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Sample records for ileal mucosal glutathione

  1. Probiotics Prevent Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Acute Pancreatitis in Rats via Induction of Ileal Mucosal Glutathione Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Sandström, Per A.; Trulsson, Lena M.; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Timmerman, Harro M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Söderholm, Johan D.

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute pancreatitis (AP), oxidative stress contributes to intestinal barrier failure. We studied actions of multispecies probiotics on barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental AP. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty-three male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: 1) controls, non-operated, 2) sham-operated, 3) AP, 4) AP and probiotics and 5) AP and placebo. AP was induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion and intravenous cerulein (6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting five days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, ileal mucosa was collected for measurements of E. coli K12 and 51Cr-EDTA passage in Ussing chambers. Tight junction proteins were investigated by confocal immunofluorescence imaging. Ileal mucosal apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels were determined and glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity and expression were quantified. AP-induced barrier dysfunction was characterized by epithelial cell apoptosis and alterations of tight junction proteins (i.e. disruption of occludin and claudin-1 and up-regulation of claudin-2) and correlated with lipid peroxidation (r>0.8). Probiotic pre-treatment diminished the AP-induced increase in E. coli passage (probiotics 57.4±33.5 vs. placebo 223.7±93.7 a.u.; P<0.001), 51Cr-EDTA flux (16.7±10.1 vs. 32.1±10.0 cm/s10−6; P<0.005), apoptosis, lipid peroxidation (0.42±0.13 vs. 1.62±0.53 pmol MDA/mg protein; P<0.001), and prevented tight junction protein disruption. AP-induced decline in glutathione was not only prevented (14.33±1.47 vs. 8.82±1.30 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001), but probiotics even increased mucosal glutathione compared with sham rats (14.33±1.47 vs. 10.70±1.74 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, which is rate-limiting in glutathione biosynthesis, was enhanced in probiotic pre-treated animals (probiotics 2.88±1.21 vs. placebo 1.94±0.55 nmol/min/mg protein; P<0

  2. Ileal mucosal absorption of bile acid in man: validation of a miniature flux chamber technique.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, K B; Davie, R J; Panagamuwa, B; Grobler, S; Keighley, M R; Birch, N J

    1992-01-01

    A method that allows the quantitative assessment of ileal mucosal cell uptake and transport of bile acids in mucosal biopsy specimens has been validated. Viability of the tissue was confirmed by maintenance of normal cell morphology, wet weight, extracellular space, porosity to polyethylene glycol-900, lactate dehydrogenase release, and transmucosal potential difference. Using 14C-taurocholic acid, absorption was shown to be directional, capable of working against a concentration gradient, reduced by metabolic inhibitors, and sodium dependent. The system showed saturation kinetics with an estimated Km of 10 mumol/l. At a standard substrate concentration of 10 mumol/l ileal mucosal bile acid absorption was compared in patients with colorectal cancer (n = 6), ulcerative colitis (n = 10), and slow transit constipation (n = 8). There was no significant difference in tissue uptake or transport between the three groups. Images Figure 2 PMID:1582593

  3. Alterations of the Ileal and Colonic Mucosal Microbiota in Canine Chronic Enteropathies

    PubMed Central

    Cassmann, Eric; White, Robin; Atherly, Todd; Wang, Chong; Sun, Yaxuan; Khoda, Samir; Mosher, Curtis; Ackermann, Mark; Jergens, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. While imbalances in duodenal and fecal microbial communities have been associated with mucosal inflammation, relatively little is known about alterations in mucosal bacteria seen with CE involving the ileum and colon. Aim To investigate the composition and spatial organization of mucosal microbiota in dogs with CE and controls. Methods Tissue sections from endoscopic biopsies of the ileum and colon from 19 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 6 dogs with granulomatous colitis (GC), 12 dogs with intestinal neoplasia, and 15 controls were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on a quantifiable basis. Results The ileal and colonic mucosa of healthy dogs and dogs with CE is predominantly colonized by bacteria localized to free and adherent mucus compartments. CE dogs harbored more (P < 0.05) mucosal bacteria belonging to the Clostridium-coccoides/Eubacterium rectale group, Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli versus controls. Within the CE group, IBD dogs had increased (P < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli bacteria attached onto surface epithelia or invading within the intestinal mucosa. Bacterial invasion with E. coli was observed in the ileal and colonic mucosa of dogs with GC (P < 0.05). Dogs with intestinal neoplasia had increased (P < 0.05) adherent (total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli) and invasive (Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and Bacteroides) bacteria in biopsy specimens. Increased numbers of total bacteria adherent to the colonic mucosa were associated with clinical disease severity in IBD dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusion Pathogenic events in canine CE are associated with different populations of the ileal and colonic mucosal microbiota. PMID:26840462

  4. Endorectal ileoanal anastomosis with isoperistaltic ileal reservoir after colectomy and mucosal proctectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Fonkalsrud, E W

    1984-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with chronic ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapy and four with multiple polyposis have undergone total colectomy, mucosal protectomy, and endorectal ileal pull-through with ileoanal anastomosis at the UCLA Medical Center during the past 12 years (mean age, 19.4 years). Thirty-eight patients underwent second-stage closure of the ileostomy with construction of a side-to-side isoperistaltic ileal reservoir (mean, 6 months) after the ileal pullthrough operation. The anastomosis extended over a 20-30 cm distance and the lower end was placed within 6-8 cm of the ileonanal anastomosis. Transient reservoir inflammation, which occurred in half of the patients, was reduced by the use of oral metranidazole and was rarely found 6 months after operation. No patients died during the early or late post-operative periods. Cuff abscess in two patients and obstruction of the ileal reservoir outlet have required takedown of the reservoir (two patients) or temporary ileostomy (three patients). Of the 38 patients who have undergone lateral ileal reservoir construction, 33 have achieved a good to excellent result with complete continence and an average of five stools per 24 hours after 6 months. At least 12 patients now participate in competitive athletics; normal sexual activity has been achieved in all but one patient. Seven patients await construction of the reservoir. Although a technically difficult operation, the long-term results (mean, 19.4 months) indicate that the pullthrough operation is a good alternative to standard proctocolectomy. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6696530

  5. Protective role of intracellular glutathione against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, H.; Hiraishi, H.; Ota, S.; Yoshida, H.; Ivey, K.J.; Terano, A.; Sugimoto, T. )

    1990-06-01

    This study investigated whether intracellular glutathione is cytoprotective against ethanol-induced injury to cultured rat gastric mucosal cells in vitro. Secondly, it investigated whether reduced glutathione or oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. Cytolysis was quantified by measuring 51Cr release from prelabeled cells. Concentrations of ethanol greater than 12% caused cell damage and increased 51Cr release in a dose-dependent and time-related fashion. When a substrate for glutathione synthesis, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, was provided to cultured cells for 4 h before challenge with ethanol, cytolysis was significantly decreased corresponding with an increase in cellular glutathione content. Pretreatment with diethyl maleate, which depletes reduced glutathione without forming oxidized glutathione, potentiated ethanol-induced cell damage in a dose-dependent manner with the decrease of cellular glutathione content. The administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (which is specifically reduced by glutathione peroxidase to generate oxidized glutathione from reduced glutathione) or diamide (which nonenzymatically oxidizes reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione) enhanced ethanol injury. We conclude that in cultured gastric mucosal cells, (a) intracellular glutathione maintains integrity of gastric mucosal cells against ethanol in vitro; and (b) reduced glutathione rather than oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. We postulate that the presence of reduced glutathione is essential to allow glutathione peroxidase to catalyze the ethanol-generated toxic oxygen radical, hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Glutathione prevents ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage and depletion of sulfhydryl compounds in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Loguercio, C; Taranto, D; Beneduce, F; del Vecchio Blanco, C; de Vincentiis, A; Nardi, G; Romano, M

    1993-01-01

    Whether parenteral administration of reduced glutathione prevented ethanol induced damage to and depletion of sulfhydryl compounds in the human gastric mucosa was investigated. Ten healthy volunteers underwent endoscopy on three separate occasions. Gastric mucosal damage was induced by spraying 80% ethanol on to the gastric mucosa through the biopsy channel of the endoscope. The gastric mucosal score, total sulfhydryls, glutathione, and cysteine were evaluated in basal conditions and after ethanol administration with and without pretreatment with parenteral glutathione. Glutathione significantly decreased the extent of ethanol induced macroscopic injury to the mucosa of the gastric body and antrum. Glutathione's protective effect is associated with appreciable inhibition of ethanol induced depletion of gastric sulfhydryl compounds. This is the first report of protection against ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage by a sulfhydryl containing agent in humans. PMID:8432465

  7. Cruciferous vegetables and glutathione: their effects on colon mucosal glutathione level and colon tumor development in rats induced by DMH.

    PubMed

    Chen, M F; Chen, L T; Boyce, H W

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a diet containing 10-40% lyophilized cabbage or broccoli as cruciferous vegetable or 10-40% lyophilized potato as noncruciferous vegetable fed for 14 days on the colon mucosal glutathione (GSH) level was studied in male rats. The GSH levels of the duodenum mucosa and the liver were also measured. Cabbage and broccoli enhanced the colon and duodenum mucosal GSH levels in a dose-related manner; potato had no effect. All three vegetables had no effect on the liver GSH level. The effect of GSH on colon tumorigenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was also examined in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with DMH (20 mg/kg body wt) weekly for 20 weeks. DMH lowered the colon mucosal GSH level. GSH (100 mg/day/rat) dissolved in the drinking water and given to rats during and after DMH injections had little or no effect on tumor incidence and total number of colon tumors. Tumors were larger in rats that received GSH than in those that received water. This study shows that the colon mucosal GSH level can be enhanced by feeding rats a diet high in cabbage or broccoli and that GSH added to the drinking water did not affect DMH-induced colon tumorigenesis under the experimental conditions used. PMID:7739917

  8. Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Aw, Tak Yee . E-mail: taw@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-01

    The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little of the pathways of intestinal transport, metabolism, and luminal disposition of dietary peroxides in vivo or of the underlying mechanisms of lipid peroxide-induced genesis of intestinal disease processes. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the determinants of intestinal absorption and metabolism of peroxidized lipids. I will review experimental evidence from our laboratory and others (Table 1) supporting the pivotal role that glutathione (GSH) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) play in mucosal transport and metabolism of lipid hydroperoxides and how reductant availability can be compromised under chronic stress such as hypoxia, and the influence of GSH on oxidative susceptibility, and redox contribution to genesis of gut disorders. The discussion is pertinent to understanding dietary lipid peroxides and GSH redox balance in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the significance of luminal GSH in preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium.

  9. Demonstration of Trophozoites of G. Lamblia in Ileal Mucosal Biopsy Specimens May Reveal Giardiasis in Patients With Significantly Inflamed Parasite-free Duodenal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Georg; Mesteri, Ildiko; Kopf, Wolfram; Müller, Heiko

    2016-09-01

    In the majority of individuals, infestation with trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (synonymous G. duodenalis or G. intestinalis) leads to a self-limited disease. Whereas most duodenal biopsies with chronic giardiasis show little or no inflammatory reaction, some patients may develop a severe disease with significant mucosal inflammation and various degrees of villous blunting. Occasionally, the histologic changes may resemble those of celiac disease. In this paper, we describe 11 patients, 5 of them female, with chronic giardiasis and demonstrable G. lamblia in ileal biopsies. The median age was 45 years (35 to 62 y), with male patients being at least 10 years younger than female patients. All of the duodenal biopsies showed at least mild villous blunting (grading: mild, marked, or total). In the mucosa an increased number of plasma cells and lymphocytes was observed. Furthermore, varying numbers of granulocytes were found in the lamina propria and in the epithelial layer. In 1 case only, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes was >40/100 epithelial cells thus mirroring the histologic picture of celiac disease with a flat mucosa (with negative celiac disease-specific serological findings). Interestingly enough, all mucosal biopsy specimens from the duodenum were parasite free. Therefore, giardiasis could only be revealed by the demonstration of trophozoites of G. lamblia in biopsy specimens from the terminal ileum, which had been taken simultaneously or several weeks later. In contrast to duodenal biopsies, the ileal mucosa appeared either normal or only mildly inflamed in this setting. All patients but 1 were symptomatic, with chronic diarrhea being the leading symptom. Symptoms resolved after antibiotic therapy. This study demonstrates that giardiasis may be associated with a significant duodenal pathology in biopsy specimens without discernible parasites. In the cases described here infestation with G. lamblia was only proven histologically by examination of

  10. Glutathione depletion impairs transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Rokutan, K; Hirakawa, T; Teshima, S; Honda, S; Kishi, K

    1996-05-15

    When primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells were exposed to heat (43 degree C), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or diamide, heat shock proteins (HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and HSC73) were rapidly synthesized. The extent of each HSP induction varied with the type of stress. Ethanol, H2O2, and diamide increased the syntheses of several other undefined proteins besides the HSPs. However, none of these proteins were induced by exposure to heat or the reagents, when intracellular glutathione was depleted to <10% of the control level by pretreatment with DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine. Gel mobility shift assay using a synthetic oligonucleotide coding HSP70 heat shock element showed that glutathione depletion inhibited the heat- and the reagent-initiated activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and did not promote the expression of HSP70 mRNA. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum against HSF1 demonstrated that the steady-state level of HSF1 was not changed in glutathione-depleted cells, but glutathione depletion inhibited the nuclear translocation of HSF1 after exposure to heat stress. These results suggest that intracellular glutathione may support early and important biochemical events in the acquisition by gastric mucosal cells of an adaptive response to irritants. PMID:8636403

  11. Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores. PMID:22303267

  12. Effect of added zinc in diets with ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Paulk, C B; Burnett, D D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Hill, G M; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, carcass yield, and loin weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, loin depth, percentage lean, and liver weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when Zn

  13. Marked Differences in Mucosal Immune Responses Induced in Ileal versus Jejunal Peyer’s Patches to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Secreted Proteins following Targeted Enteric Infection in Young Calves

    PubMed Central

    Facciuolo, Antonio; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is primarily mediated through M cells overlying Peyer’s patches (PP) in the ileum. The capacity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to invade ileal PP (IPP) versus discrete PP in the jejunum (JPP) and subsequent differences in mucosal immune responses were investigated. Intestinal segments were surgically prepared in both mid-jejunum, containing two JPPs, and in terminal small intestine containing continuous IPP. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (109 CFU) was injected into the lumen of half of each intestinal segment when calves were 10–14 days-old and infection confirmed 1–2 months later by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Thirteen recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins, previously identified as immunogenic, were used to analyze pathogen-specific B- and T-cell responses in PP and mesenteric lymph nodes. IgA plasma cell responses to 9 of 13 recombinant proteins were detected in JPP but not in IPP. Secretory IgA reacting in ELISA with 9 of the 13 recombinant proteins was detected in luminal contents from both jejunal and ileal segments. These observations support the conclusion that pathogen-specific IgA B cells were induced in JPP but not IPP early after a primary infection. The presence of secretory IgA in intestinal contents is consistent with dissemination of IgA plasma cells from the identified mucosa-associated immune induction sites. This is the first direct evidence for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis uptake by bovine JPP and for local induction of pathogen-specific IgA plasma cell responses after enteric infection. We also provide evidence that bacterial invasion of IPP, a primary B lymphoid tissue, provides a novel strategy to evade induction of mucosal immune responses. Over 60% of PPs in the newborn calf small intestine is primary lymphoid tissue, which has significant implications when designing oral vaccines or diagnostic tests to detect early M. avium subsp

  14. Systemic and mucosal immune responses after intranasal administration of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin expressing glutathione S-transferase from Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Kremer, L; Dupré, L; Riveau, G; Capron, A; Locht, C

    1998-12-01

    A major goal of current vaccine development is the induction of strong immune responses against protective antigens delivered by mucosal routes. One of the most promising approaches in that respect relies on the use of live recombinant vaccine carriers. In this study, Mycobacterium bovis BCG was engineered to produce an intracellular glutathione S-transferase from Schistosoma haematobium (Sh28GST). The gene encoding Sh28GST was placed under the control of the mycobacterial hsp60 promoter on a replicative shuttle plasmid containing a mercury resistance operon as the only selectable marker. The recombinant Sh28GST produced in BCG bound glutathione and expressed enzymatic activity, indicating that its active site was properly folded. Both intraperitoneal and intranasal immunizations of BALB/c mice with the recombinant BCG resulted in strong anti-Sh28GST antibody responses, which were enhanced by a boost. Mice immunized intranasally produced a mixed response with the production of Sh28GST-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgA in the serum. In addition, high levels of anti-Sh28GST IgA were also found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, demonstrating that intranasal delivery of the recombinant BCG was able to induce long-lasting secretory and systemic immune responses to antigens expressed intracellularly. Surprisingly, intranasal immunization with the BCG producing the Sh28GST induced a much stronger specific humoral response than intranasal immunization with BCG producing the glutathione S-transferase from Schistosoma mansoni, although the two antigens have over 90% identity. This difference was not observed after intraperitoneal administration. PMID:9826340

  15. Cystolitholapaxy in Ileal Conduit

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jesse; Giuliano, Katherine; Sopko, Nikolai; Gandhi, Nilay; Jayram, Gautam; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common complication of surgically treated bladder exstrophy. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with a history of exstrophy, cystectomy, and ileal conduit urinary diversion presenting with a large calculus at the stomal neck of her conduit in the absence of a structural defect. PMID:26793546

  16. NOD2 Status and Human Ileal Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Christina M.; Reimers, Melissa A.; McCullough, Casey K.; Gorbe, Elizabeth B.; Lu, Jianyun; Gu, C. Charles; Li, Ellen; Dieckgraefe, Brian K.; Gong, Qingqing; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Stone, Christian D.; Dietz, David W.; Hunt, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background NOD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk of ileal Crohn’s disease. This exploratory study was conducted to compare ileal mucosal gene expression in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients with and without NOD2 risk alleles. Methods Ileal samples were prospectively collected from eighteen non-smoking CD patients not treated with anti-TNFα biologics and nine non-smoking control patients without inflammatory bowel disease undergoing initial resection, and genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, Leu1007fs). Microarray analysis was performed in samples from four NOD2R (at least one risk allele) CD patients, four NOD2NR (no risk alleles) CD patients and four NOD2NR controls. Candidate genes selected by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of all the samples. Results SAM detected upregulation of 18 genes in affected ileum in NOD2R compared to NOD2NR CD patients, including genes related to lymphocyte activation. SAM also detected altered ileal gene expression in unaffected NOD2NR ileal mucosal CD samples compared to NOD2NR control samples. QRT-PCR conducted on all the samples confirmed that increased CD3D expression in affected samples was associated with NOD2R status, and that increased MUC1, DUOX2, DMBT1 and decreased C4orf7 expression in unaffected samples was associated with CD, independent of NOD2 status. Conclusions The results support the concept that NOD2 risk alleles contribute to impaired regulation of inflammation in the ileum. Furthermore, altered ileal gene expression, independent of NOD2 status, is detected in the unaffected proximal margin of resected ileum from CD patients. PMID:20155851

  17. An ileal endometrioma: of carcinoids and cadherin.

    PubMed

    Pannala, Rahul; Gafni-Kane, Adam; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M

    2007-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with history of prior adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome presented with intermittent right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and non-bloody diarrhea for 2 months. Symptoms were not related to her menstrual periods. Examination revealed only an ill-defined mass in the RLQ. Investigations for infectious causes, inflammatory bowel disease, and carcinoid tumor were negative. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a terminal ileal mass with mesenteric stranding and dilatation of the proximal bowel. At laparotomy, a fibrotic, terminal ileal mass with matted adhesions involving the mesentery and retroperitoneum was resected. Histopathological examination identified multiple foci of endometriosis extending from the serosal surface into the mucosa of the terminal ileum. Immunostaining revealed E- and P-cadherin, but not N-cadherin immuno-positivity. Mucosal involvement without cyclical menstrual symptoms and intestinal obstruction is an unusual presentation of intestinal endometriosis. Although the mechanism of endometriosis is not clear, the role of cell adhesion molecules such as cadherins has received attention. Increased expression of E- and P-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin expression in our patient demonstrates differential expression of these cadherins in endometriotic tissue. Future studies may investigate patterns of differential expression of these cadherins in a series of cases to elucidate the mechanisms of migration of endometriotic tissue. PMID:17390177

  18. The schistosome glutathione S-transferase P28GST, a unique helminth protein, prevents intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis through a Th2-type response with mucosal eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Driss, V; El Nady, M; Delbeke, M; Rousseaux, C; Dubuquoy, C; Sarazin, A; Gatault, S; Dendooven, A; Riveau, G; Colombel, J F; Desreumaux, P; Dubuquoy, L; Capron, M

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal helminth parasites are potent inducers of T helper type 2 (Th2) response and have a regulatory role, notably on intestinal inflammation. As infection with schistosomes is unlikely to provide a reliable treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, we have investigated the beneficial effect of a schistosome enzymatic protein, the 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (P28GST), on the modulation of disease activity and immune responses in experimental colitis. Our results showed that immunization with recombinant P28GST is at least as efficient as established schistosome infection to reduce colitis lesions and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Considering underlying mechanisms, the decrease of inflammatory parameters was associated with the polarization of the immune system toward a Th2 profile, with local and systemic increases of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5. Dense eosinophil infiltration was observed in the colons of P28GST-immunized rats and mice. Depletion of eosinophils by treatment with an anti-Siglec-F monoclonal antibody and use of IL-5-deficient mice led to the loss of therapeutic effect, suggesting the crucial role for eosinophils in colitis prevention by P28GST. These findings reveal that immunization with P28GST, a unique recombinant schistosome enzyme, ameliorates intestinal inflammation through eosinophil-dependent modulation of harmful type 1 responses, representing a new immuno-regulatory strategy against inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26174763

  19. The schistosome glutathione S-transferase P28GST, a unique helminth protein, prevents intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis through a Th2-type response with mucosal eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Driss, V; El Nady, M; Delbeke, M; Rousseaux, C; Dubuquoy, C; Sarazin, A; Gatault, S; Dendooven, A; Riveau, G; Colombel, J F; Desreumaux, P; Dubuquoy, L; Capron, M

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal helminth parasites are potent inducers of T helper type 2 (Th2) response and have a regulatory role, notably on intestinal inflammation. As infection with schistosomes is unlikely to provide a reliable treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, we have investigated the beneficial effect of a schistosome enzymatic protein, the 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (P28GST), on the modulation of disease activity and immune responses in experimental colitis. Our results showed that immunization with recombinant P28GST is at least as efficient as established schistosome infection to reduce colitis lesions and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Considering underlying mechanisms, the decrease of inflammatory parameters was associated with the polarization of the immune system toward a Th2 profile, with local and systemic increases of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5. Dense eosinophil infiltration was observed in the colons of P28GST-immunized rats and mice. Depletion of eosinophils by treatment with an anti-Siglec-F monoclonal antibody and use of IL-5-deficient mice led to the loss of therapeutic effect, suggesting the crucial role for eosinophils in colitis prevention by P28GST. These findings reveal that immunization with P28GST, a unique recombinant schistosome enzyme, ameliorates intestinal inflammation through eosinophil-dependent modulation of harmful type 1 responses, representing a new immuno-regulatory strategy against inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26174763

  20. Reduced Paneth cell α-defensins in ileal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wehkamp, Jan; Salzman, Nita H.; Porter, Edith; Nuding, Sabine; Weichenthal, Michael; Petras, Robert E.; Shen, Bo; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Linzmeier, Rose; Feathers, Ryan W.; Chu, Hiutung; Lima, Heriberto; Fellermann, Klaus; Ganz, Tomas; Stange, Eduard F.; Bevins, Charles L.

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn′s disease (CD), an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, is attributed, in part, to intestinal bacteria that may initiate and perpetuate mucosal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. Paneth cells (PC) are the major source of antimicrobial peptides in the small intestine, including human α-defensins HD5 and HD6. We tested the hypothesis that reduced expression of PC α-defensins compromises mucosal host defenses and predisposes patients to CD of the ileum. We report that patients with CD of the ileum have reduced antibacterial activity in their intestinal mucosal extracts. These specimens also showed decreased expression of PC α-defensins, whereas the expression of eight other PC products either remained unchanged or increased when compared with controls. The specific decrease of α-defensins was independent of the degree of inflammation in the specimens and was not observed in either CD of the colon, ulcerative colitis, or pouchitis. The functional consequence of α-defensin expression levels was examined by using a transgenic mouse model, where we found changes in HD5 expression levels, comparable to those observed in CD, had a pronounced impact on the luminal microbiota. Thus, the specific deficiency of PC defensins that characterizes ileal CD may compromise innate immune defenses of the ileal mucosa and initiate and/or perpetuate this disease. PMID:16330776

  1. Reduced Paneth cell alpha-defensins in ileal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Wehkamp, Jan; Salzman, Nita H; Porter, Edith; Nuding, Sabine; Weichenthal, Michael; Petras, Robert E; Shen, Bo; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Linzmeier, Rose; Feathers, Ryan W; Chu, Hiutung; Lima, Heriberto; Fellermann, Klaus; Ganz, Tomas; Stange, Eduard F; Bevins, Charles L

    2005-12-13

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, is attributed, in part, to intestinal bacteria that may initiate and perpetuate mucosal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. Paneth cells (PC) are the major source of antimicrobial peptides in the small intestine, including human alpha-defensins HD5 and HD6. We tested the hypothesis that reduced expression of PC alpha-defensins compromises mucosal host defenses and predisposes patients to CD of the ileum. We report that patients with CD of the ileum have reduced antibacterial activity in their intestinal mucosal extracts. These specimens also showed decreased expression of PC alpha-defensins, whereas the expression of eight other PC products either remained unchanged or increased when compared with controls. The specific decrease of alpha-defensins was independent of the degree of inflammation in the specimens and was not observed in either CD of the colon, ulcerative colitis, or pouchitis. The functional consequence of alpha-defensin expression levels was examined by using a transgenic mouse model, where we found changes in HD5 expression levels, comparable to those observed in CD, had a pronounced impact on the luminal microbiota. Thus, the specific deficiency of PC defensins that characterizes ileal CD may compromise innate immune defenses of the ileal mucosa and initiate and/or perpetuate this disease. PMID:16330776

  2. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  3. Mucosal immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Woof, Jenny M; Mestecky, Jiri

    2005-08-01

    Due to their vast surface area, the mucosal surfaces of the body represent a major site of potential attack by invading pathogens. The secretions that bathe mucosal surfaces contain significant levels of immunoglobulins (Igs), which play key roles in immune defense of these surfaces. IgA is the predominant antibody class in many external secretions and has many functional attributes, both direct and indirect, that serve to prevent infective agents such as bacteria and viruses from breaching the mucosal barrier. This review details current understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of IgA, including interaction with specific receptors (such as Fc(alpha)RI, Fc(alpha)/microR, and CD71) and presents examples of the means by which certain pathogens circumvent the protective properties of this important Ig. PMID:16048542

  4. Nod2: a key regulator linking microbiota to intestinal mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Amlan; Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a large number of bacteria that are constantly interacting with the intestinal immune system, eliciting non-pathological basal level immune responses. Increasing evidence points to dysbiosis of microbiota in the intestine as an underlying factor in inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility. Loss of function mutations in NOD2 are among the stronger genetic factors linked to ileal Crohn’s disease. Indeed, Nod2 is a key regulator of microbiota in the intestine, as microflora in the terminal ileum is dysregulated in Nod2-deficient mice. Nod2 is highly expressed in Paneth cells, which are responsible for the regulation of ileal microflora by anti-microbial compounds, and Nod2-deficient ileal intestinal epithelia are unable to kill bacteria efficiently. It is therefore likely that NOD2 mutations in Crohn’s disease may increase disease susceptibility by altering interactions between ileal microbiota and mucosal immunity. PMID:21861185

  5. Alterations in Ileal Mucosa Bacteria Related to Diet Complexity and Growth Performance in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Crystal L.; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S.; de Lange, Kees

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the prolonged impact of weaning diet on ileal mucosa bacteria and during periods of reduced and improved growth was conducted using 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings Weaned pigs were fed HIGH or LOW complexity diets, with or without antibiotics, for 6 weeks, followed by a common grower diet. Pigs were killed at 2 (n = 4 or 5) and 8 (n = 6) weeks post-weaning (periods of reduced and improved growth, respectively). Mucosal bacteria were removed; DNA was extracted and amplified using the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Mucosal bacteria clustered more closely by week post-weaning than diet but 44% of bacterial species did not change from week 2 to 8. There was no effect of diet complexity or antibiotic inclusion on indices of bacterial diversity. Firmicutes made up 91 and 96% of total reads at week 2 and 8, respectively. The proportion of Clostridium paraputrificum increased (P = 0.003) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH; whereas Clostridium leptum decreased (P = 0.02) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH. The proportion of Sarcina genus was 3-fold higher in pigs fed A+ compared to A− at week 2 and 5-fold higher at week 8 despite the lack of in-feed antibiotics at that time. Conclusions/Significance Shifts in mucosal bacteria populations may be related to dietary induced changes in growth performance during reduced and improved growth but further studies are required to confirm causative relationship. Weaning diet results in species specific prolonged alterations in mucosal bacteria, particularly where high levels of in-feed antibiotics are used. A considerable portion of ileal mucosal bacteria colonize early and remain stable over time despite changes in diet. PMID:25247930

  6. Ileal cannulation and associated complications in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hill, R C; Ellison, G W; Burrows, C F; Bauer, J E; Carbia, B

    1996-02-01

    Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestibility is important in dogs because it allows the formulation of pet foods that provide optimal nutrition at minimal cost. Digestibility measured by comparing nutrient intake to fecal excretion in intact animals does not distinguish small intestinal digestion from large intestinal bacterial fermentation. Ileal cannulation allows small intestinal digestion to be measured alone by comparing nutrient intake with ileal excretion of chyme. Nevertheless, ileal cannulation and its associated complications are not well documented in dogs. We describe the implantation of a simple T-cannula in the ileum of nine dogs for an average duration of 26 weeks. Established cannulas were well tolerated, and one dog retained the cannula for 14 months. Nevertheless, ileal effluent proved extremely caustic, and the incidence of complications in the immediate postoperative period was high. Only one dog had an unremarkable postoperative course. Complications included abscessation and cannula extrusion, followed by severe excoriation and ulceration of the skin. This excoriation could be prevented only by immediate surgical closure of the fistula. Chronic ileal cannulation is therefore a viable technique in dogs, but careful monitoring of the cannula site is essential. Dogs should be subjected to this procedure only if adequate veterinary and nursing care is available. It is preferable to maintain a colony of long-term cannulated dogs rather than to implant cannulas as needed. PMID:8699825

  7. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon. PMID:628994

  8. [Ileal and appendicular endometriosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thorbeck, R V

    1978-01-01

    A bibliographical review it's been made on the base of a double rara localization of endometriosis: ileal and appendicular, marking the diagnostic difficulties found appendicular, marking the diagnostic-difficulties found before and after surgery, emphasizing the interest of the histological integrity and motivity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:721916

  9. Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

  10. Oral mucositis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - mucositis; Cancer treatment - mouth pain; Cancer treatment - mouth sores; Chemotherapy - mucositis; Chemotherapy - mouth pain; Chemotherapy - mouth sores; Radiation therapy - mucositis; Radiation therapy - mouth pain; Radiation ...

  11. Ileal follicular lymphoma with atypical endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Satoshi; Koshikawa, Yorimitsu; Minami, Naoki; Honzawa, Yusuke; Matsuura, Minoru; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with symptomatic anemia without abdominal symptoms. She had no history of abdominal surgery or use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed swelling of multiple intraperitoneal lymph nodes and a high density of mesenteric adipose tissue. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-) positron emission tomography showed high FDG accumulation at the intraperitoneal lymph nodes. Double-balloon enteroscopy detected severe stenosis with an annular ulcer in the lower ileum. She was diagnosed with ileal follicular lymphoma based on histologic examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the biopsy specimen. The ileal ulcer was successfully treated by chemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine for 1 year. We strongly recommend consideration of gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of annular ulcers in the small intestine. PMID:27004251

  12. Gastric mucosal cell proliferation in ethanol-induced chronic mucosal injury is related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Muñoz, R; Montiel-Ruíz, C; Vázquez-Martínez, O

    2000-08-01

    The oxygen free radicals-induced lipid peroxidation (LP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. However, the role of LP in the generation of chronic gastric mucosal injury is unknown. We have developed a model of chronic mucosal injury induced by continuous ethanol ingestion for 5 days and characterized by marked alterations in plasma membranes from gastric mucosa. Therefore, LP was evaluated in this experimental model. Indicators of peroxidative activity, mucosal glutathione content, thymidine kinase activity (an index of cell proliferation), and histamine H2-receptor (H2R) binding constants were quantified in animals undergoing gastric mucosal damage. The effect of famotidine, a H2R antagonist that readily ameliorates the chronic mucosal injury, was also tested. Increased free radicals and LP levels were detected during gastritis; however, a second, higher peak of LP was noted in mucosal plasma membranes after ethanol withdrawal (recovery period). This further increase of LP coincided with active cell proliferation, decreased mucosal glutathione levels, and diminished specific cimetidine binding by H2R. Administration of famotidine accelerated the mucosal proliferative process, inducing the second lipoperoxidative episode sooner, and preserved the content of glutathione. In addition, LP correlated directly with cell proliferation and inversely with mucosal membrane cimetidine binding. In conclusion, LP seems to be involved in chronic ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. However, a further enhancement of plasma membrane LP occurred, associated with increased DNA synthesis and diminished cimetidine binding by membrane H2R. Therefore, increased LP could also participate in the compensatory mucosal proliferation initiated after ethanol withdrawal. PMID:10950107

  13. IN VITRO INHIBITION OF GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE BY ARSENOTRI-GLUTATHIONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenotriglutathione, a product of the reduction of arsenate and the complexation of arsenite by glutathione, is a mixed type inhibitor of the reduction of glutathione disulfide by purified yeast glutathione reductase or the glutathione reductase activity in rabbit erythrocyte ly...

  14. Mucosal dendritic cells shape mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases. PMID:24626170

  15. The Analysis of Factors Associated with Progression of Isolated Terminal Ileal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fangbin, Zhang; Weiwei, Hao; Wugan, Zhao; Cong, Zheng; Yanjun, Chu; Feng, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the factors associated with the progression of isolated terminal ileal lesions (ITILs) at colonoscopy in Chinese patients. Methods Patients diagnosed with ITILs were enrolled. The ileoscopy was performed by two experienced gastroenterologists every 52 weeks. A logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate the factors associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and mucosal healing. A log rank test was used to assess the differences of the cumulative proportion of CD and mucosal healing in different groups at different times. Results (1) A total of 34 patients were included and no patient had taken nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the last 6 months; eight (23.5%) patients had a clinical diagnosis of CD, 14 (41.2%) patients achieved mucosal healing, and 12 (35.3%) patients showed no significant changes in the lesions at last follow-up. (2) The logistic regression analysis showed that only abdominal pain was a factor in the ITIL disease outcomes. (3) The cumulative proportion of CD in the abdominal pain group after 3 years was statistically higher than that in the non-abdominal pain group (42.7% vs. 6.2%, χ2 = 10.129, P = 0.001). However, the cumulative proportion of mucosal healing in the non-abdominal pain group was statistically higher than that in the abdominal pain group (73.3% vs. 5.6%, χ2 = 5.225, P = 0.022). (4) The numbers of lesions observed on the initial colonoscopy exams and the initial histologic findings were not related to the ITIL disease outcomes. Conclusions Clinical symptoms may be related to ITIL disease outcomes. Patients with abdominal pain had a high likelihood of CD, whereas those without abdominal pain had a high likelihood of mucosal healing. PMID:24625578

  16. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  17. Mechanisms of histamine stimulated secretion in rabbit ileal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Linaker, B D; McKay, J S; Higgs, N B; Turnberg, L A

    1981-11-01

    Histamine is present in high concentrations in the intestine and we investigated the possibility that it might have a role here in intestinal transport. When added to the basal side of rabbit ileal mucosa in vitro histamine (10(-4)M) induced a short-lived increase in electrical potential difference and short circuit current. It inhibited net chloride absorption but did not influence sodium transport. Alkali secretion, measured by a pH stat technique, was inhibited, suggesting that bicarbonate secretion was reduced. Both the electrical and ion flux responses to histamine were blocked by the H1 receptor blocker diphenhydramine, but not by the H2 receptor blocker cimetidine. The presence of specific H1 histamine receptors was further supported by shifts in the dose-response curve to histamine by four different concentrations of diphenhydramine. Calculation of a pA2 value from these "Schild' plots provided a figure of 7.85, which is similar to that for H1 receptors in other tissues. Aminoguanidine, a histaminase blocker, had no electrical effects alone but shifted the histamine dose response curve to the left. These studies indicate that histamine inhibits chloride absorption and alkali secretion, possibly by influencing a chloride/bicarbonate exchange process, through specific mucosal H1 receptors. Enhancement of histamine effects by a histaminase inhibitor suggests that histaminases are present in the intestinal mucosa and supports the possibility of a role for endogenous histamine in influencing ion transport. The observations indicate a mechanism by which absorption might be impaired in diseases in which histamine is liberated locally in the intestine. PMID:7308851

  18. Intraepithelial lymphocytosis is a frequent finding in biopsies from ileal pouch-anal anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, David F; Walsh, Joanna C; Tyler, Andrea D; Ben-Bassat, Ofer; Silverberg, Mark S; Riddell, Robert H; Kirsch, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Following restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, the small bowel mucosa undergoes several specific histologic adaptions, which may be unrelated to the underlying disease or symptoms of pouchitis. An increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) has not been described as part of this spectrum. Mucosal biopsies of the ileal pouch and afferent limb of 230 patients (mean age: 45.7y [18.3-74.7], gender [female/male]: 117/113) with a functioning ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (mean time since ileostomy closure: 10.8months) and associated clinically annotated outcome data were assessed for IELs/100 enterocytes. Forty-two patients (18.3%) showed an increase in IELs (≥20 IELs/100 enterocytes [range 20-39]), in pouch and/or afferent limb biopsies. Intraepithelial lymphocytosis was more commonly observed in afferent limb compared to pouch biopsies (18.8% vs 8.3%; P = .42) and in familial adenomatous polyposis compared to ulcerative colitis patients (16% vs 8%; P = 0.36), but neither difference reached statistical significance. No cases with increased IELs displayed severe villous blunting. Increased IELs were not significantly associated with age, sex, ethnicity, smoking history, time since ileostomy, use of antibiotics, biologic agents, anti-diarrheal agents or probiotics, C-reactive protein levels or differential white cell count. None of the 42 patients with increased IELs had positive celiac serology (anti-human tissue transglutaminase IgA [ELISA] with corresponding total serum IgA). Intraepithelial lymphocytosis in pouch biopsies may represent a subclinical response to an altered bacterial microenvironment. Pathologists should be aware that intraepithelial lymphocytosis is part of the spectrum of changes in pouch biopsies, and only rarely is due to celiac disease. PMID:27063473

  19. Alteration of the ileal microbiota of weanling piglets by the growth-promoting antibiotic chlortetracycline.

    PubMed

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Vilain, Sébastien; Lindblom, Stacy; Lehnert, Kelly; Scofield, Clay; George, Sajan; Clay, Sharon; Kaushik, Radhey S; Rosa, Artur J M; Francis, David; Brözel, Volker S

    2009-09-01

    Antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) have been used to promote growth of pigs for decades, but concerns over increased antibiotic-resistant infections in humans have prompted the development of alternative strategies. Developing alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) could be informed by information on the mechanisms of growth promotion, notably, how AGPs affect the microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs from three sows were aseptically delivered by cesarean section. Six piglets were distributed to each of two foster mothers until weaning, when piglets were fed a diet with or without 50 mg/kg CTC for 2 weeks. The ileal bacterial microbiota was characterized by using a cultivation-independent approach based on DNA extraction, PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene pool. The ileal and mucosal communities of these growing pigs were dominated by Lactobacillus bacteria, various members of the family Clostridiaceae, and members of the poorly known genus Turicibacter. Overall, CTC treatment resulted in three shifts: a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii, an increase in L. amylovorus, and a decrease in Turicibacter phylotypes. The composition of the microbiota varied considerably between individual pigs, as revealed by shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and similarity (SONS) analysis (theta(YC) values). While the observed variation between untreated pigs obscured the possible effect of CTC, integral-LIBSHUFF and SONS analyses of pooled libraries indicated a significant shift due to CTC in both the lumen and the mucosa, with some OTUs unique to either treated or control ileum. DOTUR analysis revealed little overlap between control and treated communities at the 3% difference level, indicating unique ileal communities in the presence of CTC. PMID:19617391

  20. Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L.; Dexheimer, Phillip J.; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N.; Noe, Joshua D.; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B.; Griffiths, Anne M.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Mack, David R.; Baker, Susan S.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D.; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25003194

  1. Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N; Noe, Joshua D; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B; Griffiths, Anne M; Crandall, Wallace V; Mack, David R; Baker, Susan S; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25003194

  2. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W; Krause, Denis O; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  3. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W.; Krause, Denis O.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  4. Why mucosal health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture species depend more heavily on mucosal barriers than their terrestrial agricultural counterparts as they are continuously interacting with the aquatic microbiota. Unlike classical immune centers, such as the spleen and kidney, the accessibility of mucosal surfaces through immersion/dip t...

  5. Glutathione permeability of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P; Hanrahan, J W

    1998-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) forms an ion channel that is permeable both to Cl- and to larger organic anions. Here we show, using macroscopic current recording from excised membrane patches, that the anionic antioxidant tripeptide glutathione is permeant in the CFTR channel. This permeability may account for the high concentrations of glutathione that have been measured in the surface fluid that coats airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, loss of this pathway for glutathione transport may contribute to the reduced levels of glutathione observed in airway surface fluid of cystic fibrosis patients, which has been suggested to contribute to the oxidative stress observed in the lung in cystic fibrosis. We suggest that release of glutathione into airway surface fluid may be a novel function of CFTR. PMID:9688865

  6. Glutathione in cyanobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of light and O2 on glutathione production were determined. Results of light and dark studies under normal and reduced oxygen tensions were compared to determine the effect of reduction in oxygen tension on glutathione levels. The growth rate of Anacystis nidulans and concurrent production of glutathione is presented. The generation of time of Anacystis nidulans was approximately 12 hours. Results of light and dark incubation of Aphanothece halophytica dominated planktonic microbial community from Pond 4 and Anacystis nidulans under high and low oxygen tension is also presented. It appears that light grown Anacystis nidulans cells have equal amounts of glutathione while dark grown cells produce more glutathione in the presence of increased O2.

  7. Low Voltage Electric Current Causing Ileal Perforation: A Rare Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vinay; Tanger, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Post-electric burn ileal perforation is a rare but severe complication leading to high morbidity and mortality if there is delay in diagnosis and management. We are describing a case of electric current injury of left forearm, chest, and abdominal wall with perforation of ileum in an 8-year old boy. Patient was successfully managed by primary closure of the ileal perforation. PMID:27170922

  8. Gasoline-induced mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.L.; Swanson, B.Z. Jr.; Lutins, N.D.

    1980-02-01

    Gasoline-induced mucositis may become more common because of fuel shortages or increased fuel cost. Dentists should, therefore, consider this oral irritant in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions.

  9. Mucosal Health in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The mucosal surfaces (skin, gill, and intestine) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, osmoregulation, and waste excretion. Aquaculture specie...

  10. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  11. Mucosal delivery of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, G; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R

    1999-09-01

    Oral delivery represents one of the most pursued approaches for large-scale human vaccination. Due to the different characteristics of mucosal immune response, as compared with systemic response, oral immunization requires particular methods of antigen preparation and selective strategies of adjuvanticity. In this paper, we describe the preparation and use of genetically detoxified bacterial toxins as mucosal adjuvants and envisage the possibility of their future exploitation for human oral vaccines. PMID:10525451

  12. Effect of the route of administration on the mucosal and systemic immune responses to Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, M G; Collins, A M; Dunlop, R H; Emery, D

    2015-04-01

    In an on-farm study, 40 weaned piglets aged 3 weeks were vaccinated with Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine orally, IM or IP while a fourth group remained unvaccinated. All vaccinated animals showed increased serum levels of L. intracellularis-specific IgG antibodies, but significantly elevated concentrations of specific IgG, IgA and cytokines were generated in ileal mucosal secretions from the orally and IP vaccinated pigs when examined at 17 days after vaccination. PMID:25817978

  13. Ileal flows and apparent ileal digestibility of fatty acids in growing gilts fed flaxseed containing diets.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Kramer, J K G; de Lange, C F M

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify the ileal flow and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of fatty acids (FA) in growing gilts fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal based diets without (CON) or with ground flaxseed (FS). A total of 20 healthy purebred Yorkshire female pigs, weighing approximately 25 kg BW, were allotted to 1 of 3 feeding regimens: R1 (n = 5 pigs), feeding a diet containing 10% FS between 25 and 50 kg BW and CON diet thereafter, R2 (n = 10 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 85 kg BW and a diet containing 6% FS thereafter, and R3 (n = 5 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 110 kg BW. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to assess AID and ileal flows of crude fat and FA. At 110 kg BW, pigs were slaughtered and representative digesta samples were obtained from the distal ileum. Ileal flows and AID of crude fat and individual FA did not differ (P > 0.10) between R1 and R3, and therefore, results from these 2 feeding regimens were combined to give 2 dietary treatments (CON and FS). There were no treatment effects on AID of crude fat and the sum of all FA, SFA, or MUFA. However, the AID of individual SFA decreased with chain length (linear; P < 0.05) for both FS and CON. The AID of myristic acid (14:0), individual trans-18:1 FA (6t-8t-18:1 to 12t-18:1), myristoleic acid (9c-14:1), and palmitoleic acid (9c-16:1) were greater for CON than FS (P < 0.05) whereas no diet effect was observed for the AID of linoleic acid (18:2n-6; 80.2 and 86.1% for FS and CON, respectively) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; 86.7 and 89.8% for FS and CON, respectively). Ileal flows of rumenic acid (9c11t-CLA), n-3 PUFA, and highly unsaturated FA (HUFA; arachidonic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) exceeded their intakes, indicating net appearance of these FA in the upper gut of the pig. It remains to be determined whether enteric microbiota can elongate and desaturate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 and isomerize 18:2n-6. The

  14. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + α-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress. PMID:24962481

  15. [Obscure digestive bleeding by ileal carcinoid tumor].

    PubMed

    Nelly Manrique, María; Frisancho, Oscar; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Palomino, Américo; Rodriguez, César

    2011-01-01

    The patient is an 82 year-old female with a history of osteoarthritis, hypothyroidism and anemia for 14 years (receiving blood transfusions). She was admited to our hospital with a nine months history of malaise, anorexia, fatigue and weakness, associated with intermitten episodes of abdominal pain. She was diagnosed anemia and occult blood positive stools. Physical examination revealed a patient in generally fair condition, obese, with mild edema of lower limbs, no changes in the evaluation of chest, cardiovascular, abdomen, etc. Laboratory data was unremarkable, except for iron deficiency anemia. The upper endoscopy showed duodenal ulcer scar, fundic polyposis and chronic gastritis. Colonoscopy revealed some diverticula, a small sessile polyp and internal hemorrhoids. The diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was made. The CT scan of the abdomen showed gallstones and fatty liver; a radiograph of intestinal transit detected a lesion apparently protruded intestinal loop for distal jejunum; enteroscopy was performed (with one team ball) anterograde and retrograde achieving assess distal jejunum and distal ileum without observing any injuries. The study of capsule endoscopy showed a polypoid tumor intestinal with evidence of having bleeding. Surgery detected the tumor in proximal ileum. The surgical specimen findings showed three tumors 0.7 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm on the proximal ileum. The microscopic examination revealed that these lesions were neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid). The Ileal carcinoid tumor may rarely presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:21544161

  16. Characterization of basal pseudopod-like processes in ileal and colonic PYY cells

    PubMed Central

    Bohórquez, Diego V.; Chandra, Rashmi; Samsa, Leigh Ann; Vigna, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) is produced and secreted from L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. To study the anatomy and function of PYY-secreting L cells, we developed a transgenic PYY-green fluorescent protein mouse model. PYY-containing cells exhibited green fluorescence under UV light and were immunoreactive to antibodies against PYY and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone also secreted by L cells). PYY-GFP cells from 15 μm thick sections were imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed. Results revealed unique details of the anatomical differences between ileal and colonic PYY-GFP cells. In ileal villi, the apical portion of PYY cells makes minimal contact with the lumen of the gut. Long pseudopod-like basal processes extend from these cells and form an interface between the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria. Some basal processes are up to 50 μm in length. Multiple processes can be seen protruding from one cell and these often have a terminus resembling a synapse that appears to interact with neighboring cells. In colonic crypts, PYY-GFP cells adopt a spindle-like shape and weave in between epithelial cells, while maintaining contact with the lumen and lamina propria. In both tissues, cytoplasmic granules containing the hormones PYY and GLP-1 are confined to the base of the cell, often filling the basal process. The anatomical arrangement of these structures suggests a dual function as a dock for receptors to survey absorbed nutrients and as a launching platform for hormone secretion in a paracrine fashion. PMID:21061049

  17. Local regulation of postprandial motor responses in ileal pouches

    PubMed Central

    Mularczyk, A; Contessini-Avesan..., E; Cesana, B; Bianchi, P; Basilisco, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Local mechanisms are involved in the postprandial regulation of ileal tone in healthy subjects, but whether these mechanisms affect the postprandial tonic response of ileal pouches has not yet been investigated.
AIMS—To study the effect of a meal on pouch tone and phasic motor activity in patients with gut continuity or ileostomy and, in the latter group, the effect of a pouch perfusion with chyme or saline.
PATIENTS—Twenty patients with ileal pouches: 10 with gut continuity and 10 with ileostomy.
METHODS—Pouch tone and the frequency of phasic volume events were recorded with a barostat under fasting and postprandial conditions and after perfusion of the isolated pouch with chyme or saline.
RESULTS—The meal increased pouch tone and the frequency of phasic volume events in the patients with gut continuity, but not in those with ileostomy. Pouch perfusion with chyme induced a greater increase in pouch tone than saline.
CONCLUSIONS—The meal stimulated pouch tone and phasic motor activity. These effects were at least partially related to local pouch stimulation by intraluminal contents.


Keywords: ileal pouches; postprandial motor responses; ileal tone; ileostomy; motor activity; barostat PMID:10486368

  18. TAK1 is a key modulator of the profibrogenic phenotype of human ileal myofibroblasts in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Alessia Rosaria; Scarpa, Melania; D'Incà, Renata; Brun, Paola; Scarpa, Marco; Porzionato, Andrea; De Caro, Raffaele; Martines, Diego; Buda, Andrea; Angriman, Imerio; Palù, Giorgio; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Castagliuolo, Ignazio

    2015-09-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signaling can mediate inflammatory responses as well as tissue remodeling. Intestinal mucosal myofibroblast (IMF) activation drives gut fibrosis in Crohn's disease (CD); however, the molecular pathways involved are largely unknown. Thus we investigated the yet-unknown expression and function of TAK1 in human CD-associated fibrosis. Ileal surgical specimens, ileal biopsies, and IMF isolated from controls and CD patients were analyzed for TAK1 and its active phosphorylated form (pTAK1) by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and real-time quantitative PCR. TAK1 pharmacological inhibition and silencing were used to assess its role in collagen and inflammatory cytokine synthesis in IMF. TAK1 and pTAK1 levels increased in ileum specimens from CD patients compared with controls and correlated to tissue fibrosis. Similarly, TAK1 mRNA in ileal biopsies of CD patients correlated with fibrogenic marker expression but not inflammatory cytokines. CD-derived IMF showed higher TAK1 and pTAK1 expression associated with increased collagen1(α)1 mRNA levels compared with control IMF. TGF-β1 promoted pTAK1 nuclear translocation and collagen synthesis. TAK1 inhibition or silencing significantly reduced TGF-β1-stimulated collagen production and normalized the profibrogenic phenotype of CD-derived IMF. Taken together, these data suggest that TAK1 activation and nuclear translocation induce and maintain a fibrogenic phenotype in the IMF. Thus the TAK1 signaling pathway may represent a suitable target to design new, antifibrotic therapies. PMID:26185333

  19. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  20. Endoscopic Treatment of Stump Leakage Related to the Ileal Conduit

    PubMed Central

    Odemis, Bulent; Oztas, Erkin; Akpinar, Muhammet Yener; Olcucuoglu, Erkan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Ileal conduit with leakage from either the anastomotic site or the stump is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The standard treatment of stump leakage is surgery. Case Presentation: A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaint of hematuria and bladder carcinoma was diagnosed. After performing radical cystectomy and ileal conduit, he developed fever with abdominal pain within the first week of surgery. Stump leakage was diagnosed by endoscopic examination performed through a gastroscope. After two over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were applied to the stump, vinyl mesh was inserted into the space between the OTSCs. Later, cyanoacrylat and lipiodol were repelled on the OTSCs and vinyl mesh. Subsequently, stump leakage was resolved. Conclusion: This is the first case of stump leakage related to ileal conduit that has been treated endoscopically, according to the current literature. PMID:27579432

  1. Near Total Jejuno-Ileal Atresia: A Management Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Minakshi; Singh, Dasmit

    2013-01-01

    A 2-day-old female neonate with the clinical picture of proximal small bowel atresia, on exploration, turned out to have intestinal atresia of a rare variety, i.e., a near-total jejuno-ileal atresia. The baby had total small bowel length of less than 10 cm. She survived for 3 months on enteral feeding after end-to-back duodeno-ileal anastomosis and thereafter succumbed to septicemia. The case is presented for it's extreme rarity and consideration of this extreme form of small bowel atresia as an offshoot of the existing classifications of jejuno-ileal atresia since it has dismal prognosis and presents as a management challenge even today. PMID:24049756

  2. Contrast Enhanced Abdominal Ultrasound in the Assessment of Ileal Inflammation in Crohn’s Disease: A Comparison with MR Enterography

    PubMed Central

    Horjus Talabur Horje, C. S.; Roovers, L.; Groenen, M. J. M.; Wahab, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims To prospectively examine the feasibility and accuracy of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the assessment of Crohn’s disease (CD) activity in the terminal ileum in comparison to Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE), using endoscopy as a reference standard. Methods 105 consecutive patients with alleged clinically active CD were assessed by MRE and CEUS. CEUS of the terminal ileum was performed using an intravenous microbubble contrast enhancer. Accuracy values of CEUS and MRE for the presence of active terminal ileitis were evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic method, using endoscopic findings as a reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity values of MRE and CEUS were compared by the McNemar test. Results CEUS was feasible in 98% of patients, MRE in all. Optimal diagnostic accuracy in CEUS was obtained at a peak intensity value of 10%, showing 100% sensitivity, 92% specificity and an accuracy of 99% in demonstrating ileal mucosal inflammation. For MRE, overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were, 87%, 100%, and 88%, respectively. CEUS and MRE were highly correlated in assessing length and wall thickness of the terminal ileum. CEUS identified 11 of 16 MRE-detected strictures, but no fistulae. Conclusion The accuracy of CEUS is comparable to that of MRE in the assessment of active, uncomplicated terminal ileal CD and therefore a valuable bedside alternative to MRE in the follow-up of these patients. PMID:26322970

  3. MicroRNAs Expression in the Ileal Pouch of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Is Robustly Up-Regulated and Correlates with Disease Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sherman Horev, Hadas; Elad, Hofit; Baram, Liran; Issakov, Ofer; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Shomron, Noam; Dotan, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background Gene expression alterations are associated with disease behavior in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). microRNAs (miRNAs) are dominant in the regulation of gene expression, and may affect IBD phenotype. Our aim was to assess mucosal miRNA expression in IBD and the correlation with intestinal inflammation. Methods We performed a large-scale analysis of ileal mucosal miRNA. Biopsies were retrieved from patients with ileal Crohn’s disease (CD), unoperated ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, UC patients after pouch surgery, and normal controls (NC). Pouch UC patients were classified as having a normal pouch (NP), chronic pouchitis (CP), and Crohn’s-like disease of the pouch (CLDP). miRNA expression was analyzed by parallel massive (next-generation) sequencing (NGS). Bioinformatics tools were applied for clustering and the detection of potential targets. Results Sixty-one subjects were recruited. The ileum of unoperated UC patients was comparable with NC. There were significant miRNA expression alterations (fold change ≥2, corrected P ≤.05) in NP (n = 6), CP (n = 40) and CLDP (n = 139), but only two expression alterations were noted in CD. More than 90% of the altered miRNAs were up-regulated, and many were predicted to be associated with significantly decreased transcripts. miRNAs alterations were generally clustered with disease phenotypes. Conclusions Ileal inflammation causes increased miRNA expression. miRNA alterations correlate with IBD phenotype, apparently by controlling the down-regulation of specific mRNAs. PMID:27536783

  4. Ileal Intussusception Caused by Vanek's Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nonose, Ronaldo; Valenciano, Juliana Santos; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Carlos Alberto Fontes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps (Vanek's tumor) are rare benign localized lesions originating in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusceptions due to inflammatory fibroid polyps are uncommon; moreover, ileo-ileal intussusception with small bowel necrosis and perforation has rarely been reported. We report a 56-year-old woman who was admitted two days after complaints of nausea and vomiting. Abdominal examination revealed distension, signs of gastrointestinal perforation and clanging intestinal sounds. The patient underwent a emergency laparotomy which found a 17-cm invaginated mid-ileal segment with necrosis, perforation and fecal peritonitis. The ileal segment was resected and single-layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathological analysis showed an ulcerative lesion with variable cellularity, formed by spindle cells with small number of mitosis and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate comprising mainly eosinophils. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of ileal Vanek's tumor. Although inflammatory fibroid polyps are seen very rarely in adults, they are among the probable diagnoses that should be considered in obstructive tumors of the small bowel causing intussusception with intestinal necrosis and perforation. PMID:21503167

  5. Isolated Ileal Pancreatic Heterotopia Causing Intussusception with Gangrene.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Jegadeesh; Menon, Prema; Kumar, Vinod; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Vaiphei, Kim; Kakkar, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Isolated ileal heterotopic pancreatic tissue as a lead point of intussusception in children is extremely rare. We report a 6-month-old female with ileoileal intussusception and a 4-year-old female with ileocolic intussusception both associated with gangrene. A review of literature suggests a higher prevalence of gangrene probably secondary to the pancreatic exocrine tissue. PMID:26107550

  6. [Colonic aganglionosis with ileal involvement. Ileocolic plasty].

    PubMed

    Núñez, R; Cabrera, R; Agulla, E; Moreno, C; Serrano, A; Ortiz, C; Blesa, E

    2001-04-01

    During 1994 through 1999, we have treated five patients (3 boys, 2 girls) with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) and ileal involvement. In three of them we performed a diverting ileostomy in the neonatal period and at the age of four and five months respectively in the remaining two patients, due to intestinal obstruction. In these two last patients a diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease was made by anorectal manometry and rectal biopsies in the neonatal period. During laparotomy, a cutaneous ileostomy was created in all patients at the distal end of normal ileum, which was 30 to 110 cm (mean = 71 +/- 37 cm) from the ileocecal valve. After operation, a short bowel syndrome developed in three patients causing fluid and nutritional problems that required prolonged total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The definitive operative repair is performed at 4.5 to 14 months (mean = 8 +/- 3.7 months) by a 12 to 20 cm side-to-side ileocolostomy created between the ileum and aganglionic ascending color (Boley procedure) and ileorectal primary anastomosis (Rehbein procedure) using a circular stapler. Rectal dilatation, irrigation of the colon with saline, loperamide hydrochloride and resincholestyramine were begun in all patients postoperatively. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis, was given to the three patients who suffered from SBS. Oral feedings with semielemental diet were tolerated once stools were semiformed and TPN was discontinued at 8 to 34 days (mean = 21 +/- 1.7 days). postoperatively. After the definitive operation, enterocolitis developed in two patients, requiring one of them a short hospitalization during the episode. A possible explanation for the low incidence of enterocolitis in this series is the systematic postoperative use of irrigations of the colon with saline in all patients. These five patients have been followed-up for growth, development, bowel habit and continence. Follow-up has ranged from 15 to 62 months (mean = 32.2 +/- 19.2 months). Presently, all patients in

  7. Effects of differing purified cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose fiber diets on mucosal morphology in the rat small and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Dirks, P; Freeman, H J

    1987-01-01

    The effects of increasing amounts of differing single-fiber sources in chemically-defined and nutritionally-equivalent diets on morphometric measurements of the rat small and large intestinal mucosa were examined. Male Wistar rats received a fiber-free diet, or diets containing 4.5% or 9.0% cellulose, pectin, or hemicellulose. Cellulose and pectin increased jejunal (but not ileal) villus and crypt heights, whereas hemicellulose increased ileal (but not jejunal) mucosal height. Moreover, cellulose and pectin (but not hemicellulose) increased crypt heights in cecum and proximal (but not distal) colon. Parallel increases in the mitotic index were seen with cellulose and pectin diets, but there was a decrease with hemicellulose, suggesting different mechanisms for altered patterns of cell renewal induced by orally-administered single-fiber sources. These changes indicate that differing single-fiber sources exert differential structural effects along the length of the small and large intestine in the rat. PMID:3028682

  8. Rabbit Ileal Loop Response to Strains of Clostridium perfringens1

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Charles L.; Sugiyama, H.; Strong, Dorothy H.

    1968-01-01

    The ligated loop of the rabbit intestine was investigated as a possible experimental model for the study of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning. The method of preparation of the challenge inoculum was important in determining whether a given strain would provoke a response. When cultures were grown for 4 hr at 37 C in Skim Milk (Difco), 14 of 29 type A strains isolated from food-poisoning outbreaks consistently produced exudation of fluid and consequent dilation of the ileal segments. In contrast, 15 of the 18 strains derived from other sources failed to elicit a response. By use of different inoculum preparations, nearly all strains could be made to give at least an occasional positive loop reaction. Diarrhea was not obtained in rabbits by intraluminal injection into the normal ileum or by per os administration of the cultures. Lecithinase, purified and in concentrated culture supernatant fractions, failed to produce a response in the isolated ileal loops. Images PMID:4297020

  9. Dietary habits after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Chartrand-Lefebvre, C; Heppell, J; Davignon, I; Dubé, S; Pomp, A

    1990-04-01

    Dietary habits of patients who had undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were assessed and correlated with bowel function. Twenty-four well-adapted patients (11 women, 13 men; mean age 32 years) voluntarily entered the study 30 +/- 4 months after closure of the diverting ileostomy. A standardized questionnaire on 108 food items and a 3-day food journal were used in the assessment. Twenty-one patients had no difficulty in selecting an appropriate diet. Caloric intake was adequate. Specific symptoms associated with several foods were as follows: increased stool frequency (beer, spirits, chinese food), decreased stool consistency (beer, wine, fried fish), perianal irritation (spicy foods), undigested particles (grapefruit, lettuce), odours (eggs). Pasta and bananas were associated with increased stool consistency. The authors believe that these observations may help in dietary counselling after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. PMID:2268807

  10. Early histological changes of ileal mucosa after augmentation cystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, S; San, T; Cetinel, B; Uygun, N; Hürdağ, C

    2001-07-01

    Segments of bowel are used routinely for transplantation in various pathological conditions such as contracted bladders or poorly compliant neuropathic bladders. However, little is known how these intestinal segments adopt to a toxic environment caused by urine. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine early histological changes of ileal mucosa after augmentation cystoplasty. Seven patients with augmentation cystoplasty underwent random cold-cup biopsies of ileal segments after a mean period of 14.4 months after cystoplasty and morphological changes were evaluated using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Most pronounced features were varying degrees of villous atrophy, increased numbers of Paneth and goblet cells. Severity of atrophic villous changes were not related to the length of the interval between surgery and endoscopic biopsy. These findings may be explained as adaptations of bowel tissue to counteract noxious effects of urine and to maintain its epithelial function in the bladder. PMID:11482379

  11. Mucosal biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Shantanu; Mitchell, Aaron P

    2011-08-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that form on surfaces and are embedded in an extracellular matrix. C. albicans forms pathogenic mucosal biofilms that are evoked by changes in host immunity or mucosal ecology. Mucosal surfaces are inhabited by many microbial species; hence these biofilms are polymicrobial. Several recent studies have applied paradigms of biofilm analysis to study mucosal C. albicans infections. These studies reveal that the Bcr1 transcription factor is a master regulator of C. albicans biofilm formation under diverse conditions, though the most relevant Bcr1 target genes can vary with the biofilm niche. An important determinant of mucosal biofilm formation is the interaction with host defenses. Finally, studies of interactions between bacterial species and C. albicans provide insight into the communication mechanisms that endow polymicrobial biofilms with unique properties. PMID:21741878

  12. Experience with registered mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Guido; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Lang, Alois B; Viret, Jean-François

    2003-01-30

    Most pathogens gain access to their host through mucosal surfaces. It is therefore desirable to develop vaccination strategies that lead to mucosal immune responses. Ideally, a vaccine should be administered mucosally in order to elicit mucosal protection. Several attenuated live viral and bacterial pathogens are registered as oral vaccines for human use, including the oral polio vaccine (Sabin) as well as attenuated strains of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. These attenuated bacterial live vaccines-S. typhi Ty21a as well as V. cholerae CVD 103-HgR-are employed as vaccines against typhoid and cholera, respectively. In this manuscript, we review the immune responses that are induced by these vaccines, with a focus on mucosal immunity. PMID:12531339

  13. Maintenance of superior mesenteric arterial perfusion prevents increased intestinal mucosal permeability in endotoxic pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, M.P.; Kaups, K.L.; Wang, H.L.; Rothschild, H.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide increases intestinal mucosal permeability to hydrophilic compounds such as chromium 51-labeled edetate (51Cr-EDTA). The authors sought to determine whether this phenomenon is partly mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induced mesenteric hypoperfusion. They assessed permeability in an isolated segment of ileum by measuring plasma-to-lumen clearances (C) for two probes, 51Cr-EDTA and urea, and expressing the results as a ratio (CEDTA/CUREA). In control pigs (n = 6) resuscitated with Ringer's lactate (RL), mucosal permeability was unchanged during the 210-minute period of observation. In pigs (n = 7) infused with lipopolysaccharide (50 micrograms/kg) and similarly resuscitated with RL, mesenteric perfusion (Qsma) decreased significantly and permeability increased progressively and significantly. When endotoxic pigs (n = 6) were resuscitated with a regimen (RL plus hetastarch plus dobutamine) that preserved normal Qsma, lipopolysaccharide-induced mucosal hyperpermeability was prevented. Resuscitation of endotoxic pigs (n = 6) with RL plus hetastarch provided intermediate protection against both mesenteric hypoperfusion and increased permeability. These data suggest that diminished Qsma contributes to impaired ileal mucosal barrier function in experimental endotoxicosis.

  14. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: Points of controversy.

    PubMed

    Trigui, A; Frikha, F; Rejab, H; Ben Ameur, H; Triki, H; Ben Amar, M; Mzali, R

    2014-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the most commonly used procedure for elective treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Since its original description, the procedure has been modified in order to obtain optimal functional results with low morbidity and mortality, and yet provide a cure for the disease. In this review of the literature of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, we discuss these technical modifications, limiting our discussion to the current points of controversy. The current "hot topics" for debate are: indications for ileal pouch-anal or ileo-rectal anastomosis, indications for pouch surgery in the elderly, indeterminate colitis and Crohn's disease, the place of the laparoscopic approach, transanal mucosectomy with hand-sewn anastomosis vs. the double-stapled technique, the use of diverting ileostomy and the issue of the best route for delivery of pregnant women. Longer follow-up of patients and increased knowledge and experience with pouch surgery, coupled with ongoing prospective evaluation of the procedure are required to settle these issues. PMID:24999229

  15. Age, scrapie status, PrP genotype and follicular dendritic cells in ovine ileal Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Marruchella, Giuseppe; Ligios, Ciriaco; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) residing within ileal Peyer's patches (PPs) are of crucial relevance for sheep scrapie early pathogenesis and subsequent scrapie prion neuroinvasion. In this study, ileal PP follicles were significantly more numerous in lambs than in adult Sarda breed sheep, with significant differences being also found in lymphoid follicle area, perimeter and FDC density. Furthermore, PrPd deposition within ileal PPs and host's PrP genotype did not significantly influence these parameters. We conclude that age significantly affects FDC density in ileal PPs from Sarda breed ovines, independently from host's scrapie status and PrP genotype. PMID:21962485

  16. Ileal bladder substitute: antireflux nipple or afferent tubular segment?

    PubMed

    Studer, U E; Spiegel, T; Casanova, G A; Springer, J; Gerber, E; Ackermann, D K; Gurtner, F; Zingg, E J

    1991-01-01

    Spheroidal bladder substitutes made from double-folded ileal segments, similar to Goodwin's cup-patch technique, are devoid of major coordinated wall contractions. This, together with the reservoir's direct anastomosis to the membranous urethra, prevents major intraluminal pressure peaks and assures a residue-free voiding of sterile urine. In order to determine whether, under these conditions, an afferent tubular isoperistaltic ileal segment of 20-cm length protects the upper urinary tract as efficiently as an antireflux nipple, 60 male patients who were subjected to radical cystectomy were prospectively randomised to groups in which a bladder substitute was formed together with either of these 2 antireflux devices. An analysis of the results obtained in 20 patients from each group who could be followed for more than 1 year (median observation time 30 and 36 months) showed no differences between the groups in metabolic disturbances, kidney size, reservoir capacity, diurnal and nocturnal urinary continence, the incidence of urinary tract infection or episodes of acute pyelonephritis. Later than 1 year postoperatively, intravenous urograms of the renoureteral units of 25% of the patients with antireflux nipples showed persistent but generally slight dilatation of the upper urinary tracts. This observation was significantly more frequent than it was in patients with afferent tubular segments. Urodynamic and radiographic studies showed that the competence of the antireflux nipples was secured by the raised surrounding intravesical pressure. This, however, also resulted in a transient functional obstruction, and a gradual rise of the basal pressure in the upper urinary tracts was recorded. In patients with afferent ileal tubular segments, contrast medium could be forced upwards into the renal pelvis when the bladder substitutes were overfilled. However, despite raised intravesical pressures, peristalsis in the isoperistaltic afferent tubular segment gradually returned

  17. Ileal microvascular permeability: a comparison of PS and sigma d using lymphatic and isotopic protein clearances.

    PubMed

    Townsley, M I; Smith, S M; Reed, R K; Pitts, V H; Taylor, A E

    1992-03-01

    Lymphatic clearances of total protein, albumin, immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and IgM obtained in autoperfused cat ileum as venous pressure (Pv) was elevated were analyzed using traditional methods as well as the newer maximal diffusion (max,diff) method of Reed et al. [Am. J. Physiol. 261 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 30): H728-H740, 1991; Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 26): H1037-H1041, 1989] to determine capillary osmotic reflection coefficients (sigma d) and unique permeability surface area products (PS). In a control group (n = 6), sigma d max,diff and PSmax,diff for albumin, IgG, and IgM could not be determined due to their transiently high clearance patterns. These patterns were not altered by treatment with vasodilators (n = 6) to prevent redistribution of blood flow from the mucosal-submucosal to muscularis layer of the ileum, which accompanies elevation of ileal Pv. Furthermore, sigma d values for IgG in both groups were lower than those for both albumin and IgM, a finding inconsistent with predictions based on pore theory, together suggesting that lymphatic protein clearances were influenced by washout of interstitial proteins, a conclusion supported by the decrease in tissue content of albumin and IgG after elevation of Pv. Clearances of radiolabeled albumin (n = 10) and IgG (n = 6), measured after an initial 2-h steady-state period at a constant Pv, were markedly reduced at low lymph flow compared with those obtained in the shorter term experiments. In an additional group (n = 5), albumin clearance peaked at 10 times baseline within 15 min after a step increase in Pv to 30 mmHg but fell to only 3 times baseline within 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1550244

  18. Glutathione and mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Vicent; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C.

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25024695

  19. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  20. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  1. Ileal neuroendocrine tumors and heart: not only valvular consequences.

    PubMed

    Calissendorff, Jan; Maret, Eva; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

    2015-04-01

    Ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) often progress slowly, but because of their generally nonspecific symptoms, they have often metastasized to local lymph nodes and to the liver by the time the patient presents. Biochemically, most of these patients have increased levels of whole blood serotonin, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and chromogranin A. Imaging work-up generally comprises computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, or in recent years positron emission tomography with 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs, allowing for detection of even sub-cm lesions. Carcinoid heart disease with affected leaflets, mainly to the right side of the heart, is a well-known complication and patients routinely undergo echocardiography to diagnose and monitor this. Multitasking surgery is currently recognized as first-line treatment for ileal NETs with metastases and carcinoid heart disease. Open heart surgery and valve replacement are advocated in patients with valvular disease and progressive heart failure. When valvulopathy in the tricuspid valve results in right-sided heart failure, a sequential approach, performing valve replacement first before intra-abdominal tumor-reductive procedures are conducted, reduces the risk of bleeding. Metastases to the myocardium from ileal NETs are seen in <1-4.3% of patients, depending partly on the imaging technique used, and are generally discovered in those affected with widespread disease. Systemic treatment with somatostatin analogs, and sometimes alpha interferon, is first-line medical therapy in metastatic disease to relieve hormonal symptoms and stabilize the tumor. This treatment is also indicated when heart metastases are detected, with the addition of diuretics and fluid restriction in cases of heart failure. Myocardial metastases are rarely treated by surgical resection. PMID:25319177

  2. A "false positive" octreoscan in ileal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alberto; Tabuenca, Olga; Peteiro, Angeles

    2008-09-14

    We present a case report of a patient with a suspicious ileal carcinoid tumour. Clinical examination as well as computer tomography (CT) scan suggested a tumour. Octeotride scan showed uptake in the same bowel loop reported as pathological in CT. The patient underwent surgery and biopsy which reported Crohn's disease (CD). The interest in the case is due to the fact that this is, to the best of our knowledge, the second report of Crohn's disease as a cause of false positive octeotride scan. Unfortunately, no somatostatin receptors could be found in the sample, so further studies should be performed. PMID:18785291

  3. Alteration of the Redox State with Reactive Oxygen Species for 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Oral Mucositis in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Lee, Masaichi Chang-il

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis. PMID:24376587

  4. [Capacity, motility and emptying of the ileal reservoir].

    PubMed

    Hultén, L

    1993-01-01

    The ileal pouch design has been considered to be an important functional determinant. Whether reported differences are attributed to properties of a specific pouch or simply due to different length of ileum used for their construction is controversial. The pouch motility pattern has been considered to be another important functional determinator. There is evidence that pouches with a low volume threshold, i.e. those in which even a moderate volume distension generates high pressure waves, are associated with poor function. Manovolumetric data and results on the functional outcome carefully analyzed in our colorectal unit fail to support some of these statements. While the expanding property and volume capacity of the S- and K-pouch (design according to the Kock folding principle) are both superior to those of the J-configurated pouch the one year functional result appears quite similar. While ileal pouches which on distension exhibited vivid motility pattern generating high pressure waves were sometimes associated with poor function the observation was not consistent. Evacuation and sensory function of the pelvic pouch differ from that of the normal rectum. The motor compound of the defecation reflex is absent and patients evacuate by straining. Pouch design and motility only explain a fraction of the total variability in function. Factors like stool volume and consistency, and canal deformity, social habits and other patients related factors may also play an important role. PMID:8161131

  5. Parastomal hernias after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Parastomal hernia, defined as an "incisional hernia related to an abdominal wall stoma", is a frequent complication after conduit urinary diversion that can negatively impact quality of life and present a clinically significant problem for many patients. Parastomal hernia (PH) rates may be as high as 65% and while many patients are asymptomatic, in some series up to 30% of patients require surgical intervention due to pain, leakage, ostomy appliance problems, urinary obstruction, and rarely bowel obstruction or strangulation. Local tissue repair, stoma relocation, and mesh repairs have been performed to correct PH, however, long-term results have been disappointing with recurrence rates of 30%–76% reported after these techniques. Due to high recurrence rates and the potential morbidity of PH repair, efforts have been made to prevent PH development at the time of the initial surgery. Randomized trials of circumstomal prophylactic mesh placement at the time of colostomy and ileostomy stoma formation have shown significant reductions in PH rates with acceptably low complication profiles. We have placed prophylactic mesh at the time of ileal conduit creation in patients at high risk for PH development and found it to be safe and effective in reducing the PH rates over the short-term. In this review, we describe the clinical and radiographic definitions of PH, the clinical impact and risk factors associated with its development, and the use of prophylactic mesh placement for patients undergoing ileal conduit urinary diversion with the intent of reducing PH rates. PMID:27437533

  6. Neoterminal ileal blood flow after ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Angerson, W J; Allison, M C; Baxter, J N; Russell, R I

    1993-01-01

    Endoscopic laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure neoterminal ileal blood flow in 16 patients who had undergone ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease and had since remained clinically and biochemically free of disease, and eight control patients who had undergone similar surgery for colonic carcinoma. Four patients with clinically active Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum were also studied. Neoterminal ileal recurrence in those with inactive Crohn's disease was graded endoscopically. The median and minimum of five local blood flow measurements performed in each patient were inversely correlated with the endoscopic recurrence grade (r = -0.52, p = 0.04 and r = -0.63, p = 0.01 respectively). Relative to the control group, median blood flow was non-significantly lower in the inactive Crohn's disease group as a whole (p > 0.05) but was significantly reduced in patients with active disease (p = 0.02). A progressive reduction in tissue perfusion may accompany recurrence of Crohn's disease while at a subclinical stage. PMID:8244138

  7. Parastomal hernias after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Timothy F; Bochner, Bernard H

    2016-07-01

    Parastomal hernia, defined as an "incisional hernia related to an abdominal wall stoma", is a frequent complication after conduit urinary diversion that can negatively impact quality of life and present a clinically significant problem for many patients. Parastomal hernia (PH) rates may be as high as 65% and while many patients are asymptomatic, in some series up to 30% of patients require surgical intervention due to pain, leakage, ostomy appliance problems, urinary obstruction, and rarely bowel obstruction or strangulation. Local tissue repair, stoma relocation, and mesh repairs have been performed to correct PH, however, long-term results have been disappointing with recurrence rates of 30%-76% reported after these techniques. Due to high recurrence rates and the potential morbidity of PH repair, efforts have been made to prevent PH development at the time of the initial surgery. Randomized trials of circumstomal prophylactic mesh placement at the time of colostomy and ileostomy stoma formation have shown significant reductions in PH rates with acceptably low complication profiles. We have placed prophylactic mesh at the time of ileal conduit creation in patients at high risk for PH development and found it to be safe and effective in reducing the PH rates over the short-term. In this review, we describe the clinical and radiographic definitions of PH, the clinical impact and risk factors associated with its development, and the use of prophylactic mesh placement for patients undergoing ileal conduit urinary diversion with the intent of reducing PH rates. PMID:27437533

  8. Neuroimmune connections in jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches at various bovine ages: potential sites for prion neuroinvasion.

    PubMed

    Defaweux, Valérie; Dorban, Gauthier; Antoine, Nadine; Piret, Joëlle; Gabriel, Annick; Jacqmot, Olivier; Falisse-Poirier, Nandini; Flandroy, Sylvain; Zorzi, Danièle; Heinen, Ernst

    2007-07-01

    During preclinical stages of cattle orally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the responsible agent is confined to ileal Peyer's patches (IPP), namely in nerve fibers and in lymph follicles, before reaching the peripheral and central nervous systems. No infectivity has been reported in other bovine lymphoid organs, including jejunal Peyer's patches (JPP). To determine the potential sites for prion neuroinvasion in IPP, we analyzed the mucosal innervation and the interface between nerve fibers and follicular dendritic cells (FDC), two dramatic influences on neuroinvasion. Bovine IPP were studied at three ages, viz., newborn calves, calves less than 12 months old, and bovines older than 24 months, and the parameters obtained were compared with those of JPP. No differences in innervation patterns between IPP and JPP were found. The major difference observed was that, in calves of less than 12 months, IPP were the major mucosal-associated lymphoid organ that possessed a large number of follicles with extended FDC networks. Using a panel of antibodies, we showed that PP in 24-month-old bovines were highly innervated at various strategic sites assumed to be involved in the invasion and replication of the BSE pathogen: the suprafollicular dome, T cell area, and germinal centers. In PP in calves of less than 12 months old, no nerve fibers positive for the neurofilament markers NF-L (70 kDa) and NF-H (200 kDa) were observed in contact with FDC. Thus, in view of the proportion of these protein subunits present in neurofilaments, the innervation of the germinal centers can be said to be an age-dependent dynamic process. This variation in innervation might influence the path of neuroinvasion and, thus, the susceptibility of bovines to the BSE agent. PMID:17406903

  9. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  10. Two Cases of Ileal Dieulafoy Lesion with Massive Hematochezia Treated by Single Balloon Enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Chul; Park, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Kye Sook; Kim, Hyung Gil; Shin, Yong Woon

    2012-01-01

    Ileal Dieulafoy lesion is an unusual vascular abnormality that can cause gastrointestinal bleeding. It can be associated with massive, life-threatening hemorrhage and requires urgent angiographic intervention or surgery. Ileal Dieulafoy lesion is hard to recognize due to inaccessibility and normal-appearing mucosa. With advances in endoscopy, aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches including enteroscopy have recently been performed for small bowel bleeding. We report two cases of massive ileal Dieulafoy lesion bleeding diagnosed and treated successfully by single balloon enteroscopy with a review of the literature. PMID:23251897

  11. Selenium Deficiency Attenuates Chicken Duodenal Mucosal Immunity via Activation of the NF-κb Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Qu, Yanpeng; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency can cause intestinal mucosal inflammation, which is related to activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of inflammatory response in chicken duodenal mucosa caused by Se deficiency and its relationship with the NF-κB signaling pathway remain elusive. In this study, we firstly obtained Se-deficient chickens bred with 0.01 mg/kg Se and the normal chickens bred with 0.4 mg/kg Se for 35 days. Then, NF-κB signaling pathway, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), inflammatory cytokines, oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione activities were determined. The results showed that Se deficiency obviously enhanced p50, p65, and p65 DNA-binding activities. The phosphorylation of IκB-α and phosphorylation of kappa-B kinase subunit alpha (IKKα) and IKKα were elevated, but IκB-α was decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, Se deficiency reduced SIgA amount in the duodenal mucosa but increased the level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as TGF-β1 and IL-10, were significantly suppressed. Additionally, Se deficiency increased oxidized glutathione activity, whereas decreased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione activities (P < 0.05), suggesting that Se deficiency affected the regulation function of redox. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Se deficiency attenuated chicken duodenal mucosal immunity via activation of NF-κB signaling pathway regulated by redox activity, which suggested that Se is a crucial host factor involved in regulating inflammation. PMID:26728795

  12. Emu Oil Combined with Lyprinol™ Reduces Small Intestinal Damage in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Mashtoub, Suzanne; Lampton, Lorrinne S; Eden, Georgina L; Cheah, Ker Y; Lymn, Kerry A; Bajic, Juliana E; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is characterized by inflammation and ulcerating lesions lining the alimentary tract. Emu Oil and Lyprinol™ have independently demonstrated their therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammatory disorders, including mucositis. We investigated Emu Oil and Lyprinol™ in combination for their further potential to alleviate chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats. Rats were gavaged with (1 ml) water, Olive Oil, Emu Oil + Olive Oil, Lyprinol™ + Olive Oil or Emu Oil + Lyprinol™ from Days 0 to 7, injected with saline (control) or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) on Day 5 and euthanized on Day 8. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (indicative of acute inflammation), histological severity scores, and intestinal architecture were quantified. Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly increased in the jejunum and ileum following 5-FU, compared to saline controls. Both Olive Oil and Emu Oil + Lyprinol™ significantly reduced jejunal MPO levels (1.8-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively), whereas only Emu Oil + Lyprinol™ significantly decreased ileal MPO levels, relative to 5-FU controls. All oil treatments decreased histological severity scores in the jejunum and ileum, and normalized crypt depth in the mid small intestine, relative to 5-FU controls. Emu Oil combined with Lyprinol™ partially reduced acute small intestinal inflammation. Isolating bioactive constituents of these naturally sourced oils could provide a more targeted strategy to protect against intestinal mucositis. PMID:27618153

  13. Imbalanced secondary mucosal antioxidant response in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kruidenier, Laurens; Kuiper, Ineke; Van Duijn, Wim; Mieremet-Ooms, Marij A C; van Hogezand, Ruud A; Lamers, Cornelis B H W; Verspaget, Hein W

    2003-09-01

    Intestinal mucosal damage in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) involves reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs). ROMs are neutralized by endogenous antioxidant enzymes in a carefully balanced two-step pathway. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) convert superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), which is subsequently neutralized to water by catalase (CAT) or glutathione peroxidase (GPO). Remarkably changed expression levels of the three isoforms of SOD in paired non-inflamed and inflamed mucosae from CD and UC patients have been previously reported in comparison to normal control mucosa. Most notable was the strong up-regulation of Mn-SOD in inflamed epithelium. It was hypothesized that in order to provide optimal protection against ROM-mediated damage, these changes should be coordinately counterbalanced by an increased H(2)O(2)-neutralizing capacity. Therefore, the same tissue samples were used to assess the levels, activities, and/or localization of the most prominent mucosal H(2)O(2)-related antioxidants CAT, GPO, glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and metallothionein (MT). Quantitative measurements showed that in both CD and UC patients, intestinal inflammation was associated with increased activities of CAT, GPO, and MPO, whereas the mucosal GSH content was unaffected and the concentration of MT was decreased. Despite this overall increase in mucosal H(2)O(2)-metabolizing enzyme capacity, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a differentially disturbed antioxidant balance in IBD epithelium and lamina propria. In the lamina propria, the risk of direct H(2)O(2)-mediated damage seemed to be restrained by the increasing numbers of CAT- and MPO-positive monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils that infiltrated the inflamed areas. On the other hand, MPO overexpression might increase the lamina propria levels of hypochlorous acid, a stable ROM with multiple pro-inflammatory effects. In the epithelium, the number of

  14. Intestinal mucosal tolerance and impact of gut microbiota to mucosal tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Kozarov, Emil; Sobenin, Igor A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal barriers are very sensitive to pathogenic infection, thereby assuming the capacity of the mucosal immune system to induce protective immunity to harmful antigens and tolerance against harmless substances. This review provides current information about mechanisms of induction of mucosal tolerance and about impact of gut microbiota to mucosal tolerance. PMID:25628617

  15. Heterotopic Pancreas: A Rare Cause of Ileo-Ileal Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Monier, Ahmed; Awad, Ahmed; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Muneer, Mohamed; Alrashid, Amal; Darweesh, Adham; Hassan, Heba

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterotopic pancreas is a rare developmental anomaly defined as pancreatic tissue found on ectopic sites without contiguity with the main pancreas. An isolated heterotopic pancreas as a cause of bowel intussusception is extremely rare. Case Report A case of 47-year old male with multiple episodes of melena, constipation and abdominal pain for one year duration is presented. CT eneterography revealed a large circumferential lesion involving the terminal ileum that acted as a leading point to an ileo-ileal intussusception. The resection of the lesion and related bowel segment was carried out. The histopathological examination confirmed the excised lesion as a heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Conclusions Though a rare entity, heterotopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bowel intussusception. PMID:25302087

  16. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  17. Utility of Neutrophil Fcγ Receptor I (CD64) Index as a Biomarker for Mucosal Inflammation in Pediatric Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Minar, Phillip; Haberman, Yael; Jurickova, Ingrid; Wen, Ting; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Kim, Mi-Ok; Saeed, Shehzad A.; Baldassano, Robert N.; Stephens, Michael; Markowitz, James; Rosh, Joel; Crandall, Wallace V.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Mack, David R.; Griffiths, Anne M.; Baker, Susan S.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Kugathasan, Subra; Denson, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neutrophil expression of the Fcγ receptor I (CD64) is upregulated in adult patients with clinically active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We tested the relationship of CD64 with mucosal inflammation and clinical relapse in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Methods In a cohort of 208 newly diagnosed CD and 43 non-IBD controls, ileal expression of FcγRI/S100A9 was determined by RNA sequencing from biopsies obtained at ileocolonoscopy. In a second cohort, we tested for the peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) CD64 index from 26 newly diagnosed CD, 30 non-IBD controls and 83 children with established CD. Results Ileal FcγRIA mRNA expression was significantly elevated in CD at diagnosis compared with non-IBD controls (p<0.001), and correlated with ileal S100A9 (calprotectin) expression (r=0.83, p<0.001). The median(range) PMN CD64 index for newly diagnosed CD was 2.3(0.74-9.3) compared with 0.76(0.39-1.2) for non-IBD controls (p<0.001) with 96% sensitivity and 90% specificity at the cut point of 1.0. The PMN CD64 index significantly correlated with mucosal injury as measured by the Simple Endoscopic Score-CD (SES-CD, r=0.62, p<0.001). CD patients in clinical remission receiving maintenance therapy with a PMN CD64 index <1.0 had a sustained remission rate of 95% over the following 12 months compared with 56% in those with a PMN CD64 index >1.0 (p<0.01). Conclusions An elevated PMN CD64 index is associated with both mucosal inflammation and an increased risk for clinical relapse in pediatric CD. The PMN CD64 index is a reliable marker for sustained remission in CD patients receiving maintenance therapy. PMID:24788216

  18. Initial Series of Four-Arm Robotic Completely Intracorporeal Ileal Ureter.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Metcalfe, Charles; Satkunasivam, Raj; Nagaraj, Shalini; Becker, Carlee; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Azhar, Raed A; Gill, Inderbir; Desai, Mihir; Aron, Monish; Berger, Andre

    2016-04-01

    Ileal ureter formation has been found to be a suitable treatment option for long, chronic ureteral strictures not amendable to less invasive forms of repair. Minimally invasive surgical techniques for this condition have been investigated. We report the first series of robotic completely intracorporeal ileal ureter using a four-arm robotic technique. Three patients underwent this procedure, including one patient with a solitary kidney. All procedures were performed effectively with a median operative time of 450 minutes (range: 420-540) and median estimated blood loss of 100 mL (range: 50-200). Postoperatively, one patient suffered volvulus and subsequent necrosis of small bowel and ileal ureter, which required re-operation and small bowel resection, including the ileal ureter. The other two patients report no surgical complications to date. This early series represents preliminary technical procedure feasibility. Further experience is necessary. PMID:26859439

  19. Ileal Neobladder With Mucous Plugs as a Cause of Obstructive Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Emergent Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Singla, Montish; Shikha, Deep; Lee, Sunggeun; Baumstein, Donald; Chaudhari, Ashok; Carbajal, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Ileal neobladder is the preferred technique in the management of urinary diversion postradical cystectomy for bladder malignancy. The common complications associated with this procedure are atrophied kidney, chronic pyelonephritis, decreased renal function, ureteroileal or urethral anastomotic site stricture, urinary tract stones, incontinence, and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Mucous plugs are also seen in 2%-3% patients. We present a rare presentation of a patient who required hemodialysis for severe hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury caused by mucous plugging of ileal neobladder. PMID:25420078

  20. Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony; Gookin, Jody L

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods, and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut.  Preterm piglets (n=23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 hours over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa, and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16S rDNA qPCR.  Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp., and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets. PMID:21983069

  1. Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut. Preterm piglets (n = 23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 h over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16s rDNA qPCR. Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp. and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets. PMID:21983069

  2. Glutathione production by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing bifunctional glutathione synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important bioactive substance applied widely in pharmaceutical and food industries. Due to the strong product inhibition in the GSH biosynthetic pathway, high levels of intracellular content, yield and productivity of GSH are difficult to achieve. Recently, a novel bifunctional GSH synthetase was identified to be less sensitive to GSH. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing gshF encoding the bifunctional glutathione synthetase of Streptococcus thermophilus was constructed for GSH production. In this study, efficient GSH production using this engineered strain was investigated. The cultivation process was optimized by controlling dissolved oxygen (DO), amino acid addition and glucose feeding. 36.8 mM (11.3 g/L) GSH were formed at a productivity of 2.06 mM/h when the amino acid precursors (75 mM each) were added and glucose was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. PMID:26586402

  3. Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. PMID:23071856

  4. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT) and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture. PMID:26274978

  5. MicroRNA expression in ileal carcinoid tumors: downregulation of microRNA-133a with tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Ruebel, Katharina; Leontovich, Alexey A; Stilling, Gail A; Zhang, Shuya; Righi, Alberto; Jin, Long; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2010-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and can function as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. The role of miRNAs in neuroendocrine tumors such as ileal carcinoids is largely unknown. We examined the differential expression of 95 miRNAs by RT-PCR using the QuantiMir System in eight matching primary and metastatic carcinoid tumors from the ileum. All miRNAs chosen for the QuantiMir System array were based on their potential functions related to cancer biology, cell development, and apoptosis. The expression of miRNAs for the samples was normalized to miRNA-197, and the matching primary and metastatic tumors were compared. There was downregulation of miRNA-133a, -145, -146, -222, and -10b in all samples between the primary and matching metastatic tumors and upregulation of miRNA-183, -488, and -19a+b in six of eight metastatic carcinoids compared to the primary tumors. miRNA-133a was further analyzed by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and northern hybridization using six additional matching primary and metastatic samples, which supported the PCR array findings. There were significant differences in miRNA-133a expression with downregulation in the metastasis compared to the primary in the eight original cases (P<0.009) and in the six additional cases used for validation (P<0.014). Laser capture microdissection and real-time RT-PCR analysis using normal ileum found miRNA-133a expression in normal enterochromaffin cells. In situ hybridization in normal ileum showed that some of the mucosal endocrine cells expressed miRNA-133a. Both primary and metastatic ileal carcinoid tumors expressed miRNA-133a by in situ hybridization. These results provide information about novel marker miRNAs that may be used as biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets in intestinal carcinoid tumors. PMID:20037573

  6. Dendritic cell-targeting DNA-based mucosal adjuvants for the development of mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish effective mucosal immunity against various mucosal pathogens, vaccines must be delivered via the mucosal route and contain effective adjuvant(s). Since mucosal adjuvants can simply mix with the antigen, it is relatively easy to adapt them for different types of vaccine development. Even in simple admixture vaccines, the adjuvant itself must be prepared without any complications. Thus, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or plasmids encoding certain cDNA(s) would be potent mucosal adjuvant candidates when compared with other substances that can be used as mucosal adjuvants. The strategy of a DNA-based mucosal adjuvant facilitates the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells, and thus is an effective and safe approach. It would also provide great flexibility for the development of effective vaccines for various mucosal pathogens. PMID:19722892

  7. Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. PMID:23201762

  8. Mucosal vaccination: lung versus nose.

    PubMed

    Vujanic, Ana; Sutton, Philip; Snibson, Kenneth J; Yen, Hung-Hsun; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre Y

    2012-07-15

    The induction of potent mucosal immune responses able to prevent the establishment of infection at the onset of mucosal pathogen colonisation represents a desirable but challenging goal for vaccine development. Here we compare nasal vaccine delivery with intra-pulmonary vaccination using a sheep lymphatic cannulation model. Our results demonstrate that nasal delivery of a non-infective ISCOMATRIX(®) influenza vaccine does not induce primary immune responses in the lymph draining the nasal lymph nodes, suggesting that local immune responses in the lymph nodes draining the nasal cavity are relatively weak. However, this mode of delivery can boost existing immunity in the nasal lymph. Using the same adjuvant we were able to induce very potent immune responses in both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), following intra-pulmonary delivery of ISCOMATRIX(®) influenza vaccine, even when very small doses of antigen were employed. Lung delivery could also induce comparable immune responses against other recombinant antigens mixed with ISCOMATRIX(®) adjuvant and could therefore become a method of choice for the induction of immunity to mucosal pathogens infecting the lower respiratory tract. PMID:21492942

  9. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N.; Ferre, April L.; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M. Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A. R.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. Methods and Findings To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10–15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Conclusions Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes. PMID:27232996

  10. Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

  11. Motility of the jejunum after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis.

    PubMed Central

    Chaussade, S; Merite, F; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Couturier, D

    1989-01-01

    Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anastomosis could modify motility of the small intestine through two mechanisms: obstruction or bacterial overgrowth. Motility of the jejunum was measured in 11 patients with ileoanal anastomosis six (n = 6), or 12 (n = 5) months after closure of the loop ileostomy. Manometric recording from the jejunum were made during fasting (four hours) and after a liquid meal (one hour). These findings were compared with those of six healthy volunteers. Motor events were classified as follows: migrating motor complex (MMC), propagated contractions, or discrete clustered contractions. All patients were investigated for bacterial overgrowth (D-glucose breath test). Only two patients had bacterial overgrowth. The frequency of MMC remained unchanged after ileo-anal anastomosis (2.83 (0.37)/four hours) compared with normal volunteers (2.81 (0.29)/four hours). During fasting, four patients had numerous propagated contractions in the jejunum. This condition was associated in two with bacterial overgrowth and in two with intubation of the reservoir. Discrete clustered contractions were found in the seven patients studied postprandially (7.6 (2.5)/h), but not in volunteers. These seven patients emptied their pouch spontaneously and bacterial overgrowth was found in only one. As this motility pattern was previously described in partial small intestinal obstruction, it is postulated that discrete clustered contractions could be the consequence of a functional obstruction as a result of anastomosis of the small intestine to the high pressure zone of the anal sphincters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2707637

  12. Changes of reduced glutathion, glutathion reductase, and glutathione peroxidase after radiation in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Erden, M.; Bor, N.M.

    1984-04-01

    In this series of experiments the protective action of reduced glutathion due to ionizing radiation has been studied. In the experimental group 18 guinea pigs were exposed to successive radiations of 150 rad 3 or 4 days apart. Total dose given amounted to 750 rad which is the LD50 for guinea pigs. Blood samples were taken 30 min after each exposure. The control series were sham radiated but otherwise treated identically. The cells of the removed blood samples were separated by centrifugation and were subjected to the reduced glutathion stability test. GSSGR, GPer, and LDH enzyme activities were also measured of which the latter served as a marked enzyme. It was found that LDH did not show any alteration after radiation. The reduced glutathion stability test showed a consistent but minor reduction (P greater than 0.05), in the experimental group. GSSGR enzyme activity on the other hand was reduced significantly (from 176.48 +/- 11.32 to 41.34 +/- 1.17 IU/ml of packed erythrocytes, P less than 0.001) in the same group. GPer activity showed a consistent but minor elevation during the early phase of the experimental group. It was later increased significantly beginning after 600 rad total radiation on the fourth session (P less than 0.050).

  13. Diagnostic value of terminal ileum biopsies in patients with abnormal terminal ileum mucosal appearance

    PubMed Central

    Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Enes Arıkan, A.; Kağan Zengin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the necessity of obtaining routine ileal biopsy during colonoscopy in the patients with abnormal terminal ileum mucosal appearance if the inflammatory bowel disease is not considered. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for 57 patients who were referred to a private hospital for colonoscopy between January 2008 and February 2009, in whom terminal ileum intubation was achieved and an abnormal appearance was observed. Results: There were 33 men and 24 women; the mean age was 44.12±11.42 years. In 22 patients, the abnormality was ulcers and/or erosions. In 10 patients, there were mucosal nodularity and in 24, the finding was erythema. The time to reach to ileum from cecum was 28.78±24.30 s. The mean length of the examined ileum was 12.93±6.05 cm. There was no difference between groups according to distance covered in the ileum for diagnostic yield, but going further than 2 cm was important. Conclusion: There should be no need to obtain routine biopsy in patients with abnormal terminal ileum mucosa appearance, when inflammatory bowel disease is not considered. In these patients, histopathology also reveals non-specific ileitis. Furthermore, in these patients, the macroscopic pathological diagnosis overlaps the histopathology, and it has a low diagnostic yield and lower clinical significance. PMID:26504419

  14. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    PubMed

    Schrier, B P; Lichtendonk, W J; Witjes, J A

    2002-05-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a refrigerator. After precipitation, the urine was decanted. The residue was stirred to a homogeneous suspension. To samples of 4.5 ml mucus, 0.5 ml NAC 10% was added. To the control sample, 0.5 ml water was added. The samples were incubated in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 5, 30 and 60 min. Viscosity was measured in the Bohlin VOR Rheometer. The viscosity of the ileal neobladder mucus decreased quickly after incubating with NAC 10%. Viscosity increased slightly after I h of incubation. The viscosity in the control sample was higher than in the other incubated samples. NAC was found to decrease the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus, supporting the in vivo experience that NAC can be useful in patients with an ileal neobladder to facilitate the evacuation of mucus by decreasing viscosity. PMID:12088194

  15. Role of thyroxine on postnatal development of ileal active bile salt transport

    SciTech Connect

    Heubi, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    The role of thyroid hormone on the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport uptake was measured by an in vitro incubation technique in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 16-day-old rats treated with pharmacological doses of L-thyroxine ileal active transport appeared precociously whose K/sub m/ was 1.60 +/- 0.48 mM and V/sub app/ was 8.09 +/- 1.14 nmol min mg dry wt , while age-matched shams had only passive diffusion of taurocholate. To determine whether enhanced endogenous secretion of thyroxine was capable of stimulating development of ileal active taurocholate transport, thyrotrophic stimulating hormone (TSH) was given on days 10-13, with uptake measured on day 16. Following TSH treatment, only passive transport for taurocholate was observed in the ileum; uptake rates were consistently higher than those for untreated controls at each study concentration. Thyroidectomy performed at age 14 days with uptake measured at age 21 days did not ablate development of ileal active transport but resulted in a significant reduction in the V/sub app/ and a significant increase in K/sub m/ compared with age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone does not appear to be obligatory for the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport.

  16. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance

  17. Emerging regulatory paradigms in glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilin; Hyde, Annastasia S; Simpson, Melanie A; Barycki, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability to generate and withstand unusual levels of oxidative stress. In part, this property of tumor cells is conferred by elevation of the cellular redox buffer glutathione. Though enzymes of the glutathione synthesis and salvage pathways have been characterized for several decades, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of their independent and coordinate regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have further revealed that overall central metabolic pathways are frequently altered in various tumor types, resulting in significant increases in biosynthetic capacity and feeding into glutathione synthesis. In this review, we will discuss the enzymes and pathways affecting glutathione flux in cancer and summarize current models for regulating cellular glutathione through both de novo synthesis and efficient salvage. In addition, we examine the integration of glutathione metabolism with other altered fates of intermediary metabolites and highlight remaining questions about molecular details of the accepted regulatory modes. PMID:24974179

  18. Emerging regulatory paradigms in glutathione metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilin; Hyde, Annastasia S.; Simpson, Melanie A.; Barycki, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability to generate and withstand unusual levels of oxidative stress. In part, this property of tumor cells is conferred by elevation of the cellular redox buffer glutathione. Though enzymes of the glutathione synthesis and salvage pathways have been characterized for several decades, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of their independent and coordinate regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have further revealed that overall central metabolic pathways are frequently altered in various tumor types, resulting in significant increases in biosynthetic capacity, and feeding into glutathione synthesis. In this review, we will discuss the enzymes and pathways affecting glutathione flux in cancer, and summarize current models for regulating cellular glutathione through both de novo synthesis and efficient salvage. In addition, we examine the integration of glutathione metabolism with other altered fates of intermediary metabolites, and highlight remaining questions about molecular details of the accepted regulatory modes. PMID:24974179

  19. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs. PMID:21778824

  20. Effect of Dietary Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation on Enteric Mucosal Morphological Development and Adherent Mucin Thickness in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ayoola, Ayuub A.; Malheiros, Ramon D.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Ferket, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) in feed ingredients can challenge gut health and reduce nutrient utilization. Birds typically activate their innate immune system as a protective response against the adverse effects of ANF, which often involves the secretion of mucin. Although dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes are commonly used to alleviate the adverse effects of ANF on apparent nutrient digestibility, little is known about how they affect gut health, particularly in relation to the morphological development and mucin secretion of enteric mucosa. We carried out two trials to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of different types of exogenous enzymes on gut health of by accessing the effect of jejunum morphological development and ileal enteric adherent mucin thickness layer in turkeys. Dietary β-mannanase supplementation reduced ileal adherent mucin thickness layer (804 vs 823 μg/g; p < 0.05), while a commercial blend of xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) reduced ileal adherent mucin layer thickness (589 vs 740 μg/g; p < 0.05); thus reducing the apparent endogenous loss of nutrients. Both enzyme supplements also affected gut morphological characteristics. In comparison to the control treatment, dietary β-mannanase supplementation improved the jejunum tip width (219 vs 161; p < 0.05), base width (367 vs 300; p < 0.05), surface area (509,870 vs 380, 157; p < 0.05) and villi height/crypt depth ratio (7.49 vs 5.70; p < 0.05), and XAP improved the crypt depth (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes may help alleviate the adverse effects of ANF on nutrient utilization by directly or indirectly removing the mucosal irritation that stimulates enteric mucin secretion. PMID:26664972

  1. Single-incision laparoscopic-assisted ileal resection for adult intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Wu, Shuodong; Zhu, Renzhong; Yu, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    Adult intussusception is rare and laparotomy is required in most of the cases due to the potential pathologic underlying reasons. Although it is technically challenging, single-incision laparoscopic surgery can work as an alternative to laparotomy. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old man with intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 1 month. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and ileo-ileal intussusception was found, with lipoma as a likely leading point. Ileal resection was performed using the single-incision laparoscopic-assisted technique. Multiple trocars in the umbilical incision technique and conventional instruments were used. After identification of the ileo-ileal intussusception, the involved small bowel was extracted from the umbilical incision, and resection and anastomosis were performed extracoporeally. The operation time was 65 min and the post-operative hospital stay was 2 days. The patient recovered uneventfully, with better cosmetic results. PMID:27073316

  2. Totally Laparoscopic Repair of an Ileal and Uterine Iatrogenic Perforation Secondary to Endometrial Curettage

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Rosario; Marchese, Salvatore; Leanza, Vito; Leanza, Antonio; Intagliata, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel perforation is a unique, serious complication during endometrial biopsy. The authors report a case of a double uterine-ileal perforation totally managed by primary laparoscopic repair. A 63-year-old female was admitted with acute abdomen 2 days after an endometrial curettage. Abdominal X-ray shows signs of pneumoperitoneum. Emergency diagnostic laparoscopy was performed and a uterine-ileal perforation was identified. Repair was accomplished by a totally laparoscopic intracorporeally suturing of the 2 breaches. Postoperative course showed only a delayed ileus and the patient was discharged after 5 days with no complications. When acute abdomen arises following uterine biopsy, a potential iatrogenic intestinal laceration always has to be ruled out. Laparoscopic approach is a quick and safe technique in these cases. Totally laparoscopic primary closure of the iatrogenic ileal laceration may be accomplished with low morbidity. PMID:25692425

  3. Expression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase pi in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important agents of the antioxidant defense system of the cell because, in conjunction with the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S transferase pi (GSTpi), it plays a central role in the detoxification and biotransformation of chemotherapeutic drugs. This study evaluated the expression of GSH and the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine mammary tumors, relating the clinicopathological parameters, clinical outcome and survival of the bitches. In an in vitro study, the expression of the genes glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) that synthesize GSH and GSH-Px gene were verified by qPCR and subjected to treatment with doxorubicin, to check the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Results The immunohistochemical expression of GSH, GSH-Px and GSTpi was compared with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the clinical outcome in the bitches, including metastasis and death. The results showed that high immunoexpression of GSH was correlated to the absence of tumor ulceration and was present in dogs without metastasis (P < 0.05). There was significant correlation of survival with the increase of GSH (P < 0.05). The expression of the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes showed no statistically significant correlation with the analyzed variables (p > 0.05). The analysis of the relative expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of GSH (GCLC and GSS) and GSH-Px by quantitative PCR was done with cultured cells of 10 tumor fragments from dogs with mammary tumors. The culture cells showed a decrease in GCLC and GSS expression when compared with no treated cells (P < 0.05). High GSH immunoexpression was associated with better clinical outcomes. Conclusion Therefore, high expression of the GSH seems to play an important role in the clinical outcome of patients with mammary tumors and suggest its use as prognostic marker. The in

  4. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  5. Ten Years Clinical Experience with Partial Ileal Bypass in Management of the Hyperlipidemias

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Henry; Moore, Richard B.; Varco, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    The first partial ileal bypass operation specifically for the reduction of plasma lipids was performed by us in 1963. Since then we have operated upon and followed for more than three months 126 hyperlipidemic patients. Clinical metabolic studies, before and after the procedure, have demonstrated a 60% decrease in cholesterol absorption, a 3.8-fold increase in total fecal steroid excretion, a 5.7-fold increase in cholesterol synthesis, a 3-fold increase in cholesterol turnover, and a one-third decrease in the miscible cholesterol pool. Circulating cholesterol levels have been lowered an average 41.1% from the preoperative but postdietary baseline. An average 53% cholesterol reduction has been achieved from a pretreatment baseline using a combination of dietary and surgical management. Plasma triglycerides have been reduced in primary hypertriglyceridemic patients (type IV) an average of 52.6% from their preoperative but postdietary baseline. One patient died in the hospital and there have been 13 late deaths over the past 10 years. Four cases of postoperative bowel obstruction required reoperation. Diarrhea following partial ileal bypass is, as a rule, transistory and not a significant problem. No appreciable weight loss results from partial ileal bypass, which is an obvious distinction from the results of the far more massive jejuno-ileal bypass procedure for obesity. We have not encountered hepatotoxic, lithogenic, or nephrolithiasis complications in our partial ileal bypass patients. Sixty-nine per cent of our patients with preoperative angina pectoris have postoperative improvement or total remission of this symptom complex. Serial appraisal of followup coronary arteriographic studies offers preliminary evidence for lesion regression. It is concluded that partial ileal bypass is the most effective means for lipid reduction available today; it is obligatory in its actions, safe, and associated with minimal side effects. PMID:4416064

  6. Direct measurement of first-pass ileal clearance of a bile acid in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%).

  7. Biology and Mucosal Immunity to Myxozoans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Daniela; Bartholomew, Jerri; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2014-01-01

    Myxozoans are among the most abundant parasites in nature. Their life cycles involve two hosts: an invertebrate, usually an annelid, and a vertebrate, usually a fish. They affect fish species in their natural habitats but also constitute a menace for fish aquaculture. Using different strategies they are able to parasitize and cause damage in multiple organs, including mucosal tissues, which they use also as portals of entry. In fish, the main mucosal sites include the intestine, skin and gills. Recently the finding of a specific mucosal immunoglobulin in teleost (IgT), analogous to mammalian IgA, and the capacity of fish to develop a specific mucosal immune response against different pathogens, has highlighted the importance of studying immune responses at mucosal sites. In this review, we describe the major biological characteristics of myxozoan parasites and present the data available regarding immune responses for species that infect mucosal sites. As models for mucosal immunity we review the responses to Enteromyxum spp. and Ceratomyxa shasta, both of which parasitize the intestine. The immune response at the skin and gills is also described, as these mucosal tissues are used by myxozoans as attaching surfaces and portal of entry, and some species also parasitize these sites. Finally, the development of immunoprophylactic strategies is discussed. PMID:23994774

  8. Vaccination Strategies for Mucosal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ogra, Pearay L.; Faden, Howard; Welliver, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal administration of vaccines is an important approach to the induction of appropriate immune responses to microbial and other environmental antigens in systemic sites and peripheral blood as well as in most external mucosal surfaces. The development of specific antibody- or T-cell-mediated immunologic responses and the induction of mucosally induced systemic immunologic hyporesponsiveness (oral or mucosal tolerance) depend on complex sets of immunologic events, including the nature of the antigenic stimulation of specialized lymphoid structures in the host, antigen-induced activation of different populations of regulatory T cells (Th1 versus Th2), and the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Availability of mucosal vaccines will provide a painless approach to deliver large numbers of vaccine antigens for human immunization. Currently, an average infant will receive 20 to 25 percutaneous injections for vaccination against different childhood infections by 18 months of age. It should be possible to develop for human use effective, nonliving, recombinant, replicating, transgenic, and microbial vector- or plant-based mucosal vaccines to prevent infections. Based on the experience with many dietary antigens, it is also possible to manipulate the mucosal immune system to induce systemic tolerance against environmental, dietary, and possibly other autoantigens associated with allergic and autoimmune disorders. Mucosal immunity offers new strategies to induce protective immune responses against a variety of infectious agents. Such immunization may also provide new prophylactic or therapeutic avenues in the control of autoimmune diseases in humans. PMID:11292646

  9. Forgotten DJ Stent with a Large Calculus at Its Distal End in an Ileal Conduit Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anurag; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Raizada, Nivedita; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Calculus formation in an ileal conduit following cystectomy is a known complication. Encrustation and formation of calculus may also occur over a DJ stent retained for a long period; but this is never reported in patients with conduit diversion because of close surveillance of these patients. Here we report first case of a large calculus encrusted over a forgotten DJ stent within an ileal conduit in a man who had undergone urinary diversion following radical cystectomy for carcinoma urinary bladder 8 years earlier. PMID:25215257

  10. Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma. PMID:21160780

  11. Modulation of intestinal mucin composition and mucosal morphology by dietary phytogenic inclusion level in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tsirtsikos, P; Fegeros, K; Kominakis, A; Balaskas, C; Mountzouris, K C

    2012-07-01

    The effect of a dietary phytogenic feed additive (PFA) inclusion level in mucin monosaccharide composition, mucosal morphometry and mucus histochemistry along the broiler intestinal tract was studied. Cobb male broilers (n = 525) were allocated into five experimental treatments that, depending on the type of addition in the basal diet (BD), were labeled as follows: C (BD based on maize-soybean meal with no other additions), E1 (80 mg PFA/kg BD), E2 (125 mg PFA/kg BD), E3 (250 mg PFA/kg of BD) and A (2.5 mg avilamycin/kg BD). Samples from duodenum, ileum and cecum of 14- and 42-day-old broilers were collected and analyzed. In 14-day-old broilers, treatments E2 and E3 had higher (P < 0.01) duodenal mannose than treatments C, E1 and A. Ileal mannose was lower (P < 0.05) in treatment C compared with PFA treatments, and ileal galactose (Gal) was higher (P < 0.01) in treatments E2 and E3 compared with C and A. Polynomial contrast analysis with respect to PFA inclusion level showed that in 14-day-old broilers there was a linear increase (P = 0.001) in duodenal mannose and a quadratic effect (P = 0.038) in duodenal N-acetyl-galactosamine with increasing PFA level. Ileal Gal and mannose increased linearly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.012, respectively) with PFA inclusion level. There were no significant differences between treatments in mucin monosaccharide molar ratios of 42-day-old broilers. However, increasing PFA inclusion level resulted in a linear decrease of ileal fucose (P = 0.021) and cecal N-acetylgalactosamine (P = 0.036). Experimental treatments did not differ (P > 0.05) regarding duodenal villus height (Vh), crypt depth (Cd) and Vh/Cd ratio, irrespective of broiler age and the intestinal segment examined. However, increasing dietary PFA inclusion level showed a pattern of linear increase of duodenal Vh/Cd ratio in 14-day-old broilers and ileal Vh in 42-day-old broilers (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039, respectively). Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid-Schiff (pH 2.5) staining of

  12. Genetics Home Reference: glutathione synthetase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... PubMed Njålsson R. Glutathione synthetase deficiency. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Sep;62(17):1938-45. Review. Citation on PubMed Ristoff E, Larsson A. Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathione. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Mar 30;2:16. Review. Citation on PubMed or ...

  13. Respiratory mucosal permeability in asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Elwood, R.K.; Kennedy, S.; Belzberg, A.; Hogg, J.C.; Pare, P.D.

    1983-09-01

    The permeability of respiratory mucosa to technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) was measured in 10 clinically stable chronic asthmatics and the results were compared with those in 9 nonasthmatic control subjects. Nonspecific bronchial reactivity was measured using methacholine, and the PC20 was calculated. The intrapulmonary distribution and dose of the inhaled /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was determined by a gamma camera and the half-life of the aerosolized label in the lung was calculated. The accumulation of radioactivity in the blood was monitored and a permeability index was calculated at 10, 25, and 60 min after aerosolization. Despite marked differences in airway reactivity, no differences in either parameter of permeability could be detected between the asthmatics and the control group. It is concluded that clinically stable asthmatics do not demonstrate increase mucosal permeability to small solutes when compared with normal subjects.

  14. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  15. The mucosal immune system for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Azegamia, Tatsuhiko; Kiyonoa, Hiroshi

    2014-11-20

    Mucosal surfaces are continuously exposed to the external environment and therefore represent the largest lymphoid organ of the body. In the mucosal immune system, gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), including Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles, play an important role in the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in the gut. GALTs have unique organogenesis characteristics and interact with the network of dendritic cells and T cells for the simultaneous induction and regulation of IgA responses and oral tolerance. In these lymphoid tissues, antigens are up taken by M cells in the epithelial layer, and antigen-specific immune responses are subsequently initiated by GALT cells. Nasopharynx- and tear-duct-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs and TALTs) are key organized lymphoid structures in the respiratory tract and ocular cavities, respectively, and have been shown to interact with each other. Mucosal surfaces are also characterized by host-microbe interactions that affect the genesis and maturation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues and the induction and regulation of innate and acquired mucosal immune responses. Because most harmful pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces by ingestion, inhalation, or sexual contact, the mucosa is a candidate site for vaccination. Mucosal vaccination has some physiological and practical advantages, such as decreased costs and reduced risk of needle-stick injuries and transmission of bloodborne diseases, and it is painless. Recently, the application of modern bioengineering and biochemical engineering technologies, including gene transformation and manipulation systems, resulted in the development of systems to express vaccine antigens in transgenic plants and nanogels, which will usher in a new era of delivery systems for mucosal vaccine antigens. In this review, based on some of our research group's thirty seven years of progress and effort, we highlight the unique features of mucosal immune

  16. Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Glausser, Margaret K.; Jaing, Crystal J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV). Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations. PMID:24778651

  17. True ileal digestible trypotophan to lysine ratios in 90 to 125 kg barrows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimal true ileal digestible (TID) tryptophen:lysime (Trp:Lys) ratio for 90 to 125 kg barrows. Basal diets contained 0.55% TID Lys and were either corn (Exp. 1) or corn-soybean meal (Exp. 2 and 3) based diets supplemented with crystalline amino aci...

  18. New treatment for ileal pouch-anal or coloanal anastomotic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Benoist, S; Panis, Y; Berdah, S; Hautefeuille, P; Valleur, P

    1998-07-01

    Persistent anastomotic stricture following ileal pouch-anal or coloanal anastomoses can be treated by transanal resection using a stapler or a more complex procedure, such as transanal pouch advancement with neoanastomosis. We propose an easier and faster technique, which does not require any particular device. Its long-term functional results are satisfactory in most patients. PMID:9678384

  19. Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hewitson, Laura; Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Glausser, Margaret K.; Jaing, Crystal J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV). Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. The LLMDAmore » technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae , Bacteroidaceae , and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations.« less

  20. Palliation of radiation-related mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, B.R.; Spektor, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    Oral mucositis associated with head and neck radiotherapy can substantially hinder completion of cancer therapy. Alleviation of this often severe stomatitis can provide enhanced patient comfort and facilitate appropriate care. A double-blind format was used in a pilot project to measure, against a control rinse, the effectiveness of an oral rinse consisting of hydrocortisone, nystatin, tetracycline, and diphenhydramine in controlling radiation-related mucositis. A combination of clinical evaluation and patient responses to a questionnaire was used to judge the results of the topical medications. Patients using the experimental medication developed less mucositis than did patients in the control group.

  1. Oral mucositis. A complication of radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, C.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Oral mucositis is a complication of head and neck radiotherapy. It is understood what causes the inflammation and what biological tissue changes occur, however, a definite cure for oral mucositis has not yet been found. Supportive treatments, analgesics, antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory agents have been prescribed, none of which has been a thorough measure of treatment. An effective cure for oral mucositis is still in the midst of scientific research. In the interim local palliative treatments will help to alleviate the patients', debilitating symptoms.

  2. Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Marazova, K; Krasnaliev, I; Galunska, B; Borisova, P; Belcheva, A

    2005-04-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits are rich in phenolic substances-mainly flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and other activities. We studied the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats and its possible relation to the oxidative status. AMFJ (5, 10 and 20 ml kg(-1)) was applied orally as a pretreatment 1 h before the subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (30 mg kg(-1)). Gastric ulcer formation was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 4h after the indomethacin administration. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat plasma and gastric mucosa and also reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in gastric mucosa were determined and used as biochemical markers of the oxidative status. AMFJ-pretreatment diminished the number and area of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Histopathological examination of rat stomachs demonstrated that AMFJ induced an increase in gastric mucus production and a reduction of the depth and severity of indomethacin-induced mucosal lesions. AMFJ dose-dependently reduced the elevated indomethacin plasma and gastric MDA levels and at the doses of 10 and 20 ml kg(-1) they were not significantly different from the control values. Neither indomethacin-treatment, nor AMFJ-pretreatment had a significant influence on GSH and GSSG gastric mucosal levels. These results demonstrated that indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage was accompanied by the development of oxidative stress, evidenced by the accumulation of MDA. AMFJ-pretreatment decreased the gastric lesions caused by indomethacin. It could be suggested that this effect of AMFJ was probably due to the increased mucus production and interference with oxidative stress development as evidenced by the decreased plasma and gastric mucosal MDA. PMID:15945278

  3. Selenium, glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Selenium, as essential trace element, has long been associated with protein. The essentiality of selenium is partially understood as glutathione peroxidase contains an essential selenocysteine. Glutathione peroxidase has been purified from many tissues including rat liver. An estimated molecular weight of 105,000 was obtained for glutathione peroxidase by comparison to standards. A subunit size of 26,000 was obtained by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Glutathione peroxidase is not the only selenoprotein in the rat. In seven rat tissues examined, there were many different subunit sizes and change groups representing between 9 and 23 selenoproteins. Selenocysteine in glutathione peroxidase accounts for ca. 36% of the selenium in the rat. The mode of synthesis of glutathione peroxidase and the other selenoproteins is not understood. Glutathione peroxidase is strongly and reversibly inhibited by mercaptocarboxylic acids and other mercaptans, including some used as slow-acting drugs for the symtomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism and chemistry of this inhibition is discussed. This inhibition may provide a link between selenium and arthritis.

  4. Nebivolol has protective effect against endothelial and ileal dysfunction due to I/R.

    PubMed

    Soydan, Güray; Cekiç, Edip Güvenç; Tuncer, Meral

    2011-03-01

    In this study, two enantiomers of the drug, L-nebivolol and racemic nebivolol, were used to measure and compare their ability to prevent endothelial dysfunction, disturbed ileal contractility, and ileal injury induced by I/R. The superior mesenteric artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats was occluded for 45 min to induce ischemia, and then the clamp was removed for 60-min reperfusion. Drugs or saline were administered prior to the surgical procedure in the I/R and sham-operated groups. Vasodilation in the third branch of the mesenteric artery was evaluated with a myograph system. Isometric contractions of the ileal segments in response to acetylcholine or electrical field stimulation (EFS) (120 V, 2-ms pulse duration for 5 s, 1-20 Hz) were recorded on a polygraph. Additionally, the ileal segments were examined histopathologically. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the mesenteric artery, precontracted by submaximal phenylephrine, markedly decreased after I/R. L-nebivolol pretreatment reversed this relaxation, but racemic nebivolol did not. Contractions induced by both acetylcholine and EFS were significantly reduced after I/R. L-nebivolol, but not racemic nebivolol, prevented this reduction in the acetylcholine-induced contractions. I/R-induced reduction was prevented by L-nebivolol only in response to EFS of 20 Hz. Intestinal I/R caused severe ischemic injury in the rat ileum, which was prevented by L-nebivolol, but not racemic nebivolol. Control responses were not affected by L-nebivolol or racemic nebivolol. These results suggest that L-nebivolol had a protective effect against both endothelial dysfunction of the mesenteric artery and ileal injury induced by intestinal I/R; however, similar effects were not observed for racemic nebivolol. PMID:19922953

  5. Ileostomy for Non-Traumatic Ileal Perforations: Is this the Beginning of the End?

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Rajashekara Gangappa; Chowdary, Prashanth Basappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ileal perforations are a common place of occurrence in emergency operation rooms around India. They are also significant contributors to mortality in our country. They are very distressing for patients because of the high morbidity of a laparotomy and in certain cases a stoma if its necessity is felt by the operating surgeon. The nature of the disease itself predisposes to a number of complications including wound infections, faecal fistulas and complications associated with a stoma. Aim To evaluate the role of ileostomy in patients with non-traumatic ileal perforation. Materials and Methods A total of 192 cases of ileal perforation, diagnosed per-operatively, were prospectively studied between June 2012 and July 2014. Cases were treated according to standard resuscitation protocols and underwent repair of the ileal perforation either as primary closure or as a bowel resection and anastomosis with or without a proximal diversion ileostomy. Cases were followed up for a period of six months and immediate and late complications and outcomes were noted. Results A total of 192 patients were studied during the given study period out of which 170 (88.5%) were males. The disease was treated primarily without diversion stoma in 176 patients and in 16 patients a proximal diversion ileostomy was performed. The overall mortality was 15 (7.8%) that was noted to be not significantly different in patients with respect to the performance of a stoma. Enterocutaneous fistula was a complication seen exclusively in the non-ileostomy group whereas stomal complications were expectedly noted only in the stoma group. Conclusion The authors found that though conventional ileostomy diversion may appear a safe option in patients with ileal perforations, it has its own additional morbidity, which at times can be very difficult to manage. An ileostomy is of use in a very small group of patients that is diminishing as better facilities and equipment are obtained to manage this

  6. Antioxidant action of glutathione and the ascorbic acid/glutathione pair in a model white wine.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Clark, Andrew C; Prenzler, Paul D; Riponi, Claudio; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2011-04-27

    Glutathione was assessed individually, and in combination with ascorbic acid, for its ability to act as an antioxidant with respect to color development in an oxidizing model white wine system. Glutathione was utilized at concentrations normally found in wine (30 mg/L), as well as at concentrations 20-fold higher (860 mg/L), the latter to afford ascorbic acid (500 mg/L) to glutathione ratios of 1:1. The model wine systems were stored at 45 °C without sulfur dioxide and at saturated oxygen levels, thereby in conditions highly conducive to oxidation. Under these conditions the results demonstrated the higher concentration of glutathione could initially provide protection against oxidative coloration, but eventually induced color formation. In the period during which glutathione offered a protective effect, the production of xanthylium cation pigment precursors and o-quinone-derived phenolic compounds was limited. When glutathione induced coloration, polymeric pigments were formed, but these were different from those found in model wine solutions without glutathione. In the presence of ascorbic acid, high concentrations of glutathione were able to delay the decay in ascorbic acid and inhibit the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation products with the wine flavanol compound (+)-catechin. However, on depletion, the glutathione again induced the production of a range of different polymeric pigments. These results highlight new mechanisms through which glutathione can offer both protection and spoilage during the oxidative coloration of a model wine. PMID:21384873

  7. The biological functions of glutathione revisited in arabidopsis transgenic plants with altered glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Xiang, C; Werner, B L; Christensen, E M; Oliver, D J

    2001-06-01

    A functional analysis of the role of glutathione in protecting plants from environmental stress was undertaken by studying Arabidopsis that had been genetically modified to have altered glutathione levels. The steady-state glutathione concentration in Arabidopsis plants was modified by expressing the cDNA for gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (GSH1) in both the sense and antisense orientation. The resulting plants had glutathione levels that ranged between 3% and 200% of the level in wild-type plants. Arabidopsis plants with low glutathione levels were hypersensitive to Cd due to the limited capacity of these plants to make phytochelatins. Plants with the lowest levels of reduced glutathione (10% of wild type) were sensitive to as little as 5 microM Cd, whereas those with 50% wild-type levels required higher Cd concentrations to inhibit growth. Elevating glutathione levels did not increase metal resistance. It is interesting that the plants with low glutathione levels were also less able to accumulate anthocyanins supporting a role for glutathione S-transferases for anthocyanin formation or for the vacuolar localization and therefore accumulation of these compounds. Plants with less than 5% of wild-type glutathione levels were smaller and more sensitive to environmental stress but otherwise grew normally. PMID:11402187

  8. First-ever Reported Obstructing Ureteral Nephrogenic Adenoma in a Child and Subsequent Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Ileal Ureter.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Joel F; Rensing, Adam; Austin, Paul F; Vricella, Gino

    2016-08-01

    To report the first known case of a completely intracorporeal robotic-assisted laparoscopic ileal ureter in the pediatric population, a 12-year-old boy with near-complete replacement of his right ureter with nephrogenic adenoma and resulting debilitating renal colic. Intracorporeal robotic-assisted laparoscopic ileal ureter was performed without complication. A detailed description of our surgical technique is included. The patient had improvement in hydronephrosis and complete resolution of renal colic symptoms with minimal incisional length compared to traditional laparotomy. Intracorporeal robotic-assisted laparoscopic ileal ureter provides the benefits of minimally invasive surgery when complete ureteral replacement is needed. PMID:27001506

  9. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Partial Colpectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion (Bricker) for Cervical Adenocarcinoma Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, Jennifer; Cornou, Caroline; Bensaid, Chérazade; Audenet, François; Ngô, Charlotte; Bats, Anne-Sophie; Lecuru, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker) is a standard surgical open procedure. The Da Vinci robot allowed precision for this surgical procedure, especially for intracorporeal suturing. Meanwhile, few reports of robot-assisted laparoscopic ileal conduit diversion (Bricker) are described in the literature. We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with a vaginal recurrence of cervical adenocarcinoma associated with vesicovaginal fistula treated by robot-assisted laparoscopic partial colpectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker). The robot-assisted laparoscopic procedure followed all surgical steps of the open procedure. Postoperative period was free of complications. PMID:26634161

  10. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vivek Kumar; Bains, Rhythm

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO), is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials. PMID:26604952

  11. Microbiota and Mucosal Immunity in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Bruno M.; Scalvenzi, Thibault; Benlamara, Sarah; Pollet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We know that animals live in a world dominated by bacteria. In the last 20 years, we have learned that microbes are essential regulators of mucosal immunity. Bacteria, archeas, and viruses influence different aspects of mucosal development and function. Yet, the literature mainly covers findings obtained in mammals. In this review, we focus on two major themes that emerge from the comparative analysis of mammals and amphibians. These themes concern: (i) the structure and functions of lymphoid organs and immune cells in amphibians, with a focus on the gut mucosal immune system; and (ii) the characteristics of the amphibian microbiota and its influence on mucosal immunity. Lastly, we propose to use Xenopus tadpoles as an alternative small-animal model to improve the fundamental knowledge on immunological functions of gut microbiota. PMID:25821449

  12. Exploiting Mucosal Immunity for Antiviral Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Akiko

    2016-05-20

    Mucosal surfaces provide a remarkably effective barrier against potentially dangerous pathogens. Therefore, enhancing mucosal immunity through vaccines-strengthening that first line of defense-holds significant promise for reducing the burden of viral diseases. The large and varied class of viral pathogens, however, continues to present thorny challenges to vaccine development. Two primary difficulties exist: Viruses exhibit a stunning diversity of strategies for evading the host immune response, and even when we understand the nature of effective immune protection against a given virus, eliciting that protection is technically challenging. Only a few mucosal vaccines have surmounted these obstacles thus far. Recent developments, however, could greatly improve vaccine design. In this review, we first sketch out our understanding of mucosal immunity and then compare the herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and influenza virus to illustrate the distinct challenges of developing successful vaccines and to outline potential solutions. PMID:27168245

  13. Localized Pemphigus Vegetans without Mucosal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, VK; Jindal, N; Imchen, S

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris. A 62-year-old woman presented with erythematous moist vegetative plaque on the left breast and left groin. There was no mucosal involvement. Histopathological and direct immunofluorescence findings were suggestive of pemphigus vegetans. She showed excellent response to oral steroids. Literature is scarcely available on the limited involvement with pemphigus vegetans without mucosal involvement. PMID:24700958

  14. Glutathione cycle in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Biljak, Vanja Radisić; Rumora, Lada; Cepelak, Ivana; Pancirov, Dolores; Popović-Grle, Sanja; Sorić, Jasna; Grubisić, Tihana Zanić

    2010-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Glutathione is the most abundant cellular low-molecular weight thiol and the glutathione redox cycle is the fundamental component of the cellular antioxidant defence system. Concentration of total glutathione and catalytic activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in peripheral blood of patients (n = 109) and healthy subjects (n = 51). Concentration of total glutathione in patients was not changed in comparison to healthy controls. However, we found statistically significant difference between patients with moderate and severe disease stages. Glutathione reductase activity was increased, while glutathione proxidase activity was decreased in the patients with COPD, when compared to healthy controls. We found no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities between stages. Patients who smoked had lower concentration of total glutathione compared with former smokers and never-smoking patients. Lung function parameters were inversely associated with glutathione level. Evidence is presented for differential modulation of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in peripheral blood of patients with stable COPD. We suppose that in addition to glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione reductase-dependent regulation of the glutathione redox state is vital for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:20648694

  15. Intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Romero-Calvo, Isabel; Mascaraque, Cristina; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal mucosal barrier function is the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients. The central element is the epithelial layer, which physically separates the lumen and the internal milieu and is in charge of vectorial transport of ions, nutrients, and other substances. The secretion of mucus-forming mucins, sIgA, and antimicrobial peptides reinforces the mucosal barrier on the extraepithelial side, while a variety of immune cells contributes to mucosal defense in the inner side. Thus, the mucosal barrier is of physical, biochemical, and immune nature. In addition, the microbiota may be viewed as part of this system because of the mutual influence occurring between the host and the luminal microorganisms. Alteration of the mucosal barrier function with accompanying increased permeability and/or bacterial translocation has been linked with a variety of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease. Genetic and environmental factors may converge to evoke a defective function of the barrier, which in turn may lead to overt inflammation of the intestine as a result of an exacerbated immune reaction toward the microbiota. According to this hypothesis, inflammatory bowel disease may be both precipitated and treated by either stimulation or downregulation of the different elements of the mucosal barrier, with the outcome depending on timing, the cell type affected, and other factors. In this review, we cover briefly the elements of the barrier and their involvement in functional defects and the resulting phenotype. PMID:25222662

  16. Role of bombesin on gut mucosal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K U; Evers, B M; Ishizuka, J; Townsend, C M; Thompson, J C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effects of exogenous bombesin (BBS) on gut mucosal growth in chow-fed rats and the mucosal regeneration after gut atrophy brought about by feeding an elemental diet and after intestinal injury produced by methotrexate (MTX). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Bombesin is one of many gastrointestinal peptides implicated in the regulation of gut mucosal growth. Although BBS is known to stimulate growth of normal pancreatic tissue, the trophic effect of BBS on gut mucosa is less clear and its exact role in gut mucosal regeneration and repair is not known. METHODS: Rats were fed a regular chow diet (control) or an elemental diet plus either saline or BBS (10 micrograms/kg). In another experiment, rats fed a chow diet and treated with saline or BBS were given MTX (20 micrograms/kg) or a single intraperitoneal injection. In all experiments, small and large bowel mucosa and pancreas were removed and analyzed for BBS-mediated proliferation. RESULTS: Bombesin produced significant mucosal proliferation of the small bowel at day 14, but not at day 7, in rats fed regular chow. In contrast, BBS treatment for 7 days produced significant proliferation in both the atrophic and injured gut mucosa of rats given elemental diet or MTX. CONCLUSIONS: Bombesin may be an important enterotrophic factor for normal mucosal proliferation and may be clinically beneficial as an agent to restore or maintain gut mucosa during periods of atrophy or injury. PMID:7618976

  17. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicting severe damage to mucosal barriers, resulting in tissue infiltration of ‘symbiotic’ intestinal bacteria and viruses that essentially become opportunistic infections promoting systemic immune activation. This leads to activation and recruitment or more target cells for perpetuating HIV infection, resulting in persistent, high level viral replication in lymphoid tissues, rapid evolution of resistant strains, and continued evasion of immune responses. However, vaccine studies and studies of spontaneous controllers are finally providing correlates of immunity from protection and disease progression, including virus-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, binding antibodies, innate immune responses, and generation of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Emerging correlates of immunity indicate that prevention of HIV infection may be possible through effective vaccine strategies that protect and stimulate key regulatory cells and immune responses in susceptible hosts. Further, immune therapies specifically directed towards boosting specific aspects of the immune system may eventually lead to a cure for HIV-infected patients. PMID:23772612

  18. Effects of fraxetin on glutathione redox status.

    PubMed

    Martín-Aragón, S; Benedí, J M; Villar, A M

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the effects of an oral treatment of mice with fraxetin (25 mg/kg for 30 days) on the glutathione system (GSH, GSSG, and GSSG/GSH ratio as stress index), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver supernatants from male C57BL/6J mice (18-month old). A significant antioxidant effect in vivo was found under this treatment by a decrease in the GSSG/GSH ratio and an increased activity of GR compared with the control mice. GSSG rate and GSSG/GSH ratio were correlated with the decline of GPx++ activity. Our results of increased GR activity could be considered as a supercompensation in glutathione redox status that involves a decrease in the accumulation of GSSG, as well as, in GSSG/GSH ratio. Finally, we suggest that this possible mechanism of supercompensation could lead to an enhancement in the average life span. PMID:9162171

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage Associated with Intestinal Oxidative Stress Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Chunyu; Kang, Xin; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Shuai; Fu, Huijun; Yu, Zhen; Peng, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate whether intestinal mucosal barrier was damaged or not in chronic kidney disease progression and the status of oxidative stress. Methods. Rats were randomized into two groups: a control group and a uremia group. The uremia rat model was induced by 5/6 kidney resection. In postoperative weeks (POW) 4, 6, 8, and 10, eight rats were randomly selected from each group to prepare samples for assessing systemic inflammation, intestinal mucosal barrier changes, and the status of intestinal oxidative stress. Results. The uremia group presented an increase trend over time in the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10, serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and intestinal permeability, and these biomarkers were significantly higher than those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Chiu's scores in uremia group were also increased over time, especially in POW 8 and 10. Furthermore, the intestinal malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly higher in uremia group when compared with those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Conclusions. The advanced chronic kidney disease could induce intestinal mucosal barrier damage and further lead to systemic inflammation. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the intestinal oxidative stress injury. PMID:27493661

  20. Role of glutathione in the antiulcer effect of hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Maity, S; Vedasiromoni, J R; Ganguly, D K

    1998-11-01

    The role of a hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze Theaceae) in the gastric cytoprotective mechanisms was studied using gastric mucosal lesions produced by various ulcerogens in rats as an experimental model. Prior oral administration of black tea extract (BTE) at 20 ml/kg, i.g. once a day for 7 days significantly reduced the incidence of gastric erosions and severity induced by ethanol, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and diethylmaleate (DEM). This treatment also favorably altered the changes in acid and peptic activity of gastric juice in these ulcerogen-treated animals. Singular administration of succimer (60 mg/kg, i.g.), the standard sulfhydryl containing antiulcer drug used as a reference drug, was also effective. The levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased after treatment with ethanol, DDC and DEM, and this decrease was prevented by BTE pretreatment in the aforesaid manner. Other major features of BTE-induced reversal of ulcerogenic agents include a significant decrease in the protein content and a marked increase in hexosamine and sialic acid content. These results suggest a major role for glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant, in the cytoprotection against ulceration afforded by BTE. PMID:9869262

  1. Effect of diallyl disulfide on acute gastric mucosal damage induced by alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Baek, H-S; Kim, S-H; Moon, C; Park, S-H; Kim, S-H; Shin, I-S; Park, S-C; Kim, J-C

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the gastroprotective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS), a secondary organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.) on experimental model of ethanol (EtOH)-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The antiulcerogenic activity of DADS was evaluated by gross/histopathological inspection, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and lipid peroxidation with antioxidant enzyme activities in the stomach. DADS (100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 2 h prior to EtOH treatment (5 ml/kg). The animals were killed 1 h after receiving EtOH treatment. Pretreatment with DADS attenuated EtOH-induced gastric mucosal injury, as evidenced by decreased severity of hemorrhagic lesions and gastric ulcer index upon visual inspection. DADS also prevented histopathological alterations and gastric apoptotic changes caused by EtOH. An increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase was observed in the gastric tissues of EtOH-treated rats that coincided with increased serum TNF-α and interleukin 6 levels. In contrast, DADS effectively suppressed production of pro-inflammatory mediators induced by EtOH. Furthermore, DADS prevented the formation of gastric malondialdehyde and the depletion of reduced glutathione content and restored antioxidant enzyme activities, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the gastric tissues of EtOH-treated rats. These results indicate that DADS prevents gastric mucosal damage induced by acute EtOH administration in rats and that the protective effects of DADS may be due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24972622

  2. CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for adherent-invasive E. coli, supporting ileal mucosa colonization in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Barnich, Nicolas; Carvalho, Frédéric A; Glasser, Anne-Lise; Darcha, Claude; Jantscheff, Peter; Allez, Matthieu; Peeters, Harald; Bommelaer, Gilles; Desreumaux, Pierre; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2007-06-01

    The ileal mucosa of Crohn disease (CD) patients is abnormally colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) that are able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we show that CD-associated AIEC strains adhere to the brush border of primary ileal enterocytes isolated from CD patients but not controls without inflammatory bowel disease. AIEC adhesion is dependent on type 1 pili expression on the bacterial surface and on carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) expression on the apical surface of ileal epithelial cells. We report also that CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for AIEC adhesion and is abnormally expressed by ileal epithelial cells in CD patients. In addition, our in vitro studies show that there is increased CEACAM6 expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells after IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha stimulation and after infection with AIEC bacteria, indicating that AIEC can promote its own colonization in CD patients. PMID:17525800

  3. Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with either a handsewn or a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), with or without mucosectomy. The purpose of these surgeries is to stop progression to an adenoma-cancer sequence by eradicating the colon, a disease prone organ. Unfortunately, these surgical procedures, which excise the entire colon and rectum while maintaining transanal fecal continence, do not guarantee that patients still won't develop adenomas. Based on the available literature, we therefore reviewed reported incidences of pouch-related adenomas that occurred post prophylactic surgery for FAP. The review consists of a collection of case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports. Objectives To provide available data on the natural history of subsequent adenomas after prophylactic surgery (by type) for FAP. Methods A review was conducted of existing case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports for patients undergoing prophylactic surgery for FAP (1975 – August, 2013). In each case, the adenomas were clearly diagnosed in one of the following: the ileal pouch mucosa (above the ileorectal anastomosis), within the anorectal segment (ARS) below the ileorectal anastomosis, or in the afferent ileal loop. Results A total of 515 (36%) patients with pouch-related adenomas have been reported. Two hundred and eleven (211) patients had adenomas in the ileal pouch mucosa, 295 had them in the ARS and in 9 were in the afferent ileal loop. Patients with pouch adenomas without dysplasia or cancer were

  4. Bowel perforation from occult ileal involvement after diagnosis in a case of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    De Philippis, Chiara; Di Chio, Maria Chiara; Sabattini, Elena; Bolli, Niccolo

    2016-01-01

    Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is confined to the mediastinum or contiguous nodal areas in most cases. Extramediastinal and abdominal involvement, especially at diagnosis, is extremely rare. Our case describes the first case of histologically proven ileal involvement of PMBCL at diagnosis that led to ileal perforation. Positron emission tomography CT could increase the sensitivity of staging by detecting unusual sites of disease localisation, and could impact clinical management. PMID:27417993

  5. Ileal amino acid digestibility assay for the growing meat chicken--comparison of ileal and excreta amino acid digestibility in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Moughan, P J; Ravindran, V

    2002-09-01

    1. The apparent and true amino acid digestibilities in sorghum, wheat, soyabean meal, meat-and-bone meal, fish meal and blood meal for growing meat chickens were determined using an assay based on the collection of digesta from the terminal ileum and comparison was made with digestibility values determined using an excreta-based assay. 2. Five-week-old meat chickens were given maize-soyabean meal basal diet or mixtures of the basal diet and test diets containing the 6 ingredients as the sole source of dietary protein (50:50 on weight basis). Apparent amino acid digestibility values of assay diets at ileal and excreta levels were calculated using chromic oxide as the indigestible marker. True digestibility values were calculated using endogenous outputs determined by feeding a protein-free diet. Amino acid digestibilities of the ingredients were calculated by difference. 3. The site of measurement had no influence on endogenous amino acid output, the exceptions being aspartic acid and glutamic acid. The output of these two amino acids was higher in the excreta. 4. Significant differences were found between ileal and excreta-based digestibility of certain amino acids in some ingredients, with excreta values being usually higher than the ileal values, indicating a net catabolism of amino acids in the large intestine. The degree of net amino acid disappearance was found to be variable among amino acids and ingredients. In general, threonine had the lowest digestibility at the ileal level and, compared with other amino acids, the highest degredation during passage through the hindgut. 5. The results showed that digestibility determination based on excreta collection will overestimate the uptake for some amino acids in some feeds. The degree of overestimation was often considerable, ranging from 8.9% (apparent digestibility of threonine in soyabean meal) to 56% (apparent digestibility of aspartic acid in wheat). It is concluded that digestibility values measured at the

  6. Recovery of mucosal barrier function in ischemic porcine ileum and colon is stimulated by a novel agonist of the ClC-2 chloride channel, lubiprostone.

    PubMed

    Moeser, Adam J; Nighot, Prashant K; Engelke, Kory J; Ueno, Ryuji; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies utilizing an ex vivo porcine model of intestinal ischemic injury demonstrated that prostaglandin (PG)E(2) stimulates repair of mucosal barrier function via a mechanism involving Cl(-) secretion and reductions in paracellular permeability. Further experiments revealed that the signaling mechanism for PGE(2)-induced mucosal recovery was mediated via type-2 Cl(-) channels (ClC-2). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to directly investigate the role of ClC-2 in mucosal repair by evaluating mucosal recovery in ischemia-injured intestinal mucosa treated with the selective ClC-2 agonist lubiprostone. Ischemia-injured porcine ileal mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers, and short-circuit current (I(sc)) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were measured in response to lubiprostone. Application of 0.01-1 microM lubiprostone to ischemia-injured mucosa induced concentration-dependent increases in TER, with 1 microM lubiprostone stimulating a twofold increase in TER (DeltaTER = 26 Omega.cm(2); P < 0.01). However, lubiprostone (1 microM) stimulated higher elevations in TER despite lower I(sc) responses compared with the nonselective secretory agonist PGE(2) (1 microM). Furthermore, lubiprostone significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of (3)H-labeled mannitol to levels comparable to those of normal control tissues and restored occludin localization to tight junctions. Activation of ClC-2 with the selective agonist lubiprostone stimulated elevations in TER and reductions in mannitol flux in ischemia-injured intestine associated with structural changes in tight junctions. Prostones such as lubiprostone may provide a selective and novel pharmacological mechanism of accelerating recovery of acutely injured intestine compared with the nonselective action of prostaglandins such as PGE(2). PMID:17053162

  7. [Immunoglobulin for prevention of radiogenic mucositis].

    PubMed

    Mose, S; Adamietz, I A; Thilmann, C; Saran, F; Heyd, R; Knecht, R; Böttcher, H D

    1995-07-01

    Among various therapies administered during radiation-induced mucositis, treatment with immunoglobulin has proven clinically successful. In this study the efficacy of prophylactic applications of immunoglobulin was investigated from January 1992 through August 1993. Forty-two patients with histologically-proven head and neck cancer were given postoperative radiation treatment. In cases with macroscopic tumor residues or inoperability, combined radio-chemotherapy was given. This included 51.3 Gy at 1.9 Gy 5x/week, boosted to 10-26 Gy at 2 Gy 5x/week and carboplatin 60 mg/m2 at days 1-5 and 29-33. Panthenol (4x10 ml/day) and nystatin (4 x 1 ml/day) were given to 20 patients as prophylactic treatment for mucositis. Twenty-two subsequent patients also received intramuscular 800 mg (5 ml) human immunoglobulin (1x/week). According to the Seegenschmiedt/Sauer classification the extent of mucositis was determined 3x/week. Comparison of the distribution of maximal mucositis revealed a slightly more severe mucosal reaction in the control group (n.s.). Analysis of the mean degree of mucositis in both groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (p = 0.031) related to the whole collective and patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy while no effect of immunoglobulin was found in patients treated by radiation alone. In the immunoglobulin-treated-group, the time from the beginning of therapy to the first interruption was prolonged 5 days (37.5 +/- 13.1 vs. 42.7 +/- 13.3 days), but this difference was not significant. Although prophylactic application of immunoglobulin seemed to lower the degree of radiation-induced mucositis, this effect was less significant when compared to the immunoglobulin given in a therapeutic manner. PMID:7672999

  8. Transport of Glutathione Diethyl Ester Into Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ellen J.; Anderson, Mary E.; Meister, Alton

    1993-10-01

    Glutathione monoesters in which the carboxyl group of the glycine residue is esterified were previously found, in contrast to glutathione itself, to be effectively transported into various types of cells and to be converted intracellularly into glutathione. Glutathione monoesters are thus useful for prevention of oxidative stress, certain toxicities, and for treatment of glutathione deficiency. Glutathione diethyl ester is rapidly split to the glutathione monoethyl ester by mouse plasma glutathione diester α-esterase activity. Thus, as expected, glutathione mono- and diesters have similar effects on cellular glutathione levels in mice. However, human plasma lacks glutathione diester α-esterase thus, it became of interest to compare the transport properties of glutathione mono- and diesters in human cells. We found that human cells (erythrocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, fibroblasts, ovarian tumor cells, and purified T cells) transport glutathione diethyl ester much more effectively than the corresponding monoethyl (glycyl) ester. Human cells rapidly convert glutathione diethyl ester to the monoester, whose intracellular levels rise to levels that are significantly higher than levels found after application of the monoester to the cells. High levels of the monoester provide the cells with a means of producing glutathione over a period of time. We conclude that glutathione diethyl ester is highly effective as a delivery agent for glutathione monoester, and thus for glutathione, in human cells and therefore could serve to decrease oxidative stress and toxicity. Hamster (and certain other animals) also lack plasma glutathione diester α-esterase and therefore would be suitable animal models. Previously reported toxicity of certain glutathione ester preparations appears to reflect the presence of impurities rather than effects of the esters.

  9. Inhibition of ileal bile acid transporter: An emerging therapeutic strategy for chronic idiopathic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation. PMID:26139989

  10. Solitary nonspecific ileal ulcer. Diagnosis by coloileoscopy in a patient with previously assumed irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Börsch, G; Jahnke, A; Bergbauer, M; Nebel, W

    1983-11-01

    We present a case of solitary nonspecific ileal ulcer found by coloileoscopy in a patient with previously assumed irritable bowel syndrome. Follow-up endoscopies two weeks after initiation of short-term prednisone therapy, and again four months later, demonstrated rapid and persistent healing. This observation raises the question of whether or not primary ileal ulcers are indeed as rare as previously assumed when only surgical and autopsy findings were taken into consideration. Also, the natural history of this clinical entity, in general, could be somewhat more benign than suggested by those ulcers in which complications make surgery necessary, since these cases may not adequately reflect the full clinical spectrum of nonspecific small-bowel ulcers. PMID:6628147

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Antiretrovirals in Mucosal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, M.L.; Srinivas, N.; Kashuba, A.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the absence of an HIV vaccine or cure, antiretroviral (ARV) based prevention strategies are being investigated to reduce HIV incidence. These prevention strategies depend on achieving effective drug concentrations at the site HIV exposure which is most commonly the mucosal tissues of the lower gastrointestinal tract and the female genital tract. Areas covered This article collates all known data regarding drug exposure in these vulnerable mucosal tissues, and reviews important mechanisms of ARV drug distribution. Research papers and abstracts describing antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in the female genital tract and lower gastrointestinal mucosal tissues available in MEDLINE® or presented at scientific conferences prior to December 2014 are reviewed in detail. Important influences on ARV mucosal tissue distribution, including protein binding, active drug transport, and endogenous hormones, are also reviewed. Expert opinion ARVs exhibit highly variable pharmacokinetics in mucosal tissues. In general, antiretroviral exposure is higher in the lower gastrointestinal tract compared to the female genital tract, but concentrations required for protective efficacy are largely unknown. The expected site of HIV exposure represents an important consideration when designing and optimizing antiretroviral based prevention strategies. PMID:25797064

  12. Hepatobiliary transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugate in rats with hereditary hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Elferink, R P; Ottenhoff, R; Liefting, W; de Haan, J; Jansen, P L

    1989-01-01

    TR- mutant rats have an autosomal recessive mutation that is expressed as a severely impaired hepatobiliary secretion of organic anions like bilirubin-(di)glucuronide and dibromosulphthalein (DBSP). In this paper, the hepatobiliary transport of glutathione and a glutathione conjugate was studied in normal Wistar rats and TR- rats. It was shown that glutathione is virtually absent from the bile of TR- rats. In the isolated, perfused liver the secretion of glutathione and the glutathione conjugate, dinitrophenyl-glutathione (GS-DNP), from hepatocyte to bile is severely impaired, whereas the sinusoidal secretion from liver to blood is not affected. The secretion of GS-DNP was also studied in isolated hepatocytes. The secretion of GS-DNP from cells isolated from TR- rat liver was significantly slower than from normal hepatocytes. Efflux of GS-DNP was a saturable process with respect to intracellular GS-DNP concentration: Vmax and Km for efflux from TR- cells was 498 nmol/min.g dry wt and 3.3 mM, respectively, as compared with 1514 nmol/min.g dry wt and 0.92 mM in normal hepatocytes. These results suggest that the canalicular transport system for glutathione and glutathione conjugates is severely impaired in TR- rats, whereas sinusoidal efflux is unaffected. Because the defect also comes to expression in isolated hepatocytes, efflux of GS-DNP from normal hepatocytes must predominantly be mediated by the canalicular transport mechanism, which is deficient in TR- rats. PMID:2760197

  13. Dysplasia in perforated intestinal pneumatosis complicating a previous jejuno-ileal bypass: A cautionary note

    PubMed Central

    Portolani, Nazario; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Gadaldi, Stefano; Fisogni, Simona; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of an elderly woman who developed a bowel perforation related to pneumatosis intestinalis, 33 years after a jejuno-ileal bypass for severe obesity. Final histological examination revealed the presence of dysplasia in the resected specimen. On the basis of our case and a review of the literature, we discuss the etiopathogenesis, the clinical aspects and the treatment of this rare condition. PMID:19725155

  14. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio in 13- to 32-kilogram pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible Val to Lys (SID Val:Lys) ratio for 13 to 32 kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a Val deficient basal diet containing 0.60% L-Lys•HCl, 1.21% SID Lys, and 0.68% SID Val was developed (0.56 SID Val:Lys). Performance of pigs fed th...

  15. Bladder agenesis and incomplete kidney duplication: Ileal reservoir with continent diversion as definitive treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Mendoza, Byron Alexis; González-Ledón, Fernando J.; Díaz-Pardo, Mario; Soto-Blanquel, Juan L.; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bladder agenesis is an extremely rare entity. A 12-year-old female patient presented with urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, visible vaginal introitus and urethra, and two holes at the vulvar vestibule. An investigation revealed bladder agenesis. Surgery confirmed the absence of bladder, and ileal reservoir in omega (Ω) was performed with continent diversion. At the 30-month follow-up, there was no complication in clean intermittent catheterization. PMID:25844102

  16. Polyisobutylene Urolithiasis Due to Ileal Conduit Urostomy Appliance: An Index Case

    PubMed Central

    Kolbach-Mandel, Ann M.; Mandel, Ian C.; Mandel, Neil S.; Dietrich, Peter N.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Carley M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Polyisobutylene (PIB) is a synthetic elastomer that is a component of sealants, adhesives, and chewing gum base. We report a case of bilateral PIB urolithiasis in a patient with an ileal conduit urinary diversion due to neurogenic bladder from spinal cord injury. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the composition of bilateral stones and adhesive from the patient's urostomy appliance to be PIB. No previous cases of PIB urolithiasis are reported in the literature.

  17. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, R L; Yin, Y L; Wu, G Y; Zhang, Y G; Li, T J; Li, L L; Li, M X; Tang, Z R; Zhang, J; Wang, B; He, J H; Nie, X Z

    2005-09-01

    The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance. PMID:16206559

  18. Laparoscopic Repair of Ileal Conduit Parastomal Hernia Using the Sling Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Bipan

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair has become a viable option to overcome the challenges that face the hernia surgeon. Multiple techniques have been described over the last 5 years, one of which is the lateralizing “sling” technique, first described by Sugarbaker in1980. In this study, we report the technique and our early results with the laparoscopic modified Sugarbaker repair of parastomal hernias after ileal conduit. PMID:18435893

  19. [Gangrenous pyoderma and enterocutaneous fistulas after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Fadrique, Alfonso García; Ferrer, Francisco Villalba; Esteban, Marcos Bruna; Vila, José Vicente Roig

    2007-05-01

    We describe the medical-surgical management of a patient with a complex inflammatory bowel disease who developed 2 acute episodes of pyoderma gangrenosum and enterocutaneous fistulas after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. The rarity of this postsurgical complication is emphasized. A good response to topical tacrolimus was achieved in cutaneous wounds. A less favorable response to infliximab was achieved in the abdominal fistulas, requiring surgical excision of the pouch. PMID:17498458

  20. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Meat Meal and Soybean Meal Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) in meat meal (MM), and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM). Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg) surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM. PMID:25050041

  1. Ileal duplication mimicking intestinal intussusception: a congenital condition rarely reported in adult.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Lu; Huang, Xin; Zheng, Chao-Ji; Zhou, Jiao-Lin; Zhao, Yu-Pei

    2013-10-14

    Intestinal duplication is an uncommon congenital condition in young adults. A 25-year-old man complained of chronic, intermittent abdominal pain for 3 years following previous appendectomy for the treatment of suspected appendicitis. Abdominal discomfort and pain, suggestive of intestinal obstruction, recurred after operation. A tubular mass was palpable in the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography enterography scan identified suspicious intestinal intussusception, while Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy revealed a cluster of strip-like abnormal radioactivity in the right lower quadrant. On exploratory laparotomy, a tubular-shaped ileal duplication cyst was found arising from the mesenteric margin of the native ileal segment located 15 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. Ileectomy was performed along with the removal of the duplication disease, and the end-to-end anastomosis was done to restore the gastrointestinal tract continuity. Pathological examination showed ileal duplication with ectopic gastric mucosa. The patient experienced an eventless postoperative recovery and remained asymptomatic within 2 years of postoperative follow-up. PMID:24151372

  2. Ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches in buffalo calves: Histomorphological comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Kritima; Singh, Opinder

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate the histomorphology of ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches in the small intestine of buffalo calves and their structural comparison. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on neonatal (n=10) and pre-pubertal (n=10) buffalo calves. The age of the postnatal buffalo calves was estimated by their temporary and permanent dentition. Results: The study revealed that several layers of oval to elongate elliptical lymphoid follicles were observed in submucosa on the anti-mesenteric side in the ileum of early neonatal calves. However, the follicles at this age, in jejunum were of all shapes present within one layer. The interfollicular space was occupied by the interfollicular tissue, which was diffuse and wider around jejunal lymphoid follicles as compared to ileal lymphoid follicles. However, toward the pubertal stage, the number of layers of lymphoid follicles was reduced in ileum due to involution while it remained similar in number in jejunum at this stage. Conclusion: The ileal Peyer’s patches were found to have started involution more or less around reaching puberty, whereas the jejunal Peyer’s patches appear to be functional throughout the lifespan of the animal. PMID:27047029

  3. Ileal and total tract digestibility of wet and dried wheat distillers grain products in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lyberg, K; Borling, J; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were evaluated in 2 commercially available products: wheat (Triticum aestivum) wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) and wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). Two diets included (DM basis) 50% basal diet with either 50% WDGS (W) or 50% DDGS (D). The basal diet included corn (Zea mays) starch, sugar, vitamins, and minerals. Seven castrated male pigs with post valve T-cecum cannulas were fed the diets according to a changeover design during two 14-d periods. In a pre- and postperiod, casein was given as the only protein source with the basal diet to estimate endogenous losses of N and AA for calculation of standardized ileal digestibility (SID). The AID of OM did not differ between diets, but ATTD of OM was higher (P < 0.05) for diet W. The AID (76.2 vs. 68.9%), SID, and ATTD of CP was higher (P < 0.05) in diet W than diet D. The SID for Lys (75.7 vs. 51.8%) and Met (75.8 vs. 70.1%) was higher (P < 0.01) in WDGS than DDGS. In conclusion, drying of wheat distillers grain products can markedly lower ileal digestibility of Lys and Met whereas negative effects on energy value are small. PMID:23365306

  4. Surgical Audit of Patients with Ileal Perforations Requiring Ileostomy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Hemkant; Pandey, Siddharth; Sheoran, Kapil Dev; Marwah, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Ileal perforation peritonitis is a frequently encountered surgical emergency in the developing countries. The choice of a procedure for source control depends on the patient condition as well as the surgeon preference. Material and Methods. This was a prospective observational study including 41 patients presenting with perforation peritonitis due to ileal perforation and managed with ileostomy. Demographic profile and operative findings in terms of number of perforations, site, and size of perforation along with histopathological findings of all the cases were recorded. Results. The majority of patients were male. Pain abdomen and fever were the most common presenting complaints. Body mass index of the patients was in the range of 15.4–25.3 while comorbidities were present in 43% cases. Mean duration of preoperative resuscitation was 14.73 + 13.77 hours. Operative findings showed that 78% patients had a single perforation; most perforations were 0.6–1 cm in size and within 15 cm proximal to ileocecal junction. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 29.2% patients. On histopathological examination, nonspecific perforations followed by typhoid and tubercular perforations respectively were the most common. Conclusion. Patients with ileal perforations are routinely seen in surgical emergencies and their demography, clinical profile, and intraoperative findings may guide the choice of procedure to be performed. PMID:26247059

  5. Relative ileal amino acid flows and microbial counts in intestinal effluents of Goettingen Minipigs and Saddleback pigs are not different.

    PubMed

    Hennig, U; Metges, C C; Berk, A; Tuchscherer, A; Kwella, M

    2004-07-01

    We explored the suitability of Goettingen Minipigs as models to measure ileal AA digestibility and evaluate dietary proteins for conventional pigs. Further, a potential for secondary ileal microbial colonization 5 mo after establishing end-to-end ileorectal anastomosis was investigated. Goettingen Minipigs (BW 18 kg) and Saddleback pigs (BW 27 kg) fitted with end-to-end ileorectal anastomosis were fed six diets based on barley and oilseed meals and three diets based on wheat and milk powder differing in total and ileal digestible lysine. Apparent ileal digestibilities of CP (N x 6.25) and of 20 AA were determined. No differences (P = 0.062 to 0.982) were found in AA apparent ileal digestibilities between breeds. Therefore, Minipigs are a reasonable model to estimate apparent ileal digestibility of AA for evaluation of dietary proteins. However, the apparent ileal digestibility of CP (P = 0.048) was higher in Minipigs than in Saddleback pigs (barley and oilseed meals-based diets 70% vs. 66%; wheat and milk powder-based diets 80% vs. 77%), which is probably due to a smaller contribution of non-AA-nitrogen in the ileal effluent of Goettingen Minipigs. For lysine, the apparent ileal digestibilities (means of both breeds) ranged from 78 to 85% in wheat and milk powder-based, and 70 to 78% in barley and oilseed-based diets. Experimentally derived concentrations of ileally digestible lysine confirmed the values predicted from a published table. Microbial counts were not affected by breed as shown for lactobacilli, with 9.1+/-0.2 and 9.1+/-0.2 (P = 0.977), enterococci with 4.8+/-0.3 and 5.6+/-0.4 (P = 0.162), and yeasts with 4.6+/-0.3 and 4.6+/-0.4 (P = 0.906) log cfu/g effluent for Goettingen Minipigs and Saddleback pigs, respectively. The counts did not change over 5 mo, suggesting that no secondary microbial colonization occurred in pigs with end-to-end ileorectal anastomosis. PMID:15309944

  6. [Direct and indirect mucosal wave imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska, Paulina; Szkiełkowska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    The vocal folds play a key role in the process of phonation. Cyclical movements of the vocal folds model a space called glottis, what leads to voice formation. The space contains surface between the vocal folds and the inner surface of the arytenoid cartilages. The best indicator of the vocal folds vibratory function is the mucosal wave. The presence and size of the mucosal wave is widely recognized as an indicator of tension and plasticity of vocal folds. It is also essential in the process of creating a proper, resonant voice. In the article, current knowledge of mucosal wave imaging techniques is given. Imaging can be carried out directly and indirectly. Among the direct methods, the following are distinguished: laryngostroboscopy, laryngovideostroboscopy, videokymography and high-speed digital imaging. Indirect methods include: electroglottography, photoglottography and ultrasonography. PMID:27137829

  7. Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2012-01-01

    To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed. PMID:22380827

  8. Mucosal MicroRNAs Expression Profiles before and after Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Therapy in Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Yi; Gu, Lili; Cao, Lei; Wang, Zhiming; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective therapy for inducing remission in CD. We aimed to investigate the alteration of miRNAs expression profile in the terminal ileal mucosa of CD patients before and after EEN. Twenty-five patients and ten healthy individuals were included. MiRNAs expression profile was firstly assessed using microarray technology and then validation was performed by qRT-PCR. The correlations between miRNAs and CD activity index (CDAI) score and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level were also evaluated. Microarray analysis showed that mucosal miRNAs expression profile after EEN therapy was significantly changed compared with inflamed mucosa before treatment, and was most similar to the healthy one among all CD groups. Altered expressions of hsa-miR-192-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-301a-5p, hsa-miR-495-5p, and hsa-let-7b-5p were confirmed by qRT-PCR. hsa-let-7b-5p was significantly correlated with serum CRP levels before and after EEN treatment (r = -0.518, p = 0.008, and r = -0.569, p = 0.003). Our study showed EEN induction therapy was associated with a trend for normalizing of the mucosal miRNAs expression profile, and expression of mucosal hsa-let-7b-5p was correlated with serum CRP level in patients with CD. PMID:27556489

  9. Oral mucositis in myelosuppressive cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Schubert, M M

    1999-09-01

    Because the etiology of mucositis is multifactorial , approaches to prevention and management have also been multifactorial. Effective prevention and management of mucositis will reduce the pain and suffering experienced during cancer treatment. Oropharyngeal pain in cancer patients frequently requires systemic analgesics, adjunctive medications, physical therapy, and psychologic therapy in addition to oral care and topical treatments. Good oral hygiene reduces the severity of oral mucositis and does not increase the risk of bacteremia. Current approaches to management include frequent oral rinsing with saline or bicarbonate rinses, maintaining excellent oral hygiene, and using topical anesthetics and analgesics. Cryotherapy is a potential adjunctive approach in some cases. There are a number of approaches that appear to represent viable candidates for further study. Biologic response modifiers offer the potential for prevention and for acceleration of healing. Various cytokines will enter clinical trials in the near future; these offer the potential for reduction of epithelial cell sensitivity to the toxic effects of cancer therapy or for stimulation of repair of the damaged tissue. Other approaches include the use of medications to reduce exposure of the oral mucosa to chemotherapeutic drugs that are secreted in saliva. Antimicrobial approaches have met with conflicting results, little effect being seen with chlorhexidine and systemic antimicrobials in the prevention of mucositis in radiation patients. In patients with BMT and patients with leukemia, chlorhexidine may not be effective in preventing mucositis, although there may be reduction in oral colonization by Candida. Initial studies of topical antimicrobials that affect the gram-negative oral flora have shown reductions in ulcerative mucositis during radiation therapy but have not been assessed in leukemia/BMT. Among other approaches that require further study are low-energy lasers and anti

  10. Oral mucosal diseases: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2014-11-01

    Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid. PMID:25443679

  11. Glutathione Metabolism and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smeyne, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition when the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone, or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism and functional interactions of glutathione, and discuss how this relates to protection of dopaminergic neurons from oxidative damage and its therapeutic potential in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23665395

  12. Role of glutathione metabolism and glutathione-related antioxidant defense systems in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Robaczewska, J; Kedziora-Kornatowska, K; Kozakiewicz, M; Zary-Sikorska, E; Pawluk, H; Pawliszak, W; Kedziora, J

    2016-06-01

    The risk of developing chronic hypertension increases with age. Among others factors, increased oxidative stress is a well-recognized etiological factor for the development of hypertension. The co-occurrence of oxidative stress and hypertension may occur as a consequence of a decrease in antioxidant defense system activity or elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Glutathione is a major intracellular thiol-disulfide redox buffer that serves as a cofactor for many antioxidant enzymes. Glutathione-related parameters are altered in hypertension, suggesting that there is an association between the glutathione-related redox system and hypertension. In this review, we provide mechanistic explanations for how glutathione maintains blood pressure. More specifically, we discuss glutathione's role in combating oxidative stress and maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via the formation of nitrosothiols and nitrosohemoglobin. Although impaired vasodilator responses are observed in S-nitrosothiol-deficient red blood cells, this potential hypertensive mechanism is currently overlooked in the literature. Here we fill in this gap by discussing the role of glutathione in nitric oxide metabolism and controlling blood pressure. We conclude that disturbances in glutathione metabolism might explain age-dependent increases in blood pressure. PMID:27511994

  13. Plasma Cell Mucositis of Oro- and Hypopharynx: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Puvanendran, Mark; Lieder, Anja; Issing, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To raise awareness of plasma cell mucositis as a rare differential diagnosis for oral mucosal ulceration and its macroscopic similarity to malignancy. Method. We report a patient who presented with oral features suggestive of malignancy. A biopsy revealed plasma cell mucositis. Results. The patient successfully had a full excision of one lesion and a spontaneous resolution of the other. Conclusion. With the increasing incidence of oral mucosal pathology, physicians should be aware of this differential diagnosis. PMID:22953106

  14. Mechanisms of Neonatal Mucosal Antibody Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following an abrupt transition at birth from the sterile uterus to an environment with abundant commensal and pathogenic microbes, neonatal mammals are protected by maternal antibodies at mucosal surfaces. We show in mice that different antibody isotypes work in distinct ways to protect the neonatal...

  15. New frontiers in mucosal health in aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic decline in sequencing costs brought about by a shift in the last 5-10 years to massively parallel sequencing platforms has far-reaching consequences for the study of mucosal health in aquaculture. Transcriptome sequencing and gene expression profiling (RNA-seq) offer a rapid approach t...

  16. CpG DNA as mucosal adjuvant.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, M J; Davis, H L

    1999-09-01

    We have previously found synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs to be a potent adjuvant to protein administered by intramuscular injection or intranasal inhalation to BALB/c mice. Herein we have further evaluated the potential of CpG ODN as a mucosal adjuvant to purified hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) when administered alone or with cholera toxin (CT). CpG ODN and CT both augmented systemic (humoral and cellular) and mucosal immune responses against HBsAg, and these could be further enhanced with higher doses of adjuvant or boosting. Overall, antibody isotypes with CT alone were predominantly IgG1 (Th2-like) whereas they were predominantly IgG2a (Th1-like) with CpG ODN alone or in combination with CT. Results from this study indicate that stimulatory CpG ODN are promising new adjuvants for mucosal vaccination strategies, whether used alone or in combination with other mucosal adjuvants. PMID:10506647

  17. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-15

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-β-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

  18. Mucosal vaccines: non toxic derivatives of LT and CT as mucosal adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Pizza, M; Giuliani, M M; Fontana, M R; Monaci, E; Douce, G; Dougan, G; Mills, K H; Rappuoli, R; Del Giudice, G

    2001-03-21

    Most vaccines are still delivered by injection. Mucosal vaccination would increase compliance and decrease the risk of spread of infectious diseases due to contaminated syringes. However, most vaccines are unable to induce immune responses when administered mucosally, and require the use of strong adjuvant on effective delivery systems. Cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) are powerful mucosal adjuvants when co-administered with soluble antigens. However, their use in humans is hampered by their extremely high toxicity. During the past few years, site-directed mutagenesis has permitted the generation of LT and CT mutants fully non toxic or with dramatically reduced toxicity, which still retain their strong adjuvanticity at the mucosal level. Among these mutants, are LTK63 (serine-to-lysine substitution at position 63 in the A subunit) and LTR72 (alanine-to-arginine substitution at position 72 in the A subunit). The first is fully non toxic, whereas the latter retains some residual enzymatic activity. Both of them are extremely active as mucosal adjuvants, being able to induce very high titers of antibodies specific for the antigen with which they are co-administered. Both mutants have now been tested as mucosal adjuvants in different animal species using a wide variety of antigens. Interestingly, mucosal delivery (nasal or oral) of antigens together with LTK63 or LTR72 mutants also conferred protection against challenge in appropriate animal models (e.g. tetanus, Helicobacter pylori, pertussis, pneumococci, influenza, etc). In conclusion, these LTK63 and LTR72 mutants are safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines at the mucosal level, and will be tested soon in humans. PMID:11257389

  19. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Fang, Yun-Zhong; Yang, Sheng; Lupton, Joanne R; Turner, Nancy D

    2004-03-01

    Glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells. The synthesis of GSH from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine is catalyzed sequentially by two cytosolic enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. Compelling evidence shows that GSH synthesis is regulated primarily by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity, cysteine availability, and GSH feedback inhibition. Animal and human studies demonstrate that adequate protein nutrition is crucial for the maintenance of GSH homeostasis. In addition, enteral or parenteral cystine, methionine, N-acetyl-cysteine, and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate are effective precursors of cysteine for tissue GSH synthesis. Glutathione plays important roles in antioxidant defense, nutrient metabolism, and regulation of cellular events (including gene expression, DNA and protein synthesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, signal transduction, cytokine production and immune response, and protein glutathionylation). Glutathione deficiency contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a key role in aging and the pathogenesis of many diseases (including kwashiorkor, seizure, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, liver disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, HIV, AIDS, cancer, heart attack, stroke, and diabetes). New knowledge of the nutritional regulation of GSH metabolism is critical for the development of effective strategies to improve health and to treat these diseases. PMID:14988435

  20. Glutathione system in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Arunkumar, Sundaram; Sirajudeen, K N S; Singh, H J

    2010-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) forms a part of the antioxidant system that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress, and an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of the GSH system in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Components of the GSH system, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and total GSH content, were measured in the kidneys of 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Systolic blood pressure of SHR was significantly higher from the age of 6 weeks onwards compared with age-matched WKY rats. GPx activity in the SHR was significantly lower from the age of 8 weeks onwards when compared to that in age-matched WKY rats. No significant differences were evident in the GPx-1 protein abundance, and its relative mRNA levels, GR, GST activity, and total GSH content between SHR and age-matched WKY rats. The lower GPx activity suggests of an impairment of the GSH system in the SHR, which might be due to an abnormality in its protein rather than non-availability of a cofactor. Its role in the development of hypertension in SHR however remains unclear. PMID:20680541

  1. Five Decades with Glutathione and the GSTome

    PubMed Central

    Mannervik, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Uncle Folke inspired me to become a biochemist by demonstrating electrophoresis experiments on butterfly hemolymph in his kitchen. Glutathione became the subject for my undergraduate project in 1964 and has remained a focal point in my research owing to its multifarious roles in the cell. Since the 1960s, the multiple forms of glutathione transferase (GST), the GSTome, were isolated and characterized, some of which were discovered in our laboratory. Products of oxidative processes were found to be natural GST substrates. Examples of toxic compounds against which particular GSTs provide protection include 4-hydroxynonenal and ortho-quinones, with possible links to the etiology of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and other degenerative conditions. The role of thioltransferase and glutathione reductase in the cellular reduction of disulfides and other oxidized forms of thiols was clarified. Glyoxalase I catalyzes still another glutathione-dependent detoxication reaction. The unusual steady-state kinetics of this zinc-containing enzyme initiated model discrimination by regression analysis. Functional properties of the enzymes have been altered by stochastic mutations based on DNA shuffling and rationally tailored by structure-based redesign. We found it useful to represent promiscuous enzymes by vectors or points in multidimensional substrate-activity space and visualize them by multivariate analysis. Adopting the concept “molecular quasi-species,” we describe clusters of functionally related enzyme variants that may emerge in natural as well as directed evolution. PMID:22247548

  2. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility. PMID:9419992

  3. Distribution of macrophages and granulocytes expressing L1 protein (calprotectin) in human Peyer's patches compared with normal ileal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Bjerke, K; Halstensen, T S; Jahnsen, F; Pulford, K; Brandtzaeg, P

    1993-01-01

    Antibodies to the cytosolic leucocyte L1 protein (or calprotectin) were examined for reactivity with macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils identified by paired immunofluorescence staining in sections of normal human ileal mucosa, including Peyer's patches. Macrophages were recognised by expression of the myelomonocytic antigen CD68 (monoclonal antibody KP1). Neutrophilic granulocytes were identified by their content of neutrophil elastase, and eosinophilic granulocytes by monoclonal antibody EG2. Virtually all CD68+ macrophages in normal lamina propria and Peyer's patches were L1- and the same was true for most extravasated macrophages in normal peripheral lymph nodes. Some mesenteric lymph nodes, however, and all peripheral lymph nodes with overt pathological processes (malignant lymphoma) contained many CD68+L1+ macrophages. Numerous L1+ cells were also localised to the crypt region and to some extent beneath the villous epithelium in normal lamina propria, but they were mainly identified as EG2+ eosinophils. Such cells were remarkably scarce or absent beneath the follicle associated epithelium in the dome region of Peyer's patches, where CD68+L1- macrophages were abundant. Also subepithelial and interfollicular CD68- interdigitating dendritic cells in Peyer's patches (recognised by antibody to S-100 protein) were usually unreactive with L1 antibody. The L1 protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities in vitro, and its putative antiproliferative properties are interesting in relation to the immunosuppression postulated to take place in lamina propria. The virtual absence of L1 producing cells beneath the follicle associated epithelium in Peyer's patches may support the immunostimulatory function of these macrophage rich structures, which are held to be crucial for induction of specific mucosal immunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8244101

  4. Glutathione and gamma-glutamyl transferases are involved in the formation of cadmium-glutathione complex.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Paula Daniela Braga; Mannarino, Sérgio Cantú; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo

    2009-05-01

    In a wild-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cadmium induces the activities of both gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) and glutathione transferase 2 (Gtt2). However, Gtt2 activity did not increase under gamma-GT or Ycf1 deficiencies, suggesting that the accumulation of glutathione-cadmium in the cytosol inhibits Gtt2. On the other hand, the balance between the cytoplasmic and vacuolar level of glutathione seems to regulate gamma-GT activity, since this enzyme was not activated in a gtt2 strain. Taken together, these results suggest that gamma-GT and Gtt2 work together to remove cadmium from the cytoplasm, a crucial mechanism for metal detoxification that is dependent on glutathione. PMID:19345220

  5. Trophic and cytoprotective nutrition for intestinal adaptation, mucosal repair, and barrier function.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Thomas R; Evans, Mary E; Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Jones, Dean P

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cell turnover (proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis) and gut barrier functions are dynamic processes that are markedly affected by nutritional status, the route of feeding, and the adequacy of specific nutrients in the diet. Emerging studies are defining potential therapeutic roles for specific nutrients and diet-derived compounds (including arginine, glutamate, glutamine, glutathione, glycine, vitamin A, zinc, and specific lipids) in gut mucosal turnover, repair, adaptation after massive bowel resection, and barrier function. The role and regulation of endogenous bowel flora in generating short-chain fatty acids from diet-derived fiber and other diet-derived compounds and the effects of these agents on gut function are increasingly being elucidated. Results of these investigations should define new nutritional methods for trophic and cytoprotective effects on the intestine in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, malnutrition, and short bowel syndrome. PMID:12626687

  6. Management of Mucositis During Chemotherapy: From Pathophysiology to Pragmatic Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Van Sebille, Ysabella Z A; Stansborough, Romany; Wardill, Hannah R; Bateman, Emma; Gibson, Rachel J; Keefe, Dorothy M

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is a common condition caused by the breakdown of the mucosal barrier. Symptoms can include pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, which can often necessitate chemotherapy treatment breaks or dose reductions, thus compromising survival outcomes. Despite the significant impact of mucositis, there are currently limited clinically effective pharmacological therapies for the pathology. New emerging areas of research have been proposed to play key roles in the development of mucositis, providing rationale for potential new therapeutics for the prevention, treatment or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review aims to address these new areas of research and to comment on the therapeutics arising from them. PMID:26384312

  7. Mucosal adjuvanticity and immunogenicity of LTR72, a novel mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin with partial knockout of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M M; Del Giudice, G; Giannelli, V; Dougan, G; Douce, G; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

    1998-04-01

    Heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) has the innate property of being a strong mucosal immunogen and adjuvant. In the attempt to reduce toxicity and maintain the useful immunological properties, several LT mutants have been produced. Some of these are promising mucosal adjuvants. However, so far, only those that were still toxic maintained full adjuvanticity. In this paper we describe a novel LT mutant with greatly reduced toxicity that maintains most of the adjuvanticity. The new mutant (LTR72), that contains a substitution Ala --> Arg in position 72 of the A subunit, showed only 0.6% of the LT enzymatic activity, was 100,000-fold less toxic than wild-type LT in Y1 cells in vitro, and was at least 20 times less effective than wild-type LT in the rabbit ileal loop assay in vivo. At a dose of 1 microg, LTR72 exhibited a mucosal adjuvanticity, similar to that observed with wild-type LT, better than that induced by the nontoxic, enzymatically inactive LTK63 mutant, and much greater than that of the recombinant B subunit. This trend was consistent for both the amounts and kinetics of the antibody induced, and priming of antigen-specific T lymphocytes. The data suggest that the innate high adjuvanticity of LT derives from the independent contribution of the nontoxic AB complex and the enzymatic activity. LTR72 optimizes the use of both properties: the enzymatic activity for which traces are enough, and the nontoxic AB complex, the effect of which is dose dependent. In fact, in dose-response experiments in mice, 20 microg of LTR72 were a stronger mucosal adjuvant than wild-type LT. This suggests that LTR72 may be an excellent candidate to be tested in clinical trials. PMID:9529328

  8. Enzyme-catalysed conjugations of glutathione with unsaturated compounds

    PubMed Central

    Boyland, E.; Chasseaud, L. F.

    1967-01-01

    1. Rat-liver supernatant catalyses the reaction of diethyl maleate with glutathione. 2. Evidence is presented that the enzyme involved is different from the known glutathione-conjugating enzymes, glutathione S-alkyltransferase, S-aryltransferase and S-epoxidetransferase. 3. Rat-liver supernatant catalyses the reaction of a number of other αβ-unsaturated compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, lactones, nitriles and nitro compounds, with glutathione: separate enzymes may be responsible for these reactions. PMID:6035529

  9. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in egg from hyperimmunized hens fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Kiarie, E; Kahindi, R K; Maiti, P; Woyengo, T A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in egg from hens hyperimmunized with Escherichia coli K88 antigens (EGG) fed to weaned pigs. Spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) was included for comparison. Eight barrows (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc; initial BW of 17 ± 1 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 2 diets in a completely randomized design to give 4 replicates per diet. The diets were corn (Zea mays) starch based with either EGG or SDPP as the sole source of protein and were formulated to contain 130 g/kg CP. At the end of the study, a 50 g/kg casein diet was fed to all pigs (n = 8) to quantify endogenous N and AA losses to determine SID. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was included in the diets as an indigestible maker. Each period lasted for 7 d. Pigs were adapted to their respective diets for 5 d followed by 12 h of continuous ileal digesta collection on days 6 and 7. Daily feed allowance was set at 4% BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs had unlimited access to water via low pressure nipple drinkers. The AID (%) of CP and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in EGG compared with SDPP. The SID (%) of CP (82 vs. 96) and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed EGG compared with SDPP. In conclusion, the average AID and SID of N and indispensable AA in EGG are lower than in SDPP when fed at high levels. PMID:23365342

  10. Febrile Urinary Tract Infection after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with febrile UTI. From January 2001 to May 2015, 236 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder were included in this study. Fifty-five episodes of febrile UTI were identified in 46 patients (19.4%). The probability of febrile UTI was 17.6% and 19.8% at 6 months and 24 months after surgery, respectively. While, Escherichia coli was the most common implicated pathogen (22/55, 40.0%), Enterococcus spp. were the most common pathogen during the first month after surgery (18/33, 54.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ureteral stricture was an independent risk factor associated with febrile UTI (OR 5.93, P = 0.023). However, ureteral stricture accounted for only 6 episodes (10.9%, 6/55) of febrile UTI. Most episodes of febrile UTI occurred within 6 months after surgery. Thus, to identify risk factors associated with febrile UTI in the initial postoperative period, we assessed videourodynamics within 6 months after surgery in 38 patients. On videourodyamic examination, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 16 patients (42.1%). The rate of VUR presence in patients who had febrile UTI was not significantly different from those in patients without febrile UTI (50% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.556). Patients with febrile UTI had significantly larger residual urine volume (212.0 ± 193.7 vs. 90.5 ± 148.2, P = 0.048) than those without. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. are common pathogens and ureteral stricture and residual urine are risk factors for UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction. PMID:27366009

  11. Risk Factors for Developing Metabolic Acidosis after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Hana; Chung, Woo Sik; Sim, Bong Suk; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Lee, Dong Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the serial changes of metabolic acidosis and identify associated risk factors in patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder. Material and Methods From January 2010 to August 2014, 123 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder reconstruction for bladder cancer were included in this study. Metabolic acidosis was defined as a serum bicarbonate level less than 22 mEq/L and impaired renal function was defined as a GFR <50ml/min. The presence of metabolic acidosis was evaluated at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors associated with development of metabolic acidosis. Results Metabolic acidosis was observed in 52%, 19.5%, and 7.3% of patients at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery, respectively. At 1 month after surgery, impaired renal function was the only independent risk factor associated with metabolic acidosis (OR 3.87, P = 0.046). At 1 year after surgery, diabetes was the only independent risk factor associated with metabolic acidosis (OR 5.68, P = 0.002). At 2 years post-surgery, both age and diabetes were significant risk factors associated with metabolic acidosis. Conclusion Approximately, half of patients experienced metabolic acidosis one month after ileal neobladder reconstruction. Preoperative impaired renal function was the most significant risk factor for developing metabolic acidosis in the early postoperative period. However, the incidence of metabolic acidosis decreased to less than 20% 1 year after surgery, and diabetes was an independent risk factor during this period. PMID:27384686

  12. An opioid pancreatic peptide produces ileal muscle inhibition and naloxone-reversible analgesia.

    PubMed

    Kimball, C D; Iqbal, M; Huang, J T; Sutton, D

    1991-04-01

    The opioid activity of immunoreactive beta-endorphin-like peptide extracted from pork pancreas duplicates the effects of morphine and synthetic beta-endorphin when measured by inhibition of isolated guinea pig ileal muscle response to electro-stimulation in vitro and by morphine-like analgesia following intravenous injection in the mouse. These responses are reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone, indicating that a potent opioid mu receptor binding ligand is present in pancreatic extract. These findings imply a pancreatic source of plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin that may explain a number of physiological and behavioral effects generally attributed to hypophyseal beta-endorphin alone. PMID:1651521

  13. A “false positive” octreoscan in ileal Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Alberto; Tabuenca, Olga; Peteiro, Angeles

    2008-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with a suspicious ileal carcinoid tumour. Clinical examination as well as computer tomography (CT) scan suggested a tumour. Octeotride scan showed uptake in the same bowel loop reported as pathological in CT. The patient underwent surgery and biopsy which reported Crohn’s disease (CD). The interest in the case is due to the fact that this is, to the best of our knowledge, the second report of Crohn’s disease as a cause of false positive octeotride scan. Unfortunately, no somatostatin receptors could be found in the sample, so further studies should be performed. PMID:18785291

  14. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs for White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2010-03-01

    The apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of 6 feedstuffs, namely corn, wheat, corn distillers dried grains with solubles, canola meal, soybean meal (SBM), and meat and bone meal (MBM) were determined for White Pekin ducks in a 5-d experiment. The feedstuffs served as the sole source of amino acids in semipurified diets composed of dextrose, soy oil, Solka Floc, minerals, and vitamins, with the exception of corn and wheat, in which both lacked dextrose. The ducks received a standard duck starter diet during the first 14 d posthatch. On d 14, ducks were sorted by weight and allocated to 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Each assay diet was fed to 8 replicates (6 ducks/replicate) from d 14 to 19 posthatch. Birds were killed on d 19 and digesta from the terminal ileum were collected. Ileal N digestibility was highest (P < 0.01) in SBM (88.3%) and lowest in MBM (72.4%). Ileal digestibility for all of the amino acids was highest in SBM among the feedstuffs. Lysine digestibility was highest (P < 0.01) for SBM followed by canola meal, corn, wheat, MBM, and distillers dried grains with soluble; the values were 90.3, 79.0, 78.0, 76.8, 75.6, and 69.2%, respectively. Methionine digestibility in SBM was highest (P < 0.01), whereas MBM had the lowest digestibility value for methionine (78.4%). For threonine, SBM (84.0%) had the highest digestibility and corn (61.6%) had the lowest digestibility (P < 0.01), but there were no differences among other feedstuffs. Ileal tryptophan digestibility was between 78.9 (MBM) and 93.0% (SBM). In conclusion, the data from the current study show that there are considerable differences among feedstuffs in the digestibility of their amino acids for ducks. Therefore, it is important to take the digestible amino acid content of feedstuffs into account during feed formulation. PMID:20181872

  15. Radical Cystectomy with Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion in a Patient with a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Pariser, Joseph J.; Weiner, Adam B.; Steinberg, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an option for the surgical management of severe heart failure, and radical cystectomy remains the standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Given a complicated population in terms of comorbidities and management for patients with an LVAD, there is little experience with major urologic procedures, which require balancing the benefits of surgery with considerable perioperative risks. We report our experience performing the first radical cystectomy with ileal conduit in a patient with an LVAD and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PMID:26290767

  16. Successful pregnancy after ileal exclusion in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2.

    PubMed

    Czubkowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Irena; Pawlowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC 2) results from mutations in ABCB11 gene coding bile salt export pump (BSEP). Medical treatment is usually unsuccessful and surgery intervention is necessary. Partial external biliary diversion (PEBD) is regarded as the first choice of surgical treatment. Ileal exclusion (IE) is an alternative operation if external stoma is not tolerated; however, a favorable outcome is uncertain. In chronic liver diseases pregnancy brings additional risk of deterioration of liver function and generally is not recommended. We present the first case report of successful pregnancy in a genetically confirmed PFIC 2 patient after surgical conversion from PEBD to IE. PMID:26019043

  17. Mucosal immunity: its role in defense and allergy.

    PubMed

    Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Tucková, Ludmila; Lodinová-Zádniková, Rája; Stepánková, Renata; Cukrowska, Bozena; Funda, David P; Striz, Ilja; Kozáková, Hana; Trebichavský, Ilja; Sokol, Dan; Reháková, Zuzana; Sinkora, Jirí; Fundová, Petra; Horáková, Dana; Jelínková, Lenka; Sánchez, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    The interface between the organism and the outside world, which is the site of exchange of nutrients, export of products and waste components, must be selectively permeable and at the same time, it must constitute a barrier equipped with local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g. invading pathogens). The boundaries with the environment (mucosal and skin surfaces) are therefore covered with special epithelial layers which support this barrier function. The immune system, associated with mucosal surfaces covering the largest area of the body (200-300 m(2)), evolved mechanisms discriminating between harmless antigens and commensal microorganisms and dangerous pathogens. The innate mucosal immune system, represented by epithelial and other mucosal cells and their products, is able to recognize the conserved pathogenic patterns on microbes by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, CD14 and others. As documented in experimental gnotobiotic models, highly protective colonization of mucosal surfaces by commensals has an important stimulatory effect on postnatal development of immune responses, metabolic processes (e.g. nutrition) and other host activities; these local and systemic immune responses are later replaced by inhibition, i.e. by induction of mucosal (oral) tolerance. Characteristic features of mucosal immunity distinguishing it from systemic immunity are: strongly developed mechanisms of innate defense, the existence of characteristic populations of unique types of lymphocytes, colonization of the mucosal and exocrine glands by cells originating from the mucosal organized tissues ('common mucosal system') and preferential induction of inhibition of the responses to nondangerous antigens (mucosal tolerance). Many chronic diseases, including allergy, may occur as a result of genetically based or environmentally induced changes in mechanisms regulating mucosal immunity and tolerance; this leads to impaired mucosal barrier

  18. Abnormal fucosylation of-ileal mucus in cystic fibrosis: II. A histochemical study using monoclonal antibodies to fucosyl oligosaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    King, A; McLeish, M; Thiru, S

    1990-01-01

    Abnormal fucosylation of cystic fibrosis mucin was previously shown using peroxidase conjugated lectins on ileal tissue sections. These abnormally fucosylated glycoproteins were investigated further using monoclonal antibodies to fucosyl oligosaccharides based on type 1 and type 2 blood group precursor chains. The results of this study, using monoclonal antibodies to blood group glycoproteins in cystic fibrosis, were negative, yet abnormal fucosylation had been found using lectin histochemistry. Using monoclonal antibodies, lectins, and appropriate enzymes, such as glycosyl hydrolases, it should be possible to delineate further the abnormality found in glycoproteins in cystic fibrosis on appropriately fixed ileal sections, obtained from infants at term presenting with meconium ileus. Images PMID:2266174

  19. Mucosal malignant melanoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Norhafizah, M; Mustafa, W M B W; Sabariah, A R; Shiran, M S; Pathmanathan, R

    2010-09-01

    Mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM) is an aggressive tumour occurring in the upper respiratory tract. It is rare compared to malignant melanoma of the skin. We report a case of a 53-year-old man with left paranasal swelling. A biopsy showed high-grade spindle cell tumour. Subsequently a subtotal maxillectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a hypercellular tumour composed of mixed spindle and epitheloid cells with very occasional intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. The malignant cells were immunopositive for vimentin, S-100 protein and HMB-45. It was diagnosed as mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM). This article illustrates a rare case of MMM where the diagnosis may be missed or delayed without proper histopathological examination that include meticulous search for melanin pigment and appropriate immunohistochemical stains to confirm the diagnosis. Malignant melanoma can mimic many other types of high-grade malignancy and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in many of these instances. PMID:21939172

  20. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. PMID:26826375

  1. An enzyme catalysing the conjugation of epoxides with glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Boyland, E.; Williams, K.

    1965-01-01

    1. Liver supernatant preparations from rats and ferrets catalyse the conjugation of some epoxides with glutathione. The enzyme involved might be called `glutathione S-epoxidetransferase', as it is different from glutathione S-aryltransferase, the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 4-nitro-pyridine N-oxide and other cyclic compounds with glutathione and from the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of iodomethane and glutathione. 2. The enzyme does not catalyse the reaction with cysteine. It is not inactivated by dialysis but is unstable at pH 5·0. 3. The role of the enzyme in metabolism of foreign compounds is discussed. PMID:14342229

  2. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

  3. Glutathione and redox signaling in substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Joachim D.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Townsend, Danyelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the last couple decades, the cause and consequences of substance abuse has expanded to identify the underlying neurobiological signaling mechanisms associated with addictive behavior. Chronic use of drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine and alcohol leads to the formation of oxidative or nitrosative stress (ROS/RNS) and changes in glutathione and redox homeostasis. Of importance, redox-sensitive post-translational modifications on cysteine residues, such as S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation could impact on the structure and function of addiction related signaling proteins. In this commentary, we evaluate the role of glutathione and redox signaling in cocaine-, methamphetamine- and alcohol addiction and conclude by discussing the possibility of targeting redox pathways for the therapeutic intervention of these substance abuse disorders. PMID:25027386

  4. Glutathione and redox signaling in substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Uys, Joachim D; Mulholland, Patrick J; Townsend, Danyelle M

    2014-07-01

    Throughout the last couple decades, the cause and consequences of substance abuse has expanded to identify the underlying neurobiological signaling mechanisms associated with addictive behavior. Chronic use of drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine and alcohol leads to the formation of oxidative or nitrosative stress (ROS/RNS) and changes in glutathione and redox homeostasis. Of importance, redox-sensitive post-translational modifications on cysteine residues, such as S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation could impact on the structure and function of addiction related signaling proteins. In this commentary, we evaluate the role of glutathione and redox signaling in cocaine-, methamphetamine- and alcohol addiction and conclude by discussing the possibility of targeting redox pathways for the therapeutic intervention of these substance abuse disorders. PMID:25027386

  5. Cough-induced Tracheobronchial Mucosal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Hira, Harmanjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with moderate hemoptysis. It was preceded by a severe bout of cough. Flexible bronchoscopy showed diffuse tracheobronchial mucosal petechiae and bleeding. The patient was not suffering with any coagulopathies. He did not receive antiplatelet drugs. Hemoptysis resolved with cough suppressant. Subsequent bronchoscopy revealed the complete resolution of petechiae. The mechanism of bleeding after the bout of coughing is discussed. PMID:23169019

  6. The microbiome and regulation of mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Andrew J; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a mucosal surface constantly exposed to foreign antigens and microbes, and is protected by a vast array of immunologically active structures and cells. Epithelial cells directly participate in immunological surveillance and direction of host responses in the gut and can express numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR9, and nucleotide oligomerization domain 2, as well as produce chemotactic factors for both myeloid and lymphoid cells following inflammatory stimulation. Within the epithelium and in the underlying lamina propria resides a population of innate lymphoid cells that, following stimulation, can become activated and produce effector cytokines and exert both protective and pathogenic roles during inflammation. Lamina propria dendritic cells play a large role in determining whether the response to a particular antigen will be inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. It is becoming clear that the composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome, as a whole community, exerts a profound influence on mucosal immune regulation. The microbiome produces short-chain fatty acids, polysaccharide A, α-galactosylceramide and tryptophan metabolites, which can induce interleukin-22, Reg3γ, IgA and interleukin-17 responses. However, much of what is known about microbiome-host immune interactions has come from the study of single bacterial members of the gastrointestinal microbiome and their impact on intestinal mucosal immunity. Additionally, evidence continues to accumulate that alterations of the intestinal microbiome can impact not only gastrointestinal immunity but also immune regulation at distal mucosal sites. PMID:24329495

  7. DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Ling-Fei; Chen, Jian-Gang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of fluoride on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as cell cycle of rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Ten male SD rats weighing 80~120 g were randomly divided into control group and fluoride group, 5 animals each group. The animals in fluoride group had free access to deionized water containing 150 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF). The animals in control group were given distilled water. Four weeks later, the animals were killed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oral mucosa and liver were measured by Fenton reaction, lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), was detected by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction, reduced glutathione (GSH) was assayed by dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) reaction. DNA damage in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes was determined by single cell gel (SCG) electrophoresis or comet assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The contents of ROS and MDA in oral mucosa and liver tissue of fluoride group were significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.01), but the level of GSH was markedly decreased (P < 0.01). The contents of ROS, MDA and GSH were (134.73 ± 12.63) U/mg protein, (1.48 ± 0.13) mmol/mg protein and (76.38 ± 6.71) mmol/mg protein in oral mucosa respectively, and (143.45 ±11.76) U/mg protein, (1.44 ± 0.12) mmol/mg protein and (78.83 ± 7.72) mmol/mg protein in liver tissue respectively. The DNA damage rate in fluoride group was 50.20% in oral mucosal cells and 44.80% in hepatocytes, higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The apoptosis rate in oral mucosal cells was (13.63 ± 1.81) % in fluoride group, and (12.76 ± 1.67) % in hepatocytes, higher than those in control group. Excess fluoride could differently lower the number of oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes at G0/G1 and S G2/M phases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Excess fluoride can induce

  8. Oral mucosal manifestations of autoimmune skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mayson B; Porter, Stephen R; Smoller, Bruce R; Sitaru, Cassian

    2015-10-01

    A group of autoimmune diseases is characterised by autoantibodies against epithelial adhesion structures and/or tissue-tropic lymphocytes driving inflammatory processes resulting in specific pathology at the mucosal surfaces and the skin. The most frequent site of mucosal involvement in autoimmune diseases is the oral cavity. Broadly, these diseases include conditions affecting the cell-cell adhesion causing intra-epithelial blistering and those where autoantibodies or infiltration lymphocytes cause a loss of cell-matrix adhesion or interface inflammation. Clinically, patients present with blistering, erosions and ulcers that may affect the skin as well as further mucosal surfaces of the eyes, nose and genitalia. While the autoimmune disease may be suspected based on clinical manifestations, demonstration of tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies, or lymphocytic infiltrates, by various methods including histological examination, direct and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and quantitative immunoassay is a prerequisite for definitive diagnosis. Given the frequency of oral involvement and the fact that oral mucosa is the initially affected site in many cases, the informed practitioner should be well acquainted with diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune dermatosis with oral involvement. This paper reviews the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of these conditions in the oral cavity with a specific emphasis on their differential diagnosis and current management approaches. PMID:26117595

  9. Topical cocaine for relief of mucosal pain.

    PubMed

    Newport, Kristina; Coyne, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Painful mucosal lesions negatively affect quality of life. When located in the oral cavity, they can cause pain that interferes with speech and swallowing. Acute pain from intra-oral lesions is difficult to treat with conventional methods such as systemic opioids or viscous lidocaine. These cases exemplify a safe, fast and effective method for treating painful mouth lesions that are not responsive to standard treatments. Mr. D and Mr. G had from painful oral lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma. Severe pain interfered with their ability to speak and swallow, resulting in poor nutrition and dehydration. 4% liquid cocaine, self-applied topically to the open mouth sores, resulted in relief within minutes in both cases. Repeated dosing every six hours allowed both patients to restart oral nutrition without any reported side effects. Topical cocaine has not been described for repeated dosing for oral or other mucosal pain. Potential side effects of mucosal administration include gingival recession and erythematous lesions. If the recommended topical doses are exceeded, liquid cocaine may be absorbed systemically causing a stimulant response or addiction. When used appropriately, however, this intervention can result in a dramatic improvement in quality of life and functional status. PMID:20504138

  10. Collaborative studies in mucosal immunology in Goroka.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative program between the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Institute of Medical Research and the Hunter Mucosal Group has completed studies relevant to protection of the airways against bacterial infection. Specifically, these studies addressed the mucosal capacity to produce local immunoglobulins and the capacity of the airways to respond to an oral vaccine containing inactivated nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The mucosal IgA response to NTHi antigens was blunted in both children and adults in PNG compared with that found in Australian children and adults, whose airways are colonized only intermittently. Despite this, when oral NTHi is given to Papua New Guinean adults with chronic airways disease, it is followed by a significant (50%) reduction in incidence of acute bronchitic episodes, and a 3-log reduction in density of colonization, which persisted about 10 months. The implications of these key findings are discussed with respect to both mechanism and wider control of pathology emanating from abnormal airways colonization in a PNG environment. PMID:23163182

  11. Chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants: Sunrise on the ocean.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yufei; Fan, Qingze; Hao, Dongxia; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    Mucosal vaccination, which is shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses, serves as a non-invasive and convenient alternative to parenteral administration, with stronger capability in combatting diseases at the site of entry. The exploration of potent mucosal adjuvants is emerging as a significant area, based on the continued necessity to amplify the immune responses to a wide array of antigens that are poorly immunogenic at the mucosal sites. As one of the inspirations from the ocean, chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants have been developed with unique advantages, such as, ability of mucosal adhesion, distinct trait of opening the junctions to allow the paracellular transport of antigen, good tolerability and biocompatibility, which guaranteed the great potential in capitalizing on their application in human clinical trials. In this review, the state of art of chitosan and its derivatives as mucosal adjuvants, including thermo-sensitive chitosan system as mucosal adjuvant that were newly developed by author's group, was described, as well as the clinical application perspective. After a brief introduction of mucosal adjuvants, chitosan and its derivatives as robust immune potentiator were discussed in detail and depth, in regard to the metabolism, safety profile, mode of actions and preclinical and clinical applications, which may shed light on the massive clinical application of chitosan as mucosal adjuvant. PMID:26271831

  12. Effect of Glutathione on Phytochelatin Synthesis in Tomato Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Mendum, Mary Lou; Gupta, Subhash C.; Goldsbrough, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably [γ-Glu-Cys]2-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little [35S]cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione. PMID:16667492

  13. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered to rats 2 h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

  14. Sources and severity of self-reported food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Steenhagen, Elles; de Roos, Nicole M; Bouwman, Carolien A; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M; van Staveren, Wija A

    2006-09-01

    Data on food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify foods causing intolerance and to determine the nature and severity of reported symptoms. Patients from the Dutch Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Association were mailed a survey on food intolerance; 105 (31% men) of 137 patients took part. They all reported intolerance to one or more foods. Common symptoms (scored from 0=absent to 10=severe), included diarrhea (mean score=5.8), fatigue (mean score=5.5), and thirst (mean score=4.6). Spicy foods, cabbage, and citrus fruits (or juice) were most likely to decrease stool consistency, increase stool frequency, or cause perianal irritation. Onions, cabbage, or leeks were reported by 28% of the patients to cause flatulence. The urge to defecate was stronger after a cooked meal (45% within (1/2) hour) than after sandwiches (15% within (1/2) hour). Foods reported to increase stool consistency were potato products, bread, and bananas. This study demonstrates that food intolerance is a common, albeit mild, problem after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage patients to base their food choices on individual tolerance as long as no (patho-) physiological-based evidence to the contrary is available. PMID:16963353

  15. A glutathione reductase mutant of yeast accumulates high levels of oxidized glutathione and requires thioredoxin for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, E G

    1996-01-01

    A glutathione reductase null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated in a synthetic lethal genetic screen for mutations which confer a requirement for thioredoxin. Yeast mutants that lack glutathione reductase (glr1 delta) accumulate high levels of oxidized glutathione and have a twofold increase in total glutathione. The disulfide form of glutathione increases 200-fold and represents 63% of the total glutathione in a glr1 delta mutant compared with only 6% in wild type. High levels of oxidized glutathione are also observed in a trx1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (22% of total), in a glr1 delta, trx1 delta double mutant (71% of total), and in a glr1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (69% of total). Despite the exceptionally high ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione, the glr1 delta mutant grows with a normal cell cycle. However, either one of the two thioredoxins is essential for growth. Cells lacking both thioredoxins and glutathione reductase are not viable under aerobic conditions and grow poorly anaerobically. In addition, the glr1 delta mutant shows increased sensitivity to the thiol oxidant diamide. The sensitivity to diamide was suppressed by deletion of the TRX2 gene. The genetic analysis of thioredoxin and glutathione reductase in yeast runs counter to previous studies in Escherichia coli and for the first time links thioredoxin with the redox state of glutathione in vivo. Images PMID:8930901

  16. Roles of M cells in infection and mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Gao, Zeqian; Zhang, Zhongwang; Pan, Li; Zhang, Yongguang

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system plays a crucial part in the control of infection. Exposure of humans and animals to potential pathogens generally occurs through mucosal surfaces, thus, strategies that target the mucosa seem rational and efficient vaccination measures. Vaccination through the mucosal immune system can induce effective systemic immune responses simultaneously with mucosal immunity compared with parenteral vaccination. M cells are capable of transporting luminal antigens to the underlying lymphoid tissues and can be exploited by pathogens as an entry portal to invade the host. Therefore, targeting M-cell-specific molecules might enhance antigen entry, initiate the immune response, and induce protection against mucosal pathogens. Here, we outline our understanding of the distribution and function of M cells, and summarize the advances in mucosal vaccine strategies that target M cells. PMID:25483705

  17. Antibodies and Their Receptors: Different Potential Roles in Mucosal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Rachel E.; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that mucosal antibodies are not only restricted to the IgM and IgA isotypes, but that also other isotypes and particularly IgG can be found in significant quantities at some mucosal surfaces, such as in the genital tract. Their role is more complex than traditionally believed with, among other things, the discovery of novel function of mucosal immunoglobulin receptors. A thorough knowledge in the source and function and mucosal immunoglobulins is particularly important in development of vaccines providing mucosal immunity, and also in the current climate of microbicide development, to combat major world health issues such as HIV. We present here a comprehensive review of human antibody mediated mucosal immunity. PMID:23882268

  18. Mucosal vaccines: novel advances in technology and delivery.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    Mucosal vaccines are considered the most suitable type of vaccines to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases because of their ability to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. Considerable advances have been made toward the development of mucosal vaccines against influenza virus and rotavirus. Many additional mucosal vaccines are in development, including vaccines against cholera, typhoid, traveler's diarrhea and respiratory infections. In addition to oral and nasal vaccines, transcutaneous (or skin patch) and sublingual immunizations are now part of a new generation of mucosal vaccines. Furthermore, a rice-based oral vaccine (MucoRice) has been receiving global attention as a new form of cold chain-free vaccine, because it is stable at room temperature for a prolonged period. This review describes recent developments in mucosal vaccines with promising preclinical and clinical results. PMID:19627189

  19. Innate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Serriari, N-E; Eoche, M; Lamotte, L; Lion, J; Fumery, M; Marcelo, P; Chatelain, D; Barre, A; Nguyen-Khac, E; Lantz, O; Dupas, J-L; Treiner, E

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by a deregulated immune response targeting the gut bacterial flora. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib-restricted innate-like lymphocytes with anti-bacterial functions. They display an effector/memory phenotype and are found in large numbers in the blood, mucosae and liver. They have also been implicated in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the possible involvement of MAIT cells in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). To this end, a phenotypical and functional analysis of MAIT cells isolated from the blood of healthy subjects, CD and UC patients was undertaken. MAIT cells were also quantified in ileal biopsies of CD patients. The frequency of blood MAIT cells was specifically reduced in IBD patients compared with healthy donors, whereas it was dramatically greater in the inflamed versus healthy tissue. MAIT cells were activated as they expressed significantly more the Ki67 antigen, and this was accompanied by phenotypical changes such as increased expression of natural killer (NK)G2D and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). Finally, in-vitro-activated MAIT cells from CD and UC patients secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-17, together with a decreased interferon (IFN)-γ in CD but an increased IL-22 in UC. These data show that MAIT cells are activated in IBD, which results in an increased recruitment towards the inflamed tissues, an altered phenotype and a switch in the pattern of cytokine secretion. This is the first demonstration that MAIT cells are immune players in IBD, whose precise functions in this context need to be addressed. PMID:24450998

  20. Human milk oligosaccharides shorten rotavirus-induced diarrhea and modulate piglet mucosal immunity and colonic microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Monaco, Marcia H; Wang, Mei; Comstock, Sarah S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Fahey Jr, George C; Miller, Michael J; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on mucosal immunity, gut microbiota and response to rotavirus (RV) infection was investigated in the piglet model. Newborn piglets were fed with formula alone (FF) or formula supplemented with 4 g l−1 HMO (HMO) or a prebiotic mixture of 9:1 short-chain galactooligosaccharides (3.6 g l−1) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (0.4 g l−1) (PRE) (n=19–21 per group) for 15 days. Piglets (n=7–8) in each dietary group were orally infected with porcine rotavirus (RV) OSU strain on d10, and stool consistency was assessed daily. Blood, small intestine and colonic contents were collected at day 15. Serum RV-specific antibody concentrations, intestinal histomorphology, RV non-structural protein-4 (NSP4) and cytokine mRNA expression were assessed. Colonic content pH, dry matter (DM) and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured. Ascending colonic microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene v1-3 region pyrosequencing. HMO- and PRE-fed groups had shorter duration of diarrhea than FF piglets. Infection changed intestinal histomorphology, increased serum RV-specific antibody response and intestinal RV NSP4 expression, and modulated ileal cytokine expression. HMO enhanced T helper type 1 (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines in the ileum, while prebiotics promoted RV-specific immunoglobulin M response to the infection. RV infection and HMO supplementation altered intraluminal environment and gut microbiota. HMO increased pH and lowered DM of colonic contents and enhanced the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, which contains numerous butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, HMO and prebiotics did not prevent the onset of RV infection but reduced the duration of RV-induced diarrhea in piglets, in part, by modulating colonic microbiota and immune response to RV infection. PMID:24522264

  1. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  2. BILE ACIDS REGULATE THE ONTOGENIC EXPRESSION OF ILEAL BILE ACID BINDING PROTEIN IN THE RAT VIA THE FARNESOID X RECEPTOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the rat, an increase in ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) expression occurs during the third postnatal week. In vitro studies suggest that bile acids (BAs) increase IBABP transcription by activating the BA receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Thus, we investigated the role of BAs on the on...

  3. Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and eighty-eight Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per pen; 0.45 m2 per bird) were randomly assigne...

  4. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  5. Commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (starch stopper) increases ileal endogenous amino acid and crude protein losses in the growing rat.

    PubMed

    Deglaire, A; Moughan, P J; Bos, C; Tome, D

    2006-07-12

    The effect of a commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (PVE, starch stopper) on ileal and fecal endogenous protein losses was studied. Growing rats were fed for 14 days a protein-free diet containing PVE at a nutritional concentration of 0% (PF1), 0.4% (PF2), or 1.1% PVE (PF3) or 1.1% autoclaved PVE (PF4). An indigestible marker (TiO(2)) was included in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in PF3 (20% higher than in PF1), except for Pro, Gly, Ala, and His. Endogenous ileal N losses were 22% higher in PF3 than in PF1. Endogenous fecal AA and N losses were all significantly higher (P < 0.05) in PF3. Starch digestibility ( approximately 100%), food intake (single daily meal, d10-23), and body weight loss were not significantly different among the groups. PVE, at 1.1% of the diet, not only was ineffective in reducing starch digestibility but also led to increased ileal endogenous N losses, possibly due to the antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor, lectin) present in the PVE. PMID:16819935

  6. Concurrent Mucosal Melanoma and Angiofibroma of the Nose

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Hyung; Ha, Jin Bu; Lee, Junguee; Lee, Joohyung

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma rarely develops in the paranasal sinuses, and generally has a poor prognosis. However, mucosal melanoma can masquerade both clinically and histopathologically as a benign lesion, rendering accurate early diagnosis difficult. On the other hand, angiofibroma, a benign tumor, is more easily diagnosed than a mucosal melanoma, because the former exhibits specific histopathological features. No cases of concurrent angiofibroma and mucosal melanoma have been reported to date. We describe such a case below. PMID:27095516

  7. Glutathione is a Physiologic Reservoir of Neuronal Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Minori; Serritella, Anthony V.; Messmer, Marcus M.; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Hester, Lynda D.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Sawa, Akira; Sedlak, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain, participates in a multitude of physiologic and pathologic processes, including learning and memory. Glutathione, a tripeptide composed of the amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, serves important cofactor roles in antioxidant defense and drug detoxification, but glutathione deficits occur in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Glutathione synthesis and metabolism are governed by a cycle of enzymes, the γ-glutamyl cycle, which can achieve intracellular glutathione concentrations of 1-10 millimolar. Because of the considerable quantity of brain glutathione and its rapid turnover, we hypothesized that glutathione may serve as a reservoir of neural glutamate. We quantified glutamate in HT22 hippocampal neurons, PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons after treatment with molecular inhibitors targeting three different enzymes of the glutathione metabolic cycle. Inhibiting 5-oxoprolinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, enzymes that liberate glutamate from glutathione, leads to decreases in glutamate. In contrast, inhibition of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase, which uses glutamate to synthesize glutathione, results in substantial glutamate accumulation. Increased glutamate levels following inhibition of glutathione synthesis temporally precede later effects upon oxidative stress. PMID:21539809

  8. Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn seed on gastro-duodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, Shalini; Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K

    2009-08-01

    Pongamia pinnata has been advocated in Ayurveda for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions and dyspepsia. The present work includes initial phytochemical screening and study of ulcer protective and healing effects of methanolic extract of seeds of P. pinnata (PPSM) in rats. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of flavonoids in PPSM. PPSM when administered orally (po) showed dose-dependent (12.5-50 mg/kg for 5 days) ulcer protective effects against gastric ulcer induced by 2 h cold restraint stress. Optimal effective dose of PPSM (25 mg/kg) showed antiulcerogenic activity against acute gastric ulcers (GU) induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin and duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine but not against ethanol-induced GU. It healed chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid when given for 5 and 10 days. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters of gastric offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) and defensive mucosal factors like mucin secretion and mucosal cell shedding, glycoproteins, proliferation and antioxidants; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels. PPSM tended to decrease acid output and increased mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins, while it decreased gastric mucosal cell shedding without any effect on cell proliferation. PPSM significantly reversed the increase in gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD levels caused by CRS near to the normal level while it tended to increase CAT and GSH level decreased by CRS and ethanol respectively. Thus, the ulcer protective effects of PPSM may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and the actions may be due to its effects both on mucosal offensive and defensive factors. PMID:19775071

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids in ileal effluent after consuming different foods containing microencapsulated fish oil powder - an ileostomy study.

    PubMed

    Sanguansri, Luz; Shen, Zhiping; Weerakkody, Rangika; Barnes, Mary; Lockett, Trevor; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LCPUFA), [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], after consuming fish oil gelatine capsules or different food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil, was determined using human ileostomates. The total amount of ω3 LCPUFA consumed per dose of fish oil capsule was 266 mg while that for fortified orange juice, yoghurt and cereal bar was 284 mg per serving of food product. In a time course experiment ω3 LCPUFA was measured in ileal effluent over 24 h post ingestion. Only 0.58-0.73% of the total ω3 LCPUFA dose was recovered in the ileal effluent irrespective of whether the fish oil was delivered in a gelatine capsule or in the form of a microencapsulated powder incorporated into fortified foods. Excretion of ω3 LCPUFA was detected in the 2-18 h effluent collections with none detected at 0 h or 24 h. post ingestion. The transit time of the minimal amount of ω3 LCPUFA that remained in the ileal effluent was dependent on the method of delivery of the fish oil. The ω3 LCPUFA content in the ileal effluent peaked at 2-8 h and declined after 10 h after consumption of fish oil capsules and fortified orange juice. In contrast, two peaks in ω3 LCPUFA content were observed in the ileal effluent, first at 2-8 h and again at 14-16 h, after consumption of fortified yoghurt and cereal bar. The highest recovery of the small amount of ω3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent at 14-16 h was obtained when fortified cereal bar was consumed. The results suggest that the delivery of fish oil through food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil does not compromise the bioavailability of the ω3 LCPUFA as evidence by no statistical differences detected in the remaining portion of ω3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent (p = 0.58). However, the food matrix in which the microencapsulated oil was delivered may alter the transit kinetics of the ω3 LCPUFA through the small intestine

  10. Microbiota and their role in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoecke, B; De Ryck, T; Stringer, A; Van de Wiele, T; Keefe, D

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis in patients undergoing cancer therapy is a significant problem. Its prevalence ranges between 20 and 100%, depending on treatment type and protocols and patient-based variables. Mucositis is self-limiting when uncomplicated by infection. Unfortunately, the incidence of developing a local or systemic infection during the course of the treatment is very high. At this stage, it is unclear which role oral microbiota play in the onset, duration, and severity of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, there is growing interest in this underexplored topic, and new studies are being undertaken to unravel their impact on the pathogenesis of mucositis. PMID:24456144