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Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal reservoir: pathological and histochemical study of mucosal biopsy specimens.  

PubMed Central

Mucosal biopsy specimens from the ileal reservoirs of 92 patients who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy (12 with familial adenomatous polyposis, 78 with ulcerative colitis, and two with functional bowel disease) were studied. Chronic inflammation was found in almost all, as was villous atrophy of varying severity. Other changes included pyloric metaplasia and mucosal prolapse. Acute inflammatory changes and ulceration were less common but, when present, corresponded to the clinical condition of "pouchitis". A grading system was devised to score acute and chronic inflammatory changes. There was a significant increase in acute inflammatory scores in ulcerative colitis compared with those in familial adenomatous polyposis, and pouchitis was present only in patients who had had ulcerative colitis; the morphological features of pouchitis are similar to those seen in the colorectal mucosa in ulcerative colitis. Histochemical studies of mucin in the reservoirs of mucosa showed that there may have been a change from small intestinal mucin to colonic mucin. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7

Shepherd, N A; Jass, J R; Duval, I; Moskowitz, R L; Nicholls, R J; Morson, B C



Total colectomy, mucosal proctectomy, and an ileal reservoir to an anal anastomosis. A comparison of short and long efferent legs.  


In a consecutive series of 46 possible candidates for total colectomy, mucosal proctectomy, and ileal reservoir to an anal anastomosis, we have compared the clinical outcome of group I, with a long efferent leg (12 cm), and group II, with a short efferent leg (3-5 cm). The surgical procedure was done in three steps: first, a total colectomy; second, mucosal proctectomy and construction of an 'S-shaped' ileal reservoir with a temporary loop ileostomy; and, third, closing of the ileostomy. Nine patients with a long efferent leg and eight patients with a short leg were observed for 2-51 months with a functioning ileal reservoir. The overall mortality was zero. The results showed that the short efferent leg was important for low fecal urgency, spontaneous evacuation of stools, minimal soiling, independence of reservoir catheterization, and use of antidiarrheal drugs. The length of the efferent leg did not influence the function of the anal sphincter itself. The postoperative sexual life was unchanged, and all patients in group II had a better resocialization than those in group I. The selection of candidates for ileal reservoir operations from among patients with ulcerative colitis or familiar polyposis is most important because of a relatively long postoperative course and high incidence of surgical complications. PMID:4089520

Hansen, L K; Olsen, P R; Simonsen, L



Endotoxin-induced Ileal Mucosal Injury and Nitric Oxide Dysregulation Are Temporally Dissociated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent investigations, the mechanisms responsible for in- testinal epithelial injury during endotoxemia remain unclear. The present study tests the hypothesis that epithelial necrosis and\\/or apoptosis correlate with nitric oxide (NO) dysregulation in a non- ischemic model of sepsis-induced ileal injury. To test this hypothe- sis, a well-established in situ , autoperfused, feline ileal preparation was employed. After endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide




Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility  

SciTech Connect

The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little of the pathways of intestinal transport, metabolism, and luminal disposition of dietary peroxides in vivo or of the underlying mechanisms of lipid peroxide-induced genesis of intestinal disease processes. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the determinants of intestinal absorption and metabolism of peroxidized lipids. I will review experimental evidence from our laboratory and others (Table 1) supporting the pivotal role that glutathione (GSH) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) play in mucosal transport and metabolism of lipid hydroperoxides and how reductant availability can be compromised under chronic stress such as hypoxia, and the influence of GSH on oxidative susceptibility, and redox contribution to genesis of gut disorders. The discussion is pertinent to understanding dietary lipid peroxides and GSH redox balance in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the significance of luminal GSH in preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium.

Aw, Tak Yee [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States)]. E-mail:



Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility.  


The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little of the pathways of intestinal transport, metabolism, and luminal disposition of dietary peroxides in vivo or of the underlying mechanisms of lipid peroxide-induced genesis of intestinal disease processes. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the determinants of intestinal absorption and metabolism of peroxidized lipids. I will review experimental evidence from our laboratory and others (Table 1) supporting the pivotal role that glutathione (GSH) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) play in mucosal transport and metabolism of lipid hydroperoxides and how reductant availability can be compromised under chronic stress such as hypoxia, and the influence of GSH on oxidative susceptibility, and redox contribution to genesis of gut disorders. The discussion is pertinent to understanding dietary lipid peroxides and GSH redox balance in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the significance of luminal GSH in preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:15845421

Aw, Tak Yee



Protection by L-carnitine against radiation-induced ileal mucosal injury in the rat: Pattern of oxidative stress, apoptosis and cytokines.  


Abstract Purpose: In this study, we tested the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on radiation-induced ileal mucosal damage. Materials and methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups. The control group received physiological saline intraperitoneally (i.p.). Radiation-1 and radiation-2 groups received whole-body X-irradiation of 8.3 Gy as a single dose. These groups were sacrificed at the 6th hour and 4th day after irradiation, respectively. The Radiation-1 + LC and the radiation-2 + LC groups received the same dose irradiation plus a daily dose of 200 mg/kg LC. LC was applied one day before and for four days after irradiation. Results: The levels of serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon gamma (IFN-?) were significantly higher in the radiation groups when compared with the control. Treatment with LC decreased the serum MCP-1 and IFN-? levels considerably. In the radiations groups, the Chiu score was significantly elevated compared with that of the control group. However, LC administered prior to the irradiation reduced the severity of mucosal damage. The number of apoptotic cells of the ileal crypt in the irradiated rats increased from the 6th hour after irradiation and then decreased at 4th day. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that LC may be beneficial to radiation enteritis. PMID:23510242

Akpolat, Meryem; Gulle, Kanat; Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Safi Oz, Zehra; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Arasli, Mehmet; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani



Intestinal barrier function in response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome. Our aim was to determine whether depletion or maintenance of intestinal glutathione changes

Marleen TJ van Ampting; Arjan J Schonewille; Carolien Vink; Robert Jan M Brummer; Roelof Meer; Ingeborg MJ Bovee-Oudenhoven



Inulin-coated butyrate increases ileal MCT1 expression and affects mucosal morphology in the porcine ileum by reduced apoptosis.  


Carbohydrates, which were not digested in the jejunum, will be fermented by micro-organisms to short chain fatty acids. These are transported by the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) through the gut wall and serve as fuels for colonic cells. To deliver butyrate to the distal part of the intestine, inulin with a low precaecal digestibility was chosen as a coating material. Approximately 150 g of inulin-coated butyrate (containing 81 g butyrate) per day was fed to pigs (mean weight: 97 kg) over a period of 6 days after an adaptation period of 6 days with linear increasing amounts of butyrate. The following observations compared to controls were observed: (1) coating was digested microbially in the ileum; (2) MCT1-mRNA showed a higher expression in the ileum; (3) apoptosis was reduced in the ileum but mitosis was not changed; and (4) length of villi increased by approximately 25% in the ileum. Feeding inulin-coated butyrate resulted in an increased ileal surface. Delivery of butyrate to the colon requires a more resistant inulin-coating. PMID:20050950

Lacorn, M; Goerke, M; Claus, R



Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little

Tak Yee




PubMed Central

Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores.

Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H.



Investigation of the effects of local glutathione and chitosan administration on incisional oral mucosal wound healing in rabbits.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of local glutathione (GSH) and chitosan applications on the oxidant events and histological changes that occur, during healing processes in rabbits with incisional intraoral mucosal wounds. For this purpose, discs containing glutathione and chitosan (1:1) were prepared and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. New Zealand white rabbits were used in in vivo studies. A standard incision was applied to the oral mucosa of rabbits. The rabbits were divided into four groups, being: an untreated incisional group (n=6), a group treated with discs containing GSH+chitosan (n=6), a group treated with discs containing solely chitosan (n=5) and a group treated with discs containing solely GSH (n=5). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione and nitric oxide (NOx) in the oral wound tissues were measured on the fifth day after the injury. Histological changes in the wound tissues were also investigated. The tissue MDA levels in the group treated with the disc containing GSH+chitosan were found to be lower than those in the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tissue GSH and NOx levels between the group treated with the disc comprising GSH+chitosan and the control group that had untreated incision wounds. According to the histological findings, wound healing in the group treated with the disc containing solely chitosan was found to be better than in the other groups. The results of the experiments showed that the local application to the intraoral incision wounds of chitosan+GSH, and chitosan alone, can be effective in the wound healing processes of soft tissues and dental implants. PMID:24119774

K?l?ç, Ci?dem; Güleç Peker, Emine Gülçeri; Acartürk, Füsun; K?l?çaslan, Seda M Sar?; Co?kun Cevher, Sule



Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase-GI is a major glutathione peroxidase activity in the mucosal epithelium of rodent intestine 1 Portions of this work were presented in the Selenium II minisymposia at Experimental Biology '96. Preliminary accounts of this work appear in the proceedings volumes of the Sixth International Symposium on Selenium in Biology and Medicine (ISSBM, 1996) and The Japanese Society of Chromatography (1996). 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gpx2 mRNA, encoding a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX-GI), has been found to be highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) mucosal epithelium. In this study, we show that GPX-GI is produced in the mucosal epithelium of the adult rat GI tract and that the activity levels are comparable to that from GPX-1. Post-mitochondrial supernatant GPX activity from the mucosal epithelium

R. Steven Esworthy; Kristine M. Swiderek; Ye-Shih Ho; Fong-Fong Chu



Adaptive increase in peptide YY and enteroglucagon after proctocolectomy and pelvic ileal reservoir construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional results improve with time after proctocolectomy and pelvic ileal reservoir construction. We hypothesized that adaptive increases of circulating and tissue levels of the gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and enteroglucagon may contribute to this improvement by slowing small bowel transit and increasing small bowel absorption. The specific aim of this study was to measure plasma and ileal mucosal concentrations

David N. Armstrong; Garth H. Ballantyne; Thomas E. Adrian; Anton J. Bilchik; Marvin A. McMillen; Irvin M. Modlin



Intestinal permeability in the ileal pouch.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Villous atrophy, mucin changes ('colonic metaplasia'), and chronic inflammation occur to varying degrees in all patients with ileal pouchanal anastomosis whereas acute inflammation (pouchitis) affects a subgroup of patients with prior ulcerative colitis. AIM: To measure epithelial barrier function looking for possible functional adaptation in ileal 'pouch' mucosa. PATIENTS: Patients with an ileal pouch prior to ileostomy closure (n = 12), functioning pouch (n = 14), pouchitis (n = 8), and ulcerative colitis (n = 12) were assessed. METHODS: 51Cr-EDTA was administered into the 'pouch' or rectum and urinary recovery over 24 hours was taken as an indication of permeability (barrier function). Histological analysis of 'pouch' biopsy specimens was undertaken. RESULTS: Mucosal permeability is decreased from median 9.4% (range 5.4% to 39.1%) to 1.4% (range 0.38% to 2.2%) after ileostomy closure (p < 0.002) with levels being negatively correlated with two histological parameters of colonic metaplasia-mucin changes (p = 0.03) and villous atrophy (p = 0.05). Pouchitis was associated with increased permeability 5.9% (1.9% to 19.5%) compared with healthy 'pouch' 1.4% (0.35 to 2.2%) (p < 0.006). CONCLUSION: Despite the presence of chronic inflammation in the mature 'pouch' functional adaptation with reduced permeability occurs in conjunction with colonic metaplasia.

Merrett, M N; Soper, N; Mortensen, N; Jewell, D P



Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis Without Ileal Diversion  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate continued experience with a one-stage stapled ileoanal pouch procedure without temporary ileostomy diversion. Summary Background Data Most centers perform colectomy, proctectomy, and ileal pouch anal anastomoses (IPAA) with a protective ileostomy. Following a previous report, the authors performed 126 additional stapled IPAA procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis, of which all but 2 were without an ileostomy. Outcomes in these patients question the need for temporary ileal diversion, with its complications and need for subsequent surgical closure. Methods Two hundred one patients underwent a stapled IPAA since May 1989, 192 as a one-stage procedure without ileostomy, and 1 with a concurrent Whipple procedure for duodenal adenocarcinoma. Patient charts were reviewed or patients were contacted by phone to evaluate their clinical status at least 1 year after their surgery. Results Among the patients who underwent the one-stage procedure, 178 had ulcerative colitis (38 fulminant), 5 had Crohn’s disease (diagnosed after IPAA), 1 had indeterminate colitis, and 8 had familial adenomatous polyposis. The mean age was 38 ± 7 (range 7–-70) years; there were 98 male patients and 94 female patients. The average amount of diseased tissue between the dentate line and the anastomosis was 0.9 ± 0.1 cm, with 35% of the anastomoses at the dentate line. With 89% follow-up at 1 year or more (mean 5.1 ± 2.4 years) after surgery, the average 24-hour stool frequency was 7.1 ± 3.3, of which 0.9 ± 1.4 were at night. Daytime stool control was 95% and night-time control was 90%. Only 2.3% needed to wear a perineal pad. Average length of hospital stay was 10 ± 0.3 days, with 1.5 ± 0.5 days readmission for complications. Abscesses or enteric leaks occurred in 23 patients; IPAA function was excellent in 19 of these patients (2 have permanent ileostomies). In patients taking steroids, there was no significant difference in leak rate with duration of use (29 ± 8 with vs. 22 ± 2 months without leak) or dose (32 ± 13 mg with vs. 35 ± 3 mg without leak). Two (1%) patients died (myocardial infarction, mesenteric infarction). Conclusions The triple-stapled IPAA without temporary ileal diversion has a relatively low complication rate and a low rate of small bowel obstruction, provides excellent fecal control, permits an early return to a functional life, and can be performed in morbidly obese and older patients.

Sugerman, Harvey J.; Sugerman, Elizabeth L.; Meador, Jill G.; Newsome, Heber H.; Kellum, John M.; DeMaria, Eric J.



Oral mucositis.  


Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of standard chemoradiation regimens used for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Virtually all patients who receive cumulative radiation doses of more than 30 Gy that includes oral mucosal fields will develop the condition. Not only does mucositis cause extreme discomfort, often necessitating opioid analgesia, but it is also associated with increased use of health resources and cost of treatment. The incremental cost of mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer is more than $17 000 (US). Much has been learned about the pathobiology that underlies the condition. The departure from the historical paradigm of direct cell death as being the primary cause for mucosal injury in favor of a more comprehensive view of the impact of chemoradiation on all the cells of the mucosa, has resulted in a picture of mucositis pathogenesis, which is biologically broad based. Although there are currently few treatment options for oral mucositis at the moment, the recognition that its underlying biology is complex has provided a range of treatment options that are currently being developed. PMID:21709615

Sonis, Stephen T



Oral mucositis.  


Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732

Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D



Neurosecretory effect of ouabain on isolated rabbit ileal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Ouabain, when added to fluid bathing rabbit ileal mucosa mounted in a flux chamber, transiently increases short circuit current, implying a paradoxical secretory response. To determine the cause of this change, the authors studied unidirectional fluxes of /sup 36/Cl and /sup 23/Na and the effects of ion substitution, of reduced Ca concentration, verapamil, tetrodotoxin and atropine. Ouabain 0.1 mM, transiently increased the serosal to mucosal flux of Cl and Na, increased Isc and PD and reduced ion conductance. The Isc response to ouabain was diminished by reducing the bath fluid concentration of CL, of Ca, and by adding verapamil. Tetrodotoxin both delayed and reduced the maximal Isc response; atropine had no effect. They conclude that ouabain acts by releasing a neurotransmitter of unknown identity and by increasing the serosal to mucosal flux to Cl.

Hubel, K.A.; Renquist, K.S.



Intestinal Lymphocyte Populations in Children with Regressive Autism: Evidence for Extensive Mucosal Immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory intestinal pathology has been reported in children with regressive autism (affected children). Detailed analysis of intestinal biopsies in these children indicates a novel lymphocytic enterocolitis with autoimmune features; however, links with cognitive function remain unclear. To characterize further, the nature and extent of this disease we examined the mucosal infiltrate using flow cytometry. Duodenal, ileal, and colonic biopsies were

Paul Ashwood; Andrew Anthony; Alicia A. Pellicer; Franco Torrente; John A. Walker-Smith; Andrew J. Wakefield



Mucosal immunity and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently great interest in developing mucosal vaccines against a variety of microbial pathogens. Mucosally induced tolerance also seems to be a promising form of immunomodulation for treating certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. Here we review the properties of the mucosal immune system and discuss advances in the development of mucosal vaccines for protection against infections and for treatment

Cecil Czerkinsky; Jan Holmgren



Rare Case of Ileal Perforation  

PubMed Central

Ileitis, or inflammation of the ileum, is often caused by Crohn’s disease. However, ileitis may be caused by a wide variety of other diseases. These include infectious diseases, spondyloarthropathies, vasculitides, ischemia, neoplasms, medication-induced, eosinophilic enteritis, and others. Eosinophilic enteritis can present as abdominal pain, protein loosing enteropathy, ulcers, intestinal obstruction, intussusception and perforation.Bowel perforation is an uncommon presentation of eosinophilic enteritis. We report a rare case of ileal perforation due to eosinophilic enteritis in a 57 years old female.

Kumar B, Vinod; Martis, John Joseph S; Mathias, Sheldon G; Kamath, Priyatham; Shetty, Vivek



Reduced ileal expression of OSTalpha-OSTbeta in non-obese gallstone disease.  


Cholelithiasis is a multifactorial process, and several mechanisms have been postulated. A decreased expression of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) and of the cytosolic ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP) was recently described in female non-obese patients. The role of the recently identified organic solute transporters alpha and beta (OSTalpha, OSTbeta) in gallstone pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, we performed analysis of OSTalpha-OSTbeta in gallstone patients according to body weight. Ileal mucosal biopsies were collected during routine colonoscopy from female gallstone carriers (n = 19) and controls (n = 34). OSTalpha-OSTbeta mRNA expression was measured using the LightCycler sequence detection system; protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The mRNA expression of OSTalpha-OSTbeta was significantly reduced (OSTalpha: 3.3-fold, P = 0.006; OSTbeta: 2.6-fold, P = 0.03) in normal-weight but not overweight gallstone carriers compared with controls. OSTalpha-OSTbeta protein levels also showed a reduction by 40-67%. The expression of OSTalpha-OSTbeta correlated positively with ASBT (r = 0.65, 0.58, respectively), ILBP (r = 0.77, 0.67), and the farnesoid X receptor (r = 0.58, 0.50). Fibroblast growth factor-19 showed a 2.8-fold reduction (P = 0.06), and liver receptor homolog-1 showed a 2-fold reduction (P = 0.04) in non-obese patients. In conclusion, an impaired function of all three ileal bile acid transporters may lead to low ileal bile acid reabsorption and an altered bile acid pool composition and therefore may contribute to the formation of gallstones in non-obese patients. PMID:18469300

Renner, Olga; Harsch, Simone; Strohmeyer, André; Schimmel, Silke; Stange, Eduard F



Pouchitis in a rat model of ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis.  


Endorectal ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the operation of choice for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis. Although this procedure improves the quality of life, pouchitis remains a significant postoperative complication. Because our understanding of the pathophysiology of pouchitis may, in part, be due to the lack of small animal model, our aim was to develop a model of IPAA in a rat that mimics its clinical counterpart. Colectomy, proctectomy, construction of an ileal J pouch, and ileal pouch-rectal anastomosis as a model of IPAA was performed in Sprague-Dawley and Lewis rats. Radiographic contrast studies were performed to quantitate intestinal transit. The presence of activated neutrophils was quantified by measuring mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Oxidative stress was quantitated by measuring urinary 8-isoprostane (8-IP) levels. Anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts were determined on Brucella and tryptic soy agar plates, respectively. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to exacerbate ileal J pouch inflammation. Mortality was low, and animals gained weight normally after recovery. Stasis was documented radiographically. MPO levels were elevated (p < 0.05) in the ileal J pouch 30 and 60 days after IPAA, indicating an inflammation that was associated with stasis and bacterial overgrowth. 8-IP levels were elevated by 80% compared with controls. Oral administration of 5% DSS to IPAA rats with further elevated MPO and 8-IP levels in concert with a pouchitis-like syndrome that included the physical, gross, and histologic characteristics of clinical pouchitis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of pouchitis is essential to the future development of new therapeutic modalities. This model is applicable to investigating several key etiologic mechanisms purportedly related to pouchitis. PMID:11837935

Shebani, Khaled O; Stucchi, Arthur F; Fruin, Brent; McClung, James P; Gee, Denise; Beer, Eve R; LaMorte, Wayne W; Becker, James M



The ileal reservoir and ileoanal anastomosis procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review was undertaken to determine factors important in predicting functional results following the ileal\\u000a reservoir and ileoanal anastomosis procedure. One hundred seventy-nine patients underwent ileal reservoir and ileoanal anastomosis\\u000a at the University of Toronto between December 1981 and January 1987. One hundred sixty-three patients had ulcerative colitis,\\u000a 11 had familial adenomatous polyposis, and five had Crohn's disease. A

James W. Fleshman; Zane Cohen; Robin S. McLeod; Hartley Stern; Joan Blair



The S ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the results with the S ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 116 consecutive patients who had undergone total abdominal colectomy with rectal mucosectomy and endorectal ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were assessed following ileostomy closure. In 11 patients (9.5%) pouch removal and\\/or conversion to permanent ileostomy was necessary because of Crohn's disease (3), pelvic sepsis (3), pouchitis (2), incontinence (2), or

Carol-Ann Vasilevsky; David A. Rothenberger; Stanley M. Goldberg



Dietary galactooligosaccharides affect ileal and total-tract nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial concentrations, and ileal fermentative characteristics of growing pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectiveof this study wasto evalu- ate dietary galactooligosaccharide (Gal OS) addition on swine nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial populations, and ileal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and to determine their impact on ileal fer- mentativecharacteristicsinvitro.TwelveT-cannulated pigs (BW = 25 kg) were fed a diet free of Gal OS for 21 d. On d 22, ileal digesta samples were

M. R. Smiricky-Tjardes; C. M. Grieshop; E. A. Flickinger; L. L. Bauer; G. C. Fahey



Host Responses to Persistent Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection in Surgically Isolated Bovine Ileal Segments  

PubMed Central

A lack of appropriate disease models has limited our understanding of the pathogenesis of persistent enteric infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A model was developed for the controlled delivery of a defined dose of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves. The stable intestinal segments enabled the characterization of host responses to persistent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections after a 9-month period, including an analysis of local mucosal immune responses relative to an adjacent uninfected intestinal compartment. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained localized at the initial site of intestinal infection and was not detected by PCR in the mesenteric lymph node. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T cell proliferative responses included both CD4 and ?? T cell receptor (??TcR) T cell responses in the draining mesenteric lymph node. The levels of CD8+ and ??TcR+ T cells increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lamina propria, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and gamma interferon secretion by lamina propria leukocytes was also significantly (P < 0.05) increased. There was a significant (P < 0.05) accumulation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria, but the expression of mucosal toll-like receptors 1 through 10 was not significantly changed by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. In conclusion, surgically isolated ileal segments provided a model system for the establishment of a persistent and localized enteric M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and facilitated the analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific changes in mucosal leukocyte phenotype and function. The accumulation of DC subpopulations in the lamina propria suggests that further investigation of mucosal DCs may provide insight into host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and improve vaccine strategies to prevent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.

Charavaryamath, Chandrashekhar; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Fries, Patrick; Gomis, Susantha; Doig, Kimberley; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Napper, Scott



An assessment of the risk of neoplasia in long-term ileal reservoirs using the DMH rodent model.  


This study was undertaken to determine if the construction of an ileal reservoir induces mucosal changes that can potentiate the effect of a chemical carcinogen (1,2-dimethylhydrazine) on ileal mucosa. Animals were divided into three groups: 1) sham operation (n = 19), 2) total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (n = 20), 3) total colectomy with an ileal reservoir made of terminal ileum sutured to the rectum (n = 20). An adaptation period of 12 weeks was allowed to promote fecal stasis and the histologic changes before exposure to weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (25 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. Sodium butyrate was added to the diet as a tumor promotor. All animals were sacrificed one month later. Fecal stasis, along with enlargement, occurred in all the reservoirs (mean dimensions, 74 X 58 X 43 mm). Their mean volume was 88 +/- 14 ml. The histologic changes in the ileal reservoirs were: chronic inflammation (14/20), villous atrophy (14/20), and atrophy of the glands (8/20). In group 3, five carcinomas were seen. There were three in the duodenum and two in the reservoirs. In contrast, 21 carcinomas were detected in the control groups. There were 17 in the colon, 3 in the jejunum, and 1 in the ileum. No significant difference in the number of carcinomas was seen in the ileum with and without reservoir. Although it is possible to induce carcinomas in ileal reservoirs, the incidence remained significantly less than in the colon. In conclusion, the histologic changes induced by the construction of an ileal reservoir do not increase the risk of malignant transformation in the DMH model for intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:2295274

Heppell, J; De Zubiria, M; Brais, M F; Durh, M A; Carioto, S; Boivin, Y; Potvin, C



Peptide Absorption after Massive Proximal Small Bowel Resection: Mechanisms of Ileal Adaptation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Protein absorption occurs as di- and tri-peptides via H+/peptide cotransporter-1 (PepT1). AIM To identify mechanisms of ileal adaptation after massive proximal enterectomy. HYPOTHESIS Ileal adaptation in uptake of peptides is mediated through upregulation of PepT1 gene expression. STUDY DESIGN Rats underwent 70% jejunoileal resection. Total mucosal cellular levels of mRNA and protein and transporter-mediated uptake per cm of the di-peptide Gly-Sar were compared in remnant ileum 1 and 4 wk postoperatively to control and 1-wk sham laparotomy rats. Histomorphology; food consumption, and weights of rats were monitored. RESULTS After 70% resection, although mRNA per cell for PepT1 decreased at 1-wk (p=0.002), expression of mRNA at 4 wk and protein at 1 and 4 wk in remnant ileum were unchanged (p>0.1). Ileal Gly-Sar uptake (Vmax-nmol/cm/min, i.e. number of transporters per cm) increased at 1 and 4 wk compared to control and 1-wk sham (P<0.05 each); Km (i.e. transporter function) was unchanged. Villous heights (mm) in remnant ileum increased at 1-wk and 4-wk time-points over controls (0.45 and 0.57 vs 0.21, resp; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Ileal adaptation to proximal resection for peptide absorption occurs through cellular proliferation (hyperplasia) and not through cellular upregulation of PepT1 mRNA or protein per enterocyte.

Qandeel, Hisham G.; Alonso, Fernando; Hernandez, David J.; Madhavan, Srivats; Duenes, Judith A.; Zheng, Ye; Sarr, Michael G.



Association of a functional variant in the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 with early onset ileal Crohn's disease.  


Ileal Crohn's Disease (CD), a chronic small intestinal inflammatory disorder, is characterized by reduced levels of the antimicrobial peptides DEFA5 (HD-5) and DEFA6 (HD-6). Both of these ?-defensins are exclusively produced in Paneth cells (PCs) at small intestinal crypt bases. Different ileal CD-associated genes including NOD2, ATG16L1, and recently the ?-catenin-dependant Wnt transcription factor TCF7L2 have been linked to impaired PC antimicrobial function. The Wnt pathway influences gut mucosal homeostasis and PC maturation, besides directly controlling HD-5/6 gene expression. The herein reported candidate gene study focuses on another crucial Wnt factor, the co-receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). We analysed exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large cohort (Oxford: n?=?1,893) and prospectively tested 2 additional European sample sets (Leuven: n?=?688, Vienna: n?=?1,628). We revealed an association of a non-synonymous SNP (rs2302685; Ile1062Val) with early onset ileal CD (OR 1.8; p?=?0.00034; for homozygous carriers: OR 4.1; p?=?0.00004) and additionally with penetrating ileal CD behaviour (OR 1.3; p?=?0.00917). In contrast, it was not linked to adult onset ileal CD, colonic CD, or ulcerative colitis. Since the rare variant is known to impair LRP6 activity, we investigated its role in patient mucosa. Overall, LRP6 mRNA was diminished in patients independently from the genotype. Analysing the mRNA levels of PC product in biopsies from genotyped individuals (15 controls, 32 ileal, and 12 exclusively colonic CD), we found particularly low defensin levels in ileal CD patients who were carrying the variant. In addition, we confirmed a direct relationship between LRP6 activity and the transcriptional expression of HD-5 using transient transfection. Taken together, we identified LRP6 as a new candidate gene in ileal CD. Impairments in Wnt signalling and Paneth cell biology seem to represent pathophysiological hallmarks in small intestinal inflammation and should therefore be considered as interesting targets for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22393312

Koslowski, Maureen J; Teltschik, Zora; Beisner, Julia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Wang, Guoxing; Kübler, Irmgard; Gersemann, Michael; Cooney, Rachel; Jewell, Derek; Reinisch, Walter; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Schwab, Matthias; Stange, Eduard F; Wehkamp, Jan



Ileal intubation with a transnasal endoscope.  


Transnasal upper endoscopy has been implemented in the last decade as it is perceived as less fastidious than peroral endoscopy, and small-caliber gastroscopes are widely available in the endoscopic centres. We report the feasibility of performing a full colonic study with ileal intubation, using a small-caliber endoscope commonly used for transanal endoscopy, after failing with a standard gastroscope. PMID:20169657

Pietropaolo, Vincenzo; Hassan, Cesare; Pontone, Stefano; Onorato, Maurizio; Pedretti, Giorgio; Zullo, Angelo




EPA Science Inventory

Arsenotriglutathione, a product of the reduction of arsenate and the complexation of arsenite by glutathione, is a mixed type inhibitor of the reduction of glutathione disulfide by purified yeast glutathione reductase or the glutathione reductase activity in rabbit erythrocyte ly...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Altered glutathione metabolism in association with increased oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. However, whether strategies aimed at restoring glutathione concentration and homeostasis are effective in ameliorating or modifying the natural history of these st...


Urodynamic evaluation of ileal conduit function.  


Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis following ileal conduit urinary diversion is not uncommon. It may be owing to ureteroileal stenosis, stomal stenosis or a poorly compliant ileal conduit. The standard evaluation of stoma size, conduit residual urine and a loopogram often fail to allow determination of the cause of ureteral dilatation. In addition to these standard tests, we have used conduit urodynamics to study conduit function with a triple lumen urodynamic catheter to measure simultaneously conduit pressure proximal and distal to the fascia during filling under fluoroscopy. In 4 control patients with normal upper tracts who were studied with this technique conduit leak point pressures ranged from 5 to 20 cm. water pressure. Six patients with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis were studied to evaluate conduit function. We found abnormalities in 5 patients, including functional stomal stenosis in 2, an atonic loop in 1, segmental obstruction in 1 and a high pressure noncompliant distal segment in 1. PMID:3573186

Knapp, P M; Konnak, J W; McGuire, E J; Savastano, J A



Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

When colorectal cancer complicates chronic ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis, the role of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is uncertain because of concerns that the procedure may compromise oncologic therapy and that oncologic therapy may compromise ileal pouch-anal anastomosis function. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate the impact both of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis on cancer outcomes and of cancer treatments

Elisabetta Radice; Heidi Nelson; Richard M. Devine; Roger R. Dozois; Santhat Nivatvongs; John H. Pemberton; Bruce G. Wolff; J. Basil J. Fozard; Duane Ilstrup



Mechanisms of histamine stimulated secretion in rabbit ileal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Histamine is present in high concentrations in the intestine and we investigated the possibility that it might have a role here in intestinal transport. When added to the basal side of rabbit ileal mucosa in vitro histamine (10(-4)M) induced a short-lived increase in electrical potential difference and short circuit current. It inhibited net chloride absorption but did not influence sodium transport. Alkali secretion, measured by a pH stat technique, was inhibited, suggesting that bicarbonate secretion was reduced. Both the electrical and ion flux responses to histamine were blocked by the H1 receptor blocker diphenhydramine, but not by the H2 receptor blocker cimetidine. The presence of specific H1 histamine receptors was further supported by shifts in the dose-response curve to histamine by four different concentrations of diphenhydramine. Calculation of a pA2 value from these "Schild' plots provided a figure of 7.85, which is similar to that for H1 receptors in other tissues. Aminoguanidine, a histaminase blocker, had no electrical effects alone but shifted the histamine dose response curve to the left. These studies indicate that histamine inhibits chloride absorption and alkali secretion, possibly by influencing a chloride/bicarbonate exchange process, through specific mucosal H1 receptors. Enhancement of histamine effects by a histaminase inhibitor suggests that histaminases are present in the intestinal mucosa and supports the possibility of a role for endogenous histamine in influencing ion transport. The observations indicate a mechanism by which absorption might be impaired in diseases in which histamine is liberated locally in the intestine.

Linaker, B D; McKay, J S; Higgs, N B; Turnberg, L A



Gastric mucosal nerve density  

PubMed Central

Background: Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent diagnosis for the gastrointestinal symptoms or postural hypotension experienced by patients with longstanding diabetes. However, neuropathologic evidence to substantiate the diagnosis is limited. We hypothesized that quantification of nerves in gastric mucosa would confirm the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from the stomach antrum and fundus were obtained during endoscopy from 15 healthy controls and 13 type 1 diabetic candidates for pancreas transplantation who had secondary diabetic complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, including a diagnosis of gastroparesis. Neurologic status was evaluated by neurologic examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy. Biopsies were processed to quantify gastric mucosal nerves and epidermal nerves. Results: Gastric mucosal nerves from diabetic subjects had reduced density and abnormal morphology compared to control subjects (p < 0.05). The horizontal and vertical meshwork pattern of nerve fibers that normally extends from the base of gastric glands to the basal lamina underlying the epithelial surface was deficient in diabetic subjects. Eleven of the 13 diabetic patients had residual food in the stomach after overnight fasting. Neurologic abnormalities on clinical examination were found in 12 of 13 diabetic subjects and nerve conduction studies were abnormal in all patients. The epidermal nerve fiber density was deficient in skin biopsies from diabetic subjects. Conclusions: In this observational study, gastric mucosal nerves were abnormal in patients with type 1 diabetes with secondary complications and clinical evidence of gastroparesis. Gastric mucosal biopsy is a safe, practical method for histologic diagnosis of gastric autonomic neuropathy.

Selim, M.M.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Redmon, J.B.; Khoruts, A.; Hodges, J.S.; Koch, K.; Walk, D.; Kennedy, W.R.



Ileal and colonic fatty acid profiles in patients with active Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

In patients with active Crohn's disease and in a control group the fatty acid profiles in the whole lipid fraction of ileal and colonic mucosal biopsy specimens were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The biopsy specimens in Crohn's disease patients were taken from the inflamed terminal ileum as well as from the inflamed and macroscopically normal colon. Compared with controls the fatty acid distribution in the inflamed ileal mucosa was significantly characterised by (a) a decrease of 18:2 n6 and 18:3 n3 accompanied by a substantial increase of the highly polyunsaturated fatty acids 20:4 n6, 22:4 n6, and 22:6 n3 and (b) a higher unsaturation index of total fatty acids compared with controls. These changes were similar in the inflamed colon. Additionally, both the inflamed and the macroscopically normal colonic mucosa showed an increase of saturated (18:0) and a decrease of monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1 n9). Fatty acid profiles of ileum and colon showed side variations in controls, but not in the Crohn's disease group. These data suggest that in Crohn's disease changes in the distribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids seem to be the general feature of inflamed mucosa in small and large intestine. Results further suggest that colonic fatty acid metabolism in Crohn's disease is altered by degrees, showing changes in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids as an additional, primary event.

Buhner, S; Nagel, E; Korber, J; Vogelsang, H; Linn, T; Pichlmayr, R



Mucosal argyrophil endocrine cells in pernicious anaemia and upper gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.  

PubMed Central

The number and density of argyrophil endocrine cells were morphometrically calculated in gastric fundal mucosal biopsy specimens taken from 64 patients with pernicious anaemia (five with gastric carcinoids, 15 with nodular argyrophil cell hyperplasia, 44 with diffuse argyrophil cell hyperplasia) and from 14 healthy controls. Similar calculations were also made on the ileal mucosa away from the tumour of 10 patients with ileal carcinoids and 10 controls. In the stomach, the argyrophil cell counts were twice as high in the patients with pernicious anaemia than in controls and the densities in the whole mucosa or in the epithelial structures were similarly three to five times higher. The cell counts in the patients showed positive correlation with the serum gastrin concentration. The patients with nodular argyrophil cell hyperplasia and gastric carcinoids formed a uniform group with the highest cell counts and serum gastrin concentrations; the difference between the groups was in the longer duration of pernicious anaemia in the patients with carcinoid tumours. On the other hand, no endocrine cell hyperplasia was seen in those with ileal carcinoids. It is concluded that fundal mucosal endocrine cells show an increase in patients with pernicious anaemia that is related to the gastrin concentration. This phenomenon may favour the development of hyperplastic endocrine cell nodules and, eventually, carcinoid tumours. Images Fig 1 Fig 2

Sjoblom, S M; Sipponen, P; Karonen, S L; Jarvinen, H J



Role of Stasis and Oxidative Stress in Ileal Pouch Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although ileal pouch–anal anastomosis has become the operation of choice for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis coli, ileal pouch inflammation or pouchitis remains a significant postoperative complication. Numerous factors such as fecal stasis have been implicated in the etiology of pouchitis; however, pouchitis remains poorly understood due to the lack of a small animal model.

Khaled O. Shebani; Arthur F. Stucchi; James P. McClung; Eve R. Beer; Wayne W. LaMorte; James M. Becker



Motor function of the ileal J pouch and its relation to clinical outcome after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motor function of the ileal J pouch after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has a key role in the clinical outcome. The pouch forms a neorectum that aids in the maintenance of reasonable continence. The maximum capacity of the pouch (mean, 320 ml) is similar to that of the healthy rectum (330 ml). The pouch accommodates to distension, keeping intrapouch pressure

P. Ronan O'Connell; John H. Pemberton; Keith A. Kelly



Induction and distribution of intestinal immune responses after administration of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in the ileal pouches of colectomized patients.  


The induction and dissemination of mucosal immune responses to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) administered into the ileal pouches of patients, who had been colectomized because of ulcerative colitis, was analyzed. Biopsies from the duodenum and ileal pouch were collected, along with peripheral blood and ileostomy fluids. Two immunizations induced strong CTB-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses in the duodenum in five of five patients, whereas weaker and less-frequent ASC responses were noted in the ileal pouch. Intestine-derived CTB-specific IgA ASCs were found in peripheral blood in three of the five patients. The vaccination also induced significant IgA antitoxin titer rises in ileostomy fluid in all of the patients. Increased production of gamma interferon in cell cultures from the ileal pouch was found in four of five patients after the vaccination. These results clearly indicate that rCTB administered into the distal ileum is capable of inducing B-cell responses in the "entire" small intestine and that homing of immunocompetent cells occurs preferentially to the duodenum. PMID:11292777

Kilhamn, J; Brevinge, H; Quiding-Järbrink, M; Svennerholm, A M; Jertborn, M



Induction and Distribution of Intestinal Immune Responses after Administration of Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit in the Ileal Pouches of Colectomized Patients  

PubMed Central

The induction and dissemination of mucosal immune responses to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) administered into the ileal pouches of patients, who had been colectomized because of ulcerative colitis, was analyzed. Biopsies from the duodenum and ileal pouch were collected, along with peripheral blood and ileostomy fluids. Two immunizations induced strong CTB-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses in the duodenum in five of five patients, whereas weaker and less-frequent ASC responses were noted in the ileal pouch. Intestine-derived CTB-specific IgA ASCs were found in peripheral blood in three of the five patients. The vaccination also induced significant IgA antitoxin titer rises in ileostomy fluid in all of the patients. Increased production of gamma interferon in cell cultures from the ileal pouch was found in four of five patients after the vaccination. These results clearly indicate that rCTB administered into the distal ileum is capable of inducing B-cell responses in the “entire” small intestine and that homing of immunocompetent cells occurs preferentially to the duodenum.

Kilhamn, Jan; Brevinge, Hans; Quiding-Jarbrink, Marianne; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Jertborn, Marianne



Vaccines against mucosal infections.  


There remains a great need to develop vaccines against many of the pathogens that infect mucosal tissues or have a mucosal port of entry. Parenteral vaccination may protect in some instances, but usually a mucosal vaccination route is necessary. Mucosal vaccines also have logistic advantages over injectable vaccines by being easier to administer, having less risk of transmitting infections and potentially being easier to manufacture. Still, however, only relatively few vaccines for human use are available: oral vaccines against cholera, typhoid, polio, and rotavirus, and a nasal vaccine against influenza. For polio, typhoid and influenza, in which the pathogens reach the blood stream, there is also an injectable vaccine alternative. A problem with available oral live vaccines is their reduced immunogenicity when used in developing countries; for instance, the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines correlates closely with the national per capita income. Research is needed to define the impact of factors such as malnutrition, aberrant intestinal microflora, concomitant infections, and preexisting immunity as well as of host genetic factors on the immunogenicity of these vaccines. PMID:22580196

Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari



Glutathione Production in Yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glutathione, ? -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the ? -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit


Exercise effects on mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review examines the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity in recreational and elite athletes and the role of mucosal immunity in respiratory illness. Habitual exercise at an intense level can cause suppression of mucosal immune parameters, while moderate exercise may have positive effects. Saliva is the most commonly used secretion for measurement of secretory antibodies in the assessment

Maree Gleeson; David B Pyne



Oral Mucositis in Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and chemotherapy is a frequently occurring toxicity in patients with cancer. Severe mucositis has a major impact on patient daily functioning, well-being, and quality of life. It can also compromise a patient's ability to tolerate planned therapy, resulting in missed doses or dose reductions. Mucositis negatively affects other health outcomes as well, increasing the

Stephen T. Sonis



Simian immunodeficiency virus-induced mucosal interleukin-17 deficiency promotes Salmonella dissemination from the gut  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhimurium causes a localized enteric infection in immunocompetent individuals, whereas HIV-infected individuals develop a life-threatening bacteremia. Here we show that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection results in depletion of T helper type 17 (TH17) cells in the ileal mucosa of rhesus macaques, thereby impairing mucosal barrier functions to S. typhimurium dissemination. In SIV-negative macaques, the gene expression profile induced by S. typhimurium in ligated ileal loops was dominated by TH17 responses, including the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22. TH17 cells were markedly depleted in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, resulting in blunted TH17 responses to S. typhimurium infection and increased bacterial dissemination. IL-17 receptor–deficient mice showed increased systemic dissemination of S. typhimurium from the gut, suggesting that IL-17 deficiency causes defects in mucosal barrier function. We conclude that SIV infection impairs the IL-17 axis, an arm of the mucosal immune response preventing systemic microbial dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract.

Raffatellu, Manuela; Santos, Renato L; Verhoeven, David E; George, Michael D; Wilson, R Paul; Winter, Sebastian E; Godinez, Ivan; Sankaran, Sumathi; Paixao, Tatiane A; Gordon, Melita A; Kolls, Jay K; Dandekar, Satya; Baumler, Andreas J



Mucosal immunology and probiotics.  


The cross-talk between the mucosa-associated immune system and microbiota is critical in mucosal tissue homeostasis as well as in protection against infectious and inflammatory diseases occurring at mucosal sites. This recent evidence has paved the way to therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating the mucosa-associated immune system using probiotics. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation, polarizing the subsequent T cell activity toward Th1 (e.g. Lactobacillus (Lb) acidophilus), Th2 (Lb.reuteri and Bifidobacterium bifidum) or, as more recently demonstrated, Th17 responses induced by specific strains such as Lb.rhamnosus GG and Lac23a, the latter isolated in our laboratory. Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of probiotics effects on mucosal immunology, particularly on cells of the innate immunity such as DCs. We also highlight our own experiences in modulating DC functions by commensal bacteria and discuss the relevance of probiotics administration in the treatment of human immunopathologies. PMID:23054627

Dongarrà, Maria Luisa; Rizzello, Valeria; Muccio, Letizia; Fries, Walter; Cascio, Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido



Relationships between mucosal hydrolysis and transport of two phenylalanine dipeptides.  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the source of free amino acids found in the gut lumen during absorption of dipeptides, as well as evaluating the role of brush border peptidases in the mucosal hydrolysis of dipeptides during absorption, rates of dipeptide disappearance and appearance of hydrolytic products were measured during perfusion of rat jejunum and ileum in vivo with buffered and unbuffered 10 mM solutions of glycl-L-phenylalanine (Gly-Phe) and L-phenylalanyl-glycine (Phe-Gly). Mucosal brush border peptidase activity was then measured in the perfused segments in vitro at luminal pH and at two substrate concentrations. In addition cytosol peptidase activity in the perfused segments was measured at pH 7-4 and at 10 mM substrate concentrations. In the jejunum, there was a relationship between rates of free phenylalanine appearance in vivo (Phe-Gly greater than Gly-Phe) and rates of brush border (Phe-Gly greater than Gly-Phe) rather than cytosol (Gly-Phe greater than Phe-Gly) peptidase activities. No constant relationship between free phenylalanine appearance and hydrolysis of the dipeptides by either brush border or cytosol peptidases was observed in the ileal studies. These findings suggest that, in the jejunum, hydrolytic products originate from the surface of the cell whereas, in the ileum, hydrolytic products originate from both the intracellular compartment as well as from the surface of the mucosal cell. In the jejunum, in vitro rates of brush border hydrolysis of Gly-Phe were always less than in vivo disappearance rates, whereas rates of Phe-Gly brush border hydrolysis always exceeded luminal disappearance rates. These data imply that Gly-Phe is predominantly transported intact and hydrolysed by cytosol peptidases, In contrast, brush border peptidases play an importnat role in the mucosal hydrolysis of Phe-Gly.

Silk, D B; Nicholson, J A; Kim, Y S



[Glutathione system. I. Synthesis, transport, glutathione transferases, glutathione peroxidases].  


Studies of glutathione system in all basic trends have been extended considerably during recent 10-15 years. A series of new metabolic enzymes has been discovered. Many of them are polyfunctional and their new activities have been recognized. The enzymes interact with hormones and signal transduction systems. The studies of intracellular, intercellular and inter organs transports have been considerably advanced. The important achievement consist in unmasking new functions not only by selective substances-analytics but also by gene engineering methods as well. PMID:19663001

Kulinski?, V I; Kolesnichenko, L S


Chloroplast glutathione reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione reductase (EC activity is present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. The pH dependence and substrate concentration for half-maximal rate are reported and a possible role in chloroplasts is proposed.

M. Schaedle; J. A. Bassham



Retrograde Ureteric Stents via an Ileal Conduit  

PubMed Central

Patients having undergone pelvic exenteration with urinary diversion can present with short- and long-term complications such as ureteral strictures, anastomotic leakage, calculi, or fluid collections (abscess, urinoma, lymphocele, or hematoma). A dehiscence resulting in a perineal urinary fistula is an uncommon late complication of urinary diversion surgery; surgical treatment for this complication is less desirable because of postsurgical or radiation-induced pelvic changes that can occur. As a result, nephrostomy or antegrade stenting of the kidneys is more viable. Retrograde ureteric stent insertion is discussed in relation to a patient suffering from ileal conduit dehiscence. The presence of these stents probably helped diminish the potential for complications during subsequent nephrostomy tube insertion.

Jack, Andrew; Burbridge, Brent E.



New Pathways for Alimentary Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Alimentary mucositis is a major dose-limiting toxicity associated with anticancer treatment. It is responsible for reducing patient quality of life and represents a significant economic burden in oncology. The pathobiology of alimentary mucositis is extremely complex, and an increased understanding of mechanisms and pathway interactions is required to rationally design improved therapies. This review describes the latest advances in defining mechanisms of alimentary mucositis pathobiology in the context of pathway activation. It focuses particularly on the recent genome-wide analyses of regimen-related mucosal injury and the identification of specific regulatory pathways implicated in mucositis development. This review also discusses the currently known alimentary mucositis risk factors and the development of novel treatments. Suggestions for future research directions have been raised.

Bowen, Joanne M.; Keefe, Dorothy M. K.



Adenocarcinoma in Ileal Pouch after Proctocolectomy for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Report of A Case  

PubMed Central

Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is one of the surgical treatments of choice for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Although the risk of cancer developing in an ileal pouch is not yet clear, a few cases of adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal pouch have been reported. We report a case of adenocarcinoma in ileal pouch after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. A 56-yr-old woman was diagnosed as having familial adenomatous polyposis. Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis was performed. Six years later, she underwent completion-proctectomy with ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis including anorectal mucosectomy for rectal cancer. After 7 yr, she presented with anal spotting. Endoscopic biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma at the ileal pouch. Resection of the ileal pouch and permanent ileostomy were performed. The risk of cancer in an ileal pouch and its prevention with regular surveillance must be emphasized.

Lee, Seung Hyun; Ahn, Byung Kwon; Chang, Hee-Kyung



Adenocarcinoma in ileal pouch after proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis: report of a case.  


Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is one of the surgical treatments of choice for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Although the risk of cancer developing in an ileal pouch is not yet clear, a few cases of adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal pouch have been reported. We report a case of adenocarcinoma in ileal pouch after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. A 56-yr-old woman was diagnosed as having familial adenomatous polyposis. Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis was performed. Six years later, she underwent completion-proctectomy with ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis including anorectal mucosectomy for rectal cancer. After 7 yr, she presented with anal spotting. Endoscopic biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma at the ileal pouch. Resection of the ileal pouch and permanent ileostomy were performed. The risk of cancer in an ileal pouch and its prevention with regular surveillance must be emphasized. PMID:19795007

Lee, Seung Hyun; Ahn, Byung Kwon; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Baek, Sung Uhn



Single-Access Laparoscopic Surgery for Ileal Disease  

PubMed Central

Aim. Single-access laparoscopic surgery (SALS) can be effective for benign and malignant diseases of the ileum in both the elective and urgent setting. Methods. Ten consecutive, nonselected patients with ileal disease requiring surgery over a twelve month period were included. All had a preoperative abdominopelvic computerized tomogram. Peritoneal access was achieved via a single transumbilical incision and a “surgical glove port” utilized as our preferred access device. With the pneumoperitoneum established, the relevant ileal loop was located using standard rigid instruments. For ileal resection, anastomosis, or enterotomy, the site of pathology was delivered and addressed extracorporeally. Result. The median (range) age of the patients was 42.5 (22–78)?years, and the median body mass index was 22 (20.2–28)?kg/m2. Procedures included tru-cut biopsy of an ileal mesenteric mass, loop ileostomy and ileotomy for impacted gallstone extraction as well as ileal (n = 3) and ileocaecal resection (n = 4). Mean (range) incision length was 2.5 (2–5)?cm. All convalescences were uncomplicated. Conclusions. These preliminary results show that SALS is an efficient and safe modality for the surgical management of ileal disease with all the advantages of minimal access surgery and without requiring a significant increase in theatre resource or cost or incurring extra patient morbidity.

Moftah, Mohamed; Burke, John; Narendra, Aaditya; Cahill, Ronan A.



Intestinal adaptation after ileal interposition surgery increases bile acid recycling and protects against obesity-related comorbidities.  


Surgical interposition of distal ileum into the proximal jejunum is a bariatric procedure that improves the metabolic syndrome. Changes in intestinal and hepatic physiology after ileal interposition (transposition) surgery (IIS) are not well understood. Our aim was to elucidate the adaptation of the interposed ileum, which we hypothesized, would lead to early bile acid reabsorption in the interposed ileum, thus short circuiting enterohepatic bile acid recycling to more proximal bowel segments. Rats with diet-induced obesity were randomized to IIS, with 10 cm of ileum repositioned distal to the duodenum, or sham surgery. A subgroup of sham rats was pair-fed to IIS rats. Physiological parameters were measured until 6 wk postsurgery. IIS rats ate less and lost more weight for the first 2 wk postsurgery. At study completion, body weights were not different, but IIS rats had reversed components of the metabolic syndrome. The interposed ileal segment adapted to a more jejunum-like villi length, mucosal surface area, and GATA4/ILBP mRNA. The interposed segment retained capacity for bile acid reabsorption and anorectic hormone secretion with the presence of ASBT and glucagon-like-peptide-1-positive cells in the villi. IIS rats had reduced primary bile acid levels in the proximal intestinal tract and higher primary bile acid levels in the serum, suggesting an early and efficient reabsorption of primary bile acids. IIS rats also had increased taurine and glycine-conjugated serum bile acids and reduced fecal bile acid loss. There was decreased hepatic Cyp27A1 mRNA with no changes in hepatic FXR, SHP, or NTCP expression. IIS protects against the metabolic syndrome through short-circuiting enterohepatic bile acid recycling. There is early reabsorption of primary bile acids despite selective "jejunization" of the interposed ileal segment. Changes in serum bile acids or bile acid enterohepatic recycling may mediate the metabolic benefits seen after bariatric surgery. PMID:20595624

Kohli, Rohit; Kirby, Michelle; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Jha, Pinky; Klustaitis, Kori; Woollett, Laura A; Pfluger, Paul T; Balistreri, William F; Tso, Patrick; Jandacek, Ronald J; Woods, Stephen C; Heubi, James E; Tschoep, Matthias H; D'Alessio, David A; Shroyer, Noah F; Seeley, Randy J



Oral mucosal immunity.  


Oral keratinocytes and dendritic cells of the oral mucosa, through molecular pattern recognition receptors, distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and mediate the generation of protective immunoinflammatory responses to potentially invading pathogens or mediate immune tolerance toward commensal microorganisms. Oral immune tolerance is the result either of lack of activation of T cells in response to immunogenic presentation of antigens or of suppression of activity of effector T cells by regulatory T cells. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies at oral mucosal sites contribute to oral immunity by limiting colonization of microorganisms and their invasion of the epithelium. Ig isotype class switching to IgA is either dependent on or independent of T helper cells and is facilitated by cytokines secreted by dendritic cells and monocytes. PMID:24119522

Feller, L; Altini, M; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Bouckaert, M; Lemmer, J



The glutathione peroxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several proteins in mammalian cells that can metabolize hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. These proteins include four selenium-containing glutathione peroxidases that are found in different cell fractions and tissues of the body. This review considers the structure and distribution of the selenoperoxidases and how this relates to their biological function. The functions of the selenoperoxidases were originally studied

J. R. Arthur



Ileal function in patients with untreated adult coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

A double-lumen perfusion technique has been used to investigate jejunal and ileal absorption of glucose, water, and electrolytes in a group of patients with untreated adult coeliac disease. Correct positioning of the tube was confirmed by measuring the differential jejunal and ileal handling of bicarbonate. Eight control subjects and eight patients with coeliac disease were perfused with an isotonic electrolyte solution containing 50 mM glucose and 25 mM bicarbonate. The group of coeliac patients had impaired jejunal absorption of glucose (P less than 0.001), water (P less than 0.01), sodium (P less than 0.02), and chloride (P greater than 0.05) compared with the control group. In contrast the group of coeliac patients had normal ileal glucose and water absorption and increased ileal sodium (P greater than 0.01) and chloride (P greater than 0.05) absorption compared with the controls. Evidence for ileal adaptation was found in three individual patients who had absorptive values outside 2SD of the normal mean. The results indicate that the distal small intestine in coeliac disease has the ability to adopt to the damage and loss of absorptive capacity in the proximal small intestine.

Silk, D B; Kumar, P J; Webb, J P; Lane, A E; Clark, M L; Dawson, A M



Binding of glutathione and an inhibitor to microsomal glutathione transferase.  

PubMed Central

Microsomal glutathione transferase is an abundant liver protein that can be activated by thiol reagents. It is not known whether the activation is associated with changed binding properties of the enzyme. Therefore the binding of GSH and an inhibitor to rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase was studied by use of equilibrium dialysis and equilibrium partition in a two-phase system. The radioactive substrate glutathione and an inhibitor (glutathione sulphonate) give hyperbolic binding isotherms with a stoichiometry of 1 mol per mol of enzyme (i.e. 1 molecule per homotrimer). Glutathione had an equilibrium binding constant of 18 microM. Competition experiments involving glutathione sulphonate showed that it could effectively displace GSH. These and kinetic studies showed that the Kd and Ki for glutathione sulphonic acid are close to 10 microM. No change in these parameters was obtained after N-ethylmaleimide activation of the enzyme. Thus activation does not result from changes in binding affinity to GSH.

Sun, T H; Morgenstern, R



Near Total Jejuno-Ileal Atresia: A Management Challenge  

PubMed Central

A 2-day-old female neonate with the clinical picture of proximal small bowel atresia, on exploration, turned out to have intestinal atresia of a rare variety, i.e., a near-total jejuno-ileal atresia. The baby had total small bowel length of less than 10 cm. She survived for 3 months on enteral feeding after end-to-back duodeno-ileal anastomosis and thereafter succumbed to septicemia. The case is presented for it's extreme rarity and consideration of this extreme form of small bowel atresia as an offshoot of the existing classifications of jejuno-ileal atresia since it has dismal prognosis and presents as a management challenge even today.

Sham, Minakshi; Singh, Dasmit



Mucosal immunology of geohelminth infections in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited data on the human mucosal immune response to geohelminths, but extensive data from experimental animals. Geohelminth infections may modulate mucosal immunity with effects on parasite expulsion or persistence and mucosal inflammation. Geohelminths are considered to have important effects on immunity to mucosal vaccines, infectious disease susceptibility, and anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. This review

P J Cooper



Mucosal vaccines: the promise and the challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most infectious agents enter the body at mucosal surfaces and therefore mucosal immune responses function as a first line of defence. Protective mucosal immune responses are most effectively induced by mucosal immunization through oral, nasal, rectal or vaginal routes, but the vast majority of vaccines in use today are administered by injection. As discussed in this Review, current research is

Pamela A. Kozlowski; Marian R. Neutra



Mucosal vaccines for biodefense.  


Bioterrorism is the deliberate release of biological toxins, pathogenic viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other infectious agents into the public sphere with the objective of causing panic, illness, and/or death on a local, regional, or possibly national scale. The list of potential biological agents compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is long and diverse. However, a trait common to virtually all the potential bioterrorism agents is the fact that they are likely to be disseminated by either aerosol or in food/water supplies with the intention of targeting the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. In some instances, inhalation or ingestion would mimic the natural route by which humans are exposed to these agents. In other instances, (e.g., the inhalation of a toxin is normally associated with food borne illness), it would represent an unnatural route of exposure. For most potential bioterrorism agents, the respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa may simply serve as a route of entry by which they gain access to the systemic compartment where intoxication/replication occurs. For others, however, the respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa is the primary tissue associated with pathogenesis, and therefore, the tissue for which countermeasures must be developed. PMID:21461982

Mantis, N J; Morici, L A; Roy, C J



Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis function following childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Women undergoing Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are frequently within reproductive years and eager to bear children. Management issues have been raised regarding the effects of pregnancy and delivery on the pouch, particularly with respect to obstetric care. Our experience is updated to search for delayed sequelae of pregnancy and delivery and to establish whether other factors have an adverse

Eva S. Juhasz; Basil Fozard; Roger R. Dozois; Duane M. Ilstrup; Heidi Nelson



Stimulation of ileal emptying by short-chain fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown previously that short-chain fatty acids (mixtures of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids; SCFAs) in the proportions found usually in stool water stimulate fasting ileal motility. Based on indirect evidence, we proposed that these motor patterns (bursts of phasic pressure waves that were propagated) would be propulsive, but the capacity of these stimulated patterns of motility to propel

A. Fich; S. F. Phillips; N. S. Hakim; M. L. Brown; A. R. Zinsmeister



Ileal conduit post radical cystectomy: modifications of the technique  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ileal conduit, post radical cystectomy, is currently the most practiced type of urinary diversion. The aim of our study was to modify the ileal conduit technique in order to retain acceptable outcomes while decreasing the rate of postoperative urine leak and ureteroileal stricture. Methods: Forty consecutive patients were included in our study, from January to June 2011. Radical cystectomy and ileal conduit using our modifications were done for all the cases. Follow-up was done for one year. One patient with right pelvic kidney was added to the studied group and was managed by extra modification to our technique. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63 years. No significant leak and no stricture were observed within the modest duration of follow-up. When a left upper urinary tract retrograde study was attempted in one patient, the left ureteric orifice could not be reached due to a redundant elongated ileum. Conclusions: Modified Bricker techniques are safe, avoid early postoperative urine leak, and lower the incidence of ureteroileal anastomotic stricture. Using our modifications, retrograde access of the left ureter may not be possible. The ‘Z’ ileal conduit is a feasible technique that can allow tension-free healthy ureteroileal anastomosis for cases with pelvic right kidney and, probably, post renal transplantation.

Kotb, Ahmed Fouad




Microsoft Academic Search

The quality evaluation of protein sources for pigs includes the de- termination of amino acid digestibility as well as the secretion and activity of pancreatic proteases, which require to obtain duodenal and ileal digesta samples. In this report, a procedure for cannulat- ing growing pigs (35 kg average liveweight) at proximal duode- num and terminal ileum is described. The recovery

Miguel Cervantes-Ramírez; Víctor González-Vizcarra; Salvador Rodríguez-Rubí; Julio S. González-Monreal; Leopoldo Flores-Aguirre; Julián Carrillo


[Colonic aganglionosis with ileal involvement. Ileocolic plasty].  


During 1994 through 1999, we have treated five patients (3 boys, 2 girls) with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) and ileal involvement. In three of them we performed a diverting ileostomy in the neonatal period and at the age of four and five months respectively in the remaining two patients, due to intestinal obstruction. In these two last patients a diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease was made by anorectal manometry and rectal biopsies in the neonatal period. During laparotomy, a cutaneous ileostomy was created in all patients at the distal end of normal ileum, which was 30 to 110 cm (mean = 71 +/- 37 cm) from the ileocecal valve. After operation, a short bowel syndrome developed in three patients causing fluid and nutritional problems that required prolonged total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The definitive operative repair is performed at 4.5 to 14 months (mean = 8 +/- 3.7 months) by a 12 to 20 cm side-to-side ileocolostomy created between the ileum and aganglionic ascending color (Boley procedure) and ileorectal primary anastomosis (Rehbein procedure) using a circular stapler. Rectal dilatation, irrigation of the colon with saline, loperamide hydrochloride and resincholestyramine were begun in all patients postoperatively. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis, was given to the three patients who suffered from SBS. Oral feedings with semielemental diet were tolerated once stools were semiformed and TPN was discontinued at 8 to 34 days (mean = 21 +/- 1.7 days). postoperatively. After the definitive operation, enterocolitis developed in two patients, requiring one of them a short hospitalization during the episode. A possible explanation for the low incidence of enterocolitis in this series is the systematic postoperative use of irrigations of the colon with saline in all patients. These five patients have been followed-up for growth, development, bowel habit and continence. Follow-up has ranged from 15 to 62 months (mean = 32.2 +/- 19.2 months). Presently, all patients in this series have full enteral feeding and one to three bowel movements per day, with formed or semiformed stools. No patients is incontinent of stool. The patient's body weights (74 to 93%) and heights (89 to 92%) for their age were below average (four patients) or within normal range (one patient). Hemoglobin levels are within normal range in all patients. One patient has iron deficiency and another one has serum ferritin concentration below normal. Three patients have folic acid deficiency. Vitamin B12 absorption is normal in all patients. Although we can not conclude this is a better procedure than others, with is use we have obtained satisfactory results, with an excellent survival, scanty morbidity, a rapid return of bowel function and continence, and an acceptable physical development. During long-term follow-up, patients mus be evaluated for iron and folic acid deficiency. PMID:11480197

Núñez, R; Cabrera, R; Agulla, E; Moreno, C; Serrano, A; Ortiz, C; Blesa, E



Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.  


The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant properties of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Compositae) hydroalcoholic extract (MCE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury were investigated in rats. After the induction of gastric mucosal injury, all groups were sacrificed; the gastric ulcer index was calculated, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole blood and gastric tissue, and serum ascorbic acid, retinol, and beta-carotene levels were measured in all groups. Pretreatment with MCE at some doses significantly reduced gastric lesions. Again, some doses of MCE significantly reduced the MDA, and significantly increased GSH levels in gastric tissue or whole blood. Serum beta-carotene and retinol levels were significantly higher in the 200 mg/kg MCE-administered group with respect to control. As a result, MCE clearly has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in antioxidant activity. PMID:20645773

Cemek, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ezgi; Büyükokuro?lu, Mehmet Emin



Mitochondrial changes associated with glutathione deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione deficiency produced by giving buthionine sulfoximine (an inhibitor of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase) to animals, leads to biphasic decline in cellular glutathione levels associated with sequestration of glutathione in mitochondria. Liver mitochondria lack the enzymes needed for glutathione synthesis. Mitochondrial glutathione arises from the cytosol. Rat liver mitochondria have a multicomponent system (with Ks of approx. 60 ?M and 5.4 mM)

Alton Meister



Functions of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in immunology and immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even a moderate increase in the cellular cysteine supply elevates the intracellular glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and poten- tiates immunological functions of lymphocytes in vitro. At low GSSG levels, T cells cannot optimally activate the im- munologically important transcription factor NFxB, whereas high GSSG levels inhibit the DNA binding ac- tivity of NFxB. The effects of GSSG



VSL#3 probiotic upregulates intestinal mucosal alkaline sphingomyelinase and reduces inflammation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Alkaline sphingomyelinase, an enzyme found exclusively in bile and the intestinal brush border, hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate, thereby inducing epithelial apoptosis. Reduced levels of alkaline sphingomyelinase have been found in premalignant and malignant intestinal epithelia and in ulcerative colitis tissue. Probiotic bacteria can be a source of sphingomyelinase. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of VSL#3 probiotic therapy on mucosal levels of alkaline sphingomyelinase, both in a mouse model of colitis and in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (IL10KO) and wild type control mice were treated with VSL#3 (109 colony-forming units per day) for three weeks, after which alkaline sphingomyelinase activity was measured in ileal and colonic tissue. As well, 15 patients with ulcerative colitis were treated with VSL#3 (900 billion bacteria two times per day for five weeks). Alkaline sphingomyelinase activity was measured through biopsies and comparison of ulcerative colitis disease activity index scores obtained before and after treatment. RESULTS: Lowered alkaline sphingomyelinase levels were seen in the colon (P=0.02) and ileum (P=0.04) of IL10KO mice, as compared with controls. Treatment of these mice with VSL#3 resulted in upregulation of mucosal alkaline sphingomyelinase activity in both the colon (P=0.04) and the ileum (P=0.01). VSL#3 treatment of human patients who had ulcerative colitis decreased mean (± SEM) ulcerative colitis disease activity index scores from 5.3±1.8946 to 0.70±0.34 (P=0.02) and increased mucosal alkaline sphingomyelinase activity. CONCLUSION: Mucosal alkaline sphingomyelinase activity is reduced in the intestine of IL10KO mice with colitis and in humans with ulcerative colitis. VSL#3 probiotic therapy upregulates mucosal alkaline sphingomyelinase activity.

Soo, Isaac; Madsen, Karen L; Tejpar, Qassim; Sydora, Beate C; Sherbaniuk, Richard; Cinque, Benedetta; Di Marzio, Luisa; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Desimone, Claudio; Fedorak, Richard N



Selective Modification of Glutathione Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione, a tripeptide thiol found in virtually all cells, functions in metabolism, transport, and cellular protection. It participates in the reduction of disulfides and other molecules, and conjugates with compounds of exogenous and endogenous origin. It protects cells against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen intermediates and free radicals. Modifications of glutathione metabolism may be achieved by administration of selective

Alton Meister



Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant evidence that the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Friedreich's ataxia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, may involve the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. Glutathione is an

Jorg B. Schulz; Jorg Lindenau; Jan Seyfried; Johannes Dichgans



[Nuclear glutathione and its functions].  


During recent years the nuclear localization of glutathione has been confirmed and this fraction has been quantitatively determined. The nuclear GSH and the enzymes of its metabolism realize independent and important functions. They considerably differ from functions of hyaloplasmic and mitochondrial GSH. Glutathione interacts with regulatory pathways, involved into signal transmission into the nucleus. PMID:21395068

Kulinski?, V I; Kolesnichenko, L S


Genetics Home Reference: Glutathione synthetase deficiency  


... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Glutathione synthetase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2006 What is glutathione synthetase deficiency? Glutathione synthetase deficiency is a disorder ...


Glutathione and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis or programmed cell death represents a physiologically conserved mechanism of cell death that is pivotal in normal development and tissue homeostasis in all organisms. As a key modulator of cell functions, the most abundant non-protein thiol, glutathione (GSH), has important roles in cellular defense against oxidant aggression, redox regulation of proteins thiols and maintaining redox homeostasis that is critical for proper function of cellular processes, including apoptosis. Thus, a shift in the cellular GSH-to-GSSG redox balance in favour of the oxidized species, GSSG, constitutes an important signal that could decide the fate of a cell. The current review will focus on three main areas: (1) general description of cellular apoptotic pathways, (2) cellular compartmentation of GSH and the contribution of mitochondrial GSH and redox proteins to apoptotic signalling and (3) role of redox mechanisms in the initiation and execution phases of apoptosis.

Circu, Magdalena L.; Yee Aw, Tak



Rabbit Ileal Loop Response to Strains of Clostridium perfringens1  

PubMed Central

The ligated loop of the rabbit intestine was investigated as a possible experimental model for the study of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning. The method of preparation of the challenge inoculum was important in determining whether a given strain would provoke a response. When cultures were grown for 4 hr at 37 C in Skim Milk (Difco), 14 of 29 type A strains isolated from food-poisoning outbreaks consistently produced exudation of fluid and consequent dilation of the ileal segments. In contrast, 15 of the 18 strains derived from other sources failed to elicit a response. By use of different inoculum preparations, nearly all strains could be made to give at least an occasional positive loop reaction. Diarrhea was not obtained in rabbits by intraluminal injection into the normal ileum or by per os administration of the cultures. Lecithinase, purified and in concentrated culture supernatant fractions, failed to produce a response in the isolated ileal loops. Images

Duncan, Charles L.; Sugiyama, H.; Strong, Dorothy H.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To investigate the site(s) of prion agent shedding in chronic wasting disease (CWD), we examined the distribution of the prion agent in mucosal tissue from ruminants and rodents with experimental prion disease. We chose the tongue as a peripheral target of prion infection since is a densely innervat...


Partial ileal bypass in treatment of familial hypercholesterolaemia1  

PubMed Central

The effects of partial ileal bypass have been studied in 7 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. By the seventh to ninth postoperative day there was a significant fall in plasma cholesterol of 42.8% compared with levels at initial presentation. Thereafter, plasma levels of cholesterol rose by varying degrees, but had stabilized by 3 months with average values 29.5% lower than pretreatment. Debilitating diarrhoea or severe weight loss were not troublesome features of the operation in most patients.

Chalstrey, L J; Winder, A F; Galton, D J



Iron deficiency suppresses ileal nitric oxide synthase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal motility disorders are more common in women of childbearing age who are prone to iron deficiency anemia. The neurotransmitters\\u000a nitric oxide (NO) and acetylcholine (ACh) play a key role in ileal smooth muscle relaxation and contraction, respectively.\\u000a Iron-containing heme is known to be a cofactor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for NO production.\\u000a Therefore we tested

Matthew I. Goldblatt; Seong-Ho Choi; Deborah A. Swartz-Basile; Atilla Nakeeb; Sushil K. Sarna; Henry A. Pitt



Modulation of ileal calcium transport by phosphate-exchanging compounds.  


Calcium transport in the ileal-ligated loop was studied in the adult rat in the presence of either phosphate alone or phosphate-binding compounds, namely either hydroxylated or aminated substances. Sorbitol or creatine (50 mM) added to a 10-mM CaCl2 solution, which was instilled into ileal loop, markedly enhanced calcium transport, as determined by 45Ca radioactivity appearing in plasma and from 45Ca radioactivity disappearing from the loop. The presence of both compounds maintained Ca soluble in an instilled solution at a constant concentration, whereas with a control solution the Ca concentration progressively decreased towards zero after an incubation period of 60 min. Phosphate, which was either simultaneously added with sorbitol or creatine or which was present as sorbitol or creatine phosphate, led to an equally marked decrease in calcium transport. Calcium transfer was even more reduced when phosphate alone was present with calcium in the ileal loop, in the absence of sorbitol. Similar to the above phosphate-binding compounds, adenosine and its constitutive component, ribose, increased calcium transfer, whereas adenine, the other constitutive component of adenosine, was ineffective. Guanosine was twice more active than adenosine in stimulating ileal calcium transport. Interestingly, the structure of guanosine allows the binding of two phosphates, with one binding site being on the ribose and the other on the guanine base moiety. Thus guanosine is capable of binding a greater amount of phosphate than the two other aminated compounds examined, namely adenosine and alanine, when transphosphorylation from ATP is studied with intestinal microvilli preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1328835

Dupuis, Y; Tardivel, S; Lacour, B; Fournier, P



Na + \\/H + exchange mediates postprandial ileal water and electrolyte transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding stimulates fluid and electrolyte absorption in the small intestine. Previous studies have suggested that Na+\\/glucose cotransport is important in initiating this response in the jejunum. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Na+\\/H+ exchange plays a role in meal-induced absorption. Exteriorized, neurovascularly intact jejunal and ileal loops (25 cm) were constructed in dogs. Following a two-week period

Oscar J. Hines; Anton J. Bilchik; David W. Mcfadden; Paula J. Rodgers; Norman Bautista; Michael J. Zinner; Stanley W. Ashley



Bile acids in the diarrhoea of ileal resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty individual diarrhoeal stools from three patients with ileal resection were centrifuged at 14 000 g for one hour at 10°C to separate the stool into pellet and supernatant. Bile acids and electrolytes were measured in each phase.Relationships were examined between chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid in each phase and in toto to electrolyte and water loss.Chenodeoxycholic acid was associated

W. D. Mitchell; J. M. Findlay; R. J. Prescott; M. A. Eastwood; D. B. Horn



Tuberculosis after jejuno-ileal bypass for morbid obesity.  

PubMed Central

A patient contracted tuberculosis after 2 operations for morbid obesity. The difficulty in diagnosis and treatment is described. Jejuno-ileal bypass is a non-physiological operation, with many reported complications and side effects. Following this short experience the author and his colleagues have now abandoned this operation. Patients suffering from malnutrition as a result of slimming operations should be carefully monitored for tuberculosis.

Werbin, N.



Laparoscopic ileal conduit: five-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To report the techniques used for intracorporeal laparoscopic construction of an ileal conduit urinary diversion and long-term patient follow-up after this procedure.Methods. A 28-year-old man with cerebral palsy, a neurogenic bladder, and voiding dysfunction was referred for definitive management of his urinary tract after several episodes of pyelonephritis. A conduit urinary diversion was performed using a 5-port, transabdominal approach.

Steven R Potter; Tanya C Charambura; John B Adams; Louis R Kavoussi



Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions.  


Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content is small in broiler chickens. PMID:24046419

van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H



Modified Two-Stage Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis: Equivalent Outcomes With Less Resource Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: A three-stage operative approach to ileal pouchanal anastomosis is usually undertaken in patients presenting with severe colitis. Increasingly, however, we have performed a two-stage modified ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (colectomy followed by ileal pouch-anal anastomosis without ileostomy). The present study sought to evaluate the safety, results, cost, and length of hospital stay using this modified approach compared to that of

Brian R. Swenson; Christopher S. Hollenbeak; Lisa S. Poritz; Walter A. Koltun



Effect of ileal fat perfusion on satiety and hormone release in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The ileal brake is a feedback mechanism activated by nutrients, especially fat, with marked effects on satiety. The effects of low doses of ileal fat on satiety are largely unknown. We therefore studied the effect of ileal vs oral delivery of low doses of fat on satiety and gut peptide secretion.Design:Randomized, single-blind crossover design.Subjects:Sixteen healthy, normal-weight volunteers (6 male; mean

P W J Maljaars; T Symersky; B C Kee; E Haddeman; H P F Peters; A A M Masclee; PWJ Maljaars



Controlled trial of metronidazole treatment for prevention of crohn's recurrence after ileal resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: New lesions recur within weeks to months after ileal resection and ileocolonic anastomosis for Crohn's ileitis. A double-blind controlled trial was performed using metronidazole to prevent recurrence after ileal resection. Methods: Sixty patients who underwent curative ileal resection and primary anastomosis were included within 1 week after surgery. Thirty patients received metronidazole (20 mg\\/kg body wt) daily for 3

Paul Rutgeerts; Martin Hiele; Karel Geboes; Marc Peeters; Freddy Penninckx; Raymond Aerts; Raymond Kerremans



Normalization of vitamin B12 absorption after ileal resection in children.  


Impaired Vitamin B12 absorption after significant ileal resection has been reported to be permanent, although partial recovery after ileal bypass can occur. Three children are presented in whom Vitamin B12 malabsorption returned to normal 6-8 years after ileal resection. This was due probably to adaptation of the remaining small bowel, although spontaneous resolution of bacterial overgrowth is a possible explanation. An abnormal Schilling test after ileal resection does not automatically imply the need for life-long Vitamin B12 injections. PMID:1562369

Ooi, B C; Barnes, G L; Tauro, G P



Age, scrapie status, PrP genotype and follicular dendritic cells in ovine ileal Peyer's patches.  


Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) residing within ileal Peyer's patches (PPs) are of crucial relevance for sheep scrapie early pathogenesis and subsequent scrapie prion neuroinvasion. In this study, ileal PP follicles were significantly more numerous in lambs than in adult Sarda breed sheep, with significant differences being also found in lymphoid follicle area, perimeter and FDC density. Furthermore, PrPd deposition within ileal PPs and host's PrP genotype did not significantly influence these parameters. We conclude that age significantly affects FDC density in ileal PPs from Sarda breed ovines, independently from host's scrapie status and PrP genotype. PMID:21962485

Marruchella, Giuseppe; Ligios, Ciriaco; Di Guardo, Giovanni



Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas.

Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav



Antibodies against glycoprotein 2 are novel markers of intestinal inflammation in patients with an ileal pouch.  


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Crohn's disease (CD)-specific pancreatic auto-antibodies (PAB), have been recently identified to target glycoprotein 2 (GP2). Pouchitis is an inflammation of the small bowel developing in up to 60% of ulcerative colitis patients undergoing proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Occurrence of CD-specific antibodies was reported to be a predictor of pouchitis. We aimed to assess the prevalence of anti-GP2 antibodies (anti-GP2) in the serum and feces of pouch patients and to correlate them with clinical parameters. Furthermore, we examined mucosal expression of the GP2 protein in the pouch. METHODS: Pouch patients were prospectively recruited and checked for clinical, endoscopic, and laboratory markers of inflammation. IgG and IgA anti-GP2 levels in serum and fecal samples were determined using ELISA. GP2 protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Anti-GP2 was elevated in both serum and fecal samples of patients with inflamed compared to those with non-inflamed pouches and patients with familial-adenomatous polyposis after surgery (p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, patients with CD-like complications exhibited significantly higher anti-GP2 titers than those without CD-like complications (p?0.01). High levels of anti-GP2 correlated with more frequent bowel movements per day and with the presence of at least one anti-glycan antibody (p?0.05). GP2 itself was more abundant in the mucosa of patients with chronic pouchitis. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-GP2 exists in the serum and feces of pouch patients and correlates with pouch inflammation, and presence of other serological markers. Thus, anti-GP2 may contribute to better stratification of pouchitis, more-so when the inflammation exhibits CD-like complications. PMID:23639628

Werner, Lael; Sturm, Andreas; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Yahav, Lior; Zion, Tanir; Meirowithz, Elhanan; Ofer, Amos; Guzner-Gur, Hanan; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Dotan, Iris



Vaginal Delivery After Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis: A Word of Caution  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of childbirth on anal sphincter integrity and function, functional outcome, and quality of life in females with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. METHODS: The patients who had at least one live birth after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were asked to return for a comprehensive assessment. They were asked to complete the

Feza H. Remzi; Emre Gorgun; Jane Bast; Tom Schroeder; Jeffrey Hammel; Elliot Philipson; Tracy L. Hull; James M. Church; Victor W. Fazio



Pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis post-partial ileal bypass surgery: Case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis post-partial ileal bypass surgery: Case control study. Between 1975 and 1983, 838 patients were randomized into the Program on the Surgical Control of Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) trial: 417 to standard medical care and 421 to partial ileal bypass (PIB) surgery. During the course of the trial, an increased incidence of kidney stone formation was found in the surgery

Chamberlain I Obialo; Ralph V Clayman; John P Matts; Laurie L Fitch; Henry Buchwald; Mary Gillis; Keith A Hruska



Decreased absorption of 22 Na and 36 Cl in ileal reservoirs after exposure to urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

After urinary diversion to intestinal segments, reabsorption of chloride, ammonium, and hydrogen ions occurs, sometimes leading to hyperchloremic acidosis. The mucosa of ileal reservoirs exposed to urine show substantial atrophy, indicating a loss of absorptive capacity. In ten patients with urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir, the absorption of [22Na] and [36Cl] was studied after instillation for 15 min

S. Åkerlund; E. Forssell-Aronsson; O. Jonsson; N. G. Kock



Phagocytosis and transcytosis by the follicle-associated epithelium of the ileal Peyer's patch in calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latex beads, 250 and 610 nm in diameter, and parapox virus isolated from ecthyma in sheep, were injected into intestinal loops containing either jejunal or ileal Peyer's patches (PP) of 3–4 week old calves. Uptake of latex and parapox virus was restricted to the ileal PP, 30–60 min after injection. The latex beads seemed to be embraced by thin surface

Thor Landsverk



Mucosal Immune System and M Cell-targeting Strategies for Oral Mucosal Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent infectious diseases. Mucosa, which are exposed to heavy loads of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, are one of the first areas where infections are established, and therefore have frontline status in immunity, making mucosa ideal sites for vaccine application. Moreover, vaccination through the mucosal immune system could induce effective systemic immune responses together with mucosal immunity in contrast to parenteral vaccination, which is a poor inducer of effective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Among mucosal vaccines, oral mucosal vaccines have the advantages of ease and low cost of vaccine administration. The oral mucosal immune system, however, is generally recognized as poorly immunogenic due to the frequent induction of tolerance against orally-introduced antigens. Consequently, a prerequisite for successful mucosal vaccination is that the orally introduced antigen should be transported across the mucosal surface into the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). In particular, M cells are responsible for antigen uptake into MALT, and the rapid and effective transcytotic activity of M cells makes them an attractive target for mucosal vaccine delivery, although simple transport of the antigen into M cells does not guarantee the induction of specific immune responses. Consequently, development of mucosal vaccine adjuvants based on an understanding of the biology of M cells has attracted much research interest. Here, we review the characteristics of the oral mucosal immune system and delineate strategies to design effective oral mucosal vaccines with an emphasis on mucosal vaccine adjuvants.

Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Kyung-Yeol



Gastro-ileal stenosis and gastroparesis after a biliopancreatic diversion.  


Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a very effective bariatric operation particularly for super-obese patients (BMI > or = 50 kg/m(2)). We present the development of a stricture at the gastro-ileal anastomotic site, with subsequent dilatation and aperistalsis of the stomach in a female patient who had undergone a standard open Scopinaro BPD. The patient remained symptomatic and persisted in losing weight, despite endoscopic balloon dilatations of the stricture and surgical revision of the anastomosis. She finally underwent conversion to a standard Roux-en-Y proximal gastric bypass. We describe the development of the stricture after the use of the stapling gun, subsequent gastric dilatation and dysmotility. PMID:16989712

Samin, K A; Alam, I; Riaz, S; Alam, S; Baxter, J N



A plausible explanation for male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of consistent male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation (TIP) is not well understood. It cannot be explained on the basis of microbial virulence, Peyer’s patch anatomy, ileal wall thickness, gastric acidity, host genetic factors, or sex-linked bias in hospital attendance. The cytokine response to an intestinal infection in males is predominantly proinflammatory as compared with that in females, presumably due to differences in the sex hormonal milieu. Sex hormone receptors have been detected on lymphocytes and macrophages, including on Peyer’s patches, inflammation of which (probably similar to the Shwartzman reaction/Koch phenomenon) is the forerunner of TIP, and is not excluded from the regulatory effects of sex hormones. Hormonal control of host-pathogen interaction may override genetic control. Environmental exposure to Salmonella typhi may be more frequent in males, presumably due to sex-linked differences in hygiene practices and dining-out behavior. A plausible explanation of male dominance in TIP could include sex-linked differences in the degree of natural exposure of Peyer’s patches to S. typhi. An alternative explanation may include sexual dimorphism in host inflammatory response patterns in Peyer’s patches that have been induced by S. typhi. Both hypotheses are testable.

Khan, Mohammad



Microbiologic assessment of tissue biopsy samples from ileal pouch patients.  

PubMed Central

Tissue biopsy samples from patients with and without ileal pouches were examined by electron microscopic and microbiologic culture techniques to determine the numbers and types of microorganisms closely associated with or within the tissue biopsy samples. The disease status of each patient was determined by endoscopic and histopathologic methods. Of the 78 biopsy samples included in this study, 64 (82%) yielded obligately anaerobic and/or facultative bacteria when they were cultured. Fourteen of the 78 samples (17.9%) were negative by culture. Of the positive samples, 54 contained facultatively anaerobic bacterial species and 50 yielded obligately anaerobic species. The total counts for facultatively anaerobic bacteria for samples from patients with pouchitis were significantly greater than for samples from patients in control groups. In addition, the number of samples from patients with normal pouches that did not contain obligate anaerobes was significantly less than that from patients with pouchitis; 4 of 23 and 6 of 12 samples, respectively (P less than 0.043). For samples in which organisms were detected, there was agreement with electron microscopic detection of bacteria in 23 of 27 samples, for an overall sensitivity of electron microscopy compared with that of culture of 85%. The qualitative studies resulted in the characterization of 273 isolates comprising 77 different phenotypes. The specificity of these findings in patients with ileal pouchitis is discussed.

Onderdonk, A B; Dvorak, A M; Cisneros, R L; McLeod, R S; Antionoli, D; Silen, W; Blair, J E; Monahan-Earley, R A; Cullen, J; Cohen, Z



Stapled Mucosectomy: An Alternative Technique for the Removal of Retained Rectal Mucosa after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC), when performed with a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), allows the retention of the rectal mucosa above the dentate line and can result in disease persistence or recurrence, as well as neoplastic lesions in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We report the case of a patient with chronic UC who underwent staple mucosectomy, which is an alternative technique that evolved from stapled hemorrhoidopexy, rather than more traditional procedures. The patient had undergone laparoscopic RPC with a stapled IPAA 2 cm above the dentate line and a temporary loop ileostomy. Because the histopathology showed low-grade dysplasia in the proximal rectum, stapled mucosectomy with a 33-mm circular stapler kit at the time of ileostomy closure was scheduled. Following the application of a purse-string suture 1 cm above the dentate line, the stapler was inserted with its anvil beyond the purse-string and was fired. The excised rectal tissue was checked to ensure that it was a complete cylindrical doughnut. Histopathology of the excised tissue showed chronic inflammation. There were no complications during a follow-up period of 5 months. Because it preserves the normal rectal mucosal architecture and avoids a complex mucosectomy surgery, stapled mucosectomy seems to be a technically feasible and clinically acceptable alternative to the removal of rectal mucosa retained after RPC.

Ertem, Metin



Stapled mucosectomy: an alternative technique for the removal of retained rectal mucosa after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.  


Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC), when performed with a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), allows the retention of the rectal mucosa above the dentate line and can result in disease persistence or recurrence, as well as neoplastic lesions in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We report the case of a patient with chronic UC who underwent staple mucosectomy, which is an alternative technique that evolved from stapled hemorrhoidopexy, rather than more traditional procedures. The patient had undergone laparoscopic RPC with a stapled IPAA 2 cm above the dentate line and a temporary loop ileostomy. Because the histopathology showed low-grade dysplasia in the proximal rectum, stapled mucosectomy with a 33-mm circular stapler kit at the time of ileostomy closure was scheduled. Following the application of a purse-string suture 1 cm above the dentate line, the stapler was inserted with its anvil beyond the purse-string and was fired. The excised rectal tissue was checked to ensure that it was a complete cylindrical doughnut. Histopathology of the excised tissue showed chronic inflammation. There were no complications during a follow-up period of 5 months. Because it preserves the normal rectal mucosal architecture and avoids a complex mucosectomy surgery, stapled mucosectomy seems to be a technically feasible and clinically acceptable alternative to the removal of rectal mucosa retained after RPC. PMID:22195257

Ertem, Metin; Ozben, Volkan



IL-1? Mediated Chorioamnionitis Induces Depletion of FoxP3+ Cells and Ileal Inflammation in the Ovine Fetal Gut  

PubMed Central

Background Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis increases IL-1 and provokes an inflammatory response in the fetal ileum that interferes with intestinal maturation. In the present study, we tested in an ovine chorioamnionitis model whether IL-1 is a major cytokine driving the inflammatory response in the fetal ileum. Method Sheep bearing singleton fetuses received a single intraamniotic injection of recombinant ovine IL-1? at 7, 3 or 1 d before caesarian delivery at 125 days gestational age (term?=?150 days). Results 3 and 7 d after IL-1? administration, intestinal mRNA levels for IL-4, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF-? were strongly elevated. Numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ T-lymphocytes and myeloidperoxidase+ cells were increased whereas FoxP3+ T-cells were detected at low frequency. This increased proinflammatory state was associated with ileal mucosal barrier loss as demonstrated by decreased levels of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein and disruption of the tight junctional protein ZO-1. Conclusion Intraamniotic IL-1? causes an acute detrimental inflammatory response in the ileum, suggesting that induction of IL-1 is a critical element in the pathophysiological effects of endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis. A disturbed balance between T-effector and FoxP3+ cells may contribute to this process.

Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Polglase, Graeme R.; Pillow, J. Jane; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John P.; Chougnet, Claire A.; Kroon, Elke; Spierings, Julia; Willems, Coen H. M. P.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.



Mucosal AIDS vaccine reduces disease and viral load in gut reservoir and blood after mucosal infection of macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the mucosal transmission of HIV-1, we compared whether a mucosal vaccine could induce mucosal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and protect rhesus macaques against mucosal infection with simian\\/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) more effectively than the same vaccine given subcutaneously. Here we show that mucosal CTLs specific for simian immunodeficiency virus can be induced by intrarectal immunization of macaques with a

Zdenek Hel; Brian Kelsall; Vladimir A. Kuznetsov; Jeffrey D. Ahlers; Janos Nacsa; David I. Watkins; Todd M. Allen; Alessandro Sette; John Altman; Ruth Woodward; Phillip D. Markham; John D. Clements; Genoveffa Franchini; Warren Strober; Igor M. Belyakov; Jay A. Berzofsky



Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase activity of human glutathione transferases.  

PubMed Central

Human glutathione transferases (GSTs) from Alpha (A), Mu (M) and Theta (T) classes exhibited glutathione peroxidase activity towards phospholipid hydroperoxide. The specific activities are in the order: GST A1-1>GST T1-1>GST M1-1>GST A2-2>GST A4-4. Using a specific and sensitive HPLC method, specific activities towards the phospholipid hydroperoxide,1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroper oxy-cis-9, trans-11 -octadecadienoyl)-l-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC-OOH) were determined to be in the range of 0.8-20 nmol/min per mg of protein. Two human class Pi (P) enzymes (GST P1-1 with Ile or Val at position 105) displayed no activity towards the phospholipid hydroperoxide. Michaelis-Menten kinetics were followed only for glutathione, whereas there was a linear dependence of rate with PLPC-OOH concentration. Unlike the selenium-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (Se-PHGPx), the presence of detergent inhibited the activity of GST A1-1 on PLPC-OOH. Also, in contrast with Se-PHGPx, only glutathione could act as the reducing agent for GST A1-1. A GST A1-1 mutant (Arg15Lys), which retains the positive charge between the GSH- and hydrophobic binding sites, exhibited a decreased kcat for PLPC-OOH but not for CDNB, suggesting that the correct topography of the GSH site is more critical for the phospholipid substrate. A Met208Ala mutation, which gives a modified hydrophobic site, decreased the kcat for CDNB and PLPC-OOH by comparable amounts. These results indicate that Alpha, Mu and Theta class human GSTs provide protection against accumulation of cellular phospholipid hydroperoxides.

Hurst, R; Bao, Y; Jemth, P; Mannervik, B; Williamson, G



Reduced Paneth cell -defensins in ileal Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, is attributed, in part, to intestinal bacteria that may initiate and perpetuate mucosal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. Paneth cells (PC) are the major source of antimicrobial peptides in the small intestine, including human -defensins HD5 and HD6. We tested the hypothesis that reduced expression of PC -defensins compromises

Jan Wehkamp; Nita H. Salzman; Edith Porter; Sabine Nuding; Michael Weichenthal; Robert E. Petras; Bo Shen; Elke Schaeffeler; Matthias Schwab; Rose Linzmeier; Ryan W. Feathers; Hiutung Chu; Heriberto Lima Jr.; Klaus Fellermann; Tomas Ganz; Eduard F. Stange; Charles L. Bevins



Immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotide: A novel mucosal adjuvant.  


The majority of infectious agents enter the body via mucosal surfaces. Therefore, there is great interest in developing vaccination strategies that lead to mucosal immunity. However, to generate strong mucosal immune responses to nonreplicating immunogens, mucosal delivery with an adjuvant is required, and no safe and effective mucosal adjuvants are presently available for use in humans. Recently, immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotide (ISS-ODN) has been shown to be a potent mucosal adjuvant. Intranasal (i.n.) delivery of antigen with ISS-ODN elicits a secretory IgA response both locally in respiratory secretions and distally in intestinal and vaginal secretions. In this regard, ISS-ODN has been shown to be as effective as cholera toxin (CT), but unlike CT, ISS-ODN has not been shown to have significant toxicity. Furthermore, i.n. antigen/ISS-ODN coimmunization induces a strong Th(1)-biased systemic immune response with cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. These observations suggest that ISS-ODN would be an ideal mucosal adjuvant for development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens. PMID:10729234

Horner, A A; Raz, E



Two Cases of Ileal Dieulafoy Lesion with Massive Hematochezia Treated by Single Balloon Enteroscopy  

PubMed Central

Ileal Dieulafoy lesion is an unusual vascular abnormality that can cause gastrointestinal bleeding. It can be associated with massive, life-threatening hemorrhage and requires urgent angiographic intervention or surgery. Ileal Dieulafoy lesion is hard to recognize due to inaccessibility and normal-appearing mucosa. With advances in endoscopy, aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches including enteroscopy have recently been performed for small bowel bleeding. We report two cases of massive ileal Dieulafoy lesion bleeding diagnosed and treated successfully by single balloon enteroscopy with a review of the literature.

Choi, Young Chul; Park, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Kye Sook; Kim, Hyung Gil; Shin, Yong Woon



Acquired ileal atresia complicating an ileocolic intussusception in a 4-month-old infant.  


We report a 4-month-old female infant who was apparently well before the onset of vomiting, abdominal distension, and the passage of red currant jelly stools. A clinical diagnosis of intussusception was made, and the infant was prepared for a laparotomy. Intraoperative findings were a gangrenous ileocolic intussusception with a proximal atretic ileal segment (similar to a type IIIa ileal atresia). An extended right hemicolectomy including the atretic ileal segment was done with an ileotransverse anastomosis to establish bowel continuity. The patient had a wound dehiscence on the fourth postoperative day that was repaired. She subsequently made satisfactory clinical recovery and was discharged on the 10th day. PMID:21292063

Osuoji, Roland; Idika, Ogechukwu; Odomeja, Edwin; Bankole, Akin



Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D



Melatonin stimulates brain glutathione peroxidase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenously administered melatonin causes a 2-fold rise in glutathione peroxidase activity within 30 min in the brain of the rat. Furthermore, brain glutathione peroxidase activity is higher at night than during the day and is correlated with high night-time tissue melatonin levels. Glutathione peroxidase is thought to be the principal enzyme eliminating peroxides in the brain. This antioxidative enzyme reduces

L. R. Barlow-Walden; R. J. Reiter; M. Abe; M. Pablos; A. Menendez-Pelaez; L.-D. Chen; B. Poeggeler



Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine. Glutathione is present in millimolar concentrations in most mammalian cells and it is involved in several fundamental biological functions, including free radical scavenging, detoxification of xenobiotics and carcinogens, redox reactions, biosynthesis of DNA, proteins and leukotrienes, as well as neurotransmission\\/neuromodulation. Glutathione is metabolised via the gamma-glutamyl cycle, which is catalyzed

Ellinor Ristoff; Agne Larsson



Detection of Salmonella enterotoxin using rabbit ileal loops.  


The presence of an enterotoxin produced by Salmonella in broth culture has been demonstrated by using the rabbit ileal loop model. Response by the animal to enterotoxin in sterile culture supernatant fluids is enhanced when the intestinal lumen is washed with a mucolytic agent prior to the administration of toxin. Fluid secretion is untreated intestinal loops was also observed if enterotoxin was administered with a live, invasive Salmonella strain which did not evoke a secretory response. A limited survey of Salmonella isolated for clinical and food sources indicated the common occurrence of enterotoxin production, and stock cultures maintained the ability to produce the toxin. The host-adapted species which were tested varied in their ability to produce enterotoxin. PMID:348282

Sedlock, D M; Deibel, R H



Luminal chemosensing and upper gastrointestinal mucosal defenses.  


The upper gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous substances, including gastric acid, carbon dioxide, and foodstuffs. Physiologic processes such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility occur in the gastrointestinal tract in response to ingested substances, which implies the presence of mucosal sensors. We hypothesize that mucosal acid sensors and tastelike receptors are important components of the mucosal chemosensing system. We have shown that luminal acid/carbon dioxide is sensed via ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases and ion transporters in the epithelial cells and via acid sensors on the afferent nerves in the duodenum and esophagus. Furthermore, a luminal l-glutamate signal is mediated via mucosal l-glutamate receptors with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase in the duodenum, which suggests the presence of luminal l-glutamate sensing. These luminal chemosensors help to activate mucosal defense mechanisms to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiologic responses of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Because neural pathways are components of the luminal chemosensory system, investigation of these pathways may help to identify novel molecular targets in the treatment and prevention of mucosal injury and visceral sensation. PMID:19571224

Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D



Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.  


Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. PMID:23567135

Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J



[Stenosis of the ileal loop in a patient with Bricker type urinary diversion].  


Stenosis of the ileal loop itself in the urinary diversion performed with the technique described by Bricker is uncommon, particularly in adults, and nowadays is basically managed through non-invasive methods. This paper contributes one case of stenosis of the ileal loop in a patient with urinary diversion performed with Bricker's technique, which was treated by partial resection of the ileal loop, since use of non-invasive techniques was not possible due to technical hindrances. The pathoanatomical study showed the different etiopathogeny of this type of stenosis relative to others related to the ileal loop (stoma and ureteroileal attachment stenosis). A review is made of the etiopathogeny, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this type of stenosis. Occurrence of stenosis as late complication has lead us to consider the convenience for late revisions in this type of surgery. PMID:9494164

Guate Ortíz, J L; Velasco, J; Lanzas Prieto, J M; Tuero, J G; Castellanos González, L; Naranjo, F G


Transport of Glutathione Diethyl Ester Into Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione monoesters in which the carboxyl group of the glycine residue is esterified were previously found, in contrast to glutathione itself, to be effectively transported into various types of cells and to be converted intracellularly into glutathione. Glutathione monoesters are thus useful for prevention of oxidative stress, certain toxicities, and for treatment of glutathione deficiency. Glutathione diethyl ester is rapidly

Ellen J. Levy; Mary E. Anderson; Alton Meister



Glutathione Deficiency Leads to Mitochondrial Damage in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione deficiency induced in newborn rats by giving buthionine sulfoximine, a selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, led to markedly decreased cerebral cortex glutathione levels and striking enlargement and degeneration of the mitochondria. These effects were prevented by giving glutathione monoethyl ester, which relieved the glutathione deficiency, but such effects were not prevented by giving glutathione, indicating that glutathione is not

Ajey Jain; Johannes Martensson; Einar Stole; Peter A. M. Auld; Alton Meister



Outcome of ileal pouch after secondary diagnosis of Crohn’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ileal-pouch anal anastomosis is sometimes performed inappropriately in Crohn’s disease patients. The aim of this study was\\u000a to evaluate long-term results in this subset. In 54 ileal-pouch anal anastomoses performed between 1985 and 1997 for CUD the\\u000a patient was eventually diagnosed as having Crohn’s disease in seven cases. A retrospective review was performed. Definitive\\u000a diagnosis was established on histopathology, endoscopy,

V. Peyrègne; Y. Francois; F.-N. Gilly; J.-L. Descos; B. Flourie; J. Vignal



Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria  

PubMed Central

Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut. Preterm piglets (n = 23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 h over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16s rDNA qPCR. Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp. and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets.

Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony



An adult case of celiac sprue triggered after an ileal resection for perforated Meckel's diverticulum.  


Celiac disease can be triggered by upper abdominal surgery, such as vagotomy, oesophagectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and gastrojejunal anastomosis. Here we report a case of a 24 year-old woman who developed celiac disease after an ileal resection for perforated Meckel's diverticula. This is the first reported celiac case that has been triggered, not by upper abdominal surgery, but after ileal resection for Meckel's diverticula. PMID:19705507

Topal, Firdevs; Akbulut, Sabiye; Topcu, Ismail Cagatay; Dolek, Yasemin; Yonem, Ozlem



Oral mucositis. A complication of radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Oral mucositis is a complication of head and neck radiotherapy. It is understood what causes the inflammation and what biological tissue changes occur, however, a definite cure for oral mucositis has not yet been found. Supportive treatments, analgesics, antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory agents have been prescribed, none of which has been a thorough measure of treatment. An effective cure for oral mucositis is still in the midst of scientific research. In the interim local palliative treatments will help to alleviate the patients', debilitating symptoms.

Rider, C.A. (Tufts Univ. School of Dental Medicine (USA))



Palliation of radiation-related mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Oral mucositis associated with head and neck radiotherapy can substantially hinder completion of cancer therapy. Alleviation of this often severe stomatitis can provide enhanced patient comfort and facilitate appropriate care. A double-blind format was used in a pilot project to measure, against a control rinse, the effectiveness of an oral rinse consisting of hydrocortisone, nystatin, tetracycline, and diphenhydramine in controlling radiation-related mucositis. A combination of clinical evaluation and patient responses to a questionnaire was used to judge the results of the topical medications. Patients using the experimental medication developed less mucositis than did patients in the control group.

Rothwell, B.R.; Spektor, W.S.



Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated.

Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.



Glutathione Transferases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a saprophytic basidiomycete, possesses a large number of cytosolic glutathione transferases, eight of them showing similarity to the Omega class. PcGSTO1 (subclass I, the bacterial homologs of which were recently proposed, based on their enzymatic function, to constitute a new class of glutathione transferase named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases) and PcGSTO3 (subclass II related to mammalian homologs) have been investigated in this study. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that both enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteinyl residue. This reaction leads to the formation of a disulfide bridge between the conserved cysteine and the removed glutathione from their substrate. The substrate specificity of each isoform differs. In particular PcGSTO1, in contrast to PcGSTO3, was found to catalyze deglutathionylation of S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone substrates. The three-dimensional structure of PcGSTO1 presented here confirms the hypothesis that it belongs not only to a new biological class but also to a new structural class that we propose to name GST xi. Indeed, it shows specific features, the most striking ones being a new dimerization mode and a catalytic site that is buried due to the presence of long loops and that contains the catalytic cysteine.

Meux, Edgar; Prosper, Pascalita; Ngadin, Andrew; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Melanie; Dumarcay, Stephane; Lamant, Tiphaine; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Favier, Frederique; Gelhaye, Eric



An African perspective on mucosal immunity and HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV prevention mandates an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal immunity with attention to some unique features of the epidemic and mucosal environment in the developing world. An effective vaccine will have to induce mucosal protection against a highly diverse virus, which is equipped with a number of immune evasion strategies. Its development will require assessment of mucosal immune responses,

P Pala; V R Gomez-Roman; J Gilmour; P Kaleebu



Mucosal Vaccination against Tuberculosis Using Inert Bioparticles.  


Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens. PMID:23959722

Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A; Cutting, Simon M



Gastric mucosal metastasis from primary colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old man with a background of metastatic colorectal cancer presented with haematemesis. An oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy was performed and revealed five focally haemorrhagic grey mucosal lesions in the body and fundus regions of the stomach between 5 mm and 4 mm in diameter. The biopsies of the gastric mucosal lesions showed invasive poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which signet ring cells were a prominent component, thus related to the primary cancer. The background mucosa showed no dysplasia.

Soliman, Ahmed Mohamed; Valliattu, Abhi; Wheatley, Tim; Robertson, Neil



Inside the Mucosal Immune System  

PubMed Central

An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI) and upper respiratory (UR) tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This mucosal immune system (MIS) in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

McGhee, Jerry R.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro



Gastric mucosal protection by somatostatins.  


Somatostatin and somatostatin derivatives were tested for their ability to prevent gastric hemorrhagic erosions induced by ethanol. The somatostatin analogues were cyclohexapeptides with the rearranged amino acids 7-14 of somatostatin (S-14): Phe-Thr-Lys(Z)-Trp-Phe-D-Pro(I), Phe-Thr-Lys-Trp-Phe-D-Pro(II), Phe-Thr-Lys-D-Trp-Phe-Tyr(III) and Tyr-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Phe(IV). In Spraque-Dawley rats receiving ethanol alone, the lesions involved 18.1 +/- 3.2% of the glandular stomach while after S- 14 (10(-7) mol/rat) the lesioned area was reduced to 6.3 +/- 1.1% (p less than 0.05). Peptide I and peptide II (doses 10(-7) -10(-9) mol/rat) decreased the area of erosions to less than 5%. Peptide III was less active and peptide IV was inactive. In rats with chronic gastric fistula S- 14 and peptide II decreased the cysteamine-stimulated acid secretion without affecting the pepsin output. We also continuously measured the intraluminal pH in the stomach of Wistar rats which develop gastric erosions after subcutaneous injection of cysteamine. The erosions were reduced by S- 14 or SMS while the intraluminal pH did not change under the influence of cysteamine or the combination of cysteamine plus S- 14 or SMS. Thus some of the peptides derived from S- 14 exert prominent gastric mucosal protection without influencing gastric secretion. PMID:2882058

Kusterer, K; Rohr, G; Schwedes, U; Usadel, K H; Szabo, S



Cancer treatment-induced oral mucositis.  


Oral mucositis is one of the main complications in non-surgical cancer treatments. It represents the major dose-limiting toxicity for some chemotherapeutic agents, for radiotherapy of the head and neck region and for some radiochemotherapy combined treatments. Many reviews and clinical studies have been published in order to define the best clinical protocol for prophylaxis or treatment of mucositis, but a consensus has not yet been obtained. This paper represents an updated review of prophylaxis and treatment of antineoplastic-therapy-related mucositis using a MEDLINE search up to May 2006, in which more than 260 clinical studies have been found. They have been divided according to antineoplastic therapy (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy). The prophylactic or therapeutic use of the analysed agents, the number of enrolled patients and the study design (randomized or not) were also specified for most studies. Accurate pre-treatment assessment of oral cavity hygiene, frequent review of symptoms during treatment, use of traditional mouthwashes to obtain mechanical cleaning of the oral cavity and administration of some agents like benzydamine, imidazole antibiotics, tryazolic antimycotics, povidone iodine, keratinocyte growth factor and vitamin E seem to reduce the intensity of mucositis. Physical approaches like cryotherapy, low energy Helium-Neon laser or the use of modern radiotherapy techniques with the exclusion of the oral cavity from radiation fields have been shown to be efficacious in preventing mucositis onset. Nevertheless a consensus protocol of prophylaxis and treatment of oral mucositis has not yet been obtained. PMID:17465250

Alterio, Daniela; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Fiore, Maria Rosaria; Piperno, Gaia; Ansarin, Mohssen; Orecchia, Roberto


Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order \\u000ato gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used.\\u000a\\u000aChapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- \\u000atreatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood \\u000acancer, often causing severe mucositis. DOX-induced mucositis closely \\u000aresembles the characteristics of previously studied methotrexate (MTX)- \\u000ainduced mucositis. Both

Koning de B. A. E



Changes of reduced glutathion, glutathion reductase, and glutathione peroxidase after radiation in guinea pigs  

SciTech Connect

In this series of experiments the protective action of reduced glutathion due to ionizing radiation has been studied. In the experimental group 18 guinea pigs were exposed to successive radiations of 150 rad 3 or 4 days apart. Total dose given amounted to 750 rad which is the LD50 for guinea pigs. Blood samples were taken 30 min after each exposure. The control series were sham radiated but otherwise treated identically. The cells of the removed blood samples were separated by centrifugation and were subjected to the reduced glutathion stability test. GSSGR, GPer, and LDH enzyme activities were also measured of which the latter served as a marked enzyme. It was found that LDH did not show any alteration after radiation. The reduced glutathion stability test showed a consistent but minor reduction (P greater than 0.05), in the experimental group. GSSGR enzyme activity on the other hand was reduced significantly (from 176.48 +/- 11.32 to 41.34 +/- 1.17 IU/ml of packed erythrocytes, P less than 0.001) in the same group. GPer activity showed a consistent but minor elevation during the early phase of the experimental group. It was later increased significantly beginning after 600 rad total radiation on the fourth session (P less than 0.050).

Erden, M.; Bor, N.M.



Vagotomy inhibits the jejunal fluid secretion activated by luminal ileal Escherichia coli STa in the rat in vivo  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) is a major cause of secretory diarrhoea in humans. ?AIMS—To assess the effects of instilling STa into the ileum on remote fluid secretion in the jejunum and colon in rats in vivo by a gravimetric technique. ?METHODS AND RESULTS—Ileal STa (55 ng/ml) stimulated fluid secretion in both ileal and jejunal loops but not in the colon. The fluid secretion induced by ileal STa was inhibited by L-NAME (N -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 40 mg/kg intraperitoneally) but not by D-NAME (N -nitro-D-arginine methyl ester). Ileal carbachol (183 mg/ml) instilled into the lumen stimulated ileal secretion but not jejunal secretion, and was unaffected by L-NAME. Capsaicin (10 µM), instilled luminally with STa in the ileum, blocked both the ileal and jejunal fluid secretion. Acute bilateral vagotomy prevented luminal ileal STa from inducing jejunal fluid secretion but not from activating ileal fluid secretion. ?CONCLUSION—Ileal E coli STa stimulates remote secretion in the rat jejunum but not in the colon, probably by a nitrinergic, vagal reflex mediated by C fibres. This neural pathway will amplify the action of the toxin in its generation of secretory diarrhoea. ?? Keywords: intestinal fluid secretion; Escherichia coli STa; vagus; nitric oxide; C fibres

Rolfe, V; Levin, R



The Roles of Glutathione, Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Reductase and the Carbonyl Protein in Pulmonary and Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background This study determines the protein carbonyls which cause cellular damage and glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase act as antioxidants. Materials and Methods This study was carried out in different categories of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases of newly sputum culture positive diagnosed pulmonary categorie I (n=100), extra pulmonary patients categorie (n=35) before and after the DOTS treatment of 6 months, categorie II (n=100), categorie III (n=100) and in normal control subjects (n=100). Results The serum protein carbonyl levels were significantly increased in the pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The activities of blood glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were found to be significantly decreased in subjects of all the categories of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis. A negative correlation between the carbonyl protein content and glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase was seen in pulmonary tuberculosis, p<0.001. Conclusion Increased antioxidant defense mechanism due to increase oxidative stress in tuberculosis. The changes were reversed after 6 months of antitubercular treatment in patients with a good recovery, but the increase in the oxidative stress was not completely reversed.

Dalvi, Shubhangi M.; Patil, Vinayak W.; Ramraje, Nagsen N.



Estimation of small bowel transit time following colectomy and ileal reservoir construction.  


A study was carried out to evaluate the breath hydrogen test as a method of estimating small bowel transit in patients with an ileal pouch and to determine whether gut transit time influenced functional outcome. Twelve patients with an ileal reservoir and ten control subjects ingested a test meal of 400 ml chicken soup, 20 g lactulose and 50 ml dilute barium solution. Concurrent breath hydrogen testing and radiological screening was carried out until the head of the test meal reached the ileal pouch or caecum. At the time that the test meal arrived in the pouch, faecal anaerobic bacterial counts were obtained. Pouch compliance, functional capacity and anal sphincter pressures were also measured. While there was an excellent correlation between radiological and breath hydrogen measures of orocaecal transit time in controls (P less than 0.001), no such relationship was found for oropouch transit. Four of the 12 patients with a pouch produced no hydrogen after test meal ingestion, while in two other such patients breath hydrogen peaks occurred when the head of the meal was in the jejunum. The magnitude of the breath hydrogen rise in patients with an ileal pouch correlated well with faecal anaerobic bacterial counts (P less than 0.01). The median (95 per cent confidence interval) radiological small bowel transit time was more rapid in patients with a pouch than in control subjects: 28 (23-33) versus 72 (46-86) min (P less than 0.01). Increased 24-h frequency of defaecation was associated with more rapid small bowel transit after ileal reservoir construction (P less than 0.01) but correlated with neither pouch capacity nor compliance. These data show that small bowel transit time may be a determinant of ileal pouch function but that breath hydrogen estimation of gut transit time in patients with an ileal reservoir is unreliable. PMID:1643490

Kmiot, W A; O'Brien, J D; Awad, R; Keighley, M R



The effects of exogenous glutathione on reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of rats with different ages and gender after whole-body ?-irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-and gender-related changes on reduced glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase\\u000a (GR) activities in the liver of rat exposed to different dose of whole-body g-ray irradiation were determined. In addition,\\u000a the effect of administration of exogenous GSH on endogenous GSH levels, GPx and GR activities was investigated. For this aim,\\u000a male and female rats aged 1 and

Mine Erden Inal; Asiye Akgün; Ahmet Kahraman



The postnatal development of the mucosal immune system and mucosal tolerance in domestic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal immune system is exposed to a range of antigens associated with pathogens, to which it must mount active immune responses. However, it is also exposed to a large number of harmless antigens associated with food and with commensal microbial flora, to which expression of active, inflammatory immune responses to these antigens is undesirable. The mucosal immune system must

Mick Bailey; Karin Haverson



Gastric mucosal protection and central nervous system.  


Several human and experimental data suggest the particular importance of gastric protective processes in maintaining mucosal integrity. Both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved in this process. In the periphery, pre-epithelial mucus-bicarbonate layer, mucus, phospholipids, trefoil peptides, prostaglandins, heat shock proteins, sensory neuropeptides, nitric oxide, and hydrogen sulfide may mediate mucosal protection. In the central nervous system hypothalamus and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) have particular important role in the regulation of centrally-induced gastroprotection. Stimulation of paraventricular nuclei either aggravates or inhibits the mucosal injury depending on the ulcer model. Vagal nerve also has a dual role, its activation can induce mucosal injury (by high dose of thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH), electrical stimulation), however, integrity of vagal nerve is necessary for gastroprotection induced either peripherally (by PGE2, prostacyclin, adaptive cytoprotection), or centrally (e.g. by neuropeptides). The centrally induced gastroprotection is likely to be vagal dependent, though vagal independent pathways have also been shown. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, selective ?-opioid receptor ligands, proved to be highly potent and effective gastroprotective agents in ethanol ulcer model (0.03-3 pmol intracerebroventricularly). Inhibition of the degradation of endomorphins by diprotin A resulted in gastroprotective effect, indicating the potential role of these endogenous opioids in the regulation of gastric mucosal integrity. Endomorphin-2 injected intracerebroventricularly restored the reduced levels of CGRP and somatostatin in gastric mucosa induced by ethanol. In conclusion, neuropeptides expressed in dorsal vagal complex and hypothalamus may have a regulatory role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity by stimulating the formation of mucosal protective compounds. PMID:22950501

Gyires, Klara; Németh, Jozsef; Zádori, Zoltan S



Mucosal immunogenicity of plant lectins in mice  

PubMed Central

The mucosal immunogenicity of a number of plant lectins with different sugar specificities was investigated in mice. Following intranasal (i.n.) or oral administration, the systemic and mucosal antibody responses elicited were compared with those induced by a potent mucosal immunogen (cholera toxin; CT) and a poorly immunogenic protein (ovalbumin; OVA). After three oral or i.n. doses of CT, high levels of specific serum antibodies were measured and specific IgA was detected in the serum, saliva, vaginal wash, nasal wash and gut wash of mice. Immunization with OVA elicited low titres of serum IgG but specific IgA was not detected in mucosal secretions. Both oral and i.n. delivery of all five plant lectins investigated [Viscum album (mistletoe lectin 1; ML?1), Lycospersicum esculentum (tomato lectin; LEA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus I (UEA?1)] stimulated the production of specific serum IgG and IgA antibody after three i.n. or oral doses. Immunization with ML?1 induced high titres of serum IgG and IgA in addition to specific IgA in mucosal secretions. The response to orally delivered ML?1 was comparable to that induced by CT, although a 10?fold higher dose was administered. Immunization with LEA also induced high titres of serum IgG, particularly after i.n. delivery. Low specific IgA titres were also detected to LEA in mucosal secretions. Responses to PHA, WGA and UEA?1 were measured at a relatively low level in the serum, and little or no specific mucosal IgA was detected.

Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfuller, U; O'Hagan, D T



Bile acid-induced gastric mucosal injury: significance of portal hypertension and mucosal capillary permeability.  


Rats with portal vein occlusion (PVO) were studied to determine severity of taurocholate-induced gastric mucosal injury during portal hypertension and following its resolution by collaterals. During the portal hypertensive state, after intragastric taurocholate, PVO rats compared with sham-operated controls had significantly greater macroscopic damage (14 +/- 1 vs 3 +/- 1% of total mucosa) and histologic deep necrosis (25 +/- 4 vs 3 +/- 1% of mucosal length). Gastric mucosal capillary permeability was also significantly greater in PVO rats, as assessed by increased appearance of intravenous Evans blue dye in gastric wall and contents. After 21 days of PVO portal pressures returned to normal. At this time taurocholate-induced gastric mucosal damage and capillary leak became similar in PVO and sham-operated rats. It is concluded that the portal hypertensive state alone predisposes to severe gastric mucosal damage and capillary leak. PMID:6708496

Maeda, R; Guilmette, E; Tarnawski, A; Sarfeh, I J



Risk of ileal pouch neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis  

PubMed Central

Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common surgical option for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch mucosa over time, and even carcinoma in the pouch has been reported. We therefore reviewed the prevalence, nature, and treatment of adenomas and carcinoma that develop after proctocolectomy in the ileal pouch mucosa in patients with FAP. In 25 reports that were reviewed, the incidence of adenomas in the ileal pouch varied from 6.7% to 73.9%. Several potential factors that favor the development of pouch polyposis have been investigated, but many remain controversial. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the age of the pouch is important. The risk appears to be 7% to 16% after 5 years, 35% to 42% after 10 years, and 75% after 15 years. On the other hand, only 21 cases of ileal pouch carcinoma have been recorded in the literature to date. The diagnosis of pouch carcinoma was made between 3 to 20 years (median, 10 years) after pouch construction. Although the risk of malignant transformation in ileal pouches is probably low, it is not negligible, and the long-term risk cannot presently be well quantified. Regular endoscopic surveillance, especially using chromoendoscopy, is recommended.

Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yamao, Kenji



Role of thyroxine on postnatal development of ileal active bile salt transport  

SciTech Connect

The role of thyroid hormone on the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport uptake was measured by an in vitro incubation technique in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 16-day-old rats treated with pharmacological doses of L-thyroxine ileal active transport appeared precociously whose K/sub m/ was 1.60 +/- 0.48 mM and V/sub app/ was 8.09 +/- 1.14 nmol min mg dry wt , while age-matched shams had only passive diffusion of taurocholate. To determine whether enhanced endogenous secretion of thyroxine was capable of stimulating development of ileal active taurocholate transport, thyrotrophic stimulating hormone (TSH) was given on days 10-13, with uptake measured on day 16. Following TSH treatment, only passive transport for taurocholate was observed in the ileum; uptake rates were consistently higher than those for untreated controls at each study concentration. Thyroidectomy performed at age 14 days with uptake measured at age 21 days did not ablate development of ileal active transport but resulted in a significant reduction in the V/sub app/ and a significant increase in K/sub m/ compared with age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone does not appear to be obligatory for the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport.

Heubi, J.E.



The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: A proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both glutathione and an NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase are present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. It is proposed that glutathione functions to stabilise enzymes of the Calvin cycle, and it may also act to keep ascorbic acid in chloroplasts in the reduced form.

Christine H. Foyer; Barry Halliwell



Effect of Dietary Inulin Supplementation on Inflammation of Pouch Mucosa in Patients With an Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Inflammation is a constant finding in the ileal reservoir of patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and is associated with decreased fecal concentrations of the short chain fatty acid butyrate, increased fecal pH, changes in fecal flora, and increased concentrations of secondary bile acids. In healthy subjects, inulin, a dietary fiber, is fermented to short chain fatty acids and

Carlo F. M. Welters; Erik Heineman; Frederik B. J. M. Thunnissen; Anthony E. J. M. van den Bogaard; Peter B. Soeters; Cor G. M. I. Baeten



Identification of differentially expressed genes in ileal Peyer's Patch of scrapie-infected sheep using RNA arbitrarily primed PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGOUND: In scrapie and prion diseases, the knowledge concerning genes involved in host response during the early infection period in the lymphoid tissues, still remains limited. In the present study, we have examined differential gene expression in ileal Peyer's patches and in laser microdissected follicles of sheep infected with scrapie. METHODS: Ileal Peyer's patches and laser microdissected follicles were of

Lars Austbø; Andreas Kampmann; Ulf Müller-Ladner; Elena Neumann; Ingrid Olsaker; Grethe Skretting



Cluster analysis of genome-wide expression differences in disease-unaffected ileal mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole human genome (Agilent) expression profiling was conducted on disease-unaffected ileal RNA collected from the proximal margin of resected ileum from 47 ileal Crohn's disease (CD), 27 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 25 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Cluster analysis combined with significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and principal component analysis (PCA) and was used to reduce the data

Tianyi Zhang; Robert A. DeSimone; Hongyan Chen; Christina M Hamm; Jeffrey Yuan; Qing Qing Gong; Steven R. Hunt; Themistocles Dassopoulos; Rodney D. Newberry; Daniel N. Frank; Charles E. Robertson; Norman R. Pace; Erica Sodergren; George Weinstock; Xiangmin Jiao; Wei Zhu; Ellen Li



Effects of Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides Plus Mannanoligosaccharides on Immune Function and Ileal and Fecal Microbial Populations in Adult Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine whether supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) plus mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) influenced immune function and ileal and fecal microbial populations of adult dogs. Eight adult dogs surgically fitted with ileal cannulas were used in a crossover design. Dogs were fed 200g of a dry, extruded, kibble diet twice daily. At each feeding, dogs were dosed with

Kelly Swanson; Christine Grieshop; Elizabeth Flickinger; H.-P. Healy; K. A. Dawson; N. R. Merchen; G. C. Fahey Jr



Glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione conjugates, complementary markers of oxidative stress in aquatic biota.  


Contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment and their impacts are of increasing concern due to human population expansion and the generation of deleterious effects in aquatic species. Oxidative stress can result from the presence of persistent organic pollutants, metals, pesticides, toxins, pharmaceuticals, and nanomaterials, as well as changes in temperature or oxygen in water, the examined species, with differences in age, sex, or reproductive cycle of an individual. The antioxidant role of glutathione (GSH), accompanied by the formation of its disulfide dimer, GSSG, and metabolites in response to chemical stress, are highlighted in this review along with, to some extent, that of glutathione S-transferase (GST). The available literature concerning the use and analysis of these markers will be discussed, focusing on studies of aquatic organisms. The inclusion of GST within the suite of biomarkers used to assess the effects of xenobiotics is recommended to complement that of lipid peroxidation and mixed function oxygenation. Combining the analysis of GSH, GSSG, and conjugates would be beneficial in pinpointing the role of contaminants within the plethora of causes that could lead to the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22532120

Hellou, Jocelyne; Ross, Neil W; Moon, Thomas W



A mathematical model of glutathione metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in anti-oxidant defense and detoxification reactions. It is primarily synthesized in the liver by the transsulfuration pathway and exported to provide precursors for in situ GSH synthesis by other tissues. Deficits in glutathione have been implicated in aging and a host of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Down syndrome

Michael C Reed; Rachel L Thomas; Jovana Pavisic; S Jill James; Cornelia M Ulrich; H Frederik Nijhout



Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species. The cells of the human brain consume about 20% of the oxygen utilized by the body but constitute only 2% of the body weight. Consequently, reactive oxygen species

Ralf Dringen



Glutathione and its role in cellular functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione (GSH) is the major cellular thiol participating in cellular redox reactions and thioether formation. This article serves as introduction to the FRBM Forum on glutathione and emphasizes cellular functions: What is GSH? Where does it come from? Where does it go? What does it do? What is new and noteworthy? Research tools, historical remarks, and links to current trends.

Helmut Sies



Phagocytosis and transcytosis by the follicle-associated epithelium of the ileal Peyer's patch in calves.  


Latex beads, 250 and 610 nm in diameter, and parapox virus isolated from ecthyma in sheep, were injected into intestinal loops containing either jejunal or ileal Peyer's patches (PP) of 3-4 week old calves. Uptake of latex and parapox virus was restricted to the ileal PP, 30-60 min after injection. The latex beads seemed to be embraced by thin surface protrusions extending from the concentric folds of the follicle-associated epithelial cells (FAE) of the ileal PP. Both latex and virus were internalized into cytoplasmic vacuoles. Some of the vacuoles containing virus showed reaction for acid phosphatase. The latex beads and virus were shed to the intercellular spaces of the FAE. The exocytosis appeared to occur through specialized indentations of the lateral plasma membrane where the production of 50 nm membrane-bounded particles by budding off from the lateral plasma membrane was a prominent phenomenon. PMID:3154920

Landsverk, T



Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed.

Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro



Endoscopic, assisted, modified turbinoplasty with mucosal flap.  


A variety of surgical methods have been developed to reduce the volume of the inferior turbinates, in order to create a more patent nasal airway. We describe a technique used in our department since February 2002 for all patients undergoing inferior turbinectomy. We resect with endoscopic assistance the lateral mucosa and bony inferior turbinate. This technique can reduce a large volume of the turbinate while preserving the mucosal continuity and the submucosa by covering the raw surface with a mucosal flap. We believe our method minimises post-operative side effects and complications such as dryness, infection, bleeding and pain. PMID:22380635

Puterman, M M; Segal, N; Joshua, B-Z



21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification. A glutathione test system is a device intended to...



21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...



21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification. A glutathione test system is a device intended to...



21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification. A glutathione test system is a device intended to...



21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...



21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...



Laparoscopic management of a small bowel herniation from an ileal conduit: report of a case and review of the literature.  


Bladder carcinoma can be treated with cystectomy and urinary diversion. Ileal conduit is a popular technique, originally performed with closure of all mesenteric and peritoneal defects to minimize internal herniation. Recent advances in laparoscopic and robotic techniques often leave these defects open. We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman with a small bowel entrapment underneath an intraperitoneal ileal conduit and ureter causing obstruction. This internal hernia occurred 2 months after undergoing a DaVinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic cystoprostatectomy with an ileal conduit. Bowel obstruction is an important complication associated with the need for reoperation and patient mortality. Historical review shows a precedent for closure of the mesenteric defect, obliterating the peritoneal defect in the right lumbar gutter, and suturing the ileal conduit to the posterior peritoneum to prevent potential internal hernias. The literature involving ileal conduits is examined for consensus on the preferred method of treating these potential spaces. PMID:23579536

Coughlin, Lisa M; Orr, Dennis P



Hepatitis viral load correlates to glutathione levels.  


Several recent scientific articles have found a direct correlation between Glutathione levels and viral activity for hepatitis B and C. When viral load increases, Glutathione decreases. Researchers from Germany report that adding NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) to HBV producing cells lines can reduce hepatitis viral load 50 fold. Glutathione is used by the liver to help break down toxins. Patients who have chronic infection for more than 90 days should ask their physicians to check their Glutathione levels. A test kit is available from ImmunoSciences Labs; contact information is included. An amino acid, L-Glutamine, can be used with Alpha Lipoic Acid and NAC to increase Glutathione levels. Chlorophyll also offers benefits to people with hepatitis and other infections. Instructions on how to use a special retention enema containing chlorophyll, water, and apple cider vinegar are provided. PMID:11366543



Glutathione Complexed Fe-S Centers  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (?-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) is a major thiol-containing peptide with cellular levels of up to 10 mM.1 Several recent reports have demonstrated glutaredoxins (Grx) to form [Fe2S2] cluster-bridged dimers, where glutathione provides two exogenous thiol ligands, and have implicated such species in cellular iron sulfur cluster biosynthesis. We report the finding that glutathione alone can coordinate and stabilize an [Fe2S2] cluster under physiological conditions, with optical, redox, Mössbauer and NMR characteristics that are consistent with a [Fe2S2](GS)4 composition. The Fe-S assembly protein ISU catalyzes formation of [Fe2S2](GS)4 from iron and sulfide ions in the presence of glutathione, and the [Fe2S2] core undergoes reversible exchange between apo ISU and free glutathione.

Qi, Wenbin; Li, Jingwei; Chain, C. Y; Pasquevich, G.A.; Pasquevich, A. F.; Cowan, J. A.



Direct measurement of first-pass ileal clearance of a bile acid in humans  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%).

Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C. (St. George's Hospital Medical School, London (England))



Glutathione systems and anoxia tolerance in turtles.  


Effects of anoxic submergence (20 h at 5 degrees C) and subsequent 24 h aerobic recovery on glutathione levels and the activities of glutathione-related enzymes were examined in six tissues of Trachemys scripta elegans. Anoxia exposure resulted in tissue-specific changes in enzyme maximal activities, the most dramatic being suppression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTPase) activity in anoxic kidney to only 2% of control. Anoxia exposure also caused significant decreases in activities of liver and heart glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (by 25 and 42%), heart glutathione reductase (GR) (by 67%), liver gamma-GTPase (by 71%), and red muscle glutaredoxin (GRN) (by 56%). By contrast, anoxia exposure increased the activities of GR in liver and red muscle (by 52 and 80%), glutathione synthetase (GS) in white muscle (by 300%), and GRN in white muscle (by 400%). During aerobic recovery after anoxia, GST activity decreased in red muscle, kidney, and brain (by 72, 56, and 39%); GR decreased in liver and red muscle (by 52 and 80%); and GRN fell in red muscle (by 56%). Other activities rose during recovery: GR in heart (by 64%), GS in heart and brain (by 200%), and gamma-GTPase in brain (by 63%). Tissue pools of total glutathione were high in comparison with other ectotherms. Levels decreased during anoxia in four organs to 49-67% of control values. During aerobic recovery the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) increased in heart, kidney, and brain, indicating that oxidative stress did not occur in these organs. Rather than maintaining high levels of glutathione in tissues to prevent oxidative stress during aerobic recovery, turtles sustain high GSH/GSSG by regulating the activities of glutathione-using enzymes. PMID:9249553

Willmore, W G; Storey, K B



A Prospective Evaluation of Sexual Function and Quality of Life After Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  This study was designed to assess the effect of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis on sexual function and quality of life in men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sexual function of patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis from February 2005 to June 2006 was prospectively evaluated\\u000a using the International Index of Erectile Function in men and Female Sexual Function Index in women. Quality of life was

R. Justin Davies; Brenda I. O’Connor; Charles Victor; Helen M. MacRae; Zane Cohen; Robin S. McLeod



Inhibition of the effect of serotonin on rat ileal transport by cisapride: evidence in favour of the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors.  

PubMed Central

Cisapride is a synthetic drug which binds, in vitro, to type 2 serotonin receptors. We examined the influence of serotonin and cisapride on ion transport across intestinal mucosa in vitro and studied the effect of cisapride on the response to serotonin. Segments of ileum of male Sprague-Dawley rats were stripped of muscle layers and mounted in flux chambers. The addition of serotonin (10(-8) to 10(-4) M) to the serosal aspect of the mucosa caused a rapid, dose-dependent rise in short circuit current and transmural potential difference. Cisapride alone (5 X 10(-5) M), when added to the mucosal and serosal surfaces, had no effect on the short circuit current, transmural potential difference, resistance, or sodium and chloride fluxes across the mucosa. It did, however, inhibit the response of the mucosa to serotonin (10(-5) M) in a dose dependent manner and blocked it completely at a concentration of 5 X 10(-5) M. Serotonin (5 X 10(-5) M) increased serosal to mucosal flux of chloride from 12.6 +/- 0.8 to 15.2 +/- 0.6 mumol/cm2/h (p less than 0.025), thus reducing net chloride absorption from 4.65 +/- 0.81 to 1.49 +/- 1.04 mumol/cm2/h (p less than 0.05). This effect was completely blocked by cisapride (5 X 10(-5) M). In summary, cisapride inhibits the effect of serotonin on rat ileal ion transport, probably by blocking type 2 serotonin receptors.

Moriarty, K J; Higgs, N B; Woodford, M; Warhurst, G; Turnberg, L A



Gastric Mucosal Energy Metabolism and "Stress Ulceration,"  

PubMed Central

Acute gastric erosions following hemorrhagic shock (stress ulceration) have been attributed to gastric hyperacidity, altered gastric secretion of mucus and an abnormal permeability of the gastric mucosa to H+. This report aims at presenting evidence supporting an alternate hypothesis: the event linking shock-induced gastric mucosal ischemia to mucosal necrosis is a deficit in gastric mucosal energy metabolism. Our experimental procedure consisted of harvesting the stomachs of rats and rabbits by “stop-freeze” (liquid N2) at different intervals after the induction of hemorrhagic shock. Levels of adenosine-phosphates and of glycolytic intermediates in gastric mucosa were measured. We studied the changes in the levels of these substrates produced by shock as well as by factors capable, when combined with shock, of rendering the gastric mucosa more vulnerable to stress ulceration. The influence of shock and of these modifying factors were evaluated by comparison with data from appropriately designed control experiments. In parallel experiments we examined the frequency of stress ulceration (gross and microscopic) under these same standard conditions. There have emerged from these studies a number of observations all based upon data with the highest statistical significance. The data are consonant with the hypothesis stated above: an energy deficit severe enough to cause cellular necrosis is the event linking shock-induced gastric mucosal ischemia and stress ulceration. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.

Menguy, Rene; Masters, Y. F.



Odorless formulation for treating mucosal discontinuities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention includes a method for making a formulation for treating mucosal discontinuities, comprising: providing phenolic compounds and treating the purified phenolic compounds with sulfuric acid to make sulfonic acids and sulfonate salts. The present invention also includes formulations prepared by the method.



Oral mucositis with features of psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case of oral mucositis with features of psoriasis is reported along with a review of the cases of oral psoriasis in the literature. The case reported involved a crusted lesion on the upper lip and erythematous lesions on the labial mucosa, buccal mucosa, and denture-bearing palatal mucosa. In addition, lesions resembling geographic tongue and ectopic geographic tongue were

Fariba Simhai Younai; Joan Andersen Phelan



Intestinal mucosal barrier function in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. These cells establish a barrier between sometimes hostile external environments and the internal milieu. However, mucosae are also responsible for nutrient absorption and waste secretion, which require a selectively permeable barrier. These functions place the mucosal epithelium at the centre of interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, including dietary antigens

Jerrold R. Turner



Mechanism of helicobacter pylori -associated gastric mucosal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric mucosal damage and the infiltration of neutrophils. Myeloperoxidase from neutrophils produces hypochlorous acid, which yields monochloramine in the presence of ammonia produced by urease enzyme ofHelicobacter pylori. The target cells of gastric mucosal damage are gastric mucosal cells and endothelial cells. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ammonium, hypochlorous acid, and monochloramine damage

Hiroshi Dekigai; Motomobu Murakami; Toru Kita



Genomic analysis of mucosal immunobiology in the porcine small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of infectious diseases of animals and humans occur at mucosal surfaces, especially in the intestinal tract. However, vaccines to stimulate durable immunity to intestinal pathogens often do not produce effective protection. A better understanding of the molecules and molecular mechanisms that mediate effective immune induction at mucosal surfaces may facilitate the development of more effective mucosal vaccines.

Cheryl M. T. Dvorak; Geoffrey N. Hirsch; Michael P. Murtaugh



Palifermin for Oral Mucositis after Intensive Therapy for Hematologic Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Oral mucositis is a complication of intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no ef- fective treatment. We tested the ability of palifermin (recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor) to decrease oral mucosal injury induced by cytotoxic therapy. methods This double-blind study compared the effect of palifermin with that of a placebo on the development of oral mucositis in 212 patients with

Ricardo Spielberger; Patrick Stiff; William Bensinger; Teresa Gentile; Daniel Weisdorf; Tarun Kewalramani; Thomas Shea; Saul Yanovich; Keith Hansen; Stephen Noga; John McCarty; C. Frederick LeMaistre; Eric C. Sung; Bruce R. Blazar; Dieter Elhardt; Mon-Gy Chen; Christos Emmanouilides



Selenium, glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins  

SciTech Connect

Selenium, as essential trace element, has long been associated with protein. The essentiality of selenium is partially understood as glutathione peroxidase contains an essential selenocysteine. Glutathione peroxidase has been purified from many tissues including rat liver. An estimated molecular weight of 105,000 was obtained for glutathione peroxidase by comparison to standards. A subunit size of 26,000 was obtained by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Glutathione peroxidase is not the only selenoprotein in the rat. In seven rat tissues examined, there were many different subunit sizes and change groups representing between 9 and 23 selenoproteins. Selenocysteine in glutathione peroxidase accounts for ca. 36% of the selenium in the rat. The mode of synthesis of glutathione peroxidase and the other selenoproteins is not understood. Glutathione peroxidase is strongly and reversibly inhibited by mercaptocarboxylic acids and other mercaptans, including some used as slow-acting drugs for the symtomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism and chemistry of this inhibition is discussed. This inhibition may provide a link between selenium and arthritis.

Wilhelmsen, E.C.



Orally administered emu oil decreases acute inflammation and alters selected small intestinal parameters in a rat model of mucositis.  


Mucositis resulting from cancer chemotherapy is a serious disorder of the alimentary tract. Emu oil has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in animal models of arthritis and wound healing; however, its effects on the intestine remain unknown. We investigated emu oil for its potential to decrease the severity of mucositis in a rat model. Female Dark Agouti rats (110-150 g) were orogastrically gavaged with emu oil (0.5 or 1 ml) or water (1 ml) for 5 d before intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 150 mg/kg) or saline (control), and this was continued up to the day of sacrifice (48, 72 and 96 h post 5-FU administration). Histological (villus height, crypt depth (CD) and disease severity score) and biochemical (myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity) parameters were determined in intestinal tissues collected at sacrifice. Sucrase activity in vivo was quantified by the sucrose breath test. Activated neutrophil activity (MPO) in the ileum was significantly decreased by emu oil (0.5 ml, 451 (sem 168) U/g and 1 ml, 503 (sem 213) U/g) compared with 5-FU-treated controls (1724 (sem 431) U/g) 96 h post 5-FU administration. There were also significant increases in CD (152 (sem 8) microm) in the ileum of rats that received 1 ml emu oil at 96 h compared with 5-FU-treated controls (CD (106 (sem 12) microm)). Emu oil did not affect sucrase activity. Emu oil decreased acute ileal inflammation, and improved mucosal architecture in the intestine during recovery from chemotherapy in rats. Further studies investigating the potential benefits of emu oil as a nutritional supplement for the treatment of intestinal disorders are indicated. PMID:20377926

Lindsay, Ruth J; Geier, Mark S; Yazbeck, Roger; Butler, Ross N; Howarth, Gordon S



Topical/mucosal delivery of sub-unit vaccines that stimulate the ocular mucosal immune system.  


Mucosal vaccination is proving to be one of the greatest challenges in modern vaccine development. Although ocular mucosal immunity is highly beneficial for achieving protective immunity, the induction of ocular mucosal immunity against ocular infectious pathogens, particularly herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which is the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness, remains difficult. Recent developments in cellular and molecular immunology of the ocular mucosal immune system (OMIS) may help in the design of more effective and optimal immunization strategies against ocular pathogens. In this review, we highlight ocular mucosal immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic vaccine strategies that have been evaluated to control the many pathogens that attack the surface of the eye. Next, we describe the current understandings of the OMIS and elucidate the structure and the function of the humoral and cellular immune system that protects the surface of the eye. Results from our recent experiments using topical ocular delivery of peptides-CpG and lipopeptide-based vaccines against HSV-1 infection are presented. The future challenges and issues related to the ocular mucosal delivery of molecularly defined sub-unit vaccines are discussed. PMID:17146573

Nesburn, Anthony B; Bettahi, Ilham; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhu, Xiaoming; Chamberlain, Winston; Afifi, Rasha E; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir



Success rate of curative endoscopic mucosal resection with circumferential mucosal incision assisted by submucosal injection of sodium hyaluronate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Circumferential mucosal incision around a lesion is effective for reliable endoscopic mucosal resection. However, mucosal incision with a needle knife is difficult, even with submu- cosal injection of normal saline solution. To make needle-knife incision easier and safer, sodium hyaluronate has been used rather than normal saline solution. The aim of this study was to evalu- ate the clinical

Hironori Yamamoto; Hiroshi Kawata; Keijiro Sunada; Kiichi Satoh; Yoshinari Kaneko; Kenichi Ido; Kentaro Sugano



Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets  

PubMed Central

N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n?=?7), including (I) sham challenge, (II) sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III) E. coli challenge, and (IV) E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV) were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (108 CFU/mL), whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II) were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV) was decreased (PE.coli<0.05). However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV). Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV). Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4+ percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV) were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05). However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV) compared with E. coli challenge group (III) (P<0.05). No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III) was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

Zhang, Fengrui; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan



Determination and assessment of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients for the growing pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets contaimng barley meal, pea meal, meat and bone meal, or fish meal as sole protein sources were fed to growing pigs cannulated at the terminal ileum. The apparent ileal digestibilities of dietary amino acids and nitrogen were determined. The second part of the study was conducted to evaluate these amino acid digestibility values. Ten entire male pigs received a

P. J. Maughan; W. C. Smith



Legume grains enhance ileal losses of specific endogenous serine-protease proteins in weaned pigs.  


Feeding legume grains to pigs usually increases losses of endogenous proteins at the terminal ileum. However, the identity of such proteins is largely unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the ileal flow and identity of soluble proteins present in large concentrations in ileal digesta of young pigs fed soybean meal (SBM), peas (P), faba beans (FB), or blue lupin (L) in expt. 1, and white (WPC) or black (BPC) chickpeas in expt. 2. Protein in the control diet (C) was provided by casein. Ileal digesta proteins were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Coomassie blue staining, densitometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Three protein bands at molecular masses of 25, 27, and 30 kDa had a higher ileal flow (P < 0.05) in the pigs fed the legume-based diets compared to those fed the control diet in expt. 2. This was true for the 25- and 30-kDa proteins (P < 0.05) and the 27-kDa protein (P < 0.10) in pigs fed the legume-containing diets in expt. 1. These proteins shared N-terminal amino acid sequences with enzymes of the serine protease family including pig trypsin (25 kDa) and blood coagulation factor IX or chymotrypsin (27 and 30 kDa). PMID:12097670

Salgado, Paulo; Montagne, Lucile; Freire, João P B; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Teixeira, Artur; Bento, Ofélia; Abreu, Manuel C; Toullec, René; Lallès, Jean-Paul



Natural course of Crohn's disease after ileocolic resection: endoscopically visualised ileal ulcers preceding symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty two Crohn's disease patients were followed up after ileocolic resection with regard to symptoms and endoscopic appearance of the ileocolic anastomosis. Twenty eight patients resected because of colonic neoplasm served as controls. In all the Crohn's disease patients the ileal resection margin was disease free macroscopically at operation. In addition, intraoperative ileoscopy was performed in 13 and no sign

G Olaison; K Smedh; R Sjödahl



Stagnant loop syndrome in patients with continent ileostomy (intra-abdominal ileal reservoir)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal absorption and bacteriology of the ileal contents were compared in seven patients with continent ileostomy and seven patients with conventional ileostomy. The absorption of vitamin B12 was reduced in five patients with continent ileostomy and subnormal in two patients with conventional ileostomy. Steatorrhoea was present in four patients with continent and one patient with conventional ileostomy. Increased concentrations of

H Schjonsby; J F Halvorsen; T Hofstad; N Hovdenak



Standardised ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibilities in protein supplements for piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardised ileal digestibilities (SID) of crude protein and amino acids (AA) originating from 24 different feed ingredients, including 11 feed ingredients produced from soybeans, seven by-products of starch processing, four whey products and two fish meals, were determined in piglets by means of the difference method. For the indispensable AA, the highest SID values were obtained in three out of

Renata Urbaityte; Rainer Mosenthin; Meike Eklund; Hans-Peter Piepho; Nadja Sauer; Meike Rademacher



Effect of systemic steroids on ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Long-term steroid therapy predisposes to postsurgical complications, especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine incidence of early septic complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPAA) in patients who are undergoing prolonged steroid therapy. METHODS: We reviewed charts of 692 patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA to treat ulcerative colitis. Incidence of early (within

Yehiel Ziv; James M. Church; Victor W. Fazio; Tai-Ming King; Ian C. Lavery



Paclitaxel-induced stomal neuropathy: a unique cause of pain in a patient with ileal conduit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of unusual chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity in a patient who had undergone radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal conduit diversion for invasive bladder cancer. On routine computed tomography scan several years later, he was diagnosed with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma involving the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The patient received systemic chemotherapy, including a combination of paclitaxel (Taxol) and gemcitabine (Gemzar). During

Menachem Laufer; Mark P Schoenberg; Mario A Eisenberger




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

21 d experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestible (TID) isoleucine requirement for 91 to 116 kg barrows (n=170, PIC C-23). Pigs were allotted by weight in a randomized complete block design and fed one of five dietary treatments with five replicates of six or seven pigs per pen....


Coxsackievirus-cell interactions that initiate infection in porcine ileal explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Coxsackievirus B 5 (CB 5) labeled with tritiated uridine was used to trace the interaction of the virus with explant cultures of porcine ileum. Similarly labeled human poliovirus 1 (PO 1), which is not specifically retained by porcine tissue, was used as a control. The explant procedure employed could maintain ileal tissue in a differentiated state for up to

B. A. Heinz; D. O. Cliver



Fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and effect on ileal pouch function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random stool samples were obtained from 14 ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) patients 43 ± 5 (mean ± SEM) months after surgery, and the concentrations of individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Stool frequency was determined from a diary recorded for 15 days prior to stool sampling. The frequency, amplitude, and duration of phasic contractions (PCs)

Wayne L. Ambroze Jr; John H. Pemberton; Sidney F. Phillips; Andrew M. Bell; Anne C. Haddad



Characteristics of lipid substances activating the ileal brake in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out in 36 adult male rats to determine the characteristics of lipid substances which, after infusion into the ileum, slow the stomach to caecum transit time of the head of a bean meal in the rat. Stomach to caecum transit time was measured by environmental hydrogen analysis. Ileal infusion of a range of free fatty acids including

N J Brown; N W Read; A Richardson; R D Rumsey; C Bogentoft



Digestibility of dried and toasted peas in pigs. 1. Ileal and total tract digestibilities of carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ileal and total tract digestibilities of carbohydrates were studied in pigs given diets containing dried or toasted peas (Pisum sativum var. Solara) as the sole source of polysaccharides. Peas from two different harvest years were fed to growing pigs fitted with a cannula at the end of the ileum in two experiments. Two types of cannulas were used in

Nuria Canibe; K. E. Bach Knudsen



Results of ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis in familial adenomatous polyposis complicated by rectal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Rectal cancer frequently occurs in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and, in some cases, proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) can be proposed as an alternative to end ileostomy. This study aimed to assess the results of IPAA for familial adenomatous polyposis complicated by rectal carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postoperative morbidity and bowel function following IPAA were assessed

Christophe Penna; Emmanuel Tiret; Frederic Daude; Rolland Parc



Ileal leiomyosarcoma and lymph node granuloma. Relevance of a rare association.  


Leiomyosarcoma is rare in ileal location. We report the case of a 61 years old female patient presenting with ileal leiomyosarcoma occurring at 14 years after a uterine carcinoma treated by radiotherapy. The ileal tumor was treated by surgical resection. This tumor was peculiar by the macroscopic polypoid appearance and by expression of PDGFRA protein together with muscle differentiation proteins: smooth muscle actin, desmin and h-caldesmon. Lymph node necrotizing granuloma diagnosis on the surgical resection specimen lead to the diagnosis of tuberculosis and the patient was treated accordingly. At 3 years after the diagnosis, the patient was well, without recurrence or metastases. In conclusion, we report the case of a patient diagnosed with ileal leiomyosarcoma occurring 14 years after adjuvant radiotherapy for uterine carcinoma. Analysis of the intestinal resection specimen lead to the diagnosis of associated tuberculosis. Moreover, the leiomyosarcoma was peculiar by PDGFRA expression, feature which might be of clinical relevance since the treatment options in radioinduced tumors associated with other conditions are limited. PMID:22440051

Badescu, Alina; Lae, Marick; Morin, Anne-Sophie; Handra-Luca, Adriana



Mucosal immunology: from bench to the bedside and beyond.  

PubMed Central

This paper, written by the President of the Society for Mucosal Immunology, marks the 9th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology, in Sydney: Mucosal Solutions. Current molecular, cellular and animal work in mucosal immunity has great potential when applied to issues of human and animal health. However, practical and technical problems in the transfer of theoretical concepts into clinically based research must not be underestimated. Ideally, studies in disease need to be designed and run jointly by clinicians and scientists, as illustrated by examples drawn from Crohn's disease. Ethical aspects of research in mucosal physiology and disease are challenging, but not insurmountable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 7

Ferguson, A



Ultrasonic fragmentation. A new technique for mucosal proctectomy  

SciTech Connect

A new technique is reported for mucosal proctectomy that does not require manual separation of the mucosa and submucosa from the underlying muscularis. Mucosal proctectomy using ultrasonic fragmentation of the rectal mucosa was performed in four patients. Three had severe ulcerative colitis, and one patient had radiation proctitis with a rectal stricture. In all cases an endorectal pullthrough with anastomosis to the area of the dentate line was performed. Healing after ultrasonic mucosal proctectomy occurred without infection or retraction. Ultrasonic fragmentation offers an alternative to the standard technique of mucosal proctectomy. This new method is useful in those patients in whom separation of the rectal mucosal layer is difficult to perform.

Heimann, T.M.; Kurtz, R.J.; Aufses, A.H. Jr.



Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (L-?-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.



Impaired glutathione synthesis in neurodegeneration.  


Glutathione (GSH) was discovered in yeast cells in 1888. Studies of GSH in mammalian cells before the 1980s focused exclusively on its function for the detoxication of xenobiotics or for drug metabolism in the liver, in which GSH is present at its highest concentration in the body. Increasing evidence has demonstrated other important roles of GSH in the brain, not only for the detoxication of xenobiotics but also for antioxidant defense and the regulation of intracellular redox homeostasis. GSH also regulates cell signaling, protein function, gene expression, and cell differentiation/proliferation in the brain. Clinically, inborn errors in GSH-related enzymes are very rare, but disorders of GSH metabolism are common in major neurodegenerative diseases showing GSH depletion and increased levels of oxidative stress in the brain. GSH depletion would precipitate oxidative damage in the brain, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the significance of GSH function, the synthesis of GSH and its metabolism, and clinical disorders of GSH metabolism. A potential approach to increase brain GSH levels against neurodegeneration is also discussed. PMID:24145751

Aoyama, Koji; Nakaki, Toshio



The glutathione transferase kappa family.  


Glutathione transferase (GST) kappa, also named mitochondrial GST, is a very ancient protein family with orthologs in bacteria and eukaryotes. Both the structure and the subcellular localization of GSTK1-1, in mitochondria and peroxisomes, make this enzyme distinct from cytosolic GSTs. Rodent and human GSTK1 exhibit activity towards a number of model GST substrates and, in Caenorhabditis elegans, this enzyme may be involved in energy and lipid metabolism, two functions related to mitochondria and peroxisomes. Interestingly, GST kappa is also a key regulator of adiponectin biosynthesis and multimerization suggesting that it might function as a chaperone to facilitate correct folding and assembly of proteins. Since adiponectin expression has been correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes, GSTK1 expression level which is negatively correlated with obesity in mice and human adipose tissues may be an important factor in these metabolic disorders. Furthermore, a polymorphism in the hGSTK1 promoter has been associated with insulin secretion and fat deposition. PMID:21428694

Morel, Fabrice; Aninat, Caroline



Glutathione, Glutathione-Related Enzymes, and Catalase Activities in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this work was to provide basic data on the antioxidant defences in the annelid Eisenia fetida andrei (E. f. a.). Methods for measurement of three antioxidant enzymes—catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione\\u000a reductase (GR)—and of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were optimized. GPX activity differed according to the substrate used:\\u000a cumene hydroperoxide (CUOOH) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The

M. Saint-Denis; F. Labrot; J. F. Narbonne; D. Ribera



Evolution of Glutathione Metabolism in Phototrophic Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The low molecular weight thiol composition of a variety of phototrophic microorganisms is examined in order to ascertain how evolution of glutathione (GSH) production is related to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the pres...

R. C. Fahey R. M. Buschbacher G. L. Newton



Kinetic studies on the glutathione peroxidase activity of selenium-containing glutathione transferase.  


Selenium-containing glutathione transferase (seleno-GST) was generated by biologically incorporating selenocysteine into the active site of glutathione transferase (GST) from a blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Seleno-GST mimicked the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalyzed the reduction of structurally different hydroperoxides by glutathione. Kinetic investigations reveal a ping-pong kinetic mechanism in analogy with that of the natural GPx cycle as opposed to the sequential one of the wild type GST. This difference of the mechanisms might result from the intrinsic chemical properties of the incorporated residue selenocysteine, and the selenium-dependent mechanism is suggested to contribute to enhancement of the enzymatic efficiency. PMID:15949961

Yu, Huijun; Liu, Junqiu; Liu, Xiaoman; Zang, Tianzhu; Luo, Guimin; Shen, Jiacong



Glutathione S-transferase family of enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loci encoding the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes comprise a large supergene family located on at least seven chromosomes. The function of the GST enzymes has traditionally been considered to be the detoxication of electrophiles by glutathione conjugation. A wide variety of endogenous (e.g. by-products of reactive oxygen species activity) and exogenous (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) electrophilic substrates have been identified.

Richard C Strange; Monica A Spiteri; Sudarshan Ramachandran; Anthony A Fryer



Mucosal vaccination against bacterial respiratory infections.  


Mucosal vaccination offers attractive advantages to conventional systemic vaccination, such as higher levels of antibodies and protection at the airway surface. This review gives an overview of recent experimental and clinical data on nasal, oral and sublingual vaccines against bacterial respiratory pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Neisseria meningitidis , Moraxella catarrhalis , Bordetella pertussis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Subsequently, we discuss further vaccine development that opens the focus to clinical use. PMID:18844598

Baumann, Ulrich



Mucosal adenovirus-vectored vaccine for measles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several problems associated with the available anti-measles vaccine emphasize the need for a single shot anti-measles vaccine which is efficacious by mucosal route of administration and functional in the presence of anti-measles neutralizing antibodies. To achieve these goals, we constructed two recombinant human adenoviruses (collectively designated Ad-F\\/H) carrying genes for measles virus (MV) fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) proteins. Single

Liubov M. Lobanova; Tayyba T. Baig; Suresh K. Tikoo; Alexander N. Zakhartchouk



Lung mucosal immunity: immunoglobulin-A revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Mucosal,defence mechanisms,are critical in preventing colonization of the respiratory tract by pathogens,and penetration of antigens through the epithelial barrier. Recent research has now,illustrated the active contribution of the respiratory epithelium to the exclusion of microbes and particles, but also to the control of the inflammatory,and immune,responses in the airways and in the alveoli. Epithelial cells also mediate,the active transport

C. Pilette; Y. Ouadrhiri; V. Godding; J. P. Vaerman; Y. Sibille



The mammary gland and neonate mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passive mucosal protection of neonate mammals is dependent on the continuous supply until weaning of maternally dimeric IgA (monogastric) and IgG1 (ruminants). This lactogenic (humoral) immunity is linked to the gut, the so-called entero-mammary link, because of the translocation of Ig (IgA and IgG1) or the emigration of IgA lymphoblasts from the gut into the mammary gland (MG); on

H. Salmon



Ileal perforation induced by acute radiation injury under gefitinib treatment.  


Enteritis is one of the side effects of radiotherapy to the abdominal cavity. Radiation enteritis involves damage to mucous membranes in the acute phase and to stromal tissues in the late phase. Perforation of the intestine tends to occur in the late phase, and rarely in the acute phase. However, we describe here a case of intestinal perforation occurring in the acute phase after irradiation in a patient who received gefitinib treatment. Gefitinib, one of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), is widely used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but is simultaneously known to inhibit wound healing. We suspect that gefitinib may affect regeneration of the small intestinal mucosa injured by irradiation. A 76-year-old woman had NSCLC with metastases to the 5th lumbar, sacral, and right iliac bones. To control the pain from bone metastasis, anterior-posterior opposing portal irradiation (total 35 Gy) was started, and was completed over 22 days. On day 25 after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to take gefitinib. On day 35, she presented with acute peritonitis, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. The terminal ileum was affected by radiation enteritis and there were two pin-hole perforations. In the surgical specimen, no cancerous lesions were detected, and immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) was negative. pEGFR has an important role in mucous membrane repair after irradiation. Intestinal perforation in the acute phase of radiation enteritis may be associated with impaired mucosal repair mechanisms due to the use of an EGFR-TKI such as gefitinib, as evidenced by the absence of pEGFR. PMID:21706125

Muraoka, Takayuki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Naomoto, Yoshio; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Katsui, Kuniaki; Kanazawa, Susumu; Maki, Yuho; Masuda, Hiroko; Harada, Masaaki; Asano, Hiroaki; Naito, Minoru; Miyoshi, Shinichiro



Effect of cysteamine on gastroduodenal mucosal histamine in rat.  

PubMed Central

Cysteamine administration to rats is followed by a high incidence of peptic ulceration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cysteamine on gastric and duodenal mucosal histamine and gastric mucosal histamine formation capacity. After a four hour fast, cysteamine in doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg bodyweight was injected subcutaneously to male Wistar rats; saline injection was used as control. After 24 hours the animals were killed; the stomach and duodenum were removed and examined for ulceration. Mucosal biopsies were taken for histamine studies. Gastric and duodenal ulceration tended to appear with increasing incidence with higher doses. A direct correlation was found between the dose of cysteamine and gastric mucosal histamine (p less than 0.02), and duodenal mucosal histamine (p less than 0.05). Further, a direct relationship was found between gastric mucosal histidine decarboxylase activity and the dose of cysteamine (p less than 0.05). Gastric mucosal histamine and histidine decarboxylase activity showed a direct correlation (p less than 0.001). Gastric and duodenal mucosal histamine and gastric mucosal histamine formation capacity were higher in rats with ulcers than in controls and rats without ulcers. In rat, cysteamine induces dose related changes in mucosal histamine and histidine decarboxylase activity. These changes are related to ulcer formation; histamine may be involved in the pathophysiology of cysteamine induced ulcer formation.

Boesby, S; Man, W K; Mendez-Diaz, R; Spencer, J



Minimally invasive surgery for obscure idiopathic ileal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and double balloon endoscopy: report of a case.  


Small intestinal bleeding is difficult to detect and can be life-threatening. Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a new, minimally invasive diagnostic procedure designed to detect gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We report the successful management of idiopathic ileal varices by capsule endoscopy and laparoscopic surgery. Massive bleeding occurred suddenly with intermittent melena, and the patient was finally admitted to a local hospital in hypovolemic shock. Her condition was stabilized with conservative therapy but the site of bleeding was not defined by endoscopy, computed tomography, scintigraphy, or angiography. Thus, she was transferred to our hospital. On admission, CE revealed idiopathic ileal varices, so we performed laparoscopic partial ileal resection immediately. Follow-up CE has shown no evidence of recurrence in the 2 years since surgery. Idiopathic ileal varices are rare, difficult to diagnose, and often fatal. Capsule endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure that detects this disorder in time for laparoscopic surgery to be performed effectively and safely. PMID:21046511

Konishi, Hirotaka; Kikuchi, Shojiro; Miyashita, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Kubota, Takeshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Kokuba, Yukihito; Yasukawa, Satoru; Yasukawa, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Akio; Otsuji, Eigo



Endoscopic treatment of a symptomatic ileal lipoma with recurrent ileocolic intussusceptions by using cap-assisted colonoscopy.  


A 73-year-old woman presented with intermittent abdominal pain and weight loss of 15 kg for 2 years. Colonoscopy revealed an erythematous polypoid tumor with a long and wide stalk in the cecum, but with air inflation, it abruptly went away through the ileocecal valve (ICV). An abdominal computed tomography showed a well-demarcated pedunculated subepithelial mass of 2.6×2.7 cm size with fat attenuation in the terminal ileum. It was an intussusceptum of the ileal lipoma through the ICV. This ileal lipoma was causing her symptoms because repeated ileocolic intussusceptions resulted in intermittent intestinal obstructions. In order to avoid surgical sequelae of ileal resection, snare polypectomy using cap-assisted colonoscopy technique was performed within the ileum without complications. The histopathology report confirmed it as a subepithelial lipoma. After endoscopic resection of the ileal lipoma, the patient has been free of symptoms and was restored to the original weight. PMID:23964343

Lee, Eun Sung; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Kyung Soo; Lee, Hang Lak; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon



Endoscopic Treatment of a Symptomatic Ileal Lipoma with Recurrent Ileocolic Intussusceptions by Using Cap-Assisted Colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old woman presented with intermittent abdominal pain and weight loss of 15 kg for 2 years. Colonoscopy revealed an erythematous polypoid tumor with a long and wide stalk in the cecum, but with air inflation, it abruptly went away through the ileocecal valve (ICV). An abdominal computed tomography showed a well-demarcated pedunculated subepithelial mass of 2.6×2.7 cm size with fat attenuation in the terminal ileum. It was an intussusceptum of the ileal lipoma through the ICV. This ileal lipoma was causing her symptoms because repeated ileocolic intussusceptions resulted in intermittent intestinal obstructions. In order to avoid surgical sequelae of ileal resection, snare polypectomy using cap-assisted colonoscopy technique was performed within the ileum without complications. The histopathology report confirmed it as a subepithelial lipoma. After endoscopic resection of the ileal lipoma, the patient has been free of symptoms and was restored to the original weight.

Lee, Eun Sung; Choi, Kyung Soo; Lee, Hang Lak; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon



Genotype, enzyme activity, glutathione level, and clinical phenotype in patients with glutathione synthetase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione synthetase (GS) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The clinical phenotype varies widely, and nearly 30 different mutations in the GSS gene have been identified. In the present study, genotype, enzyme activity, metabolite levels and clinical phenotype were evaluated in 41 patients from 33 families. From some of the patients, data on glutathione (GSH) levels and ?-glutamylcysteine levels

Runa Njålsson; Ellinor Ristoff; Katarina Carlsson; Andreas Winkler; Agne Larsson; Svante Norgren




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Health (REACH) cohort we examined the relationship of plasma selenium, whole blood glutathione and whole blood glutathione peroxidase to HIV status, disease severity, use of antiretrov...


Hepatobiliary transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugate in rats with hereditary hyperbilirubinemia.  

PubMed Central

TR- mutant rats have an autosomal recessive mutation that is expressed as a severely impaired hepatobiliary secretion of organic anions like bilirubin-(di)glucuronide and dibromosulphthalein (DBSP). In this paper, the hepatobiliary transport of glutathione and a glutathione conjugate was studied in normal Wistar rats and TR- rats. It was shown that glutathione is virtually absent from the bile of TR- rats. In the isolated, perfused liver the secretion of glutathione and the glutathione conjugate, dinitrophenyl-glutathione (GS-DNP), from hepatocyte to bile is severely impaired, whereas the sinusoidal secretion from liver to blood is not affected. The secretion of GS-DNP was also studied in isolated hepatocytes. The secretion of GS-DNP from cells isolated from TR- rat liver was significantly slower than from normal hepatocytes. Efflux of GS-DNP was a saturable process with respect to intracellular GS-DNP concentration: Vmax and Km for efflux from TR- cells was 498 nmol/min.g dry wt and 3.3 mM, respectively, as compared with 1514 nmol/min.g dry wt and 0.92 mM in normal hepatocytes. These results suggest that the canalicular transport system for glutathione and glutathione conjugates is severely impaired in TR- rats, whereas sinusoidal efflux is unaffected. Because the defect also comes to expression in isolated hepatocytes, efflux of GS-DNP from normal hepatocytes must predominantly be mediated by the canalicular transport mechanism, which is deficient in TR- rats.

Elferink, R P; Ottenhoff, R; Liefting, W; de Haan, J; Jansen, P L



Radioprotection by glutathione ester: transport of glutathione ester into human lymphoid cells and fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

Glutathione is not effectively transported into human lymphoid cells, normal human skin fibroblasts, and fibroblasts from patients with genetic deficiencies of ..gamma..-glutamylcysteine synthetase or glutathione synthetase. On the other hand, the monoethyl ester of glutathione, in which the carboxyl group of the glycine residue is esterified, is readily transported into these cells and is hydrolyzed intracellularly. This leads to greatly increased cellular levels of glutathione, which often exceed those found normally. Glutathione ester was found to protect human lymphoid cells of the CEM line against the lethal effects of irradiation. Under the conditions employed, complete protection was found when the ester was added prior to irradiation. Addition of the ester after irradiation was partially effective, suggesting that GSH may also function in repair processes. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Wellner, V.P.; Anderson, M.E.; Puri, R.N.; Jensen, G.L.; Meister, A.



Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5?mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200?mg/kg) was administered to rats 2?h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000?mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo



Effects of supplemental fructooligosaccharides plus mannanoligosaccharides on immune function and ileal and fecal microbial populations in adult dogs.  


The goal of this study was to examine whether supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) plus mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) influenced immune function and ileal and fecal microbial populations of adult dogs. Eight adult dogs surgically fitted with ileal cannulas were used in a crossover design. Dogs were fed 200 g of a dry, extruded, kibble diet twice daily. At each feeding, dogs were dosed with either 1 g sucrose (placebo) or 2 g FOS plus 1 g MOS orally via gelatin capsule. Fecal, ileal, and blood samples were collected at the end of each 14-d period to measure microbial populations and immune characteristics. Treatment least squares means were compared using the GLM procedure of SAS. Supplementation of FOS plus MOS increased fecal bifidobacteria and fecal and ileal lactobacilli concentrations. Dogs fed FOS plus MOS also tended to have lower blood neutrophils and greater blood lymphocytes vs placebo. Serum, fecal, and ileal immunoglobulin concentrations were unchanged by treatment. Supplementation of FOS plus MOS beneficially altered indices of gut health by improving ileal and fecal microbial ecology. Supplementation of FOS plus MOS also altered immune function by causing a shift in blood immune cells. PMID:12462915

Swanson, Kelly S; Grieshop, Christine M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Healy, H P; Dawson, K A; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C



Effect of microbial phytase on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of phosphorus-adequate diets in growing pigs.  


Six ileally cannulated pigs (mean initial body weight 34.8 kg) were used to study the effect of microbial phytase on apparent ileal digestibility of P, total N and amino acids. Three P-adequate diets (digestible P concentration 2.3 g kg(- )l) containing barley (B), soyabean meal (S) or a mixture of the two (BS) with or without phytase supplement (1000 FTU x kg(-1)) were fed to pigs using a 6 x 6 Latin square design. The addition of phytase increased (p < 0.05) apparent ileal P digestibility of diets B, S and BS by 16.5, 19.2 and 19.2%, respectively. There was no effect of phytase on the ileal digestibility of total N. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids tended to increase in the BS diet supplemented with phytase (mean improvement of 2.2%); but no significant difference was found for any amino acid as compared with the unsupplemented diet. To asses the additivity of apparent amino acid digestibility, the determined values for the BS diet were compared to those calculated from digestibilities found in diets B and S. There were no significant differences between the determined and calculated values. It is concluded that the addition of microbial phytase to P-adequate diets does not affect ileal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and that the apparent amino acid digestibility values determined in single ingredients may be additive when included into a complex diet. PMID:16649576

Nitrayová, Sona; Patras, Peter; Sommer, Alexander; Heger, Jaroslav



Changes in blood glutathione concentrations, and in erythrocyte glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activity after running training and after participation in contests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previously sedentary men (n=23) and women (n =18) were trained to run a half marathon contest after 40 weeks. Total blood glutathione had increased by 20 weeks of training and had returned to normal after 40 weeks. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity had increased by 20 weeks and remained elevated after 40 weeks. This effect was accompanied by decreases in glutathione

C. T. A. Evelo; N. G. M. Palmen; Y. Artur; G. M. E. Janssen



Antibodies and their receptors: different potential roles in mucosal defense.  


Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that mucosal antibodies are not only restricted to the IgM and IgA isotypes, but that also other isotypes and particularly IgG can be found in significant quantities at some mucosal surfaces, such as in the genital tract. Their role is more complex than traditionally believed with, among other things, the discovery of novel function of mucosal immunoglobulin receptors. A thorough knowledge in the source and function and mucosal immunoglobulins is particularly important in development of vaccines providing mucosal immunity, and also in the current climate of microbicide development, to combat major world health issues such as HIV. We present here a comprehensive review of human antibody mediated mucosal immunity. PMID:23882268

Horton, Rachel E; Vidarsson, Gestur



Mucosal mast cells and the allergic response against nematode parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgE-mediated Type-I allergic reactions at nematode-infected mucosal surfaces are considered to have a direct protective function. The contribution of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to these mucosal allergic responses is reviewed. In addition to the T helper 2 cell-mediated regulation of MMC hyperplasia during nematode infection the kit ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), plays a key role in the early development

Hugh R. P. Miller



The immune responses to bacterial antigens encountered in vivo at mucosal surfaces.  

PubMed Central

Mammals have evolved a sophisticated immune system for handling antigens encountered at their mucosal surfaces. The way in which mucosally delivered antigens are handled influences our ability to design effective mucosal vaccines. Live attenuated derivatives of pathogens are one route towards the development of mucosal vaccines. However, some molecules, described as mucosal immunogens, are inherently immunogenic at mucosal surfaces. Studies on mucosal immunogens may facilitate the identification of common characteristics that contribute to mucosal immunogenicity and aid the development of novel, non-living mucosal vaccines and immunostimulators.

Dougan, G; Ghaem-Maghami, M; Pickard, D; Frankel, G; Douce, G; Clare, S; Dunstan, S; Simmons, C



[Ileal stenosis caused by chronic granulomatous inflammation secondary to a foreign body simulating Crohn disease].  


A case of ileal stenosis due to foreign body induced chronic granulomatous inflammation simulating Crohn's disease with onset on an ileo-ileostomy carried out 23 years before due to iatrogenic rupture of ileal loop following clandestine abortion is reported. After noting the problem of attributing to the foreign body alone responsibility for the stenosis, the hypothesis that it might have been an acute occurrence of Crohn's disease or the expression of an association of Crohn's disease and granulomatous inflammation due to surgical material is advanced. This for the moment is the only plausible cause. It is concluded that for accurate nosological classification and, therefore, definitive clinical diagnosis, prolonged clinical control of the patient is indispensable. PMID:2190111

Catucci, V; Albrizio, M; Sebastiani, R; Martinelli, G; Florio, C



Percutaneous transhepatic sclerotherapy for bleeding ileal varices associated with portal hypertension and previous abdominal surgery.  


A 75-year-old man with portal hypertension was referred to our institution because he suddenly began to pass a large amount of tarry stool. Arterial portography and computed tomography (CT) during arterial portography via the superior mesenteric artery, using a unified 64-slice multidetector row CT and angiography system, revealed bleeding ileal varices. The varices were supplied blood by a single ileal vein and drained by dilated veins in the abdominal wall. The bleeding was successfully arrested by performing percutaneous transhepatic sclerotherapy with 12 ml of 5% ethanolamine oleate. The blood flow to the varices was controlled by balloon occlusion, and microcoils were inserted into the varices and supplying vein. No complications or rebleeding occurred during the 13-month follow-up period, and CT images obtained during follow-up showed that the varices had disappeared. PMID:20182854

Iguchi, Toshihiro; Yabushita, Kazuhisa; Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; Hosoya, Takeshi; Inoue, Daisaku; Mimura, Hidefumi; Kanazawa, Susumu



Blood selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity.  

PubMed Central

Selenium concentrations in children and teenagers without a metabolic disorder eating normal diets (group 1), and young patients with classical phenylketonuria and milder forms of hyperphenylalaninaemia being treated with a diet low in natural protein (group 2) were investigated. There was a strong correlation between blood selenium concentration and age in children in group 1 up to 10 years of age. Blood selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower in the patients who were receiving diets containing reduced amounts of natural protein, and the differences were more than would be expected for age. When the concentrations of selenium in blood from groups 1 and 2 were compared with glutathione peroxidase activity, a strong association was found when blood selenium concentrations were below 1.26 mumol/l. Reduction in glutathione peroxidase activity may be harmful in the long term, and the addition of selenium to therapeutic diets is recommended.

Lloyd, B; Robson, E; Smith, I; Clayton, B E



Nicorandil-induced leg ulceration without mucosal involvement.  


We report a case of leg ulceration occurring in a patient without mucosal ulcers, in whom nicorandil appeared to be the main aetiological factor. Having failed to heal on compression therapy, the ulcer rapidly improved and healed after the discontinuation of nicorandil. Most cases of nicorandil-induced ulcers reported in the literature develop on mucosal surfaces, including oral, vulval, perianal and peristomal ulcers. There are rare reports of cutaneous ulceration attributable to nicorandil, occurring concurrently with mucosal ulcers. To our knowledge, this is the first case of nicorandil-induced leg ulceration affecting the skin without mucosal involvement. PMID:21564175

Mikeljevic, J; Highet, A S



Ageing and its possible impact on mucosal immune responses.  


The development, structural diversification, and functional maturation of mammalian immunologic repertoire at mucosal surfaces and the systemic lymphoid tissue is a remarkably dynamic and continuous process, which begins in early fetal life and eventually culminates in variable degree of senescence or cellular death with advancing age. This brief overview will highlight the status of our current understanding of the ontogeny of mucosal immunologic response. The role of mucosal microflora and other environmental macromolecules in the regulation of mucosal immunity relative to the process of ageing will also be reviewed. PMID:19664726

Ogra, Pearay L



Stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with resection of the anal transition zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the outcome of stapled ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection of the anal transition zone in 83 consecutive patients with ulcerative colitis (n=71) or familial adenomatous polyposis (n=12). There was no postoperative mortality. Two patients (2.4%) required permanent ileostomy for manifestation of unsuspected Crohn's disease. Major postoperative complications consisted of pelvic sepsis, anastomotic leakage, and pancreatitis with 3.6%

J. Braun; K. H. Treutner; V. Schumpelick



Ureterointestinal strictures following Bricker ileal conduit: management via a percutaneous approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is commonly performed via an ileal conduit using the Bricker method. However, 4–8%\\u000a of these cases are complicated with stricture formation at the ureterointestinal junction. Thus, this could eventually lead\\u000a to hydronephrosis and kidney loss in neglected patients. Few data exist concerning the outcomes of patients with ureterointestinal\\u000a junction strictures managed via a percutaneous approach

Paris Pappas; Konstantinos G. Stravodimos; Theodoros Kapetanakis; Poly Leonardou; Georgios Koutallelis; Ioannis Adamakis; Constantinos Constantinides



A preliminary study on the length of incubation needed to maximize guanidination of lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and in pig ileal digesta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heat-processed feed ingredients, the concentration of bioavailable lysine (Lys) may be estimated by measuring the amount of ileal digestible Lys that has a free ?–NH2 (i.e., not bound to reducing sugars). This Lys, called ileal digestible reactive Lys, is determined by measuring the reactive Lys in the feed ingredient and in ileal digesta of pigs fed the feed ingredient.

A. A. Pahm; C. Pedersen; D. Simon; H. H. Stein



Peptic activity and gastroduodenal mucosal damage.  

PubMed Central

This contribution reviews briefly the history of the discovery and characterization of peptic activity; secretory models and current concepts regarding the regulation of pepsinogen secretion; and evidence that pepsin is a necessary co-factor for gastroduodenal mucosal injury. Several animal studies indicate that peptic activity is required for acid- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastroduodenal ulceration. A more vigorous approach to the development of anti-peptic drugs for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease is encouraged. Images Figure 1

Raufman, J. P.



Isolation and purification of glutathione peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretically homogeneous glutathione peroxidase (EC preparation from rat liver with a specific activity of\\u000a 1.46 U\\/mg of protein and a yield of 7.2% was obtained using the purification procedure developed. The K\\u000a M values for reduced glutathione and hydrogen peroxide were 0.033 and 0.208 mM, respectively. The enzymatic reaction had the\\u000a following characteristics: the temperature optimum, 32°C; the pH

K. K. Shulgin; T. N. Popova; T. I. Rakhmanova



Ileal duplication mimicking intestinal intussusception: A congenital condition rarely reported in adult  

PubMed Central

Intestinal duplication is an uncommon congenital condition in young adults. A 25-year-old man complained of chronic, intermittent abdominal pain for 3 years following previous appendectomy for the treatment of suspected appendicitis. Abdominal discomfort and pain, suggestive of intestinal obstruction, recurred after operation. A tubular mass was palpable in the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography enterography scan identified suspicious intestinal intussusception, while Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy revealed a cluster of strip-like abnormal radioactivity in the right lower quadrant. On exploratory laparotomy, a tubular-shaped ileal duplication cyst was found arising from the mesenteric margin of the native ileal segment located 15 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. Ileectomy was performed along with the removal of the duplication disease, and the end-to-end anastomosis was done to restore the gastrointestinal tract continuity. Pathological examination showed ileal duplication with ectopic gastric mucosa. The patient experienced an eventless postoperative recovery and remained asymptomatic within 2 years of postoperative follow-up.

Li, Bing-Lu; Huang, Xin; Zheng, Chao-Ji; Zhou, Jiao-Lin; Zhao, Yu-Pei



Ileal and jejunal absorptive function in patients with AIDS and enterococcidial infection.  


Small intestinal absorptive function was investigated in six patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who had diarrhoea and weight loss. Proximal function was assessed by [14C]Triolein test of fat absorption. Distal function was determined by a test of bile acid absorption in which the loss of radio-labelled synthetic bile acid, 75seleno-23-homocholic acid-taurine ([75Se]HCAT), from the enterohepatic circulation was quantified by abdominal gamma-scanning and by a vitamin B12-intrinsic factor absorption test. Concurrently indirect tests of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth ([14C]glycocholate and breath hydrogen) were carried out. In addition, jejunal histological examination and stool microscopy and culture for enteropathogens were performed. Fat absorption was reduced in all six patients, four of whom had jejunal villous atrophy. Bile acid and vitamin B12 absorption were normal in four subjects. Enteropathogens were not detected in any of the four subjects with normal terminal ileal absorptive function. In contrast, reduced bile acid and vitamin B12 absorption were detected in two of six subjects. Both patients had an enteropathogen (Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora belli) present on stool and jejunal histological examination. Neither subject had evidence of small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth. AIDS patients therefore may have normal ileal absorptive function in the presence of jejunal disease. Infection with Cryptosporidium spp. or I. belli may however, be associated with severe ileal dysfunction. PMID:2384680

Kapembwa, M S; Bridges, C; Joseph, A E; Fleming, S C; Batman, P; Griffin, G E



Efficacy and safety of oral beclomethasone dipropionate for ileal or ileal-right colon Crohn's disease of mild-to-moderate activity or in remission: Retrospective study.  


Although conventional glucocorticosteroids are the main treatments for active Crohn's disease, several problems are associated with steroid dependence and steroid-related adverse events. To assess the efficacy and safety of oral beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) coated tablets in adults with mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease. Thirty-four patients (age 18-70years) with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease confirmed by conventional criteria (barium enema, clinical criteria, colonoscopy, histology) were retrospectively evaluated in the study. All subjects received a treatment schedule with BDP 5-10mg/day for 24weeks. BDP significantly (p=0.005) reduced mean Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score from 169.6 at baseline to 123.2 after 24weeks. Clinical success was evident at 24weeks in 66.7% of patients with initial active disease, and remission was maintained at week 24 in 93.8% of patients with remission at baseline. Overall, female non-smokers had the best response to treatment. BDP was well tolerated and the only adverse events observed were nausea (n=1), facial erythema (n=1) and one patient with raised fasting blood glucose level. These results clearly suggest that oral BDP coated tablets are effective and safe for treatment of mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease of ileal or ileal-right colonic localisation. PMID:17399941

Astegiano, M; Pagano, N; Sapone, N; Simondi, D; Bertolusso, L; Bresso, F; Demarchi, B; Pellicano, R; Bonardi, R; Marconi, S; Rizzetto, M



Efflux of glutathione and glutathione complexes from human erythrocytes in response to vanadate.  


The main objective of the present study was to investigate if vanadate is extruded from the cells in a glutathione dependent manner resulting in the appearance of extracellular glutathione and complexes of glutathione with vanadium. Vanadate significantly depleted intracellular non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The intracellular NPSH level was decreased to 0.0 ± 0.0 ?mol/ml erythrocyte when exposed to 10 mM of vanadate for 4h. Extracellular NPSH level was increased concomitantly with the intracellular decrease and reached to 0.1410 ± 0.005 ?mol/ml erythrocyte in 4h. Intracellular decrease and extracellular increase in NPSH levels were significantly inhibited in the presence of DIDS, a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger which also mediates phosphate and arsenate transport in erythrocytes. In parallel with the increase in extracellular NPSH levels, significant increases in extracellular glutathione levels were detected following exposure to vanadate. Extracellular glutathione levels reached to 0.0150 ± 0.0.001, 0.0330 ± 0.001, and 0.0576 ± 0.002 ?mol/ml erythrocyte with 1, 5, and 10 mM of vanadate respectively. Dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment of supernatants significantly increased the glutathione levels measured in the extracellular media. Utilization of MK571 an MRP inhibitor decreased the rate of glutathione efflux from erythrocytes suggesting a role for this membrane transporter in the process. A known methylation inhibitor periodate oxidized adenosine decreased the rate of glutathione efflux from erythrocytes. This observed decrease in extracellular GSH levels suggests that GSH release partly requires a proper cellular methylation process and that part of GSH detected in the extracellular media may arise from GSH-vandium complexes. The results of the present study indicate that human erythrocyte efflux glutathione in reduced free form and in conjugated form/s that can be recovered with dimercaptosuccinic acid when exposed to vanadate. PMID:22824382

Cakir, Yeliz; Yildiz, Deniz



Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn seed on gastro-duodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats.  


Pongamia pinnata has been advocated in Ayurveda for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions and dyspepsia. The present work includes initial phytochemical screening and study of ulcer protective and healing effects of methanolic extract of seeds of P. pinnata (PPSM) in rats. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of flavonoids in PPSM. PPSM when administered orally (po) showed dose-dependent (12.5-50 mg/kg for 5 days) ulcer protective effects against gastric ulcer induced by 2 h cold restraint stress. Optimal effective dose of PPSM (25 mg/kg) showed antiulcerogenic activity against acute gastric ulcers (GU) induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin and duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine but not against ethanol-induced GU. It healed chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid when given for 5 and 10 days. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters of gastric offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) and defensive mucosal factors like mucin secretion and mucosal cell shedding, glycoproteins, proliferation and antioxidants; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels. PPSM tended to decrease acid output and increased mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins, while it decreased gastric mucosal cell shedding without any effect on cell proliferation. PPSM significantly reversed the increase in gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD levels caused by CRS near to the normal level while it tended to increase CAT and GSH level decreased by CRS and ethanol respectively. Thus, the ulcer protective effects of PPSM may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and the actions may be due to its effects both on mucosal offensive and defensive factors. PMID:19775071

Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, Shalini; Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K



A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Recent evidence shows that subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significantly lower levels of glutathione than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of two commonly used glutathione supplements in subjects diagnosed with an ASD to determine their efficacy in increasing blood glutathione levels in subjects diagnosed with an ASD. Material/Methods The study was an eight-week, open-label trial using oral lipoceutical glutathione (n=13) or transdermal glutathione (n=13) in children, 3–13 years of age, with a diagnosis of an ASD. Subjects underwent pre- and post-treatment lab testing to evaluate plasma reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, cysteine, taurine, free and total sulfate, and whole-blood glutathione levels. Results The oral treatment group showed significant increases in plasma reduced glutathione, but not whole-blood glutathione levels following supplementation. Both the oral and transdermal treatment groups showed significant increases in plasma sulfate, cysteine, and taurine following supplementation. Conclusions The results suggest that oral and transdermal glutathione supplementation may have some benefit in improving some of the transsulfuration metabolites. Future studies among subjects diagnosed with an ASD should further explore the pharmacokinetics of glutathione supplementation and evaluate the potential effects of glutathione supplementation upon clinical symptoms.

Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Audhya, Tapan; Geier, Mark R.



Dietary fibre affects intestinal mucosal barrier function and regulates intestinal bacteria in weaning piglets.  


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fibre source on intestinal mucosal barrier function in weaning piglets. A total of 125 piglets were randomly allotted on the basis of their body weight and litters to one of five experimental diets, i.e. a control diet without fibre source (CT), and diets in which expanded maize was replaced by 10 % maize fibre (MF), 10 % soyabean fibre (SF), 10 % wheat bran fibre (WBF) or 10 % pea fibre (PF). The diets and water were fed ad libitum for 30 d. Piglets on the WBF and PF diets had lower diarrhoea incidence compared with the MF- and SF-fed animals. A higher ratio of villous height:crypt depth in the ileum of WBF-fed piglets and higher colonic goblet cells in WBF- and PF-fed piglets were observed compared with CT-, MF- and SF-fed piglets. In the intestinal digesta, feeding WBF and PF resulted in increased Lactobacillus counts in the ileum and Bifidobacterium counts in the colon. Lower Escherichia coli counts occurred in the ileum and colon of WBF-fed piglets than in SF-fed piglets. Tight junction protein (zonula occludens 1; ZO-1) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene mRNA levels were up-regulated in the ileum and colon of pigs fed WBF; however, feeding MF and SF raised IL-1? and TNF-? mRNA levels. Furthermore, higher diamine oxidase activities, transforming growth factor-?, trefoil factor family and MHC-II concentration occurred when feeding WBF and PF. In conclusion, the various fibre sources had different effects on the ileal and colonic barrier function. Clearly, WBF and PF improved the intestinal barrier function, probably mediated by changes in microbiota composition and concomitant changes in TLR2 gene expression. PMID:23656640

Chen, Hong; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Bing; Huang, Zhiqing; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Daiwen



Secretion of cysteine and glutathione from mucosa to lumen in rat small intestine.  


Using a vascularly perfused rat intestinal preparation, we found that large quantities (i.e., 100-200 microM) of acid-soluble thiols accumulated in the jejunal lumen in 10-30 min and that the accumulation was largely unaffected by dietary food restriction for 24 or 48 h. Depending on the length of perfusion, cysteine comprised 20-40% of total luminal thiols, whereas glutathione (GSH) made up only 0-3%. To determine whether luminal cysteine accumulation resulted from mucosal secretion of GSH and subsequent degradation by brush-border gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and dipeptidases, acivicin or serine-borate was used to inhibit gamma-GT. Both agents inhibited gamma-GT activity by > 95%, reduced luminal cysteine by approximately 40-50%, and caused a modest elevation of luminal GSH to approximately 10-13 microM, indicating that GSH secretion does occur but cannot account for all of the luminal cysteine accumulation. Luminal thiol trapping experiments with Ellman's reagent supported this conclusion. Given that cysteine made up 15-20% of the mucosal thiol pool in jejunum, secretion of cysteine from mucosa to lumen likely accounted for the majority of luminal cysteine. Given the mucolytic nature of thiols and the role of cysteine in iron absorption, intestinal thiol secretion may be important in intestinal function. PMID:7915497

Dahm, L J; Jones, D P



Prolonged hypervolemic hemodilution decreases functional capillary density of ileal mucosa in pigs revealed by sidestream dark-field imaging*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hemodilution changes the physical properties of blood by reducing its hematocrit and blood viscosity. We tested whether prolonged hypervolemic hemodilution (HHD) impairs functional capillary density (FCD) of ileal mucosa in healthy mechanically-ventilated pigs and if there is any correlation between changes in FCD of ileal and sublingual mucosas during HHD. Methods: Sixteen domestic female pigs were anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated, and randomly assigned to the HHD (20 ml/(kg?h) Hartmann’s solution for 3 h) or fluid restrictive (5 ml/(kg?h) Hartmann’s solution for 3 h) group. Microcirculations of sublingual and ileal mucosas via ileostomy were visualized using sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging at baseline conditions (t=0 h) and at selected time intervals of fluid therapy (t=1, 2, and 3 h). Results: A significant decrease of ileal FCD (285 (278–292) cm/cm2) in the HHD group was observed after the third hour of HHD when compared to the baseline (360 (350–370) cm/cm2) (P<0.01). This trend was not observed in the restrictive group, where the ileal mucosa FCD was significantly higher after the third hour of fluid therapy as compared to the HHD group (P<0.01). No correlation between microhemodynamic parameters obtained from sublingual and ileal mucosas was found throughout the study. Conclusions: Prolonged HHD established by crystalloid solution significantly decreased ileal villus FCD when compared to restrictive fluid regimen. An inappropriate degree of HHD can be harmful during uncomplicated abdominal surgery.

Turek, Zdenek; Cerny, Vladimir; Parizkova, Renata; Samek, Jindrich; Oberreiter, Martin



The role of glutathione in mammalian gametes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The paper reviews a recent research on the role of glutathione (GSH) in the male and female germ cells as well as during the early stages of embryo development in mammals. In both the male and female gametes, GSH is involved in the protection of these cells against oxidative damage. Glutathi- one has been implicated in maintaining the meiotic

Zofia Luberda


Glutathione S-transferases in earthworms (Lumbricidae).  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase activity (EC was demonstrated in six species of earthworms of the family Lumbricidae: Eisenia foetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus rebellus, Allolobophora longa, Allolobophora caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica. Considerable activity was obtained with 1-chlorl-2,4-dinitrobenzene and low activity with 3,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene, but no enzymic reaction was detectable with sulphobromophthalein 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane of trans-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one as substrates. Enzyme prepartations from L. rubellus and A. longa were the most active, whereas A. chlorotica gave the lowest activity. The ratio of the activities obtained with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 3,4-cichloro-1-nitrobenzene was very different in the various species, but no phylogenetic pattern was evident. Isoelectric focusing gave rise to various activity peaks as measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate, and the activity profiles of the species examined appeared to follow a taxonomic pattern. The activity of Allolobophora had the highest peak in the alkaline region, whereas that of Lumbricus had the highest peak in the acid region. Eisenia showed a very complex activity profile, with the highest peak ne pH 7. As determined by an enzymic assay, all the species contained glutathione, on an average about 0.5 mumol/g wet wt. Conjugation with glutathione catalysed by glutathione S-transferases may consequently be an important detoxification mechanism in earthworms.

Stenersen, J; Guthenberg, C; Mannervik, B



Five decades with glutathione and the GSTome.  


Uncle Folke inspired me to become a biochemist by demonstrating electrophoresis experiments on butterfly hemolymph in his kitchen. Glutathione became the subject for my undergraduate project in 1964 and has remained a focal point in my research owing to its multifarious roles in the cell. Since the 1960s, the multiple forms of glutathione transferase (GST), the GSTome, were isolated and characterized, some of which were discovered in our laboratory. Products of oxidative processes were found to be natural GST substrates. Examples of toxic compounds against which particular GSTs provide protection include 4-hydroxynonenal and ortho-quinones, with possible links to the etiology of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and other degenerative conditions. The role of thioltransferase and glutathione reductase in the cellular reduction of disulfides and other oxidized forms of thiols was clarified. Glyoxalase I catalyzes still another glutathione-dependent detoxication reaction. The unusual steady-state kinetics of this zinc-containing enzyme initiated model discrimination by regression analysis. Functional properties of the enzymes have been altered by stochastic mutations based on DNA shuffling and rationally tailored by structure-based redesign. We found it useful to represent promiscuous enzymes by vectors or points in multidimensional substrate-activity space and visualize them by multivariate analysis. Adopting the concept "molecular quasi-species," we describe clusters of functionally related enzyme variants that may emerge in natural as well as directed evolution. PMID:22247548

Mannervik, Bengt



Five Decades with Glutathione and the GSTome  

PubMed Central

Uncle Folke inspired me to become a biochemist by demonstrating electrophoresis experiments on butterfly hemolymph in his kitchen. Glutathione became the subject for my undergraduate project in 1964 and has remained a focal point in my research owing to its multifarious roles in the cell. Since the 1960s, the multiple forms of glutathione transferase (GST), the GSTome, were isolated and characterized, some of which were discovered in our laboratory. Products of oxidative processes were found to be natural GST substrates. Examples of toxic compounds against which particular GSTs provide protection include 4-hydroxynonenal and ortho-quinones, with possible links to the etiology of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and other degenerative conditions. The role of thioltransferase and glutathione reductase in the cellular reduction of disulfides and other oxidized forms of thiols was clarified. Glyoxalase I catalyzes still another glutathione-dependent detoxication reaction. The unusual steady-state kinetics of this zinc-containing enzyme initiated model discrimination by regression analysis. Functional properties of the enzymes have been altered by stochastic mutations based on DNA shuffling and rationally tailored by structure-based redesign. We found it useful to represent promiscuous enzymes by vectors or points in multidimensional substrate-activity space and visualize them by multivariate analysis. Adopting the concept “molecular quasi-species,” we describe clusters of functionally related enzyme variants that may emerge in natural as well as directed evolution.

Mannervik, Bengt



Glutathione: an overview of biosynthesis and modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione (GSH; ?-glutamylcysteinylglycine) is ubiquitous in mammalian and other living cells. It has several important functions, including protection against oxidative stress. It is synthesized from its constituent amino acids by the consecutive actions of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. ?-Glutamylcysteine synthetase activity is modulated by its light subunit and by feedback inhibition of the end product, GSH. Treatment with an

Mary E Anderson



Glutathione system in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.  


Glutathione (GSH) forms a part of the antioxidant system that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress, and an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of the GSH system in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Components of the GSH system, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and total GSH content, were measured in the kidneys of 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Systolic blood pressure of SHR was significantly higher from the age of 6 weeks onwards compared with age-matched WKY rats. GPx activity in the SHR was significantly lower from the age of 8 weeks onwards when compared to that in age-matched WKY rats. No significant differences were evident in the GPx-1 protein abundance, and its relative mRNA levels, GR, GST activity, and total GSH content between SHR and age-matched WKY rats. The lower GPx activity suggests of an impairment of the GSH system in the SHR, which might be due to an abnormality in its protein rather than non-availability of a cofactor. Its role in the development of hypertension in SHR however remains unclear. PMID:20680541

Lee, S K; Arunkumar, Sundaram; Sirajudeen, K N S; Singh, H J



Quitting Smoking Raises Whole Blood Glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke contains numerous oxygen free radicals that may be important in smoking-related disease pathogenesis. These free radicals may overwhelm anitoxidant defenses and produce a condition of oxidative stress that can result in damage to DNA and other cellular components. This study investigated whether or not indications of harmful oxidative stress decline following smoking cessation. Changes in whole blood glutathione




[Mechanism of glutathione oxidation by photosensitized retinal].  


Sulphur radicals appearing in the retinal photosensitized glutathione oxidation have been recorded by spin trapping. There is no reaction in the absence of oxygen. That is why the single oxygen is supposed to take part in the reaction (IId type photosensitized reaction). PMID:6326861

Starostin, A V; Fedorovich, I B; Ostrovski?, M A


Epidemiology of Mucosal Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the epidemiology of mucosal human papillomavirs (HPV) in adults and children, its mode of transmission and its associated diseases. Over 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection globally, with high prevalences found in both females and males.

Helen Trottier; Ann N. Burchell



An African perspective on mucosal immunity and HIV-1.  


HIV prevention mandates an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal immunity with attention to some unique features of the epidemic and mucosal environment in the developing world. An effective vaccine will have to induce mucosal protection against a highly diverse virus, which is equipped with a number of immune evasion strategies. Its development will require assessment of mucosal immune responses, and it will have to protect a mucosal environment where inflammation and altered immune responses are common because of the presence of other mucosal infections, such as sexually transmitted infections and parasites, and where nutritional status may also be compromised. Ideally, not only prevention methods would protect adults but also provide cover against gastrointestinal transmission through maternal milk. Prevention might also be complemented by microbicides and circumcision, two alternative approaches to mucosal protection. It seems unlikely that a single solution will work in all instances and intervention might have to act at multiple levels and be tailored to local circumstances. We review here some of the mucosal events associated with HIV infection that are most relevant in an African setting. PMID:19421180

Pala, P; Gomez-Roman, V R; Gilmour, J; Kaleebu, P



Indomethacin and turnover of gastric mucosal cells in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Mucosal morphology and the balance between cell loss and cell renewal were analyzed during treatment with a nonulcerative dose of indomethacin. All rats were treated twice daily by subcutaneous injection of 2 mg/kg indomethacin or the solvent. The following parameters were assessed: cell proliferation on day 3 (determination of in vitro (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation), cell migration on days 1 and 3 (autoradiography), cell shedding on days 7 and 14 (measurement of the remaining DNA-bound mucosal radioactivity after in vivo labeling with (/sup 3/H)thymidine prior to treatment), mucosal morphology on day 14 (light microscopy), ex vivo mucosal prostaglandin E/sub 2/ on day 14, and serum gastrin on days 0, 7, and 14. Indomethacin treatment had no effect on serum gastrin levels but reduced mucosal prostaglandin E/sub 2/. Indomethacin produced a significant increase of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation, cell migration, and loss of mucosal DNA-bound radioactivity in the corpus and, to a lesser degree, in the antrum. Morphologically, this led to a hyperplasia of parietal cells and chief cells in the corpus, but antral morphology remained unchanged. The authors conclude that indomethacin stimulates the turnover of gastric mucosal cells. In the corpus, but not in the antrum, proliferation exceeds shedding, thus leading to increase mucosal volume.

Baumgartner, A.; Koelz, H.R.; Halter, F.



Effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration  

PubMed Central

A chain model was proposed in this study to examine the effects of mucosal loading on vocal fold vibration. Mucosal loading was defined as the loading caused by the interaction between the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue. In the proposed model, the vocal folds and the surrounding tissue were represented by a series of oscillators connected by a coupling spring. The lumped masses, springs, and dampers of the oscillators modeled the tissue properties of mass, stiffness, and viscosity, respectively. The coupling spring exemplified the tissue interactions. By numerically solving this chain model, the effects of mucosal loading on the phonation threshold pressure, phonation instability pressure, and energy distribution in a voice production system were studied. It was found that when mucosal loading is small, phonation threshold pressure increases with the damping constant Rr, the mass constant Rm, and the coupling constant R? of mucosal loading but decreases with the stiffness constant Rk. Phonation instability pressure is also related to mucosal loading. It was found that phonation instability pressure increases with the coupling constant R? but decreases with the stiffness constant Rk of mucosal loading. Therefore, it was concluded that mucosal loading directly affects voice production.

Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.



Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against a mucosal papillomavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papillomaviruses are ubiquitous DNA viruses affecting humans and animals and causing a variety oftumours of mucosal and cutaneous epithelia. Some of these lesions, particularly those affecting mucosal epithelia, can pro- gress to squamous cell carcinomas. Prevention or cure of viral infection would ultimately lead to a decrease in the

M. Saveria Campo; G. Joan Grindlay; Brian W. O'Neil; Lata M. Chandrachud; Gail M. McGarvie; William F. H. Jarrett



Herpes simplex virus and oral mucositis in children with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and oral mucositis was investigated in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. HSV culture was performed in 20 children with stomatitis developing after antineoplastic chemotherapy. Viral isolates were typed and susceptibility to acyclovir was investigated. The virus was isolated from oral lesions in 10 of 20 children with severe oral mucositis. Viral reactivation was the

G. Carrega; E. Castagnola; A. Canessa; P. Argenta; R. Haupt; G. Dini; A. Garaventa



Glutathione Deficiency Decreases Tissue Ascorbate Levels in Newborn Rats: Ascorbate Spares Glutathione and Protects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione deficiency in newborn rats, produced by administration of L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, a transition-state inactivator of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, decreases ascorbate levels of kidney, liver, brain, and lung. These tissues, especially their mitochondria, undergo severe damage and the animals die within a few days. When glutathione levels are markedly decreased, ascorbate levels decrease leading to formation of dehydroascorbate, which is degraded. Ascorbate has

Johannes Mrtensson; Alton Meister



Distribution of macrophages and granulocytes expressing L1 protein (calprotectin) in human Peyer's patches compared with normal ileal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to the cytosolic leucocyte L1 protein (or calprotectin) were examined for reactivity with macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils identified by paired immunofluorescence staining in sections of normal human ileal mucosa, including Peyer's patches. Macrophages were recognised by expression of the myelomonocytic antigen CD68 (monoclonal antibody KP1). Neutrophilic granulocytes were identified by their content of neutrophil elastase, and eosinophilic granulocytes by monoclonal antibody EG2. Virtually all CD68+ macrophages in normal lamina propria and Peyer's patches were L1- and the same was true for most extravasated macrophages in normal peripheral lymph nodes. Some mesenteric lymph nodes, however, and all peripheral lymph nodes with overt pathological processes (malignant lymphoma) contained many CD68+L1+ macrophages. Numerous L1+ cells were also localised to the crypt region and to some extent beneath the villous epithelium in normal lamina propria, but they were mainly identified as EG2+ eosinophils. Such cells were remarkably scarce or absent beneath the follicle associated epithelium in the dome region of Peyer's patches, where CD68+L1- macrophages were abundant. Also subepithelial and interfollicular CD68- interdigitating dendritic cells in Peyer's patches (recognised by antibody to S-100 protein) were usually unreactive with L1 antibody. The L1 protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities in vitro, and its putative antiproliferative properties are interesting in relation to the immunosuppression postulated to take place in lamina propria. The virtual absence of L1 producing cells beneath the follicle associated epithelium in Peyer's patches may support the immunostimulatory function of these macrophage rich structures, which are held to be crucial for induction of specific mucosal immunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Bjerke, K; Halstensen, T S; Jahnsen, F; Pulford, K; Brandtzaeg, P




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glutathione is an intracellular reducing agent that helps maintain the redox potential of the cell and has been shown to be important for immune function. Glutathione levels can be influenced by diet and disease. Glutathione synthesis can be selectively inhibited by the drug, L-buthionine sulfoximi...


Glutathione Deficiency Increases Hepatic Ascorbic Acid Synthesis in Adult Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione deficiency, induced in adult mice by administering buthionine sulfoximine (an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis), led to a rapid and substantial increase in ascorbate in the liver. This effect was apparent 2-4 hr after giving the inhibitor; subsequently, the level of ascorbate decreased and that of dehydroascorbate increased markedly, supporting the conclusion that glutathione functions physiologically to keep ascorbate in

Johannes Martensson; Alton Meister



Prostaglandins and gastric mucosal protection by esaprazole in rats.  


Esaprazole, N-cyclohexyl-1-piperazineacetamide monohydrochloride, was studied for its activity to prevent gastric mucosal damage induced by several necrotizing agents in the rat. Its effects on acid gastric secretion and the role of gastric mucosal prostaglandin generation were also investigated. Esaprazole, given orally, dose dependently prevented the formation of mucosal damage induced by absolute ethanol, 0.2 N NaOH or 0.6 N HCl. This activity occurred at doses lower than the antisecretory doses. Esaprazole was also found to increase the gastric mucosal prostaglandin content but at doses that exceeded the cytoprotective doses. The failure of indomethacin to impair the gastric mucosal protection provided by esaprazole suggests that mechanisms other than mobilization of endogenous prostaglandins may be involved. PMID:2272352

Zuccari, G; Clavenna, G; Sala, A; Viganò, T; Crivellari, M T; Folco, G



Effects of mercury on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas).  


The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate risks of long-term exposure to mercury in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas), with a chemical-analytical approach evaluating median mass fraction of toxic mercury in the hares organs (liver, kidney, muscle and brain). To obtain better insight into possible effects of mercury, the study included screening of the oxidative status after long term exposure to low concentrations of mercury. Hares organs were analyzed for total mercury concentration by AAS. Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes status was also investigated. The median mercury concentrations (wet weight) in the liver, kidney, muscle and brain of the hares ranged from 0.058-0.189, 0.138-0.406, 0.013-0.046 and 0.022-0.102 ?g/g respectively. Concentration of the glutathione (GSH), glutathione-peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-reductase (GR) activity increased with the mercury concentration. However, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity decreased with the mercury concentration. The results of this study show the impact of environmentally absorbed mercury on the antioxidant status of the examined hares. Further research on long-term exposure to low concentrations of mercury is needed. PMID:23705608

Linšak, Željko; Linšak, Dijana Tomi?; Špiri?, Zdravko; Srebo?an, Emil; Glad, Marin; Milin, ?edomila



Identification of a novel determinant of glutathione affinity in dichloromethane dehalogenases/glutathione S-transferases.  


Bacterial dichloromethane dehalogenases catalyze the glutathione-dependent hydrolysis of dichloromethane to formaldehyde and are members of the enzyme superfamily of glutathione S-transferases involved in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds. Numerous protein engineering studies have addressed questions pertaining to the substrate specificity, the reaction mechanism, and the kinetic pathway of glutathione S-transferases. In contrast, the molecular determinants for binding of the glutathione cofactor have been less well investigated. Dichloromethane dehalogenases from Hyphomicrobium sp. DM2 and Methylobacterium sp. DM4 displayed significantly different affinities for glutathione, but not for the dichloromethane substrate. The sequence of dcmA, the dichloromethane dehalogenase gene from strain DM2, was determined and featured a single base difference from the previously determined sequence of dcmA from strain DM4. This base change resulted in a single amino acid difference in the corresponding proteins at sequence position 27. Site-directed variants of the homologous dichloromethane dehalogenase from Methylophilus sp. DM11 (56% amino acid identity) at the corresponding residue in the protein sequence provided further evidence that this residue selectively modulated the dependence of dichloromethane dehalogenase activity on glutathione. PMID:9299530

Vuilleumier, S; Sorribas, H; Leisinger, T



Mucosal immunology down under: Special Interest Group in Mucosal Immunology workshop, Australasian Society for Immunology, Sydney, Australia, 2 December 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group (SIG-MI) of the Australasian Society of Immunology was formed 14 years ago and has run regular symposia and workshops in conjunction with the Australasian Society of Immunology since that time. In December 2007 the Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group held a 1-day satellite workshop in conjunction with the annual Australasian Society of Immunology scientific

Allan W Cripps; Philip Sutton; Ken Beagley; Sarah Robertson; Margaret Dunkley



Oral mucosal morphea: a new variant.  


Morphea is a cutaneous disorder characterized by an excessive collagen deposition. While in almost all cases the sclerosing process exclusively affects the skin, there are anecdotal cases in which associated mucosal involvement has been described. We here report the case of a woman developing a whitish indurated plaque over the left upper vestibular mucosa and hard palate leading to dental mobility and exposure of the roots of several teeth. Cone beam computed tomography of the left maxilla showed bone resorption involving the upper cuspid to the second molar region with widened periodontal ligament spaces, while light microscopy studies demonstrated epithelial atrophy and fibrosis of the dermis extending into the submucosa with hyalinization of subepithelial collagen. Our observation expands the spectrum of clinical presentations of morphea and provides the first example of isolated oral morphea. Its recognition is important to avoid significant local complications. PMID:22538799

Tang, M M; Bornstein, M M; Irla, N; Beltraminelli, H; Lombardi, T; Borradori, L



Mucosal adenovirus-vectored vaccine for measles.  


Several problems associated with the available anti-measles vaccine emphasize the need for a single shot anti-measles vaccine which is efficacious by mucosal route of administration and functional in the presence of anti-measles neutralizing antibodies. To achieve these goals, we constructed two recombinant human adenoviruses (collectively designated Ad-F/H) carrying genes for measles virus (MV) fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) proteins. Single intranasal or intramuscular vaccination of mice and cotton rats with Ad-F/H elicited high MV-specific serum neutralizing-antibody titers. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage samples from mice vaccinated intranasally with Ad-F/H showed a 100-fold increase in MV-specific IgA titers compared with intramuscularly vaccinated mice. Moreover, Ad-F/H vaccine administered intranasally, but not intramuscularly, completely protected challenged cotton rats from MV replication in the lungs. PMID:20887832

Lobanova, Liubov M; Baig, Tayyba T; Tikoo, Suresh K; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N



Monocytes Mediate Mucosal Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Summary Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that causes water and foodborne infections in humans. The parasite infects intestinal enterocytes but also spreads by migration across the epithelial layer and entry into the submucosa. Within the lamina propria, innate immune responses lead to initial parasite control, although the infection disseminates widely and persists chronically despite adaptive immunity. Inflammatory monocytes exit the bone marrow and home to the lamina propria where they express antimicrobial effector functions that control infection. Ablation of the signals for recruitment of inflammatory monocytes in the mouse results in uncontrolled parasite replication, extensive infiltration of neutrophils, intestinal necrosis and rapid death. Inflammatory monocytes play a pivotal role in mucosal immunity against T. gondii, and likely other enteric pathogens.

Dunay, Ildiko R.; Sibley, L. David



Mucosal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, and following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the etiological agent of the disease, it was clear that the virus gains access to the human host predominantly through the mucosal tissue after sexual exposure. As a consequence, the female genital tract (vaginal and cervical), as well as the rectal, penile, and oral mucosae have been extensively studied over the last thirty years towards a better understanding of - and to develop strategies to prevent - sexual HIV transmission. This review seeks to describe the biology of the events leading to HIV infection through the human mucosa and introduce some of the approaches attempted to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

Tebit, Denis M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Weinberg, Aaron; Quinones-Mateu, Miguel E.



Biotransformation of the Fungicide Chlorthalonil by Glutathione Conjugation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotransformation of the nephrotoxic fungicide chlorthalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitril) has been studied in the rat and in rat liver subcellular fractions. In rat liver cytosol, chlorthalonil was rapidly transformed to 4,6-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-2,5-dichloroisophthalonitril in the presence of glutathione in a reaction catalysed by glutathioneS-transferases. 4-(Glutathion-S-yl)-2,5,6-trichloroisiphthalonitril was observed as an intermediate in the glutathione-dependent biotransformation of chlorthalonil. In the bile of rats dosed with

Elisabeth Rosner; Christa Klos; Wolfgang Dekant



Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation.  

PubMed Central

The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is named gastric adaptation. To assess the extent of mucosal damage by aspirin and subsequent adaptation the effects of 14 days of continuous, oral administration of aspirin (2 g per day) to eight healthy male volunteers was studied. To estimate the rate of mucosal damage, gastroscopy was performed before (day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14 of aspirin treatment. Gastric microbleeding and gastric mucosal blood flow were measured using laser Doppler flowmeter and mucosal biopsy specimens were taken for the estimation of tissue DNA synthesis and RNA and DNA concentration. In addition, the activation of neutrophils in peripheral blood was assessed by measuring their ability to associate with platelets. Aspirin induced acute damage mainly in gastric corpus, reaching at day 3 about 3.5 on the endoscopic Lanza score but lessened to about 1.5 at day 14 pointing to the occurrence of gastric adaptation. Mucosal blood flow increased at day 3 by about 50% in the gastric corpus and by 88% in the antrum. The in vitro DNA synthesis and RNA concentration, an index of mucosal growth, were reduced at day 3 but then increased to reach about 150% of initial value at the end of aspirin treatment. It is concluded that the treatment with aspirin in humans induces gastric adaptation to this agent, which entails the increase in mucosal blood flow, the rise in neutrophil activation, and the enhancement in mucosal growth.

Konturek, J W; Dembinski, A; Stoll, R; Domschke, W; Konturek, S J



Ileal and total tract digestibility, and protein and fat balance in pigs fed rice with addition of potato starch, sugar beet pulp or wheat bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repeated 4×4 Latin square design was performed with eight ileal cannulated castrates to study the effect of source of starch and fibre on apparent ileal and faecal digestibility, and crude protein (CP) and fat balance. The experimental diets were based on cooked rice (C) and cooked rice with addition of raw potato starch (P), sugar beet pulp (S) and

J. F Wang; B. B Jensen; H Jørgensen; D. F Li; J. E Lindberg



Complete glutathione system in probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3.  


There is much information about glutathione (GSH) in eukaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about GSH in prokaryotes. Without GSH and glutathione redox cycle lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cannot protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Previously we have shown the presence of GSH in Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (DSM14241). Results of this study show that probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 contains both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. We also present that L. fermentum ME-3 can transport GSH from environment and synthesize GSH. This means that it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover ability that makes L. fermentum ME-3 a perfect protector against oxidative stress. To our best knowledge studies on existence of the complete glutathione system in probiotic LAB strains are still absent and glutathione synthesis in them has not been demonstrated. PMID:21058502

Kullisaar, T; Songisepp, E; Aunapuu, M; Kilk, K; Arend, A; Mikelsaar, M; Rehema, A; Zilmer, M


Enzymes catalysing conjugations of glutathione with ??-unsaturated carbonyl compounds  

PubMed Central

1. Heat-inactivation experiments, ammonium sulphate-fractionation studies, enzyme-inhibition studies with S-(??-diethoxycarbonylethyl)glutathione, and evidence from the distribution of activities in rat liver, in rat kidney and in the livers of other animals, indicate that reactions of glutathione with (i) trans-benzylideneacetone, (ii) cyclohex-2-en-1-one, (iii) trans-cinnamaldehyde, (iv) diethyl maleate, (v) diethyl fumarate and (vi) 2,3-dimethyl-4-(2-methylenebutyryl)phenoxyacetic acid are catalysed by different enzymes. 2. Evidence is presented that the enzymes catalysing the reactions of glutathione with substrates (i)–(iv) are different from glutathione S-alkyltransferase, S-aryltransferase and S-epoxidetransferase. 3. The name `glutathione S-alkenetransferases' is proposed for enzymes catalysing reactions of glutathione with ??-unsaturated compounds. 4. The Arrenhius plot for the enzyme-catalysed reaction of diethyl maleate with glutathione is discontinuous, with lower energy of activation at 38°.

Boyland, E.; Chasseaud, L. F.



Anethole dithiolethione prevents oxidative damage in glutathione-depleted astrocytes.  


Astrocytes protect neurons against reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, a capacity which reportedly is abolished following loss of the antioxidant glutathione. Anethole dithiolethione, a sulfur-containing compound which is used in humans, is known to increase cellular glutathione levels and thought thereby to protect against oxidative damage. In the present study we found that anethole dithiolethione increased the glutathione content of cultured rat striatal astrocytes. This effect was abolished by coincubation with the glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine. Nevertheless, in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine, despite the lack of an increase in the lowered glutathione level, anethole dithiolethione fully protected the astrocytes against the enhanced toxicity of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, apparently other mechanisms than stimulation of glutathione synthesis are involved in the compound's protective action in astrocytes. Considering the occurrence of lowered glutathione levels in neurodegenerative syndromes, we conclude that further evaluation of the therapeutic potential of anethole dithiolethione is warranted. PMID:9226421

Drukarch, B; Schepens, E; Stoof, J C; Langeveld, C H



Irsogladine maleate may preserve gastric mucosal hydrophobicity against ethanol in phospholipids independent way in rats.  


Irsogladine maleate (IM) has been used as a mucosal protective agent, whose action is partially explained as enhancement of mucosal blood flow, increase of cellular cyclic AMP and facilitation of gap-junctional intercellular communication. Effect of IM on rat gastric mucosal hydrophobicity, one of the mucosal barrier properties, was investigated, in comparison with that of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2). IM alone had no effect on mucosal hydrophobicity and mucosal phospholipids content. dmPGE2 alone did not change mucosal hydrophobicity significantly, but remarkably increased mucosal surface-active phospholipids. Intragastric administration of absolute ethanol significantly decreased gastric mucosal hydrophobicity and mucosal phospholipids content. IM could prevent the decrease in mucosal hydrophobicity by ethanol, maintaining the surface mucus gel layer and mucosal surface phospholipids almost as non-damaged control levels, whereas dmPGE2 also prevented the decrease in mucosal hydrophobicity by ethanol, with the surface epithelium being partially exfoliated and mucosal surface-active phospholipids showing remarkable enhancement. These results suggest that IM may preserve gastric mucosal hydrophobicity against ethanol, not through enhancement of mucosal phospholipids content like prostaglandin, but possibly through its reported stabilization action to the epithelial cell lining, which may preserve the surface epithelium with the mucous gel layer containing surface-active phospholipids, a possible origin of mucosal hydrophobicity. PMID:9749930

Tatsumi, Y; Tanino, M; Kodama, T; Kashima, K; Katsura, M; Okuma, S



Epstein-Barr virus-positive ileal extraosseous plasmacytoma containing plasmablastic lymphoma components with CD20-positive lymph node involvement  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive ileal extraosseous plasmacytoma containing plasmablastic lymphoma components with CD20-positive lymph node involvement. A 34-year-old healthy Japanese male developed intussusception due to an ileal plasmacytoma. The lesion was positive for EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA in in situ hybridization, with the surrounding lymph nodes showing the expression of CD20. Tumor cells in the ileal and lymph node lesions contained high-grade malignant features compatible with plasmablastic lymphoma. Because his abdominal lymph nodes recurred 6 months after resection, he received six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone), and had a complete remission. Although his case was complicated by acute promyelocytic leukemia, he has so far survived, recurrence-free, for more than 7.5 years after chemotherapy for extraosseous plasmacytoma.

Saito, Makoto; Morioka, Masanobu; Izumiyama, Ko; Mori, Akio; Irie, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Masanori; Matsuno, Yoshihiro



Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium  

SciTech Connect

Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.



Th17 cytokines in mucosal immunity and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the review Compelling evidence suggests that the Th17 lineage and other IL-17 producing cells play critical roles in host defense against pathogens at mucosal sites. However, IL-17 can also contribute to inflammatory responses at mucosal sites. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress in our understanding of the role of Th17 and other IL-17-producing cells in defining the fine balance between immunity and inflammation at different mucosal sites. Recent Findings Recent findings have highlighted that Th17 cytokines are important for the induction of innate and adaptive host responses and contribute to host defense against pathogens at mucosal sites. More recent developments have probed how the Th17 responses are generated in vivo in response to infections and their requirement in maintaining barrier function at mucosal sites. Most importantly, it is becoming apparent that there is a fine balance between protective and pathological manifestation of Th17 responses at mucosal sites that defines immunity or inflammation. Summary In this review we have summarized the recent advances in our understanding of Th17 cytokines and how they contribute to immunity versus inflammation at mucosal sites.

Guglani, Lokesh; Khader, Shabaana A.



Advanced control of glutathione fermentation process.  


A study was performed to understand the fermentation process for production of glutathione fermentation (GSH) with an improved strain of baker's yeast. Simultaneous utilization of sugar and ethanol has been found to be a key factor in the industrial process to produce GSH using Saccharomyces cerevisiae KY6186. Based on this observation, the optimal sugar feed profile for the fed-batch operation has been determined. A feedforward/feedback control system was developed to regulate the sugar feed rate so as to maximize GSH production yields. Using the feedforward/feedback control system and the on-line data of oxygen and ethanol concentration in exhaust gas, the successful scaleup to the production level was accomplished. An average of 40% improvement of glutathione production compared to a conventionally programmed control of exponential fed-batch operation was found in the new process. PMID:18601197

Sakato, K; Tanaka, H



Glutathione and ?-glutamylcysteine in hydrogen peroxide detoxification.  


Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important regulator of cell redox status and signaling pathways. However, if produced in excess, it can trigger oxidative damage, which can be counteracted by the antioxidant systems. Amongst these, the glutathione (GSH) precursor, ?-glutamylcysteine (?GC), has recently been shown to detoxify H2O2 in a glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1)-dependent fashion. To analyze how both ?GC and GSH reduce H2O2, we have taken advantage of a colorimetric assay that allows simple and reliable quantification of H2O2 in the micromolar range. Whereas most assays rely on coupled enzymatic reactions, this method determines the formation of a ferric thiocyanate derivative after direct Fe(2+) oxidation by H2O2. Here, we detail the procedure and considerations to determine H2O2 reduction by both ?GC and GSH, either from cell samples or in vitro reactions with purified enzymes from GSH metabolism. PMID:23830629

Quintana-Cabrera, Ruben; Bolaños, Juan P



Synchronous association of rectal adenocarcinoma and three ileal carcinoids: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Synchronous midgut carcinoids with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma are a rare but recognised association. Case presentation The patient, a 74 year old woman, underwent anterior resection for a low rectal adenocarcinoma. Intra-operatively 3 serosal deposits of tumour were noted in the distal ileum. Histology revealed these to be ileal carcinoids. Conclusion During resection of a gastrointestinal tumour, a thorough inspection of the abdominal cavity should be undertaken to investigate the possibility of metastatic secondaries or a synchronous tumour as is reported in this case.

McHugh, Seamus M; O'Donnell, Jill; Gillen, Peter



Corticotropin-releasing hormone acts on guinea pig ileal smooth muscle via protein kinase A  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contraction studies corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was found to relax ileal but not gastric and jejunal smooth muscles\\u000a of the guinea-pig, precontracted with BaCl2. Under whole-cell patch-clamp conditions, CRH concentration-dependently activated Ca2+-sensitive K+ currents (I\\u000a K) with ED50=20 pM at 100 nM and ED50=0.13 pM at 500 nM intracellular Ca2+ respectively. This increase was accompanied by significant hyperpolarization of the

D. B. Duridanova; P. S. Petkova-Kirova; L. T. Lubomirov; H. Gagov; K. Boev



Delayed ileal-ileocystoplasty fistula formation: an unusual complication of augmentation enterocystoplasty.  


Augmentation enterocystoplasty is a successful treatment for patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Delayed spontaneous bladder rupture is a serious recognised complication of the procedure; however, to our knowledge, delayed fistula formation between the neobladder and the gastrointestinal tract has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 21-year-old male who presented with chronic diarrhoea resulting from an ileal-ileocystoplasty fistula 10 years following a successful augmentation enterocystoplasty. Fistula formation is a possible complication of this procedure, and a high index of suspicion is required for patients presenting with diarrhoea who have previously undergone bladder augmentation surgery. PMID:21855415

Lin, Siying; Hagger, Robert W; Renani, Seyed M Ameli; Chung, Eric A L



A previously diagnosed mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy patient presenting with perforated ileal diverticulitis.  


Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized clinically by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility; cachexia; ptosis, opthalmoparesis or both; peripheral neuropathy; leukoencephalopathy and mitochondrial abnormalities in muscle. Gastrointestinal dysmotility causes intestinal pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal diverticula. In this case report, we present a previously diagnosed 32-year-old female mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy syndrome patient who was hospitalized and operated due to ileal diverticulitis perforation and died due to postoperative respiratory complications, and we discuss the characteristic manifestations of the disease. PMID:16547854

Aksoy, Fikret; Demirel, Gökhan; Bilgiç, Tayfun; Güngör, Ibrahim Gürhan; Ozçelik, Alp



Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) Score, a Good Alternative Instrument for Measuring Quality of Life in Patients with Ileal Urinary Diversions  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the use of the SIP score and the quality of life impairment in patients with ileal conduit and orthotropic ileal derivations by Hautmann and AbolEnein/Ghoneim. Methods: Prospectively evaluated 146 patients in different age groups. In 66 patients ileal conduit derivation was performed, in 20 patients orthotropic derivation using Hautman technique was recorded and in 20 of them AbolEnein/Ghoneim was used. Prior to examining patients with urinary diversions, 40 patients with minor urological symptoms not requiring any active treatment, were surveyed in order to validate SIP score. Six months after the operation, all patients with urinary diversions filled the SIP score questionnaire. Results: Using Crombach’s Alpha equation the high reliability of SIP questionnaire was proven. Average scale value was 0,93. Using descriptive statistics mean values of all categories and dimensions of the SIP questionnaire of examined patients were determined, calculated according to the questionnaire manual being converted to percentage. Total value of SIP score for the ileal conduit group was 34,76% and in orthotropic derivation 18,52% respectively. For Hautmann procedure total SIP score was 18,35% and for AbolEnein/Ghoneim 18,7%. In the control group total SIP score was 9%. The most influential dimensions on the total score of ileal conduit were physical and psycho-social, while independent dimension did not significantly influent total SIP score. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the lack of questionnaires on quality of life for urinary derivations, SIP score as a general disease influence to the quality of life questionnaire represents a reliable alternative for objectification and quantification of the quality of life upon urinary derivation. According to this instrument, orthotropic derivations provide significantly better quality of life compared to ileal conduit.

Prcic, Alden; Aganovic, Damir; Hadziosmanovic, Osman



Gastrin induction of protein synthesis in isolated gastric mucosal cells  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of isolated rat gastric mucosal cells to 10/sup -10/ and 10/sup -9/ M gastrin for 2 hr significantly stimulated (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporation into protein by 100 and 212%, respectively, when compared with the basal levels. Doses beyond 10/sup -9/ M lowered the maximal stimulatory effect of the hormone. Gastrin (10/sup -9/ M) specifically stimulated the synthesis of five proteins in isolated gastric mucosal cells with apparent molecular weights of 105, 76, 71, 63, and 54 kDa. Actinomycin-D completely abolished the gastrin-mediated stimulation of protein synthesis in isolated gastric mucosal cells.

Majumdar, A.N.; Edgerton, E.



Prevention and management of antineoplastic therapy induced oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

With the scientific advancements in the management of malignant diseases, the treatment is expensive and bears high morbidity in term of oral mucositis. It is a debilitating condition and has been researched extensively for its pathogenesis and treatment. Various treatment options include barrier forming, mucosal protectants, mouth rinses, growth factors, lasers and midline-sparing procedures. Some agents are used locally while others are administered systemically. Despite the availability of a wide range of treatment options for mucositis, a cost-effective treatment is yet to be evolved.

Bey, Afshan; Ahmed, Syed S.; Hussain, Bilal; Devi, Seema; Hashmi, Sarwat H.



New Insights into Mechanism of Inflammatory and Allergic Diseases in Mucosal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal immune system is a major component of the mucosal barrier to foreign antigens including microbial and dietary antigens. Under normal circumstances, the mucosal immune system employs tightly regulated dynamic mucosal intra- and internets for the maintenance of an appropriate immunological balance between the host and gut environments. For example, mucosally induced tolerance is usually induced against enteric commensal

Mi-Na Kweon; Ichiro Takahashi; Hiroshi Kiyono



Uptake through glycoprotein 2 of FimH+ bacteria by M cells initiates mucosal immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal immune system forms the largest part of the entire immune system, containing about three-quarters of all lymphocytes and producing grams of secretory IgA daily to protect the mucosal surface from pathogens. To evoke the mucosal immune response, antigens on the mucosal surface must be transported across the epithelial barrier into organized lymphoid structures such as Peyer's patches. This

Koji Hase; Kazuya Kawano; Tomonori Nochi; Gemilson Soares Pontes; Shinji Fukuda; Masashi Ebisawa; Kazunori Kadokura; Toru Tobe; Yumiko Fujimura; Sayaka Kawano; Atsuko Yabashi; Satoshi Waguri; Gaku Nakato; Shunsuke Kimura; Takaya Murakami; Mitsutoshi Iimura; Kimiyo Hamura; Shin-Ichi Fukuoka; Anson W. Lowe; Kikuji Itoh; Hiroshi Kiyono; Hiroshi Ohno



Treatment of joint pain in Crohn's patients with budesonide controlled ileal release.  


1. Joint pain is a frequent manifestation of Crohn's disease. Budesonide controlled ileal release (CIR) is a predominantly topically acting glucocorticosteroid, which is effective in treating active ileal or ileocaecal Crohn's disease. 2. Therefore, it was of interest to study the effect of this predominantly topically acting therapy on the treatment of an extraintestinal symptom of Crohn's disease by analysing data collected from budesonide CIR (Entocort; Astra Draco AB, Lund, Sweden) trials. 3. Three large studies of budesonide CIR treatment in active Crohn's disease provided a reliable source of clinical data. Of the 611 patients treated in the prospective double-blind controlled trials, 291 had joint pain (arthritis/arthralgia) at entry, which was recorded as part of the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. Statistical analysis was based on all patients treated, provided that the patient had joint pain at the start of treatment. 4. Daily oral budesonide CIR (9mg) resulted in clinical remission of joint pain in 74% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 67-82%) of patients. This outcome was nearly twice as good as placebo (41%; 95% CI 34-57%) and as good as the outcome effected by daily oral prednisolone (40mg; 72%; 95% CI 60-84%). The favourable response to budesonide CIR (9 mg) did not correlate with glucocorticosteroid-associated side effects or with adrenal suppression, which were half those in the prednisolone (40 mg/day) group. 5. The favourable outcome may relate to restitution of normal intestinal immune function. PMID:10779128

Florin, T H; Graffner, H; Nilsson, L G; Persson, T



Ileocolic intussusception due to giant ileal lipoma: Review of literature and report of a case  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Intussusception in adults accounts for less than 5% of all intussusceptions. It occurs when a segment of intestine invaginates into itself. PRESENTATION OF A CASE We report a case of ileocolic intussusception in an adult caused by a giant ileal lipoma. DISCUSSION Intussusceptions can be classified as ileocolic, ileocecal, colo-colic and ileo-ileal. Most are due to neoplasms (60% malign and 24–40% benign). In the colon, the possibility of malignancy is higher than in small intestine. Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal intestinal tumors, accounting for less than 5% of all gastrointestinal tumors. They are more frequent in colon than small intestine. Small lipomas (less than 2 cm) are usually asymptomatic. Larger lesions may produce symptoms such as abdominal pain, obstruction or intussusception. Lipomas can be diagnosed with endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, barium enemas, CT and US. CONCLUSION Intussusceptions in adults is a rare condition, most of them are caused by a malign neoplasms followed by benign neoplasms. US and CT are useful for diagnosis. Surgery is mandatory.

Minaya Bravo, Ana Maria; Vera Mansilla, Cristina; Noguerales Fraguas, Fernando; Granell Vicent, Francisco Javier



Mechanism of cadmium-induced contraction in ileal longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig.  

PubMed Central

1 The mechanism of cadmium (Cd2+)-induced contraction was studied in isolated ileal longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig. 2 CdCl2 (1x10(-8) to 1x10-4M)) caused a transient contraction which subsided within approximately 6 min of application. The contraction was reproducible and dependent on the concentration. The dose-response curve was bell-shaped. A maximal response was observed at concentrations of 5x10(-6) to 1x10(-5) M. 3 The contractile effect was inhibited to some degree at 20 degree C or by tetrodotoxin (0.1 microgram/ml), hyoscine (o.1 microgram/ml), but completely inhibited by Ca2+ -removal from the medium. 4 Cd2+ increased the output of [14C]-acetylcholine biosynthesized from [14C] by the preparation depending on the concentration. The increase terminated within the first 6 min and was reduced by tetrodotoxin (0.1 microgram/ml) or by removal of Ca2+ from the medium. 5 Both the contractile and transmitter releasing effects of Cd2+ were dependent on the concentration of external Ca2+. Strontium ions were able to replace Ca2+ -induced transmitter release. 6 It is suggested that Cd2+ contracts ileal longitudinal muscle through a release of cholinergic transmitter from the parasympathetic nerve terminals, which is dependent on external Ca2+. It also has a smaller hyoscine-resistant contractile effect, presumably due to a direct action on smooth muscle cells.

Asai, F.; Nishimura, M.; Satoh, E.; Urakawa, N.



Robotic Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Formation: Initial Experience from a Single UK Centre  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe our technique of robotic intracorporeal ileal conduit formation (RICIC) during robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). To report our initial results of this new procedure. Patients and Methods. Seven male and one female patients underwent RARC with RICIC over a six-month period. Demographic, operative, and outcome data was collected prospectively. Median patient age was 75 years (range 62–78 years). Median followup was 9 months (range 7–14 months). Results. RARC with RICIC was performed successfully in all eight patients. The median total operating time was 360 minutes (range 310–440 minutes) with a median blood loss of 225?mL (range 50–1000?mL). The median length of stay was nine days (range 6–34 days). Four patients (50%) were discharged within seven days. Four patients (50%) experienced one or more complications. This included two Clavien I complications, two Clavien II complications, and two Clavien III complications. Two patients (25%) required transfusion of two units each. To date, there have been no complications associated with the ileal conduit. Conclusion. Whilst being technically challenging, this procedure is safe, feasible, and reproducible. Patients who avoid complication show potential for rapid recovery and early discharge.

Bishop, Conrad V.; Adshead, James M.



Characteristics of lipid substances activating the ileal brake in the rat.  


Studies were carried out in 36 adult male rats to determine the characteristics of lipid substances which, after infusion into the ileum, slow the stomach to caecum transit time of the head of a bean meal in the rat. Stomach to caecum transit time was measured by environmental hydrogen analysis. Ileal infusion of a range of free fatty acids including petroselinic, oleic, myristoleic, erucic, linoleic, and linolenic all significantly slowed stomach to caecum transit time, as did the detergents (sodium bis (2-ethyl hexyl) sulphosuccinate and sodium linoleyl sulphate), the triglyceride corn oil, and the phospholipid lecithin. Although the lipid soluble deconjugated bile acid deoxycholic acid slowed stomach to caecum transit time, the water soluble conjugated bile acid taurocholic acid accelerated it. Infusion of the lipid alcohol oleyl alcohol and the calcium chelating agent disodium edetate (EDTA) into the ileum did not delay the passage of the meal through the stomach and small intestine. The diversity of lipid substances activating the ileal brake suggest a nonspecific effect by lipid soluble substances that can penetrate cell membranes. The lack of effect of EDTA suggested that calcium binding was not important. PMID:2128071

Brown, N J; Read, N W; Richardson, A; Rumsey, R D; Bogentoft, C



Natural course of Crohn's disease after ileocolic resection: endoscopically visualised ileal ulcers preceding symptoms.  

PubMed Central

Forty two Crohn's disease patients were followed up after ileocolic resection with regard to symptoms and endoscopic appearance of the ileocolic anastomosis. Twenty eight patients resected because of colonic neoplasm served as controls. In all the Crohn's disease patients the ileal resection margin was disease free macroscopically at operation. In addition, intraoperative ileoscopy was performed in 13 and no sign of residual inflammation in the neoterminal ileum was seen. Endoscopy soon after surgery often showed preanastomotic ileal ulceration before symptoms appeared, whereas no anastomotic lesions were observed in the controls. Thus, 22 of 30 Crohn's disease patients examined had ulceration of the anastomotic area after three months, but only 10 had developed symptoms indicating relapse (73 v 33%). Corresponding figures in the 30 patients examined after one year were 93 v 37%, and in 14 patients after three years they were 100 and 86% respectively. The inflammatory lesions in all cases were preanastomotic, in the neoterminal ileum, and showed time related progression from aphthae to larger ulcers and stricture. The study suggests that endoscopically observed inflammatory lesions that appear soon after ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease signify new inflammation and not residual, persistent disease or incomplete anastomotic healing. The data further suggest that despite clinical remission after apparently radical intestinal resection, the bowel is permanently inflamed in Crohn's disease.

Olaison, G; Smedh, K; Sjodahl, R



Laser Doppler measurement of rectal mucosal blood flow  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Gut mucosal blood flow measurement is used to study a variety of disorders and possibly extrinsic neural function.?AIMS—To determine optimal measurement criteria and validate this technique as a measure of level of activity of extrinsic autonomic gut innervation.?METHODS—In 26 healthy volunteers a laser Doppler mucosal probe was applied 10 cm from the anus. Response to inhaled salbutamol 200 µg and ipratropium 40 µg, intravenous metoprolol 2.5 mg, and direct sacral nerve electrostimulation (in nine incontinent patients) was also studied.?RESULTS—The coefficient of variation for subjects studied under identical conditions on two, three, and four days was 0.06, 0.05, and 0.06, respectively. Mean mucosal blood flow increased after a standard meal. Blood flow decreased for 15 minutes after smoking and returned to baseline at 30 minutes. Fasted measurements at 0900, 1200, 1600, and 2200 were similar. There was a negative correlation between blood flow and body size but not age. Follicular phase mucosal flow was less and more reproducible than luteal. Mucosal blood flow was highest in men and lowest in postmenopausal women. Inhaled salbutamol did not change blood flow; ipratropium significantly reduced, and metoprolol and sacral nerve stimulation increased flow.?CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of gut mucosal blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry is highly reproducible. Eating, smoking, body size, sex, ovulatory status, and menstrual phase influence blood flow. Changes in mucosal blood flow induced by autonomically active drugs and nerve stimulation confirm the role of the mucosal microcirculation as a measure of extrinsic nerve activity.???Keywords: laser Doppler flowmetry; rectum; autonomic nervous system; blood flow

Emmanuel, A; Kamm, M



Simultaneous in vivo measurements of intranasal air and mucosal temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal cavity volume and blood temperature along the nasal airways, reflecting the mucosal temperature, are considered to be\\u000a the most important predictors of nasal air conditioning. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously in vivo measure intranasal\\u000a air as well as mucosal temperature for the first time. Fifteen healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. Two combined\\u000a miniaturized thermocouples

Kerstin Wiesmiller; Tilman Keck; Richard Leiacker; Jörg Lindemann



Alanine and Sodium Fluxes Across Mucosal Border of Rabbit Ileum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Unidirectional influxes of L-alanine and Na from the mucosal solution into the epithelium of in vitro rabbit ileum have been determined. In the presence of 140 mM Na, alanine influx is approximately 2.2 izmoles\\/hr cm ~, but is inhibited if the NaC1 in the mucosal solution is replaced by choline C1, Tris-Cl,




Development of Palifermin (rHuKGF) for Mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucositis is a painful adverse event caused by chemo- and\\/or radiation therapy in cancer patients. It occurs in about 40%\\u000a of patients receiving chemoradiotherapy and can have profound effects on their quality of life and treatment protocol. Mucositis\\u000a patients are more susceptible to infections and frequently require longer hospital stays, which lead to significant increases\\u000a in medical costs. At present,

Ping Wei; Catherine L. Farrell


Colonic mucosal abnormalities associated with oral sodium phosphate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oral sodium phosphate (NaP) is increasingly used as a colonic cleansing agent for colonoscopy. It has been shown to be efficacious, well-tolerated, and safe. Mucosal abnormalities associated with NaP have recently been described. We carried out this controlled study to assess whether bowel cleansing preparations commonly used in colonoscopy are associated with colonic mucosal changes that may mimic inflammatory

Felice R. Zwas; Nicholas W. Cirillo; Hashem B. El-Serag; Richard N. Eisen



Dendritic Cells at the Oral Mucosal Interface  

PubMed Central

The mucosal lining of the respiratory and digestive systems contains the largest and most complex immune system in the body, but surprisingly little is known of the immune system that serves the oral mucosa. This review focuses on dendritic cells, particularly powerful arbiters of immunity, in response to antigens of microbial or tumor origin, but also of tolerance to self-antigens and commensal microbes. Although first discovered in 1868, the epidermal dendritic Langerhans cells remained enigmatic for over a century, until they were identified as the most peripheral outpost of the immune system. Investigators’ ability to isolate, enrich, and culture dendritic cells has led to an explosion in the field. Presented herein is a review of dendritic cell history, ontogeny, function, and phenotype, and the role of different dendritic cell subsets in the oral mucosa and its diseases. Particular emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of recognition and capture of microbes by dendritic cells. Also emphasized is how dendritic cells may regulate immunity/tolerance in response to oral microbes.

Cutler, C.W.; Jotwani, R.



Basics of GI Physiology and Mucosal Immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The intestine has the largest mucosal surface interfacing with external environment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Tight junctions are pivotal in intestinal barrier function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) serves to prevent harmful antigens from reaching systemic circulation as well as inducing\\u000a immune tolerance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Intestinal microbiota surpasses the human genome by 140-fold and is critical in the development of GALT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

Alessio Fasano; Terez Shea-Donohue


Glutathione-Enhancing Agents Protect against Steatohepatitis in a Dietary Model  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and steatohepatitis (NASH) may accompany obesity, diabetes, parenteral nutrition, jejeuno-ileal bypass, and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Currently there is no FDA approved and effective therapy available. We investigated the potential efficacy of those agents that stimulate glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis on the development of experimental steatohepatitis. Rats fed (ad libitum) amino acid based methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet were further gavaged with (1) vehicle (MCD), (2) S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), or (3) 2(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (PTCA). Results: MCD diet significantly reduced hematocrit, and this abnormality improved in the treated groups (p < 0.01). Serum transaminases were considerably elevated (AST: 5.8-fold; ALT: 3.22-fold) in MCD rats. However, administration of GSH-enhancing agents significantly suppressed these abnormal enzyme activities. MCD rats developed severe liver pathology manifested by fatty degeneration, inflammation, and necrosis, which significantly improved with therapy. Blood levels of GSH were significantly depleted in MCD rats but normalized in the treated groups. Finally, RT-PCR measurements showed a significant upregulation of genes involved in tissue remodeling and fibrosis (matrix metalloproteinases, collagen-?1), suppressor of cytokines signaling1, and the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and TGF-?) in the livers of rats fed MCD. GSH-enhancing therapies significantly attenuated the expression of deleterious proinflammatory and fibrogenic genes in this dietary model. This is the first report that oral administration of SAMe and PTCA provide protection against liver injury in this model and suggests therapeutic applications of these compounds in NASH patients.

Im, Hee-Jeong; Chen, Theresa S.; de Villiers, Willem J. S.; McClain, Craig J.



Oral mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study Oral mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the oral mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. Material and methods The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The condition of the oral mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for oral mucositis. Results In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the oral mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of oral mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the oral mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and oral ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. Oral mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Conclusion Local treatment of oral mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood conditions in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the condition of the oral mucosa.



Differential Expression of HIF-1? in Skin and Mucosal Wounds  

PubMed Central

Despite accelerated epithelial closure, oral mucosal wounds exhibit lower levels of VEGF and a more refined angiogenic response than do skin wounds. The specific differences in angiogenesis suggest that skin and oral mucosal wounds may experience dissimilar levels of hypoxia and HIF-1?. Using a model of comparable wounds on murine dorsal skin and tongue, we determined levels of hypoxia and HIF-1?. Skin wounds were found to be significantly more hypoxic and had higher levels of HIF-1? than mucosal wounds. Furthermore, under stressed conditions, skin wounds, but not mucosal wounds, exhibited a further elevation of HIF-1? beyond that of non-stressed levels. To determine if manipulation of oxygen levels might equalize the repair response of each tissue, we exposed mice to hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) following wounding. HBOT did not significantly change HIF-1? or VEGF expression in either skin or mucosal wounds, nor did it alter wound bed vascularity. These studies suggest that skin wounds have higher levels of hypoxia than do mucosal wounds, along with a differential expression of HIF-1?. Interestingly, modulation of oxygen by HBOT does not ameliorate this difference. These results suggest that differential responses to hypoxia may underlie the distinctive wound-healing phenotypes seen in skin and oral mucosa.

Chen, L.; Gajendrareddy, P.K.; DiPietro, L.A.



Gastroprotection Studies of Schiff Base Zinc (II) Derivative Complex against Acute Superficial Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. Methodology/Principal Finding The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v), orally. Ethanol (95% v/v) was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10?5 M/kg) was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II) complex (2.181×10?5 and 4.362×10?5 M/kg) protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10?5 M/kg). Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism.

Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hadi, A. Hamid A; Majid, Nazia Abdul



Randomized prospective trial comparing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by excising the anal mucosa to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by preserving the anal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to compare the results of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients in whom the anal mucosa is excised by handsewn techniques to those in whom the mucosa is preserved using stapling techniques. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis requiring proctocolectomy. Controversy exists over whether preserving the transitional mucosa of the anal canal improves outcomes. METHODS: Forty-one patients (23 men, 18 women) were randomized to either endorectal mucosectomy and handsewn IPAA or to double-stapled IPAA, which spared the anal transition zone. All patients were diverted for 2 to 3 months. Nine patients were excluded. Preoperative functional status was assessed by questionnaire and anal manometry. Twenty-four patients underwent more extensive physiologic evaluation, including scintigraphic anopouch angle studies and pudendel never terminal motor latency a mean of 6 months after surgery. Quality of life similarly was estimated before surgery and after surgery. Univariate analysis using Wilcoxon test was used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: The two groups were identical demographically. Overall outcomes in both groups were good. Thirty-three percent of patients who underwent the handsewn technique and 35% of patients who underwent the double-stapled technique experienced a postoperative complication. Resting anal canal pressures were higher in the patients who underwent the stapled technique, but other physiologic parameters were similar between groups. Night-time fecal incontinence occurred less frequently in the stapled group but not significantly. The number of stools per 24 hours decreased from preoperative values in both groups. After IPAA, quality of life improved promptly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Stapled IPAA, which preserves the mucosa of the anal transition zone, confers no apparent early advantage in terms of decreased stool frequency or fewer episodes of fecal incontinence compared to handsewn IPAA, which excises the mucosa. Higher resting pressures in the stapled group coupled with a trend toward less night-time incontinence, however, may portend better function in the stapled group over time. Both operations are safe and result in rapid and profound improvement in quality of life.

Reilly, W T; Pemberton, J H; Wolff, B G; Nivatvongs, S; Devine, R M; Litchy, W J; McIntyre, P B



Catabolism of Glutathione Conjugates in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine) increases tolerance to chloroacetanilide herbicides in rice by enhancing the expression of detoxifying glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Fenclorim also enhances GSTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, and while investigating the functional significance of this induction in suspension cultures, we determined that these enzymes glutathionylated the safener. The resulting S-(fenclorim)-glutathione conjugate was sequentially processed to S-(fenclorim)-?-glutamyl-cysteine and S-(fenclorim)-cysteine (FC), the latter accumulating in both the cells and the medium. FC was then either catabolized to 4-chloro-6-(methylthio)-phenylpyrimidine (CMTP) or N-acylated with malonic acid. These cysteine derivatives had distinct fates, with the enzymes responsible for their formation being induced by fenclorim and FC. Fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine was formed from FC by the action of a malonyl-CoA-dependent N-malonyltransferase. A small proportion of the fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine then underwent decarboxylation to yield a putative S-fenclorim-N-acetylcysteine intermediate, which underwent a second round of GST-mediated S-glutathionylation and subsequent proteolytic processing. The formation of CMTP was catalyzed by the concerted action of a cysteine conjugate ?-lyase and an S-methyltransferase, with the two activities being coordinately regulated. Although the fenclorim conjugates tested showed little GST-inducing activity in Arabidopsis, the formation of CMTP resulted in metabolic reactivation, with the product showing good enhancing activity. In addition, CMTP induced GSTs and herbicide-safening activity in rice. The bioactivated CMTP was in turn glutathione-conjugated and processed to a malonyl cysteine derivative. These results reveal the surprisingly complex set of competing catabolic reactions acting on xenobiotics entering the S-glutathionylation pathway in plants, which can result in both detoxification and bioactivation.

Brazier-Hicks, Melissa; Evans, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Oliver D.; Hodgson, David R. W.; Steel, Patrick G.; Edwards, Robert



Glutathione Depletion Increases Tyrosinase Activity in Human Melanoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to estimate the effect of intracellular glutathione depletion on melanogenesis in human melanoma cells. We determined tyrosine hydroxylation activity, the rate-limiting step of the pathway, and 14C-melanin formation, an assay reflecting the global eumelanogenic pathway. Intracellular glutathione was depleted by treatment with buthionine-S-sulfoximine, a well-known inhibitor of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase.The intracellular depletion of glutathione

Véronique del Marmol; Francisco Solano; André Sels; Georges Huez; Anita Libert; Ferdinand Lejeune; Ghanem Ghanem



Glutathione, a first line of defense against cadmium toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental modulation of cellular glutathione levels has been used to explore the role of glutathione in cadmium toxicity. Mice treated with buthionine sulfoximine (an effective irreversible inhibitor of ..gamma..-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC that decreases cellular levels of glutathione markedly) were sensitized to the toxic effects of CdClâ. Mice pretreated with a sublethal dose of Cd\\/sup 2 +\\/ to induce metallothionein




Morbidity and Quality of Life in Bladder Cancer Patients following Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion: A Single-Institution Comparison of Ileal Conduit versus Orthotopic Neobladder  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate and compare noncontinent and continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy in patients with bladder cancer. Methods. A total of 301 patients submitted to radical cystectomy at the Charité-University Hospital Berlin from 1993 to 2007 including 146 with an ileal conduit and 115 with an ileal neobladder. Clinical and pathological data as well as oncological outcome were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Quality of life was analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BLM30 questionnaires. Results. 69.1% and 69.6% of all patients who received an ileal conduit and ileal neobladder, respectively, developed early complications. The two groups differed significantly concerning the occurrence of postoperative ileus (P = 0.02) favoring patients who received an ileal conduit but not with regard to any other early-onset complication evaluated. Patients with ileal neobladder had a significantly better global health status and quality of life (P = 0.02), better physical functioning (P = 0.02), but also a higher rate of diarrhoea (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Cystectomy with any type of diversion remains a complication-prone surgery. Even if the patient groups are not homogeneous in all respects, there are many arguments in favor of the ileal neobladder as the urinary diversion of choice.

Erber, Barbara; Schrader, Mark; Miller, Kurt; Schostak, Martin; Baumunk, Daniel; Lingnau, Anja; Schrader, Andres Jan; Jentzmik, Florian



[Dynamic urinary flow images in patients with ileal loop diversion assessed by I-123-hippuran scintigraphy. Detection of ileoureteral reflux].  


To evaluate upper urinary tract and ileal loop functions, dynamic urinary flow studies using I-123 hippuran were performed in 52 kidneys of 27 patients with ileal loop urinary diversion. Analysis of regional renograms enabled easy assessment of the cortical, pelvic and loop functions. Normal pattern was found in 33 cortices (63.5%), 22 pelvis (45.8%) and 14 loops (51.9%). Most of the abnormal findings in the upper urinary tract were delayed excretion and/or retention of the pelvic and ureteral urines. Diagnosis of ileoureteral reflux under normal physiological circumstances was made to compare the pelvic and loop curves. Small peaks and/or irregular spike waves observed in the down slope of the pelvic curve concurrently with the increased activity of the loop curve indicate a production of the ileoureteral reflux associated with ileal movement. This reflux was noted in 22 of the 27 cases (81.5%). Bilateral reflux was evident in 3 cases, and unilateral reflux in 19 cases. Ileoureteral reflux was noticed in 14 of the 15 cases (90%) in which retrograde loopography was performed. Although bilateral reflux was found in 8 cases, the hippuran study revealed bilateral in only one case, unilateral in 5 and no reflux in 2. Thus, I-123 hippuran scintigraphy consisting of sequential renal images, loopograms and regional renograms enables the diagnosis of ileoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathies and is a useful tool to detect functional complications of the upper urinary tract in patients with ileal loop diversion. PMID:6485965

Kawamura, J; Itoh, H; Higashi, Y; Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O; Fujita, T; Tamaki, N; Torizuka, K



Effect of graded levels of dietary betaine on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities and intestinal bacterial metabolites in piglets.  


The study was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary inclusion levels of betaine on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities and intestinal bacterial metabolites in piglets. A total of eight barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.9 kg were randomly allocated to one of the four assay diets with two pigs per treatment in four repeated measurement periods. The assay diets included a basal diet based on wheat, barley and soybean meal alone, or supplemented with a liquid betaine product at dietary levels of 1.5, 3.0, or 6.0 g betaine per kilogram diet (as-fed). Ileal digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fibre increased both quadratically and linearly, and ileal digestibility of glycine increased linearly as dietary betaine level increased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, total tract digestibility of crude protein increased quadratically (p < 0.05) and total tract digestibilities of most amino acids tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.06 to p = 0.11) with increasing dietary betaine level. Moreover, there were linear increases in the concentrations of most bacterial metabolites which were significant p < 0.05 for ileal d-lactic acid and for faecal diaminopimelic acid. The results demonstrate that dietary betaine supplementation stimulates bacterial fermentation of fibre in the small intestine and bacterial degradation of crude protein in the large intestine. PMID:20455968

Ratriyanto, A; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Eklund, M



Risk Factors for Low Bone Mass in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Following Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Bone mineral density (BMD) can be adversely affected by the chronic nature of inflammatory bowel disease. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require proctocolectomy. There are few data on BMD in UC patients with IPAA. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated

Bo Shen; Feza H Remzi; Ioannis K Oikonomou; Hong Lu; Bret A Lashner; Jeffrey P Hammel; Mario Skugor; Ana E Bennett; Aaron Brzezinski; Elaine Queener; Victor W Fazio



Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy by retrograde transcaval coil embolization of an ileal vein-to-right gonadal vein portosystemic shunt  

SciTech Connect

A 43-year-old non-cirrhotic woman suffered from encephalopathy caused by an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt between the ileal vein and inferior vena cava via the right gonadal vein. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization with stainless steel coils was performed by the retrograde systemic venous approach. Encephalopathy improved dramatically.

Nishie, Akihiro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Fukuya, Tatsuro; Irie, Hiroyuki [Kyushu University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Yoshimitsu, Takahiro; Hirakata, Hideki; Okuda, Seiya [Kyushu University, Department of Internal Medicine II, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Masuda, Kouji [Kyushu University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)



Ileal losses of nitrogen and amino acids in humans and their importance to the assessment of amino acid requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Irreversible amino acid losses at the human ileum are not taken into account when tracer-derived amino acid requirements are calculated because the data available are scarce. We have investigated amino acid losses at the ileal level in humans after ingestion of a protein meal. Methods: Thirteen volunteers ingested a single meal of 15N milk or soy proteins.

Claire Gaudichon; Cécile Bos; Céline Morens; Klaus J. Petzke; François Mariotti; Julia Everwand; Robert Benamouzig; Sophie Daré; Daniel Tomé; Cornelia C. Metges



Laboratory Tests for Patients With Ileal Pouch–Anal Anastomosis: Clinical Utility in Predicting, Diagnosing, and Monitoring Pouch Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) or UC-associated dysplasia, and for the majority of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis and other complications of IPAA are common. There are scant data on laboratory markers for the evaluation and diagnosis of pouch disorders. The presence of

Udayakumar Navaneethan; Bo Shen



Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy by retrograde transcaval coil embolization of an ileal vein-to-right gonadal vein portosystemic shunt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 43-year-old non-cirrhotic woman suffered from encephalopathy caused by an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt between the ileal\\u000a vein and inferior vena cava via the right gonadal vein. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization with stainless steel coils\\u000a was performed by the retrograde systemic venous approach. Encephalopathy improved dramatically.

Akihiro Nishie; Kengo Yoshimitsu; Hiroshi Honda; Kuniyuki Kaneko; Toshiro Kuroiwa; Tatsuro Fukuya; Hiroyuki Irie; Toshiharu Ninomiya; Takahiro Yoshimitsu; Hideki Hirakata; Seiya Okuda; Kouji Masuda



Diminished gene expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter explains impaired absorption of bile acid in patients with hypertriglyceridemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia, par- ticularly those with familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHT), have impaired absorption of bile acid, a defect that may contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia ( J. Lipid Res. 1995. 36: 96-107). To determine whether this absorption defect is a result of abnormal expression of the ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) gene, we biopsied the terminal ileum

William C. Duane; Linda A. Hartich; Allen E. Bartman; Samuel B. Ho


Effects of different feed additives alone or in combination on broiler performance, gut microflora and ileal histology  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of different xylanases, alone or in combination with different organic acid and oligosaccharide sources, on bird performance, gut microflora and ileal histology.2.?Birds were given a diet based on a commercial formulation, which was split into 8 batches. Batch 1 contained the antibiotic growth promoter Avilamycin and acted as the positive

B. Owens; L. Tucker; M. A. Collins; K. J. McCracken



Experimental production of proliferative ileitis in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) by using an ileal homogenate free of Campylobacter jejuni.  


The role of Campylobacter jejuni in the pathogenesis of proliferative ileitis of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) has been uncertain. C. jejuni has been implicated as the etiologic agent on the basis of the campylobacter-type morphology of the intracellular organism and the repeated microbiologic isolation of C. jejuni from hamsters with proliferative ileitis. The inability to reproduce the disease with pure culture inocula, coupled with immunohistochemical studies, however, has suggested that although C. jejuni may be present in the ilea of infected hamsters, its involvement in the pathogenesis of proliferative ileitis is questionable. In this study hamsters were inoculated with infective ileal homogenates prepared from ilea which were extensively washed to remove the ileal contents before grinding. The ilea from hamsters inoculated with this homogenate were also washed before being ground and used to experimentally inoculate a second group of hamsters. Of the 20 hamsters from this second group, 12 developed lesions typical of proliferative ileitis. Extensive microbiologic cultures from these hamsters were negative for C. jejuni. Immunofluorescence studies with a C. jejuni-specific monoclonal antibody were also negative. The use of a Campylobacter genus-specific monoclonal antibody, however, revealed numerous campylobacter-type organisms within the ileal epithelial cells of the crypts and villi. The presence of C. jejuni is therefore apparently not necessary for the production of proliferative ileitis in hamsters, and the intracellular campylobacter-type organism present in the ileal epithelial cells of infected hamsters is probably not C. jejuni. PMID:2462537

Stills, H F; Hook, R R



Effect of dietary supplementation of protected organic acids on ileal microflora and protein digestibility in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 3 diets containing different levels (0, 0.2 and 0.4%) of protected organic acids (formate and propionate) on the gut microflora and ileal protein digestibility in broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six broilers in a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates for each treatment were employed. The experiment

A. A. Gheisari; M. Heidari; R. K. Kermanshahi; M. Togiani; S. Saraeian


A note on the effects of selected prebiotics on the performance and ileal microbiota of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to study the infl uence of lactose, inulin, and modifi ed ?-glucan as additives to maize-based diets on the performance of broiler chickens, as well as on the pH in the crop, gizzard, ileum, caeca and on populations of selected ileal microfl ora species. Over the entire experimental period (day 1 - day 42),

S. Kaczmarek; A. Rutkowski


True ileal protein and amino acid digestibilities in wheat dried distillers’ grains with solubles fed to finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wheat dried distillers’ grains with solubles (WDDGS) become increasingly available in western Canada, there is currently a great interest in evaluating its potential as a feedstuff for pigs. Thus, the apparent, standardized and true ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibilities in WDDGS were determined. Six finishing pigs (?82kg initial BW) fitted with a simple T-cannula at

Y. Lan; F. O. Opapeju; C. M. Nyachoti



An Acute Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility Assay Is a Valid Procedure for Use in Human Ileostomates1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acute (24-h) feeding\\/digesta sampling procedure was evaluated in a preliminary study using growing pigs. The validated acute procedure was then applied using human ileostomates to determine apparent and true ileal amino acid digestibilities of 4 dietary protein sources. The acute method involved feeding ileos- tomized pigs a single meal containing the test protein as part of a purified diet,

Paul J. Moughan; Christine A. Butts; Henk van Wijk; Angela M. Rowan; Gordon W. Reynolds


Difference in in vitro fermentability of four carbohydrates and two diets, using ileal and faecal inocula from unweaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to examine differences in the in vitro fermentability of four carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients and two weaning piglet diets with and without these ingredients, using both the ileal contents and the faeces of unweaned piglets as inocula. In the first part of the experiment, cumulative gas production was measured over time, using faecal inocula mixed from nine

Ajay Awati; Marlou W Bosch; Franco Tagliapietra; Barbara A Williams; Martin WA Verstegen



Preventive Effects of Rebamipide on NSAID-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury and Reduction of Gastric Mucosal Blood Flow in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise mechanisms of acute damage and the role of gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal\\u000a anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of rebamipide\\u000a on gastric mucosal injury and reduction of gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) after ibuprofen administration. Twenty healthy\\u000a volunteers were randomized two

Hyung-Keun Kim; Jin-Il Kim; Jae-Kwang Kim; Joon-Yeol Han; Soo-Heon Park; Kyu-Yong Choi; In-Sik Chung



Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thimerosol is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular

S. J. James; William Slikker; Stepan Melnyk; Elizabeth New; Marta Pogribna; Stefanie Jernigan




EPA Science Inventory

A 2 hr inhalation exposure to 4.6 mg Cd/cu m decreased pulmonary total glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity and non-selenium peroxidase (GSH non-Se-Px) activity but had no effect on GSH selenium peroxidase (Se-Px) activity. Seventy-two hrs after exposure there was an increase...


Purified ?-Glutamyl Transpeptidases from Tomato Exhibit High Affinity for Glutathione and Glutathione S-Conjugates1  

PubMed Central

?-Glutamyl transpeptidases (?GTases) are the only enzymes known to hydrolyze the unique N-terminal amide bonds of reduced glutathione (?-l-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine), oxidized glutathione, and glutathione S-conjugates. Two ?GTases (I and II) with Km values for glutathione of 110 and 90 ?m were purified 2,977-fold and 2,152-fold, respectively, from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pericarp. Both enzymes also hydrolyze dipeptides and other tripeptides with N-terminal, ?-linked Glu and the artificial substrates ?-l-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide and ?-l-glutamyl(7-amido-4-methylcoumarin). They transfer the glutamyl moiety to water or acceptor amino acids, including l-Met, l-Phe, l-Trp, l-Ala, or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. ?GTase I and II were released from a wall and membrane fraction of a tomato fruit extract with 1.0 m NaCl, suggesting that they are peripheral membrane proteins. They were further purified by acetone precipitation, Dye Matrex Green A affinity chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The two ?GTases were resolved by concanavalin A (Con A) affinity chromatography, indicating that they are differentially glycosylated. The native and SDS-denatured forms of both enzymes showed molecular masses of 43 kD.

Martin, Melinda Neal; Slovin, Janet P.



Omega-3 fatty acids in ileal effluent after consuming different foods containing microencapsulated fish oil powder - an ileostomy study.  


The intestinal absorption of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LCPUFA), [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], after consuming fish oil gelatine capsules or different food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil, was determined using human ileostomates. The total amount of ?3 LCPUFA consumed per dose of fish oil capsule was 266 mg while that for fortified orange juice, yoghurt and cereal bar was 284 mg per serving of food product. In a time course experiment ?3 LCPUFA was measured in ileal effluent over 24 h post ingestion. Only 0.58-0.73% of the total ?3 LCPUFA dose was recovered in the ileal effluent irrespective of whether the fish oil was delivered in a gelatine capsule or in the form of a microencapsulated powder incorporated into fortified foods. Excretion of ?3 LCPUFA was detected in the 2-18 h effluent collections with none detected at 0 h or 24 h. post ingestion. The transit time of the minimal amount of ?3 LCPUFA that remained in the ileal effluent was dependent on the method of delivery of the fish oil. The ?3 LCPUFA content in the ileal effluent peaked at 2-8 h and declined after 10 h after consumption of fish oil capsules and fortified orange juice. In contrast, two peaks in ?3 LCPUFA content were observed in the ileal effluent, first at 2-8 h and again at 14-16 h, after consumption of fortified yoghurt and cereal bar. The highest recovery of the small amount of ?3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent at 14-16 h was obtained when fortified cereal bar was consumed. The results suggest that the delivery of fish oil through food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil does not compromise the bioavailability of the ?3 LCPUFA as evidence by no statistical differences detected in the remaining portion of ?3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent (p = 0.58). However, the food matrix in which the microencapsulated oil was delivered may alter the transit kinetics of the ?3 LCPUFA through the small intestine. PMID:22992723

Sanguansri, Luz; Shen, Zhiping; Weerakkody, Rangika; Barnes, Mary; Lockett, Trevor; Augustin, Mary Ann



Comparison of Systemic and Mucosal Immunization with Helper-Dependent Adenoviruses for Vaccination against Mucosal Challenge with SHIV  

PubMed Central

Most HIV-1 infections are thought to occur at mucosal surfaces during sexual contact. It has been hypothesized that vaccines delivered at mucosal surfaces may mediate better protection against HIV-1 than vaccines that are delivered systemically. To test this, rhesus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular (i.m.) or intravaginal (ivag.) routes with helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors expressing HIV-1 envelope. Macaques were first immunized intranasally with species C Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) prior to serotype-switching with species C HD-Ad6, Ad1, Ad5, and Ad2 vectors expressing env followed by rectal challenge with CCR5-tropic SHIV-SF162P3. Vaccination by the systemic route generated stronger systemic CD8 T cell responses in PBMC, but weaker mucosal responses. Conversely, mucosal immunization generated stronger CD4 T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in the colon. Intramuscular immunization generated higher levels of env-binding antibodies, but neither produced neutralizing or cytotoxic antibodies. After mucosal SHIV challenge, both groups controlled SHIV better than control animals. However, more animals in the ivag. group had lower viral set points than in in the i.m. group. These data suggest mucosal vaccination may have improve protection against sexually-transmitted HIV. These data also demonstrate that helper-dependent Ad vaccines can mediate robust vaccine responses in the face of prior immunity to Ad5 and during four rounds of adenovirus vaccination.

Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Buchl, Stephanie J.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Palmer, Donna; Montefiori, David C.; Ferrari, Guido; Ng, Philip; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Barry, Michael A.



Effect of microbial phytase on ileal digestibility of phytate phosphorus, total phosphorus, and amino acids in a low-phosphorus diet for broilers.  


The study aimed to assess the effect of a commercially available microbial phytase added to a corn-soybean meal diet on phytate P and total P in terminal ileal digesta as well as on true ileal amino acid digestibility. Three low-P diets containing 0, 500, or 750 U/kg of microbial phytase were fed to 21-d-old broiler chickens. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Ileal contents were collected from euthanized birds and analyzed, along with the diets, for total P, phytate P, and amino acids. Endogenous P determined at the terminal ileum was 446 +/- 59 mg/kg food dry matter (mean +/- SE). Endogenous ileal amino acids ranged from 219 +/- 33 mg/kg food dry matter for tryptophan to 1,255 +/- 166 mg/kg food dry matter for glutamic acid. Supplementation with microbial phytase resulted in a significantly (P < or = 0.05) greater phytate P disappearance (11% greater disappearance vs. unsupplemented control) from the terminal ileum. Similarly, true ileal total P digestibility was (P < or = 0.05) higher (10 to 12%) when microbial phytase was added. True ileal amino acid digestibility was significantly (P < or = 0.05) greater in the presence of microbial phytase for all the amino acids examined with the exception of methionine, tyrosine, histidine, and tryptophan. The mean increase in true ileal amino acid digestibility was 3.4%. The effect of phytase on true ileal phytate P, total P, and amino acid digestibility was similar for the 2 phytase inclusion levels tested. Microbial phytase improved phytate P and total P digestibility, as well as true ileal amino acid digestibility, for a corn-soybean diet. PMID:14761085

Rutherfurd, S M; Chung, T K; Morel, P C H; Moughan, P J



[Effect of insulin and adrenaline on the activity of enzymes of glutathione metabolism and glutathione concentration in rat organs].  


Adrenaline activates glutathione peroxidase in the heart, liver, and kidneys and glutathione transferase in the heart and liver, inhibits gamma-glutamyl transferase in the kidneys, and has no effect on glutathione reductase; no changes in the brain detected. Insulin does not influence glutathione reductase either, nor does it induce any changes in the heart, liver, and bone marrow, but it alters (as a rule reduces) in a number of cases the activities of many glutathione metabolism enzymes and reduces glutathione concentration in the brain, kidneys, and spleen both an hour and 24 h after injection. The detected changes do not conform to universally acknowledged classification of the organs by insulin sensitivity and do not correlate with hypoglycemia. PMID:7915418

Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinski?, V I; Ias'ko, M V; Pensionerova, G A; Grudinina, Iu V


Non-linear stress-strain measurements of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) compared to normal oral mucosal and skin tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-strain curves of oral mucosal tissues were measured using direct mechanical testing. Measurements were conducted on both natural oral mucosal tissues and engineered devices, specifically a clinically developed ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME). As seeded cells proliferate on EVPOME devices, they produce a keratinized protective upper layer which fills in surface irregularities. These transformations can further alter stress-strain

Frank Winterroth; Scott J. Hollister; Stephen E. Feinberg; Shiuhyang Kuo; J. Brian Fowlkes; Arindam Ganguly; Kyle W. Hollman



Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals.  


Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg) was studied for its antiulcer and mucosal defensive factors in normal and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by administering streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg, ip) to 5 days old rat pups. The animals showing blood glucose level >140mg/dL after 12 weeks of STZ administration were considered as NIDDM positive. Effects of MSE were compared with known ulcer protective drug, sucralfate (SFT, 500 mg/kg) and anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (GLC, 0.6 mg/kg) when administered orally, once daily for 6 days against gastric ulcers (GU) induced by cold-restraint stress (CRS) and ethanol and subsequent changes in gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide) and anti-oxidants enzymes (super oxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione (GSH) levels. MSE showed better ulcer protective effect in NIDDM rats compared with SFT and GLC in CRS-induced GU. NIDDM caused a significant decrease in gastric mucosal glycoprotein level without having any effect on cell proliferation. However, all the test drugs reversed the decrease in glycoprotein level in NIDDM rats, but cell proliferation was enhanced in case of MSE alone. Both CRS or NIDDM as such enhanced gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD, but decreased CAT levels while CRS plus NIDDM rats caused further increase in LPO and NO level without causing any further changes in SOD and CAT level. MSE pretreatment showed reversal in the levels of all the above parameters better than GLC. Ethanol caused a decrease in glutathione level which was further reduced in NIDDM-ethanol rats. MSE reversed the above changes significantly in both normal as well as in NIDDM rats, while GLC reversed it only in NIDDM rats. However, SFT was ineffective in reversing the changes induced by CRS or ethanol or when given in NIDDM-CRS or NIDDM-ethanol rats. The results indicated that the ulcer protective effect of MSE could be due to its predominant effect on mucosal glycoprotein, cell proliferation, free radicals and antioxidant systems. PMID:16629371

Mohan Kumar, M; Joshi, M C; Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, R K



Guanidinated protein test meals with higher concentration of soybean trypsin inhibitors increase ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids in pigs.  


The amino acid concentrations of cornstarch-based guanidinated unprocessed (UGM) and autoclaved (AGM) Nutrisoy (defatted soy flour) protein test meals were compared with the respective unguanidinated Nutrisoy diets. Endogenous ileal recoveries and true digestibilities of amino acids were determined in six growing pigs, fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, fed the guanidinated protein test meals. The UGM and AGM contained 13.4 (high) and 3.0 (low) g/kg dry matter of soybean trypsin inhibitors (SBTI), respectively. The experiment was a two-period cross-over design with each period lasting 15 d. On d 14 of each period, the pigs were fed the guanidinated test meals followed by 24 h continuous collection of digesta. Concentrations of crude protein and most of the amino acids in the test meals were higher than in the respective diets. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities of the test meals did not differ (P > 0.05) from reported values for the respective diets and were higher (P < 0.05) by 22.7 (cysteine) to 61.3 (tyrosine) percentage units for AGM compared with UGM. The ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids in AGM-fed pigs were lower (P < 0.05) than UGM-fed pigs. Values ranged from -0.10 (arginine) to 0.64 (aspartate + asparagine) and from 0.84 (histidine) to 2.61 (tyrosine) g/kg dry matter intake for AGM- and UGM-fed pigs, respectively. True ileal amino acid digestibilities for AGM were higher (P < 0.05) than UGM with differences ranging from 12.7 (tyrosine) to 38.3 (leucine) percentage units. In conclusion, ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids were increased in pigs fed guanidinated protein test meals with the higher concentration of SBTI. PMID:9482770

Caine, W R; Sauer, W C; Verstegen, M W; Tamminga, S; Li, S; Schulze, H



The Level of Protein in Milk Formula Modifies Ileal Sensitivity to LPS Later in Life in a Piglet Model  

PubMed Central

Background Milk formulas have higher protein contents than human milk. This high protein level could modify the development of intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune functions and have long-term consequences. Methodology/Principal findings We investigated the effect of a high protein formula on ileal microbiota and physiology during the neonatal period and later in life. Piglets were fed from 2 to 28 days of age either a normoprotein (NP, equivalent to sow milk) or a high protein formula (HP, +40% protein). Then, they received the same solid diet until 160 days. During the formula feeding period ileal microbiota implantation was accelerated in HP piglets with greater concentrations of ileal bacteria at d7 in HP than NP piglets. Epithelial barrier function was altered with a higher permeability to small and large probes in Ussing chambers in HP compared to NP piglets without difference in bacterial translocation. Infiltration of T cells was increased in HP piglets at d28. IL-1? and NF-?B sub-units mRNA levels were reduced in HP piglets at d7 and d28 respectively; plasma haptoglobin also tended to be reduced at d7. Later in life, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in response to high doses of LPS in explants culture was reduced in HP compared to NP piglets. Levels of mRNA coding the NF-?B pathway sub-units were increased by the challenge with LPS in NP piglets, but not HP ones. Conclusions/Significance A high protein level in formula affects the postnatal development of ileal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune function in piglets and alters ileal response to inflammatory mediators later in life.

Gras-Le Guen, Christele; Lalles, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaelle



Decreased apoptosis in the ileum and ileal Peyer's patches: a feature after infection with rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103.  


Significant changes occur in intestinal epithelial cells after infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). However, it is unclear whether this pathogen alters rates of apoptosis. By using a naturally occurring weaned rabbit infection model, we determined physiological levels of apoptosis in rabbit ileum and ileal Peyer's patches (PP) and compared them to those found after infection with adherent rabbit EPEC (REPEC O103). Various REPEC O103 strains were first tested in vitro for characteristic virulence features. Rabbits were then inoculated with the REPEC O103 strains that infected cultured cells the most efficiently. After experimental infection, intestinal samples were examined by light and electron microscopy. Simultaneously, ileal apoptosis was assessed by using terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase 3 assays and by apoptotic cell counts based on morphology (hematoxylin-and-eosin staining). The highest physiological apoptotic indices were measured in PP germinal centers (median = 14.7%), followed by PP domed villi (8.1%), tips of absorptive villi (3.8%), and ileal crypt regions (0.5%). Severe infection with REPEC O103 resulted in a significant decrease in apoptosis in PP germinal centers (determined by TUNEL assay; P = 0.01), in the tips of ileal absorptive villi (determined by H&E staining; P = 0.04), and in whole ileal cell lysates (determined by caspase 3 assay; P = 0.001). We concluded that REPEC O103 does not promote apoptosis. Furthermore, we cannot rule out the possibility that REPEC O103, in fact, decreases apoptotic levels in the rabbit ileum. PMID:11402002

Heczko, U; Carthy, C M; O'Brien, B A; Finlay, B B



Effect of Exogenous Glutathione, Glutathione Reductase, Chlorine Dioxide, and Chlorite on Osmotic Fragility of Rat Blood In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorine dioxide (CIO2), chlorite (CIO-2), and chlorate (CIO-3) in drinking water decreased blood glutathione and RBC osmotic fragility in vivo. The osmotic fragility and glutathione content were also studied in rat blood treated with CIO2, CIO-2, CIO-3 in vitro. RBC hemolysis was decreased in rat blood after 30, 60, and 120 minutes by all treatments. The glutathione content expressed as

M. S. Abdel-Rahman; D. Couri; R. J. Bull



Regulation of Signal Transduction by Glutathione Transferases  

PubMed Central

Glutathione transferases (GST) are essentially known as enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to various electrophilic compounds such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and antitumor agents. However, this protein family is also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds which play critical roles in the regulation of signaling pathways. For example, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the prostaglandin 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) are metabolized by GSTs and these compounds are known to influence the activity of transcription factors and protein kinases involved in stress response, proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated that GSTs are able to interact with different protein partners such as mitogen activated protein kinases (i.e., c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)) which are also involved in cell signaling. New functions of GSTs, including S-glutathionylation of proteins by GSTs and ability to be a nitric oxide (NO) carrier have also been described. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that GST might play a crucial role during normal or cancer cells proliferation or apoptosis.

Pajaud, Julie; Kumar, Sandeep; Rauch, Claudine; Morel, Fabrice; Aninat, Caroline



Diallyl disulphide depletes glutathione in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Using two-photon scanning laser microscopy, we investigated the effect of an Allium sativum (garlic) constituent, diallyl disulphide (DADS), on key physiological functions of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. A short 30 min exposure to 0.5 mm DADS followed by removal induced 70% cell death (50% necrotic, 20% apoptotic) within 2 h, increasing to 75% after 4 h. The early intracellular events associated with DADS-induced cell death were monitored with two-photon fluorescence microscopy to track mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADH or reduced glutathione (GSH) under aerobic conditions. DADS treatment decreased intracellular GSH and elevated intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, DADS induced a marked decrease of ??m and lowered respiration in cell suspensions and isolated mitochondria. In vitro kinetic experiments in cell-free extracts suggest that glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is one of the intracellular targets of DADS. Additional targets were also identified, including inhibition of a site or sites between complexes II-IV in the electron transport chain, as well as the mitochondrial ATP-synthase. The results indicate that DADS is an effective antifungal agent able to trigger cell death in Candida, most probably by eliciting oxidative stress as a consequence of thiol depletion and impaired mitochondrial function.

Lemar, Katey M.; Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; T. Muller, Carsten; Lloyd, David



Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish  

PubMed Central

As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity.

Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol



Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of teleost fish.  


As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naïve T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity. PMID:22133710

Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J Oriol



Nitroglycerin relaxes coronary artery of the pig with no change in glutathione content or glutathione S-transferase activity.  

PubMed Central

1. The role of glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity in vascular relaxant responses to nitroglycerin was evaluated in potassium (30 mM)-contracted coronary artery strips of the pig by measuring changes in tension, glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity. 2. Prior exposure of coronary artery strips to nitroglycerin (10(-5)M or 10(-4)M for 20 min) resulted in tachyphylaxis to subsequent relaxation to nitroglycerin (10(-8)-10(-5)M). 3. The glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity of the arterial strips rendered tachyphylactic by prior exposure to nitroglycerin (10(-5)M for 20 min or 10(-3)M for 120 min) were not significantly different from those of control strips. 4. Treatment with diethyl maleate (10(-4)M or 10(-3)M for 60 min) markedly depleted arterial glutathione content in a concentration-dependent manner with no change in glutathione S-transferase activity. 5. The relaxant response of coronary artery strips to nitroglycerin (10(-8)-10(-5)M) was completely unaffected following treatment with diethyl maleate (10(-4)M or 10(-3)M for 60 min). 6. The results suggest that vascular glutathione content does not play an important role in vascular relaxation or tolerance development to nitroglycerin, at least in pig isolated coronary artery.

Sakanashi, M.; Matsuzaki, T.; Aniya, Y.



Effects and side-effects of partial ileal by-pass surgery for familial hypercholesterolaemia.  

PubMed Central

Ten patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia were subjected to partial ileal by-pass surgery. Plasma cholesterol fell by 41 and 38% and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 51 and 46% after six and 18 months respectively. High-density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were unaffected. Alanine aminotransferase increased transiently in half of the patients. Diarrhoea and slight steatorrhoea troubled most of the patients for the duration of 18 months' period of observation. Other long-term side effects were slight but significant increase in the renal excretion of oxalic acid and reduction in the intestinal absorption of calcium. The study shows that this operation has metabolic side-effects that warrant continued medical care of these patients.

Faergeman, O; Meinertz, H; Hylander, E; Fischerman, K; Jarnum, S; Nielsen, O V



False Positive GI Bleed on Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy Due to Ileal Varices  

PubMed Central

Tc-99m labeled RBC scintigraphy is commonly employed in the evaluation of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. On Tc-99m RBC studies gastrointestinal bleeding is seen as an initial focus of increased radiotracer activity that on subsequent images increases in intensity and changes position in a pattern that conforms to segments of bowel. We report a case of a patient with multiple episodes of hematochezia that presented with lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. A Tc-99m labeled RBC scan was performed and the findings suggested a GI bleed. However, subsequent angiography revealed prominent ileal varices simulating an acute bleed. Although most varices fill promptly and should not be misinterpreted as a focus of hemorrhage, slow filling varices can simulate an acute bleed and lead to a false positive interpretation.

Chen, Paul Ning-Chuan; Brown, Richard Kevin



[A case of metabolic acidosis and tetany after ileal neobladder replacement].  


A 64-year-old man visited our hospital with the complaint of macrohematuria and bilateral hydronephrosis. He had undergone total cystectomy and ileal neobladder replacement under the diagnosis of muscle invasive bladder cancer (cT2bN0M0). Tetany due to hyperventilation syndrome appeared on postoperative day 42. Blood gas analysis showed metabolic acidosis (pH 7.260, pO2 148.1 mmHg, pCO2 20.7 mmHg, HCO3 9.1 mmHg, BE -16.0 mmol/l). His condition was immediately improved after a urethral catheter was placed and sodium bicarbonate was administered. After re-removal of the urethral catheter, however, hyperventilation syndrome recurred. He was discharged from the hospital with the urethral catheter placed. PMID:23995533

Nomura, Hironori; Kou, Yohko; Kinjyo, Takanori; Nonomura, Daichi; Yoneda, Suguru; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Tei, Norihide; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi



Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune responses to Helicobacter pylori antigens through mucosal priming followed by systemic boosting immunizations  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that Helicobacter pylori infects the stomachs of over 50% of the world's population and if not treated may cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric B-cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to enhance the mucosal and systemic immune responses against the H. pylori antigens cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), through combinations of mucosal and systemic immunizations in female BALB/c mice. We found that oral or intranasal (i.n.) followed by i.m. immunizations induced significantly higher serum titres against NAP and CagA compared to i.n. alone, oral alone, i.m. alone, i.m. followed by i.n. or i.m. followed by oral immunizations. However, only oral followed by i.m. immunizations induced anti-NAP antibody-secreting cells in the stomach. Moreover, mucosal immunizations alone or in combination with i.m., but not i.m. immunizations alone, induced mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in faeces. Any single route or combination of immunization routes with NAP and CagA preferentially induced antigen-specific splenic interleukin-4-secreting cells and far fewer interferon-?-secreting cells in the spleen. Moreover, i.n. immunizations alone or in combination with i.m. immunizations induced predominantly serum IgG1 and far less serum IgG2a. Importantly, we found that while both i.n. and i.m. recall immunizations induced similar levels of serum antibody responses, mucosal IgA responses in faeces were only achieved through i.n. recall immunization. Collectively, our data show that mucosal followed by systemic immunization significantly enhanced local and systemic immune responses and that i.n. recall immunization is required to induce both mucosal and systemic memory type responses.

Vajdy, Michael; Singh, Manmohan; Ugozzoli, Mildred; Briones, Maylene; Soenawan, Elawati; Cuadra, Lina; Kazzaz, Jina; Ruggiero, Paolo; Peppoloni, Samuele; Norelli, Francesco; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; O'Hagan, Derek



Prevention and Treatment of Oral Mucositis in Children with Cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis affects more than three-fourths of patients undergoing chemotherapy and represents a significant burden to patients and caregivers. Lesions develop as a result of chemotherapeutic agents attacking the rapidly dividing cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Severity can range from mild, painless tissue changes to bleeding ulcerations that prevent oral intake and require narcotic pain relievers. Oral mucositis also leads to an increased risk of infection and can often delay further chemotherapy treatment. A number of assessment scales have been developed to better qualify the symptoms associated with this condition. Few pharmacologic agents have been approved to either prevent the development or alleviate the symptoms of oral mucositis. Current options include the use of antimicrobial mouthwashes, amino acid rinses, and topical healing agents. Palifermin, a keratinocyte growth factor, may be a future option after its use in children is explored. With achievements in other areas of supportive care in patients undergoing chemotherapy, oral mucositis should represent the forefront of new research. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of available options for children who have oral mucositis.

Miller, Misty M.; Donald, David V.; Hagemann, Tracy M.



Peri-implant mucositis treatments in humans: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim Peri-implant mucositis affects 39.4–80% of patients restored with dental implants. If left untreated it evolves in peri-implantitis. Thus far no predictable successful treatment has been reported for peri-implantitis, resulting in implant failure. Proper diagnosis and treatment of peri-implant mucositis is of crucial importance. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the available data regarding the effectiveness of peri-implant mucositis treatments in humans, parameters used for the diagnosis and treatment effect evaluation. Materials and methods A literature search for RCT and observational studies on peri-implant mucositis treatments in humans was conducted on Pubmed up to January 2012. CONSORT/STROBE and PRISMA checklists guided the evaluation of studies found and the writing of this review, respectively. Results Only 5 studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Few possibly effective treatments were studied. Diagnostic parameters reported were clinical only, while treatment effect evaluation was based on clinical and microbiological changes, except for one study reporting biochemical analysis. An evident heterogeneity characterized the follow-up intervals and methods used for reporting parameters changes. Conclusions Neither of studied treatments gave complete resolution of peri-implant mucositis. Different treatment strategies need to be studied. Authors suggest guidelines for a protocol of parameters used for determining the sample size, diagnosis and treatment effect, as well as follow-up periods, in order to permit evidence and comparison of different treatments effectiveness.

Zeza, Blerina; Pilloni, Andrea



Ileal digestibility of amino acids in coproducts of corn processing into ethanol for pigs.  


Five barrows with an average initial BW of 45 kg and fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in corn (Zea mays) distillers' dried grains (DDG), DDG with solubles (DDGS), high-protein DDG (HPDDG) and high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS). On a DM basis, the test ingredients contained 33.7% CP, 19.2% ADF, and 53.1% NDF for DDG; 30.3% CP, 11.8% ADF, and 40.6% NDF for DDGS; 62.5% CP, 28.4% ADF, and 45.1% NDF for HPDDG; and 52.4% CP, 17.4% ADF, and 30.4% NDF for HPDDGS. The 5 diets consisted of a N-free diet (NFD) and 4 semipurified diets, in which the test ingredient was the sole protein source with chromic oxide added at 5 g/kg as an indigestible marker, and fed for each of 5 periods. The NFD was used to determine basal endogenous AA losses. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 10 h on each of day 6 and day 7. Amino acids in the test ingredients were well digested by pigs and SID of Lys for DDG, DDGS, HPDDG, and HPDDGS were 88.6, 79.9, 94.6, and 85.8%, respectively. Corresponding values for were Met 93.9, 92.8, 97.1, and 94.6%. The SID of Lys was greater (P < 0.05) in HPDDG than DDGS. In general, digestibility of AA in the high-protein coproduct of the dry grind processing of corn into ethanol was 2 to 8 percentage units more than in the regular coproduct and 2 to 9 percentage units less in the coproduct with added solubles. PMID:23365291

Adeola, O; Ragland, D



Inhibitory effects of indicaxanthin on mouse ileal contractility: analysis of the mechanism of action.  


Recently, we have showed that indicaxanthin, the yellow betalain pigment abundant in the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica, has remarkable spasmolytic effects on the intestinal contractility in vitro. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action underlying the observed response. We used organ bath technique to record the mechanical activity of the mouse ileum longitudinal muscle and ELISA to measure the levels of cAMP. Indicaxanthin induced inhibitory effects on spontaneous mechanical activity, which were unaffected by indomethacin, a non-selective inhibitor of cycloxygenase; 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide-dependent guanylyl cyclase; 2'5'dideoxyadenosine, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor; and zaprinast, a selective inhibitor of the cGMP phosphodiesterase isoenzyme. Indicaxanthin effects were reduced significantly in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a non selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Indicaxanthin and IBMX significantly reduced the carbachol-evoked contractions and the joint application of both drugs did not produce any additive effect. Indicaxanthin and IBMX increased the inhibitory effects of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, and the joint application of both drugs did not produce any additive effect. Indicaxanthin, contrarily to IBMX, did not affect the inhibitory action of sodium nitroprusside, a soluble guanylyl cyclase activator. Indicaxanthin increased both basal and forskolin-induced cAMP content of mouse ileal muscle. The present data show that indicaxanthin reduces the contractility of ileal longitudinal muscle by inhibition of PDEs and increase of cAMP concentration and raise the possibility of using indicaxanthin in the treatment of motility disorders, such as abdominal cramps. PMID:21371457

Baldassano, Sara; Rotondo, Alessandra; Serio, Rosa; Livrea, Maria Antonietta; Tesoriere, Luisa; Mulè, Flavia



Pathway analysis of a genome-wide association study of ileal Crohn's disease.  


The aim of this study was to identify the candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and candidate mechanisms of Crohn's disease (CD) and to generate a SNP to gene to pathway hypothesis using a pathway-based approach, ICSNPathway (Identify candidate Causal SNPs and Pathways) of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). An ileal CD GWAS dataset downloaded from NCBI dbGap was used in this study, which was conducted using 297,857 SNPs in 968 CD cases and 995 controls after quality control filtering. ICSNPathway analysis was applied to the CD GWAS dataset. ICSNPathway analysis identified seven candidate SNPs, nine pathways, which provided five hypothetical biological mechanisms. First, rs4077515 to caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) to response to peptidoglycan, positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production, response to exogenous dsRNA, positive regulation of interleukin-6 production, and positive regulation of innate immune response (nominal p?0.002, false discovery rate [FDR]=0.027). Second, rs2066842, rs3135500, and rs5743291 to NOD2 to response to pepditoglycan, innate immune response activating signal transduction, and positive regulation of innate immune response (nominal p?0.001, FDR=0.027). Third, rs8172678 to PPARGC1A to cellular glucose homeostasis (nominal p<0.001, FDR=0.031). Fourth, rs1050152 to SLC22A4 to cofactor transporter activity and vitamin transport (nominal p<0.001, FDR=0.044). Fifth, rs9621049 to TCN2 to vitamin transport (nominal p<0.001, FDR=0.046). In conclusion, by applying ICSNPathway analysis to CD GWAS, we identified candidate SNPs, genes involving CARD9, NOD2, PPARGC1A, SLC22A4, and TCN2, pathways, and hypothetical mechanisms, which may contribute to ileal CD susceptibility. PMID:22957492

Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu



Pouchitis and extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.  

PubMed Central

Although the etiology of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is unknown, its manifestations resemble those of nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease, including, anecdotally, the apparent ability to evoke extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine in what manner pouchitis and EIMs were associated. The computerized records of 819 consecutive patients who underwent IPAA between January 1981 and December 1988 were reviewed. Eighty-five patients were excluded (because of incomplete follow-up, death, or permanent ileostomy). Follow-up of the remaining 734 patients was complete (mean, 41 months). The mean age was 32 years and the ratio of men to women was 1:1. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed for chronic ulcerative colitis in 91% of patients and for familial adenomatous polyposis in 9%. Pouchitis occurred in 31% of chronic ulcerative colitis patients and 6% of familial adenomatous polyposis patients (p less than 0.01). The mean time to first occurrence was 17 months. Pouchitis recurred in 61% of patients at risk. Patients with preoperative and postoperative EIMs had significantly higher rates of pouchitis than did patients without EIMs (39% preoperative EIMs versus 26% with no EIMs, p less than 0.001; 53% postoperative EIMs versus 25% with no EIMs, p less than 0.001). Of patients with pouchitis in whom EIMs resolved after IPAA but then recurred (n = 12), EIMs recurred when pouchitis occurred and abated when pouchitis was treated in seven patients. We concluded that pouchitis occurred frequently after IPAA and that patients with EIMs were at higher risk of developing pouchitis than were patients who never had EIMs. Furthermore some patients experienced a temporal relationship between flares of EIMs and pouchitis. These results imply that pouchitis may be a novel manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease persisting after operation.

Lohmuller, J L; Pemberton, J H; Dozois, R R; Ilstrup, D; van Heerden, J



Ontogenesis of taurocholate transport by rat ileal brush border membrane vesicles.  

PubMed Central

Developmental aspects of taurocholate transport into ileal brush border membrane vesicles were studied in 2-wk-old (suckling), 3-wk-old (weanling), and 6-wk-old (adolescent) rats. Taurocholate uptake (picomoles per milligram protein) into brush border membrane vesicles prepared from 2-wk-old rats was similar under Na+ and K+ gradient conditions (outside greater than inside). By contrast, uptake in 3- and 6-wk-old rats was significantly enhanced at 20 s, and at 1, 2, and 5 min of incubation in the presence of a Na+ gradient when compared with a K+ gradient incubation (P less than 0.05). Under isotope exchange conditions, a plot of active uptake velocity versus taurocholate concentration (0.10-1.0 mM) in 2-wk-old rat membrane vesicles was linear and approached the horizontal axis, suggesting the absence of active transport. However, similar plots in 3- and 6-wk-old rats described a rectangular hyperbola, indicating a Na+-dependent, saturable cotransport system. Woolf-Augustinsson-Hofstee plots of the uptake velocity versus concentration data from 3- and 6-wk-old rat brush border membrane vesicles yielded Vmax values that were not significantly different, 844 and 884 pmol uptake/mg protein per 120 s, respectively. The respective Km values were 0.59 and 0.66 mM taurocholate. The induction of an electrochemical diffusion potential by incubating K+-loaded vesicles with valinomycin did not significantly enhance taurocholate uptake in 2-, 3-, or 6-wk-old rat vesicle preparations. These data indicate that taurocholate transport into rat ileal brush border membrane vesicles is mediated by an electroneutral, sodium-coupled, cotransport system that is incompletely developed in the 2-wk-old suckling rat but fully developed by the time of weaning at 3 wk of age.

Barnard, J A; Ghishan, F K; Wilson, F A



Changes in the localization of ileal P-glycoprotein induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion.  


P-glycoprotein is one of the most important transporters in the ATP binding cassette transporter. Moreover, it is well known that the efficacy of immunosuppressants, which are used after organ transplantation, is controlled by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We investigated how ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which occurs after transplantation, influences the expression level and function of P-gp. To clarify the influence of intestinal I/R on the localization of P-gp, an intestinal ischemia model was produced using a spring scale and surgical sutures for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The expression levels of mRNA and protein of P-gp were examined. The protein expression levels of P-gp in ileal homogenate and the brush border membrane (BBM) were significantly decreased until 3 h after reperfusion. While the protein expression level of P-gp in homogenate showed a tendency to increase, that in the BBM continued to significantly decrease until 24 h after reperfusion. In contrast, the protein expression level of P-gp in the basolateral membrane (BLM) increased significantly until 24 h after reperfusion. While no significant change in multidrug resistance (mdr)-1a mRNA was found, the levels of mdr-1b and mdr-2 significantly increased during intestinal I/R. In addition, the levels of inflammatory cytokines mRNA and nitric oxide (NO) also significantly increased. It was shown that mdr-1b and mdr-2 mRNA strongly participate in the recovery of P-gp protein level after intestinal I/R. We detected the abnormal localization of P-gp in the ileal membrane during intestinal I/R, suggesting NO and/or inflammatory cytokines participate in the abnormal localization of P-gp. PMID:21372393

Takizawa, Yusuke; Kishimoto, Hisanao; Kitazato, Takuya; Tomita, Mikio; Hayashi, Masahiro



Decrease in glutathione content in boar sperm after cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although glutathione content in boar spermatozoa has been previously reported, the effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) on semen parameters and the fertilizing ability of boar spermatozoa after cryopreservation has never been evaluated. In this study, GSH content was determined in ejaculated boar spermatozoa before and after cryopreservation. Semen samples were centrifuged and GSH content in the resulting pellet monitored spectrophotometrically.

Joaqu??n Gadea; Elena Sellés; Marco Antonio Marco; Pilar Coy; Carmen Matás; Raquel Romar; Salvador Ruiz



Selenium and Glutathione Peroxidase Levels in Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of plasma selenium (Se) and glutathione peroxidase were measured in 20 sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients not in crisis and in 14 nonanemic control subjects. The results show that the levels of Se and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (p < 0.005) lower than those of controls in both plasma and whole blood. These data are consistent with the previous

C. L. Natta; L. C. Chen; C. K. Chow



Ultrastructural localization of glutathione in Cucurbita pepo plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Electronmicroscopic immunogold cytochemistry was used to investigate the cellular and subcellular distribution of glutathione in root and leaf cells of Styrian pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca Greb.) plants. Gold particles bound to glutathione were found in various cell structures. Statistical evaluation of the gold particle density was made for different cell compartments including nuclei, mitochondria,

M. Müller; B. Zechmann; G. Zellnig



Glutathione S-transferases in kidney and urinary bladder tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to potential carcinogens is an etiologic factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of enzymes that protect normal cells by catalyzing conjugation reactions of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, to glutathione. Some GST enzymes possess antioxidant activity against hydroperoxides. The most well characterized classes have

Ana Savic-Radojevic; Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac; Marija Matic; Jasmina Mimic-Oka; Tatjana Simic



Glutathione redox potential in response to differentiation and enzyme inducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduced glutathione (GSH)\\/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) redox state is thought to function in signaling of detoxification gene expression, but also appears to be tightly regulated in cells under normal conditions. Thus it is not clear that the magnitude of change in response to physiologic stimuli is sufficient for a role in redox signaling under nontoxicologic conditions. The purpose of this

Ward G Kirlin; Jiyang Cai; Sally A Thompson; Dolores Diaz; Terrance J Kavanagh; Dean P Jones



Glutathione-associated Enzymes in Anticancer Drug Resistance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of thiol-mediated detoxification of anticancer drugs that produce toxic electrophiles has been of considerable interest to many investigators. Glutathione and glutathione S-transferases (GST) are the focus of much attention in characterizing drug resistant cells. However, ambiguous and sometimes conflicting data have complicated the field. This article attempts to clarify some of the confusion. The following observations are well

Kenneth D. Tew



[Glutathione system in erythrocytes and plasma in viral hepatitis].  


In all 5 acute (AVHs) and chronic viral hepatites (CVHs) there was the increase of erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), and the decrerase in GSH concentration. In blood plasma there was accumulation of GPx, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and y-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT). GSH and GR increased in plasma only in AVHs. In CVH C erythrocyte GST increased. Evidently changes in the erythrocyte glutathione system are reactions to oxidative stress and in blood plasma they are consequences of inflammation and hepatocyte cytolysis. Changes were more pronounced in middle-heavy course than in the heavy one. These changes have pathogenic importance and can be used in addition to complex diagnostics. They are significantly differed from changes in chronic gall-bladder diseases. Necessity of separate investigation of glutathione system in erythrocytes and blood plasma but not in whole blood is argued. PMID:17436689

Kulinski?, V I; Leonova, Z A; Kolesnichenko, L S; Malov, I V; Danilov, Iu A


Glutathione: an overview of biosynthesis and modulation.  


Glutathione (GSH; gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine) is ubiquitous in mammalian and other living cells. It has several important functions, including protection against oxidative stress. It is synthesized from its constituent amino acids by the consecutive actions of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase activity is modulated by its light subunit and by feedback inhibition of the end product, GSH. Treatment with an inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase leads to decreased cellular GSH levels, and its application can provide a useful experimental model of GSH deficiency. Cellular levels of GSH may be increased by supplying substrates and GSH delivery compounds. Increasing cellular GSH may be therapeutically useful. PMID:9679538

Anderson, M E



Misonidazole-glutathione conjugates in CHO cells  

SciTech Connect

Misonidazole, after reduction to the hydroxylamine derivative, reacts with glutathione (GSH) under physiological conditions. The reaction product has been identified as a mixture of two isomeric conjugates. When water soluble extracts of CHO cells exposed to misonidazole under hypoxic conditions are subjected to HPLC analysis, misonidazole derivatives, having the same chromatographic properties as the GSH-MISO conjugates, were detected. When CHO cells were incubated with misonidazole in the presence of added GSH, a substantial increase in the amount of the conjugate was detected. When extracts of CHO cells exposed to misonidazole under hypoxia were subsequently exposed to GSH, an increased formation of the conjugate was observed. A rearrangement product of the hydroxylamine derivative of misonidazole is postulated as the reactive intermediate responsible for the formation of the conjugate.

Varghese, A.J.; Whitmore, G.F.



Novel Role for Glutathione S-Transferase ?  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GST?) is a marker protein in many cancers and high levels are linked to drug resistance, even when the selecting drug is not a substrate. S-Glutathionylation of proteins is critical to cellular stress response, but characteristics of the forward reaction are not known. Our results show that GST? potentiates S-glutathionylation reactions following oxidative and nitrosative stress in vitro and in vivo. Mutational analysis indicated that the catalytic activity of GST is required. GST? is itself redox-regulated. S-Glutathionylation on Cys47 and Cys101 autoregulates GST?, breaks ligand binding interactions with c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and causes GST? multimer formation, all critical to stress response. Catalysis of S-glutathionylation at low pK cysteines in proteins is a novel property for GST? and may be a cause for its abundance in tumors and cells resistant to a range of mechanistically unrelated anticancer drugs.

Townsend, Danyelle M.; Manevich, Yefim; He, Lin; Hutchens, Steven; Pazoles, Christopher J.; Tew, Kenneth D.



Targeting maladaptive glutathione responses in lung disease.  


The lung is unique being exposed directly to the atmospheric environment containing xenobiotics, pathogens, and other agents which are continuously inhaled on a daily basis. Additionally, the lung is exposed to higher ambient oxygen levels which can promote the formation of a complex number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Due to this constant barrage of potential damaging agents, the lung has developed a high degree of plasticity in dealing with ever changing conditions. In the present commentary, we will focus on glutathione (GSH) as a key antioxidant in the lung airways and discuss mechanisms by which the lung uses GSH to adapt to its rapidly changing environment. We will then examine the evidence on how defective and inadequate adaptive responses can lead to lung injury, inflammation and disease. Lastly, we will examine some of the recent attempts to alter lung GSH levels with therapies in a number of human lung diseases and discuss some of the limitations of such approaches. PMID:20951119

Gould, Neal S; Day, Brian J



Efficient nitrosation of glutathione by nitric oxide?  

PubMed Central

Nitrosothiols are increasingly regarded as important participants in a range of physiological processes, yet little is known about their biological generation. Nitrosothiols can be formed from the corresponding thiols by nitric oxide in a reaction that requires the presence of oxygen and is mediated by reactive intermediates (NO2 or N2O3) formed in the course of NO autoxidation. Because the autoxidation of NO is second order in NO, it is extremely slow at submicromolar NO concentrations, casting doubt on its physiological relevance. In this paper we present evidence that at submicromolar NO concentrations the aerobic nitrosation of glutathione does not involve NO autoxidation but a reaction that is first order in NO. We show that this reaction produces nitrosoglutathione efficiently in a reaction that is strongly stimulated by physiological concentrations of Mg2+. These observations suggest that direct aerobic nitrosation may represent a physiologically relevant pathway of nitrosothiol formation.

Kolesnik, Bernd; Palten, Knut; Schrammel, Astrid; Stessel, Heike; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C.F.



Oral mucositis induced by anticancer treatments: physiopathology and treatments  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is a frequent and devastating side effect of anticancer treatments. It impairs the patient's quality of life and also can be life threatening because severe infections and delayed or incomplete anticancer treatments may result. This problem has been largely overlooked and underestimated in the past. However, recently studies have been performed to precisely identify the epidemiology, cost, consequences, physiopathology, and treatments of oral mucositis. Clinical guidelines have recently been published to help the daily management of this frequent complication. In addition, some innovative new drugs, including palifermin, have been developed to prevent and treat this major side effect of cancer treatments. In this paper we summarize the recent developments of oral mucositis management.

Lionel, D'Hondt; Christophe, Lonchay; Marc, Andre; Jean-Luc, Canon



Permeability of Luminal Surface of Intestinal Mucosal Cells  

PubMed Central

A method has been devised to measure the permeability characteristics of the intestinal mucosal cells in the rat. The method makes use of an electrical recording balance to register changes in weight when the mucosal face of a small strip of intestine is exposed to anisotonic solutions. The permeability coefficient of the luminal surface of intestinal mucosal cells to water is measured as 0.15 cm4/OSM, sec. and reasons are adduced to suggest that the true value might be higher than this. The equivalent pore radius of the luminal face of the tissue, measured in experiments in which lipid-insoluble non-electrolytes have been used according to the method of Goldstein and Solomon, appears to be 4.0 Å.

Lindemann, B.; Solomon, A. K.



Limitations in assessment of mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

An emerging parameter to define the effectiveness of new therapeutic agents in clinical trials, and by extension, for use in day-to-day clinical practice has been labeled mucosal healing. It has been hypothesized that complete healing of the intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases should result in reduced disease complications, reduced hospitalization and reduced surgical treatment. By implication, the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease might then be altered. Measurement of mucosal healing, however, is largely observational, requiring repeated invasive endoscopic examinations, sometimes with mucosal biopsies. Other indirect imaging methods may play a role in this assessment along with other surrogate markers, including intestinal permeability. These measurements may have significant limitations that prohibit precise correlation with symptom-based disease activity indices in clinical trials. This likely reflects the dynamic nature of this evolving and individualized inflammatory process that tends to be focused, but not limited, to the mucosa of the intestinal tract.

Freeman, Hugh James



Brain-gut relationships: gastric mucosal defense is also important.  


Growing recognition that there exists a functionally important brain-gut axis has prompted several research groups to examine more closely the role of central nervous system factors in gastric mucosal injury. Less attention has been directed toward brain regulation of defensive factors in the gut. Toward that end, we have been characterizing a growing role for dopamine as an important mediator of gastric defense. New data suggest that dopamine, and other substances including many peptides as well as interleukin, act not only to reduce aggressive elements which promote gastric mucosal injury (gastric acid, pepsin, gastrin, leukotrienes) but also to augment defensive factors which retard ulcerogenesis (mucus, bicarbonate, prostaglandins, free radical scavenging enzymes, vasodilators/relaxers). Increasing attention should be directed toward the often-neglected defensive aspect of gastric mucosal ulcerogenesis and protection. PMID:1345178

Glavin, G B; Hall, A M



Oral mucosal alterations among the institutionalized elderly in Brazil.  


This study determined the prevalence of oral mucosal alterations and associated factors among the institutionalized elderly in Brazil. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, a review of their medical records and an intra-oral examination. A sample of 335 individuals over 60 years of age was randomly selected. In total, 646 alterations were diagnosed; 59.1% were variations of the normal oral mucosa. The most frequent variation consisted of sublingual varicosities (51.6%). Denture stomatitis (15.2%) and denture hyperplasia (12.8%) were the most frequent lesions. Elderly patients who wore dentures had a significantly higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (p = 0.00) than those that didn't wear dentures. There was a high prevalence of variations of the normal oral mucosa and of mucosal lesions, especially denture-induced lesions, among the institutionalized elderly. PMID:20877966

Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami de; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira


Glutathione monoethyl ester protects against glutathione deficiencies due to aging and acetaminophen in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous results indicated that glutathione (GSH) and\\/or cysteine (Cys) deficiency occurs in many aging tissues and also after acetaminophen (APAP) administration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-OEt) can correct these deficiencies. Mice of different ages (3–31 months) through the life span were sacrificed 2 h after i.p. injection of GSH-OEt (10 mmol\\/kg).

Theresa S Chen; John P Richie; Herbert T Nagasawa; Calvin A Lang



Glutathione and glutathione disulfide affect adventitious root formation and growth in tomato seedling cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the relationship between glutathione and rooting, tomato seedling cuttings, grown on basal- or on auxin-supplemented\\u000a media, were treated with the reduced (GSH) or oxidized (GSSG) form of this antioxidant. In turn, the consequences of the depletion\\u000a of GSH pool on rooting were tested using l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis. Effects of the aforementioned treatments

Jaros?aw Tyburski; Andrzej Tretyn



Reduced and oxidised glutathione and glutathione-reductase activity in tissues of Pisum sativum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three-week-old pea plants (Pisum sativum L., cv. Little Marvel) grown in the light, total glutathione levels were highest in apex and expanding leaves (1.5 µmol·(g FW)-1), and lower (0.4–0.6 µmol·(g FW)-1) in older leaves and roots. In the light period, levels in expanded leaves increased by about 40%, compared with dark values, with lesser increases in roots and apex.

W. Bielawski; K. W. Joy



Glutathione mediated regulation of oligomeric structure and functional activity of Plasmodium falciparum glutathione S-transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In contrast to many other organisms, the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum possesses only one typical glutathione S-transferase. This enzyme, PfGST, cannot be assigned to any of the known GST classes and represents a most interesting target for antimalarial drug development. The PfGST under native conditions forms non-covalently linked higher aggregates with major population (~98%) being tetramer. However, in the

Timir Tripathi; Stefan Rahlfs; Katja Becker; Vinod Bhakuni



Liposomal-Glutathione Provides Maintenance of Intracellular Glutathione and Neuroprotection in Mesencephalic Neuronal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liposomal preparation of glutathione (GSH) was investigated for its ability to replenish intracellular GSH and provide neuroprotection\\u000a in an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease using paraquat plus maneb (PQMB) in rat mesencephalic cultures. In mixed neuronal\\/glial\\u000a cultures depleted of intracellular GSH, repletion to control levels occurred over 4 h with liposomal-GSH or non-liposomal-GSH\\u000a however, liposomal-GSH was 100-fold more potent;

Gail D. ZeevalkLaura; Laura P. Bernard; F. T. Guilford



Correction of glutathione deficiency in the lower respiratory tract of HIV seropositive individuals by glutathione aerosol treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Concentrations of glutathione, a ubiquitous tripeptide with immune enhancing and antioxidant properties, are decreased in the blood and lung epithelial lining fluid of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Since the lung is the most common site of infection in those who progress to AIDS it is rational to consider whether it is possible to safely augment glutathione levels in

K J Holroyd; R Buhl; Z Borok; J H Roum; A D Bokser; G J Grimes; D Czerski; A M Cantin; R G Crystal



Depletion of brain glutathione results in a decrease of glutathione reductase activity; an enzyme susceptible to oxidative damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) from the substantia nigra is considered to be an early event in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). While the cause of the loss is unclear, an imbalance in the enzymes associated with the synthesis, utilisation, degradation and translocation of GSH has been implicated. The enzyme glutathione reductase is also important in GSH

Jane E. Barker; Simon J. R. Heales; Adrian Cassidy; Juan P. Bolaños; John M. Land; John B. Clark



Age-related changes in antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in different regions of mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that neurodegenerative processes of aging are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cellular metabolism. These reactive oxygen species are scavenged by antioxidant enzymes in biological systems. The present study was designed to determine the selective distribution of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels

S. Hussain; W. Slikker; S. F. Ali



Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.



Fecal bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and bacteria after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis do not differ in patients with pouchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of an ileal reservoir changes the fecal bacterial flora and the fecal composition of bile acids and short-chain fatty acids. We examined the relationships between pouch inflammation (pouchitis) and pouch content, as assessed by analysis of fecal bacteria, bile acids, and short chain fatty acids. Four groups were studied: ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis with pouchitis (N=10),

William J. Sandborn; William J. Tremaine; Kenneth P. Batts; John H. Pemberton; Steven S. Rossi; Alan F. Hofmann; Gregory J. Gores; Sidney F. Phillips



Effect of glutathione monoethyl ester on glutathione level and cardiac energetics in reperfused pig heart.  


The GSH level in myocardial tissue represents an important defense mechanism against oxygen toxicity. Since the ischemia-induced depletion of GSH might favour the cytotoxicity of oxygen-derived free radicals produced during reperfusion, we assessed the effects of the GSH donor, glutathione monoethylester, in anaesthetized pigs subjected to 90 minutes of coronary occlusion followed by 30 minutes reperfusion. The drug was infused intracoronarily at a dose of 1 mg/ml (0.5 ml/min) throughout the experimental period. After coronary occlusion and reperfusion, we found a decrease in GSH, ADP, ATP and phosphocreatine levels in reperfused compared with non-ischemic tissue. Less evident were the differences in mitochondrial function, there being only a reduction in the reperfused tissue of the respiratory control index and state 3 respiration values when pyruvate was used as substrate. The infusion with glutathione monoethylester decreased the depletion of tissue GSH and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio, particularly in the non-ischemic tissue. Moreover, the drug decreased the mitochondrial dysfunction at the level of pyruvate utilization and partially prevented the fall in ATP in the reperfused tissue. This study confirms a possible protective effect of glutathione monoethylester in the prevention of reperfusion-induced myocardial damage. PMID:8210688

Guarnieri, C; Turinetto, B; Colì, G; Muscari, C; Cattabriga, I; Vaona, I; Finelli, C; Pigini, F; Caldarera, C M



Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity and Metabolism of Glutathione Conjugates by Rhizosphere Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was determined in 36 species of rhizosphere bacteria with the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and in 18 strains with the herbicide alachlor. Highest levels of CDNB-GST activity (60 to 222 nmol (middot) h(sup-1) (middot) mg(sup-1)) were found in gram-negative bacteria: Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Klebsiella planticola, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, and Xanthomonas campestris. There was very low CDNB-GST activity in the gram-positive strains. Rapid metabolism of CDNB-glutathione conjugates, attributable to high levels of (gamma)-glutamyltranspeptidase, also occurred in the gram-negative bacteria, especially pseudomonads. Alachlor-GST activity detected in cell extracts and whole-cell suspensions of some strains of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae was 50- to 100-fold lower than CDNB-GST activity (0.5 to 2.5 nmol (middot) h(sup-1) (middot) mg(sup-1)) and was, for the most part, constitutive. The glutathione-alachlor conjugate was rarely detected. Cysteineglycine and/or cysteine conjugates were the major products of alachlor-GST metabolism. Whole-cell suspensions of certain Pseudomonas spp. dechlorinated from 20 to 75% of 100 (mu)M alachlor in 24 h. Results indicate that rhizosphere bacteria, especially fluorescent pseudomonads, may play an important role in the degradation of xenobiotics such as alachlor via GST-mediated reactions.

Zablotowicz, R. M.; Hoagland, R. E.; Locke, M. A.; Hickey, W. J.



Successful Endoscopic Mucosal Resection of a Low Esophageal Carcinoid Tumor  

PubMed Central

Esophageal carcinoid tumors remain some of the rarest of all carcinoid tumors, with only several cases previously reported in the literature. The endoscopic mucosal resection of selected carcinoid tumors has been shown to be a valid, safe, and effective method of treatment. Endoscopic ultrasonography is the technique of choice to select patients eligible for endoscopic resection. Here, we report successful endoscopic mucosal resection of a low esophageal carcinoid tumor and review the relevant literature. The present case is the first reported case of esophageal carcinoid tumor in Korea.

Lim, Chang Sup; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Hyung Hun; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Bong Jin; Ku, Dong Young



Tension inhibitory effect of lead ions and lead uptake in ileal longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig.  


1. In ileal longitudinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig, lead ions (Pb2+) inhibited the phasic response to high-K+ (60 mM) solution more strongly than the tonic response. 2. Pb2+ displaced Ca2+ concentration-response curves to the right. Moreover, Pb2+ inhibited the 45Ca binding at high affinity sites determined by the La3+ method than low affinity sites during K(+)-induced contraction. 3. After treatment with Pb2+, the tonic tension caused by high-K+ was fairly restored by a wash with normal medium. The lead bound to the muscle cells was almost eliminated after 20-30 min with a normal medium. 4. We suggest that Pb2+ binds loosely to the surface membrane of ileal longitudinal muscle. Pb2+ probably reduced the tension in response to the high-K+ mainly by inhibiting Ca2+ release rather than by affecting Ca2+ influx. PMID:8097458

Nasu, T; Suzuki, J; Shibata, H



Histochemical and metabolic changes in functioning ileal pouches after proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis.  


Ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis may be treated by proctocolectomy with ileal pouch reconstruction, anastomosing the pouch to the anus. We studied 24 patients who underwent this procedure, of whom 12 had ulcerative colitis and 12 had familial adenomatous polyposis. Ileal absorption was investigated and pouch histology assessed more than one year after closure of the protective defunctioning loop ileostomy. The results showed a reduction in bile acid reabsorption and vitamin B12 absorption. These observations were associated with a morphologic transformation in the small bowel mucosa to large bowel mucosa. In 10 of the 12 colitis patients one or more of the histological features of the original disease (such as active inflammation, increased regeneration, atypia) were evident. Histological examination of the biopsies taken from the polyposis patients showed areas with an excess of sialomucins. PMID:7807454

Giebel, G D; Mennigen, R; Karanjia, N D



Induction of Mucosal B-Cell Memory by Intramuscular Inoculation of Mice with Rotavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant efforts, the development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens has been slow. Previous studies have identified several obstacles to the successful development of mucosal vaccines. First, effector B- and T-cell responses at mucosal surfaces are relatively short-lived: mucosal immuno- globulin A (IgA) responses usually wane 4 to 6 months after a primary infection (3, 9, 17, 31), and effector




Nasal lymphoid tissue, intranasal immunization, and compartmentalization of the common mucosal immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal application of vaccines with an appropriate adjuvant can induce immune responses at both systemic and mucosal sites,\\u000a and therefore may prevent not only infectious disease, but also colonization at mucosal surfaces. Intranasal is more effective\\u000a than intragastric immunization at generating earlier and stronger mucosal immune responses. Nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT) and\\u000a its local draining lymph nodes may retain long-term

Hong-Yin Wu; Michael W. Russell



Human ileal bile acid transporter gene ASBT (SLC10A2) is transactivated by the glucocorticoid receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with Crohn’s disease suffer from intestinal bile acid malabsorption. Intestinal bile acid absorption is mediated by the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter ASBT\\/IBAT (SLC10A2). In rats, ASBT is induced by glucocorticoids.Aims: To study whether human ASBT is activated by glucocorticoids and to elucidate the mechanism of regulation.Patients and methods: ASBT expression in ileal biopsies from patients with

D Jung; A C Fantin; U Scheurer; M Fried; G A Kullak-Ublick



Neonatal urinary ascites complicated by ileal perforation in a recipient of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.  


We present a case of iatrogenic neonatal urinary ascites following antenatal amnioreduction in one of the monochorionic diamniotic recipient twin 2 of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). He had ileal perforation following postnatal abdominal paracentesis. The patient had an uneventful recovery following exploratory laparotomy, resection of perforated segment of ileum with end-to-end anastomosis and open vesicostomy with subsequent closure of the vesicostomy. PMID:23255026

Patel, Ramnik; Frost, Jodie; Ninan, G K



An unusual case of ileal tuberculosis: only ascites at presentation and absence of caseous necrosis and granulomatous inflammation on biopsy.  


An unusual case of ileal tuberculosis presenting with only ascites, without evidence of previous or active pulmonary tuberculosis, and absence of caseous necrosis and granulomatous inflammation is discussed. Diagnosis was established on biopsy specimens of ileocaecal region collected at colonscopy: acid-fast bacilli and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Parenteral nutrition, surgery and antituberculous drug treatment resulted in a complete recovery of the patient. PMID:7761671

Cavallo-Perin, P; Salizzoni, M; Mazzucco, G; Malfi, G; Pagano, G


Ileal digestibility of fat and fatty acids in polar foxes (Alopex lagopus L.) fed diets used during the reproductive period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates apparent ileal digestibility of fat and fatty acids in ‘end-to-end’ ileorectal anastomosed blue foxes fed diets used over the reproduction (diets A1 and B1) and lactation (diets A2 and B2) periods on two farms (A and B). The experimental diets A1 and A2 were composed of different animal offal and cereals, while diets B1 and B2 contained

Katarzyna Burlikowska; Roman Szymeczko



Ileal absorption of L-carnitine from diets used in reproductive polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five mature ileorectal anastomosed blue foxes (6.18±0.15 kg) were used in digestibility experiments to evaluate the L-carnitine apparent ileal absorption from diets used in reproductive polar fox nutrition over the year-long farm-feeding period on two domestic farms (A and B) differing in reproduction results. The concentration of L-carnitine was higher in diets from farm B (136.1–241.7 mg kg DM) than

Roman Szymeczko; Katarzyna Burlikowska; Christine Iben; Anna Piotrowska; Monika Bogus?awska-Tryk



Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations\\u000a and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire\\u000a piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or\\u000a 2 g\\/kg of the powder,

X. F. Kong; Y. L. Yin; Q. H. He; F. G. Yin; H. J. Liu; T. J. Li; R. L. Huang; M. M. Geng; Z. Ruan; Z. Y. Deng; M. Y. Xie; G. Wu



The Level of Protein in Milk Formula Modifies Ileal Sensitivity to LPS Later in Life in a Piglet Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMilk formulas have higher protein contents than human milk. This high protein level could modify the development of intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune functions and have long-term consequences.Methodology\\/Principal findingsWe investigated the effect of a high protein formula on ileal microbiota and physiology during the neonatal period and later in life. Piglets were fed from 2 to 28 days of

Livie Chatelais; Agnès Jamin; Christèle Gras-Le Guen; Jean-Paul Lallès; Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron; Gaëlle Boudry; Daniel Tomé



Oscillations of receptor-operated cationic current and internal calcium in single guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In single cells isolated from guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle, held under voltage clamp at -40 mV or -50 mV by patch pipette in the whole-cell recording mode, carbachol (CCh) evoked an oscillatory inward cationic current. The frequency of current oscillations increased with increasing CCh concentration. CCh-evoked current oscillations were followed very closely by oscillations in intracellular free Ca2+ estimated from

S. Komori; M. Kawai; P. Pacaud; H. Ohashi; T. B. Bolton



Incidence and natural history of dysplasia of the anal transitional zone after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Preservation of the anal transitional zone during ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is still controversial because of the risk of dysplasia and the theoretical risk of associated cancer. Without long-term follow-up data, the natural history and optimal treatment of anal transitional zone dysplasia are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term risk of dysplasia in the anal

M. G. O'Riordain; V. W. Fazio; I. C. Lavery; F. Remzi; N. Fabbri; J. Meneu; J. Goldblum; R. E. Petras



A New Drug Delivery System Targeting Ileal Epithelial Cells Induced Electrogenic Sodium Absorption: Possible Promotion of Intestinal Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated the induction of the epithelial sodium channel, prostasin, and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase\\u000a type 2 and activation of sodium transport mediated by those molecules in the remnant ileum after total proctocolectomy. The\\u000a aims of the present study were to develop a new drug delivery system that targets ileal epithelial cells and to enhance local\\u000a mineralocorticoid action without systemic effects.

Sho Haneda; Kouhei Fukushima; Yuji Funayama; Chikashi Shibata; Ken-Ichi Takahashi; Yasuhiko Tabata; Iwao Sasaki



Use of N?amino acid isotope dilution techniques to determine endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta in growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to determine the contribution of endogenous amino acids (AA) to total AA, using the N?AA and N?leucine isotope dilution techniques, in ileal digesta from growing pigs. Four barrows, initial body weight (BW) 33.8 ± 1.0 kg, were fitted with a simple T?cannula at the distal ileum and one catheter in each of the external jugular

Vince M. Gabert; Nuria Canibe; Henry Jørgensen; Bjørn O. Eggum; Willem C. Sauer



Pathogenesis of tropical sprue: A pilot study of antroduodenal manometry, duodenocaecal transit time & fat-induced ileal brake  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) due to ileal brake-induced hypomotility may cause tropical sprue (TS). We evaluated effect of infusion of fat or placebo in duodenum randomly in patients with TS and healthy controls on antroduodenal manometry (ADM) and mediators of ileal brake, and duodenocaecal transit time (DCTT). Methods: ADM and DCTT (lactulose hydrogen breath test, HBT) were evaluated with placebo and fat in eight controls and 13 patients with TS (diagnostic criteria: tests showing malabsorption of two unrelated substances, abnormal duodenal histology, absence of other causes, response to antibiotics and folate). Results: Patients with TS (6 had SIBO by glucose HBT) were similar in age and gender with controls. After fat infusion, proximal gut motility index (MI) was reduced compared to fasting state in TS, and DCTT was longer in TS than controls (200 min, 120-380 vs. 130, 70-160, P=0.001), though comparable after placebo (70 min, 30-140 vs. 60, 40-90). TS patients had higher PYY and neurotensin than controls after fat infusion. DCTT after fat infusion correlated with plasma level of PYY in TS but not in controls. Post-fat PYY and neurotensin levels were higher in TS with lower BMI (<16 kg/m2) than those with higher BMI. Parameters of ileal brake (post-fat DCTT, PYY and neurotensin) were higher in patients with than without SIBO. Interpretation & conclusions: Fat infusion reduced proximal gut MI, increased DCTT, PYY, and neurotensin among patients with TS. Malabsorbed fat might cause exaggerated ileal brake reducing gut motility, promoting SIBO and bacterial colonization and malabsorption in TS.

Ghoshal, Uday C.; Kumar, Sunil; Misra, Asha; Choudhuri, Gourdas



Pharmaceutical preparations of glutathione and methods of administration thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of altering an expression of a gene product in cells or an organism, comprising orally administering glutathione in an effective amount and under such conditions to alter a redox potential in the cells. The gene expression may be sensitive to redox potential through one or more of a process of induction, transcription, translation, post-translational modification, release, and/or through a receptor mediated process. The glutathione is preferably administered as an oral bolus of encapsulated pharmaceutically stabilized glutathione in a rapidly dissolving formulation to a mammal on an empty stomach.



Image analysis and CADx system for mucosal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer aided diagnosis (CADx) system for oral mucosal lesions has been developed using clinical cases from India as training examples. The investigated classifiers were support vector machine (SVM) and Bayes point machine (BPM), and the task was to discriminate potentially precancerous lesions from non-precancerous lesions. The discriminating features consisted of color differences and lesionspsila shape properties. The overall classification

Artur Chodorowski; Chitta R. Choudhury; Tomas Gustavsson



Regulation of Th17 cells in the mucosal surfaces  

PubMed Central

The mucosal surfaces represent the main intersection between jawed vertebrates and the environment. The mucosal surface of the intestine alone forms the largest surface that is exposed to exogenous antigens as well as the largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body. Therefore, a protective immune activity must coexist with efficient regulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a health status of these organisms. The discovery of a new lineage of helper T cells that produce interleukin (IL)-17 has provided valuable new insight into host defense and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases at the mucosal surfaces. Of particular interest for these surfaces, it has been reported that peripherally-induced regulatory T cells and Th17 effector cells arise in a mutually exclusive fashion, depending on whether they are activated in the presence of TGF-? or TGF-? plus inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. This review will address the protective and pathogenic roles of Th17 cells in the mucosal surfaces and potential regulatory mechanisms that control their development.

Mucida, Daniel; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram



Extrathymically generated regulatory T cells control mucosal Th2 inflammation  

PubMed Central

A balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms at mucosal interfaces, sites of constitutive exposure to microbes and non-microbial foreign substances, allows for efficient protection against pathogens yet prevents adverse inflammatory responses associated with allergy, asthma, and intestinal inflammation1. Regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent systemic and tissue-specific autoimmunity and inflammatory lesions at mucosal interfaces. These cells are generated in the thymus (tTreg cells) and in the periphery (iTreg cells) and their dual origin implies a division of labor between tTreg and iTreg cells in immune homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that a highly selective blockage in differentiation of iTreg cells did not lead to unprovoked multi-organ autoimmunity, exacerbation of induced tissue-specific autoimmune pathology (EAE), or increased pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cell responses. However, iTreg cell-deficient mice spontaneously developed pronounced Th2 type pathologies at mucosal sites — in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs — with hallmarks of allergic inflammation and asthma. Furthermore, iTreg cell deficiency altered gut microbial communities. These results suggest that whereas Treg cells generated in the thymus appear sufficient for control of systemic and tissue-specific autoimmunity, extrathymic differentiation of Treg cells impacts commensal microbiota composition and serves a distinct, essential function in restraint of allergic type inflammation at mucosal interfaces.

Josefowicz, Steven Z.; Niec, Rachel E.; Kim, Hye Young; Treuting, Piper; Chinen, Takatoshi; Zheng, Ye; Umetsu, Dale T.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.



A novel method of endoscopic mucosal resection using sodium hyaluronate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Saline-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection is an established therapeutic method. However, it is sometimes difficult to maintain a desired level of tissue elevation after injection of saline. Therefore we decided to use a mucinous substance such as sodium hyaluronate instead of saline. Methods: Two resected porcine stomachs and five dogs were used for the study. The elevations, made by submucosal

Hironori Yamamoto; Tomizo Yube; Norio Isoda; Yukihiro Sato; Yutaka Sekine; Toshihiko Higashizawa; Kenichi Ido; Ken Kimura; Nobuyuki Kanai



Serum Markers and Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Chronic Gastrointestinal Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diagnosing chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) is a challenging problem in clinical practice. Serum markers for CGI would be of great diagnostic value as a non-invasive test method. Aims: This study investigated serum markers in patients with well-defined ischemia. Furthermore, intestinal mucosal injury was also evaluated in CGI patients. Methods: Consecutive patients suspected of CGI were prospectively enrolled and underwent

Noord van D; P. B. F. Mensink; Knegt de R. J; M. Ouwendijk; J. Francke; Vuuren van A. J; B. E. Hansen; E. J. Kuipers



Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A role for the mucosal immune system in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome is suggested by its association with intestinal infections. Methods: To investigate this, we performed histologic and immunohistologic studies on colonoscopic biopsy specimens from 77 patients with symptoms satisfying the Rome criteria and 28 asymptomatic control patients. Results: Histologic assessment of biopsy specimens from

Vinton S. Chadwick; Wangxue Chen; Dairu Shu; Barbara Paulus; Peter Bethwaite; Andy Tie; Ian Wilson



Oral mucosal grafts: old technique in new light.  


Purpose: To present an update on indications and efficacy of oral mucosal grafts in the clinical management of ocular surface diseases focusing on the new developments of the last 5 years. Methods: Pubmed research on the databases of the years 2007 up to 2012 for the key words mucous membrane graft and eye, fornix reconstruction, eyelid reconstruction, and conjunctival replacement. Results: Well-documented clinical indications for oral mucosal grafting to the ocular surface include correction of restricted socket syndrome, ocular adnexal reconstruction after tumor resection, cicatricial ocular surface diseases and therapy-refractory pterygia. New indications are conjunctival insufficiency after filtrating glaucoma surgery and the combination of mucosa and amniotic membrane grafting for fornix reconstruction. Moreover, different strategies for ex vivo mucous epithelial cell expansion are under discussion. Conclusions: Oral mucosal grafting is a viable option for the replacement of the conjunctiva. Advantages include easily accessibility of grafts in sufficient size even for repeated procedures and a high stability of the grafts. On the other hand, nasal mucosal grafts are superior for some indications due to the lack of goblet cells in the oral mucosa. PMID:23838636

Mai, Christian; Bertelmann, Eckart



Oral mucosal hyperpigmentation secondary to antimalarial drug therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of oral mucosal hyperpigmentation resulting from antimalarial drug therapy is presented. The patient reported a history of long-term quinacrine therapy and exhibited diffuse blue-gray pigmentation of the nail beds and the skin of the nasal ala. Microscopic examination of the involved mucosa showed macrophages, containing both melanin and ferric iron, scattered within the connective tissue adjacent to the

Cynthia L. Kleinegger; Harold L. Hammond; Michael W. Finkelstein



Protection Against Mucosal Injury By Growth Factors and Cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of published studies in which growth factors and cytokines were used to modify the sensitivity of intestinal stem cells to a dose of radiation. In these experiments, growth factors were used to manipulate the sensitivity of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract to reduce the severity of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer therapy patients. Transforming growth

Dawn Booth; Christopher S. Potten


Mucosal Damage and Neutropenia Are Required for Candida albicans Dissemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans fungemia in cancer patients is thought to develop from initial gastrointestinal (GI) colonization with subsequent translocation into the bloodstream after administration of chemotherapy. It is unclear what components of the innate immune system are necessary for preventing C. albicans dissemination from the GI tract, but we have hypothesized that both neutropenia and GI mucosal damage are critical for

Andrew Y Koh; Julia R Köhler; Kathleen T Coggshall; Nico Van Rooijen; Gerald B Pier



Individual mammalian mucosal glucosidase subunits digest various starch structures differently  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch digestion in the human body requires two luminal enzymes,salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase (AMY), and four small intestinal mucosal enzyme activities related to the maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complexes. Starch consists of two polysaccharides, amylose (AM) and ...


Management of chronic mucosal otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic mucosal otitis media (COM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children worldwide. As it causes considerable morbidity and is a major global cause of hearing impairment, establishing its most effective treatment is important. It is generally accepted that antibiotic eardrops should be the first step in treating COM, and surgery the last when optimal medical treatment

E. L. van der Veen



Mucosal reactivity to cow's milk protein in coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with coeliac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet may still have gastrointestinal symptoms. On clinical grounds cow's milk (CM) protein sensitivity may be suspected. Here, using rectal protein challenge, we investigated the local inflammatory reaction to gluten and CM protein in adult patients with CD in remission. Rectal challenges with wheat gluten and dried CM powder were performed in 20 patients with CD and 15 healthy controls. Fifteen hours after challenge the mucosal reaction was recorded by the mucosal patch technique with measurements of local release of neutrophil and eosinophil granule constituents; myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). We measured the mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) simultaneously. Six of the patients who reacted to CM were also challenged with ?-lactalbumin and casein. In 18 of 20 patients gluten challenge induced neutrophil activation defined as increased MPO release and increased NO synthesis. Ten of these 20 patients showed a similarly strong inflammatory reaction to CM challenge. Six of the CM sensitive patients were challenged with specific CM proteins: casein and ?-lactalbumin. Casein, in contrast to ?-lactalbumin, induced an inflammatory response similar to that produced by CM. A mucosal inflammatory response similar to that elicited by gluten was produced by CM protein in about 50% of the patients with coeliac disease. Casein, in particular, seems to be involved in this reaction.

Kristjansson, G; Venge, P; Hallgren, R



Mucosal reactivity to cow's milk protein in coeliac disease.  


Patients with coeliac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet may still have gastrointestinal symptoms. On clinical grounds cow's milk (CM) protein sensitivity may be suspected. Here, using rectal protein challenge, we investigated the local inflammatory reaction to gluten and CM protein in adult patients with CD in remission. Rectal challenges with wheat gluten and dried CM powder were performed in 20 patients with CD and 15 healthy controls. Fifteen hours after challenge the mucosal reaction was recorded by the mucosal patch technique with measurements of local release of neutrophil and eosinophil granule constituents; myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). We measured the mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) simultaneously. Six of the patients who reacted to CM were also challenged with alpha-lactalbumin and casein. In 18 of 20 patients gluten challenge induced neutrophil activation defined as increased MPO release and increased NO synthesis. Ten of these 20 patients showed a similarly strong inflammatory reaction to CM challenge. Six of the CM sensitive patients were challenged with specific CM proteins: casein and alpha-lactalbumin. Casein, in contrast to alpha-lactalbumin, induced an inflammatory response similar to that produced by CM. A mucosal inflammatory response similar to that elicited by gluten was produced by CM protein in about 50% of the patients with coeliac disease. Casein, in particular, seems to be involved in this reaction. PMID:17302893

Kristjánsson, G; Venge, P; Hällgren, R



Intestinal mucosal injury in critically ill surgical patients: preliminary observations.  


This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the extent to which intestinal mucosal compromise occurs in adult critical care patients with and without systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to correlate the degree of intestinal injury with outcome. Ten patients from a university hospital surgical intensive care unit were identified who manifested SIRS at the time of admission to the intensive care unit. Five other critical care patients without SIRS were also evaluated. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was determined. Intestinal mucosal viability was assessed by serial measurement of serum and urine iFABP intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP), a sensitive and specific marker for mucosal injury. Outcome in terms of the development of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and survival was determined. iFABP was detectable in the serum or urine in 8 out of 10 patients with SIRS. Among the 4 patients with detectable serum iFABP, 2 died and 1 developed severe adult respiratory distress syndrome. Nine of 11 patients without detectable serum iFABP recovered without major morbidity. iFABP was detectable in most patients with SIRS, suggesting that subclinical intestinal mucosal compromise is a frequent component of this syndrome. When iFABP was detectable, particularly in the serum, the prognosis was poor, even in the absence of SIRS, indicating that iFABP may be a relevant and independent predictor of outcome in critical care patients. PMID:9915525

Gollin, G; Zieg, P M; Cohn, S M; Lieberman, J M; Marks, W H



Preventing Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

In this trial, patients undergoing combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiotherapy) for advanced head and neck cancer will receive intravenous palifermin or placebo before and during cancer treatment to prevent mucositis, a common but serious side effect of chemoradiotherapy for this type of cancer.


High-risk mucosal human papillomavirus infections during infancy & childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA tumour viruses associated with a variety of proliferative diseases. More than 100 types have been identified and can broadly be grouped into cutaneous and mucosal types according to their site of infection, and can be further subdivided into low-risk (LR) and high-risk (HR) types depending upon their association with malignancy. The main route of

John Cason; Christine A. Mant



Mucosal neuroma syndrome--a phenotype for malignancy.  

PubMed Central

The mucosal neuroma syndrome is characterised by a typical physical appearance, neuromata on tongue and buccal mucosa, and a high risk of developing medullary thyroid carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma. A case is described and the importance of early recognition for prevention of malignancy is stressed. Images Figure

White, M P; Goel, K M; Connor, J M; Coutts, N A



Mucosal Immunity: Its Role in Defense and Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between the organism and the outside world, which is the site of exchange of nutrients, export of products and waste components, must be selectively permeable and at the same time, it must constitute a barrier equipped with local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g. invading pathogens). The boundaries with the environment (mucosal and skin surfaces) are therefore covered

Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová; Bozena Cukrowska; David P. Funda; Hana Kozáková; Ilja Trebichavský; Dan Sokol; Petra Fundová; Dana Horáková; Lenka Jelínková; Daniel Sánchez



Management of Severe Cicatricial Entropion Using Shared Mucosal Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: The medical records of 12 consecutive pa- tients, representing 15 shared buttress grafts, were re- viewed. There were 5 hard palate and 10 nasal turbinate mucosal grafts placed. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 7 years. Results: The amount of corneal stipple, as well as sub- jective patient comfort, improved after eyelid margin re- construction in 12 of the

Robert A. Goldberg; Aarchan R. Joshi; John D. McCann; Norman Shorr


Mucositis from Radiotherapy to the Head and Neck: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

ucositis, characterised by inflammation and denudation of the affected mucosa, is an inevitable and important consequence of radiotherapy to the head and neck. It is acutely painful, adversely affecting patients' quality of life, and can be the dose-limiting toxicity of radiotherapy regimes. In the most severe cases, notably when chemotherapy is given concurrently, mucositis can be life threatening, either because

Kathleen Mais; Nurse Clinician



Recombinant activated factor VII as treatment for uncontrolled mucosal haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

We report the use of a haemostatic drug (recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)) in a patient who presented a slow but constant bleed in oesophageal mucosa (which required frequent red blood cell transfusion) due to ingestion of caustic products. The administration of rFVIIa ceased bleeding and allowed mucosal cicatrisation and patient haemodynamic stabilisation and clinical recovery.

Gracia, J; Prieto, I



Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated mucositis with minimal skin manifestations.  


Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated mucositis is a rarely described complication of M. pneumoniae infection presenting with ocular, oral, and genital involvement but without the typical skin lesions seen in Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A 27-year-old man with a past history of asthma presented at the emergency room with a 1-week history of cough (initially non-productive but subsequently associated with non-bloody mucopurulent sputum), fever, myalgias, headache, and progressive dyspnea. Two days before admission he had commenced amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with no improvement. The patient reported bilateral conjunctival injection and hemorrhagic ulcers on the lips commencing the day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed fever (39 degrees C), bilateral exudative conjunctivitis, painful hemorrhagic ulcers on the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa, small scrotal erosions, erythema of the penile meatus, and small erythematous bullae on the dorsum of each hand; subsequently, the patient developed bullae at the venipuncture site on his right arm. Laboratory tests revealed positive IgM serology for M. pneumoniae, with titer elevation. The patient was successfully treated with levofloxacin and prednisolone. Our case appears to be the first adult patient described with M. pneumoniae-associated mucositis, which has previously been reported only in pediatric patients. This is also the first reported instance of a case of M. pneumoniae-associated mucositis treated with levofloxacin and prednisolone. M. pneumoniae infection should be considered in all cases of mucositis, and treatment of this condition with levofloxacin and prednisolone seems to be effective. PMID:18973408

Figueira-Coelho, João; Lourenço, Sofia; Pires, Ana Cristina; Mendonça, Paula; Malhado, José António



Probiotics the Good Neighbor: Guarding the Gut Mucosal Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The disruption of gut barrier function plays a cru cial role in the pathogenesis of not only gastrointestinal diseases, but also the diseases of liver and other organs. Mucosal protective factors that preserve the gut ba rrier integrity are beneficial in the prevention an d treatment of such diseases. Probiotics is a group o f helpful bacteria that

R. K. Rao; D. B. Polk; A. Seth; F. Yan



Efficacy and Safety of Pentostam in Peruvian Mucosal Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first part of this study we showed that the World Health Organization recommended regimen for the treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis, which is 20 mg antimony (Sb)/kilogram body weight/day for a minimum period of 28 days, although safe, is ineffecti...

E. Franke



Gata4 Is Essential for the Maintenance of Jejunal-Ileal Identities in the Adult Mouse Small Intestine?  

PubMed Central

Gata4, a member of the zinc finger family of GATA transcription factors, is highly expressed in duodenum and jejunum but is nearly undetectable in distal ileum of adult mice. We show here that the caudal reduction of Gata4 is conserved in humans. To test the hypothesis that the regional expression of Gata4 is critical for the maintenance of jejunal-ileal homeostasis in the adult small intestine in vivo, we established an inducible, intestine-specific model that results in the synthesis of a transcriptionally inactive Gata4 mutant. Synthesis of mutant Gata4 in jejuna of 6- to 8-week-old mice resulted in an attenuation of absorptive enterocyte genes normally expressed in jejunum but not in ileum, including those for the anticipated targets liver fatty acid binding protein (Fabp1) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), and a surprising induction of genes normally silent in jejunum but highly expressed in ileum, specifically those involved in bile acid transport. Inactivation of Gata4 resulted in an increase in the goblet cell population and a redistribution of the enteroendocrine subpopulations, all toward an ileal phenotype. The gene encoding Math1, a known activator of the secretory cell fate, was induced ?75% (P < 0.05). Gata4 is thus an important positional signal required for the maintenance of jejunal-ileal identities in the adult mouse small intestine.

Bosse, Tjalling; Piaseckyj, Christina M.; Burghard, Ellen; Fialkovich, John J.; Rajagopal, Satish; Pu, William T.; Krasinski, Stephen D.



Gata4 is essential for the maintenance of jejunal-ileal identities in the adult mouse small intestine.  


Gata4, a member of the zinc finger family of GATA transcription factors, is highly expressed in duodenum and jejunum but is nearly undetectable in distal ileum of adult mice. We show here that the caudal reduction of Gata4 is conserved in humans. To test the hypothesis that the regional expression of Gata4 is critical for the maintenance of jejunal-ileal homeostasis in the adult small intestine in vivo, we established an inducible, intestine-specific model that results in the synthesis of a transcriptionally inactive Gata4 mutant. Synthesis of mutant Gata4 in jejuna of 6- to 8-week-old mice resulted in an attenuation of absorptive enterocyte genes normally expressed in jejunum but not in ileum, including those for the anticipated targets liver fatty acid binding protein (Fabp1) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), and a surprising induction of genes normally silent in jejunum but highly expressed in ileum, specifically those involved in bile acid transport. Inactivation of Gata4 resulted in an increase in the goblet cell population and a redistribution of the enteroendocrine subpopulations, all toward an ileal phenotype. The gene encoding Math1, a known activator of the secretory cell fate, was induced approximately 75% (P < 0.05). Gata4 is thus an important positional signal required for the maintenance of jejunal-ileal identities in the adult mouse small intestine. PMID:16940177

Bosse, Tjalling; Piaseckyj, Christina M; Burghard, Ellen; Fialkovich, John J; Rajagopal, Satish; Pu, William T; Krasinski, Stephen D



Interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rabbit ileal cell membrane  

SciTech Connect

An interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor on active electrolyte transport was demonstrated in rabbit ileum. Clonidine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist, stimulated NaCl absorption apparently by Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonism since it inhibited /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ uptake across the basolateral membrane and decreased total ileal calcium content. This stimulation was inhibited by the Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists dl- and l-verapamil and cadmium but not by nifedipine. The binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine, a specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic antagonist, was studied on purified ileal cell membranes using a rapid filtration technique. dl-Verapamil and Cd/sup + +/ inhibited the specific binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine over the same concentration range in which they affected transport. In contrast, nifedipine had no effect on binding, just as it had no effect on clonidine-stimulated NaCl absorption. These data demonstrate that there is an interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channels and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in ileal basolateral membranes. Some Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists alter ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic binding to the receptor and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist binding leads to changes in Ca/sup + +/ entry. A close spatial relationship between the Ca/sup + +/-channel and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor could explain the data.

Homeidan, F.R.; Wicks, J.; Cusolito, S.; El-Sabban, M.E.; Sharp, G.W.G.; Donowitz, M.



Regional specialization in the mucosal immune system: what happens in the microcompartments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal immunity is an important arm of the immune system because it operates in tissues involved in everyday infectious defence as well as in tolerance against innocuous environmental and dietary antigens. Here, Per Brandtzaeg and colleagues discuss compartmentalized regulation of mucosal B cells and mechanisms that might explain the strikingly regionalized effector disparity of the human mucosal immune system.

Per Brandtzaeg; Espen S Baekkevold; Inger N Farstad; Frode L Jahnsen; Finn-Eirik Johansen; Ellen M Nilsen; Takeshi Yamanaka



[Usefulness of antimycotic agents (itraconazole) in chemotherapy-induced mucositis of breast cancer patients].  


Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is a common adverse event in breast cancer patients. Breakdown of the mucosal barrier predisposes the patient to bacterial, fungal and viral superinfection, especially candidiasis. We demonstrated the frequency of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and oral candidiasis, and the efficacy of antimycotic agents in breast cancer patients. We investigated 32 patients with advanced and metastatic breast cancer who underwent chemotherapy in our department from March, 2009 to August, 2010. The chemotherapy regimens were as follows: FEC (epirubicin/5-FU/cyclophosphamide) followed by taxanes: 21, FEC: 1, TC (docetaxel/cyclophosphamide): 7, DOC (docetaxel): 3, and CPT-11/S-1: 1. Patients had blood and bacteria tests of the oral cavity at the time mucositis symptoms appeared. We administered an antimycotic agent (itraconazole) and evaluated its effect on mucositis at the time mucositis symptoms appeared. 56. 3% of patients had chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, and 38. 9% of the mucositis patients had oral candidiasis. The incidence of mucositis increased when severe neutropenia occurred. 92. 9% of mucositis patients were cured or improved by itraconazole. In conclusion, chemotherapy caused oral candidiasis in 40% of cases with oral mucositis, and in about 56% of breast cancer patients. The antimycotic agent may be useful for chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in breast cancer patients. PMID:22996771

Tsuyuki, Shigeru; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Kawata, Yukiko; Yamaguchi, Ayane; Kanazawa, Akiyoshi; Sugitatsu, Mitsuchika; Kono, Yukihiro



Management of Mucosal Fenestrations by Interdisciplinary Approach: A Report of Three Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Mucosal fenestrations are infrequently encountered in clinical practice, and as such, their management has not been reported often. Their treatment might be further complicated by communication, with the oral environment making them susceptible to the deposition of plaque and calculus, a secondary factor in preventing reformation of mucosal covering. Methods: Three cases of mucosal fenestrations are presented, of which

Hiral M. Jhaveri; Snehal Amberkar; Lokesh Galav; Vijay L. Deshmukh; Shalini Aggarwal