injection routes of administration and lower side-effect profile. This study reviews recent progress in mucosal immunotherapy for allergic diseases. Administration routes, antigen quality and quantity, and adjuvants used are major considerations in this field. Also, direct uses of unique probiotics, or specific cytokines, have been discussed. Furthermore, some researchers have reported new therapeutic ideas that combine two or more strategies. The most important strategy for development of mucosal therapies for allergic diseases is the improvement of antigen formulation, which includes continuous searching for efficient adjuvants, collecting more information about dominant T-cell epitopes of allergens, and having the proper combination of each. In clinics, when compared to other mucosal routes, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a preferred choice for therapeutic administration, although local and systemic side effects have been reported. Additionally, not every allergen has the same beneficial effect. Further studies are needed to determine the benefits of mucosal immunotherapy for different allergic diseases after comparison of the different administration routes in children and adults. Data collected from large, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and randomized trials, with post-treatment follow-up, can provide robust substantiation of current evidence. PMID:21666705

Ye, Yi-Ling; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

2011-01-01

142

Endonasal mucosal contact points in chronic migraine.  

PubMed

Some anatomo-functional alterations of the nose may be considered as possible causes of headache: deviations of the nasal septum, abnormal turbinates, especially middle or superior, with consequent areas of mucosal contact with the septum. This study was performed on 100 subjects, 27 chronic migraine (CM) sufferers and 73 subjects who never suffered from migraine as control group. In the CM group, a direct endoscopic assessment was carried out in order to search for mucosal points of contact. Following the endoscopy, the patients underwent a computerized tomography (CT) in order to confirm the mucosal contact and for a better evaluation of its localization. The control group (C group) consisted of subjects who underwent a CT of the skull for various reasons. In CM group, a mucosal contact was highlighted in 14 patients (51.8 %); it was unilateral in 50 % of cases. In C group, the contact was present in 27 cases (36.9 %); in 81.5 % of them (n = 22), it was unilateral. A single site of contact was present in 6 (22 %) patients in CM group and 20 (27.3 %) patients in C group; more sites, in 8 (29.6 %) CM group patients and in 7 (9.5 %) patients of the C group. The connection between subjects and the number of single or multiple contacts in the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.049). Furthermore, the frequency of the septum-middle turbinate was significantly (p = 0.0013) more frequent in CM sufferers (13/14) compared with control subjects (11/27). This study suggests, although with extremely early data, the need to select carefully patients for a possible surgical approach, using various parameters: in particular, the site of the mucosal contact, favoring the cases with multiple areas of contact, mainly between septum-middle turbinate and septum-superior turbinate. PMID:24867843

Ferrero, V; Allais, G; Rolando, S; Pozzo, T; Allais, R; Benedetto, C

2014-05-01

143

Can a meta-analysis answer the question: is mucosectomy and handsewn or double-stapled anastomosis better in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis?  

PubMed

Although ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the procedure of choice for polyposis and ulcerative colitis with medically refractory disease or dysplasia, controversy exists concerning whether mucosal preservation with double-stapled (DS) IPAA is superior to mucosectomy and handsewn (HS) IPAA anastomosis for postoperative function. Prospective studies have shown no statistically significant differences. The use of meta-analysis can strengthen statistical power by combining the data from related studies. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference in functional and manometric outcome between HS-IPAA and DS-IPAA. Prospective, randomized studies were identified using a literature search. Functional outcome variables included number of normal continence, minor incontinence, nocturnal evacuation, the ability to discriminate flatus from stool, and antidiarrheal medication. Manometric outcomes included postoperative resting and squeeze anal pressures. Four prospective, randomized trials were identified. Of the 184 total patients, the HS-IPAA group included 86 patients (48 men and 38 women) and the DS-IPAA group included 98 patients (49 men and 49 women). There were no significant differences in functional outcome between HS-IPAA and DS-IPAA. In addition, there was no significant difference in sphincter resting and squeeze pressures between the two patient groups. This meta-analysis demonstrates that DS-IPAA offers no advantage in functional or manometric outcome when compared with HS-IPAA. PMID:17058734

Schluender, Stefanie J; Mei, Ling; Yang, Huiying; Fleshner, Phillip R

2006-10-01

144

N-Nitrosamines and their effects on the level of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the liver of male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the influence of different chemical structure of N-nitroso compounds on the hepatic level of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GSH-R) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in the liver of male Balb\\/C mice after treatment with 20 mg\\/kg body weight of each compound for 1 h as a single dose. The level of reduced glutathione decreased significantly

Salah A. Sheweita; Mostafa H. Mostafa

1996-01-01

145

Heavy Metal-Induced Changes in the Glutathione Levels and Glutathione Reductase/Glutathione S-Transferase Activities in the Liver of Male Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases catalyze the metabolism of reactive substances of exogenous or endogenous origin and are involved in inactivation processes of xenobiotics and their metabolites. The present study aims at investigating the influence of heavy metals on the hepatic level of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase activities in the liver of male mice after single-dose (1 and 24

Salah A. Sheweita

1998-01-01

146

Effects of lactoferrin supplementation on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal microbial populations, and immune characteristics of ileal cannulated, healthy, adult dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orally supplemented lactoferrin derived from bovine milk is purported to have beneficial effects on gut health of animals. Bovine lactoferrin (0, 60, or 120 mg\\/d) was fed to ileal cannulated, adult dogs in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14 d periods. Control dogs tended (p = 0.06) to have higher fecal DM concentrations compared with dogs supplemented with 120 mg\\/d lactoferrin (34.5

Lynda L. Pope; Elizabeth A. Flickinger; Lisa K. Karr-Lilienthal; Julie K. Spears; Stephanie Krammer; George C. Fahey Jr

2006-01-01

147

DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the effect of fluoride on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as cell cycle of rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Ten male SD rats weighing 80~120 g were randomly divided into control group and fluoride group, 5 animals each group. The animals in fluoride group had free access to deionized water containing 150 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF). The animals in control group were given distilled water. Four weeks later, the animals were killed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oral mucosa and liver were measured by Fenton reaction, lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), was detected by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction, reduced glutathione (GSH) was assayed by dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) reaction. DNA damage in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes was determined by single cell gel (SCG) electrophoresis or comet assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The contents of ROS and MDA in oral mucosa and liver tissue of fluoride group were significantly higher than those of control group (P?mucosal cells and 44.80% in hepatocytes, higher than those in the control group (P mucosal cells was (13.63?±?1.81) % in fluoride group, and (12.76?±?1.67) % in hepatocytes, higher than those in control group. Excess fluoride could differently lower the number of oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes at G0/G1 and S G2/M phases (P?mucosal cells and hepatocytes. PMID:16534862

He, Ling-Fei; Chen, Jian-Gang

2006-01-01

148

Factors associated with development of ileal impaction in horses with surgical colic: 78 cases (1986-2000).  

PubMed

Deal impaction is prevalent in the south-eastern USA, where feeding of Coastal Bermuda hay has been implicated as a risk factor. Alternatively, infection with the tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata has been identified as a risk factor for ileal impaction in the UK. We hypothesised that feeding Coastal Bermuda hay and failure to administer routinely an anthelmintic with efficacy against tapeworms would place horses at risk of developing ileal impaction in the USA. Seventy-eight horses, with surgically confirmed ileal impaction and 100 horses admitted for colic that did not have an ileal impaction, were selected retrospectively for logistic regression analysis. Using odds ratios (OR) as an index of risk, feeding Coastal Bermuda hay (OR = 2.9) and failure to administer a pyrantel salt within 3 months of admission (OR = 3.1) placed horses at risk of development of ileal impaction. This study confirms the belief that feeding Coastal Bermuda hay places horses at risk of ileal impaction, although the quality of the hay may also play a role. Periodic administration of anthelmintics with efficacy against tapeworms should be considered to reduce risk of ileal impaction. PMID:12358048

Little, D; Blikslager, A T

2002-07-01

149

An assessment of inflammation in the reservoir after restorative proctocolectomy with ileoanal ileal reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of inflammation of the mucosa of the ileal reservoir after restorative proctocolectomy is not known although in some cases it appears to be associated with symptoms when the condition has been referred to as pouchitis. This investigation has aimed to determine the prevalence of inflammation, to define pouchitis and to examine some factors which might be related to

R. L. Moskowitz; N. A. Shepherd; R. J. Nicholls

1986-01-01

150

A Comparative Study between the Outcome of Primary Repair versus Loop Ileostomy in Ileal Perforation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Ileal perforation peritonitis is a common surgical emergency in the Indian subcontinent and in tropical countries. It is reported to constitute the fifth common cause of abdominal emergencies due to high incidence of enteric fever and tuberculosis in these regions. Methods. Sixty proven cases of ileal perforation patients admitted to Surgical Emergency were taken up for emergency surgery. Randomisation was done by senior surgeons by picking up card from both the groups. The surgical management was done as primary repair (group A) and loop ileostomy (group B). Results. An increased rate of postoperative complications was seen in group A when compared with group B with 6 (20%) patients landed up in peritonitis secondary to leakage from primary repair requiring reoperation as compared to 2 (6.67%) in ileostomy closure. A ratio of 1?:?1.51 days was observed between hospital stay of group A to group B. Conclusion. In cases of ileal perforation temporary defunctioning loop ileostomy plays an important role. We recommend that defunctioning ileostomy should be preferred over other surgical options in cases of ileal perforations. It should be recommended that ileostomy in these cases is only temporary and the extra cost and cost of management are not more than the price of life. PMID:25374961

Mittal, Sushil; Singh, Harnam; Munghate, Anand; Singh, Gurpreet; Garg, Anjna; Sharma, Jyoti

2014-01-01

151

Paclitaxel-induced stomal neuropathy: a unique cause of pain in a patient with ileal conduit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of unusual chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity in a patient who had undergone radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal conduit diversion for invasive bladder cancer. On routine computed tomography scan several years later, he was diagnosed with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma involving the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The patient received systemic chemotherapy, including a combination of paclitaxel (Taxol) and gemcitabine (Gemzar). During

Menachem Laufer; Mark P Schoenberg; Mario A Eisenberger

2000-01-01

152

Dysplasia in perforated intestinal pneumatosis complicating a previous jejuno-ileal bypass: A cautionary note  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the case of an elderly woman who devel- oped a bowel perforation related to pneumatosis intes- tinalis, 33 years after a jejuno-ileal bypass for severe obesity. Final histological examination revealed the presence of dysplasia in the resected specimen. On the basis of our case and a review of the literature, we discuss the etiopathogenesis, the clinical aspects and

Nazario Portolani; Gian Luca Baiocchi; Stefano Gadaldi; Simona Fisogni; Vincenzo Villanacci

2009-01-01

153

Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5?mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200?mg/kg) was administered to rats 2?h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000?mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2012-01-01

154

Comparison of ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility of dry dog foods.  

PubMed

The apparent total tract and ileal digestibility assays to measure AA absorption in commercial canine diets were compared in the present study. Five ileal cannulated dogs were fed 5 commercial dry canine foods selected to contain 19 to 30% CP in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Ileal and total tract digestibility (apparent and standardized) of DM, OM, CP, crude fat (CF), carbohydrate, and AA (including reactive Lys) were calculated using Cr2O3 as an indigestible marker. Greater apparent total tract digestibility values were found for DM, OM, and CP (P ? 0.034) compared with ileal digestibility values; however, CF (P = 0.058) had a greater ileal apparent digestibility. Apparent and standardized CP digestibility values were, respectively, 5.7 and 7.4 percentage units greater when measured over the total digestive tract compared with measurement at the ileum (P = 0.034 and 0.011, respectively). Ileal apparent digestibility for N of AA (P = 0.009) and most AA (P < 0.05), except for Met, Ile, Lys, Phe, and Ala, was decreased if measured at the ileum. However, correction for endogenous losses showed only Met digestibility did not differ between measurement sites. Differences between sites in excess of 15 percentage units were recorded for AA. Apparent and standardized ileal reactive Lys digestibility was 3.1 to 15.3 percentage units greater than corresponding total tract digestibility values. For several indispensable AA, the bioavailability estimates currently used by the 2006 NRC and the 2011 Association of American Feed Control Officials to derive allowance estimates for canine adult maintenance were greater than the digestibility values of these AA in the commercial dog foods evaluated. Although the canine large intestine is relatively short, the total tract digestibility assay in dogs can overestimate the digestibility of dietary AA and CP and may not be an accurate method for the measurement of absorption. In this study, bioavailability estimates of AA appeared to be less than those used to derive allowance estimates for commercial dog foods. Further work is required if current recommendations warrant adjustment. PMID:23881684

Hendriks, W H; Thomas, D G; Bosch, G; Fahey, G C

2013-08-01

155

Glutathione Metabolism and Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition when the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone, or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism and functional interactions of glutathione, and discuss how this relates to protection of dopaminergic neurons from oxidative damage and its therapeutic potential in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23665395

Smeyne, Michelle

2013-01-01

156

Efflux of glutathione and glutathione complexes from human erythrocytes in response to vanadate.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to investigate if vanadate is extruded from the cells in a glutathione dependent manner resulting in the appearance of extracellular glutathione and complexes of glutathione with vanadium. Vanadate significantly depleted intracellular non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The intracellular NPSH level was decreased to 0.0 ± 0.0 ?mol/ml erythrocyte when exposed to 10 mM of vanadate for 4h. Extracellular NPSH level was increased concomitantly with the intracellular decrease and reached to 0.1410 ± 0.005 ?mol/ml erythrocyte in 4h. Intracellular decrease and extracellular increase in NPSH levels were significantly inhibited in the presence of DIDS, a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger which also mediates phosphate and arsenate transport in erythrocytes. In parallel with the increase in extracellular NPSH levels, significant increases in extracellular glutathione levels were detected following exposure to vanadate. Extracellular glutathione levels reached to 0.0150 ± 0.0.001, 0.0330 ± 0.001, and 0.0576 ± 0.002 ?mol/ml erythrocyte with 1, 5, and 10 mM of vanadate respectively. Dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment of supernatants significantly increased the glutathione levels measured in the extracellular media. Utilization of MK571 an MRP inhibitor decreased the rate of glutathione efflux from erythrocytes suggesting a role for this membrane transporter in the process. A known methylation inhibitor periodate oxidized adenosine decreased the rate of glutathione efflux from erythrocytes. This observed decrease in extracellular GSH levels suggests that GSH release partly requires a proper cellular methylation process and that part of GSH detected in the extracellular media may arise from GSH-vandium complexes. The results of the present study indicate that human erythrocyte efflux glutathione in reduced free form and in conjugated form/s that can be recovered with dimercaptosuccinic acid when exposed to vanadate. PMID:22824382

Cakir, Yeliz; Yildiz, Deniz

2013-01-01

157

Sublingual Delivery of Vaccines for the Induction of Mucosal Immunity  

PubMed Central

The mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to incoming pathogens which can cause infections that result in severe morbidity and/or mortality. Studies have reported that mucosal immunity is important for providing protection against these pathogens and that mucosal vaccination is effective in preventing local infections. For many years, the sublingual mucosa has been targeted to deliver immunotherapy to treat allergic hypersensitivities. However, the potential of vaccine delivery via sublingual mucosal has received little attention until recently. Recent studies exploring such potential have documented the safety and effectiveness of sublingual immunization, demonstrating the ability of sublingual immunization to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses against a variety of antigens, including soluble proteins, inter particulate antigens, and live-attenuated viruses. This review will summarize the recent findings that address the promising potential of sublingual immunization in proving protection against various mucosal pathogens. PMID:23885221

Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choi, Youngjoo; Cheon, In Su

2013-01-01

158

Antibodies and Their Receptors: Different Potential Roles in Mucosal Defense  

PubMed Central

Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that mucosal antibodies are not only restricted to the IgM and IgA isotypes, but that also other isotypes and particularly IgG can be found in significant quantities at some mucosal surfaces, such as in the genital tract. Their role is more complex than traditionally believed with, among other things, the discovery of novel function of mucosal immunoglobulin receptors. A thorough knowledge in the source and function and mucosal immunoglobulins is particularly important in development of vaccines providing mucosal immunity, and also in the current climate of microbicide development, to combat major world health issues such as HIV. We present here a comprehensive review of human antibody mediated mucosal immunity. PMID:23882268

Horton, Rachel E.; Vidarsson, Gestur

2013-01-01

159

Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn seed on gastro-duodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats.  

PubMed

Pongamia pinnata has been advocated in Ayurveda for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions and dyspepsia. The present work includes initial phytochemical screening and study of ulcer protective and healing effects of methanolic extract of seeds of P. pinnata (PPSM) in rats. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of flavonoids in PPSM. PPSM when administered orally (po) showed dose-dependent (12.5-50 mg/kg for 5 days) ulcer protective effects against gastric ulcer induced by 2 h cold restraint stress. Optimal effective dose of PPSM (25 mg/kg) showed antiulcerogenic activity against acute gastric ulcers (GU) induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin and duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine but not against ethanol-induced GU. It healed chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid when given for 5 and 10 days. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters of gastric offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) and defensive mucosal factors like mucin secretion and mucosal cell shedding, glycoproteins, proliferation and antioxidants; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels. PPSM tended to decrease acid output and increased mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins, while it decreased gastric mucosal cell shedding without any effect on cell proliferation. PPSM significantly reversed the increase in gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD levels caused by CRS near to the normal level while it tended to increase CAT and GSH level decreased by CRS and ethanol respectively. Thus, the ulcer protective effects of PPSM may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and the actions may be due to its effects both on mucosal offensive and defensive factors. PMID:19775071

Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, Shalini; Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K

2009-08-01

160

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...used to determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease, glutathione reductase...

2010-04-01

161

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

...determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease, glutathione reductase deficiency, or...

2014-04-01

162

Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

2006-03-01

163

Microbiota and their role in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis in patients undergoing cancer therapy is a significant problem. Its prevalence ranges between 20 and 100%, depending on treatment type and protocols and patient-based variables. Mucositis is self-limiting when uncomplicated by infection. Unfortunately, the incidence of developing a local or systemic infection during the course of the treatment is very high. At this stage, it is unclear which role oral microbiota play in the onset, duration, and severity of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, there is growing interest in this underexplored topic, and new studies are being undertaken to unravel their impact on the pathogenesis of mucositis. PMID:24456144

Vanhoecke, B; De Ryck, T; Stringer, A; Van de Wiele, T; Keefe, D

2015-01-01

164

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis-dermatitis of the eyelid.  

PubMed

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis-dermatitis is a rare mucosal or cutaneous disorder characterized clinically by papules or plaques with variable erosion and microscopically by dense dermal inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous plasma cells. It has been described in the oral and upper aerodigestive tracts, male and female genitalia, and other mucosal surfaces. In this article, the authors describe a case of idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis-dermatitis occurring in the skin of the eyelid that was removed by excisional biopsy and has not recurred in the 19-month follow-up period. PMID:24836448

Gupta, Seema R; Steele, Eric A; Solomon, Alvin R

2014-01-01

165

Minimally invasive surgery for obscure idiopathic ileal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and double balloon endoscopy: report of a case.  

PubMed

Small intestinal bleeding is difficult to detect and can be life-threatening. Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a new, minimally invasive diagnostic procedure designed to detect gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We report the successful management of idiopathic ileal varices by capsule endoscopy and laparoscopic surgery. Massive bleeding occurred suddenly with intermittent melena, and the patient was finally admitted to a local hospital in hypovolemic shock. Her condition was stabilized with conservative therapy but the site of bleeding was not defined by endoscopy, computed tomography, scintigraphy, or angiography. Thus, she was transferred to our hospital. On admission, CE revealed idiopathic ileal varices, so we performed laparoscopic partial ileal resection immediately. Follow-up CE has shown no evidence of recurrence in the 2 years since surgery. Idiopathic ileal varices are rare, difficult to diagnose, and often fatal. Capsule endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure that detects this disorder in time for laparoscopic surgery to be performed effectively and safely. PMID:21046511

Konishi, Hirotaka; Kikuchi, Shojiro; Miyashita, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Kubota, Takeshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Kokuba, Yukihito; Yasukawa, Satoru; Yasukawa, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Akio; Otsuji, Eigo

2010-11-01

166

Anethole dithiolethione prevents oxidative damage in glutathione-depleted astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrocytes protect neurons against reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, a capacity which reportedly is abolished following loss of the antioxidant glutathione. Anethole dithiolethione, a sulfur-containing compound which is used in humans, is known to increase cellular glutathione levels and thought thereby to protect against oxidative damage. In the present study we found that anethole dithiolethione increased the glutathione

Benjamin Drukarch; Eric Schepens; Johannes C. Stoof; Cornelis H. Langeveld

1997-01-01

167

Glutathione S-transferases of lung: purification and characterization of human lung glutathione S-transferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases play a major role in the protection of tissues from the toxic effects of exnobiotics and the products\\u000a of lipid peroxidation. In the present studies we demonstrate that human lung has two forms of glutathione (GSH) S-transferase\\u000a having isoelectric pH of 4.9 and 9.2. These anionic and cationic forms represent about 98% and 2% of the total GSH

Catherine A. Partridge; Dat D. Dao; Yogesh C. Awasthi

1984-01-01

168

Dual binding capacity of mucosal immunoblasts to mucosal and synovial endothelium in humans: dissection of the molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Lymphocytes continuously migrate throughout the body in search of antigens. Virgin lymphocytes recirculate freely between the blood and different lymphatic organs, whereas immunoblasts extravasate preferentially into sites similar to those where they initially responded to antigen. Tissue-specific extravasation of lymphocytes is largely controlled by distinct lymphocyte surface receptors that mediate lymphocyte binding to high endothelial venules (HEV). In the present study, the molecular mechanisms determining the specificity of human mucosal (lamina propria) lymphocyte binding to different endothelial recognition systems were analyzed. Mucosal immunoblasts adhered five times better than small mucosal lymphocytes to mucosal HEV. Importantly, mucosal immunoblasts also bound to synovial HEV almost as efficiently as to mucosal HEV, but they did not adhere to peripheral lymph node HEV. To study the impact of different homing- associated molecules in this dual endothelial binding, we used a gut- derived T cell line and freshly isolated mucosal immunoblasts. Both cell types expressed integrins alpha 4, beta 1, beta 7, and lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), and were CD44 positive, but practically L-selectin negative. Binding of mucosal immunoblasts to mucosal HEV was almost completely abolished by pretreatment with anti- beta 7 monoclonal antibodies, but it was independent of alpha 4/beta 1 function. In contrast, alpha 4/beta 1 partially mediated immunoblast adherence to synovial HEV, whereas alpha 4/beta 7 had only a minor role in adherence of blasts at this site. CD44 and LFA-1 contributed to HEV- binding both in mucosa and synovium. Taken together, this is the first report that demonstrates a critical role for alpha 4/beta 7 in the binding of gut lymphocytes to mucosal venules in humans. Moreover, a hitherto unknown interaction between mucosal effector cells and synovial endothelial cells was shown to be only partially mediated by the currently known homing receptors. The dual endothelial binding capacity of mucosal blasts may help to explain the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis not uncommonly associated with inflammatory and infectious bowel disease. PMID:7528765

1995-01-01

169

Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with either a handsewn or a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), with or without mucosectomy. The purpose of these surgeries is to stop progression to an adenoma-cancer sequence by eradicating the colon, a disease prone organ. Unfortunately, these surgical procedures, which excise the entire colon and rectum while maintaining transanal fecal continence, do not guarantee that patients still won't develop adenomas. Based on the available literature, we therefore reviewed reported incidences of pouch-related adenomas that occurred post prophylactic surgery for FAP. The review consists of a collection of case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports. Objectives To provide available data on the natural history of subsequent adenomas after prophylactic surgery (by type) for FAP. Methods A review was conducted of existing case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports for patients undergoing prophylactic surgery for FAP (1975 – August, 2013). In each case, the adenomas were clearly diagnosed in one of the following: the ileal pouch mucosa (above the ileorectal anastomosis), within the anorectal segment (ARS) below the ileorectal anastomosis, or in the afferent ileal loop. Results A total of 515 (36%) patients with pouch-related adenomas have been reported. Two hundred and eleven (211) patients had adenomas in the ileal pouch mucosa, 295 had them in the ARS and in 9 were in the afferent ileal loop. Patients with pouch adenomas without dysplasia or cancer were either endoscopically polypectomized or were treated with a coagulation modality using either a Nd:Yag laser or argon plasma coagulation (as indicated). Patients with dysplastic pouch adenomas or pouch adenomas with cancer had their pouch excised (pouchectomy). Conclusion In patients with FAP treated with IRA or RPC with IPAA, the formation of adenomas in the pouch-body mucosa or ARS/anastomosis and in the afferent ileal loop is apparent. Because of risks for adenoma recurrence, a life time endoscopic pouch-surveillance is warranted. PMID:24817992

M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

2014-01-01

170

Measurement of true ileal digestibility of phosphorus in some feed ingredients for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to estimate the true ileal digestibility of P in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each ingredient (wheat and sorghum: 236.5, 473, 709.5, and 946 g/kg; soybean meal and corn DDGS: 135, 270, 405, and 540 g/kg) to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 16 cages each (5 birds per cage). A total of 320 21-d-old broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to the 16 test diets with 4 replicates per diet. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of P were determined by the indicator method and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficients. The results showed that the apparent ileal P digestibility coefficients of wheat-based diets were not influenced (P>0.05) by increasing dietary P concentrations, whereas those of diets based on sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS differed (P<0.05) at different P concentrations. Apparent ileal P digestibility in broilers fed diets with soybean meal and corn DDGS linearly (P<0.001) increased with increasing P concentrations. True ileal P digestibility coefficients of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 0.464, 0.331, 0.798, and 0.727, respectively. Ileal endogenous P losses in birds fed diets with wheat, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were estimated to be 0.080, 0.609, and 0.418 g/kg DMI, respectively. In birds fed sorghum-based diets, endogenous P losses were estimated to be negative (-0.087 g/kg DMI). True digestible P contents of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 1.49, 0.78, 5.16, and 5.94 g/kg, respectively. The corresponding nonphytate P contents in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were 1.11, 0.55, 2.15, and 4.36 g/kg, respectively. These differences between digestible P and nonphytate P contents may be suggestive, at least in part, of overestimation of P digestibility under the calcium-deficient conditions used in the regression method. PMID:25367524

Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

2014-12-01

171

Mucosal imprinting of vaccine-induced CD8? T cells is crucial to inhibit the growth of mucosal tumors.  

PubMed

Although many human cancers are located in mucosal sites, most cancer vaccines are tested against subcutaneous tumors in preclinical models. We therefore wondered whether mucosa-specific homing instructions to the immune system might influence mucosal tumor outgrowth. We showed that the growth of orthotopic head and neck or lung cancers was inhibited when a cancer vaccine was delivered by the intranasal mucosal route but not the intramuscular route. This antitumor effect was dependent on CD8? T cells. Indeed, only intranasal vaccination elicited mucosal-specific CD8? T cells expressing the mucosal integrin CD49a. Blockade of CD49a decreased intratumoral CD8? T cell infiltration and the efficacy of cancer vaccine on mucosal tumor. We then showed that after intranasal vaccination, dendritic cells from lung parenchyma, but not those from spleen, induced the expression of CD49a on cocultured specific CD8? T cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human mucosal lung cancer also expressed CD49a, which supports the relevance and possible extrapolation of these results in humans. We thus identified a link between the route of vaccination and the induction of a mucosal homing program on induced CD8? T cells that controlled their trafficking. Immunization route directly affected the efficacy of the cancer vaccine to control mucosal tumors. PMID:23408053

Sandoval, Federico; Terme, Magali; Nizard, Mevyn; Badoual, Cécile; Bureau, Michel-Francis; Freyburger, Ludovic; Clement, Olivier; Marcheteau, Elie; Gey, Alain; Fraisse, Guillaume; Bouguin, Cécilia; Merillon, Nathalie; Dransart, Estelle; Tran, Thi; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Autret, Gwennhael; Thiebaud, Marine; Suleman, Muhammad; Suleman, Muhammed; Riffault, Sabine; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Launay, Odile; Danel, Claire; Taieb, Julien; Richardson, Jennifer; Zitvogel, Laurence; Fridman, Wolf H; Johannes, Ludger; Tartour, Eric

2013-02-13

172

Mucosal Imprinting of Vaccine-Induced CD8+ T Cells Is Crucial to Inhibit the Growth of Mucosal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Although many human cancers are located in mucosal sites, most cancer vaccines are tested against subcutaneous tumors in preclinical models. We therefore wondered whether mucosa-specific homing instructions to the immune system might influence mucosal tumor outgrowth. We showed that the growth of orthotopic head and neck or lung cancers was inhibited when a cancer vaccine was delivered by the intranasal mucosal route but not the intramuscular route. This antitumor effect was dependent on CD8+ T cells. Indeed, only intranasal vaccination elicited mucosal-specific CD8+ T cells expressing the mucosal integrin CD49a. Blockade of CD49a decreased intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration and the efficacy of cancer vaccine on mucosal tumor. We then showed that after intranasal vaccination, dendritic cells from lung parenchyma, but not those from spleen, induced the expression of CD49a on cocultured specific CD8+ T cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human mucosal lung cancer also expressed CD49a, which supports the relevance and possible extrapolation of these results in humans. We thus identified a link between the route of vaccination and the induction of a mucosal homing program on induced CD8+ T cells that controlled their trafficking. Immunization route directly affected the efficacy of the cancer vaccine to control mucosal tumors. PMID:23408053

Sandoval, Federico; Bureau, Michel-Francis; Freyburger, Ludovic; Clement, Olivier; Marcheteau, Elie; Gey, Alain; Fraisse, Guillaume; Bouguin, Cécilia; Merillon, Nathalie; Dransart, Estelle; Tran, Thi; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Autret, Gwennhael; Thiebaud, Marine; Suleman, Muhammad; Riffault, Sabine; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Launay, Odile; Danel, Claire; Taieb, Julien; Richardson, Jennifer; Zitvogel, Laurence; Fridman, Wolf H.; Johannes, Ludger; Tartour, Eric

2014-01-01

173

Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital. PMID:24655524

De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

2014-04-01

174

Gastric mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the predominant entity within the primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Helicobacter pylori represents the decisive pathogenetic factor for gastric MALT lymphoma. The goal of treating gastric MALT lymphoma should be complete cure. The first choice of treatment is H pylori eradication. Patients with histologically persistent residual lymphoma after successful H pylori eradication and normalization of endoscopic findings should be managed by a watch-and-wait strategy. Patients who do not respond to H pylori eradication should be referred for radiation or chemotherapy. PMID:23639646

Fischbach, Wolfgang

2013-06-01

175

Generation of Effector Memory T Cell-Based Mucosal and Systemic Immunity with Pulmonary Nanoparticle Vaccination  

E-print Network

Many pathogens infiltrate the body and initiate infection via mucosal surfaces. Hence, eliciting cellular immune responses at mucosal portals of entry is of great interest for vaccine development against mucosal pathogens. ...

Li, Adrienne V.

176

High-protein diet differently modifies intestinal goblet cell characteristics and mucosal cytokine expression in ileum and colon.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that high-protein (HP) diet ingestion causes marked changes in the luminal environment of the colonic epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of such modifications on small intestinal and colonic mucosa, two segments with different transit time and physiological functions. Rats were fed with either normal protein (NP; 14% protein) or HP (53% protein) isocaloric diet for 2 weeks, and parameters related to intestinal mucous-secreting cells and to several innate/adaptive immune characteristics (myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine and epithelial TLR expression, proportion of immune cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues) were measured in the ileum and colon. In ileum from HP animals, we observed hyperplasia of mucus-producing cells concomitant with an increased expression of Muc2 at both gene and protein levels, reduction of mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, down-regulation of Tlr4 gene expression in enterocytes and down-regulation of mucosal Th cytokines associated with CD4+ lymphocyte reduction in mesenteric lymph nodes. These changes coincided with an increased amount of acetate in the ileal luminal content. In colon, HP diet ingestion resulted in a lower number of goblet cells at the epithelial surface but increased goblet cell number in colonic crypts together with an increased Muc3 and a slight reduction of Il-6 gene expression. Our data suggest that HP diet modifies the goblet cell distribution in colon and, in ileum, increases goblet cell activity and decreases parameters related to basal gut inflammatory status. The impact of HP diet on intestinal mucosa in terms of beneficial or deleterious effects is discussed. PMID:25459886

Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Liu, Xinxin; Descatoire, Véronique; Desclée de Maredsous, Caroline; Davila, Anne-Marie; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

2015-01-01

177

Dietary fibre affects intestinal mucosal barrier function and regulates intestinal bacteria in weaning piglets.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fibre source on intestinal mucosal barrier function in weaning piglets. A total of 125 piglets were randomly allotted on the basis of their body weight and litters to one of five experimental diets, i.e. a control diet without fibre source (CT), and diets in which expanded maize was replaced by 10% maize fibre (MF), 10% soyabean fibre (SF), 10% wheat bran fibre (WBF) or 10% pea fibre (PF). The diets and water were fed ad libitum for 30 d. Piglets on the WBF and PF diets had lower diarrhoea incidence compared with the MF- and SF-fed animals. A higher ratio of villous height:crypt depth in the ileum of WBF-fed piglets and higher colonic goblet cells in WBF- and PF-fed piglets were observed compared with CT-, MF- and SF-fed piglets. In the intestinal digesta, feeding WBF and PF resulted in increased Lactobacillus counts in the ileum and Bifidobacterium counts in the colon. Lower Escherichia coli counts occurred in the ileum and colon of WBF-fed piglets than in SF-fed piglets. Tight junction protein (zonula occludens 1; ZO-1) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene mRNA levels were up-regulated in the ileum and colon of pigs fed WBF; however, feeding MF and SF raised IL-1? and TNF-? mRNA levels. Furthermore, higher diamine oxidase activities, transforming growth factor-?, trefoil factor family and MHC-II concentration occurred when feeding WBF and PF. In conclusion, the various fibre sources had different effects on the ileal and colonic barrier function. Clearly, WBF and PF improved the intestinal barrier function, probably mediated by changes in microbiota composition and concomitant changes in TLR2 gene expression. PMID:23656640

Chen, Hong; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Bing; Huang, Zhiqing; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Daiwen

2013-11-01

178

An enzyme catalysing the conjugation of epoxides with glutathione  

PubMed Central

1. Liver supernatant preparations from rats and ferrets catalyse the conjugation of some epoxides with glutathione. The enzyme involved might be called `glutathione S-epoxidetransferase', as it is different from glutathione S-aryltransferase, the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 4-nitro-pyridine N-oxide and other cyclic compounds with glutathione and from the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of iodomethane and glutathione. 2. The enzyme does not catalyse the reaction with cysteine. It is not inactivated by dialysis but is unstable at pH 5·0. 3. The role of the enzyme in metabolism of foreign compounds is discussed. PMID:14342229

Boyland, E.; Williams, K.

1965-01-01

179

Spontaneous Perforation as a First Presentation of Ileal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) with Synchronous Breast Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST’s) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Majority of the GISTs are asymptomatic and often diagnosis is incidental. Synchronous second malignancies have been reported in patients with GIST. We report a case of 50-year-old female presenting with features of hollow viscous perforation, found to have ileal GIST with perforations along with a synchronous breast sarcoma. GIST with spontaneous perforation as its first clinical manifestation is rare. Synchronous occurrence of an ileal GIST with a breast sarcoma is unique and deserves reporting. This case report highlights the varied nature of clinical presentation of the GIST and also stresses on the importance of extensive search for the synchronous second malignancies in the extra abdominal sites as well. PMID:24995213

Barad, Arun Kumar; Padu, Kemba; Singh K., Sridartha; Singh TH., Sudhir Chandra

2014-01-01

180

Giant Solitary Ileal Polyp Presenting as an Intussusception in a 10-year-old Boy  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of a 10-year-old boy who presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Clinical examination revealed distended abdomen, visible bowel loops, and a lump in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Clinically, the diagnosis of intussusception was suspected and confirmed on sonography examination. Exploration of the abdomen revealed ileo-colic intussusception. Manual reduction of intussusception was possible except the last part that had an intraluminal solitary polyp (3 × 4 cm) occupying the 3/4th of the lumen of the terminal ileum. Segmental resection of the ileum containing polyp was done, and the ileal continuity was restored with ileo-ileal anastomosis. His post-operative recovery was uneventful. Histologically, it was consistent with the inflammatory intestinal polyp without any evidence of malignancy. PMID:25246840

GHRITLAHAREY, Rajendra Kumar

2014-01-01

181

Pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis occurs with increased frequency in patients with associated primary sclerosing cholangitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), present in 5% of patients with ulcerative colitis, may be associated with pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The cumulative frequency of pouchitis in patients with and without PSC who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis was determined. A total of 1097 patients who had an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis, 54 with associated PSC,

C Penna; R Dozois; W Tremaine; W Sandborn; N LaRusso; C Schleck; D Ilstrup

1996-01-01

182

Effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration.  

PubMed

A chain model was proposed in this study to examine the effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration. Mucosal loading was defined as the loading caused by the interaction between the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue. In the proposed model, the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue were represented by a series of oscillators connected by a coupling spring. The lumped masses, springs, and dampers of the oscillators modeled the tissue properties of mass, stiffness, and viscosity, respectively. The coupling spring exemplified the tissue interactions. By numerically solving this chain model, the effects of mucosal loading on the phonation threshold pressure, phonation instability pressure, and energy distribution in a voice production system were studied. It was found that when mucosal loading is small, phonation threshold pressure increases with the damping constant R(r), the mass constant R(m), and the coupling constant R(mu) of mucosal loading but decreases with the stiffness constant R(k). Phonation instability pressure is also related to mucosal loading. It was found that phonation instability pressure increases with the coupling constant R(mu) but decreases with the stiffness constant R(k) of mucosal loading. Therefore, it was concluded that mucosal loading directly affects voice production. PMID:19566248

Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

2009-06-01

183

Postdoctoral Research Positions in Mucosal Immunology and Molecular Microbiology  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Research Positions in Mucosal Immunology and Molecular Microbiology Two post-doctoral research positions are available at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University, New and microbiologists that have broad interests in mucosal immunology and host-commensal interactions and enjoy

Symington, Lorraine S.

184

THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF  

E-print Network

THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF F. TOOFANIAN F. W. G. HILL D. E intestinal mucosal enzymes are respon- sible for this hydrolysis. In the young pre-ruminant and non compartments of the stomach. Thus, the intestinal disaccharidases have a much smaller role. For this reason

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY RORt is dispensable for the development of intestinal  

E-print Network

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY RORt is dispensable for the development of intestinal mucosal T cells. Naito, T numbers of intestinal IELs were found in RORt-deficient mice. IMMUNOGENETICS Genetic determinants, such as the candidate gene ECM1, which is expressed in the intestine and known to activate nuclear-factor- B signalling

Cai, Long

186

Mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin in aged mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the ability of flagellin, a highly effective mucosal adjuvant in mice and non-human primates, to promote mucosal innate and adaptive immunity in aged mice. We found that intratracheal instillation of flagellin induced a stronger respiratory innate response in aged mice than in young mice, and that intranasal instillation of flagellin was equally effective at triggering recruitment of T

John T. Bates; Anna N. Honko; Aaron H. Graff; Nancy D. Kock; Steven B. Mizel

2008-01-01

187

Effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chain model was proposed in this study to examine the effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration. Mucosal loading was defined as the loading caused by the interaction between the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue. In the proposed model, the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue were represented by a series of oscillators connected by a coupling spring. The lumped masses, springs, and dampers of the oscillators modeled the tissue properties of mass, stiffness, and viscosity, respectively. The coupling spring exemplified the tissue interactions. By numerically solving this chain model, the effects of mucosal loading on the phonation threshold pressure, phonation instability pressure, and energy distribution in a voice production system were studied. It was found that when mucosal loading is small, phonation threshold pressure increases with the damping constant Rr, the mass constant Rm, and the coupling constant R? of mucosal loading but decreases with the stiffness constant Rk. Phonation instability pressure is also related to mucosal loading. It was found that phonation instability pressure increases with the coupling constant R? but decreases with the stiffness constant Rk of mucosal loading. Therefore, it was concluded that mucosal loading directly affects voice production.

Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.

2009-06-01

188

Effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chain model was proposed in this study to examine the effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration. Mucosal loading was defined as the loading caused by the interaction between the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue. In the proposed model, the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue were represented by a series of oscillators connected by a coupling

Chao Tao; Jack J. Jiang

2009-01-01

189

GNAQ mutation in a patient with metastatic mucosal melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background Mucosal melanomas represent about 1% of all melanoma cases and classically have a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas. Due to the rarity of mucosal melanomas, only limited clinical studies with metastatic mucosal melanoma are available. Mucosal melanomas most commonly contain mutations in the gene CKIT, and treatments have been investigated using targeted therapy for this gene. Mutations in mucosal melanoma are less common than in cutaneous or uveal melanomas and occur in descending order of frequency as: CKIT (20%), NRAS (5%) or BRAF (3%). Mutations in G-alpha proteins, which are associated with activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, have not been reported in mucosal melanomas. These G-alpha protein mutations occur in the genes GNAQ and GNA11 and are seen at a high frequency in uveal melanomas, those melanomas that begin in the eye. Case presentation A 59-year old Caucasian male was diagnosed with a mucosal melanoma after evaluation for what was thought to be a hemorrhoid. Molecular analysis of the tumor revealed a GNAQ mutation. Ophthalmologic exam did not disclose a uveal melanoma. Conclusion Here we report, to our knowledge, the first known case of GNAQ mutation in a patient with metastatic mucosal melanoma. PMID:25030020

2014-01-01

190

Minimally invasive treatment of oral ranula with a mucosal tunnel.  

PubMed

We have developed a new method for minimally-invasive treatment of uncomplicated oral ranulas using a mucosal tunnel, and we report the clinical outcome. We constructed a mucosal tunnel for each of 35 patients who presented with an oral ranula, by making 2 parallel incisions across the top of the protruding ranula 2-3mm apart, and dissected the soft tissue along the incisions to its wall. The fluid was removed and the cavity irrigated with normal saline. The wall of the ranula was not treated. The first mucosal tunnel was made by suturing the base of the mucosal strip to the deepest part of the wall of the ranula. The mucosal base of the tunnel and the deepest part of the base of the ranula were fixed with absorbable sutures. The two external edges of the incisions were sutured together to form the second mucosal tunnel, and apposing sutures were inserted between the two parallel incisions to form two natural mucosal tunnels. The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 years. One patient was lost to follow-up and 34 patients were cured. Outcomes were satisfactory without relapse during the follow-up period and the patients were satisfied with the outcome. The mucosal tunnel is a safe, effective, simple, and minimally-invasive treatment for oral ranula. PMID:25468316

Jia, T; Xing, L; Zhu, F; Jin, X; Liu, L; Tao, J; Chen, Y; Gao, Z; Zhang, H

2015-02-01

191

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K

2014-01-01

192

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever  

PubMed Central

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

2014-01-01

193

The effect of pregnancy and delivery on the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981, a total of 729 ileal pouch-anal anastomoses have been performed at the Mayo Clinic-affiliated hospitals. Three\\u000a hundred fifty-four were in women. Twenty of these patients subsequently had at least one successful pregnancy and delivery.\\u000a Eleven deliveries were vaginal with episiotomy, and nine were cesarean sections. No maternal deaths occurred. One child died\\u000a of hyaline membrane disease. The frequency

Heidi Nelson; Roger R. Dozois; Keith A. Kelly; George D. Malkasian; Bruce G. Wolff; Duane M. Ilstrup

1989-01-01

194

Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Meat Meal and Soybean Meal Fed to Growing Pigs  

PubMed Central

The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) in meat meal (MM), and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM). Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg) surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM. PMID:25050041

Kong, C.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, K. H.

2014-01-01

195

Ileal digestibility of amino acids in meat meal and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) in meat meal (MM), and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM). Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg) surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM. PMID:25050041

Kong, C; Kang, H G; Kim, B G; Kim, K H

2014-07-01

196

Ileal Interposition Improves Glucose Tolerance in Low Dose Streptozotocin-treated Diabetic and Euglycemic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The surgical treatment for obesity promotes massive weight loss and early improvement in co-morbid conditions such as type-2\\u000a diabetes. Because surgically mediated glycemic improvements are immediate, the mechanisms involved appear to be weight loss\\u000a independent. Ileal interposition has been used to gain understanding of the relative role that the lower intestine plays in\\u000a mediating metabolic improvement. Here, we report that

April D. Strader; Trine Ryberg Clausen; Sean Z. Goodin; Donna Wendt

2009-01-01

197

Ileal relaxation induced by Mentha longifolia (L.) leaf extract in rat.  

PubMed

The effect of Mentha longifolia (L.) leaf hydroalcoholic extract (MLE) was examined on rat ileal smooth muscle contractions. Last portion of ileum from male adult Wistar rat was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution. The tissue was contracted by carbachol (CCh, 10 microM), KCl (60 mM) and BaC12 (4 mM) and then MLE (0.0625-1 mg mL(-1)) was added to the bath cumulatively. The effect of MLE on KCl-induced contraction was examined after tissue incubation with propranolol (1 microM), naloxone (1 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM). The effect of MLE on CaCl2-induced ileal contraction in Ca(2+)-free with high potassium Tyrode solution was also evaluated. The role of potassium channels was examined by ileum incubation (5 mim) with tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM). The results showed that KCl-, CCh and BaCl2-induced ileal contractions were inhibited (p < 0.001) by cumulative concentrations of MLE with the same potency. In addition, MLE (0.25-1 mg mL(-1)) inhibited (p < 0.01) ileal contractions induced by CaCl2 (0.45-2.7 mM) in a concentration-related manner. The antispasmodic effect of MLE was affected neither by propranolol, L-NAME nor by naloxone. The MLE concentration-response curve was shifted to the right (p < 0.05) by tissue incubation with TEA. From results it may be suggested that Mentha longifolia hydroalcoholic leaf extract induces its spasmolytic activity mainly through disturbance in calcium mobilization and partly by potassium channels activation. Present results show that Mentha longifolia leaf extract exerts relaxant effects on intestinal smooth muscle, consistent with the traditional use of the plant to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and colic. PMID:18819647

Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Naseri, Zahra Gharib; Mohammadian, Maryam; Birgani, Marzie Omidi

2008-06-15

198

Potential role for mucosally active vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal pneumonia is a life-threatening disease with high mortality and morbidity among children under 5 years of age, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Protection against pneumococcal pneumonia relies on successful regulation of colonisation in the nasopharynx and a brisk alveolar macrophage-mediated immune response in the lung. Therefore, enhancing pulmonary mucosal immunity (which includes a combination of innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity) through mucosal vaccination might be the key to prevention of pneumococcal infection. Current challenges include a lack of information in humans on mucosal immunity against pneumococci and a lack of suitable adjuvants for new vaccines. Data from mouse models, however, suggest that mucosally active vaccines will enhance mucosal and systemic immunity for protection against pneumococcal infection. PMID:20031415

Jambo, Kondwani C; Sepako, Enoch; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Stephen B

2010-02-01

199

Prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). It is an inflammatory process that affects the mucosa of the oral cavity, giving rise to erythematous areas in combination with ulcers that can reach a large size. The true importance of oral mucositis is the complications it causes – fundamentally intense pain associated to the oral ulcers, and the risk of overinfection. This in turn may require reduction or even suspension of the antineoplastic treatment, with the risk of seriously worsening the patient prognosis. This points to the importance of establishing therapeutic tools of use in the prevention and/or treatment of mucositis. The present study offers a literature review of all the articles published over the last 10 years referred to the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis associated to chemotherapy. Key words:Oral mucositis, management, prevention, treatment, chemotherapy. PMID:24596640

Sarrión-Pérez, Maria G.

2014-01-01

200

Common pathogenetic mechanism involving human chromosome 18 in familial and sporadic ileal carcinoid tumors.  

PubMed

Serotonin producing endocrine carcinoma of small intestine (ileal carcinoid) is a clinically distinct endocrine tumor. It is generally considered as a sporadic disease and its molecular etiology is poorly understood. We report comprehensive clinical and molecular studies of 55 sporadic and familial patients diagnosed with this condition. Nine pedigrees encompassing 23 affected subjects were established, consistent with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Familial and sporadic patients demonstrated indistinguishable clinical pictures. Molecular analyses of 61 tumors from 45 individuals, including eight familial and 37 sporadic patients, aimed at determination of global copy number aberrations using BAC and Illumina SNP arrays and gene expression profiling by Affymetrix chips. Chromosome 18 aberrations were identified in both sporadic and in familial tumors; 100% vs. 38%, respectively. Other, less frequent aberrations were also common for both groups. Global expression profiles revealed no differentially expressed genes. Frequent gain of chromosome 7 was exclusively observed in metastases, when patient matched primary tumors and metastases were compared. Notably, the latter aberration correlated with solid growth pattern morphology (P < 0.01), a histopathological feature that has previously been related to worse prognosis. The clinical and molecular similarities identified between sporadic and familial cases suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism involved in tumor initiation. The familial variant of ileal carcinoid represents a previously unrecognized autosomal dominant inherited tumor disease, which we propose to call Familial Ileal Endocrine Carcinoma (FIEC). Our findings indicate the location of a FIEC tumor suppressor gene near the telomere of 18q, involved in development of inherited and sporadic tumors. PMID:21104784

Cunningham, Janet L; Díaz de Ståhl, Teresita; Sjöblom, Tobias; Westin, Gunnar; Dumanski, Jan P; Janson, Eva T

2011-02-01

201

Laparoscopic radical cystectomy: neobladder or ileal conduit, debate still goes on  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the pre, intra, and post–operative data between ileal conduit and neobladder urinary diversions during laparoscopic radical cystectomy(LRC). Material and methods Between 2006 and 2011, 63 patients who underwent LRC and urinary diversion had their data input prospectively into a database and said data used for the analysis. The outcome comparators were the patient demographics, operative time, conversion rate, blood loss, transfusion rate, morphine analgesic requirement, length of hospital stay, complication rates, follow up, and quality of life assessments. A Mantel–Haenszel test was used for dichotomous data and an inverse variance method was used for continuous data. P values less than 0.5 were considered significant Results Thirty–nine patients (60 ±7.11 years) had ileal conduits and 24 patients (57 ±8.68 years) had neobladder urinary diversion. No difference was found (P >0.05) regarding age, BMI, smoking history, TURBT pathology result, blood loss, blood transfusion requirement, conversion rates, length of hospital stay, morphine requirement, complications, or follow–up and quality of life. The neobladder groups did have more previous abdominal operations and had significantly longer operative time. Conclusions We found no difference between either types of diversion in all comparative aspects except that the neobladder had longer operative times. This is the first comparative study between ileal conduit and neobladder urinary diversion after laparoscopic radical cystectomy and can pose as a bench mark for future comparisons. PMID:24982773

Drewa, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Pawel; Chlosta, Piotr L.

2014-01-01

202

Ileal and total tract digestibility of wet and dried wheat distillers grain products in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were evaluated in 2 commercially available products: wheat (Triticum aestivum) wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) and wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). Two diets included (DM basis) 50% basal diet with either 50% WDGS (W) or 50% DDGS (D). The basal diet included corn (Zea mays) starch, sugar, vitamins, and minerals. Seven castrated male pigs with post valve T-cecum cannulas were fed the diets according to a changeover design during two 14-d periods. In a pre- and postperiod, casein was given as the only protein source with the basal diet to estimate endogenous losses of N and AA for calculation of standardized ileal digestibility (SID). The AID of OM did not differ between diets, but ATTD of OM was higher (P < 0.05) for diet W. The AID (76.2 vs. 68.9%), SID, and ATTD of CP was higher (P < 0.05) in diet W than diet D. The SID for Lys (75.7 vs. 51.8%) and Met (75.8 vs. 70.1%) was higher (P < 0.01) in WDGS than DDGS. In conclusion, drying of wheat distillers grain products can markedly lower ileal digestibility of Lys and Met whereas negative effects on energy value are small. PMID:23365306

Lyberg, K; Borling, J; Lindberg, J E

2012-12-01

203

Mechanisms of Ileal Adaptation for Glucose Absorption after Proximal-Based Small Bowel Resection  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The hexose transmembrane transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 are present in low quantities in ileum where little glucose absorption occurs normally; however, glucose uptake in ileum is highly adaptable after small bowel resection. HYPOTHESIS Ileal adaptability for glucose absorption after jejunal resection is mediated predominately by upregulation of GLUT2. METHODS Rats underwent 70%, proximal-based jejunoileal resection. Transporter-mediated glucose uptake was measured in proximal and distal remnant ileum 1 and 4 wk postoperatively (n=6 rats, each) and in corresponding ileal segments in control and 1 wk sham laparotomy rats (n=6, each) without and with selective inhibitors of SGLT1 and GLUT2. In separate groups of rats (n=6, each), protein (Western blots), mRNA (RT-PCR), and villus height (histomorphology) were measured. RESULTS After 70% proximal intestinal resection, there was no dramatic change in protein or mRNA expression per cell of either SGLT1 or GLUT2, but median glucose uptake (nmol/cm/min) increased markedly from 52 (range, 28-63) in controls to 118 (range, 80-171) at 1 wk, and 203 (range, 93-248) at 4 wk (p?0.04 each) correlating with change in villus height (p?0.03). CONCLUSIONS Ileal adaptation for glucose transport occurs through cellular proliferation (hyperplasia) and not through cellular upregulation of glucose transporters. PMID:18766411

Iqbal, CW; Qandeel, HG; Zheng, Y; Duenes, JA; Sarr, MG

2009-01-01

204

Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

2014-09-15

205

Glutathione and redox signaling in substance abuse.  

PubMed

Throughout the last couple decades, the cause and consequences of substance abuse has expanded to identify the underlying neurobiological signaling mechanisms associated with addictive behavior. Chronic use of drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine and alcohol leads to the formation of oxidative or nitrosative stress (ROS/RNS) and changes in glutathione and redox homeostasis. Of importance, redox-sensitive post-translational modifications on cysteine residues, such as S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation could impact on the structure and function of addiction related signaling proteins. In this commentary, we evaluate the role of glutathione and redox signaling in cocaine-, methamphetamine- and alcohol addiction and conclude by discussing the possibility of targeting redox pathways for the therapeutic intervention of these substance abuse disorders. PMID:25027386

Uys, Joachim D; Mulholland, Patrick J; Townsend, Danyelle M

2014-07-01

206

Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis.  

PubMed

Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle. PMID:24885874

Smith, Sionagh H; Wilson, Alison D; Van Ettinger, Imke; MacIntyre, Neil; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar

2014-01-01

207

Glutathione Transferase Omega 1 Catalyzes the Reduction of S-(Phenacyl)glutathiones to Acetophenones  

PubMed Central

S-(Phenacyl)glutathione reductase (SPG-R) plays a significant role in the biotransformation of reactive ?-haloketones to non-toxic acetophenones. Comparison of the apparent subunit size, amino-acid composition, and catalysis of the reduction of S-(phenacyl)glutathiones indicated that a previously described rat SPG-R (Kitada et al. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260,11749-11754) is homologous to the omega-class glutathione transferase GSTO1-1. The available data show that the SPG-R reaction is catalyzed by GSTO1-1 and not by other GSTs, including the closely related GSTO2-2 isoenzyme. In the proposed reaction mechanism, the active-site cysteine residue of GSTO1-1 reacts with the S-(phenacyl)glutathione substrate to give an acetophenone and a mixed disulfide with the active-site cysteine; a second thiol substrate (e.g., glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol) reacts with the active-site disulfide to regenerate the catalytically active enzyme and to form a mixed disulfide. A new spectrophotometric assay was developed that allows the rapid determination of SPG-R activity and specific measurement of GSTO1-1 in the presence of other GSTs. This is the first specific reaction attributed to GSTO1-1, and these results demonstrate the catalytic diversity of GSTO1-1, which, in addition to SPG-R activity, catalyzes the reduction of dehydroascorbate and monomethylarsonate (V) and also possesses thioltransferase and GST activity. PMID:17226937

Board, Philip G.; Anders, M. W.

2008-01-01

208

Histamine and gut mucosal immune regulation.  

PubMed

Histamine is a biogenic amine with extensive effects on many cell types, mediated by the activation of its four receptors (H1R-H4R). Distinct effects are dependent on receptor subtypes and their differential expression. Within the gastrointestinal tract, histamine is present at relatively high concentrations, particularly during inflammatory responses. In this review, we discuss the immunoregulatory influence of histamine on a number of gastrointestinal disorders, including food allergy, scombroid food poisoning, histamine intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is clear that the effects of histamine on mucosal immune homeostasis are dependent on expression and activity of the four currently known histamine receptors; however, the relative protective or pathogenic effects of histamine on inflammatory processes within the gut are still poorly defined and require further investigation. PMID:24286351

Smolinska, S; Jutel, M; Crameri, R; O'Mahony, L

2014-03-01

209

Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 ?mol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

2013-12-01

210

Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.  

PubMed

The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-?-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

2013-08-15

211

Bilateral occult mucosal bridges of the true vocal folds.  

PubMed

A mucosal bridge of the true vocal fold is a rare, benign anatomical finding that can cause dysphonia. It has been described by some in the literature as "occult" as it is often not visibly evident on flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy or strobovideolaryngoscopy, but mistakenly diagnosed as a sulcus vocalis (Sataloff RT, Rosen C, Hawkshaw M. Occult mucosal bridge of the vocal fold. Ear Nose Throat J. 1997; 76(12):850).(2) Final diagnosis is usually not made until microscopic direct laryngoscopy is performed and palpation of the true vocal fold reveals the mucosal bridge (Tanaka S, Hirano M, Umeno H, Tanaka Y. Mucosal bridge of the vocal fold [Japanese].(4)Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 1991; 94(12):1853-1856). We describe a case of a 15-year-old boy complaining of long-standing hoarseness and found to have bilateral mucosal bridges of the true vocal folds. Previous reports cite cases of a unilateral mucosal bridge. We believe this is the first reported case of bilateral mucosal bridges. PMID:18619785

Gull, John; Divi, Venu; Ghaderi, Mahmoud; Sataloff, Robert T

2009-11-01

212

Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host's defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed. PMID:23213508

Li, Wu; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

2012-01-01

213

Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host's defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed. PMID:23213508

Li, Wu; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

2012-01-01

214

Luminal chemosensing and upper gastrointestinal mucosal defenses1234  

PubMed Central

The upper gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous substances, including gastric acid, carbon dioxide, and foodstuffs. Physiologic processes such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility occur in the gastrointestinal tract in response to ingested substances, which implies the presence of mucosal sensors. We hypothesize that mucosal acid sensors and tastelike receptors are important components of the mucosal chemosensing system. We have shown that luminal acid/carbon dioxide is sensed via ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases and ion transporters in the epithelial cells and via acid sensors on the afferent nerves in the duodenum and esophagus. Furthermore, a luminal l-glutamate signal is mediated via mucosal l-glutamate receptors with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase in the duodenum, which suggests the presence of luminal l-glutamate sensing. These luminal chemosensors help to activate mucosal defense mechanisms to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiologic responses of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Because neural pathways are components of the luminal chemosensory system, investigation of these pathways may help to identify novel molecular targets in the treatment and prevention of mucosal injury and visceral sensation. PMID:19571224

Kaunitz, Jonathan D

2009-01-01

215

Modeling mucosal candidiasis in larval zebrafish by swimbladder injection.  

PubMed

Early defense against mucosal pathogens consists of both an epithelial barrier and innate immune cells. The immunocompetency of both, and their intercommunication, are paramount for the protection against infections. The interactions of epithelial and innate immune cells with a pathogen are best investigated in vivo, where complex behavior unfolds over time and space. However, existing models do not allow for easy spatio-temporal imaging of the battle with pathogens at the mucosal level. The model developed here creates a mucosal infection by direct injection of the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, into the swimbladder of juvenile zebrafish. The resulting infection enables high-resolution imaging of epithelial and innate immune cell behavior throughout the development of mucosal disease. The versatility of this method allows for interrogation of the host to probe the detailed sequence of immune events leading to phagocyte recruitment and to examine the roles of particular cell types and molecular pathways in protection. In addition, the behavior of the pathogen as a function of immune attack can be imaged simultaneously by using fluorescent protein-expressing C. albicans. Increased spatial resolution of the host-pathogen interaction is also possible using the described rapid swimbladder dissection technique. The mucosal infection model described here is straightforward and highly reproducible, making it a valuable tool for the study of mucosal candidiasis. This system may also be broadly translatable to other mucosal pathogens such as mycobacterial, bacterial or viral microbes that normally infect through epithelial surfaces. PMID:25490695

Gratacap, Remi L; Bergeron, Audrey C; Wheeler, Robert T

2014-01-01

216

Cloning and molecular characterization of the ontogeny of a rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.  

PubMed Central

Sodium-dependent bile acid transport in the rat ileum is abruptly expressed at weaning. Degenerate oligonucleotides, based on amino acid sequence identities between the rat liver and hamster ileal transporters, were used to amplify a rat ileal probe. A 1.2-kb cDNA clone, which contains the full coding region (348 amino acids, 38 kD), was isolated by hybridization screening. In vitro translation yielded a 38-kD protein which glycosylated to 48 kD. Sodium-dependent uptake of taurocholate was observed in oocytes injected with cRNA. Northern blot analysis revealed a 5.0-kb mRNA in ileum, kidney, and cecum. A 48-kD protein was detected in ileal brush border membranes and localized to the apical border of villus ileal enterocytes. mRNA and protein expression, which were negligible before weaning, increased dramatically at weaning. Nuclear transcription rates for the transporter increased 15-fold between postnatal days 7 and 28. The apparent molecular weight of the transporter also increased between days 19 and 28. In summary, the developmental regulation of the rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter is characterized by transcriptionally regulated increases in mRNA and protein levels at the time of weaning with changes in apparent molecular weight of the protein after weaning. Images PMID:7860756

Shneider, B L; Dawson, P A; Christie, D M; Hardikar, W; Wong, M H; Suchy, F J

1995-01-01

217

Prevention and management of antineoplastic therapy induced oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

With the scientific advancements in the management of malignant diseases, the treatment is expensive and bears high morbidity in term of oral mucositis. It is a debilitating condition and has been researched extensively for its pathogenesis and treatment. Various treatment options include barrier forming, mucosal protectants, mouth rinses, growth factors, lasers and midline-sparing procedures. Some agents are used locally while others are administered systemically. Despite the availability of a wide range of treatment options for mucositis, a cost-effective treatment is yet to be evolved. PMID:22442583

Bey, Afshan; Ahmed, Syed S.; Hussain, Bilal; Devi, Seema; Hashmi, Sarwat H.

2010-01-01

218

Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an “as needed” basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses. PMID:24517907

Guilford, Frederick T.; Hope, Janette

2014-01-01

219

Deficient glutathione in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness.  

PubMed

Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an "as needed" basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses. PMID:24517907

Guilford, Frederick T; Hope, Janette

2014-02-01

220

Glutathione, a first line of defense against cadmium toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental modulation of cellular glutathione levels has been used to explore the role of glutathione in cadmium toxicity. Mice treated with buthionine sulfoximine (an effective irreversible inhibitor of ..gamma..-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC 6.3.2.2) that decreases cellular levels of glutathione markedly) were sensitized to the toxic effects of CdClâ. Mice pretreated with a sublethal dose of Cd\\/sup 2 +\\/ to induce metallothionein

RAKESH K. SINGHAL; MARY E. ANDERSON; ALTON MEISTER

1987-01-01

221

Alleviating mucositis: are we on track for a novel therapeutic?  

PubMed

Oral and gastrointestinal mucositis has emerged as an important toxicity of cancer therapy. In addition to supportive care measures, agents for the prevention or treatment of mucositis in specific patient populations are described in the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines published by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology. However, there still remains an unmet clinical need for preventive and therapeutic agents in several patient populations. The successful development of such agents will rely on our improved understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying mucositis. Studies are also underway on novel delivery mechanisms and risk prediction models that can facilitate the selective use of interventions for mucositis in a targeted and cost-effective manner. A large number of agents are at various stages in the clinical development pipeline. Enhanced management of this dose-limiting toxicity will allow the delivery of optimal cancer therapy and improve patient prognosis. PMID:25270956

Lalla, Rajesh V

2015-02-01

222

Alanine and Sodium Fluxes Across Mucosal Border of Rabbit Ileum  

PubMed Central

Unidirectional influxes of L-alanine and Na from the mucosal solution into the epithelium of in vitro rabbit ileum have been determined. In the presence of 140 mM Na, alanine influx is approximately 2.2 µmoles/hr cm2, but is inhibited if the NaCl in the mucosal solution is replaced by choline Cl, Tris-Cl, mannitol, LiCl, or KCl. Although alanine influx is strongly dependent upon Na in the mucosal solution, it is uninfluenced by marked reduction of intracellular Na pools. In addition, alanine influx is unaffected by intracellular alanine concentration. Na influx is markedly inhibited by the presence of Li. Evidence is presented that Na transport across the mucosal border cannot be attributed to simple diffusion even though the net flux across this surface is in the direction of the electrochemical potential difference. PMID:6033584

Schultz, Stanley G.; Curran, Peter F.; Chez, Ronald A.; Fuisz, Robert E.

1967-01-01

223

5-(Pentafluorobenzoylamino)fluorescein: A Selective Substrate for the Determination of Glutathione Concentration and Glutathione S-Transferase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-(Pentafluorobenzoylamino)fluorescein (PFB-F), a new thiol-reactive molecule was synthesized to improve the detection limits and specificity of the assays for glutathioneS-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH). A rapid assay method to measure GSH concentration or GST activity and the simultaneous analysis of multiple samples is possible because the glutathione adduct, GS-TFB-F, is separated from PFB-F by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and can

Seksiri Arttamangkul; Mahesh K. Bhalgat; Rosaria P. Haugland; Zhenjun Diwu; Jixiang Liu; Dieter H. Klaubert; Richard P. Haugland

1999-01-01

224

Conjugation of isoprene monoepoxides with glutathione, catalyzed by ?, ?, ? and ?-class glutathione S-transferases of rat and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the enzymatic conjugation of the isoprene monoepoxides 3,4 epoxy-3-methyl-1-butene (EPOX-I) and 3,4-epoxy-2-methyl-1-butene (EPOX-II) with glutathione was investigated, using purified glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of the ?, ?, ? and ?-class of rat and man. HPLC analysis of incubations of EPOX-I and EPOX-II with [35S]glutathione (GSH) showed the formation of two radioactive fractions for each isoprene monoepoxide. The

Jan J. P Bogaards; Joke C Venekamp; Florence G. C Salmon; Peter J van Bladeren

1999-01-01

225

Glutathione transferase omega 1 catalyzes the reduction of S-(phenacyl)glutathiones to acetophenones.  

PubMed

S-(Phenacyl)glutathione reductase (SPG-R) plays a significant role in the biotransformation of reactive alpha-haloketones to nontoxic acetophenones. Comparison of the apparent subunit size, amino acid composition, and catalysis of the reduction of S-(phenacyl)glutathiones indicated that a previously described rat SPG-R (Kitada, M., McLenithan, J. C., and Anders, M. W. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11749-11754) is homologous to the omega-class glutathione transferase GSTO1-1. The available data show that the SPG-R reaction is catalyzed by GSTO1-1 and not by other GSTs, including the closely related GSTO2-2 isoenzyme. In the proposed reaction mechanism, the active-site cysteine residue of GSTO1-1 reacts with the S-(phenacyl)glutathione substrate to give an acetophenone and a mixed disulfide with the active-site cysteine; a second thiol substrate (e.g., glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol) reacts with the active-site disulfide to regenerate the catalytically active enzyme and to form a mixed disulfide. A new spectrophotometric assay was developed that allows the rapid determination of SPG-R activity and specific measurement of GSTO1-1 in the presence of other GSTs. This is the first specific reaction attributed to GSTO1-1, and these results demonstrate the catalytic diversity of GSTO1-1, which, in addition to SPG-R activity, catalyzes the reduction of dehydroascorbate and monomethylarsonate(V) and also possesses thioltransferase and GST activity. PMID:17226937

Board, Philip G; Anders, M W

2007-01-01

226

Microencapsulation of Vaccine Antigens and Adjuvants for Mucosal Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of vaccine antigens that can trigger potent mucosal immune response is one of the effective strategies to overcome a wide array of infectious diseases. Microencapsulation of vaccine antigens with Poly(lactide-co-glycolic acids) (PLGA), an FDA approved biodegradable polymer, has been investigated for targeted M-cell uptake. While PLGA possesses many attractive properties, a successful PLGA based mucosal-targeted vaccine has yet to

Thejani E. Rajapaksa; David D. Lo

2010-01-01

227

Polymeric penetration enhancers promote humoral immune responses to mucosal vaccines.  

PubMed

Protective mucosal immune responses are thought best induced by trans-mucosal vaccination, providing greater potential to generate potent local immune responses than conventional parenteral vaccination. However, poor trans-mucosal permeability of large macromolecular antigens limits bioavailability to local inductive immune cells. This study explores the utility of polymeric penetration enhancers to promote trans-mucosal bioavailability of insulin, as a biomarker of mucosal absorption, and two vaccine candidates: recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Responses to vaccinating antigens were assessed by measurement of serum and the vaginal humoral responses. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), Dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin (DM-?-CD) and Chitosan enhanced the bioavailability of insulin following intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL), intravaginal (I.Vag) and intrarectal (IR) administration. The same penetration enhancers also increased antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses to the model vaccine antigens in serum and vaginal secretions following IN and SL application. Co-delivery of both antigens with PEI or Chitosan showed the highest increase in systemic IgG and IgA responses following IN or SL administration. However the highest IgA titres in vaginal secretions were achieved after IN immunisations with PEI and Chitosan. None of the penetration enhancers were able to increase antibody responses to gp140 after I.Vag immunisations, while in contrast PEI and Chitosan were able to induce TT-specific systemic IgG levels following I.Vag administration. In summary, we present supporting data that suggest appropriate co-formulation of vaccine antigens with excipients known to influence mucosal barrier functions can increase the bioavailability of mucosally applied antigens promoting the induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses. PMID:24657807

Klein, Katja; Mann, Jamie F S; Rogers, Paul; Shattock, Robin J

2014-06-10

228

Anaerobic bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with oral mucositis.  

PubMed

An increasing number of anaerobic bloodstream infections in neutropenic cancer patients have been reported in the last decade. The type of anaerobes isolated from most of these patients suggests an oral source of infection. We describe a case of anaerobic bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with oral mucositis that highlights the importance of considering these organisms when selecting empiric prophylactic or therapeutic antimicrobial regimens, especially in the setting of periodontal disease or oral mucositis. PMID:10746831

Vidal, A M; Sarria, J C; Kimbrough, R C; Keung, Y K

2000-03-01

229

Modulation of ileal apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT by protein kinase C.  

PubMed

Ileal apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for reabsorbing the majority of bile acids from the intestinal lumen. Rapid adaptation of ASBT function in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli is essential for the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis. However, not much is known about molecular mechanisms responsible for acute posttranscriptional regulation of ileal ASBT. The protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway represents a major cell signaling mechanism influencing intestinal epithelial functions. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate ASBT regulation in intestinal Caco-2 monolayers by the well-known PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Our results showed that Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]taurocholic acid uptake in Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited in response to 2 h incubation with 100 nM PMA compared with incubation with 4alpha-PMA (inactive form). The inhibitory effect of PMA was blocked in the presence of 5 microM bisindolylmaleimide I (PKC inhibitor) but not 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (Ca(2+) chelator) or LY-294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). PMA inhibition of ASBT function was also abrogated in the presence of myristoylated PKCzeta pseudosubstrate peptide, indicating involvement of the atypical PKCzeta isoform. The inhibition by PMA was associated with a significant decrease in the maximal velocity of the transporter and a reduction in ASBT plasma membrane content, suggesting a modulation by vesicular recycling. Our novel findings demonstrate a posttranscriptional modulation of ileal ASBT function and membrane expression by phorbol ester via a PKCzeta-dependent pathway. PMID:19571234

Sarwar, Zaheer; Annaba, Fadi; Dwivedi, Alka; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A

2009-09-01

230

Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) Score, a Good Alternative Instrument for Measuring Quality of Life in Patients with Ileal Urinary Diversions  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the use of the SIP score and the quality of life impairment in patients with ileal conduit and orthotropic ileal derivations by Hautmann and AbolEnein/Ghoneim. Methods: Prospectively evaluated 146 patients in different age groups. In 66 patients ileal conduit derivation was performed, in 20 patients orthotropic derivation using Hautman technique was recorded and in 20 of them AbolEnein/Ghoneim was used. Prior to examining patients with urinary diversions, 40 patients with minor urological symptoms not requiring any active treatment, were surveyed in order to validate SIP score. Six months after the operation, all patients with urinary diversions filled the SIP score questionnaire. Results: Using Crombach’s Alpha equation the high reliability of SIP questionnaire was proven. Average scale value was 0,93. Using descriptive statistics mean values of all categories and dimensions of the SIP questionnaire of examined patients were determined, calculated according to the questionnaire manual being converted to percentage. Total value of SIP score for the ileal conduit group was 34,76% and in orthotropic derivation 18,52% respectively. For Hautmann procedure total SIP score was 18,35% and for AbolEnein/Ghoneim 18,7%. In the control group total SIP score was 9%. The most influential dimensions on the total score of ileal conduit were physical and psycho-social, while independent dimension did not significantly influent total SIP score. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the lack of questionnaires on quality of life for urinary derivations, SIP score as a general disease influence to the quality of life questionnaire represents a reliable alternative for objectification and quantification of the quality of life upon urinary derivation. According to this instrument, orthotropic derivations provide significantly better quality of life compared to ileal conduit. PMID:24167383

Prcic, Alden; Aganovic, Damir; Hadziosmanovic, Osman

2013-01-01

231

Regulation of Signal Transduction by Glutathione Transferases  

PubMed Central

Glutathione transferases (GST) are essentially known as enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to various electrophilic compounds such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and antitumor agents. However, this protein family is also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds which play critical roles in the regulation of signaling pathways. For example, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the prostaglandin 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) are metabolized by GSTs and these compounds are known to influence the activity of transcription factors and protein kinases involved in stress response, proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated that GSTs are able to interact with different protein partners such as mitogen activated protein kinases (i.e., c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)) which are also involved in cell signaling. New functions of GSTs, including S-glutathionylation of proteins by GSTs and ability to be a nitric oxide (NO) carrier have also been described. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that GST might play a crucial role during normal or cancer cells proliferation or apoptosis. PMID:23094162

Pajaud, Julie; Kumar, Sandeep; Rauch, Claudine; Morel, Fabrice; Aninat, Caroline

2012-01-01

232

Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals.  

PubMed

Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg) was studied for its antiulcer and mucosal defensive factors in normal and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by administering streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg, ip) to 5 days old rat pups. The animals showing blood glucose level >140mg/dL after 12 weeks of STZ administration were considered as NIDDM positive. Effects of MSE were compared with known ulcer protective drug, sucralfate (SFT, 500 mg/kg) and anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (GLC, 0.6 mg/kg) when administered orally, once daily for 6 days against gastric ulcers (GU) induced by cold-restraint stress (CRS) and ethanol and subsequent changes in gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide) and anti-oxidants enzymes (super oxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione (GSH) levels. MSE showed better ulcer protective effect in NIDDM rats compared with SFT and GLC in CRS-induced GU. NIDDM caused a significant decrease in gastric mucosal glycoprotein level without having any effect on cell proliferation. However, all the test drugs reversed the decrease in glycoprotein level in NIDDM rats, but cell proliferation was enhanced in case of MSE alone. Both CRS or NIDDM as such enhanced gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD, but decreased CAT levels while CRS plus NIDDM rats caused further increase in LPO and NO level without causing any further changes in SOD and CAT level. MSE pretreatment showed reversal in the levels of all the above parameters better than GLC. Ethanol caused a decrease in glutathione level which was further reduced in NIDDM-ethanol rats. MSE reversed the above changes significantly in both normal as well as in NIDDM rats, while GLC reversed it only in NIDDM rats. However, SFT was ineffective in reversing the changes induced by CRS or ethanol or when given in NIDDM-CRS or NIDDM-ethanol rats. The results indicated that the ulcer protective effect of MSE could be due to its predominant effect on mucosal glycoprotein, cell proliferation, free radicals and antioxidant systems. PMID:16629371

Mohan Kumar, M; Joshi, M C; Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, R K

2006-04-01

233

Esophageal atresia, small omphalocele and ileal prolapse through a patent omphalomesenteric duct: a methamizole embryopathy?  

PubMed

Newborns prenatally exposed to methimazole (active metabolite of carbamizole) for maternal hyperthyroidism may present some disorders in common, but the phenotype is not well defined. Choanal atresia is the most frequent, and other anomalies such as esophageal atresia and aplasia cutis were described with this embryopathy. Additionally, patent omphalomesenteric duct or Meckel's diverticulum in similar association was reported in some patients. The predisposed genetic background has to be considered. We report the case of a newborn exposed to carbamizole during the first 4 weeks of pregnancy and define an association related to prenatal methamizole exposure consisting of esophageal atresia, small omphalocele, and ileal prolapse through a patent omphalomesenteric duct. PMID:23845657

Panait, Nicoleta; Michel, Fabrice; D'Ercole, Claude; Merrot, Thierry

2013-06-01

234

Using Light to Treat Mucositis and Help Wounds Heal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuing program of research and development is focusing on the use of controlled illumination by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to treat mucositis and to accelerate healing of wounds. The basic idea is to illuminate the affected area of a patient with light of an intensity, duration, and wavelength (or combination of wavelengths) chosen to produce a therapeutic effect while generating only a minimal amount of heat. This method of treatment was originally intended for treating the mucositis that is a common complication of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer. It is now also under consideration as a means to accelerate the healing of wounds and possibly also to treat exposure to chemical and radioactive warfare agents. Radiation therapy and many chemotherapeutic drugs often damage the mucosal linings of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, leading to mouth ulcers (oral mucositis), nausea, and diarrhea. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy is currently the standard of care for ischemic, hypoxic, infected, and otherwise slowlyhealing problem wounds, including those of oral mucositis. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy increases such cellular activities as collagen production and angiogenesis, leading to an increased rate of healing. Biostimulation by use of laser light has also been found to be effective in treating mucositis. For hyperbaricoxygen treatment, a patient must remain inside a hyperbaric chamber for an extended time. Laser treatment is limited by laser-wavelength capabilities and by narrowness of laser beams, and usually entails the generation of significant amounts of heat.

Ignatius, Robert W.; Martin, Todd S.; Kirk, Charles

2008-01-01

235

Surface modified nanoparticulate carrier constructs for oral mucosal vaccine delivery.  

PubMed

Mucosal administration of vaccines is one of the most popular approaches to induce desired immunity against various types of antigen and microbial in central as well as peripheral blood and in most external mucosal surfaces. The oral route is a preferred choice over parenteral route for this purpose mainly due to an ease of administration and therefore, for the possibility of covering large population for mass immunization. Different strategies of mucosal vaccination aimed to prevent colony formation and infection by pathogens and block its development. But a major concern with these vaccines is the degradation of protein components in stomach due to physiological conditions and gastric enzymes. Therefore, surface modified nanoparticles offer a better and stable alternative for efficient delivery and better activation of required immune responses. Natural and synthetic polymers are used to prepare nanoparticulate carrier systems for the development of oral mucosal vaccines. Amongst these, biodegradable polymers based nano-particulate carriers have been explored extensively for the development of delivery systems. Present review summarizes possible approaches and mechanisms for the systemic immunization by oral vaccines and critically discusses various polymers used, different strategies of surface modification to achieve targeting of antigen loaded nanoparticulate carrier at cellular level that are essentially required for a successful mucosal vaccination approach, and future prospects of nanoparticulate system as adjutants in oral mucosal vaccination. PMID:25007830

Mishra, Neeraj; Singh, Devendra; Sharma, Sandeep; Baldi, Ashish

2014-01-01

236

Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. Methods We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. Results We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione concentration affects the interpretation of experimental studies that last hours. Conclusions The mathematical model aids in the interpretation of data from recent experimental studies and shows that the Challenger pathway of arsenic methylation, supplemented by the glutathione effects described above, is sufficient to understand and predict recent experimental data. More experimental studies are needed to explicate the detailed mechanisms of action of glutathione on arsenic methylation. Recent experimental work on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation and our modeling study suggest that supplements that increase hepatic glutathione production should be considered as strategies to reduce adverse health effects in affected populations. PMID:24885596

2014-01-01

237

Clotrimazole nanoparticle gel for mucosal administration.  

PubMed

In this study a formulation suitable to be applied on oral and/or vaginal mucosa has been developed for the treatment of fungal infections. The aim of the research is a comparison between clotrimazole (CLO) containing semisolid formulations based on monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) or nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). MAD and NLC have been characterized in terms of morphology and dimensional distribution by cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). CLO was encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC, according to Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) combined with HPLC. CLO recovery in MAD and NLC has been investigated by time. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, MAD was diluted with a carbomer gel, while NLC was directly viscosized by the addition of poloxamer 407 in the dispersion. The rheological properties of MAD and NLC after viscosizing have been investigated. Franz cell has been employed to study CLO diffusion from the different vehicles, evidencing diffusion rates from MAD and NLC superimposable to that obtained using Canesten(®). An anticandidal activity study demonstrated that both CLO-MAD and CLO-NLC were more active against Candida albicans with respect to the pure drug. PMID:25428089

Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura; Contado, Catia; Costenaro, Andrea; Drechsler, Markus; Rossi, Damiano; Menegatti, Enea; Grandini, Alessandro; Cortesi, Rita

2013-01-01

238

Mucosal immune responses following intestinal nematode infection  

PubMed Central

In most natural environments, the large majority of mammals harbour parasitic helminths that often live as adults within the intestine for prolonged periods (1–2 years) 1. Although these organisms have been eradicated to a large extent within westernized human populations, those living within rural areas of developing countries continue to suffer from high infection rates. Indeed, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2·5 billion people worldwide, mainly children, currently suffer from infection with intestinal helminths (also known as geohelminths and soil-transmitted helminths) 2. Paradoxically, the eradication of helminths is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergy observed in developed countries. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of host–helminth interactions at the mucosal surface that result in parasite expulsion or permit the establishment of chronic infections with luminal dwelling adult worms. We will also provide insight into the adaptive immune mechanisms that provide immune protection against re-infection with helminth larvae, a process that is likely to be key to the future development of successful vaccination strategies. Lastly, the contribution of helminths to immune modulation and particularly to the treatment of allergy and inflammatory bowel disease will be discussed. PMID:25201407

Zaph, C; Cooper, P J; Harris, N L

2014-01-01

239

Mucosal Inflammatory Response to Salmonella typhimurium Infection  

PubMed Central

The human intestinal epithelium consists of a single layer of epithelial cells that forms a barrier against food antigens and the resident microbiota within the lumen. This delicately balanced organ functions in a highly sophisticated manner to uphold the fidelity of the intestinal epithelium and to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. On the luminal side, this barrier is fortified by a thick mucus layer, and on the serosal side exists the lamina propria containing a resident population of immune cells. Pathogens that are able to breach this barrier disrupt the healthy epithelial lining by interfering with the regulatory mechanisms that govern the normal balance of intestinal architecture and function. This disruption results in a coordinated innate immune response deployed to eliminate the intruder that includes the release of antimicrobial peptides, activation of pattern-recognition receptors, and recruitment of a variety of immune cells. In the case of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response. As the role of the intestinal epithelium in initiating an immune response has been increasingly realized, this review will highlight recent research that details progress made in understanding mechanisms underlying the mucosal inflammatory response to Salmonella infection, and how such inflammatory responses impact pathogenic fitness of this organism. PMID:25071772

Patel, Samir; McCormick, Beth A.

2014-01-01

240

Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed Extracts Protects Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Mucosal Injury  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption. PMID:24868202

Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

241

Comparison of Systemic and Mucosal Immunization with Helper-Dependent Adenoviruses for Vaccination against Mucosal Challenge with SHIV  

PubMed Central

Most HIV-1 infections are thought to occur at mucosal surfaces during sexual contact. It has been hypothesized that vaccines delivered at mucosal surfaces may mediate better protection against HIV-1 than vaccines that are delivered systemically. To test this, rhesus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular (i.m.) or intravaginal (ivag.) routes with helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors expressing HIV-1 envelope. Macaques were first immunized intranasally with species C Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) prior to serotype-switching with species C HD-Ad6, Ad1, Ad5, and Ad2 vectors expressing env followed by rectal challenge with CCR5-tropic SHIV-SF162P3. Vaccination by the systemic route generated stronger systemic CD8 T cell responses in PBMC, but weaker mucosal responses. Conversely, mucosal immunization generated stronger CD4 T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in the colon. Intramuscular immunization generated higher levels of env-binding antibodies, but neither produced neutralizing or cytotoxic antibodies. After mucosal SHIV challenge, both groups controlled SHIV better than control animals. However, more animals in the ivag. group had lower viral set points than in in the i.m. group. These data suggest mucosal vaccination may have improve protection against sexually-transmitted HIV. These data also demonstrate that helper-dependent Ad vaccines can mediate robust vaccine responses in the face of prior immunity to Ad5 and during four rounds of adenovirus vaccination. PMID:23844034

Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Buchl, Stephanie J.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Palmer, Donna; Montefiori, David C.; Ferrari, Guido; Ng, Philip; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Barry, Michael A.

2013-01-01

242

Comparison of systemic and mucosal immunization with helper-dependent adenoviruses for vaccination against mucosal challenge with SHIV.  

PubMed

Most HIV-1 infections are thought to occur at mucosal surfaces during sexual contact. It has been hypothesized that vaccines delivered at mucosal surfaces may mediate better protection against HIV-1 than vaccines that are delivered systemically. To test this, rhesus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular (i.m.) or intravaginal (ivag.) routes with helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors expressing HIV-1 envelope. Macaques were first immunized intranasally with species C Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) prior to serotype-switching with species C HD-Ad6, Ad1, Ad5, and Ad2 vectors expressing env followed by rectal challenge with CCR5-tropic SHIV-SF162P3. Vaccination by the systemic route generated stronger systemic CD8 T cell responses in PBMC, but weaker mucosal responses. Conversely, mucosal immunization generated stronger CD4 T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in the colon. Intramuscular immunization generated higher levels of env-binding antibodies, but neither produced neutralizing or cytotoxic antibodies. After mucosal SHIV challenge, both groups controlled SHIV better than control animals. However, more animals in the ivag. group had lower viral set points than in in the i.m. group. These data suggest mucosal vaccination may have improve protection against sexually-transmitted HIV. These data also demonstrate that helper-dependent Ad vaccines can mediate robust vaccine responses in the face of prior immunity to Ad5 and during four rounds of adenovirus vaccination. PMID:23844034

Weaver, Eric A; Nehete, Pramod N; Nehete, Bharti P; Yang, Guojun; Buchl, Stephanie J; Hanley, Patrick W; Palmer, Donna; Montefiori, David C; Ferrari, Guido; Ng, Philip; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Barry, Michael A

2013-01-01

243

Glutathione S-transferase: genetics and role in toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a supergene family of dimeric, enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to a variety of electrophiles including arene oxides, unsaturated carbonyls, organic halides and other substrates. Their importance is suggested by the finding that GST enzymes are expressed in probably all life forms. In humans, polymorphism in GST genes has been associated with

Richard C. Strange; Peter W. Jones; Anthony A. Fryer

2000-01-01

244

Robotic Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Formation: Initial Experience from a Single UK Centre  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe our technique of robotic intracorporeal ileal conduit formation (RICIC) during robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). To report our initial results of this new procedure. Patients and Methods. Seven male and one female patients underwent RARC with RICIC over a six-month period. Demographic, operative, and outcome data was collected prospectively. Median patient age was 75 years (range 62–78 years). Median followup was 9 months (range 7–14 months). Results. RARC with RICIC was performed successfully in all eight patients. The median total operating time was 360 minutes (range 310–440 minutes) with a median blood loss of 225?mL (range 50–1000?mL). The median length of stay was nine days (range 6–34 days). Four patients (50%) were discharged within seven days. Four patients (50%) experienced one or more complications. This included two Clavien I complications, two Clavien II complications, and two Clavien III complications. Two patients (25%) required transfusion of two units each. To date, there have been no complications associated with the ileal conduit. Conclusion. Whilst being technically challenging, this procedure is safe, feasible, and reproducible. Patients who avoid complication show potential for rapid recovery and early discharge. PMID:24072995

Bishop, Conrad V.; Adshead, James M.

2013-01-01

245

Recurrent Volvulus of an Ileal Pouch Requiring Repeat Pouchopexy: A Lesson Learnt  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Restorative surgery for ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is frequently accompanied by complications. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is one of the most rarely reported late complications and to our knowledge no report exists on reoperative surgery for this condition. Case Report. A 58-year-old woman who previously had undergone restorative proctocolectomy due to ulcerative colitis with an IPAA presented with volvulus of the pouch. She was operated with a single row pouchopexy to the presacral fascia. Two months later she returned with a recurrent volvulus. At reoperation, the pouch was found to have become completely detached from the fascia. A new pexy was made by firmly anchoring the pouch with two rows of sutures to the presacral fascia as well as with sutures to the lateral pelvic walls. At follow-up after five months she was free of symptoms. Conclusion. This first report ever on reoperative surgery for volvulus of a pelvic pouch indicates that a single row pouchopexy might be insufficient for preventing retwisting. Several rows seem to be needed. PMID:25110603

Myrelid, Pär; Druvefors, Pelle

2014-01-01

246

Subcellular localization of [3H]-nitrendipine binding sites in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle.  

PubMed Central

The binding of [3H]-nitrendipine was studied in microsomal fractions isolated from guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle. Only one class of specific binding sites was detected, with a KD of 0.4 nM. For various dihydropyridine derivatives, including the stereoisomers of nimodipine and the 'Ca agonist' Bay K 8644, the potency for inhibition of [3H]-nitrendipine binding correlated well with the reported pharmacological potency in smooth muscle preparations. To establish the subcellular localization of [3H]-nitrendipine binding sites, untreated and digitonin-treated microsomal fractions were subfractionated by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The density distribution of [3H]-nitrendipine binding was markedly shifted by digitonin towards higher densities, as were the distributions of 5'-nucleotidase and [3H]-ouabain binding, whereas the distributions of NADPH:cytochrome c reductase and NADH:cytochrome c reductase were hardly modified by digitonin. It is concluded that most, if not all, [3H]-nitrendipine binding sites in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle are present in the plasma membrane, in agreement with the postulated mode of action of dihydropyridines as inhibitors of plasmalemmal Ca channels. PMID:2992659

Godfraind, T.; Wibo, M.

1985-01-01

247

Effects of ileal resection on biliary lipids and bile acid composition in patients with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

Biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, and bile acid pattern were determined in fasting duodenal bile of 10 patients (four men and six women, mean age 41 years) with Crohn's disease and a history of ileal resection (mean 64 cm). The data were compared with corresponding values in a group of healthy subjects. None of the patients with Crohn's disease had supersaturated bile. Cholesterol saturation was significantly lower in the patients with Crohn's disease than in the healthy subjects. The molar percentage of cholesterol was also lower among the patients but there was no significant difference. The molar percentages of phospholipids and bile acids were normal. Bile acid composition in the patients with ileal resection was characterised by a significant decrease in the deoxycholic acid fraction and a pronounced increase in the ursodeoxycholic acid fraction compared with the healthy subjects. The surprisingly high percentage of ursodeoxycholic acid may contribute to the low degree of cholesterol saturation in bile. Based on these results patients with Crohn's disease should not have an increased risk of cholesterol gall stone formation. PMID:1773954

Lapidus, A; Einarsson, K

1991-01-01

248

Treatment of joint pain in Crohn's patients with budesonide controlled ileal release.  

PubMed

1. Joint pain is a frequent manifestation of Crohn's disease. Budesonide controlled ileal release (CIR) is a predominantly topically acting glucocorticosteroid, which is effective in treating active ileal or ileocaecal Crohn's disease. 2. Therefore, it was of interest to study the effect of this predominantly topically acting therapy on the treatment of an extraintestinal symptom of Crohn's disease by analysing data collected from budesonide CIR (Entocort; Astra Draco AB, Lund, Sweden) trials. 3. Three large studies of budesonide CIR treatment in active Crohn's disease provided a reliable source of clinical data. Of the 611 patients treated in the prospective double-blind controlled trials, 291 had joint pain (arthritis/arthralgia) at entry, which was recorded as part of the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. Statistical analysis was based on all patients treated, provided that the patient had joint pain at the start of treatment. 4. Daily oral budesonide CIR (9mg) resulted in clinical remission of joint pain in 74% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 67-82%) of patients. This outcome was nearly twice as good as placebo (41%; 95% CI 34-57%) and as good as the outcome effected by daily oral prednisolone (40mg; 72%; 95% CI 60-84%). The favourable response to budesonide CIR (9 mg) did not correlate with glucocorticosteroid-associated side effects or with adrenal suppression, which were half those in the prednisolone (40 mg/day) group. 5. The favourable outcome may relate to restitution of normal intestinal immune function. PMID:10779128

Florin, T H; Graffner, H; Nilsson, L G; Persson, T

2000-04-01

249

Gallbladder Stones Following Ileal Resection for Gangrenous Intussusceptions: A Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Intussusceptions are the most common causes of bowel obstruction in infancy and childhood in this environment they present late, resulting in gangrene of the intussusception consequently resection of the affected bowel and a limited or extended right hemicolectomy (RH) to establish bowel continuity. Aim: The aim of the following study is to follow-up these children that had a limited ileal resection for gangrenous intussusceptions and document the formation of stones in their gallbladders. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 patients who had limited ileal resection during infancy for gangrenous intussusceptions were matched with sixteen patients who had manual reduction for viable intussusceptions during infancy. Both groups had ultrasound scans of their gallbladders to document the formation of stones in their gallbladders. Results: No gallbladder stones were found in both groups, however, one male child that had a resection and a RH for a gangrenous intussusception at the age of 4 months and was seen at an interval of 72 months had a thickened gallbladder on ultrasonography, another child, a female child operated on at the age of 6 months and seen at an interval of 57 months also had a thickened gallbladder on ultrasonography. Conclusion: Although no stones were seen, we suggest a prolonged follow-up of these patients with either periodic ultrasonography of the their gallbladders or with the periodic estimation of their serum bile acids. PMID:24665197

Osuoji, Roland Iheanyichukwu; Balogun, Babajide Olawale; Olofinlade, Olatunbosun Olabode

2014-01-01

250

Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish  

PubMed Central

As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity. PMID:22133710

Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol

2012-01-01

251

Nomenclature for mammalian soluble glutathione transferases.  

PubMed

The nomenclature for human soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) is extended to include new members of the GST superfamily that have been discovered, sequenced, and shown to be expressed. The GST nomenclature is based on primary structure similarities and the division of GSTs into classes of more closely related sequences. The classes are designated by the names of the Greek letters: Alpha, Mu, Pi, etc., abbreviated in Roman capitals: A, M, P, and so on. (The Greek characters should not be used.) Class members are distinguished by Arabic numerals and the native dimeric protein structures are named according to their subunit composition (e.g., GST A1-2 is the enzyme composed of subunits 1 and 2 in the Alpha class). Soluble GSTs from other mammalian species can be classified in the same manner as the human enzymes, and this chapter presents the application of the nomenclature to the rat and mouse GSTs. PMID:16399376

Mannervik, Bengt; Board, Philip G; Hayes, John D; Listowsky, Irving; Pearson, William R

2005-01-01

252

Quantitation of protein S-glutathionylation by liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry: Correction for contaminating glutathione and glutathione disulfide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification that links oxidative stimuli to reversible changes in cellular function. Protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) are commonly quantified by the reduction of the disulfide and detection of the resultant glutathione species. This met...

253

Randomized prospective trial comparing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by excising the anal mucosa to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by preserving the anal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to compare the results of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients in whom the anal mucosa is excised by handsewn techniques to those in whom the mucosa is preserved using stapling techniques. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis requiring proctocolectomy. Controversy exists over whether preserving the transitional mucosa of the anal canal improves outcomes. METHODS: Forty-one patients (23 men, 18 women) were randomized to either endorectal mucosectomy and handsewn IPAA or to double-stapled IPAA, which spared the anal transition zone. All patients were diverted for 2 to 3 months. Nine patients were excluded. Preoperative functional status was assessed by questionnaire and anal manometry. Twenty-four patients underwent more extensive physiologic evaluation, including scintigraphic anopouch angle studies and pudendel never terminal motor latency a mean of 6 months after surgery. Quality of life similarly was estimated before surgery and after surgery. Univariate analysis using Wilcoxon test was used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: The two groups were identical demographically. Overall outcomes in both groups were good. Thirty-three percent of patients who underwent the handsewn technique and 35% of patients who underwent the double-stapled technique experienced a postoperative complication. Resting anal canal pressures were higher in the patients who underwent the stapled technique, but other physiologic parameters were similar between groups. Night-time fecal incontinence occurred less frequently in the stapled group but not significantly. The number of stools per 24 hours decreased from preoperative values in both groups. After IPAA, quality of life improved promptly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Stapled IPAA, which preserves the mucosa of the anal transition zone, confers no apparent early advantage in terms of decreased stool frequency or fewer episodes of fecal incontinence compared to handsewn IPAA, which excises the mucosa. Higher resting pressures in the stapled group coupled with a trend toward less night-time incontinence, however, may portend better function in the stapled group over time. Both operations are safe and result in rapid and profound improvement in quality of life. PMID:9230807

Reilly, W T; Pemberton, J H; Wolff, B G; Nivatvongs, S; Devine, R M; Litchy, W J; McIntyre, P B

1997-01-01

254

Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

255

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium  

E-print Network

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP. In chicks and rats, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD,) is the major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

256

Budesonide prolongs time to relapse in ileal and ileocaecal Crohn's disease. A placebo controlled one year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the topical corticosteroid budesonide, given in an oral controlled release formulation for maintenance of remission in patients with ileal and ileocaecal Crohn's disease (CD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Out of 176 patients with active CD who had achieved remission (CD activity index score < or = 150) after 10 weeks' treatment

R Löfberg; P Rutgeerts; H Malchow; C Lamers; A Danielsson; G Olaison; D Jewell; O Ostergaard Thomsen; H Lorenz-Meyer; H Goebell; H Hodgson; T Persson; C Seidegård

1996-01-01

257

BILE ACIDS REGULATE THE ONTOGENIC EXPRESSION OF ILEAL BILE ACID BINDING PROTEIN IN THE RAT VIA THE FARNESOID X RECEPTOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the rat, an increase in ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) expression occurs during the third postnatal week. In vitro studies suggest that bile acids (BAs) increase IBABP transcription by activating the BA receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Thus, we investigated the role of BAs on the on...

258

Airway structural cells regulate TLR5-mediated mucosal adjuvant activity.  

PubMed

Antigen-presenting cell (APC) activation is enhanced by vaccine adjuvants. Most vaccines are based on the assumption that adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists depends on direct, functional activation of APCs. Here, we sought to establish whether TLR stimulation in non-hematopoietic cells contributes to flagellin's mucosal adjuvant activity. Nasal administration of flagellin enhanced T-cell-mediated immunity, and systemic and secretory antibody responses to coadministered antigens in a TLR5-dependent manner. Mucosal adjuvant activity was not affected by either abrogation of TLR5 signaling in hematopoietic cells or the presence of flagellin-specific, circulating neutralizing antibodies. We found that flagellin is rapidly degraded in conducting airways, does not translocate into lung parenchyma and stimulates an early immune response, suggesting that TLR5 signaling is regionalized. The flagellin-specific early response of lung was regulated by radioresistant cells expressing TLR5 (particularly the airway epithelial cells). Flagellin stimulated the epithelial production of a small set of mediators that included the chemokine CCL20, which is known to promote APC recruitment in mucosal tissues. Our data suggest that (i) the adjuvant activity of TLR agonists in mucosal vaccination may require TLR stimulation of structural cells and (ii) harnessing the effect of adjuvants on epithelial cells can improve mucosal vaccines. PMID:24064672

Van Maele, L; Fougeron, D; Janot, L; Didierlaurent, A; Cayet, D; Tabareau, J; Rumbo, M; Corvo-Chamaillard, S; Boulenouar, S; Jeffs, S; Vande Walle, L; Lamkanfi, M; Lemoine, Y; Erard, F; Hot, D; Hussell, T; Ryffel, B; Benecke, A G; Sirard, J-C

2014-05-01

259

Enhanced gastric mucosal haemostasis after upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.  

PubMed Central

An endoscopic technique for the measurement of gastric mucosal bleeding time has been developed to study gastric haemostasis in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The relation of gastric mucosal bleeding time to skin bleeding time and nonsterodial anti-inflammatory drug usage was examined in 61 control patients and in 47 patients presenting with bleeding peptic ulcers or erosions. Gastric mucosal bleeding time was shorter in patients with haemorrhage (median 2 minutes, range 0-5 minutes) than in the control group (median 4 minutes, range 2-8 minutes) (p less than 0.001). Skin bleeding times were similar in the two groups (medians 4 minutes in patients with haemorrhage and 4.5 minutes in controls). In 21 patients with haemorrhage who were taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the median gastric mucosal bleeding time (2.5 minutes, range 1.0-5.0 minutes) was similar to that in 26 patients with haemorrhage not associated with these drugs (2.0 minutes, range 0.0-5.0 minutes). These results show that gastric mucosal haemostasis is accelerated in response to haemorrhage in the upper gastrointestinal tract, even in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This enhanced gastric haemostasis probably reflects a local protective response to minimise blood loss from the bleeding lesion. PMID:1855678

Allison, M C; Fullarton, G M; Brown, I L; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

1991-01-01

260

Mucosal atrophy in collagenous colitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Mucosal atrophy as a potential cause of impaired colonic compliance has not yet been described as a complication in Collagenous Colitis (CC). Case presentation We present a 51-year-old female patient with a 20-year history of diarrhea and diagnosed with CC ten years prior to her presentation. We reviewed reports from three colonoscopies performed after the diagnosis. Overall 12 biopsies obtained in the last two colonoscopies were re-analyzed by two pathologists blinded to the aim of the study. Besides the typical histological findings of CC, the endoscopic appearance was normal, and no histological signs of atrophy were found during the first colonoscopy. Surprisingly, the second and third colonoscopy revealed a region of advanced segmental mucosal atrophy in the cecum with the mucosal height normalizing toward the transverse colon. This pattern of atrophy was inversely related to the pattern of sub-epithelial collagen deposition, which increased toward the rectum. Conclusion If no chance occurrence, our observation supports the idea that additional factors, probably luminal in nature, may be co-responsible for the mucosal atrophy in this case. Thus, mucosal atrophy in the proximal colon appears to be a new candidate among the growing list of rare complications associated with long standing CC. PMID:22026584

2011-01-01

261

Role of Glutathione in protection against mercury induced poisoning.  

PubMed

Mercury is harmless in an insoluble form, such as mercuric sulfide, but it is poisonous in soluble forms such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury. Mercury is a neurotoxin. Outbreaks of mercuric chloride poisonings have made it clear that adults, children, and developing fetuses are at risk from ingestion exposure to mercury. It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of mercuric chloride and Glutathione as biomarker of Glutathione role in detoxification and conjugation in components (Plasma and Cytosolic Fraction). The effect of mercuric chloride's different concentrations was examined on GSH present in plasma and cytosolic fraction. Decrease in GSH level was dependant on mercuric chloride concentration. The decrease in GSH level of blood components was more prominent with the time of incubation of mercuric chloride. Decrease in the concentration of reduced state Glutathione may be due the interaction of reduced state Glutathione (GSH) and mercuric chloride to form oxidized Glutathione (GSSG) or mercuric-glutathione complex. This change in GSH metabolic status provides information regarding the role of GSH in detoxification of mercuric chloride. The effect of mercury metal on Glutathione in blood components has been discussed in this paper in vitro condition as a model for in Vivo condition. PMID:22459468

Khan, Haroon; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Ullah, Naseem; Anwar, Naveed

2012-04-01

262

Glutathione activates virulence gene expression of an intracellular pathogen.  

PubMed

Intracellular pathogens are responsible for much of the world-wide morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. To colonize their hosts successfully, pathogens must sense their environment and regulate virulence gene expression appropriately. Accordingly, on entry into mammalian cells, the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes remodels its transcriptional program by activating the master virulence regulator PrfA. Here we show that bacterial and host-derived glutathione are required to activate PrfA. In this study a genetic selection led to the identification of a bacterial mutant in glutathione synthase that exhibited reduced virulence gene expression and was attenuated 150-fold in mice. Genome sequencing of suppressor mutants that arose spontaneously in vivo revealed a single nucleotide change in prfA that locks the protein in the active conformation (PrfA*) and completely bypassed the requirement for glutathione during infection. Biochemical and genetic studies support a model in which glutathione-dependent PrfA activation is mediated by allosteric binding of glutathione to PrfA. Whereas glutathione and other low-molecular-weight thiols have important roles in redox homeostasis in all forms of life, here we demonstrate that glutathione represents a critical signalling molecule that activates the virulence of an intracellular pathogen. PMID:25567281

Reniere, Michelle L; Whiteley, Aaron T; Hamilton, Keri L; John, Sonya M; Lauer, Peter; Brennan, Richard G; Portnoy, Daniel A

2015-01-01

263

Giant ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as an intestinal subocclusion and subsequent haemoperitoneum: a case report and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a 76-year-old man with a giant ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) causing an intestinal subocclusion and a subsequent haemoperitoneum. During his hospital stay for a sudden hypovolemic shock, the patient underwent an urgent laparotomy and a 20 cm × 15 cm ruptured ileal GIST causing haemoperitoneum was found. Only 13 cases of ileal GIST causing peritoneal bleeding have been described since 2000, the one we presented is the largest. Although rare this pathological entity should be kept in mind in case of sudden abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock in patients with a large intraabdominal mass. PMID:21116885

Iusco, Domenico; Jannaci, Marcello; Grassi, Antonio; Bonomi, Serena; Ismail, Ismail; Navarra, Giuseppe; Virzì, Salvatore

2010-12-01

264

Tapeworm infection is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse.  

PubMed

The association between the equine intestinal tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata and specific types of intestinal disease was investigated by matched case-control study using coprological and serological diagnosis. We have previously shown that the host IgG(T) response to 12/13 kDa antigens of A. perfoliata correlates well with infection intensity, therefore this antibody response was used to investigate the risk of colic at different levels of parasite infection intensity. One hundred and three spasmodic colic cases with an equal number of controls matched for age, breed and gender, and 20 ileal impaction cases each with 2 similarly matched controls were obtained. Cases of spasmodic colic were much more likely (odds ratio = 8.0) to be associated with A. perfoliata infection detected coprologically than controls. Serological diagnosis revealed an increasing risk of spasmodic colic with increasing infection intensity. Calculation of an aetiological fraction suggests that 22% of spasmodic colic cases in this study were tapeworm associated. No significant association was found between colic and strongyle egg count. Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the relationship between colic and A. perfoliata infection intensity was not confounded by strongyle egg count and there was a linear relationship between infection intensity and the log-odds of spasmodic colic. For cases of ileal impaction, a strong association was found between colic and A. perfoliata as diagnosed by coprological means (odds ratio of 34.0). Serological diagnosis also revealed a strong association that increased with higher levels of infection intensity (odds ratio = 26.0). The aetiological fraction for the ileal impaction data suggests that 81% of the ileal impaction cases in this study were tapeworm associated. This study concludes that A. perfoliata is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse; and that the risk of spasmodic colic increases with infection intensity. PMID:9622319

Proudman, C J; French, N P; Trees, A J

1998-05-01

265

Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production. PMID:23365284

Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

2012-12-01

266

The Level of Protein in Milk Formula Modifies Ileal Sensitivity to LPS Later in Life in a Piglet Model  

PubMed Central

Background Milk formulas have higher protein contents than human milk. This high protein level could modify the development of intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune functions and have long-term consequences. Methodology/Principal findings We investigated the effect of a high protein formula on ileal microbiota and physiology during the neonatal period and later in life. Piglets were fed from 2 to 28 days of age either a normoprotein (NP, equivalent to sow milk) or a high protein formula (HP, +40% protein). Then, they received the same solid diet until 160 days. During the formula feeding period ileal microbiota implantation was accelerated in HP piglets with greater concentrations of ileal bacteria at d7 in HP than NP piglets. Epithelial barrier function was altered with a higher permeability to small and large probes in Ussing chambers in HP compared to NP piglets without difference in bacterial translocation. Infiltration of T cells was increased in HP piglets at d28. IL-1? and NF-?B sub-units mRNA levels were reduced in HP piglets at d7 and d28 respectively; plasma haptoglobin also tended to be reduced at d7. Later in life, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in response to high doses of LPS in explants culture was reduced in HP compared to NP piglets. Levels of mRNA coding the NF-?B pathway sub-units were increased by the challenge with LPS in NP piglets, but not HP ones. Conclusions/Significance A high protein level in formula affects the postnatal development of ileal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune function in piglets and alters ileal response to inflammatory mediators later in life. PMID:21573022

Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaëlle

2011-01-01

267

Glutathione imbalance in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy?  

PubMed Central

Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder of X-linked inheritance caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene which determines an accumulation of long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. Recent evidence shows that oxidative stress may be a hallmark in the pathogenesis of X-ALD and glutathione plays an important role in the defense against free radicals. In this study we have analyzed glutathione homeostasis in lymphocytes of 14 patients with X-ALD and evaluated the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione, in order to define the role of this crucial redox marker in this condition. Methods Lymphocytes, plasma and erythrocytes were obtained from the whole blood of 14 subjects with X-ALD and in 30 healthy subjects. Total, reduced and protein-bound glutathione levels were measured in lymphocytes by HPLC analysis. Erythrocyte free glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma thiols and carbonyl content were determined by spectrophotometric assays. Results A significant decrease of total and reduced glutathione was found in lymphocytes of patients, associated to high levels of all oxidized glutathione forms. A decline of free glutathione was particularly significant in erythrocytes. The increased oxidative stress in X-ALD was additionally confirmed by the decrease of plasma thiols and the high level of carbonyls. Conclusion Our results strongly support a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of X-ALD and strengthen the importance of the balance among glutathione forms as a hallmark and a potential biomarker of the disease. PMID:23768953

Petrillo, Sara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Pastore, Anna; Tozzi, Giulia; Aiello, Chiara; Pujol, Aurora; Cappa, Marco; Bertini, Enrico

2013-01-01

268

Fluorescein-labeled glutathione to study protein S-glutathionylation.  

PubMed

Numerous studies of S-glutathionylation of cysteine thiols indicate that this protein modification plays a key role in redox regulation of proteins. To facilitate the study of protein S-glutathionylation, we developed a synthesis and purification to produce milligram quantities of fluorescein-labeled glutathione. The amino terminus of the glutathione tripeptide reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate readily in ammonium bicarbonate. Purification by solid phase extraction on C8 and C18 columns separated excess reactants from desired products. Both oxidized and reduced fluorescein-labeled glutathione reacted with a variety of thiol-containing proteins to yield fluorescent proteins. PMID:20156418

Landino, Lisa M; Brown, Carolyn M; Edson, Carolyn A; Gilbert, Laura J; Grega-Larson, Nathan; Wirth, Anna Jean; Lane, Kelly C

2010-07-01

269

How can probiotics and prebiotics impact mucosal immunity?  

PubMed Central

The study of probiotics and prebiotics is an expanding field of interest and scientific research that has resulted in insights related to the host immune response. Recent advances have naturally led to key questions. What are the specific probiotic components that mediate immunomodulation? Can we extrapolate the results of in vitro studies in animal and human trials? Which biomarkers and immune parameters should be measured in probiotic and prebiotic intervention studies? These questions were part of a discussion entitled “How Can Probiotics and Prebiotics Impact Mucosal Immunity” at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP). This review highlights recent knowledge about the modulation of mucosal immunity by probiotics and prebiotics, as well as considerations for measuring their effects on mucosal immunity. A list of biomarkers and immune parameters to be measured in human clinical trials is included. PMID:21327037

Pot, Bruno

2010-01-01

270

Preventing mucosal HIV transmission with topical microbicides – challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

A combination of prevention and treatment modalities will be needed to successfully control the global spread of HIV. Microbicides, drug products topically applied to mucosal surfaces to prevent HIV infection, are one of these biomedical interventions that hold great promise. In order to be efficacious, microbicides must overcome several challenges imposed by the mucosal microenvironment they intend to protect and the mischievous human immunodeficiency virus with its enormous capacity to adapt. Recent data, however, supports the establishment of the primo-infection by only a small number of founder viruses, which are highly vulnerable to microbicidal intervention at the initial stages of mucosal invasion. The biological foundation of these challenges and opportunities in microbicide development is explored in this review. This article forms part of a special supplement on presentations covering HIV transmission and microbicides, based on the symposium "Trends in Microbicide Formulations", held on 25 and 26 January 2010, Arlington, VA. PMID:21109065

Hladik, Florian; Doncel, Gustavo F.

2010-01-01

271

Effect of Cholera Enterotoxin on Ion Transport across Isolated Ileal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The effects of cholera enterotoxin on intestinal ion transport were examined in vitro. Addition of dialyzed filtrate of Vibrio cholerae (crude toxin) to the luminal side of isolated rabbit ileal mucosa caused a delayed and gradually progressive increase in transmural electric potential difference (PD) and shortcircuit current (SCC). A similar pattern was observed upon addition of a highly purified preparation of cholera toxin, although the changes in PD and SCC were smaller. Na and Cl fluxes across the short-circuited mucosa were determined with radioisotopes 3-4 hr after addition of crude toxin or at a comparable time in control tissues. The toxin caused a net secretory flux of Cl and reduced to zero the net absorptive flux of Na. Similar flux changes were observed when either crude or purified toxin was added in vivo and tissues were mounted in vitro 3-4 hr later. Additon of D-glucose to the luminal side of toxin-treated mucosa produced a large net absorptive flux of Na without altering the net Cl and residual ion fluxes. Adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic phosphate (cyclic AMP) and theophylline had previously been shown to cause a rapid increase in SCC and ion flux changes similar to those induced by cholera toxin. Pretreatment of ileal mucosa with either crude or purified cholera toxin greatly reduced the SCC response to theophylline and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, which, together with the flux data, suggest that both cyclic AMP and cholera toxin stimulate active secretion by a common pathway. Inhibition of the SCC response to theophylline was observed after luminal but not after serosal addition of toxin. In vitro effects of cholera toxin correlated closely with in vivo effects: heating toxin destroyed both; two V. cholerae filtrates which were inactive in vivo proved also to be inactive in vitro; PD and volume flow measurements in isolated, in vivo ileal loops of rabbit revealed that the PD pattern after addition of toxin is similar to that seen in vitro and also correlates closely with changes in fluid movement. The results suggest that stimulation by cholera toxin of a cyclic AMP-dependent active secretory process of the intestinal epithelial cells is a major cause of fluid loss in cholera. PMID:4335444

Field, Michael; Fromm, David; Al-Awqati, Qais; Greenough, William B.

1972-01-01

272

New mucosal flap modification for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in Asians  

PubMed Central

AIM To describe a simple modification of fashioning the mucosal flap for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EES-DCR) in Asians and investigate its efficacy. METHODS A total of 120 patients with unilateral primary chronic dacryocystitis (PCD) were randomized into two groups: the new shaped nasal mucosal flap group (group A) and the removed nasal mucosal flap group (group B). All patients underwent standard EES-DCR. Patients in group A were performed a new shaped nasal mucosal flap covering the bared bone around the opened sac and those in group B was removed the nasal mucosal flap uncovering the bared bone. Patients were followed up for one year. The occurrence of granulation tissue, the proliferation of scar tissue and success rate of EES-DCR was compared. RESULTS In the present study, complete postoperative data were acquired from 54 patients in group A and from 57 patients in group B. During process of review, the occurrence of granulation tissue was at the ostium margins account for 15% (8/54) in group A and 39% (22/57) in group B (P<0.05). At the one-year review, scar tissue was present in 5 patients in group A compared with 18 in group B (P<0.05). The success rate of EES-DCR was 98% (53/54) in group A and 84% (48/57) in group B (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The simple modification of fashioning nasal mucosal flap can effectively cover the bared bone around the opened sac and reduce formation of granulation tissue, lessen the risk of scar tissue formation and closure of ostium, thus improve the success rate of EES-DCR in Asians. PMID:23275904

Ji, Qing-Shan; Zhong, Jing-Xiang; Tu, Yun-Hai; Wu, Wen-Can

2012-01-01

273

Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1?mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6?h, 24?h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; p<0.05), Casp7 (at D5; p<0.05), Trp53 (at 24?h and D5; p<0.05), Tnfrsf1b (at 24?h; p<0.05), FasR (at 24?h, D5, and D7; p<0.05), and Casp8 (at 24?h; p<0.05) and significantly lower gene expression of Tradd (at 24?h; p<0.05). Innovation: Our observations indicate differential execution of apoptosis in oral wound healing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

2014-01-01

274

Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

1987-09-01

275

Quantitation of protein S-glutathionylation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Correction for contaminating glutathione and glutathione disulfide.  

PubMed

Protein S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification that links oxidative stimuli to reversible changes in cellular function. Protein-glutathione mixed disulfide (PSSG) is commonly quantified by reduction of the disulfide and detection of the resultant glutathione species. This methodology is susceptible to contamination by free unreacted cellular glutathione (GSH) species, which are present in 1000-fold greater concentration. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was developed for quantification of glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), which was used for the determination of PSSG in biological samples. Analysis of rat liver samples demonstrated that GSH and GSSG coprecipitated with proteins similar to the range for PSSG in the sample. The use of [(13)C2,(5)N]GSH and [(13)C4,(5)N2]GSSG validated these results and demonstrated that the release of GSH from PSSG did not occur during sample preparation and analysis. These data demonstrate that GSH and GSSG contamination must be accounted for when determining PSSG content in cellular/tissue preparations. A protocol for rinsing samples to remove the adventitious glutathione species is demonstrated. The fragmentation patterns for glutathione were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and candidate ions for detection of PSSG on protein and protein fragments were identified. PMID:25448621

Bukowski, Michael R; Bucklin, Christopher; Picklo, Matthew J

2015-01-15

276

Lead(II) Complex Formation with Glutathione  

PubMed Central

A structural investigation of complexes formed between the Pb2+ ion and glutathione (GSH, denoted AH3 in its triprotonated form) the most abundant non2protein thiol in biological systems, was carried out for a series of aqueous solutions at pH 8.5 and CPb2+ = 10 mM, and in the solid state. The Pb LIII-edge EXAFS oscillation for a solid compound with the empirical formula [Pb(AH2)]ClO4 was modeled with one Pb-S and two short Pb-O bond distances at 2.64 ± 0.04 Å and 2.28 ± 0.04 Å, respectively. In addition Pb···Pb interactions at 4.15 ± 0.05 Å indicate dimeric species in a network where the thiolate group forms an asymmetrical bridge between two Pb2+ ions. In aqueous solution at the mole ratio GSH / Pb(II) = 2.0 (CPb2+ = 10 mM, pH 8.5), lead(II) complexes with two thiolate ligands form, characterized by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer band (LMCT) S- ? Pb2+ at 317 nm in the UV-vis spectrum and mean Pb-S and Pb-(N/O) bond distances of 2.65 ± 0.04 Å and 2.51 ± 0.04 Å, respectively, from a Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectrum. For solutions with higher mole ratios, GSH / Pb(II) ? 3.0, ESI-MS spectra identified a trisglutathionyl lead(II) complex, for which Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy shows a mean Pb-S distance of 2.65 ± 0.04 Å in PbS3 coordination, 207Pb NMR spectroscopy displays a chemical shift of 2793 ppm, and in the UV-vis spectrum an S- ? Pb2+ LMCT band appears at 335 nm. The complex persists at high excess of glutathione, and also at ~25 K in frozen glycerol (33%) / water glasses for GSH / Pb(II) mole ratios from 4.0 to 10 (CPb2+ = 10 mM) measured by Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. PMID:22594853

Mah, Vicky

2012-01-01

277

A 'natural' way to provide innate mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

The mucosal barrier comprises a layered defense system including physio-chemical and immunological strategies to contain commensal microflora while protecting the host against potential pathogens. In contrast to the clearly established and well-characterized role for the adaptive immune system in intestinal defense, our knowledge on innate immune mechanisms that operate in the gut is much less defined. The recent identification of novel innate lymphoid cells (ILC), including 'NK-like' cells that naturally produce IL-22 and appear to play a role in intestinal defense, demonstrates an unexpected and increasing complexity in mucosal innate immunity. PMID:20573491

Di Santo, James P; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko

2010-08-01

278

Mucosal wrinkling in animal antra induced by volumetric growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface wrinkling of animal mucosas is crucial for the biological functions of some tissues, and the change in their surface patterns is a phenotypic characteristic of certain diseases. Here we develop a biomechanical model to study the relationship between morphogenesis and volumetric growth, either physiological or pathological, of mucosas. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are performed to unravel the critical characteristics of mucosal wrinkling in a spherical antrum. It is shown that the thicknesses and elastic moduli of mucosal and submucosal layers dictate the surface buckling morphology. The results hold clinical relevance for such diseases as inflammation and gastritis.

Li, Bo; Cao, Yan-Ping; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Yu, Shou-Wen

2011-04-01

279

Investigation of the use of a salmonella-vectored system to induce mucosal immunity against FMDV antigen.  

E-print Network

??Most infections are initiated at mucosal surfaces, where a highly compartmentalized immunological system resides. The use of mucosal vaccination induces first-line protective immune responses and… (more)

Lee, Shuk Kwan

2011-01-01

280

Surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis: Ileorectal vs ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the current gold standard in the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) refractory to medical management. A procedure of significant magnitude carries its own risks including anastomotic failure, pelvic sepsis and a low rate of neoplastic degeneration overtime. Recent studies have shown that total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) has been associated with good long-term functional results in a selected group of UC patients amenable to undergo a strict surveillance for the relatively high risk of cancer in the rectum. This manuscript will review and compare the most recent literature on IRA and IPAA as it pertains to postoperative morbidity and mortality, failure rates, functional outcomes and cancer risk. PMID:25309058

Scoglio, Daniele; Ahmed Ali, Usama; Fichera, Alessandro

2014-01-01

281

[A case of metabolic acidosis and tetany after ileal neobladder replacement].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man visited our hospital with the complaint of macrohematuria and bilateral hydronephrosis. He had undergone total cystectomy and ileal neobladder replacement under the diagnosis of muscle invasive bladder cancer (cT2bN0M0). Tetany due to hyperventilation syndrome appeared on postoperative day 42. Blood gas analysis showed metabolic acidosis (pH 7.260, pO2 148.1 mmHg, pCO2 20.7 mmHg, HCO3 9.1 mmHg, BE -16.0 mmol/l). His condition was immediately improved after a urethral catheter was placed and sodium bicarbonate was administered. After re-removal of the urethral catheter, however, hyperventilation syndrome recurred. He was discharged from the hospital with the urethral catheter placed. PMID:23995533

Nomura, Hironori; Kou, Yohko; Kinjyo, Takanori; Nonomura, Daichi; Yoneda, Suguru; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Tei, Norihide; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi

2013-08-01

282

MEMBRANE MODIFICATIONS IN THE APICAL ENDOCYTIC COMPLEX OF ILEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

Ileal lining cells of the suckling rat possess an "apical endocytic complex" capable of sequestering intact protein from the intestinal lumen. The complex consists of a network of invaginations of the apical plasma membrane, a number of subjacent small vesicles, and a giant supranuclear vacuole. The first two components initially incorporate material from the intestinal lumen and then transfer it to the giant vacuole where it is stored. Their limiting membrane displays striking structural modifications when viewed in various planes of section. Its lumenal dense leaflet appears discontinuous and consists of an ordered array of minute discrete plaques. A dense particle approximately 70 A in diameter is centered over each plaque. The particles are arranged in a two-dimensional square lattice with center-to-center spacing of approximately 120 A. PMID:4177378

Wissig, S. L.; Graney, D. O.

1968-01-01

283

Malignant familial adenomatous polyposis treated by laparoscopic colectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis: a case report.  

PubMed

The mean age of colorectal cancer in untreated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is 39 years. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient with FAP and colorectal cancer. The patient was detected with significant family history: her mother died at age 45 with colon cancer; two uncles were diagnosed with colon cancer at the age of 40 and 43 and one aunt at the age of 45 with colon cancer and gastric cancer. The treatment was laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with total excision of the mesorectum and ileal pouch anal anastomosis completed with endoanal excision of inferior rectal polyps. The histopathological report described a well differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma T1N1aMx developed on a tubulo-villous adenoma located on the rectosigmoid jonction, the rest of the polyps with benign histology. PMID:25532006

Zaharie, Florin; Ciorogar, George; Zaharie, Roxana; Tantau, Marcel; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

2014-12-01

284

Glutathione catabolism as a signaling mechanism.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) is the main intracellular thiol antioxidant, and as such participates in a number of cellular antitoxic and defensive functions. Nevertheless, non-antioxidant functions of GSH have also been described, e.g. in modulation of cell proliferation and immune response. Recent studies from our and other laboratories have provided evidence for a third functional aspect of GSH, i.e. the prooxidant roles played by molecular species originating during its catabolism by the membrane ectoenzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). The reduction of metal ions effected by GSH catabolites is capable to induce redox cycling processes leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide), as well as of other free radicals. Through the action of these reactive compounds, GSH catabolism can ultimately lead to oxidative modifications on a variety of molecular targets, involving oxidation and/or S-thiolation of protein thiol groups in the first place. Modulating effects of this kind have been observed on several important, redox-sensitive components of the signal transduction chains, such as cell surface receptors, protein phosphatase activities and transcription factors. Against this background, the prooxidant reactions induced by GSH catabolism appear to represent a novel, as yet unrecognized mechanism for modulation of cellular signal transduction. PMID:12213602

Paolicchi, Aldo; Dominici, Silvia; Pieri, Lisa; Maellaro, Emilia; Pompella, Alfonso

2002-09-01

285

Glutathione redox dynamics and expression of glutathione-related genes in the developing embryo  

PubMed Central

Embryonic development involves dramatic changes in cell proliferation and differentiation that must be highly coordinated and tightly regulated. Cellular redox balance is critical for cell fate decisions, but it is susceptible to disruption by endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidative stress. The most abundant endogenous non-protein antioxidant defense molecule is the tri-peptide glutathione (?-glutamyl-cysteinylglycine, GSH), but the ontogeny of GSH concentration and redox state during early life stages is poorly understood. Here, we describe the GSH redox dynamics during embryonic and early larval development (0–5 days post-fertilization) in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model vertebrate embryo. We measured reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG) using HPLC, and calculated the whole embryo total glutathione (GSHT) concentrations and redox potentials (Eh) over 0–120 hours of zebrafish development (including mature oocytes, fertilization, mid-blastula transition, gastrulation, somitogenesis, pharyngula, pre-hatch embryos, and hatched eleutheroembryos). GSHT concentration doubled between 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hatching. The GSH Eh increased, becoming more oxidizing during the first 12 h, and then oscillated around ?190 mV through organogenesis, followed by a rapid change, associated with hatching, to a more negative (more reducing) Eh (?220 mV). After hatching, Eh stabilized and remained steady through 120 hpf. The dynamic changes in GSH redox status and concentration defined discrete windows of development: primary organogenesis, organ differentiation, and larval growth. We identified the set of zebrafish genes involved in the synthesis, utilization, and recycling of GSH, including several novel paralogs, and measured how expression of these genes changes during development. Ontogenic changes in the expression of GSH-related genes support the hypothesis that GSH redox state is tightly regulated early in development. This study provides a foundation for understanding the redox regulation of developmental signaling and investigating the effects of oxidative stress during embryogenesis. PMID:23770340

Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Imhoff, Barry R.; Stegeman, John J.; Hahn, Mark E.; Hansen, Jason M.

2013-01-01

286

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Glutathione measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain drug-induced hemolytic (erythrocyte destroying) anemias due to an inherited enzyme deficiency. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2012-04-01

287

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

288

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

289

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

290

Immunolocalization of glutathione biosynthesis enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

In plants, glutathione serves as a versatile redox buffer and cellular protective compound against a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Glutathione production involves glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), the redox-regulated limiting enzyme of the pathway, and glutathione synthetase (GS). Because the sub-cellular and sub-organellar localization of these enzymes will have an impact on metabolism, here we examine the localization of GCL and GS in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Immuno-electron microscopy of leaf cells indicates localization of GCL primarily to the chloroplast with GS found in both the chloroplast and cytosol. Detailed examination of the localization of both enzymes within chloroplasts was performed using fractionation followed by immunoblot analysis and indicates that GCL and GS are found in the stroma. The localization of these enzymes to the stroma of chloroplasts has implications for the redox-regulation of GCL and plant glutathione biosynthesis. PMID:24361505

Preuss, Mary L; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Berg, R Howard; Jez, Joseph M

2014-02-01

291

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

292

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

293

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

294

Role of ? Class Glutathione S-Transferases as Antioxidant Enzymes in Rodent Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional proteins. ? class GSTs are known to catalyze glutathione peroxidase reactions, in addition to their major activity, i.e., conjugation of electrophiles to glutathione. In the present work, the contribution of rat and mouse ? class GSTs to glutathione-dependent reduction of phospholipid hydroperoxides has been studied., Results of these studies indicate that the ? class GST

Yusong Yang; Rajendra Sharma; Piotr Zimniak; Yogesh C. Awasthi

2002-01-01

295

Glutathione Metabolic Genes Coordinately Respond to Heavy Metals and Jasmonic Acid in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione plays a pivotal role in protecting plants from environmental stresses, oxidative stress, xenobiotics, and some heavy metals. Arabidopsis plants treated with cadmium or copper responded by increasing transcription of the genes for glutathione synthesis, g -glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, as well as glutathione re- ductase. The response was specific for those metals whose toxicity is thought to be

Chengbin Xiang; David J. Oliver

1998-01-01

296

The mucosal inflammatory response to non-typhoidal Salmonella in the intestine is blunted by IL-10 during concurrent malaria parasite infection.  

PubMed

Coinfection can markedly alter the response to a pathogen, thereby changing its clinical presentation. For example, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes are associated with gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. In contrast, individuals with severe pediatric malaria can develop bacteremic infections with NTS, during which symptoms of gastroenteritis are commonly absent. Here we report that, in both a ligated ileal loop model and a mouse colitis model, malaria parasites caused a global suppression of gut inflammatory responses and blunted the neutrophil influx that is characteristic of NTS infection. Further, malaria parasite infection led to increased recovery of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from the draining mesenteric lymph node (MLN) of mice. In the mouse colitis model, blunted intestinal inflammation during NTS infection was independent of anemia but instead required parasite-induced synthesis of interleukin (IL)-10. Blocking of IL-10 in coinfected mice reduced dissemination of S. Typhimurium to the MLN, suggesting that induction of IL-10 contributes to development of disseminated infection. Thus IL-10 produced during the immune response to malaria in this model contributes to suppression of mucosal inflammatory responses to invasive NTS, which may contribute to differences in the clinical presentation of NTS infection in the setting of malaria. PMID:24670425

Mooney, J P; Butler, B P; Lokken, K L; Xavier, M N; Chau, J Y; Schaltenberg, N; Dandekar, S; George, M D; Santos, R L; Luckhart, S; Tsolis, R M

2014-11-01

297

Ileal digestibility of amino acids in coproducts of corn processing into ethanol for pigs.  

PubMed

Five barrows with an average initial BW of 45 kg and fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in corn (Zea mays) distillers' dried grains (DDG), DDG with solubles (DDGS), high-protein DDG (HPDDG) and high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS). On a DM basis, the test ingredients contained 33.7% CP, 19.2% ADF, and 53.1% NDF for DDG; 30.3% CP, 11.8% ADF, and 40.6% NDF for DDGS; 62.5% CP, 28.4% ADF, and 45.1% NDF for HPDDG; and 52.4% CP, 17.4% ADF, and 30.4% NDF for HPDDGS. The 5 diets consisted of a N-free diet (NFD) and 4 semipurified diets, in which the test ingredient was the sole protein source with chromic oxide added at 5 g/kg as an indigestible marker, and fed for each of 5 periods. The NFD was used to determine basal endogenous AA losses. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 10 h on each of day 6 and day 7. Amino acids in the test ingredients were well digested by pigs and SID of Lys for DDG, DDGS, HPDDG, and HPDDGS were 88.6, 79.9, 94.6, and 85.8%, respectively. Corresponding values for were Met 93.9, 92.8, 97.1, and 94.6%. The SID of Lys was greater (P < 0.05) in HPDDG than DDGS. In general, digestibility of AA in the high-protein coproduct of the dry grind processing of corn into ethanol was 2 to 8 percentage units more than in the regular coproduct and 2 to 9 percentage units less in the coproduct with added solubles. PMID:23365291

Adeola, O; Ragland, D

2012-12-01

298

Complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the outcomes of treatments for complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Between March 1998 and February 2013, 72 patients (28 male and 44 female, median age 43.0 years ± 14.0 years) underwent total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The study cohort was registered prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Patient characteristics, medical management histories, operative findings, pathology reports and postoperative clinical courses, including early postoperative and late complications and their treatments, were reviewed from a medical record system. All of the ileal pouches were J-pouch and were performed with either the double-stapling technique (n = 69) or a hand-sewn (n = 3) technique. RESULTS: Thirty-one (43.1%) patients had early complications, with 12 (16.7%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Pouch bleeding, pelvic abscesses and anastomosis ruptures were managed conservatively. Patients with pelvic abscesses were treated with surgical drainage. Twenty-seven (38.0%) patients had late complications during the follow-up period (82.5 ± 50.8 mo), with 21 (29.6%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Treatment for pouchitis included antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs. Pouch-vaginal fistulas, perianal abscesses or fistulas and anastomosis strictures were treated surgically. Pouch failure developed in two patients (2.8%). Analyses showed that an emergency operation was a significant risk factor for early pouch-related complications compared to elective procedures (55.6% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05). Pouchitis was related to early (35.3%) and the other late pouch-related complications (41.2%) (P < 0.05). The complications did not have an effect on pouch failure nor pouch function. CONCLUSION: The complications following IPAA can be treated successfully. Favorable long-term outcomes were achieved with a lower pouch failure rate than reported in Western patients. PMID:24966620

Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Moon, Sang Hui; Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo

2014-01-01

299

Functional outcome of stapled ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis versus handsewn pouch-anal anastomosis.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine whether stapled ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis (IACA) preserving the anal transitional zone (ATZ) or hand-sewn ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with mucosectomy (IPAA) is more beneficial in achieving disease eradication and better postoperative function. IACA was performed in 10 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 10 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), 15 of whom were examined proctoscopically. IPAA was performed in 4 patients with UC and 8 patients with FAP. The mean maximum resting pressure (MRP) was 55 mmHg in the IACA group and 34 mmHg in the IPAA group (P < 0.01). The anorectal inhibitory reflex was positive in 18 patients (90%) from the IACA group and 5 (42%) from the IPAA group (P < 0.05). The pre- and postoperative MRPs were 61 mmHg and 55 mmHg, respectively, in the IACA group vs 63 mmHg and 34 mmHg, respectively, in the IPAA group (P < 0.01). Whereas 16 (80%) of the 20 IACA patients could discriminate feces from gas, only 4 (33%) of the 12 IPAA patients could (P < 0.05). The mean observation period was 2.3 years, the mean length of the columnar cuff was 2.8 cm, and no case of dysplasia or adenoma was seen. Postoperative function is more favorable following IACA than following IPAA, both physiologically and symptomatically. However, long-term surveillance of the residual mucosa is necessary before making a final recommendation. PMID:10930221

Saigusa, N; Kurahashi, T; Nakamura, T; Sugimura, H; Baba, S; Konno, H; Nakamura, S

2000-01-01

300

Evaluation of the Learning Curve in Ileal Pouch–Anal Anastomosis Surgery  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Data: We define the learning curve required to attain satisfactory training in ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) and identify possible differences in the learning curve for stapled and hand-sewn IPAA surgery. Various studies have addressed the differences in failure rate between stapled and hand-sewn IPAA, but there is no literature that evaluates the differences in attaining satisfactory training in each of these techniques. Methods: Data were collected from 1965 patients undergoing IPAA surgery by 12 surgeons in a single center between 1983 and 2001. Using ileoanal pouch failure as the primary end point, a parametric survival model was used to adjust for case mix (patient comorbidity, preoperative diagnosis, manometric findings, and prior anal pathology). A risk-adjusted cumulative sum (CUSUM) model was used for monitoring outcomes in IPAA surgery. Results: The 5-year ileal pouch survival was 95.6% (median patient follow-up of 4.2 years; range 0–19 years). Fifty percent of trainee staff demonstrated a learning curve in IPAA surgery. Having adjusted for case mix, trainee staff undertaking stapled IPAA surgery showed an improvement in the pouch failure rate following an initial training period of 23 cases versus 40 cases for senior staff. The learning curve for hand-sewn IPAA surgery was quantified only for senior staff who attained adequate results following an initial period of 31 procedures. Conclusions: The CUSUM method was a useful tool for objectively measuring performance during the learning phase of IPAA surgery. With adequate training, supervision, and monitoring, the learning curve in IPAA surgery may be reduced even further. PMID:15650636

Tekkis, Paris P.; Fazio, Victor W.; Lavery, Ian C.; Remzi, Feza H.; Senagore, Antony J.; Wu, James S.; Strong, Scott A.; Poloneicki, Jan D.; Hull, Tracy L.; Church, James M.

2005-01-01

301

Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Versus Open Restorative Proctocolectomy With Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate postoperative recovery after hand-assisted laparoscopic or open restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty patients were randomized for hand-assisted laparoscopic (n = 30) or open surgery (n = 30). Primary outcome parameter was postoperative recovery in the 3 months after surgery, measured by quality of life questionnaires (SF-36 and GIQLI). Secondary parameters were postoperative morphine requirement and surgical parameters, viz. operating time, morbidity, hospital stay, and costs. Results: There was no difference between the 2 procedures in quality of life assessment in the 3 months after surgery. There was a significant decline in quality of life on all scales of the SF-36 (P < 0.001) and total GIQLI score (P < 0.001) in the first 2 weeks in both groups (no significant difference between the groups). Quality of life returned to baseline levels after 4 weeks. Operating times were longer in the laparoscopic group compared with the open group (210 and 133 minutes, respectively; P < 0.001). No significant differences were found in morphine requirement. Neither morbidity nor postoperative hospital stay differed between the laparoscopic and open group (20% versus 17%, in 10 versus 11 days, respectively). Median overall costs were € 16.728 for the hand-assisted laparoscopic procedure and € 13.406 for the open procedure (P = 0.095). Conclusions: Recovery measured using quality of life questionnaires is comparable for hand-assisted laparoscopic or open restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis. The laparoscopic approach is as safe, but more costly than the open procedure. PMID:15570204

Maartense, Stefan; Dunker, Michalda S.; Slors, J Frederick; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Deventer, Sander J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Bemelman, Willem A.

2004-01-01

302

Influence of forage inclusion in the diet on ileal and total tract digestibility.  

PubMed

The present investigation aimed to study the ileal and total tract digestibility of 3 forages (clover-grass, clover-grass silage, and field pea (Pisum sativum)-barley (Hordeum vulgare) silage) supplemented to a basal diet. A total of 24 pigs, adapted to eating forages by supplementing a basal feed with clover-grass silage from weaning, were fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum at approximate 30 kg BW. For each of the 3 types of forage, 2 balance trials with a 4 wk interval were carried out. Two pigs in each test were fed the basal diet and 6 others were fed the basal diet plus forage throughout the whole experiment. The intake of forages was low and quite variable and on average accounted for only 10 to 12% of the DMI. Ileal digestibility of protein estimated by collection from the T-cannula was higher (P = 0.031) than the digestibility estimated by the slaughter technique indicating some separation of the digesta collected from the T-cannula. The forages had, as expected, a lower total tract DM and energy digestibility than the basal diet (P < 0.05). The fresh clover-grass had a higher energy digestibility than the 2 silages (60 vs. 48%; P < 0.05). Inclusion of 10% of GE in the diet as forage reduced (P < 0.05) the energy digestibility of the ration by 2.2% for clover-grass, 3.4% for clover-grass silage, and 5.0% for pea-barley silage. In organic slaughter pig production, the overall energy supply from these forages is limited, but they may play an important role in satiety and rooting behavior. PMID:23365321

Jørgensen, H; Carlson, D; Lærke, H N

2012-12-01

303

Pouchitis and extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.  

PubMed Central

Although the etiology of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is unknown, its manifestations resemble those of nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease, including, anecdotally, the apparent ability to evoke extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine in what manner pouchitis and EIMs were associated. The computerized records of 819 consecutive patients who underwent IPAA between January 1981 and December 1988 were reviewed. Eighty-five patients were excluded (because of incomplete follow-up, death, or permanent ileostomy). Follow-up of the remaining 734 patients was complete (mean, 41 months). The mean age was 32 years and the ratio of men to women was 1:1. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed for chronic ulcerative colitis in 91% of patients and for familial adenomatous polyposis in 9%. Pouchitis occurred in 31% of chronic ulcerative colitis patients and 6% of familial adenomatous polyposis patients (p less than 0.01). The mean time to first occurrence was 17 months. Pouchitis recurred in 61% of patients at risk. Patients with preoperative and postoperative EIMs had significantly higher rates of pouchitis than did patients without EIMs (39% preoperative EIMs versus 26% with no EIMs, p less than 0.001; 53% postoperative EIMs versus 25% with no EIMs, p less than 0.001). Of patients with pouchitis in whom EIMs resolved after IPAA but then recurred (n = 12), EIMs recurred when pouchitis occurred and abated when pouchitis was treated in seven patients. We concluded that pouchitis occurred frequently after IPAA and that patients with EIMs were at higher risk of developing pouchitis than were patients who never had EIMs. Furthermore some patients experienced a temporal relationship between flares of EIMs and pouchitis. These results imply that pouchitis may be a novel manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease persisting after operation. PMID:2339922

Lohmuller, J L; Pemberton, J H; Dozois, R R; Ilstrup, D; van Heerden, J

1990-01-01

304

Radiosensitization of Hypoxic Tumor Cells by Depletion of Intracellular Glutathione  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depletion of glutathione in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro by diethyl maleate resulted in enhancement of the effect of x-rays on cell survival under hypoxic conditions but not under oxygenated conditions. Hypoxic EMT6 tumor cells were similarly sensitized in vivo. The action of diethyl maleate is synergistic with the effect of the electron-affinic radiosensitizer misonidazole, suggesting that the effectiveness of misonidazole in cancer radiotherapy may be improved by combining it with drugs that deplete intracellular glutathione.

Bump, Edward A.; Yu, Ning Y.; Brown, J. Martin

1982-08-01

305

Spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection in a patient with upper digestive bleeding and esophageal varices.  

PubMed

We present a case of mucosal esophageal dissection in a 44-year-old patient with alcoholic cirrhosis admitted for upper digestive bleeding. The endoscopic aspect was of chronic mucosal dissection in the esophagus and 3rd degree esophageal varices with red signs. To our knowledge, it is the only case with spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. PMID:21776303

Negreanu, L; Tribus, L C; Purcarea, M; Fierbinteanu Braticevici, C

2011-05-15

306

Spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection in a patient with upper digestive bleeding and esophageal varices  

PubMed Central

We present a case of mucosal esophageal dissection in a 44–year–old patient with alcoholic cirrhosis admitted for upper digestive bleeding. The endoscopic aspect was of chronic mucosal dissection in the esophagus and 3rd degree esophageal varices with red signs. To our knowledge, it is the only case with spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. PMID:21776303

Tribus, LC; Purcarea, M; Fierbinteanu Braticevici, C

2011-01-01

307

Multiple glutathione disulfide removal pathways mediate cytosolic redox homeostasis.  

PubMed

Glutathione is central to cellular redox chemistry. The majority of glutathione redox research has been based on the chemical analysis of whole-cell extracts, which unavoidably destroy subcellular compartment-specific information. Compartment-specific real-time measurements based on genetically encoded fluorescent probes now suggest that the cytosolic glutathione redox potential is about 100 mV more reducing than previously thought. Using these probes in yeast, we show that even during severe oxidative stress, the cytosolic glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentration is much more tightly regulated than expected and provides a mechanistic explanation for the discrepancy with conventional measurements. GSSG that is not immediately reduced in the cytosol is rapidly transported into the vacuole by the ABC-C transporter Ycf1. The amount of whole-cell GSSG is entirely dependent on Ycf1 and uninformative about the cytosolic glutathione pool. Applying these insights, we identify Trx2 and Grx2 as efficient backup systems to glutathione reductase for cytosolic GSSG reduction. PMID:23242256

Morgan, Bruce; Ezeri?a, Daria; Amoako, Theresa N E; Riemer, Jan; Seedorf, Matthias; Dick, Tobias P

2013-02-01

308

Assessment of Long-Term Quality of Life Using the FACT-BL Questionnaire in Patients with an Ileal Conduit, Continent Reservoir, or Orthotopic Neobladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess and compare quality of life (QOL) of patients followed for a long time who underwent an ileal conduit (IC), continent reservoir (CR) or ileal neobladder (NB) using FACT-BL, a bladder-cancer-specific questionnaire. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven patients underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for bladder cancer from 1987 to 2002 at our institution. Of them, 79 (54%)

Eiji Kikuchi; Yutaka Horiguchi; Jun Nakashima; Takashi Ohigashi; Mototsugu Oya; Ken Nakagawa; Akira Miyajima; Masaru Murai

309

Preventing Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients undergoing combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiotherapy) for advanced head and neck cancer will receive intravenous palifermin or placebo before and during cancer treatment to prevent mucositis, a common but serious side effect of chemoradiotherapy for this type of cancer.

310

[Epithelial cells as sentinels in mucosal immune barrier].  

PubMed

The mucosal surface of the body is exposed to a vast array of exogenous antigens and microorganisms. Epithelial cells evoke minimal immune response to food ingredients and commensal bacteria, while they release an array of antimicrobial peptides and CXC chemokines in response to bacterial invasion or inflammatory stimuli. The mucosal antigens are transported from the gut lumen to organized lymphoid follicles by specialized epithelial M cells residing in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). An alternative pathway of antigen uptake with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is also reported. Furthermore, intestinal dendritic cells underneath epithelium directly take up luminal antigens, where epithelial fractalkine expression plays a critical role in the guidance of dendrite extrusion. Epithelial cells express polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) that is essential for the luminal secretion of dimeric IgA produced in the lamina propria. Furthermore, soluble factors released by mucosal epithelial cells condition dendritic cells, which in turn promote Th2 response. These multiple lines of evidence clearly suggest the significant role of epithelial cells at the front line of mucosal immune defense. PMID:16505599

Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

2006-02-01

311

Metagenomics of the mucosal microbiota of European eels.  

PubMed

European eels are an economically important and threatened species that are prone to rapid collapse in farm conditions. Using metagenomics, we show that the eel mucosal microbiota has specific features distinguishing it from the surrounding aquatic community. This is a first step in dissecting the resident microbiota of this critical barrier that may have implications for maintenance of healthy eel populations. PMID:25377710

Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amaro, Carmen

2014-01-01

312

Original article Conservation of mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT)  

E-print Network

of the heavy chain and an ability to associate with b2-microglobulin. The human MHC region on chromosome 6 T (MAIT) cells are restricted by MR1 and express an invariant T cell receptor. Even though MR1 protein / T cell receptor / mucosal immunology / non-classical MHC 1. INTRODUCTION MHC class I-like molecules form

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Antipeptide Antibody Responses following Intranasal Immunization: Effectiveness of Mucosal Adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity is a major factor limiting the development and use of potent adjuvants for human mucosally delivered vaccines. Novel adjuvant formulations have recently become available, and in the present study two have been used for intranasal immunization with a synthetic peptide immunogen (MAP-M2). This peptide represents a multiple antigenic peptide containing multiple copies of a mimotope M2, a peptide mimic

WIESLAWA OLSZEWSKA; CHARALAMBOS D. PARTIDOS; MICHAEL W. STEWARD

2000-01-01

314

Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-07-15

315

Role of Intestinal Permeability in Monitoring Mucosal Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal barrier function is considered to play an important role in protecting the penetration of luminal antigens, associated with the development of secondary infection and sepsis and the initiation of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The intestinal mucosal barrier against luminal macromolecules and microorganisms consists of both non-immunological and immunological defence mechanisms. The main constituents of the intestinal barrier

Zhengwu Sun; Xiangdong Wang; Roland Andersson

1998-01-01

316

Herbal Substance, Acteoside, Alleviates Intestinal Mucositis in Mice  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the role of acteoside in the amelioration of mucositis. C57BL/6 mice were gavaged daily with acteoside 600??g for 5?d prior to induction of mucositis and throughout the experimental period. Mucositis was induced by methotrexate (MTX; 12.5?mg/kg; s.c.). Mice were culled on d 5 and d 11 after MTX. The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, metallothionein (MT) levels, and histology. Acteoside reduced histological severity scores by 75, 78, and 88% in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared to MTX-controls on d 5. Acteoside reduced crypt depth by 49, 51, and 33% and increased villus height by 19, 38, and 10% in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared to MTX-controls on d 5. Acteoside decreased MT by 50% compared to MTX-control mice on d 5. Acteoside decreased MPO by 60% and 30% in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively, compared to MTX-controls on d 5. Acteoside alleviated MTX-induced small intestinal mucositis possibly by preventing inflammation.

Reinke, Daniel; Kritas, Stamatiki; Polychronopoulos, Panagiotis; Skaltsounis, Alexios L.; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Tran, Cuong D.

2015-01-01

317

Mucosal reactivity to cow's milk protein in coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with coeliac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet may still have gastrointestinal symptoms. On clinical grounds cow's milk (CM) protein sensitivity may be suspected. Here, using rectal protein challenge, we investigated the local inflammatory reaction to gluten and CM protein in adult patients with CD in remission. Rectal challenges with wheat gluten and dried CM powder were performed in 20 patients with CD and 15 healthy controls. Fifteen hours after challenge the mucosal reaction was recorded by the mucosal patch technique with measurements of local release of neutrophil and eosinophil granule constituents; myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). We measured the mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) simultaneously. Six of the patients who reacted to CM were also challenged with ?-lactalbumin and casein. In 18 of 20 patients gluten challenge induced neutrophil activation defined as increased MPO release and increased NO synthesis. Ten of these 20 patients showed a similarly strong inflammatory reaction to CM challenge. Six of the CM sensitive patients were challenged with specific CM proteins: casein and ?-lactalbumin. Casein, in contrast to ?-lactalbumin, induced an inflammatory response similar to that produced by CM. A mucosal inflammatory response similar to that elicited by gluten was produced by CM protein in about 50% of the patients with coeliac disease. Casein, in particular, seems to be involved in this reaction. PMID:17302893

Kristjánsson, G; Venge, P; Hällgren, R

2007-01-01

318

Mucosal folding in upper urinary pathways following ureterolithiasis.  

PubMed

Mucosal folds in the ureter or renal pelvis were demonstrated in 2 children and 27 adults with urolithiasis. It appeared from the sequence of events observed in these cases that the folds occurred in a redundant mucosa following an episode of mural stretching. Urinalysis, including bacterial culture in the majority of cases, showed infection in only 3 of the adults. PMID:983762

Theander, G; Wehlin, L

1976-09-01

319

Candida albicans interactions with epithelial cells and mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans interactions with epithelial cells are critical for commensal growth, fungal pathogenicity and host defence. This review will outline our current understanding of C. albicans-epithelial interactions and will discuss how this may lead to the induction of a protective mucosal immune response. PMID:21801848

Naglik, Julian R.; Moyes, David L; Wächtler, Betty; Hube, Bernhard

2011-01-01

320

Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A role for the mucosal immune system in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome is suggested by its association with intestinal infections. Methods: To investigate this, we performed histologic and immunohistologic studies on colonoscopic biopsy specimens from 77 patients with symptoms satisfying the Rome criteria and 28 asymptomatic control patients. Results: Histologic assessment of biopsy specimens from

Vinton S. Chadwick; Wangxue Chen; Dairu Shu; Barbara Paulus; Peter Bethwaite; Andy Tie; Ian Wilson

2002-01-01

321

Duodenogastroesophageal reflux and esophageal mucosal injury in mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Esophagitis has been reported to be the most frequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in intensive care patients. The mechanisms causing esophagitis are unclear. The aim of this study was to measure esophageal acid and bile reflux and to examine the relationship between reflux and mucosal injury in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: Twenty-five critically ill, mechanically ventilated

Alexander Wilmer; Jan Tack; Eric Frans; Hilde Dits; Steven Vanderschueren; Anemie Gevers; Hesmann Bobbaers

1999-01-01

322

Metagenomics of the Mucosal Microbiota of European Eels  

PubMed Central

European eels are an economically important and threatened species that are prone to rapid collapse in farm conditions. Using metagenomics, we show that the eel mucosal microbiota has specific features distinguishing it from the surrounding aquatic community. This is a first step in dissecting the resident microbiota of this critical barrier that may have implications for maintenance of healthy eel populations. PMID:25377710

Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2014-01-01

323

Neural fibrolipoma in pharyngeal mucosal space: A rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

Neural fibrolipoma is a rare lesion presenting in early childhood, as a slow-growing fusiform swelling of a nerve, usually in the forearm or wrist (median nerve), associated with symptoms of compression neuropathy. There are only few case reports of neural fibrolipoma in neck and no such case has been reported in pharyngeal mucosal space. PMID:23833429

Kumar, Nishith; Mittal, MK; Sinha, Mukul; Thukral, BB

2012-01-01

324

Partial intestinal obstruction induces substantial mucosal proliferation in the pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral nutrition and improving supportive treatment have resulted in prolonged survival for patients with short bowel syndrome. However, definitive therapy for patients with short bowel syndrome must focus on increasing small intestinal mucosal mass. Intestinal lengthening procedures rely on intestinal dilation to accomplish this. The authors hypothesized that partial intestinal obstruction would result in consistent dilation of the intestine and

James Collins; Yvone Vicente; Keith Georgeson; David Kelly

1996-01-01

325

Effects of Chronic Dietary Cadmium on Hepatic Glutathione Levels and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The effects of chronic exposure to dietary cadmium on the levels of hepatic glutathione (GSH) and on the activity of the\\u000a glutathione peroxidase enzymes (GSH-Px) were studied for the first time in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Thirty-three individuals (17 females and 16 males) were divided into three groups: One represented the untreated control\\u000a and two were respectively fed with diets

L. Congiu; M. Chicca; A. Pilastro; M. Turchetto; L. Tallandini

2000-01-01

326

EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, AND CHLORITE ON OSMOTIC FRAGILITY OF RAT BLOOD IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), chlorite (ClO2(-1)), and chlorate (ClO3(-1)) in drinking water decreased blood glutathione and RBC osmotic fragility in vivo. The osmotic fragility and glutathione content were also studied in rat blood treated with ClO2, ClO2(-1), ClO3(-1) in vitro. RBC ...

327

Papaverine, an opium alkaloid influences hepatic and pulmonary glutathione s-transferase activity and glutathione content in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present study evaluates the effect of oral administration of papaverine at differential dosing regimens (100 mg\\/kg bw\\u000a and 200mg\\/kg bw) on the hepatic and pulmonary glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione content (GSH) in male\\u000a Wistar rats. Papaverine treatment caused a pronounced increase in GST activity and GSH content at the higher dosing level\\u000a in the rat liver and

RITU ANEJAI; Archana Sharma; Anita Talwar; Sujata K. Dass; Ramesh Chandra

2004-01-01

328

Different effects of nine clausenamide ennatiomers on liver glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase activity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To study the effects of nine synthetic clausenamide with different stereo structures on liver glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mice.Methods:The nine test compounds were racemic mixtures and their ennatiomers of clausenamide, neoclausenamide and epineoclausenamide. Mice were administered clausenamide 250 mg\\/kg once daily for 3 consecutive days, ig, and were killed 24 h after the last dosing.

Yu-qun Wu; Li-de Liu; Hua-ling Wei; Geng-tao Liu

2006-01-01

329

Time course effects of vanadium supplement on cytosolic reduced glutathione level and glutathione S-transferase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of vanadium, an important dietary micronutrient, was evaluated on the cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH) content\\u000a and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in several rat target tissues. Supplementation of drinking water with vanadium\\u000a at the level of 0.2 or 0.5 ppm for 4, 8, or 12 wk was found to increase the GSH level with a concomitant elevation in GST

Anupam Bishayee; Malay Chatterjee

1995-01-01

330

The influence of fasting on liver sulfhydryl groups, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfhydryl groups, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are important elements of the antioxidant\\u000a defence in the organism. The efficacy of their antioxidant action is influenced by many factors. In this work, the effect\\u000a of fasting on total, protein-bound and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and on the activity of liver and serum GPx and GST in\\u000a rats were determined. Male Wistar

T. Szkudelski; M. Okulicz; I. Bialik; K. Szkudelska

2004-01-01

331

Effect of vitamin A deficiency on the levels of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase activity in rat lung and liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Vitamin A deficiency reduces the content of glutathione in liver and lung. Also, glutathione S-transferase activity is decreased significantly in the lung, whereas its activity is increased in the liver.

S. C. Dogra; K. L. Khanduja; R. R. Sharma

1982-01-01

332

Nox1 causes ileocolitis in mice deficient in glutathione peroxidase-1 and -2.  

PubMed

We previously reported that mice deficient in two Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases, GPx1 and GPx2, have spontaneous ileocolitis. Disease severity depends on mouse genetic background. Whereas C57BL/6J (B6) GPx1/2-double-knockout (DKO) mice have moderate ileitis and mild colitis, 129S1Svlm/J (129) DKO mice have severe ileocolitis. Because GPx's are antioxidant enzymes, we hypothesized that elevated reactive oxygen species trigger inflammation in these DKO mice. To test whether NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) contributes to colitis, we generated B6 triple-KO (TKO) mice to study their phenotype. Because the Nox1 gene is X-linked, we analyzed the effects of Nox1 on male B6 TKO mice and female B6 DKO mice with the Nox1(+/-) (het-TKO) genotype. We found that the male TKO and female het-TKO mice are virtually disease-free when monitored from 8 through 50 days of age. Male TKO and female het-TKO mice have nearly no signs of disease (e.g., lethargy and perianal alopecia) that are often exhibited in the DKO mice; further, the slower growth rate of DKO mice is almost completely eliminated in male TKO and female het-TKO mice. Male TKO and female het-TKO mice no longer have the shortened small intestine present in the DKO mice. Finally, the pathological characteristics of the DKO ileum, including the high level of crypt apoptosis (analyzed by apoptotic figures, TUNEL, and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining), high numbers of Ki-67-positive crypt epithelium cells, and elevated levels of monocytes expressing myeloperoxidase, are all significantly decreased in male TKO mice. The attenuated ileal and colonic pathology is also evident in female het-DKO mice. Furthermore, the male DKO ileum has eightfold higher TNF cytokine levels than TKO ileum. Nox1 mRNA is highly elevated in both B6 and 129 DKO ileum compared to wild-type mouse ileum. Taking these results together, we propose that ileocolitis in the DKO mice is caused by Nox1, which is induced by TNF. The milder disease in female het-TKO intestine is probably due to random or imprinted X-chromosome inactivation, which produces mosaic Nox1 expression. PMID:24374371

Esworthy, Robert S; Kim, Byung-Wook; Chow, Joni; Shen, Binghui; Doroshow, James H; Chu, Fong-Fong

2014-03-01

333

Neural aspects of prostaglandin involvement in gastric mucosal defense.  

PubMed

In rats, central vagal stimulation by thyrotropin-releasing hormone protects against ethanol-induced gastric damage by muscarinic release of prostaglandins. In contrast, gastroprotection following capsaicin-induced stimulation of afferent neurons is prostaglandin-independent. Capsaicin-evoked protection is abolished by blockade of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Various peptides including gastrin 17, cholecystokinin octapeptide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, bombesin, corticotropin-releasing factor, epidermal growth factor, peptide YY, neurokinin A analogs and intragastric peptone exert gastroprotection that is abolished by afferent nerve denervation, blockade of CGRP receptors and inhibition of NO synthase. Indomethacin attenuates the protection of some peptides but has no effect with others. The hyperemic response to peptides is mediated by the afferent nerve/CGRP/NO system without contribution of prostaglandins. Furthermore, it was shown that NKA analogs exert afferent nerve-, CGRP- and NO-dependent gastroprotection in the face of substantial reduction of gastric mucosal blood flow indicating that gastroprotection is not necessarily mediated by mucosal hyperemia. In the rat stomach with functioning afferent nerves neither selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 nor COX-2 is ulcerogenic and only simultaneous inhibition of both COX isoenzymes induees mucosal lesions. In the face of pending injury such as intragastric acid a COX-1 inhibitor evokes dose-dependent damage whereas COX-2 inhibitors are not injurious as long as the function of afferent nerves is not impaired. After afferent nerve denervation, however, COX-2 inhibitors or dexamethasone which suppresses the acid-induced up-regulation of COX-2 are highly ulcerogenic. In conclusion, release of prostaglandins following nerve stimulation can mediate protective effects under certain conditions but is not a prerequisite for neurally mediated mucosal defense. Prostaglandins are of particular importance for the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity when neuronal defense mechanisms are impaired. PMID:11787758

Peskar, B M

2001-12-01

334

Mucosal healing and deep remission: What does it mean?  

PubMed Central

The use of specific terms under different meanings and varying definitions has always been a source of confusion in science. When we point our efforts towards an evidence based medicine for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) the same is true: Terms such as “mucosal healing” or “deep remission” as endpoints in clinical trials or treatment goals in daily patient care may contribute to misconceptions if meanings change over time or definitions are altered. It appears to be useful to first have a look at the development of terms and their definitions, to assess their intrinsic and context-independent problems and then to analyze the different relevance in present-day clinical studies and trials. The purpose of such an attempt would be to gain clearer insights into the true impact of the clinical findings behind the terms. It may also lead to a better defined use of those terms for future studies. The terms “mucosal healing” and “deep remission” have been introduced in recent years as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of IBD patients. Several clinical trials, cohort studies or inception cohorts provided data that the long term disease course is better, when mucosal healing is achieved. However, it is still unclear whether continued or increased therapeutic measures will aid or improve mucosal healing for patients in clinical remission. Clinical trials are under way to answer this question. Attention should be paid to clearly address what levels of IBD activity are looked at. In the present review article authors aim to summarize the current evidence available on mucosal healing and deep remission and try to highlight their value and position in the everyday decision making for gastroenterologists. PMID:24282345

Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan; Schoepfer, Alain; Lakatos, Peter L

2013-01-01

335

Mucosal Immunologic Responses in Cholera Patients in Bangladesh?  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae O1 causes dehydrating diarrhea with a high mortality rate if untreated. The infection also elicits long-term protective immunity. Since V. cholerae is noninvasive, mucosal immunity is likely important for protection. In this study, we compared humoral immune responses in the duodenal mucosa and blood of cholera patients at different time points after the onset of disease and compared them with those of healthy controls (HCs). Immune responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. Significant increases in V. cholerae LPS-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels were seen in duodenal extracts on day 30, but the levels decreased to baseline by day 180; plasma V. cholerae LPS-specific IgA levels remained elevated longer. Levels of mucosal CTB antibodies also peaked on day 30, but the increase reached statistical significance only for IgG. A significant correlation was found between the CTB antibody-secreting cell (ASC) response in the circulatory system on day 7 and subsequent CTB-specific IgA levels in duodenal extracts on day 30 and the numbers of CTB-specific IgA ASCs in duodenal tissues on day 180. The proportion (0.07%) of mucosal V. cholerae LPS IgA ASCs peaked on day 30 and remained elevated through day 180 compared to that of HCs (P = 0.03). These results suggest that protective immunity against V. cholerae is not likely mediated by the constitutive secretion of antibodies at the mucosal surface; our results are consistent with those of other studies that suggest instead that anamnestic immune responses of mucosal lymphocytes may play a major role in protection against cholera. PMID:21248157

Uddin, Taher; Harris, Jason B.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Shirin, Tahmina; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Chowdhury, Fahima; LaRocque, Regina C.; Alam, Nur Haque; Ryan, Edward T.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi

2011-01-01

336

Determination of glutathione, glutathione disulphide, ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in tissues by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was applied to the estimation of glutathione, glutathione disulphide, ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in various tissues of man, animal, and plant. The simultaneous determination of glutathione and ascorbic acid in tissues was done by a coulometric method. Separation of glutathione and ascorbic acid and unequivocal substance identifications were performed on a 100×4.6 mm

Emin Sofic; Peter Riederer; Rainer Burger; Wieland Gsell; Günther Heuschneider

1991-01-01

337

Plasma cell orificial mucositis. Report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign idiopathic condition of orificial mucous membranes, characterized histopathologically by a dense plasmacytic infiltrate. Although plasma cell orificial mucositis was originally described by Zoon as occurring on the glans penis, conditions similar to plasma cell orificial mucositis involving other body orifices have been reported under various names. A patient with involvement of the lips and epiglottis associated with psoriasis and fissured tongue is described. Plasma cell orificial mucositis must be differentiated from numerous other entities, including erythroplasia of Queyrat, allergic contact mucositis, plasmacytoma, plasmoacanthoma, syphilis, candidiasis, and cheilitis granulomatosa. PMID:3777979

White, J W; Olsen, K D; Banks, P M

1986-11-01

338

Effects of hypothermia on the survival and cryopreservation of minipig ileal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Temperature of culture can be used to modulate cellular metabolism for improving small intestinal cell culture and cryopreservation. An hypothermia pretreatment (2 days at 25 degrees C and 3 hours recovery at 37 degrees C) improved hamster cell survival to freeze-thaw damage (p < 0.01) but decreased the survival of 2 immortal pig ileal cell lines even though epithelioid IPI-2I cells were more tolerant to hypothermia than IPI-1 fibroblasts. Epithelioid cells survived 3 days at 25 degrees C with unaltered expression of cytokeratin-18 whereas colonies of fibroblasts did not survive more than a day at 25 degrees C (p < 0.001). These results suggest that hypothermia-tolerance of pig ileal cell lines might differ according to cell lineage calling for further experiments on small intestinal primary cell culture. PMID:7534550

Kaeffer, B; Uriel, I G; Bottreau, E

1994-11-01

339

Radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion and abdominal wall reconstruction: an interesting case of multidisciplinary management  

PubMed Central

The ileal conduit for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is a well-described procedure. Furthermore, parastomal hernias, prolapse, stenosis, and retraction of the stoma have been reported as some of the more common complications of this procedure. The subsequent repair of parastomal hernias with a biological mesh and the potential of the conduit to “tunnel” through it has also been described. In this case report, we present a combined repair of a large incisional hernia with a cystectomy and a pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive bladder cancer, with the use of a biological mesh for posterior component abdominal wall primary repair as well as for support to the ileal conduit used for urinary diversion. PMID:25653561

Sofos, Stratos S; Walsh, Ciaran J; Parr, Nigel J; Hancock, Kevin

2015-01-01

340

Hepatic pseudocystic metastasis of well-differentiated ileal neuroendocrine tumor: a case report with review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract Imaging appearance of cyst-like changes is most frequently described in primary neuroendocrine lesions, especially pancreatic NETs. The imaging finding of a pseudocystic lesion of the liver puts in differential diagnosis many pathologies such as infectious diseases, simple biliary cysts up to biliary cystadenomas and eventually to primary or metastatic malignancies. Primary or metastatic hepatic malignancies with pseudocystic aspects are rare, and a pseudocystic aspect is reported only after neo-adjuvant treatment. Liver metastasis of untreated neuroendocrine tumors are usually solid and, to our knowledge, only two cases of neuroendocrine cystic hepatic metastases of ileal atypical carcinoids have been reported so far. We present a case of a 67 years old man with synchronous finding of an untreated hepatic pseudocystic lesion and an ileal mass histologically diagnosed as a well differentiated (G1) neuroendocrine tumor. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1443883503102967. PMID:24034980

2013-01-01

341

The glutathione conjugate of ethacrynic acid can bind to human pi class glutathione transferase P1-1 in two different modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of pi class glutathione S-transferase, has been tested in clinical trials as an adjuvant in chemotherapy. We recently solved the crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Here we present a new structure of the ethacrynic-glutathione conjugate complex. In this structure the ethacrynic moiety of the

Aaron J Oakley; Mario Lo Bello; Anna Paola Mazzetti; Giorgio Federici; Michael W Parker

1997-01-01

342

Journal of General Microbiology ( I 988), 134, 807-8 17. Printed in Great Britain 807 Levels of Polyamines, Glutathione and Glutathione-Spermidine Conjugates  

E-print Network

of Polyamines, Glutathione and Glutathione-Spermidine Conjugates during Growth of the Insect Trypanosomatid of the polyamines spermidine and putrescine and the major intracellular thiols glutathione (GSH), glutathionylspermidine (GSH-SPD) and dihydrotrypanothione [bis- (glutathiony1)spermidine);T[SH],] were measured by high

Schnaufer, Achim

343

Dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in early weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA), and their serum concentrations\\u000a in early weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs were weaned at 21 days of age (BW 7.35 ± 0.23 kg) and allocated to three treatments\\u000a (20 pigs\\/treatment), representing supplementing 0.0% (control), 0.02% colistin

F. G. Yin; Y. L. Liu; Y. L. Yin; X. F. Kong; R. L. Huang; T. J. Li; G. Y. Wu; Yongqing Hou

2009-01-01

344

Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations\\u000a and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire\\u000a piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or\\u000a 2 g\\/kg of the powder,

X. F. Kong; Y. L. Yin; Q. H. He; F. G. Yin; H. J. Liu; T. J. Li; R. L. Huang; M. M. Geng; Z. Ruan; Z. Y. Deng; M. Y. Xie; G. Wu

2009-01-01

345

Ileal amino-acid digestibility of wheat, autoclaved wheat and spaghetti by-products for broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine true and apparent ileal amino-acid digestibility of a native cultivar of wheat (Mahdavi), autoclaved wheat (120°C for 30 min) and spaghetti by-products available in Iran. One hundred 21-day-old broiler chickens were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet from day 0 to 28 post hatch. At 28 days 80 chicks were distributed according to

Mojtaba ZAGHARI

2006-01-01

346

Inhibition of ileal apical but not basolateral bile acid transport reduces atherosclerosis in apoE?/? mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids induces hepatic bile acid synthesis, increases hepatic cholesterol demand, and increases clearance of apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Based on these effects, bile acid sequestrants have been used for many years to treat hypercholesterolemia and the associated atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of blocking ileal apical versus basolateral membrane bile acid transport on the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mouse models. Methods and Results ApoE?/? and Ldlr?/? mice deficient in the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) or apoE?/? mice deficient in the basolateral bile acid transporter (Ost?) were fed an atherogenic diet for 16 weeks. Bile acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, gene expression, and development of atherosclerosis were examined. Mice deficient in Asbt exhibited the classic response to interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, including significant reductions in hepatic and plasma cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic cholesteryl ester content. Ileal Fibroblast Growth Factor-15 (FGF15) expression was significantly reduced in Asbt?/?apoE?/? mice and was inversely correlated with expression of hepatic cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1). Ileal FGF15 expression was directly correlated with plasma cholesterol levels and aortic cholesterol content. In contrast, plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis development were not reduced in apoE?/? mice deficient in Ost?. Conclusions Decreases in ileal FGF15, with subsequent increases in hepatic Cyp7a1 expression and bile acid synthesis appear to be necessary for the plasma cholesterol-lowering and atheroprotective effects associated with blocking intestinal bile acid absorption. PMID:23880190

Lan, Tian; Haywood, Jamie; Dawson, Paul A.

2013-01-01

347

The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

Epstein, J.B.; Wong, F.L.W. (British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada))

1994-02-01

348

Nutritional value of [15N]-soy protein isolate assessed from ileal digestibility and postprandial protein utilization in humans.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to assess the true oro-ileal digestibility, and to concurrently quantify the deamination of absorbed dietary nitrogen to examine the postprandial nutritional value of a soy protein isolate (SPI) in humans. To assess bioavailability and bioutilization of SPI, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 30 g of SPI, intrinsically and uniformly [15N]-labeled, added with 100 g of sucrose and water up to a final volume of 500 mL. True ileal digestibility was assessed by the [15N]-dilution method for 8 h by means of a naso-intestinal intubation technique. To describe and quantify exogenous nitrogen deamination for the same time period, urine and plasma samples were collected. True oro-ileal digestibility of SPI nitrogen was 91%. The amount of absorbed SPI amino acids used for nonoxidative disposal, i.e., postprandial biological value, was 86% 8 h after meal ingestion. Hence, net postprandial protein utilization of SPI was 78%. Compared to previous data that were assessed under the same condition in humans, the nutritional value of SPI is 92% of that in milk protein concentrate. PMID:10539774

Mariotti, F; Mahé, S; Benamouzig, R; Luengo, C; Daré, S; Gaudichon, C; Tomé, D

1999-11-01

349

Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids  

PubMed Central

The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis is restricted to the cytosol and the plastids and the product is distributed to the various organelles by unknown mechanisms. In the present study immunogold cytochemistry based on anti-glutathione antisera and transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the relative concentration of glutathione in different organelles of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root cells. Glutathione-specific labelling was detected in all cellular compartments except the apoplast and the vacuole. The highest glutathione content was surprisingly not found in plastids, which have been described before as a major site of glutathione accumulation, but in mitochondria which lack the capacity for glutathione biosynthesis. Mitochondria of both leaf and root cells contained 7-fold and 4-fold, respectively, higher glutathione levels than plastids while the density of glutathione labelling in the cytosol, nuclei, and peroxisomes was intermediate. The accuracy of the glutathione labelling is supported by two observations. First, pre-adsorption of the anti-glutathione antisera with glutathione reduced the density of the gold particles in all organelles to background levels. Second, the overall glutathione-labelling density was reduced by about 90% in leaves of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis mutant pad2-1 and increased in transgenic plants with enhanced glutathione accumulation. Hence, there was a strong correlation between immunocytochemical and biochemical data of glutathione accumulation. Interestingly, the glutathione labelling of mitochondria in pad2-1 remained very similar to wild-type plants thus suggesting that the high mitochondrial glutathione content is maintained in a situation of permanent glutathione-deficiency at the expense of other glutathione pools. High and constant levels of glutathione in mitochondria appear to be particularly important in cell survival strategies and it is predicted that mitochondria must have highly competitive mitochondrial glutathione uptake systems. The present results underline the suggestion that subcellular glutathione concentrations are not controlled by a global mechanism but are controlled on an individual basis and it is therefore not possible to conclude from global biochemical glutathione analysis on the status of the various organellar pools. PMID:18977750

Zechmann, B.; Mauch, F.; Sticher, L.; Müller, M.

2008-01-01

350

Metabolic synthesis of clickable glutathione for chemoselective detection of glutathionylation.  

PubMed

Glutathionylation involves reversible protein cysteine modification that regulates the function of numerous proteins in response to redox stimuli, thereby altering cellular processes. Herein we developed a selective and versatile approach to identifying glutathionylation by using a mutant of glutathione synthetase (GS). GS wild-type catalyzes coupling of ?Glu-Cys to Gly to form glutathione. We generated a GS mutant that catalyzes azido-Ala in place of Gly with high catalytic efficiency and selectivity. Transfection of this GS mutant (F152A/S151G) and incubation of azido-Ala in cells efficiently afford the azide-containing glutathione derivative, ?Glu-Cys-azido-Ala. Upon H2O2 treatment, clickable glutathione allowed for selective and sensitive detection of glutathionylated proteins by Western blotting or fluorescence after click reaction with biotin-alkyne or rhodamine-alkyne. This approach affords the efficient metabolic tagging of intracellular glutathione with small clickable functionality, providing a versatile handle for characterizing glutathionylation. PMID:25079194

Samarasinghe, Kusal T G; Munkanatta Godage, Dhanushka N P; VanHecke, Garrett C; Ahn, Young-Hoon

2014-08-20

351

Influence of age on the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in 8 feed ingredients was determined using 14-, 28- and 42-d-old male broiler chickens. The ingredients included three cereals (wheat, sorghum and maize), one cereal by-product (mill run), three oilseed meals (canola, cottonseed and soybean meals) and one animal protein meal (meat and bone meal). Dietary crude protein in the assay diets was supplied solely by the test ingredient. All diets contained 20 g/kg acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker, and each diet was offered ad libitum in mash form to 5 replicate pens from 11 to 14 d, 25 to 28 d and 39 to 42 d post-hatching. There were 12, 6 and 6 birds per pen for the 14, 28 and 42 d samplings, respectively. The results suggest that the age of broilers significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids. The effects, however, varied among amino acids and ingredients. In wheat, the digestibility of most amino acids was higher in 14- than in 28- and 42-d-old broilers. In maize, the digestibility coefficients of amino acids were higher at 28 and 42 d than at 14 d. The digestibility coefficients in maize and wheat at 28 and 42 d were similar. The digestibility of amino acids in sorghum at 42 d was higher than those at 28 d, but similar to those at 14 d except for histidine, lysine, serine and glycine, which were significantly higher at 42 d. Digestibility of amino acids in sorghum was similar between 14 and 28 d except for isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and alanine. The digestibility of amino acids in mill run at 42 d was significantly higher than those at 14 and 28 d. There were no differences in digestibility between 14 and 28 d. In general, the digestibility of amino acids in canola meal, soybean meal and, meat and bone meal was higher at 28 and 42 d compared to those at 14 d, and similar between 28 and 42 d of age. In cottonseed meal, age had no effect on the digestibility coefficient of amino acids, except for lysine and arginine, which increased with age. Analysis of the combined results for the 8 feed ingredients showed that, in general, the digestibility coefficients of amino acids increased with advancing age of broiler chickens. PMID:15957446

Huang, K H; Ravindran, V; Li, X; Bryden, W L

2005-04-01

352

The oxido-reductase enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) governs Salmonella?Typhimurium-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration  

PubMed Central

Summary Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leucocytes; PMN) transmigration across mucosal surfaces contributes to dysfunction of epithelial barrier properties, a characteristic underlying many mucosal inflammatory diseases. Using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) as a prototypic proinflammatory insult, we have previously reported that the eicosanoid hepoxilin A3 (HXA3), an endogenous product of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) activity, is secreted from the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium to establish a chemotactic gradient that guides PMN across the epithelial surface. Since little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that regulate 12-LOX during S. Typhimurium infection, we investigated this pathway. We found that expression of phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPX4), which is known to have an inhibitory effect on 12-LOX activity, is significantly decreased at both the mRNA and protein level during infection with S. Typhimurium. Moreover, employing intestinal epithelial cell monolayers expressing siRNA against GPX4 mRNA, S. Typhimurium-induced PMN migration was significantly increased compared with the non-specific siRNA control cells. Conversely, in cells engineered to overexpress GPX4, S. Typhimurium-induced PMN migration was significantly decreased, which is consistent with the finding that partial depletion of GPX4 by RNAi resulted in a significant increase in HXA3 secretion during S. Typhimurium infection. Mechanistically, although we found Salmonella entry not to be required for the induced decrease in GPX4, the secreted effector, SipA, which is known to induce epithelial responses leading to stimulation of HXA3, governed the decrease in GPX4 in a process that does not lead to an overall increase in the levels of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that S. Typhimurium induces apical secretion of HXA3 by decreasing the expression of phospholipid GPX, which in turn leads to an increase in 12-LOX activity, and hence HXA3 synthesis. PMID:24617613

Agbor, Terence A; Demma, Zachary; Mrsny, Randall J; Castillo, Antonio; Boll, Erik J; McCormick, Beth A

2014-01-01

353

[The effect of emotional-painful stress, hypoxia, and adaptation to it on the activity of enzymes for metabolizing glutathione and concentration of glutathione in rat organs].  

PubMed

The stress activates glutathione peroxidase in the heart, liver, and kidney, glutathione transferase in the heart and liver, inhibits gamma-glutamyl transferase in the liver; the activity of glutathione reductase and the content of reduced glutathione were unchanged. Two-four-minute hypercapnic hypoxia unchanged the activity of glutathione metabolic enzymes. The activity of the above enzymes decreases in some organs at the death caused by 2-15-minute hypoxia. Long-term intermittent adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia lowers the activity of glutathione peroxidase, -transferase and -reductase. The biological value of the two types of enzymatic responses may be different: stress-induced activation of glutathione metabolic enzymes can enhance resistance to stress and xenobiotics; however, their inhibition during hypoxic adaptation may produce the opposite effect. PMID:7839657

Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinski?, V I; Ias'ko, M V; Ekimov, E N; Stanevich, L M; Glushkova, E F; Belogorov, S B; Filippova, G T

1994-01-01

354

Hemolytic Anemia and Metabolic Acidosis: Think about Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency.  

PubMed

Glutathione synthetase deficiency (GSSD) is a rare disorder of glutathione metabolism with varying clinical severity. Patients may present with hemolytic anemia alone or together with acidosis and central nervous system impairment. Diagnosis is made by clinical presentation and detection of elevated concentrations of 5-oxoproline in urine and low glutathione synthetase activity in erythrocytes or cultured skin fibroblasts. The prognosis seems to depend on early diagnosis and treatment. We report a 4 months old Tunisian male infant who presented with severe metabolic acidosis with high anion gap and hemolytic anemia. High level of 5-oxoproline was detected in her urine and diagnosis of GSSD was made. Treatment consists of the correction of acidosis, blood transfusion, and supplementation with antioxidants. He died of severe metabolic acidosis and sepsis at the age of 15 months. PMID:25166299

Ameur, Salma Ben; Aloulou, Hajer; Nasrallah, Fehmi; Kamoun, Thouraya; Kaabachi, Naziha; Hachicha, Mongia

2015-02-01

355

Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated that the levels of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) such as glutathione synthase (GSS), glutamate-cysteine ligase-catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione reductase (GSR) were significantly reduced in the red blood cells (RBCs) isolated from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. GSH content in RBCs can be used as a marker for increased overall oxidative stress and immune dysfunctions caused by HIV infection. Our data supports our hypothesis that compromised levels of GSH in HIV infected individuals’ is due to decreased levels of GSH-synthetic enzymes. The role of GSH in combating oxidative stress and improving the functions of immune cells in HIV patients’ indicates the benefit of an antioxidant supplement which can reduce the cellular damage and promote the functions of immune cells. PMID:24782776

Morris, Devin; Ly, Judy; Chi, Po-Ting; Daliva, John; Nguyen, Truongson; Soofer, Charleen; Chen, Yung C.; Lagman, Minette; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

2014-01-01

356

Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV.  

PubMed

We demonstrated that the levels of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) such as glutathione synthase (GSS), glutamate-cysteine ligase-catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione reductase (GSR) were significantly reduced in the red blood cells (RBCs) isolated from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. GSH content in RBCs can be used as a marker for increased overall oxidative stress and immune dysfunctions caused by HIV infection. Our data supports our hypothesis that compromised levels of GSH in HIV infected individuals' is due to decreased levels of GSH-synthetic enzymes. The role of GSH in combating oxidative stress and improving the functions of immune cells in HIV patients' indicates the benefit of an antioxidant supplement which can reduce the cellular damage and promote the functions of immune cells. PMID:24782776

Morris, Devin; Ly, Judy; Chi, Po-Ting; Daliva, John; Nguyen, Truongson; Soofer, Charleen; Chen, Yung C; Lagman, Minette; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

2014-01-01

357

The gut mucosal immune system in the neonatal period.  

PubMed

Invasive sepsis in the newborn period is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The infant immune system undoubtedly differs intrinsically from the mature adult immune system. Current understanding is that the newborn infant immune system displays a range of competencies and is developing rather than deficient. The infant gut mucosal immune system is complex and displays a plethora of phenotypic and functional irregularities that may be clinically important. Various factors affect and modulate the infant gut mucosal immune system: components of the intestinal barrier, the infant gut microbiome, nutrition and the maternal-infant hybrid immune system. Elucidation of the phenotypic distribution of immune cells, their functional significance and the mucosa-specific pathways used by these cells is essential to the future of research in the field of infant immunology. PMID:23682966

Battersby, Anna J; Gibbons, Deena L

2013-08-01

358

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

2013-01-01

359

Langerhans Cells and Their Role in Oral Mucosal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response. The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the “sentinels” of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes. Oral mucosal Langerhans cells are capable of engaging and internalizing a wide variety of pathogens and have been found responsive to nickel in patients with nickel allergies, oral Candida species, oral lichen planus, lichenoid drug eruptions, graft versus host diseases, periodontal diseases median rhomboid glossitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses. In this review, comprehensive detail about mucosal diseases has been compiled using the PubMed database and through textbooks. PMID:24251267

Upadhyay, Juhi; Upadhyay, Ram B; Agrawal, Pankaj; Jaitley, Shweta; Shekhar, Rhitu

2013-01-01

360

Development of Mucosal Vaccines Based on Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, sufficient data are available to support the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), notably lactococci and lactobacilli, as delivery vehicles for the development of new mucosal vaccines. These non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria have been safely consumed by humans for centuries in fermented foods. They thus constitute an attractive alternative to the attenuated pathogens (most popular live vectors actually studied) which could recover their pathogenic potential and are thus not totally safe for use in humans. This chapter reviews the current research and advances in the use of LAB as live delivery vectors of proteins of interest for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines. The use of LAB as DNA vaccine vehicles to deliver DNA directly to antigen-presenting cells of the immune system is also discussed.

Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Innocentin, Silvia; Lefèvre, Francois; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Langella, Philippe

361

[Miltefosine versus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

The conventional treatment for tegumentary leishmaniasis is meglumine antimoniate, which needs parenteral administration, has increased therapeutic failure, and produces serious adverse effects, justifying the search for therapeutic alternatives. We report here the preliminary results of a phase II clinical trial in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, in which the efficacy of oral miltefosine versus the antimonial compound was assessed. The evaluation of response to the treatment was performed by monitoring with nasopharyngeal video-fibroscopy, using a score of mucosal injury severity for patients at each follow-up point. We found no significant differences so far between the number of patients cured with miltefosine or conventional chemotherapy. The favorable results of this study suggest that miltefosine could be an effective and safe oral therapeutic alternative in the region. PMID:25347898

Garcia Bustos, Maria F; Barrio, Alejandra; Parodi, Cecilia; Beckar, Josefina; Moreno, Sonia; Basombrio, Miguel A

2014-01-01

362

Adverse Events Related to Colonic Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Polypectomy.  

PubMed

Colonoscopy is a commonly performed procedure. The rate of adverse events is 2.8 per 1000 screening colonoscopies. These adverse events include cardiovascular and pulmonary events, abdominal pain, hemorrhage, perforation, postpolypectomy syndrome, infection, and death. Serious adverse events, such as hemorrhage and perforation, occur most frequently when colonoscopy is performed with polypectomy. This article highlights the prevention and management of adverse events associated with polypectomy and endoscopic mucosal resection of colonic lesions. PMID:25442958

Sethi, Amrita; Wong Kee Song, Louis M

2015-01-01

363

Gastric mucosal lesions induced by hemorrhagic shock in baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we sought to define the role of oxygen-derived free radicals during ischemia and reperfusion in the production of acute damage to the gastric mucosa of baboons. The protective effect of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, the superoxide scavenger, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a long-acting SOD-albumin was determined. Mucosal damage was evaluated using light and scanning electron microscopy.

C. Von Ritter; R. A. Hinder; M. M. J. Oosthuizen; L. G. Svensson; S. J. S. Hunter; H. Lambrecht

1988-01-01

364

What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?  

PubMed Central

The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

Gibbins, Hannah L.; Yakubov, Gleb E.; Proctor, Gordon B.; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H.

2014-01-01

365

What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?  

PubMed

The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

Gibbins, Hannah L; Yakubov, Gleb E; Proctor, Gordon B; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H

2014-08-01

366

Augmentation of postresection mucosal hyperplasia by plerocercoid growth factor (PGF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postresection villus hyperplasia is a major compensatory mechanism in the short-bowel patient. Substances capable of augmenting postresection mucosal hyperplasia could have therapeutic implications. Human growth hormone (hGH) and human growth hormone releasing factor (hGHRF) stimulate growth of the gastrointestinal tract; however, the diabetogenic actions of growth hormone limit its usefulness in clinical practice. Plerocercoid larvae of the tapewormSpirometra mansonoides produce

Michael H. Hart; C. K. Phares; Steven H. Erdman; Carter J. Grandjean; Jung H. Y. Park; Jon A. Vanderhoof

1987-01-01

367

Induction of common mucosal immunity by hormonally immunomodulated peripheral immunization.  

PubMed Central

The study described in this report demonstrates that peripheral lymph nodes draining nonmucosal tissues can effectively serve as induction sites for the establishment of common mucosal immunity if the microenvironmental conditions are altered to mimic those normally present within mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyer's patches). Lymph node lymphocytes exposed in situ to the immunomodulatory influences of the hormone 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 were found to produce less gamma interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and far more IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 than lymphocytes from control animals. When couples with vaccination with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the hormone, immunomodulated switch from a peripheral lymph node phenotype to a Peyer's patch-like pattern promoted the induction of both a systemic and a common mucosal immune response. This was determined by the observed increased concentrations of serum anti-HBsAg antibody and by finding that anti-HBsAg secretory antibodies were detectable in urogenital, lachrymal, fecal and oral secretions only in the hormone-treated animals. In addition, specific antibody-secreting cells were detectable in the lamina propria of the lungs and small intestines of the hormone-treated animals subsequent to vaccination, indicating that the homing properties of antigen-specific B cells were being affected by the treatment procedure. The humoral and mucosal immune responses were further augmented if both 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 and dehydroepiandrosterone were used together as hormonal immunomodulators. This novel immunization technique may afford new opportunities to effectively intervene in sexually transmitted diseases and other diseases caused by mucosal pathogens. PMID:8606065

Daynes, R A; Enioutina, E Y; Butler, S; Mu, H H; McGee, Z A; Araneo B, A

1996-01-01

368

Mucosal advancement in the treatment of anal fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred eighty-nine patients with anal fistula treated within an eight-month to seven-year period by anal fistulectomy\\u000a and rectal mucosal advancement are presented. An 80 percent follow-up revealed a 90 percent asymptomatic group and a ten percent\\u000a group who had minor symptoms. Eight percent of the symptomatic patients had minor soiling; 7 percent were incontinent for\\u000a gas, and 6 percent

Pedro S. Aguilar; Gustavo Plasencia; Thomas G. Hardy; Rene F. Hartmann; William R. C. Stewart

1985-01-01

369

Absence of BRAF mutations in UV-protected mucosal melanomas  

PubMed Central

Background: Mutations in BRAF have recently been identified in a significant percentage of primary and metastatic cutaneous malignant melanomas. As ultraviolet (UV) exposure may play a role in the development of cutaneous melanoma lesions with BRAF mutations, BRAF mutation frequency in melanomas arising in sites protected from sun exposure may be lower than those from sun-exposed areas. Thus, we determined the BRAF mutation frequency in a panel of 13 mucosal melanomas and compared those data with data from all currently published series of cutaneous melanomas. Methods: BRAF exon 15 DNA from 13 archival primary mucosal melanomas (eight vulvar, four anorectal, and one laryngeal) was sequenced using intron-based primers. As archival DNA occasionally produces poor-quality template, results were confirmed with a TspRI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) that distinguishes wild-type BRAF from the common mutant form V599E. A binomial test was used to compare the mutation frequency in the mucosal melanomas with the published mutation frequency in cutaneous melanomas. Results: None of the 13 mucosal melanomas in this series had an exon 15 BRAF mutation, as compared to 54/165 (33%) primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutations in a compilation of all current published studies (p = 0.006). Discussion: These data suggest that UV exposure, plays a role in the genesis of BRAF mutations in cutaneous melanoma, despite the absence of the characteristic C>T or CC>TT mutation signature associated with UV exposure, and suggests mechanisms other than pyrimidine dimer formation are important in UV-induced mutagenesis. PMID:15060100

Edwards, R; Ward, M; Wu, H; Medina, C; Brose, M; Volpe, P; Nussen-Lee, S; Haupt, H; Martin, A; Herlyn, M; Lessin, S; Weber, B

2004-01-01

370

Metabolic alterations to the mucosal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may alter nutrient availability to adherent mucosal bacteria and impact their metabolic function. Microbial metabolites may regulate intestinal CD4+ T cell homeostasis. We investigated the relationship between inflammation and microbial function by inferred metagenomics of the mucosal microbiota from colonic pinch biopsies of IBD patients. Methods Paired pinch biopsy samples of known inflammation states were analyzed from UC (23), CD (21) and controls (24) by 16S ribosomal sequencing, histopathology and flow cytometry. PICRUSt was used to generate metagenomic data, and derive relative Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway abundance information. Leukocytes were isolated from paired biopsy samples and analyzed by multi-color flow cytometry. Active inflammation was defined by neutrophil infiltration into the epithelium Results Carriage of metabolic pathways in the mucosal microbiota was relatively stable among IBD patients despite large variations in individual bacterial community structures. However, microbial function was significantly altered in inflamed tissue of UC patients, with a reduction in carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism in favor of increased lipid and amino acid metabolism. These differences were not observed in samples from CD patients. In CD, microbial lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism was tightly correlated with frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs, whereas in UC these pathways were correlated with frequency of CD4+IL-22+ (TH22) cells. Conclusions Metabolic pathways of the mucosal microbiota in CD do not vary as much as UC with inflammation state, indicating a more systemic perturbation of host-bacteria interactions in CD compared to more localized dysfunction in UC. PMID:24583479

Davenport, Michael; Poles, Jordan; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Wolff, Martin J.; Abidi, Wasif M.; Ullman, Thomas; Mayer, Lloyd; Cho, Ilseung; Loke, P'ng

2014-01-01

371

Pretreatment with Saccharomyces boulardii does not prevent the experimental mucositis in Swiss mice  

PubMed Central

Background The antimetabolite chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical cancer treatment. Although this drug is not specific for cancer cells and also acts on healthy cells, it can cause mucositis, a common collateral effect. Dysbiosis has also been described in 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis and is likely to contribute to the overall development of mucositis. In light of this theory, the use of probiotics could be a helpful strategy to alleviate mucositis. So the aim of this study was evaluate the impact of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in a model of mucositis. Results After induced of mucositis, mice from the Mucositis groups showed a decrease in food consumption (p??0.05). Mucositis induced an increase in intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation (p?mucosal lesions, intestinal permeability and sIgA secretion (p?>?0.05) in mice pretreated with S. boulardii. Conclusions S. boulardii was not able to prevent the effects of experimental mucositis induced by 5- Fluorouracil. PMID:24721659

2014-01-01

372

Oral complications of cancer therapies. Management of mucositis during therapy  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the purposes of an oral care protocol, the major components of an oral care regimen, and oral care protocols and studies done to date. Many questions remain in the area of optimal oral care for the patient experiencing mucositis as a sequela of cancer treatment. Research is needed on types and use of mouth rinses, effective, harmless, and pleasant lip lubricants, appropriate analgesic and anti-inflammatory combinations, and the effectiveness of a variety of devices for oral cleansing, to name a few areas. As outpatient oncology services grow, oral care protocols must be developed to meet the needs of ambulatory patient populations. Oral care regimens must be safe, easy to use, and economical as well as effective to ensure patient and staff compliance. Research on the management of mucositis must be conducted in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Finally, in order to obtain sufficient sample sizes and optimize data collection, these studies will need to be conducted by multidisciplinary teams (including dentists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and nurses) across multiple sites. Not until large-scale clinical trials are done on the treatment of mucositis will we be able to optimize the therapeutic regimen for the patient. 43 references.

Miaskowski, C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-01-01

373

Mucosal transmission and pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease in ferrets.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is almost certainly transmitted by mucosal contact with the causative prion, whether by direct (animal-to-animal) or indirect (environmental) means. Yet the sites and mechanisms of prion entry remain to be further understood. This study sought to extend this understanding by demonstrating that ferrets exposed to CWD via several mucosal routes developed infection, CWD prion protein (PrP(CWD)) amplification in lymphoid tissues, neural invasion and florid transmissible spongiform encephalopathy lesions resembling those in native cervid hosts. The ferrets developed extensive PrP(CWD) accumulation in the nervous system, retina and olfactory epithelium, with lesser deposition in tongue, muscle, salivary gland and the vomeronasal organ. PrP(CWD) accumulation in mucosal sites, including upper respiratory tract epithelium, olfactory epithelium and intestinal Peyer's patches, make the shedding of prions by infected ferrets plausible. It was also observed that regionally targeted exposure of the nasopharyngeal mucosa resulted in an increased attack rate when compared with oral exposure. The latter finding suggests that nasal exposure enhances permissiveness to CWD infection. The ferret model has further potential for investigation of portals for initiation of CWD infection. PMID:23100363

Perrott, Matthew R; Sigurdson, Christina J; Mason, Gary L; Hoover, Edward A

2013-02-01

374

Aging and the mucosal immune system in the intestine.  

PubMed

Bacterial and viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract are more common in the elderly and represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defence against pathogens acquired by ingestion and inhalation, but its function is adversely affected in the elderly. This aging-related decline in the immune function is termed immunosenescence and is associated with diminished abilities to generate protective immunity, reduced vaccine efficacy, increased incidence of cancer, inflammation and autoimmunity, and the impaired ability to generate tolerance to harmless antigens. In this review we describe our current understanding of the effects immunosenescence has on the innate and adaptive arms of the mucosal immune system in the intestine. Current estimates suggest that by the year 2050 up to 40 % of the UK population will be over 65 years old, bringing with it important health challenges. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of immunosenescence is therefore crucial to help identify novel approaches to improve mucosal immunity in the elderly. PMID:24705962

Mabbott, Neil A; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Sehgal, Anuj; Bradford, Barry M; Pattison, Mari; Donaldson, David S

2014-04-01

375

A Vault Nanoparticle Vaccine Induces Protective Mucosal Immunity  

PubMed Central

Background Generation of robust cell-mediated immune responses at mucosal surfaces while reducing overall inflammation is a primary goal for vaccination. Here we report the use of a recombinant nanoparticle as a vaccine delivery platform against mucosal infections requiring T cell-mediated immunity for eradication. Methodology/Principal Findings We encapsulated an immunogenic protein, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia muridarum, within hollow, vault nanocapsules (MOMP-vaults) that were engineered to bind IgG for enhanced immunity. Intranasal immunization (i.n) with MOMP-vaults induced anti-chlamydial immunity plus significantly attenuated bacterial burden following challenge infection. Vault immunization induced anti-chlamydial immune responses and inflammasome formation but did not activate toll-like receptors. Moreover, MOMP-vault immunization enhanced microbial eradication without the inflammation usually associated with adjuvants. Conclusions/Significance Vault nanoparticles containing immunogenic proteins delivered to the respiratory tract by the i.n. route can act as “smart adjuvants” for inducing protective immunity at distant mucosal surfaces while avoiding destructive inflammation. PMID:19404403

Champion, Cheryl I.; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Liu, Guangchao; Moniz, Raymond J.; Freed, Amanda S.; Bergmann, Liisa L.; Vaccari, Dana; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Chan, Ann M.; Rome, Leonard H.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

2009-01-01

376

Mucosal transmission and pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease in ferrets  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is almost certainly transmitted by mucosal contact with the causative prion, whether by direct (animal-to-animal) or indirect (environmental) means. Yet the sites and mechanisms of prion entry remain to be further understood. This study sought to extend this understanding by demonstrating that ferrets exposed to CWD via several mucosal routes developed infection, CWD prion protein (PrPCWD) amplification in lymphoid tissues, neural invasion and florid transmissible spongiform encephalopathy lesions resembling those in native cervid hosts. The ferrets developed extensive PrPCWD accumulation in the nervous system, retina and olfactory epithelium, with lesser deposition in tongue, muscle, salivary gland and the vomeronasal organ. PrPCWD accumulation in mucosal sites, including upper respiratory tract epithelium, olfactory epithelium and intestinal Peyer’s patches, make the shedding of prions by infected ferrets plausible. It was also observed that regionally targeted exposure of the nasopharyngeal mucosa resulted in an increased attack rate when compared with oral exposure. The latter finding suggests that nasal exposure enhances permissiveness to CWD infection. The ferret model has further potential for investigation of portals for initiation of CWD infection. PMID:23100363

Perrott, Matthew R.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Mason, Gary L.

2013-01-01

377

Glutamine enhances selectivity of chemotherapy through changes in glutathione metabolism.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy doses are limited by toxicity to normal tissues. Intravenous glutamine protects liver cells from oxidant injury by increasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) content. The authors hypothesized that supplemental oral glutamine (GLN) would increase the therapeutic index of methotrexate (MTX) by improving host tolerance through changes in glutathione metabolism. The authors examined the effects of oral glutamine on tumor and host glutathione metabolism and response to methotrexate. METHODS: Thirty-six 300-g Fischer 344 rats were implanted with fibrosarcomas. On day 21 after implantation, rats were randomized to receive isonitrogenous isocaloric diets containing 1 g/kg/day glutamine or glycine (GLY) by gavage. On day 23 after 2 days of prefeeding, rats were randomized to one of the following four groups receiving an intraperitoneal injection of methotrexate (20 mg/kg) or saline (CON): GLN+MTX, GLY+MTX, GLN-CON, or GLY-CON. On day 24, rats were killed and studied for arterial glutamine concentration, tumor volume, kidney and gut glutaminase activity, and glutathione content (tumor, gut, heart, liver, muscle, kidney, and lung). RESULTS: Provision of the glutamine-enriched diets to rats receiving MTX decreased tumor glutathione (2.38 +/- 0.17 in GLN+MTX vs. 2.92 +/- 0.20 in GLY+MTX, p < 0.05), whereas increasing or maintaining host glutathione stores (in gut, 2.60 +/- 0.28 in GLN+MTX vs. 1.93 +/- 0.18; in GLY+MTX, p < 0.05). Depressed glutathione levels in tumor cells increases susceptibility to chemotherapy. Significantly decreased glutathione content in tumor cells in the GLN+MTX group correlated with enhanced tumor volume loss (-0.8 +/- 1.0 mL in GLN+MTX vs. +9.5 +/- 2.0 mL in GLY+MTX, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that oral glutamine supplementation will enhance the selectivity of antitumor drugs by protecting normal tissues from and possibly sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy treatment-related injury. PMID:7726679

Rouse, K; Nwokedi, E; Woodliff, J E; Epstein, J; Klimberg, V S

1995-01-01

378

Inhibitory neuromuscular transmission to ileal longitudinal muscle predominates in neonatal guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitory neurotransmission to the longitudinal muscle is more prominent in the neonatal than in the adult guinea pig small intestine. Methods Inhibitory neuromuscular transmission was investigated using in vitro ileal longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparations made from neonatal (? 48 h postnatal) and adult (~ 4 weeks postnatal) guinea pigs. Key Results Amperometric measurements of nicotine induced nitric oxide release (measured as an oxidation current) from myenteric ganglia revealed larger currents in neonatal (379 ± 24 pA) vs. adult (119 ± 39 pA, P < 0.05) tissues. Nicotine-induced oxidation currents were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine (NLA, 100 µM). Nicotine-induced, NLA-sensitive oxidation currents could be detected in the tertiary plexus of neonatal but not adult tissues. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated stronger NOS immunoreactivity in neonatal compared to adult myenteric ganglia. Western blot studies revealed higher levels of NOS in neonatal compared to adult LMMP. Cell counts revealed that the total number of myenteric neurons in the small intestine was greater in adults than in neonatal guinea pigs, however the ratio of NOS:Calbindin neurons was significantly higher in neonatal compared to adult tissues. Conclusions NO signaling to the longitudinal muscle is stronger in neonatal compared to adult guinea pig ileum. NOS-containing neurons are diluted postnatally by cholinergic and other, as yet unidentified neuronal subtypes. PMID:20482699

Patel, Bhavik A.; Dai, Xiaoling; Burda, Joshua E.; Zhao, Hong; Swain, Greg M.; Galligan, James J.; Bian, Xiaochun

2010-01-01

379

Functional outcome in handsewn versus stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.  

PubMed

Eighty-eight of 119 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis were evaluated. Forty patients had a handsewn anastomosis (Hs) with mucosectomy, and 48 had a stapled anastomosis (St). In each patient, we evaluated operative, morphologic, functional, and manometric features. The results in the Hs and St groups were similar when the anastomosis was within 1 cm of the dentate line. In particular, there was no correlation between the type of anastomosis and the number of bowel movements in a 24-hour period, the presence of the urge to defecate, and the use of antidiarrheal drugs. Leakage was significantly higher in the Hs group, even when the anastomosis was less than 1 cm from the dentate line. Pouchitis was more frequent in the Hs group, and, within this group, among those with a short distance between the anastomosis and the dentate line. No correlations were found between the presence of columnar epithelium or active colitis in the mucosa below the anastomosis, the functional outcomes, and the incidence of pouchitis. PMID:7943588

Gozzetti, G; Poggioli, G; Marchetti, F; Laureti, S; Grazi, G L; Mastrorilli, M; Selleri, S; Stocchi, L; Di Simone, M

1994-10-01

380

Green tea catechin EGCG inhibits ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter ASBT.  

PubMed

Green tea catechins exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects probably via their inhibitory effects on intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for reabsorption of bile acids. The present studies were, therefore, designed to investigate the modulation of ASBT function and membrane expression by green tea catechins in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein and intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. Our data showed that ASBT activity was significantly decreased by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) but not other green tea catechins. Inhibition of PKC, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and MAPK-dependent pathways failed to block the reduction in ASBT activity by EGCG. Kinetics studies showed a significant decrease in the V(max) of the transporter, whereas total ASBT content on the plasma membrane was unaltered by EGCG. Concomitant with the decrease in ASBT function, EGCG significantly reduced ASBT pool in the detergent-insoluble fraction, while increasing its presence in the detergent-soluble fraction of plasma membrane. Furthermore, EGCG decreased the association of ASBT with floating lipid raft fractions of cellular membrane on Optiprep density gradient. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a novel role of lipid rafts in the modulation of ASBT function by the dietary component EGCG, which may underlie the hypocholesterolemic effects of green tea. PMID:20056894

Annaba, Fadi; Kumar, Pradeep; Dudeja, Amish K; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A

2010-03-01

381

Familial jejuno-ileal diverticulitis: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Jejuno-ileal diverticulitis (JID) is a rare entity, presenting with symptoms of failure to thrive, abdominal pain, obstruction, bleeding, and acute or chronic perforation with associated pneumoperitoneum. Currently no specific genetic abnormality has been identified that leads to JID. Treatment is based on control of symptoms associated with the disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a familial cohort of patients with JID, with associated symptoms of chronic pneumoperitoneum, including a proposed genetic inheritance pattern and pedigree. In addition, we will describe the operative treatment of one family member's JID and chronic pneumoperitoneum. DISCUSSION While JID is rare, this familial cohort demonstrates a pattern of inheritance most consistent with autosomal dominance. The pathology demonstrates true diverticula, unlike most previous descriptions of JID. The index patient was successfully treated by minimally invasive surgery. CONCLUSION Familial JID is a rare entity, without an identified genetic abnormality. Treatment of chronic symptoms currently focuses on non-operative management. While most case reports involve individual patients, this cohort may possess a genetic mutation with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Further study into patients with JID may reveal an underlying genetic abnormality associated with development of the disease. PMID:25460468

Barton, Jeffrey S.; Karmur, Amit B.; Preston, Jennifer F.; Sheppard, Brett C.

2014-01-01

382

K? absorption by locust gut and inhibition of ileal K? and water transport by FGLamide allatostatins.  

PubMed

The scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) was utilized for the first time in Locusta migratoria to characterize K(+) transport along the digestive tract and to determine the effect of two locust FGLamide allatostatins (FGLa/ASTs) on K(+) transport: a previously sequenced FGLa/AST from Schistocerca gregaria (Scg-AST-6; ARPYSFGL-NH2) and a newly sequenced FGLa/AST from L. migratoria (Locmi-FGLa/AST-2; LPVYNFGL-NH2). Regional differences in K(+) fluxes along the gut were evident, where K(+) efflux in vitro (or absorption into the hemolymph in vivo) was greatest at the anterior ileum, and lowest at the colon. Ileal K(+) efflux was inhibited by both Scg-AST-6 and Locmi-FGLa/AST-2, with maximal inhibition at 10(-10) and 10(-11) mol l(-1), respectively. Both FGLa/ASTs also inhibited cAMP-stimulated K(+) efflux from the ileum. Locmi-FGLa/AST-2 also inhibited efflux of water across the ileum. Locusts are terrestrial insects living in dry climates, risking desiccation and making water conservation a necessity. The results suggest that FGLa/ASTs may be acting as diuretics by increasing K(+) excretion and therefore increasing water excretion. Thus it is likely that FGLa/ASTs are involved in the control of hemolymph water and ion levels during feeding and digestion, to help the locust deal with the excess K(+) load (and subsequently fluid) when the meal is processed. PMID:25013112

Robertson, Lisa; Donini, Andrew; Lange, Angela B

2014-09-15

383

Mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion-related hepatotoxicity in rats  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-induced glutathione depletion is thought to be caused by two types of toxicological mechanisms: PHO-type glutathione depletion [glutathione conjugated with chemicals such as phorone (PHO) or diethyl maleate (DEM)], and BSO-type glutathione depletion [i.e., glutathione synthesis inhibited by chemicals such as L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO)]. In order to identify mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion in rat liver, male SD rats were treated with various chemicals including PHO (40, 120 and 400 mg/kg), DEM (80, 240 and 800 mg/kg), BSO (150, 450 and 1500 mg/kg), and bromobenzene (BBZ, 10, 100 and 300 mg/kg). Liver samples were taken 3, 6, 9 and 24 h after administration and examined for hepatic glutathione content, physiological and pathological changes, and gene expression changes using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. To identify differentially expressed probe sets in response to glutathione depletion, we focused on the following two courses of events for the two types of mechanisms of glutathione depletion: a) gene expression changes occurring simultaneously in response to glutathione depletion, and b) gene expression changes after glutathione was depleted. The gene expression profiles of the identified probe sets for the two types of glutathione depletion differed markedly at times during and after glutathione depletion, whereas Srxn1 was markedly increased for both types as glutathione was depleted, suggesting that Srxn1 is a key molecule in oxidative stress related to glutathione. The extracted probe sets were refined and verified using various compounds including 13 additional positive or negative compounds, and they established two useful marker sets. One contained three probe sets (Akr7a3, Trib3 and Gstp1) that could detect conjugation-type glutathione depletors any time within 24 h after dosing, and the other contained 14 probe sets that could detect glutathione depletors by any mechanism. These two sets, with appropriate scoring systems, could be promising biomarkers for preclinical examination of hepatotoxicity.

Gao Weihua [Toxicogenomics Informatics Project, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Mizukawa, Yumiko [Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts, Kodo, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan); Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Minowa, Yosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi [Toxicogenomics Informatics Project, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Ohno, Yasuo [National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo, 158-8501 (Japan); Urushidani, Tetsuro, E-mail: turushid@dwc.doshisha.ac.j [Toxicogenomics Informatics Project, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts, Kodo, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan)

2010-09-15

384

An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T cell activation, inflammation and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1 infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared to uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1 infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation and blood T cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:24399150

Dillon, SM; Lee, EJ; Kotter, CV; Austin, GL; Dong, Z; Hecht, DK; Gianella, S; Siewe, B; Smith, DM; Landay, AL; Robertson, CE; Frank, DN; Wilson, CC

2014-01-01

385

Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient ?-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation.  

PubMed

Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2?kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M(2) seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion, are necessary to induce the transcription of sulfate assimilation genes during early cadmium stress. PMID:22283708

Jobe, Timothy O; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I

2012-06-01

386

The role of oral flora in the development of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is considered to be a major oncological problem, caused by the cytotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy. In the last 10 years, there have been significant advances in the understanding of mucositis pathobiology. At the basic level, it is now well-understood that it is not just an epithelial process, but rather a complex interaction between epithelial and connective tissue compartments. There is also potential interaction between the oral microenvironment and the development of mucositis. Changes occur in the resident oral flora (commensal) throughout cancer treatment, and it is conceivable that these organisms and changes that occur may have an influence on the development of mucosal toxicity associated with cancer treatment. The aim of this review was to examine the potential contributions of oral microflora in the pathobiology of mucositis and identify pathways and interactions that could be targeted for therapeutic management of mucositis. PMID:24494824

Stringer, Andrea M; Logan, Richard M

2015-02-01

387

Oral Mucositis Prevention and Management by Therapeutic Laser in Head and Neck Cancers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Oral mucositis is considered a severe complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. The aim of this review study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy for prevention and management of oral mucositis in cancer patients. Methods: The electronic databases searched included Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar with keywords as “oral mucositis”, “low level laser therapy” from 2000 to 2013. Results: The results of most studies showed that photobiomodulation (PBM) reduced the severity of mucositis. Also, it can delay the appearance of severe mucositis. Conclusion: Low level laser therapy is a safe approach for management and prevention of oral mucositis. PMID:25606332

Fekrazad, Reza

2014-01-01

388

The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.  

PubMed

Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier. PMID:24569801

Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

2014-05-01

389

Functional Divergence in the Glutathione Transferase Superfamily in Plants  

E-print Network

Functional Divergence in the Glutathione Transferase Superfamily in Plants IDENTIFICATION OF TWO in Arabidopsis thaliana which differed from all other plant GSTs by containing a cysteine in place of a serine sites (1). In plants, all the GSTs described to date are dimers composed of 25-kDa subunits

Davis, Ben G.

390

Cystamine induces AIF-mediated apoptosis through glutathione depletion.  

PubMed

Cystamine and its reduced form cysteamine showed protective effects in various models of neurodegenerative disease, including Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Other lines of evidence demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of cysteamine on duodenal mucosa leading to ulcer development. However, the mechanism for cystamine cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here, we report a new pathway in which cystamine induces apoptosis by targeting apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). By screening of various cell lines, we observed that cystamine and cysteamine induce cell death in a cell type-specific manner. Comparison between cystamine-sensitive and cystamine-resistant cell lines revealed that cystamine cytotoxicity is not associated with unfolded protein response, reactive oxygen species generation and transglutaminase or caspase activity; rather, it is associated with the ability of cystamine to trigger AIF nuclear translocation. In cystamine-sensitive cells, cystamine suppresses the levels of intracellular glutathione by inhibiting ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression that triggers AIF translocation. Conversely, glutathione supplementation completely prevents cystamine-induced AIF translocation and apoptosis. In rats, cysteamine administration induces glutathione depletion and AIF translocation leading to apoptosis of duodenal epithelium. These results indicate that AIF translocation through glutathione depletion is the molecular mechanism of cystamine toxicity, and provide important implications for cystamine in the neurodegenerative disease therapeutics as well as in the regulation of AIF-mediated cell death. PMID:25549939

Cho, Sung-Yup; Lee, Jin-Haeng; Ju, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, Hyo-Jun; Lim, Jisun; Lee, Seungun; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Park, Hyun Ho; Choi, Kihang; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Kim, In-Gyu

2015-03-01

391

METAL-INDUCED INHIBITION OF GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The glutathione S-transferases comprise a group of multi-functional enzymes involved in the biotransformation/detoxication of a broad spectrum of hydrophobic compounds bearing an electrophilic center. The enzymes facilitate the nucleophilic attack of the -SH group of reduced glut...

392

Characterization of Glutathione Uptake in Broad Bean Leaf Protoplasts.  

PubMed Central

Transport of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was studied with broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaf tissues and protoplasts. Protoplasts and leaf discs took up GSSG at a rate about twice the uptake rate of GSH. Detailed studies with protoplasts indicated that GSH and GSSG uptake exhibited the same sensitivity to the external pH and to various chemical reagents. GSH uptake was inhibited by GSSG and glutathione conjugates. GSSG uptake was inhibited by GSH and GS conjugates, and the uptake of metolachlor-GS was inhibited by GSSG. Various amino acids (L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, L-cysteine, L-glycine, L-methionine) and peptides (glycine-glycine, glycine-glycine-glycine) affected neither the transport of GSH nor GSSG. Uptake kinetics indicate that GSH is taken up by a single saturable transporter, with an apparent Km of 0.4 mM, whereas GSSG uptake exhibits two saturable phases, with an apparent Km of 7 [mu]M and 3.7 mM. It is concluded that the plasma membrane of leaf cells contains a specific transport system for glutathione, which takes up GSSG and GS conjugates preferentially over GSH. Proton flux measurements and electrophysiological measurements indicate that GSH and GSSG are taken up with proton symport. However, a detailed analysis of these measurements suggests that the ion movements induced by GSSG differ from those induced by GSH. PMID:12226353

Jamai, A.; Tommasini, R.; Martinoia, E.; Delrot, S.

1996-01-01

393

GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

GLUTATHIONE s-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. M K Ross1 and R A Pegram2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

394

Electrochemical evaluation of glutathione S-transferase kinetic parameters.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), are a family of enzymes belonging to the phase II metabolism that catalyse the formation of thioether conjugates between the endogenous tripeptide glutathione and xenobiotic compounds. The voltammetric behaviour of glutathione (GSH), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as the catalytic conjugation reaction of GSH to CDNB by GST was investigated at room temperature, T=298.15K (25°C), at pH6.5, for low concentration of substrates and enzyme, using differential pulse (DP) voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode. Only GSH can be oxidized; a sensitivity of 0.14nA/?M and a LOD of 6.4?M were obtained. The GST kinetic parameter electrochemical evaluation, in relation to its substrates, GSH and CDNB, using reciprocal Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots, was determined. A value of KM~100?M was obtained for either GSH or CDNB, and Vmax varied between 40 and 60?mol/min per mg of GST. PMID:25086278

Enache, Teodor Adrian; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

2015-02-01

395

Rational design of an organometallic glutathione transferase inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid organic-inorganic (organometallic) inhibitor was designed to target glutathione transferases. The metal center is used to direct protein binding, while the organic moiety acts as the active-site inhibitor. The mechanism of inhibition was studied using a range of biophysical and biochemical methods.

Ang, W.H.; Parker, L.J.; De Luca, A.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Morton, C.J.; LoBello, M.; Parker, M.W.; Dyson, P.J.; (ISIC)

2010-08-17

396

Melphalan Transport, Glutathione Levels, and Glutathionc-5-transferase Activity in Human Medulloblastoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melphalan transport, glutathione levels, and glutathione-S-transferase activity were measured in two continuous human medulloblastoma cell lines and transplantante xenografts in attivimi- nude mice, TE-671 and Dany. In vitro mean glutathione levels were 10.06 nmol\\/10' cells in TE- 671 and 2.96 nmol\\/106 cells in Daoy. In vitro mean glutathione-.?- transferase values were 91.52 nmol\\/min\\/mg protein in TE-671 and 50.31 nmol\\/min\\/mg protein

Henry S. Friedman; Stephen X. Skapek; O. Michael Colvin; Gertrude B. Elion; M. Robert Blum; Paul M. Savina; John Hilton; S. Clifford; Joanne Kurtzberg; Darell D. Bigner

397

Consumption of redox energy by glutathione metabolism contributes to hypoxia\\/ reoxygenation-induced injury in astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of glutathione during ischemia\\/reperfusion is still a controversial issue. Glutathione should exert beneficial effects\\u000a in the situation of ischemia\\/reperfusion due to its antioxidative potency. However, increasing survival time after transient\\u000a ischemia and hypoxia has been reported for glutathione depleted cells. This work was aimed to analyse whether glutathione\\u000a metabolism essentially contributes to redox energy failure and subsequent cell

Petr Makarov; Siegfried Kropf; Ingrid Wiswedel; Wolfgang Augustin; Lorenz Schild

2006-01-01

398

Mucosal Healing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease—A True Paradigm of Success?  

PubMed Central

Mucosal healing is gaining more acceptance as a measure of disease activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and it is also gaining acceptance as an endpoint in clinical trials. Recent publications have correlated achievement of mucosal healing with good outcomes. Currently, there is no validated definition of what constitutes mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease. In clinical trials of ulcerative colitis, mucosal healing has been achieved with 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and infliximab. For Crohn's disease, mucosal healing has been achieved with corticosteroids, infliximab, and adalimumab, and mucosal healing has been maintained with infliximab. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a decreased risk of colectomy and colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis patients, a decreased need for cortico-steroid treatment in Crohn's disease patients, and a trend toward a decreased need for hospitalization in Crohn's disease patients. Unfortunately, assessment of mucosal healing requires regular use of endoscopy, which is associated with increased costs, patient discomfort, and side effects. Biomarkers such as fecal calprotec-tin, fecal lactoferrin, serum C-reactive protein, and fecal S1 00A1 2 have been shown to correlate with disease activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease; in the future, these biomarkers might be used as surrogate markers for mucosal healing. Newer clinical trials are incorporating mucosal healing as an endpoint for evaluation of efficacy. However, before mucosal healing will be sufficient to guide therapy, clinicians need a standard definition of mucosal healing and a consistently used, prospectively validated scale with good interobserver agreement. PMID:22347830

Dave, Maneesh

2012-01-01

399

Modification of intracellular levels of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase alters glutathione homeostasis and root development.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) is a highly conserved medium-chain dehydrogenase reductase and the main enzyme that metabolizes intracellular formaldehyde in eukaryotes. It has been recently shown that it exhibits a strong S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase activity and could be a candidate to regulate NO-signalling functions. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the tissue distribution of this enzyme in plants. Here, we have studied the localization and developmental expression of the enzyme using immunolocalization and histochemical activity assay methods. We conclude that FALDH is differentially expressed in the organs of Arabidopsis thaliana mature plants, with higher levels in roots and leaves from the first stages of development. Spatial distribution of FALDH in these two organs includes the main cell types [epidermis (Ep) and cortex (Cx) in roots, and mesophyll in leaves] and the vascular system. Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with modified levels of FALDH (both by over- and under-expression of the FALDH-encoding gene) show a significant reduction of root length, and this phenotype correlates with an overall decrease of intracellular GSH levels and alteration of spatial distribution of GSH in the root meristem. Tansgenic roots are partially insensitive to exogenous GSH, suggesting an inability to detect reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of the GSH pool and/or maintain GSH homeostasis. PMID:17087482

Espunya, M Carme; Díaz, Maykelis; Moreno-Romero, Jordi; Martínez, M Carmen

2006-05-01

400

Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure.  

PubMed

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg degrees ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg degrees -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from "mercury-free works". Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03+/-3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68+/-2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64+/-1.45) seems to be age-related (r= -0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg degrees could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress. PMID:17706633

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

2008-05-01

401

Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure  

SciTech Connect

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: abkobal@volja.net; Prezelj, Marija [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Horvat, Milena [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Krsnik, Mladen [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gibicar, Darija [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Osredkar, Josko [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-05-15

402

Expression of Bacterial GshF in Pichia pastoris for Glutathione Production  

PubMed Central

Conventionally, two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase are most commonly used for glutathione production. Here we demonstrate that bacterial bifunctional GshF can be used for glutathione production in a eukaryotic system without accumulation of the intermediate ?-glutamylcysteine. PMID:22610434

Ge, Shaolin; Li, Yin

2012-01-01

403

Improvement of Alveolar Glutathione and Lung Function but Not Oxidative State in Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neutrophilic inflammation leads to oxidative damage, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage levels of the antioxi- dant glutathione are diminished in patients with cystic fibrosis. Here we evaluated the effects of glutathione aerosol on lower airway glutathione levels, lung function, and oxidative status. Pulmonary deposition of a radiolabeled monodisperse

Matthias Griese; Jan Ramakers; Angela Krasselt; Vitaliy Starosta; Silke van Koningsbruggen; Rainald Fischer; Felix Ratjen; Bernhard Mullinger; Rudolf M. Huber; Konrad Maier; Ernst Rietschel; Gerhard Scheuch

404

Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects  

SciTech Connect

Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed, saturating concentration of the other substrate, solvent kinetic isotope effects were observed on V but not V/K. Plots of Vm vs mole fraction of D2O (proton inventories) were linear in both cases for the yeast, spinach, and human erythrocyte enzymes. When solvent kinetic isotope effect studies were performed with DTNB instead of GSSG as an alternate substrate, a solvent kinetic isotope effect of 1.0 was observed. Solvent kinetic isotope effect measurements were also performed on the asymmetric disulfides GSSNB and GSSNP by using human erythrocyte glutathione reductase. The Km values for GSSNB and GSSNP were 70 microM and 13 microM, respectively, and V values were 62 and 57% of the one calculated for GSSG, respectively. Both of these substrates yield solvent kinetic isotope effects greater than 1.0 on both V and V/K and linear proton inventories, indicating that a single proton-transfer step is still rate limiting. These data are discussed in relationship to the chemical mechanism of GSSG reduction and the identity of the proton-transfer step whose rate is sensitive to solvent isotopic composition. Finally, the solvent equilibrium isotope effect measured with yeast glutathione reductase is 4.98, which allows us to calculate a fractionation factor for the thiol moiety of GSH of 0.456.

Wong, K.K.; Vanoni, M.A.; Blanchard, J.S.

1988-09-06

405

[Effect of tobacco smoking on glutathione concentration in the blood].  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to determine the influence of tobacco smoking and age on reduced glutathione concentration in the blood. The study was performed in the blood of 65 subjects. The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material was divided into groups of non-smokers and smokers. Malonylodialdehyde concentration in the plasma was measured by reaction with thiobarbituric acid. Concentration of cadmium was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Reduced glutathione in the blood was measured using a previously developed method [11]. A significant increase of malonylodialdehyde concentration was observed in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Malonylodialdehyde level in the plasma of smokers <20 cigarettes per day did not differ with non-smokers. The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the whole blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day and it was about 4-fold higher compared to non-smoking people. Also smokers <20 cigarettes per day have higher cadmium concentration in the blood in comparison to non-smokers. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity on reduced glutathione concentration it was a statistically significant increase in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Non-smoking and smokers <20 cigarettes per day had comparable levels of this antioxidant in the blood. A significant elevation in reduced glutathione concentration was observed in the blood of smokers < 30 years of age in comparison to nonsmoking persons < 30 and > 30 years of age. Our study confirmed that the reduced glutathione concentration in the body affects tobacco smoking and aging. PMID:23421037

Bizo?, Anna; Milnerowicz, Halina

2012-01-01

406

Mucosal immunity to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide in Australian children and adults.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococccus, Pnc) is a major pathogen of both invasive and mucosal infections including otitis media (OM), particularly among Indigenous children.… (more)

Pomat, William S

2010-01-01

407

Current Trends in the Management of Oral Mucositis Related to Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the most common toxicities observed during radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for cancers. Mucositis results in sore mouth, altered taste sensation, pain and dysphagia leading to malnutrition. Left untreated, oral mucositis leads to ulceration, orodental infection, bleeding and discontinuation of effective radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Frequent hospitalization, enteral or parenteral nutrition, increased demand for analgesics ultimately account for increased cost of healthcare. Quantification of oral mucositis using standardized grading system is important for appropriate evaluation, reporting and management. In the recent past there is a paradigm shift in the pathobiology of cancer therapy related mucositis. Clear understanding of its pathogenesis is essential for the formulation of effective mucositis care. Numerous drug therapies, radiation techniques and oral care protocols have been tried in the past to reduce oral mucositis, None have proven to be consistently effective. Current trends for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis is multi-targeted treatment supplemented by aggressive oral hygiene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, growth factors and use of specific topical agents to improve treatment of oral mucositis in future. PMID:22570584

Biswal, Biswa Mohan

2008-01-01

408

[Intrarenal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin perfusion therapy was effective for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract after ileal conduit replacement : a case report].  

PubMed

A 63-year-old man who had undergone radical cystectomy and ileal conduit formation for invasive bladder cancer 3 years before presented with continuous positive urinary cytology in the ileal conduit. His diagnosis was carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the left upper urinary tract. He was treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) perfusion therapy using a single-J ureteric stent. BCG (80 mg) in 100 ml saline was instilled in a one-hour period weekly for 6 weeks. Usage of another catheter was effective for continuing the therapy. Urinary cytology in the left upper urinary tract and the ileal conduit became negative after the therapy. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis of urothelial carcinoma 6 months after the therapy. PMID:24882229

Hayashi, Takuji; Yamanaka, Yohei; Kinjo, Takanori; Katayama, Kinzo; Kamoto, Akihito; Mori, Naoki; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

2014-04-01

409

Effect of addition of a probiotic micro-organism to broiler diet on intestinal mucosal architecture and electrophysiological parameters.  

PubMed

Probiotics might be one of the solutions to reduce the effects of the recent ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feed. However, the mode of action of probiotics still not fully understood. Therefore, evaluating probiotics (microbial feed additives) is essential. Thus the objective of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a new microbial feed additive (Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri) in broiler nutrition. The body weight (BW), average daily weight gain was relatively increased by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus sp. in broiler diets. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus feed additive influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of Lactobacillus sp. increased (p < 0.05) the villus height (VH)/crypt depth ratio and the VH was numerically increased in duodenum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05), while the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus sp. compared with the control. At the end of the feeding period, the basal and glucose stimulated short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical tissue conductivity were measured in the isolated gut mucosa to characterize the electrical properties of the gut. The addition of glucose on the mucosal side in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (p = 0.001) in Isc in both jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in Lactobacillus probiotic group. This increase in Isc for probiotic group in jejunum is equivalent to an increase of about two times that for the basal values, while in the control group is about half fold that for the basal value. In addition, the DeltaIsc after glucose addition to the large intestine was greater than the DeltaIsc in the small intestine in both control and probiotic group. Moreover in both jejunum and colon, the increase in Isc for birds fed Lactobacillus was higher than their control counterparts (p < or = 0.1). This result suggests that the addition of Lactobacillus sp. to broiler diets increased the glucose transport. Additionally, the results indicated that the conductivity of jejunal and colonic tissues remained unaffected by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus and support the concept that this additive enhances the maintenance and function of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of a microbial feed additive (L. salivarius and L. reuteri) slightly increased the growth performance and improved intestinal nutrient absorption which was in association with the intestinal architecture improvement. PMID:19906141

Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

2010-08-01

410

Digestibility of fibre sources and molecular weight distribution of fibre fractions in ileal digesta of growing pigs.  

PubMed

Seven post-valve T-caecum cannulated growing pigs were used in a change-over experiment with four diets and four 14-day periods to evaluate the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) and the ileal apparent digestibility (IAD) of diets with inclusion of chicory forage (CFO), sugar beet pulp (SBP), wheat bran (WB) and grass meal (GM), as well as the TTAD of the mentioned fibre sources. Moreover, this experiment evaluated the molecular weight distribution of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) fractions in diet and ileal digesta from pigs fed the CFO and SBP diets. The experimental diets were balanced to have similar NSP content and compromised of one part of the basal diet and one part of the four fibre sources (CFO, SBP, WB and GM). In addition, all pigs were fed the basal diet during a 14-day period before and after the experimental periods. Diet affected the TTAD of all dietary components except glucose. The TTAD of organic matter (OM) was higher for Diet SBP than for Diets WB and CFO, showing both were higher than Diet GM. The TTAD of NSP was higher for Diet SBP than Diets WB and GM. The IAD of OM was higher in Diet SBP than in the other diets. The IAD of NSP was lower in Diet WB than in the other diets. The TTAD of OM and energy of CFO was 0.43 ± 0.04 (standard error), which is similar to that reported for commonly used forage crops. The molecular weight distribution in ileal digesta showed different distributions between Diets CFO and SBP as well as between digesta from pigs fed these diets. PMID:23130965

Ivarsson, Emma; Andersson, Roger; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2012-12-01

411

Co-Induction of a Glutathione-S-transferase, a Glutathione Transporter and an ABC Transporter in Maize by Xenobiotics  

PubMed Central

Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by four herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, metolachlor and primisulfuron) and a herbicide safener (dichlormid) on the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect on gene expression varies with both chemicals and genes. The expression of ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 was up-regulated by all five compounds, whereas that of ZmGT1 was increased by atrazine, metolachlor, primisulfuron and dichlormid, but not by 2,4-D. For all chemicals, the inducing effect was first detected on ZmGST27. The finding that ZmGT1 is activated alongside ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 suggests that glutathione transporters are an important component in the xenobiotic detoxification system of plants. PMID:22792398

Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

2012-01-01

412

CHARACTERIZATION OF DANSYLATED CYSTEINE, CYSTINE, GLUTATHIONE, AND GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE BY NARROW BORE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A method using reversed phase high performance liquid chromtography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS) has been developed to confirm the dientity of dansylated derivatives of cysteine (C) and glutathione (GSH), and their respective dimers, cystine (CSSC) and...

413

Korean ginseng modulates the ileal microbiota and mucin gene expression in the growing rat.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate whether oral administration of Korean ginseng powders can modulate gut microbiota as well as intestinal mucin production at the translational and transcriptional levels in the ileum of the growing rat. Thirty individually caged Sprague-Dawley male rats were allocated to three groups (n = 10) and fed for 21 days either a basal control diet or one of the two treatment diets each containing white or red Korean ginseng (WG or RG) powder. Bacterial DNA was extracted from ileal digesta and subjected to quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using primers for total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains. The qPCR results showed that consumption of WG or RG powder significantly increased the number of total bacteria and Lactobacillus strains compared to the control group. Consumption of WG powder increased mRNA expression of the Muc2 gene in the small intestine compared to the control group. There was no effect of WG or RG on the small intestinal digesta mucin content. Correlation analysis showed that expression of the Muc2 gene was significantly associated with the number of total bacteria (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) and Lactobacillus strains (r = 0.53, P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, the number of Lactobacillus strains was significantly correlated with the number of total bacteria (r = 0.87, P < 0.05). Consumption of the WG powder modulated the intestinal ecosystem of the growing rat and intestinal mucin gene expression. PMID:24832824

Han, Kyoung-Sik; Balan, Prabhu; Hong, Hee-Do; Choi, Won-Il; Cho, Chang-Won; Lee, Young-Chul; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

2014-07-25

414

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli inhibits ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT.  

PubMed

Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for the absorption of bile acids from the intestine. A decrease in ASBT function and expression has been implicated in diarrhea associated with intestinal inflammation. Whether infection with pathogenic microorganisms such as the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) affect ASBT activity is not known. EPEC is a food-borne enteric pathogen that translocates bacterial effector molecules via type three secretion system (TTSS) into host cells and is a major cause of infantile diarrhea. We investigated the effects of EPEC infection on ileal ASBT function utilizing human intestinal Caco2 cells and HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein (2BT cells). ASBT activity was significantly inhibited following 60 min infection with EPEC but not with nonpathogenic E. coli. Mutations in bacterial escN, espA, espB, and espD, the genes encoding for the elements of bacterial TTSS, ablated EPEC inhibitory effect on ASBT function. Furthermore, mutation in the bacterial BFP gene encoding for bundle-forming pili abrogated the inhibition of ASBT by EPEC, indicating the essential role for bacterial aggregation and the early attachment. The inhibition by EPEC was associated with a significant decrease in the V(max) of the transporter and a reduction in the level of ASBT on the plasma membrane. The inhibition of ASBT by EPEC was blocked in the presence of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Our studies provide novel evidence for the alterations in the activity of ASBT by EPEC infection and suggest a possible effect for EPEC in influencing intestinal bile acid homeostasis. PMID:22403793

Annaba, Fadi; Sarwar, Zaheer; Gill, Ravinder K; Ghosh, Amit; Saksena, Seema; Borthakur, Alip; Hecht, Gail A; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Alrefai, Waddah A

2012-05-15

415

Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P?

2014-01-01

416

Partial ileal bypass surgery in the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: a review.  

PubMed

Partial ileal bypass (PIB) surgery is a method in the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Since the first report in 1964 about 150 cases of FH who underwent the surgical procedure have been described. This number is very low when compared to other types of cholesterol-lowering treatment. On average, PIB decreases the level of plasma total cholesterol by 35% in FH patients, and the surgical procedure can be considered the most effective, single cholesterol-lowering method. PIB-induced reduction of plasma cholesterol is permanent. Further decrease of plasma cholesterol may be obtained in combination with an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. PIB specifically lowers plasma LDL cholesterol; the concentration of HDL cholesterol is not systematically influenced. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolemic action of PIB is discussed. Until now there is no evidence that PIB reduces atherosclerotic coronary death in FH patients. After PIB more patients experience improvement of angina pectoris rather than deterioration (15 versus 2 out of 41), but the number of patients is too small to allow solid conclusions. In 50% of FH patients PIB may cause regression of xanthomata. Out of 209 hyperlipidemic patients described, 14 patients had postoperative complications, which caused death in 3 patients. Diarrhea is the most common side-effect of PIB; out of 99 operated patients serious diarrhea troubled 38 patients, whereas 40 patients had minor complaints during the first year postoperatively. Diarrhea may persist as long as 10 years after PIB. There is no evidence that PIB enhances gallstone formation and severely impairs liver function, but PIB may increase the incidence of renal stones. It is suggested that PIB can be considered in the treatment of FH. However, in each individual case the disadvantages and possible advantages should be carefully weighed out, and this consideration should form the basis to decide whether or not surgery is indicated. PMID:3518666

Schouten, J A; Beynen, A C

1986-01-01

417

The mouse ileal lipid-binding protein gene: a model for studying axial patterning during gut morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Normal, chimeric-transgenic, and transgenic mice have been used to study the axial patterns of ileal lipid-binding protein gene (Ilbp) expression during and after completion of gut morphogenesis. Ilbp is initially activated in enterocytes in bidirectional wave that expands proximally in the ileum and distally to the colon during late gestation and the first postnatal week. This activation occurs at the same time that a wave of cytodifferentiation of the gut endoderm is completing its unidirectional journey from duodenum to colon. The subsequent contraction of Ilbp's expression domain, followed by its reexpansion from the distal to proximal ileum, coincides with a critical period in gut morphogenesis (postnatal days 7-28) when its proliferative units (crypts) form, establish their final stem cell hierarchy, and then multiply through fission. The wave of reactivation is characterized by changing patterns of Ilbp expression: (a) at the proximal most boundary of the wave, villi contain a mixed population of scattered ileal lipid- binding protein (ILBP)-positive and ILBP-negative enterocytes derived from the same monoclonal crypt; (b) somewhat more distally, villi contain vertical coherent stripes of wholly ILBP-positive enterocytes derived from monoclonal crypts and adjacent, wholly ILBP-negative stripes of enterocytes emanating from other monoclonal crypts; and (c) more distally, all the enterocytes on a villus support Ilbp expression. Functional mapping studies of Ilbp's promoter in transgenic mice indicate that nucleotides -145 to +48 contain cis-acting elements sufficient to produce an appropriately directed distal-to-proximal wave of Ilbp activation in the ileum, to maintain an appropriate axial distribution of monophenotypic wholly reporter-positive villi in the distal portion of the ileum, as well as striped and speckled villi in the proximal portion of its expression domain, and to correctly support reporter production in villus-associated ileal enterocytes. Nucleotides -417 to -146 of Ilbp contain a "temporal" suppressor that delays initial ileal activation of the gene until the second postnatal week. Nucleotides -913 to -418 contain a temporal suppressor that further delays initial activation of the gene until the third to fourth postnatal week, a spatial suppressor that prohibits gene expression in the proximal quarter of the ileum and in the proximal colon, and a cell lineage suppressor that prohibits expression in goblet cells during the first two postnatal weeks. PMID:8089185

1994-01-01

418

Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS) is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA) is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index < 29. Participants ingested the stool marker Cr2O3 (300 mg/day) for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients) and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies), all with a body mass index < 29. Messenger RNA level of the BA transporter genes for ileal lipid binding protein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, organic solute transporter alpha, and organic solute transporter beta were similar in GS and GS-free subjects. Messenger RNA level of Cyp27A1, encoding the enzyme 27?-hydroxylase, the short heterodimer partner and farnesoid X receptor remained unchanged, whereas the mRNA level of Cyp7A1, the rate limiting step of BA synthesis, was increased more than 400% (p < 0.01) in the liver of GS compared to GS-free subjects. Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS. PMID:19995447

2009-01-01

419

Equine Stomachs Harbor an Abundant and Diverse Mucosal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the gastric mucosal microbiota in healthy horses, and its role in gastric disease has not been critically examined. The present study used a combination of 16S rRNA bacterial tag-encoded pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize the composition and spatial distribution of selected gastric mucosal microbiota of healthy horses. Biopsy specimens of the squamous, glandular, antral, and any ulcerated mucosa were obtained from 6 healthy horses by gastroscopy and from 3 horses immediately postmortem. Pyrosequencing was performed on biopsy specimens from 6 of the horses and yielded 53,920 reads in total, with 631 to 4,345 reads in each region per horse. The microbiome segregated into two distinct clusters comprised of horses that were stabled, fed hay, and sampled at postmortem (cluster 1) and horses that were pastured on grass, fed hay, and biopsied gastroscopically after a 12-h fast (cluster 2). The types of bacteria obtained from different anatomic regions clustered by horse rather than region. The dominant bacteria in cluster 1 were Firmicutes (>83% reads/sample), mainly Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and, Sarcina spp. Cluster 2 was more diverse, with predominantly Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, consisting of Actinobacillus spp. Moraxella spp., Prevotella spp., and Porphyromonas spp. Helicobacter sp. sequences were not identified in any of 53,920 reads. FISH (n = 9) revealed bacteria throughout the stomach in close apposition to the mucosa, with significantly more Streptococcus spp. present in the glandular region of the stomach. The equine stomach harbors an abundant and diverse mucosal microbiota that varies by individual. PMID:22307294

Perkins, G. A.; Burton, A. J.; Erb, H. N.; McDonough, S. P.; McDonough, P. L.; Parker, J.; Rosenthal, R. L.; Wiedmann, M.; Dowd, S. E.

2012-01-01