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1

Terminal ileal mucosal mast cells in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal ileal biopsies were prospectively obtained and stained specifically for mast cells in 20 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 15 controls. The number of terminal ileal mast cells per high powered field (MC\\/HPF) (mean ±SEM) was 23.3±3.1 for, IBS and 6.8±1.1 for controls (P=0.0001). The diarrhea IBS subgroup had the greatest number of MC\\/HPF. No correlation was found

Allan P. Weston; Wendy L. Biddle; Paramjit S. Bhatia; Philip B. Miner

1993-01-01

2

Ileal mucosal bile acid absorption is increased in Cftr knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Excessive loss of bile acids in stool has been reported in patients with cystic fibrosis. Some data suggest that a defect in mucosal bile acid transport may be the mechanism of bile acid malabsorption in these individuals. However, the molecular basis of this defect is unknown. This study examines the expression of the ileal bile acid transporter protein (IBAT)

Matthias Stelzner; Sivagurunathan Somasundaram; Sum P Lee; Rahul Kuver

2001-01-01

3

Endorectal ileoanal anastomosis with isoperistaltic ileal reservoir after colectomy and mucosal proctectomy.  

PubMed Central

Forty-nine patients with chronic ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapy and four with multiple polyposis have undergone total colectomy, mucosal protectomy, and endorectal ileal pull-through with ileoanal anastomosis at the UCLA Medical Center during the past 12 years (mean age, 19.4 years). Thirty-eight patients underwent second-stage closure of the ileostomy with construction of a side-to-side isoperistaltic ileal reservoir (mean, 6 months) after the ileal pullthrough operation. The anastomosis extended over a 20-30 cm distance and the lower end was placed within 6-8 cm of the ileonanal anastomosis. Transient reservoir inflammation, which occurred in half of the patients, was reduced by the use of oral metranidazole and was rarely found 6 months after operation. No patients died during the early or late post-operative periods. Cuff abscess in two patients and obstruction of the ileal reservoir outlet have required takedown of the reservoir (two patients) or temporary ileostomy (three patients). Of the 38 patients who have undergone lateral ileal reservoir construction, 33 have achieved a good to excellent result with complete continence and an average of five stools per 24 hours after 6 months. At least 12 patients now participate in competitive athletics; normal sexual activity has been achieved in all but one patient. Seven patients await construction of the reservoir. Although a technically difficult operation, the long-term results (mean, 19.4 months) indicate that the pullthrough operation is a good alternative to standard proctocolectomy. Images Fig. 1.

Fonkalsrud, E W

1984-01-01

4

Ileal mucosal bile acid absorption is increased in Cftr knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive loss of bile acids in stool has been reported in patients with cystic fibrosis. Some data suggest that a defect in mucosal bile acid transport may be the mechanism of bile acid malabsorption in these individuals. However, the molecular basis of this defect is unknown. This study examines the expression of the ileal bile acid transporter protein (IBAT) and rates of diffusional (sodium independent) and active (sodium dependent) uptake of the radiolabeled bile acid taurocholate in mice with targeted disruption of the cftr gene. Methods Wild-type, heterozygous cftr (+/-) and homozygous cftr (-/-) mice were studied. Five one-cm segments of terminal ileum were excised, everted and mounted onto thin stainless steel rods and incubated in buffer containing tracer 3H-taurocholate. Simultaneously, adjacent segments of terminal ileum were taken and processed for immunohistochemistry and Western blots using an antibody against the IBAT protein. Results In all ileal segments, taurocholate uptake rates were fourfold higher in cftr (-/-) and two-fold higher in cftr (+/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Passive uptake was not significantly higher in cftr (-/-) mice than in controls. IBAT protein was comparably increased. Immuno-staining revealed that the greatest increases occurred in the crypts of cftr (-/-) animals. Conclusions In the ileum, IBAT protein densities and taurocholate uptake rates are elevated in cftr (-/-) mice > cftr (+/-) > wild-type mice. These findings indicate that bile acid malabsorption in cystic fibrosis is not caused by a decrease in IBAT activity at the brush border. Alternative mechanisms are proposed, such as impaired bile acid uptake caused by the thick mucus barrier in the distal small bowel, coupled with a direct negative regulatory role for cftr in IBAT function.

Stelzner, Matthias; Somasundaram, Sivagurunathan; Lee, Sum P; Kuver, Rahul

2001-01-01

5

Independence of in vitro iron absorption from mucosal transferrin content in rat jejunal and ileal segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated non blood-perfused intestinal segments from normal and irondeficient rats were used in vitro. A modification of the luminal perfusion method according to Fisher and Parsons allowed the comparison of iron and transferrin quantities in the serosal fluid at 15 min intervals. Iron transfer in jejunal and ileal segments was directly proportional to the luminal iron concentration within a dose

K. Schtimann; K. Osterloh; W. Forth

1986-01-01

6

Chitosan-zinc chelate improves intestinal structure and mucosal function and decreases apoptosis in ileal mucosal epithelial cells in weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan (CS)-Zn on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function in weanling pigs. A total of 150 weanling barrows with a body weight of 7.2 kg were randomly allocated into five groups. A basal diet without Zn supplementation was used as the control and other four groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 50 or 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn, 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 and 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO, respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 28 d. The results showed that serum diamine oxidase activities, d-lactate levels and endotoxin contents were lower in pigs fed dietary 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control or 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnSO4 diet. The ratios of the villus height:crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were higher in pigs that received 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or a high level of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control diet. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL)-stained ileal epithelial cells were found in the control group, and apoptotic cells did not appear prominently in pigs that received the 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO diet. Secretory IgA concentration in ileal mucus was increased in the dietary group that received 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO. These results indicated that dietary 100 mg CS-Zn/kg had similar biological effects to dietary 3000 mg ZnO/kg on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function. PMID:24387792

Han, Xin-Yan; Ma, Yuan-Fei; Lv, Meng-Yuan; Wu, Zhi-Peng; Qian, Li-Chun

2014-04-28

7

Changes in the pig small intestinal mucosal glutathione kinetics after weaning.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) serves as a major endogenous antioxidant and its kinetics have been poorly described in the weaned pig. This study was to assess the effect of birth weight, sex, and days postweaning on the small intestine (SI) mucosal GSH kinetics. At weaning (18.8 ± 0.44 d) 34 pairs of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) and normal birth weight sex-matched littermates were selected and fed a starter diet ad libitum until 1 h before sampling at 0, 2, 5, 12 and 28 d postweaning. Mucosa was collected from 2 SI sites, at 5% and at 75% of total length, to determine GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasm GSH-Px and MDA. At both 5 and 75% of total length, the GSH-Px activity and GSH concentrations increased gradually with increasing days postweaning to peak at day 12 (P < 0.05). The GSH-Px activity and GSH concentrations at 5% of SI length were consistently higher as compared to 75% of SI length (e.g., at day 12, 43.2 and 28.9 units/mg protein and 21.5 and 15.4 ?mol/g protein, respectively). The GSSG:GSH ratio at 5% of total length was 2-fold higher at day 5 compared to all other days (P < 0.05), possibly indicating that the mucosal redox balance was disturbed in that time window. The higher GSH-Px activity, GSH content, and GSSG:GSH ratio in the proximal SI might illustrate the higher need for antioxidant action at that site. Plasma MDA and GSH-Px activity followed a comparable pattern as in the small intestine. PMID:23365379

Degroote, J; Michiels, J; Claeys, E; Ovyn, A; De Smet, S

2012-12-01

8

Glutathione depletion impairs transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.  

PubMed Central

When primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells were exposed to heat (43 degree C), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or diamide, heat shock proteins (HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and HSC73) were rapidly synthesized. The extent of each HSP induction varied with the type of stress. Ethanol, H2O2, and diamide increased the syntheses of several other undefined proteins besides the HSPs. However, none of these proteins were induced by exposure to heat or the reagents, when intracellular glutathione was depleted to <10% of the control level by pretreatment with DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine. Gel mobility shift assay using a synthetic oligonucleotide coding HSP70 heat shock element showed that glutathione depletion inhibited the heat- and the reagent-initiated activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and did not promote the expression of HSP70 mRNA. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum against HSF1 demonstrated that the steady-state level of HSF1 was not changed in glutathione-depleted cells, but glutathione depletion inhibited the nuclear translocation of HSF1 after exposure to heat stress. These results suggest that intracellular glutathione may support early and important biochemical events in the acquisition by gastric mucosal cells of an adaptive response to irritants.

Rokutan, K; Hirakawa, T; Teshima, S; Honda, S; Kishi, K

1996-01-01

9

[Mucositis].  

PubMed

Mucositis is a significant dose-limiting factor associated with cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For exact management, an early diagnosis and precise evaluation are surely required. A basis of the prevention and care of stomatitis is maintaining cleanliness and moisture in the mouth. The medical treatment plans of oral mucositis are a measure against infection, and prevention against symptoms, and are restoration of a tissue damage, and treatment to sharp pain. However, there is no still established prevention method. As for the present condition, in the clinical practice, there are many portions depending on experiential knowledge. In this paper, it outlined including Empiric therapy about measures of oral mucositis. PMID:12806943

Sato, Atsushi; Sakashita, Akiko; Taguchi, Susumu

2003-06-01

10

Glutathione  

PubMed Central

Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores.

Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H.

2011-01-01

11

Development of an enteric-coated formulation containing freeze-dried, viable recombinant Lactococcus lactis for the ileal mucosal delivery of human interleukin-10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant hIL-10 producing Lactococcus lactis (Thy12) looks a promising intestinal mucosal delivery system for treatment of Crohn's disease [L. Steidler, W. Hans, L. Schotte, S. Neirynck, F. Obermeirer, W. Falk, W. Fiers, E. Remaut, Treatment of murine colitis by L. lactis secreting interleukin-10, Science 289 (2000) 1352–1355. L. Steidler, S. Neirynck, N. Huyghebaert, V. Snoeck, A. Vermeire, B.M. Goddeeris, E.

Nathalie Huyghebaert; An Vermeire; Sabine Neirynck; Lothar Steidler; Erik Remaut; Jean Paul Remon

2005-01-01

12

[Ileal bladder replacement. Hautmann ileal neobladder].  

PubMed

In 1986, Hautmann and al. described the ileal neobladder as one of the first orthotopic bladder replacement which approached in configuration and function most closely the original organ. The association of the principles of a detubularized small bowel reservoir (Kock) and the anastomosis on the urethral stump with his sphincter give full functional satisfaction. After many modifications and simplifications since the prime description, especially of the ureteral implantation, the technique will be described in all details. PMID:15195577

de Petriconi, R

2004-04-01

13

Nicorandil-induced terminal ileal ulceration--a probable link.  

PubMed

Nicorandil, a commonly prescribed anti-anginal agent, has been reported to be associated with ulceration in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. A 68-year-old general practitioner presented with severe rectal bleeding and abdominal pain associated with terminal ileal ulceration diagnosed by colonoscopy. Capsule endoscopy revealed no other source of bleeding and CT was normal. Diclofenac and/or aspirin were assumed to be causative factors and discontinued. Aspirin was temporarily resumed then discontinued after a second massive, but self-limiting, haemorrhage and persistent abdominal pain. Repeat colonoscopy 5 weeks later confirmed that the previously documented terminal ileal ulceration had worsened. Histopathology was consistent with localised mucosal ischaemia. Nicorandil was withdrawn, after which no further episode of bleeding occurred and his pain settled. Repeat colonoscopy 3 months later confirmed complete healing. This report implicates nicorandil as a cause of terminal ileal ulceration leading to life-threatening rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. PMID:22751206

Swinscoe, Mark Thomas; Savani, Ramesh; Lobo, Alan J; Stephenson, Timothy J; Shorthouse, Andrew J

2010-01-01

14

Consequences of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Crohn's colitis are generally not considered candidates for the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). procedure. We reviewed 362 consecutive patients undergoing IPAA and analyzed the outcome of this procedure on 25 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of mucosal ulcerative colitis who were subsequently proven to have Crohn's disease. The mean follow-up was 38.1 months. Sixteen patients have a functioning

Neil H. Hyman; Victor W. Fazio; Wayne B. Tuckson; Ian C. Lavery

1991-01-01

15

[Ileal bladder substitute].  

PubMed

The history of urinary diversion in general began in 1852 and started right away with continent diversion, i.e., ureterosigmoidostomy. Anastomosing an intestinal reservoir to the urethra was proposed by Tizzoni and Foggi in 1888. They replaced the bladder by an isoperistaltic ileal segment which was interposed between ureters and urethra in a female dog. In 1951 Couvelaire reactivated this idea of an ileal bladder substitute. Retrospectively many disappointing results of urinary diversion were often not caused by insufficient competence of the outlet mechanism, but because the intestinal reservoir maintained its peristaltic properties causing high pressure peaks. The decisive advance in ensuring continence, and thus an improvement in patient comfort, was achieved with the so-called low pressure reservoir. The main characteristics of this reservoir compared to those from intact intestinal segments are the larger diameter, the greater capacity with significantly low pressures, and the uncoordinated contraction of its wall. Transsection of the circular intestinal musculature when performing bladder augmentation had already been published by Rutkowski in 1899, Tasker in 1953, and Giertz in 1957. In 1969, Kock published the first results obtained with an ileal continent fecal reservoir in patients after total proctocolectomy. The significant advantages of interrupting the tubular structure of a reservoir obtained from intestine had been described much earlier. The need for reflux prevention is not the same as in ureterosigmoidostomy conduit or continent diversion. Reflux prevention in neobladders is even less important than in a normal bladder. When using nonrefluxing techniques, the risk of obstruction is at least twice that after direct anastomosis. Kidney function is not impaired by diversion if stenosis is recognized and managed. Patient health status is influenced more by underlying disease than by diversion. Orthotopic reconstruction has passed the test of time. In these patients life is similar to that in individuals with a native lower urinary tract. Until a better solution is devised orthotopic bladder reconstruction remains the best option for patients requiring cystectomy. PMID:18210063

Hautmann, R E

2008-01-01

16

Fate of the pouch in 151 pediatric patients after ileal pouch anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) offers many pediatric patients a surgical cure for mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC) with preservation of anal continence. However, some patients incur serious problems after surgery including chronic pouchitis and pouch failure. The goal of this study is to identify clinical and pathologic factors that are associated with an adverse outcome of IPAA. Methods: A

Frederick Alexander; Samra Sarigol; John DiFiore; Anthony Stallion; Kathy Cotman; Holly Clark; Barb Lydzinski; Victor Fazio

2003-01-01

17

CT manifestations of ileal dysgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ileal dysgenesis is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology occurring in the distal ileum in the region of the vitelline\\u000a duct. The CT appearance of this lesion, although not previously described to our knowledge, is characteristic. We report a\\u000a patient with ileal dysgenesis who had an abdominal CT scan to evaluate chronic iron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy.\\u000a Recognition of

Amy P. Oberhelman; Thomas E. Herman; William H. McAlister; James P. Keating; Michael D. Rollins; Patrick A. Dillon

2007-01-01

18

Neurosecretory effect of ouabain on isolated rabbit ileal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Ouabain, when added to fluid bathing rabbit ileal mucosa mounted in a flux chamber, transiently increases short circuit current, implying a paradoxical secretory response. To determine the cause of this change, the authors studied unidirectional fluxes of /sup 36/Cl and /sup 23/Na and the effects of ion substitution, of reduced Ca concentration, verapamil, tetrodotoxin and atropine. Ouabain 0.1 mM, transiently increased the serosal to mucosal flux of Cl and Na, increased Isc and PD and reduced ion conductance. The Isc response to ouabain was diminished by reducing the bath fluid concentration of CL, of Ca, and by adding verapamil. Tetrodotoxin both delayed and reduced the maximal Isc response; atropine had no effect. They conclude that ouabain acts by releasing a neurotransmitter of unknown identity and by increasing the serosal to mucosal flux to Cl.

Hubel, K.A.; Renquist, K.S.

1988-01-01

19

Modified urethro-ileal anastomosis in the Studer ileal bladder.  

PubMed

Studer ileal bladder substitute is a low pressure reservoir anastomosed to the membranous urethra. Suitable length of mesentery is necessary to allow the ileal loop to reach the urethral stump. However, reconfiguration by double folding of the detubularized ileal segment tends to move the inferior portion of the pouch away from the membranous urethra making more difficult, if not impossible, the ileo-urethral anastomosis. In order to avoid this technical limitation, we suggest a reconfiguration of the lowest portion of the pouch into the shape of a 5-cm-long funnel, which permits the loop to approach the urethral stump and therefore facilitates the ileo-urethral anastomosis. This technique has been successfully employed in 10 patients. Eight of them have clinical, radiological and urodynamic follow-up. PMID:8312947

Carini, M; Serni, S; Lapini, A

1993-12-01

20

Bowel conservation in a case of giant jejuno-ileal duplication  

PubMed Central

The management of very long tubular bowel duplications poses a special challenge to even the most skilled surgeon. In these cases, mucosal stripping is usually employed. We report a novel case of a two-year-old boy, with 120 cm long jejuno-ileal duplication, wherein, bowel salvage was achieved, utilizing the Bianchi principle, originally described for bowel lengthening in cases of short bowel syndrome.

Sham, Minakshi; Phadke, Dileep; Singh, Dasmit

2010-01-01

21

Ileal pouch salvage following failed ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts have been made to salvage failed ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) performed for ulcerative colitis or familial\\u000a polyposis coli. These can be categorized as total reconstruction of the IPAA, partial transabdominal approach, and partial\\u000a transperineal approach. The aims of our study were to determine the overall success of pouch salvage; to examine the demographics,\\u000a indications, and outcomes for each approach;

Stephanie S. Saltzberg; Christine DiEdwardo; Thayer E. Scott; Wayne W. LaMorte; Arthur F. Stucchi; James M. Becker

1999-01-01

22

Oral Mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucositis is a common, painful, treatment-disrupting toxicity of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Patients with cancers\\u000a of the head and neck receiving radiation therapy with and without induction or concomitant chemotherapy, and individuals being\\u000a treated with high-dose chemotherapy regimens are at particularly high risk. Importantly, even patients receiving conventional\\u000a dosing schemes for other forms of cancer have a meaningful chance of

Nathaniel Treister

23

Mucosal immunology  

PubMed Central

In this review, we shall highlight some recent advances in mucosal immunology and also those concepts which seem to us to merit more attention than they normally receive. Since we cannot hope to be all inclusive, we recommend the following articles and books to the reader (Tomasi & Bienenstock, 1968; Tomasi & Grey, 1972; Bienenstock, 1974; Heremans, 1974; Mestecky & Lawton, 1974; Lamm, 1976; Tomasi, 1976; Waksman & Ozer, 1976; Porter & Knight, 1977; McGhee, Mestecky & Babb, 1978; Ogra & Dayton, 1979; Befus & Bienenstock, 1980).

Bienenstock, J.; Befus, A. D.

1980-01-01

24

Rare case of ileal perforation.  

PubMed

Ileitis, or inflammation of the ileum, is often caused by Crohn's disease. However, ileitis may be caused by a wide variety of other diseases. These include infectious diseases, spondyloarthropathies, vasculitides, ischemia, neoplasms, medication-induced, eosinophilic enteritis, and others. Eosinophilic enteritis can present as abdominal pain, protein loosing enteropathy, ulcers, intestinal obstruction, intussusception and perforation.Bowel perforation is an uncommon presentation of eosinophilic enteritis. We report a rare case of ileal perforation due to eosinophilic enteritis in a 57 years old female. PMID:23998095

Kumar B, Vinod; Martis, John Joseph S; Mathias, Sheldon G; Kamath, Priyatham; Shetty, Vivek

2013-07-01

25

Intestinal Lymphocyte Populations in Children with Regressive Autism: Evidence for Extensive Mucosal Immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory intestinal pathology has been reported in children with regressive autism (affected children). Detailed analysis of intestinal biopsies in these children indicates a novel lymphocytic enterocolitis with autoimmune features; however, links with cognitive function remain unclear. To characterize further, the nature and extent of this disease we examined the mucosal infiltrate using flow cytometry. Duodenal, ileal, and colonic biopsies were

Paul Ashwood; Andrew Anthony; Alicia A. Pellicer; Franco Torrente; John A. Walker-Smith; Andrew J. Wakefield

2003-01-01

26

Histopathological evaluation and risk factors related to the development of pouchitis in patients with ileal pouches for ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Many changes in mucosal morphology are observed following ileal pouch construction, including colonic metaplasia and dysplasia. Additionally, one rare but potential complication is the development of adenocarcinoma of the reservoir. The aim of this study was to evaluate the most frequently observed histopathological changes in ileal pouches and to correlate these changes with potential risk factors for complications. METHODS: A total of 41 patients were enrolled in the study and divided into the following three groups: a non-pouchitis group (group 1) (n?=?20; 8 males; mean age: 47.5 years) demonstrating optimal outcome; a pouchitis without antibiotics group (group 2) (n?=?14; 4 males; mean age: 47 years), containing individuals with pouchitis who did not receive treatment with antibiotics; and a pouchitis plus antibiotics group (group 3) (n?=?7; 3 males; mean age: 41 years), containing those patients with pouchitis who were administered antibiotics. Ileal pouch endoscopy was performed, and tissue biopsy samples were collected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: Colonic metaplasia was found in 15 (36.6%) of the 41 patients evaluated; of these, five (25%) were from group 1, eight (57.1%) were from group 2, and two (28.6%) were from group 3. However, no correlation was established between the presence of metaplasia and pouchitis (p?=?0.17). and no differences in mucosal atrophy or the degree of chronic or acute inflammation were observed between groups 1, 2, and 3 (p>0.45). Moreover, no dysplasia or neoplastic changes were detected. However, the degree of mucosal atrophy correlated well with the time of postoperative follow-up (p?=?0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of mucosal atrophy, the presence of colonic metaplasia, and the degree of acute or chronic inflammation do not appear to constitute risk factors for the development of pouchitis. Moreover, we observed that longer postoperative follow-up times were associated with greater degrees of mucosal atrophy.

de Godoy Arashiro, Roberta Thiery; Teixeira, Magaly Gemio; Rawet, Viviane; Quintanilha, Alina Guimaraes; Moura de Paula, Henrique; Silva, Adriano Zanon; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

2012-01-01

27

Host Responses to Persistent Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection in Surgically Isolated Bovine Ileal Segments  

PubMed Central

A lack of appropriate disease models has limited our understanding of the pathogenesis of persistent enteric infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A model was developed for the controlled delivery of a defined dose of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves. The stable intestinal segments enabled the characterization of host responses to persistent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections after a 9-month period, including an analysis of local mucosal immune responses relative to an adjacent uninfected intestinal compartment. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained localized at the initial site of intestinal infection and was not detected by PCR in the mesenteric lymph node. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T cell proliferative responses included both CD4 and ?? T cell receptor (??TcR) T cell responses in the draining mesenteric lymph node. The levels of CD8+ and ??TcR+ T cells increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lamina propria, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and gamma interferon secretion by lamina propria leukocytes was also significantly (P < 0.05) increased. There was a significant (P < 0.05) accumulation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria, but the expression of mucosal toll-like receptors 1 through 10 was not significantly changed by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. In conclusion, surgically isolated ileal segments provided a model system for the establishment of a persistent and localized enteric M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and facilitated the analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific changes in mucosal leukocyte phenotype and function. The accumulation of DC subpopulations in the lamina propria suggests that further investigation of mucosal DCs may provide insight into host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and improve vaccine strategies to prevent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.

Charavaryamath, Chandrashekhar; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Fries, Patrick; Gomis, Susantha; Doig, Kimberley; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Napper, Scott

2013-01-01

28

Mucosal dendritic cells shape mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases.

Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kweon, Mi-Na

2014-01-01

29

Ileal bladder augmentation combined with ileal ureter replacement in advanced urogenital tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We report a case of active tuberculosis associated with a right nonfunctioning kidney and nearly total loss of bladder capacity. Percutaneous nephrostomy and right nephroureterectomy were performed while the patient was undergoing triple drug therapy. Definitive surgical treatment consisted of ileal bladder augmentation and ileal ureter replacement. Normal urodynamics of the upper urinary tract and normal voiding with complete return of bladder capacity were achieved. Metabolic acidosis was treated successfully by sodium hydrogen carbonate. PMID:8158783

Carl, P; Stark, L

1994-05-01

30

Association of a Functional Variant in the Wnt Co-Receptor LRP6 with Early Onset Ileal Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Ileal Crohn's Disease (CD), a chronic small intestinal inflammatory disorder, is characterized by reduced levels of the antimicrobial peptides DEFA5 (HD-5) and DEFA6 (HD-6). Both of these ?-defensins are exclusively produced in Paneth cells (PCs) at small intestinal crypt bases. Different ileal CD–associated genes including NOD2, ATG16L1, and recently the ?-catenin–dependant Wnt transcription factor TCF7L2 have been linked to impaired PC antimicrobial function. The Wnt pathway influences gut mucosal homeostasis and PC maturation, besides directly controlling HD-5/6 gene expression. The herein reported candidate gene study focuses on another crucial Wnt factor, the co-receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). We analysed exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large cohort (Oxford: n?=?1,893) and prospectively tested 2 additional European sample sets (Leuven: n?=?688, Vienna: n?=?1,628). We revealed an association of a non-synonymous SNP (rs2302685; Ile1062Val) with early onset ileal CD (OR 1.8; p?=?0.00034; for homozygous carriers: OR 4.1; p?=?0.00004) and additionally with penetrating ileal CD behaviour (OR 1.3; p?=?0.00917). In contrast, it was not linked to adult onset ileal CD, colonic CD, or ulcerative colitis. Since the rare variant is known to impair LRP6 activity, we investigated its role in patient mucosa. Overall, LRP6 mRNA was diminished in patients independently from the genotype. Analysing the mRNA levels of PC product in biopsies from genotyped individuals (15 controls, 32 ileal, and 12 exclusively colonic CD), we found particularly low defensin levels in ileal CD patients who were carrying the variant. In addition, we confirmed a direct relationship between LRP6 activity and the transcriptional expression of HD-5 using transient transfection. Taken together, we identified LRP6 as a new candidate gene in ileal CD. Impairments in Wnt signalling and Paneth cell biology seem to represent pathophysiological hallmarks in small intestinal inflammation and should therefore be considered as interesting targets for new therapeutic approaches.

Koslowski, Maureen J.; Teltschik, Zora; Beisner, Julia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Wang, Guoxing; Kubler, Irmgard; Gersemann, Michael; Cooney, Rachel; Jewell, Derek; Reinisch, Walter; Vermeire, Severine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Schwab, Matthias; Stange, Eduard F.; Wehkamp, Jan

2012-01-01

31

Association of a functional variant in the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 with early onset ileal Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Ileal Crohn's Disease (CD), a chronic small intestinal inflammatory disorder, is characterized by reduced levels of the antimicrobial peptides DEFA5 (HD-5) and DEFA6 (HD-6). Both of these ?-defensins are exclusively produced in Paneth cells (PCs) at small intestinal crypt bases. Different ileal CD-associated genes including NOD2, ATG16L1, and recently the ?-catenin-dependant Wnt transcription factor TCF7L2 have been linked to impaired PC antimicrobial function. The Wnt pathway influences gut mucosal homeostasis and PC maturation, besides directly controlling HD-5/6 gene expression. The herein reported candidate gene study focuses on another crucial Wnt factor, the co-receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). We analysed exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large cohort (Oxford: n?=?1,893) and prospectively tested 2 additional European sample sets (Leuven: n?=?688, Vienna: n?=?1,628). We revealed an association of a non-synonymous SNP (rs2302685; Ile1062Val) with early onset ileal CD (OR 1.8; p?=?0.00034; for homozygous carriers: OR 4.1; p?=?0.00004) and additionally with penetrating ileal CD behaviour (OR 1.3; p?=?0.00917). In contrast, it was not linked to adult onset ileal CD, colonic CD, or ulcerative colitis. Since the rare variant is known to impair LRP6 activity, we investigated its role in patient mucosa. Overall, LRP6 mRNA was diminished in patients independently from the genotype. Analysing the mRNA levels of PC product in biopsies from genotyped individuals (15 controls, 32 ileal, and 12 exclusively colonic CD), we found particularly low defensin levels in ileal CD patients who were carrying the variant. In addition, we confirmed a direct relationship between LRP6 activity and the transcriptional expression of HD-5 using transient transfection. Taken together, we identified LRP6 as a new candidate gene in ileal CD. Impairments in Wnt signalling and Paneth cell biology seem to represent pathophysiological hallmarks in small intestinal inflammation and should therefore be considered as interesting targets for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22393312

Koslowski, Maureen J; Teltschik, Zora; Beisner, Julia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Wang, Guoxing; Kübler, Irmgard; Gersemann, Michael; Cooney, Rachel; Jewell, Derek; Reinisch, Walter; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Schwab, Matthias; Stange, Eduard F; Wehkamp, Jan

2012-01-01

32

Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity  

PubMed Central

Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect.

2013-01-01

33

Site and mechanisms of action of kinins in rat ileal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Kinin-induced secretion in the intestine is accompanied by marked increases in mucosal adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and prostanoids that undoubtedly contribute to the overall secretory responses. The authors have investigated the effects of kallidin on the phospholipase-prostanoid-cAMP pathway in whole ileal mucosa and in epithelial cells isolated from the same tissue in the rat. Kallidin (1 ..mu..M) stimulated a marked rise in PG (prostaglandin) E/sub 2/ release from the serosal surface of stripped ileal mucosa within 1-2 min, which correlated closely with the rise in mucosal short-circuit current. Mucosal cAMP levels were also increased two to threefold by kallidin. However, kinins were unable to elicit effects under the same conditions in suspensions of viable epithelial cells. PGE/sub 2/ release was unaffected by kallidin or bradykinin at concentrations up to 100 ..mu..M, whereas cAMP levels could be stimulated by forskolin and PGE/sub 2/ but not by kinin. Studies of intestinal phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) activity also suggest a nonepithelial site for kinin action. In the intestine, PLA/sub 2/ activity was found to be concentrated within the subepithelium with significantly lower levels in the epithelium itself. In addition, kallidin was unable to influence phospholipid labeling (an indirect measure of PLA/sub 2/ activity) in cells incubated with (/sup 14/C) arachidonic acid. These studies suggest that kinins initiate increases in intestinal prostaglandin and cAMP production within the subepithelium and not by a direct action on epithelial cells.

Warhurst, G.; Lees, M.; Higgs, N.B.; Turnberg, L.A.

1987-03-01

34

Isolated ileal bezoar causing small bowel obstruction  

PubMed Central

Bezoars are a mass of ingested foreign materials commonly found in stomach in patients with psychiatric problems or history of gastric surgery. Bezoars are classified based on their composition. Frequently encountered are trichobezoars and phytobezoars composed of hair and fibres of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Primary small-bowel bezoars are a rarity and are essentially encountered in patients having small-bowel diseases such as diverticuli, strictures or tumours. Ileal bezoar leading to intestinal obstruction in absence of parent bezoar in stomach is very rare and so we present a case report here. The diagnosis was made on CT scan in which the cause was found to be an ileal bezoar. Surgical resection of the involved segment was performed and diagnosis confirmed on histopathological examination.

Shah, Dharita; Desai, Aditi Bhagirath

2012-01-01

35

Ileoileal Intussusception Secondary to an Ileal Fibroma  

PubMed Central

Intussusception is defined as the telescoping of a segment of the gastrointestinal tract (intussusceptum) into an immediately adjacent distal bowel (intussuscipiens). Intussusception is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults. Unlike in children, a lead point is present in 90% of adult cases. The most common causes of small bowel intussusception are benign, usually hamartomas, lipomas, inflammatory polyps, adenomas and leiomyomas, in contrast to the large intestine where malignant tumors, usually adenocarcinomas, are more common. The clinical presentation of adult intussusception is non-specific with variable manifestations, predominantly those of intestinal obstruction, often making the diagnosis a challenge. The onset of symptoms may be acute, intermittent or chronic. We present a rare case of an ileal fibroma presenting with intussusception. A 43-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a history of recurrent abdominal pain. The clinical presentation and CT scan findings led to the diagnosis of ileoileal intussusception. Subsequently she underwent laparotomy which revealed an ileal fibroma as the lead point of the intussusception. Surgical exploration remains essential for diagnosis and treatment since in the majority of cases a pathologic lead point is identified. Ileal fibroma is an uncommon benign neoplasm of the small bowel and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for small bowel intussusception.

Chelimilla, Haritha; Ihimoyan, Ariyo; Carvajal, Simeon; Bhavna, Balar

2012-01-01

36

The ileal brake--inhibition of jejunal motility after ileal fat perfusion in man.  

PubMed Central

The possibility that malabsorbed fat passing through the human ileum exerts an inhibitory feedback control on jejunal motility has been investigated in 24 normal subjects by perfusing the ileum with a fat containing solution designed to produce ileal luminal fat concentrations similar to those in steatorrhoea (30-40 mg/ml). Mean transit times through a 30 cm saline perfused jejunal segment were measured by a dye dilution technique. Thirty minutes after ileal fat perfusion, mean transit times rose markedly to 18.9 +/- 2.5 minutes from a control value of 7.5 +/- 0.9 minutes (n = 5; p less than 0.05). This was associated with an increase in volume of the perfused segment which rose to 175.1 +/- 22.9 ml (control 97.6 +/- 10.3 ml, n = 5; p less than 0.05). Transit times and segmental volumes had returned towards basal values 90 minutes after completing the fat perfusion. Further studies showed that ileal fat perfusion produced a pronounced inhibition of jejunal pressure wave activity, percentage duration of activity falling from a control level of 40.3 +/- 5.0% to 14.9 +/- 2.8% in the hour after ileal perfusion (p less than 0.01). Ileal fat perfusion was associated with marked rises in plasma enteroglucagon and neurotensin, the peak values (218 +/- 37 and 68 +/- 13.1 pmol/l) being comparable with those observed postprandially in coeliac disease. These observations show the existence in man of an inhibitory intestinal control mechanism, whereby ileal fat perfusion inhibits jejunal motility and delays caudal transit of jejunal contents.

Spiller, R C; Trotman, I F; Higgins, B E; Ghatei, M A; Grimble, G K; Lee, Y C; Bloom, S R; Misiewicz, J J; Silk, D B

1984-01-01

37

RpoS Controls the Vibrio cholerae Mucosal Escape Response  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae causes a severe diarrhoeal disease by secreting a toxin during colonization of the epithelium in the small intestine. Whereas the initial steps of the infectious process have been intensively studied, the last phases have received little attention. Confocal microscopy of V. cholerae O1-infected rabbit ileal loops captured a distinctive stage in the infectious process: 12 h post-inoculation, bacteria detach from the epithelial surface and move into the fluid-filled lumen. Designated the “mucosal escape response,” this phenomenon requires RpoS, the stationary phase alternative sigma factor. Quantitative in vivo localization assays corroborated the rpoS phenotype and showed that it also requires HapR. Expression profiling of bacteria isolated from ileal loop fluid and mucus demonstrated a significant RpoS-dependent upregulation of many chemotaxis and motility genes coincident with the emigration of bacteria from the epithelial surface. In stationary phase cultures, RpoS was also required for upregulation of chemotaxis and motility genes, for production of flagella, and for movement of bacteria across low nutrient swarm plates. The hapR mutant produced near-normal numbers of flagellated cells, but was significantly less motile than the wild-type parent. During in vitro growth under virulence-inducing conditions, the rpoS mutant produced 10- to 100-fold more cholera toxin than the wild-type parent. Although the rpoS mutant caused only a small over-expression of the genes encoding cholera toxin in the ileal loop, it resulted in a 30% increase in fluid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Together, these results show that the mucosal escape response is orchestrated by an RpoS-dependent genetic program that activates chemotaxis and motility functions. This may furthermore coincide with reduced virulence gene expression, thus preparing the organism for the next stage in its life cycle.

Otto, Glen; Miller, Michael C; Wu, Cheng Yen; Schoolnik, Gary K

2006-01-01

38

GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders.

Lu, Shelly C.

2012-01-01

39

Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches.

Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L.; Dexheimer, Phillip J.; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N.; Noe, Joshua D.; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B.; Griffiths, Anne M.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Mack, David R.; Baker, Susan S.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D.; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A.

2014-01-01

40

Meckel's diverticulum associated with ileal volvulus in a neonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum (MD) may manifest as an intestinal obstruction secondary to a volvulus. We describe a case of a meconium-impacted MD associated with inflammatory adhesions to adjacent viscera that presented as an intestinal obstruction in a 4-h-old infant secondary to an ileal volvulus with resultant infarction of the diverticulum and ileal segment.

E. D. Sy; Y. S. Shan; H. M. Tsai; C. Lin

2002-01-01

41

Comparison of Ileal Conduit and Transureteroureterostomy with Ureterocutaneostomy Urinary Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We compare the postoperative early and late complications of patients who had undergone ileal conduit (IC) urinary diversion and transureteroureterostomy (TUU) with ureterocutaneostomy (UC) urinary diversion during the same interval and by the same surgeons. Materials and Methods: Between 1992 and 2004, we performed TUU with UC urinary diversion in 27 men and 7 women (group I) and ileal

Mete Kilciler; Selahattin Bedir; Fikret Erdemir; Nazif Zeybek; Koray Erten; Yasar Ozgok

2006-01-01

42

Mucosal Lactobacillus vectored vaccines.  

PubMed

Traditional non-gastrointestinal vaccines can prevent effectively the invasion of pathogens; however, these vaccines are less effective against mucosal infections because there is not a sufficient immune response at the mucosa. Most pathogens invade via a mucosal pathway (oral, intranasal, or vaginal). It is widely accepted that Lactobacillus species play a critical role as commensals in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Their ability to survive in the digestive tract, their close association with the intestinal epithelium, their immunomodulatory properties and their safety even when consumed in large amounts make lactobacilli attractive candidates for live vehicles for the delivery of immunogens to the intestinal mucosa. The oral or intranasal administration of Lactobacillus-based vaccines is a promising method to control mucosal infection because these vaccines could induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses both in the blood and at mucosal sites. PMID:23322214

Yu, Qinghua; Zhu, Liqi; Kang, Haihong; Yang, Qian

2013-04-01

43

New frontiers in mucositis.  

PubMed

Mucositis is among the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted anticancer therapy. Research continues to escalate regarding key issues such as etiopathology, incidence and severity across different mucosae, relationships between mucosal and nonmucosal toxicities, and risk factors. This approach is being translated into enhanced management strategies. Recent technology advances provide an important foundation for this continuum. For example, evolution of applied genomics is fostering development of new algorithms to rapidly screen genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for patient-associated risk prediction. This modeling will permit individual tailoring of the most effective, least toxic treatment in the future. The evolution of novel cancer therapeutics is changing the mucositis toxicity profile. These agents can be associated with unique mechanisms of mucosal damage. Additional research is needed to optimally manage toxicity caused by agents such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, without reducing antitumor effect. There has similarly been heightened attention across the health professions regarding clinical practice guidelines for mucositis management in the years following the first published guidelines in 2004. New opportunities exist to more effectively interface this collective guideline portfolio by capitalizing upon novel technologies such as an Internet-based Wiki platform. Substantive progress thus continues across many domains associated with mucosal injury in oncology patients. In addition to enhancing oncology patient care, these advances are being integrated into high-impact educational and scientific venues including the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ) portfolio as well as a new Gordon Research Conference on mucosal health and disease scheduled for June 2013. PMID:24451793

Peterson, Douglas E; Keefe, Dorothy M; Sonis, Stephen T

2012-01-01

44

Gastric mucosal nerve density  

PubMed Central

Background: Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent diagnosis for the gastrointestinal symptoms or postural hypotension experienced by patients with longstanding diabetes. However, neuropathologic evidence to substantiate the diagnosis is limited. We hypothesized that quantification of nerves in gastric mucosa would confirm the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from the stomach antrum and fundus were obtained during endoscopy from 15 healthy controls and 13 type 1 diabetic candidates for pancreas transplantation who had secondary diabetic complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, including a diagnosis of gastroparesis. Neurologic status was evaluated by neurologic examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy. Biopsies were processed to quantify gastric mucosal nerves and epidermal nerves. Results: Gastric mucosal nerves from diabetic subjects had reduced density and abnormal morphology compared to control subjects (p < 0.05). The horizontal and vertical meshwork pattern of nerve fibers that normally extends from the base of gastric glands to the basal lamina underlying the epithelial surface was deficient in diabetic subjects. Eleven of the 13 diabetic patients had residual food in the stomach after overnight fasting. Neurologic abnormalities on clinical examination were found in 12 of 13 diabetic subjects and nerve conduction studies were abnormal in all patients. The epidermal nerve fiber density was deficient in skin biopsies from diabetic subjects. Conclusions: In this observational study, gastric mucosal nerves were abnormal in patients with type 1 diabetes with secondary complications and clinical evidence of gastroparesis. Gastric mucosal biopsy is a safe, practical method for histologic diagnosis of gastric autonomic neuropathy.

Selim, M.M.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Redmon, J.B.; Khoruts, A.; Hodges, J.S.; Koch, K.; Walk, D.; Kennedy, W.R.

2010-01-01

45

Heterotopic Pancreas Leading to Ileo-Ileal Intussusception  

PubMed Central

A heterotopic pancreas as the lead point of ileo-ileal intussusception is extremely rare. A 12-year-old previously healthy boy, presented to the emergency room with the complaint of severe abdominal pain for the last 6-8 hours. A preoperative diagnosis of ileo-ileal intussusception was made on ultrasound and an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done. At laparotomy an ileo-ileal intussusception was found and a polyp noted as a lead point. On histopathology this polyp was found to be heterotopic pancreas.

Ratan, KN; Rani, Babita; Tina

2012-01-01

46

Reproduction of porcine proliferative enteropathy with pure cultures of ileal symbiont intracellularis.  

PubMed

Porcine proliferative enteropathy is consistently associated with the presence of intracellular curved bacteria in epithelial cells in affected portions of intestine. Two strains of these intracellular bacteria were cultured in a cell culture system with rat enterocytes (IEC-18) and passaged several times and used as oral inocula for 14 gnotobiotic and 8 conventional pigs. DNA and immunological studies had identified these bacteria as belonging to a new taxon, Ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis. Conventional pigs dosed with approximately 3.7 x 10(6) of these organisms passaged six times in cell culture developed severe lesions of proliferative enteropathy in the ileum. Other conventional pigs dosed with a lower titer or with organisms passaged 13 times developed moderate and minor lesions, respectively. All gnotobiotic pigs dosed with organisms failed to develop lesions. Control pigs, eight conventional and two gnotobiotic, dosed with diluent, uninfected cell material or left undosed failed to develop lesions also. Reisolation of IS intracellularis and demonstration of the organism in mucosal and fecal samples only occurred in conventional pigs dosed with organisms. Gnotobiotic pigs lacking a normal intestinal flora have not been shown to be colonized by the organism. Seroconversion to IS intracellularis or mucosal infiltration by inflammatory cells was not observed in experimentally affected pigs, confirming the weak immune response characteristic of the natural disease. These results support the identification of IS intracellularis as an etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy in pigs. PMID:8406817

McOrist, S; Jasni, S; Mackie, R A; MacIntyre, N; Neef, N; Lawson, G H

1993-10-01

47

Adult idiopathic jejuno-ileal intussusception.  

PubMed

This 67-year-old woman, with numerous previous abdominal operations, presented to her general practitioner 3 years ago with generalised abdominal pain and diarrhoea. With unremarkable haematology tests and a CT scan at that time she was given the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. During the next 3 years her symptoms continued intermittently and now associated with vomiting and weight loss. This time both a barium follow-through followed by a CT scan demonstrated a small bowel intussusception. A laparotomy was done but surprisingly no intussusception was found, only a single adhesional band which was divided. She was discharged 5-days postoperative but re-admitted 3 days later with abdominal discomfort, bloating and vomiting. A repeat CT scan again showed the presence of a small bowel intussusception and a second laparotomy was performed, this time demonstrating a jejuno-ileal intussusception which was reduced and resected with primary anastomosis. Her postoperative course was without incidents. PMID:22798512

Nkwam, N; Desai, A; Radley, S

2010-01-01

48

[Ileal carcinoid tumors. Value of small intestine transit].  

PubMed

The authors describe two personnel observations of ileal carcinoid tumors, demonstrated by double contrast small bowel examination. Confirmation came from operation and histology. Small bowel examination can demonstrate limited carcinoid tumors giving no angiographic traduction. PMID:6876015

Mugel-Riwer, B; Bersani, D; Mugel, J L

1983-05-01

49

Endoscopic Mucosal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a promising therapeutic option for removal of superficial carcinomas or premalignant lesions throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This review discusses indications and the several techniques of EMR in early tumors of esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and colon. EMR is not yet widely utilized in the West. However, great benefits may be obtained from this non-invasive technique after

Massimo Conio; Thierry Ponchon; Sabrina Blanchi; Rosangela Filiberti

2006-01-01

50

Carcinoma and the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 362 patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 12 (five with chronic ulcerative colitis and seven with familial adenomatous polyposis) had 16 associated carcinomas. Incidental carcinoma was found in four patients who had undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, six patients had known carcinoma, and carcinoma was suspected in two patients with high-grade dysplasia. No tumor was Stage C or D. After a

Othon Wiltz; Hasan F. Hashmi; David J. Schoetz; Patricia L. Roberts; John J. Murray; John A. Coller; Malcolm C. Veidenheimer

1991-01-01

51

Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients With Ileal Pouches.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) following total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has been increasingly recognized over the past 5 years. CDI of the ileal pouch has been recognized in ?10% of symptomatic patients seen at a tertiary referral center for pouch dysfunction. In contrast to colonic CDI in the general population or in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, postoperative antibiotic exposure and the use of immunosuppressive agents or proton pump inhibitors do not appear to be associated with CDI of the pouch. Male gender, recent hospitalization, and presurgery antibiotic use were shown to be risk factors for ileal pouch CDI. The ileal pouch may be susceptible to CDI owing to similarities with the colon at physiological and structural levels. Postcolectomy CDI likely represents a spectrum of disease processes, varying from asymptomatic colonization to severe symptomatic infection. CDI should be considered in any patient with an ileal pouch presenting with a change in "normal" symptom pattern or treatment-refractory disease. Sensitive and specific methods for the detection of CDI are available, and pouchoscopy is a valuable tool in the evaluation of the patient with symptomatic CDI of the pouch. At a referral center for pouch dysfunction, vancomycin is used as the first-line therapy for ileal pouch CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation may find use in the management of severe or antibiotic refractory CDI-related pouchitis. PMID:24989088

Seril, Darren N; Shen, Bo

2014-07-01

52

Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Protects against Increase in Gut Permeability ex vivo and Up-Regulates Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and 2 in Hyperthermally-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + ?-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress.

Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

2014-01-01

53

Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + ?-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress. PMID:24962481

Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

2014-06-01

54

Ileal flows and apparent ileal digestibility of fatty acids in growing gilts fed flaxseed containing diets.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to quantify the ileal flow and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of fatty acids (FA) in growing gilts fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal based diets without (CON) or with ground flaxseed (FS). A total of 20 healthy purebred Yorkshire female pigs, weighing approximately 25 kg BW, were allotted to 1 of 3 feeding regimens: R1 (n = 5 pigs), feeding a diet containing 10% FS between 25 and 50 kg BW and CON diet thereafter, R2 (n = 10 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 85 kg BW and a diet containing 6% FS thereafter, and R3 (n = 5 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 110 kg BW. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to assess AID and ileal flows of crude fat and FA. At 110 kg BW, pigs were slaughtered and representative digesta samples were obtained from the distal ileum. Ileal flows and AID of crude fat and individual FA did not differ (P > 0.10) between R1 and R3, and therefore, results from these 2 feeding regimens were combined to give 2 dietary treatments (CON and FS). There were no treatment effects on AID of crude fat and the sum of all FA, SFA, or MUFA. However, the AID of individual SFA decreased with chain length (linear; P < 0.05) for both FS and CON. The AID of myristic acid (14:0), individual trans-18:1 FA (6t-8t-18:1 to 12t-18:1), myristoleic acid (9c-14:1), and palmitoleic acid (9c-16:1) were greater for CON than FS (P < 0.05) whereas no diet effect was observed for the AID of linoleic acid (18:2n-6; 80.2 and 86.1% for FS and CON, respectively) and ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; 86.7 and 89.8% for FS and CON, respectively). Ileal flows of rumenic acid (9c11t-CLA), n-3 PUFA, and highly unsaturated FA (HUFA; arachidonic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) exceeded their intakes, indicating net appearance of these FA in the upper gut of the pig. It remains to be determined whether enteric microbiota can elongate and desaturate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 and isomerize 18:2n-6. The contribution of endogenous FA losses from the host to the ileal flow of these FA should also be considered. Further studies are needed to quantify production of CLA isomers and PUFA in the small intestine of pigs, specifically the n-3 HUFA, and to assess their contribution to the FA supply of the host. PMID:23478834

Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Kramer, J K G; de Lange, C F M

2013-06-01

55

[Obscure digestive bleeding by ileal carcinoid tumor].  

PubMed

The patient is an 82 year-old female with a history of osteoarthritis, hypothyroidism and anemia for 14 years (receiving blood transfusions). She was admited to our hospital with a nine months history of malaise, anorexia, fatigue and weakness, associated with intermitten episodes of abdominal pain. She was diagnosed anemia and occult blood positive stools. Physical examination revealed a patient in generally fair condition, obese, with mild edema of lower limbs, no changes in the evaluation of chest, cardiovascular, abdomen, etc. Laboratory data was unremarkable, except for iron deficiency anemia. The upper endoscopy showed duodenal ulcer scar, fundic polyposis and chronic gastritis. Colonoscopy revealed some diverticula, a small sessile polyp and internal hemorrhoids. The diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was made. The CT scan of the abdomen showed gallstones and fatty liver; a radiograph of intestinal transit detected a lesion apparently protruded intestinal loop for distal jejunum; enteroscopy was performed (with one team ball) anterograde and retrograde achieving assess distal jejunum and distal ileum without observing any injuries. The study of capsule endoscopy showed a polypoid tumor intestinal with evidence of having bleeding. Surgery detected the tumor in proximal ileum. The surgical specimen findings showed three tumors 0.7 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm on the proximal ileum. The microscopic examination revealed that these lesions were neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid). The Ileal carcinoid tumor may rarely presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:21544161

Nelly Manrique, María; Frisancho, Oscar; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Palomino, Américo; Rodriguez, César

2011-01-01

56

Glutathione transferases: new functions.  

PubMed

Well known as detoxification enzymes, the glutathione transferases also function in prostaglandin and steroid hormone synthesis. New uses for the canonical glutathione transferase fold are becoming apparent; the bacterial stringent starvation protein SspA and the yeast prion protein Ure2p (both transcription factors) were found to adopt this fold, but their roles remain unclear. The intracellular chloride ion channel CLIC1 adopts the canonical glutathione transferase fold in its soluble form and appears to undergo radical structural modification as part of its membrane insertion process. The structures of rat and human mitochondrial glutathione transferases have been solved: they adopt a topology similar to that of bacterial disulfide bond isomerases, leading to the suggestion that they have evolved independently of the canonical enzymes. Recent structural studies of integral membrane glutathione S-transferases from microsomes have revealed common patterns of tertiary and quaternary structure. PMID:16263269

Oakley, Aaron J

2005-12-01

57

Local regulation of postprandial motor responses in ileal pouches  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Local mechanisms are involved in the postprandial regulation of ileal tone in healthy subjects, but whether these mechanisms affect the postprandial tonic response of ileal pouches has not yet been investigated.?AIMS—To study the effect of a meal on pouch tone and phasic motor activity in patients with gut continuity or ileostomy and, in the latter group, the effect of a pouch perfusion with chyme or saline.?PATIENTS—Twenty patients with ileal pouches: 10 with gut continuity and 10 with ileostomy.?METHODS—Pouch tone and the frequency of phasic volume events were recorded with a barostat under fasting and postprandial conditions and after perfusion of the isolated pouch with chyme or saline.?RESULTS—The meal increased pouch tone and the frequency of phasic volume events in the patients with gut continuity, but not in those with ileostomy. Pouch perfusion with chyme induced a greater increase in pouch tone than saline.?CONCLUSIONS—The meal stimulated pouch tone and phasic motor activity. These effects were at least partially related to local pouch stimulation by intraluminal contents.???Keywords: ileal pouches; postprandial motor responses; ileal tone; ileostomy; motor activity; barostat

Mularczyk, A; Contessini-Avesan..., E; Cesana, B; Bianchi, P; Basilisco, G

1999-01-01

58

Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.  

PubMed

Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group (P = 0.033), whereas it reduced (P = 0.027) fecal n-butyrate concentration. Pectin infusion reduced (P = 0.005) ileal gene copy number of the C. leptum cluster. In conclusion, ileal bacterial populations and fermentation patterns are susceptible to changes in the intestinal availability of Ca and P as well as to the supply of pectin as a fermentable substrate. Greater intestinal Ca availability decreased the numbers of some gram-positive bacteria, whereas greater P availability in the small intestine caused by phytase activity enhanced the growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria. PMID:19820063

Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

2010-01-01

59

Tracking (Poly)phenol Components from Raspberries in Ileal Fluid.  

PubMed

The (poly)phenols in ileal fluid after ingestion of raspberries were analyzed by targeted and nontargeted LC-MS(n) approaches. Targeted approaches identified major anthocyanin and ellagitannin components at varying recoveries and with considerable interindividual variation. Nontargeted LC-MS(n) analysis using an orbitrap mass spectrometer gave exact mass MS data which were sifted using a software program to select peaks that changed significantly after supplementation. This method confirmed the recovery of the targeted components but also identified novel raspberry-specific metabolites. Some components (including ellagitannin and previously unidentified proanthocyanidin derivatives) may have arisen from raspberry seeds that survived intact in ileal samples. Other components include potential breakdown products of anthocyanins, unidentified components, and phenolic metabolites formed either in the gut epithelia or after absorption into the circulatory system and efflux back into the gut lumen. The possible physiological roles of the ileal metabolites in the large bowel are discussed. PMID:24998385

McDougall, Gordon J; Conner, Sean; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Gonzalez-Barrio, Rocio; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Moffet, Tanya; Ibars, Maria; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

2014-07-30

60

Canada's first robotic-assisted totally intracorporeal orthotopic ileal neobladder  

PubMed Central

Despite robotic-assisted radical cysto-prostatectomy being performed in several centres, the urinary diversion is most often performed extra-corporeal. A robotic intra-corporeal ileal neobladder is technically demanding and long-term functional outcome data is lacking. We performed a robotic intra-corporeal ileal neobladder in a 73-year-old man for muscle invasive non-metastatic bladder cancer. The total operative time was 6 hours 8 minutes. The estimated blood loss was 900 mL. There were no complications and he was discharged on day 12. The principles of open neobladder surgery were maintained, however key modifications were used to reduce technical difficulty and enable timely completion. We found that robotic intracorporeal ileal neobladder can be safely performed with an experienced robotic unit.

Haddad, Richard L.; Richard, Patrick; Bladou, Franck

2013-01-01

61

Acquired ileal atresia induced by adhesive intestinal obstruction.  

PubMed

Three female infants, aged 13, 7 and 18 mo respectively with acquired ileal atresia induced by adhesive small bowel obstruction are reported. Case 1 was diagnosed with urachal cyst and cyst excision was performed when she was 7-mo-old. Case 2 was diagnosed with mesenteric cyst and cyst excision was performed by laparoscopic-assisted procedure when she was 3-mo-old. Case 3 had no history of abdominal operation previously. At laparotomy ileal atresia induced by adhesive band was found. PMID:24248986

Bing, Li; Wei-Bing, Chen; Shou-Qing, Wang; Ye-Bo, Wang

2014-05-01

62

A rare case of ileal metastasis from cervical cancer.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 70-year-old woman, with a history ofradiation-treated and surgically- resected cervical cancer, whowas admitted to our clinic for intermittent subocclusivesymptoms. CT scan revealed a liver nodule and intestinalobstruction. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected liver metastasis and resolution of intestinal obstruction.Intraoperatively an ileal tumour was found to be thecause of the obstruction. Anatomo-pathological findings wereconsistent with an ileal metastasis from the cervical cancer.The liver nodule was only an area of focal steatosis. PMID:24956346

Iliescu, L; David, L; Orban, C; Herlea, V; Toma, L

2014-01-01

63

Ileal Atresia with Meconium Peritonitis: Fetal MRI Evaluation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of ileal atresia with meconium peritonitis evaluated by fetal MRI. Prenatal ultrasounds in the third trimester initially demonstrated a cystic abdominal mass that resolved with development of dilated bowel loops. Fetal MRI at 32 weeks gestation identified a perihepatic collection with several dilated small bowel loops and normal sized meconium filled rectosigmoid consistent with distal bowel perforation and loculated meconium peritonitis. Following delivery, the infant presented with bowel obstruction. Contrast enema revealed a normal sized rectosigmoid with small ascending and transverse colon. A distal ileal atresia type IIIa was documented at surgery.

Degnan, Andrew J.; Bulas, Dorothy I.; Sze, Raymond W.

2010-01-01

64

Endoscopic hemostasis for hemorrhage from an ileal diverticulum.  

PubMed

Hemorrhage from a non-Meckelian jejunoileal diverticulum is rare, and it is generally difficult to diagnose the source of the bleeding. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old male with hemorrhage from an ileal diverticulum. Contrast computed tomography scans demonstrated the ileal diverticulum and extravasation of the contrast medium around it. The diagnosis was then made by computed tomography scans, and endoscopic mechanical hemostasis was performed under colonoscopy with three metal clips. The management of hemorrhage from jejunoileal diverticula is discussed. PMID:21860685

Iwamuro, Masaya; Hanada, Mariko; Kominami, Yoko; Higashi, Reiji; Mizuno, Motowo; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2011-07-16

65

NKT cells in mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal tract allows the residence of an almost enumerable number of bacteria. To maintain homeostasis, the mucosal immune system must remain tolerant to the commensal microbiota and eradicate pathogenic bacteria. Aberrant interactions between the mucosal immune cells and the microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, we

S Middendorp; E E S Nieuwenhuis; EES Nieuwenhuis

2009-01-01

66

Maintenance of superior mesenteric arterial perfusion prevents increased intestinal mucosal permeability in endotoxic pigs  

SciTech Connect

Lipopolysaccharide increases intestinal mucosal permeability to hydrophilic compounds such as chromium 51-labeled edetate (51Cr-EDTA). The authors sought to determine whether this phenomenon is partly mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induced mesenteric hypoperfusion. They assessed permeability in an isolated segment of ileum by measuring plasma-to-lumen clearances (C) for two probes, 51Cr-EDTA and urea, and expressing the results as a ratio (CEDTA/CUREA). In control pigs (n = 6) resuscitated with Ringer's lactate (RL), mucosal permeability was unchanged during the 210-minute period of observation. In pigs (n = 7) infused with lipopolysaccharide (50 micrograms/kg) and similarly resuscitated with RL, mesenteric perfusion (Qsma) decreased significantly and permeability increased progressively and significantly. When endotoxic pigs (n = 6) were resuscitated with a regimen (RL plus hetastarch plus dobutamine) that preserved normal Qsma, lipopolysaccharide-induced mucosal hyperpermeability was prevented. Resuscitation of endotoxic pigs (n = 6) with RL plus hetastarch provided intermediate protection against both mesenteric hypoperfusion and increased permeability. These data suggest that diminished Qsma contributes to impaired ileal mucosal barrier function in experimental endotoxicosis.

Fink, M.P.; Kaups, K.L.; Wang, H.L.; Rothschild, H.R. (Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (USA))

1991-08-01

67

Ileal conduit post radical cystectomy: modifications of the technique  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ileal conduit, post radical cystectomy, is currently the most practiced type of urinary diversion. The aim of our study was to modify the ileal conduit technique in order to retain acceptable outcomes while decreasing the rate of postoperative urine leak and ureteroileal stricture. Methods: Forty consecutive patients were included in our study, from January to June 2011. Radical cystectomy and ileal conduit using our modifications were done for all the cases. Follow-up was done for one year. One patient with right pelvic kidney was added to the studied group and was managed by extra modification to our technique. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63 years. No significant leak and no stricture were observed within the modest duration of follow-up. When a left upper urinary tract retrograde study was attempted in one patient, the left ureteric orifice could not be reached due to a redundant elongated ileum. Conclusions: Modified Bricker techniques are safe, avoid early postoperative urine leak, and lower the incidence of ureteroileal anastomotic stricture. Using our modifications, retrograde access of the left ureter may not be possible. The ‘Z’ ileal conduit is a feasible technique that can allow tension-free healthy ureteroileal anastomosis for cases with pelvic right kidney and, probably, post renal transplantation.

Kotb, Ahmed Fouad

2013-01-01

68

Anal sphincteroplasty for incontinence after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This report reviews two patients who underwent anal sphincteroplasty to improve continence after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). METHODS: A retrospective study of two patients was performed. RESULTS: Two patients underwent anal sphincteroplasty after IPAA for incontinence, one diagnosed preoperatively and one postoperatively. Both had had previous anal surgery. Satisfactory continence was achieved in both cases, despite modest changes in

Jon S. Thompson; Eamonn M. M. Quigley

1995-01-01

69

Stimulation of ileal emptying by short-chain fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown previously that short-chain fatty acids (mixtures of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids; SCFAs) in the proportions found usually in stool water stimulate fasting ileal motility. Based on indirect evidence, we proposed that these motor patterns (bursts of phasic pressure waves that were propagated) would be propulsive, but the capacity of these stimulated patterns of motility to propel

A. Fich; S. F. Phillips; N. S. Hakim; M. L. Brown; A. R. Zinsmeister

1989-01-01

70

Motility of the jejunum after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anastomosis could modify motility of the small intestine through two mechanisms: obstruction or bacterial overgrowth. Motility of the jejunum was measured in 11 patients with ileoanal anastomosis six (n = 6), or 12 (n = 5) months after closure of the loop ileostomy. Manometric recording from the jejunum were made during fasting (four hours) and after

S Chaussade; F Merite; M Hautefeuille; P Valleur; P Hautefeuille; D Couturier

1989-01-01

71

INTERACTION OF HALOACETONITRILES WITH GLUTATHIONE AND GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of reduced glutathione (GSH) with haloacetonitriles (HAH) were carried out under various conditions and the depletion of GSH was determined. Haloacetonitriles reacted directly with glutathione in the absence of tissue extracts. he reactivities of haloacetonitrile...

72

Glutathione-related enzymes, glutathione and multidrug resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the hypothesis that glutathione and its associated enzymes contribute to the overall drug-resistance seen in multidrug resistant cell lines. Reports of 34 cell lines independently selected for resistance to MDR drugs are compared for evidence of consistent changes in activity of glutathione-related enzymes as well as for changes in glutathione content. The role of glutathione S-transferases in

Jeffrey A. Moscow; Katharine H. Dixon

1993-01-01

73

PREPARATION OF GLUTATHIONE IMPRINTED POLYMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione imprinted polymer was prepared using 1-vinyl imidazole and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the functional monomer and crosslinker, respectively, in dimethyl sulfoxide. The adsorption selectivity of glutathione-imprinted polymer was tested by reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and L-Gly-Leu-Tyr in 30% phosphate buffer (0.01 M, pH 5.0)–70% acetonitrile and binding affinity values were compared. Reusability of molecularly imprinted polymer particles was also

Ay?e Dinçer; Figen Zihnio?lu

2010-01-01

74

Solitary atrial myocardial metastasis revealing ileal neuroendocrine carcinoma.  

PubMed

A previously healthy 56-year-old man presented with chest pain. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed minimal pericardial effusion associated with an isolated myocardial mass, protruding into the left atrium. The tumor was surgically removed. Cardiac valve morphology was strictly normal. Histology revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Positron emission tomography scan and thin-slice abdominal computed tomography demonstrated ileal tumor, without evidence of liver metastasis. Histological study of the removed ileal tumor confirmed a neuroendocrine carcinoma, and histology of liver biopsy was negative. Somatostatin analogue treatment was started. No tumoral recurrence was observed after 1 year of follow-up. In conclusion, we report an unusual presentation of neuroendocrine carcinoma, revealed by a large solitary atrial metastasis, in the absence of liver involvement or carcinoid syndrome. PMID:22138424

Meurice, Jonathan; Boulé, Stéphane; Deswarte, Guillaume; Brigadeau, François; Modine, Thomas

2012-01-01

75

Primary ileal villous atrophy is often associated with microscopic colitis  

PubMed Central

Three cases of apparent primary villous atrophy of the terminal ileum in women with chronic diarrhoea are reported. Eight cases have previously been reported in the literature. Clinical characteristics are the presence of severe chronic secretory diarrhoea with episodes of hypokalaemia combined with signs of ileal malabsorption and/or efficacy of cholestyramine. Diagnosis is based on ileoscopy and histology. An association with microscopic colitis was present in the three patients and in four cases in the literature. The pathogenesis of primary ileal villous atrophy remains unknown and may involve dysimmunity. Its association with microscopic colitis may indicate a common pathogenesis or support the hypothesis that the faecal stream or bile salts play a role in the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis. ?? Keywords: intestinal villous atrophy; ileum; secretory diarrhoea; bile acid malabsorption; microscopic colitis

Marteau, P; Lavergne-Slove, A; Lemann, M; Bouhnik, Y; Bertheau, P; Becheur, H; Galian, A; Rambaud, J

1997-01-01

76

[Orthotopic ileal neobladder: urodynamic and metabolic aspects. Our experience].  

PubMed

We subjected to a functional and metabolic evaluation (urodynamic examination + cystography) 10 patients underwent to radical cystectomy with a ileal orthotopic reservoir (VIP) for bladder cancer. At the moment patients have a minimum 3-years follow-up and they are out of disease. The medium capacity of the reservoir is about 447 ml, with a low pressure flow, a medium pressure of ureteral closing of 62.5 cm of H2O. At the cystography neither ureteral reflux nor post miction residuum have been proved. All the patients are continent, with the exception of one patient suffering from episodes of nocturnal enuresis. The metabolic evaluation hasn't proved substantial changes except the presence of hypocitraturia in the only patient in metabolic acidosis. In conclusion the ileal orthotopic reservoir showed a good long-term functionality without considerable complication of metabolism. PMID:9026236

Mangiarotti, B; Ceresoli, A; Del Nero, A; Parravicini, M; Prati, G; Currò, A; Zanetti, G P; Trinchieri, A; Pisani, E

1996-12-01

77

Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions.  

PubMed

Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content is small in broiler chickens. PMID:24046419

van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H

2013-10-01

78

Adverse Metabolic Sequelae Following Restorative Proctocolectomy with an Ileal Pouch  

PubMed Central

Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) following total proctocolectomy has become the surgical treatment of choice for ulcerative colitis patients who have medically refractory disease or neoplasia. Unfortunately, various metabolic complications have been reported with this surgical procedure, including anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, bile salt and fat malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency, bone loss, and nephrolithiasis. Recognition and early diagnosis of these complications are important when managing IPAA patients.

Khanna, Reena

2012-01-01

79

Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.  

PubMed

The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant properties of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Compositae) hydroalcoholic extract (MCE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury were investigated in rats. After the induction of gastric mucosal injury, all groups were sacrificed; the gastric ulcer index was calculated, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole blood and gastric tissue, and serum ascorbic acid, retinol, and beta-carotene levels were measured in all groups. Pretreatment with MCE at some doses significantly reduced gastric lesions. Again, some doses of MCE significantly reduced the MDA, and significantly increased GSH levels in gastric tissue or whole blood. Serum beta-carotene and retinol levels were significantly higher in the 200 mg/kg MCE-administered group with respect to control. As a result, MCE clearly has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in antioxidant activity. PMID:20645773

Cemek, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ezgi; Büyükokuro?lu, Mehmet Emin

2010-07-01

80

Glutamine attenuates the inhibitory effect of methotrexate on TLR signaling during intestinal chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a rat  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is crucial in maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis, participates in a vigorous signaling process and heightens inflammatory cytokine output. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of glutamine (GLN) on TLR-4 signaling in intestinal mucosa during methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis in a rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups of 8 rats each: 1) control rats; 2) CONTR-GLN animals were treated with oral glutamine given in drinking water (2%) 48 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection; 3) MTX-rats were treated with a single IP injection of MTX (20 mg/kg); and 4) MTX-GLN rats were pre-treated with oral glutamine similar to group B, 48 hours before and 72 hours after MTX injection. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. The expression of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 in the intestinal mucosa was determined using real time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. MTX-GLN rats demonstrated a greater jejunal and ileal mucosal weight and mucosal DNA, greater villus height in ileum and crypt depth and index of proliferation in jejunum and ileum, compared to MTX animals. The expression of TLR-4 and MyD88 mRNA and protein in the mucosa was significantly lower in MTX rats versus controls animals. The administration of GLN increased significantly the expression of TLR-4 and MyD88 (vs the MTX group). In conclusion, treatment with glutamine was associated with up-regulation of TLR-4 and MyD88 expression and a concomitant decrease in intestinal mucosal injury caused by MTX-induced mucositis in a rat.

2014-01-01

81

Human Glutathione Transferase Zeta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeta?class glutathione transferases (GSTZs) were recently discovered by a bioinformatics approach and the availability of human expressed sequence tag databases. Although GSTZ showed little activity with conventional GST substrates (1?chloro?2,4?dinitrobenzene; organic hydroperoxides), GSTZ was found to catalyze the oxygenation of dichloroacetic acid (DCA) to glyoxylic acid and the cis?trans isomerization of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate. Hence, GSTZ plays a critical role

Philip G. Board; M. W. Anders

2005-01-01

82

Comparison of the chloride channel activator lubiprostone and the oral laxative Polyethylene Glycol 3350 on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of lubiprostone and Polyethylene Glycol 3350 (PEG) on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine. METHODS: Ileum from 6 piglets (approximately 15 kg body weight) was subjected to ischemic conditions by occluding the local mesenteric circulation for 45 min in vivo. Ileal tissues from each pig were then harvested and mounted in Ussing chambers and bathed in oxygenated Ringer’s solution in vitro. Intestinal barrier function was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. Statistical analyses of data collected over a 120-min time course included 2-way ANOVA for the effects of time and treatment on indices of barrier function. RESULTS: Application of 1 ?mol/L lubiprostone to the mucosal surface of ischemic-injured ileum in vitro induced significant elevations in TER compared to non-treated tissue. Lubiprostone also reduced mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. Alternatively, application of a polyethylene laxative (PEG, 20 mmol/L) to the mucosal surface of ischemic tissues significantly increased flux of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates that lubiprostone stimulates recovery of barrier function in ischemic intestinal tissues whereas the PEG laxative had deleterious effects on mucosal repair. These results suggest that, unlike osmotic laxatives, lubiprostone stimulates repair of the injured intestinal barrier.

Moeser, Adam J; Nighot, Prashant K; Roerig, Birgit; Ueno, Ryuji; Blikslager, Anthony T

2008-01-01

83

[Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with mucosal flap].  

PubMed

Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is done commonly in subjects with chronic dacryocystitis and nasolacrimal duct stenosis, and endoscopic DCR is now an established alternative to external approaches. Mucosal preservation is important in preventing granulation tissue and synechia from forming around the ostium. Our modified endoscopic DCR using a mucosal flap involves creating a large bony opening to form an anastomosis for the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Instead of silicon tubing, we use a silicon sheet to avoid manipulating the canaliculi. Our modifications enable an easy, safe, effective form of DCR easily implemented by otolaryngologists familiar with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:22184872

Kodama, Satoru; Hirano, Takashi; Suzuki, Masashi

2011-10-01

84

The relationship between mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression and experimental radiation-induced mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cycloooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is upregulated by factors associated with oral mucositis, its role in the pathogenesis of mucositis has not been studied. We investigated the kinetics of mucosal COX-2 expression following radiation exposure, and assessed its relationship to the development of oral mucositis in an established animal model using immunohistochemical endpoints. While little or no COX-2 expression was observed in

S. T. Sonis; K. E. O'Donnell; R. Popat; C. Bragdon; S. Phelan; D. Cocks; J. B. Epstein

2004-01-01

85

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir: Clinical results in 12 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir has been performed in 12 patients. An isolated ileal reservoir was constructed using the technique described for patients with a continent ileostomy. The ureters were implanted into an afferent segment provided with a reflux-preventing nipple valve. There were few operative complications and no operative mortality. Late complications involving malfunction of the nipple valves

N. G. Kock; A. E. Nilson; L. O. Nilsson; L. J. Norlén; B. M. Philipson

2002-01-01

86

Ileal interposition and viability of pancreatic islets transplanted into intramuscular site of diabetic rats.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Assuming that ileal stimulation by food may increase incretin secretion, we aimed to investigate whether ileal interposition obtains adequate pancreatic islet viability and function after intramuscular islet transplantation in diabetic rats. Methods: We investigated four groups of eight Wistar rats: ileal interposition + islet transplantation, islet transplantation, ileal interposition, and diabetic control. All rats were subjected to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We used the C-peptide/glucose ratio and islet image to investigate beta cell mass, and plasma glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) measure. Results: Ileal interposition was effective in preserving function and increasing islet mass in animals with islets transplanted into alginate microcapsules. The plasma GLP-1 level in the diabetic control rats was a basal concentration (4.1 ± 1.2 pM). GLP-1 level after ileal interposition + islet transplantation (12.3 ± 3.3 pM) was significantly higher (p < .05) than in the islet transplantation group (8.2 ± 2.4 pM) and ileal interposition group rats (7.6 ± 1.8 pM). Conclusions: Ileal interposition positively influenced beta cell viability after intramuscular transplantation of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats. PMID:24377965

Araújo-Filho, Irami; Rêgo, Amália Cínthia Meneses; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Carvalho, Marília Daniela Ferreira; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha

2014-08-01

87

Adenomatous polyps develop commonly in the ileal pouch of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of adenomatous polyps in the ileal pouch of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. METHOD: Forty-three patients who had an ileal pouch for familial adenomatous polyposis were invited to have a careful endoscopic examination of their pouch, including dye spraying. The number of polyps was recorded, and up to ten

M. W. Thompson-Fawcett; V. A. Marcus; M. Redston; Z. Cohen; R. S. McLeod

2001-01-01

88

Ileal exposure to pig pancreatic juice and bile inhibit exocrine pancreatic secretion in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms involved in the down regulation of the exocrine pancreas are still not fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of duodenal and ileal exposure to pancreatic enzymes and bile on pancreatic secretion. Experiments were performed with pigs fitted with pancreatic duct, ileal and jugular vein catheters, and duodenal T-shaped cannula. A negative

S. G. Pierzynowski; V. Sileikiene; J. L. Valverde Piedra; S. Szymanczyk; P. C. Gregory; D. Kruszewska; R. Mosenthin; A. Rzasa; S. Kowalik; R. Zabielski; B. Weström

2007-01-01

89

Selected animal and plant protein sources affect nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of ileally cannulated dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of dogs fed selected animal and plant protein sources incorporated into grain?based diets. Four crude protein sources ? soybean meal (SBM), poultry meal (PM), poultry by?product meal (PBPM), and beef and bone meal (BBM) ? were fed to four ileal cannulated dogs in

G. E. Bednar; S. M. Murray; A. R. Patil; E. A. Flickinger; N. R. Merchen; G. C. Fahey Jr

2000-01-01

90

Spiral bacterium associated with gastric, ileal and caecal mucosa of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A spiral shaped bacterium was seen in smears and histological sections (stained by carbol- fuchsin) of gastric, ileal and caecal mucosa as well as in stool smears from mice. A significant correlation between the presence of the spiral bacterium and the occurrence of gastritis was observed but the ileal and caecal mucosa seemed unaffected. The bacterium was Gram negative

Dulciene M. M. Queiroz; Christiane Contigli; Roney S. Coimbra; Ana Margarida M. F. Nogueira; Edilberto N. Mendes; Gifone A. Rocha; Silvia B. Moura

1992-01-01

91

Increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen level in patients undergoing colon neobladder replacement compared with ileal neobladder replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To compare the serum and urinary carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels for assessment of possible risk of malignant transformation in patients with orthotopic neobladder.Methods. The serum and urinary levels of CEA, nutritional status, and acid-base and electrolyte balances were studied in 87 patients after radical cystectomy (22 with ileal neobladder, 28 with colon neobladder, and 37 with ileal conduit). The

Isao Hara; Hideaki Miyake; Shoji Hara; Yoshizumi Takechi; Hiroshi Eto; Masato Fujisawa; Hiroshi Okada; Soichi Arakawa; Sadao Kamidono

2002-01-01

92

Effect of microbial phytase and diet fermentation on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy in growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digestibility experiment using six ileally cannulated growing gilts (initial BW 31.6 kg) was carried out to study the effect of microbial phytase and diet form on apparent ileal and total tract digest - ibilities of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and energy and on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids. The basal P-deficient diet was

S. Nitrayová; P. Patráš; M. Brestenský; J. Zelenka; J. Brož; J. Heger

2009-01-01

93

Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

2011-01-01

94

Asymptomatic Ileal Schwannoma presenting as a Mesenteric Tumour  

PubMed Central

A schwannoma is a benign tumour which arises from the schwann cells of the central or peripheral nervous system. Common sites include the head and limbs; it is rare that this tumour arises from the gastrointestinal tract’s neural plexus. It is even rarer to find the ileum as the site of origin. We report a patient who presented with a central abdominal mass which was preoperatively diagnosed as a mesenteric tumour. However, immunohistochemistry of the surgically-removed specimen proved it to be a benign ileal schwannoma.

Khan, Shahzad Y.; Bhatti, Khalid M.; Koliyadan, Sreedharan V.; Al Riyami, Marwa

2013-01-01

95

Spectrofluorimetric assay method for glutathione and glutathione transferase using monobromobimane  

PubMed Central

The primary role of glutathione transferase is to defend an organism from toxicities through catalyzing the reaction of glutathione (GSH) with potentially toxic compounds or metabolites to their chemically and biologically inert conjugates. The objective of the study was to develop a simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric assay method for glutathione transferase using monobromobimane (MBB), a non fluorescent compound with electrophilic site. MBB slowly reacted with glutathione to form fluorescent glutathione conjugate and that the reaction was catalysed by glutathione transferase. Both non-enzymatic and enzymatic reaction products of MBB, in presence of GSH in phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), were measured by following increase of fluorescence at wavelength of 475nm. For validation of the assay method, the kinetic parameters such as the apparent Michaelis-Mente constants and maximum rates of conjugate formation as well as the specific activity of rat hepatic glutathione transferase were determined. The method was found to be sensitive, thus, applied to measure glutathione contents of crude preparation of rat hepatic cytosol fraction

Yakubu, S. I.; Yakasai, I. A.; Musa, A.

2011-01-01

96

Functions of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in immunology and immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even a moderate increase in the cellular cysteine supply elevates the intracellular glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and poten- tiates immunological functions of lymphocytes in vitro. At low GSSG levels, T cells cannot optimally activate the im- munologically important transcription factor NFxB, whereas high GSSG levels inhibit the DNA binding ac- tivity of NFxB. The effects of GSSG

KLAUS SCHULZE-OSTHOFF; SABINE MIHM; DAGMAR GALTER; HEIKE SCHENK; HANS-PETER ECK; STEFFEN ROTH; HELMUT GMUNDER

97

Spectrofluorimetric assay method for glutathione and glutathione transferase using monobromobimane.  

PubMed

The primary role of glutathione transferase is to defend an organism from toxicities through catalyzing the reaction of glutathione (GSH) with potentially toxic compounds or metabolites to their chemically and biologically inert conjugates. The objective of the study was to develop a simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric assay method for glutathione transferase using monobromobimane (MBB), a non fluorescent compound with electrophilic site. MBB slowly reacted with glutathione to form fluorescent glutathione conjugate and that the reaction was catalysed by glutathione transferase. Both non-enzymatic and enzymatic reaction products of MBB, in presence of GSH in phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), were measured by following increase of fluorescence at wavelength of 475nm. For validation of the assay method, the kinetic parameters such as the apparent Michaelis-Mente constants and maximum rates of conjugate formation as well as the specific activity of rat hepatic glutathione transferase were determined. The method was found to be sensitive, thus, applied to measure glutathione contents of crude preparation of rat hepatic cytosol fraction. PMID:24826016

Yakubu, S I; Yakasai, I A; Musa, A

2011-06-01

98

Mucosal healing as a treatment for IBD?  

PubMed

In the last years mucosal healing has emerged as an important therapeutic goal for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Growing evidence suggests that mucosal healing can improve patient outcomes and, potentially, can alter the natural course of the disease by inducing sustained clinical remission and reducing hospitalizations and surgery. However several questions remain to be answered. A validated definition of mucosal healing is still lacking and the effect size of different drugs is difficult to assess because of different definitions, different study design, and different timing of endoscopic evaluation. The evidence that mucosal healing has a high positive predictive value for long-term good clinical outcome is still limited and, therefore, mucosal healing remains a weak surrogate end point of disease course. Future studies are needed to develop a standardized definition of mucosal healing and to prospectively assess the impact of mucosal healing on long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:24654957

Papi, Claudio; Aratari, Annalisa

2014-07-01

99

Selective Modification of Glutathione Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione, a tripeptide thiol found in virtually all cells, functions in metabolism, transport, and cellular protection. It participates in the reduction of disulfides and other molecules, and conjugates with compounds of exogenous and endogenous origin. It protects cells against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen intermediates and free radicals. Modifications of glutathione metabolism may be achieved by administration of selective

Alton Meister

1983-01-01

100

Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant evidence that the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Friedreich's ataxia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, may involve the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. Glutathione is an

Jorg B. Schulz; Jorg Lindenau; Jan Seyfried; Johannes Dichgans

2000-01-01

101

Dendritic cell-targeting DNA-based mucosal adjuvants for the development of mucosal vaccines  

PubMed Central

In order to establish effective mucosal immunity against various mucosal pathogens, vaccines must be delivered via the mucosal route and contain effective adjuvant(s). Since mucosal adjuvants can simply mix with the antigen, it is relatively easy to adapt them for different types of vaccine development. Even in simple admixture vaccines, the adjuvant itself must be prepared without any complications. Thus, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or plasmids encoding certain cDNA(s) would be potent mucosal adjuvant candidates when compared with other substances that can be used as mucosal adjuvants. The strategy of a DNA-based mucosal adjuvant facilitates the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells, and thus is an effective and safe approach. It would also provide great flexibility for the development of effective vaccines for various mucosal pathogens.

Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

2009-01-01

102

Ca/sup + +/- and cyclic AMP-induced changes in intact cell phosphorylation of ileal microvillus membrane proteins  

SciTech Connect

Pieces of rabbit distal ileal mucosa, with the muscularis propria and serosa removed, were incubated for 90 minutes in Krebs-Ringer bicarborate buffer (KRB) with /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ to label the intracellular nucleotide pools. After rinsing, the mucosal pieces were transferred to KRB in the absence and presence of 10 ..mu..M A23187 or 10 mM theophylline. After a further 10 minutes the cells were scraped off and microvillus membranes prepared. The membranes were solubilized, subjected to two dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography, and analyzed by densitometry. A23187 increased the phosphorylation of four microvillus membrane proteins with M/sub r/ of 32, 52, 110 and 116K. Increased phosphorylation of the 52 and 116K proteins has also been detected in microvillus membranes subjected to Ca/sup + +/ and calmodulin in the presence of ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP. Theophylline increased the phosphorylation of the same 32 and 52K proteins and, additionally, of a second 32K peptide. While any of these proteins could be involved in the control of electrolyte transport, it is noteworthy that increased Ca/sup + +/, and increased cyclic AMP levels exert similar effects upon intestinal electrolyte transport. That A23187 and theophylline both increase the phosphorylation of the 32 and 52K proteins increases the possibility that these are involved in ion transport.

Sharp, G.W.G.; Hannah, C.M.; Cohen, M.; Donowitz, M.

1986-03-05

103

Antiretroviral Pharmacology in Mucosal Tissues  

PubMed Central

Strategies to prevent HIV infection using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are required to curtail the HIV pandemic. The mucosal tissues of the genital and rectal tracts play a critical role in HIV acquisition, but antiretroviral (ARV) disposition and correlates of efficacy within these tissues are not well understood. Pre-clinical and clinical strategies to describe ARV pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships (PK/PD) within mucosal tissues are currently being investigated. In this review, we summarize the physiochemical and biologic factors influencing ARV tissue exposure. Further, we discuss the necessary steps to generate relevant PK/PD data and the challenges associated with this process. Finally, we suggest how pre-clinical and clinical data might be practically translated into optimal PrEP dosing strategies for clinical trials testing using mathematical modeling and simulation.

Thompson, Corbin G.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

2014-01-01

104

Echinacea purpurea and mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the effects of Echinacea purpurea on mucosal immunity and the incidence and duration of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). 32 subjects completed an exercise protocol known to affect mucosal immunity. Saliva was collected prior to and five minutes after completion of exercise testing. Subjects then took either a placebo (C) or Echinacea supplement (E) for 4 weeks and the testing procedure was repeated. Each time, s-IgA concentrations and saliva flow rate were measured and the secretion rate of s-IgA was calculated. In addition, standard logs indicating symptoms of URTI were completed throughout the study. Both groups demonstrated significant exercise induced reductions in s-IgA (C - 69 %; E - 43 %) and the secretion rate of s-IgA (C - 79 %; E - 53 %) at the beginning of the study (p < 0.05). Following the 4-week intervention, only the control group experienced the post intervention decrease in s-IgA (C - 45 %; E + 7 %) and the secretion rate of s-IgA (C - 45 %; E - 7 %). Further, while there was no significant difference in the number of URTI between groups, the reported duration was significantly different (C 8.6 days vs. E 3.4 days). The results suggest that Echinacea may attenuate the mucosal immune suppression known to occur with intense exercise and reduce the duration of URTI that subjects incur. PMID:17436202

Hall, H; Fahlman, M M; Engels, H J

2007-09-01

105

Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy.

Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

2013-01-01

106

Mucosal Immune System and M Cell-targeting Strategies for Oral Mucosal Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent infectious diseases. Mucosa, which are exposed to heavy loads of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, are one of the first areas where infections are established, and therefore have frontline status in immunity, making mucosa ideal sites for vaccine application. Moreover, vaccination through the mucosal immune system could induce effective systemic immune responses together with mucosal immunity in contrast to parenteral vaccination, which is a poor inducer of effective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Among mucosal vaccines, oral mucosal vaccines have the advantages of ease and low cost of vaccine administration. The oral mucosal immune system, however, is generally recognized as poorly immunogenic due to the frequent induction of tolerance against orally-introduced antigens. Consequently, a prerequisite for successful mucosal vaccination is that the orally introduced antigen should be transported across the mucosal surface into the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). In particular, M cells are responsible for antigen uptake into MALT, and the rapid and effective transcytotic activity of M cells makes them an attractive target for mucosal vaccine delivery, although simple transport of the antigen into M cells does not guarantee the induction of specific immune responses. Consequently, development of mucosal vaccine adjuvants based on an understanding of the biology of M cells has attracted much research interest. Here, we review the characteristics of the oral mucosal immune system and delineate strategies to design effective oral mucosal vaccines with an emphasis on mucosal vaccine adjuvants.

Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Kyung-Yeol

2012-01-01

107

Acquired ileal atresia complicating an ileocolic intussusception in a 4-month-old infant.  

PubMed

We report a 4-month-old female infant who was apparently well before the onset of vomiting, abdominal distension, and the passage of red currant jelly stools. A clinical diagnosis of intussusception was made, and the infant was prepared for a laparotomy. Intraoperative findings were a gangrenous ileocolic intussusception with a proximal atretic ileal segment (similar to a type IIIa ileal atresia). An extended right hemicolectomy including the atretic ileal segment was done with an ileotransverse anastomosis to establish bowel continuity. The patient had a wound dehiscence on the fourth postoperative day that was repaired. She subsequently made satisfactory clinical recovery and was discharged on the 10th day. PMID:21292063

Osuoji, Roland; Idika, Ogechukwu; Odomeja, Edwin; Bankole, Akin

2011-02-01

108

A case of liver metastasis occurring 20 years after the resection of an ileal neuroendocrine tumor.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old man with multiple liver tumors was referred to our hospital in 2011. He was histologically diagnosed with a neuroendocrine G1 tumor (World Health Organization classification) following biopsy. He had a history of surgery for an ileal neuroendocrine tumor in 1991. Therefore, the liver tumors were diagnosed as metastases from the ileal neuroendocrine tumor. The patient was successfully treated with hepatic artery embolization, radiofrequency ablation, and octreotide. This report suggests that long-term follow-up with diagnostic imaging may be required for patients with ileal neuroendocrine tumors, even 20 years after the primary surgery. PMID:24998732

Hayashi, Manabu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Matsuhashi, Nobuo; Ichii, Osamu; Tai, Mayumi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Hakozaki, Hando; Ohira, Hiromasa

2014-07-01

109

Methamphetamine selectively alters brain glutathione.  

PubMed

As methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has been proposed to involve oxidative stress, reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively), vitamin E and ascorbate were measured in the striata of rats killed 2 or 24 h after a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine. At 2 h, methamphetamine increased GSH and GSSG (32. 5% and 43.7%, respectively) compared to controls at 2 h. No difference was seen in glutathione at 24 h, and in vitamin E and ascorbate at either time point. These findings indicate selectivity of methamphetamine for the glutathione system and a role for methamphetamine in inducing oxidative stress. PMID:10913590

Harold, C; Wallace, T; Friedman, R; Gudelsky, G; Yamamoto, B

2000-07-14

110

Chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of systemic chemotherapy and of radiation therapy to the head and neck region. The morbidity of oral mucositis can include pain, nutritional compromise, impact on quality of life, alteration in cancer therapy, risk for infection, and economic costs. Management includes general symptomatic support and targeted therapeutic interventions for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are available to guide clinicians in the selection of effective management strategies. PMID:24655526

Lalla, Rajesh V; Saunders, Deborah P; Peterson, Douglas E

2014-04-01

111

[Management of ileal stenosis in patients with Crohn's disease].  

PubMed

Stenosis is the most frequent complication during Crohn's disease. The lesion can be inflammatory, or due to a fibrosing or neoplastic process. The medical treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs is usually sufficient as first line treatment; fibrous lesions require endoscopic or surgical procedures while neoplastic lesions require surgery. A multidisciplinary approach (radiologic, medical, surgical and endoscopic) is needed. In a first part, we discuss the definition of stenosis and the modalities of imaging (particularly MRI) and of treatment (particularly with TNFalpha antagonists). Then we expose the strategy for the management of the most frequent clinical situations: occlusion, ileal inflammatory stenosis, stenosis of an ileocolonic anastomosis and chronic fibrous stenosis. The treatment decision takes into account the results of radiological assessment, CRP level and the effects of the previous treatments. PMID:19733458

Coelho, J; Soyer, P; Pautrat, K; Boudiaf, M; Vahedi, K; Reignier, S; Valleur, P; Marteau, P

2009-10-01

112

Imaging findings post colorectal endoscopic mucosal resection  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic mucosal resection is commonly the treatment regime of choice for large sessile colonic polyps. We describe the computed tomography findings of a 51 year old female who presented with transient severe abdominal pain without systemic upset post endoscopic mucosal polyp resection, which resolved with conservative management. This is the second case in the literature that demonstrates ‘normal’ appearances post endoscopic mucosal resection. The clinical team and radiologist need to be aware of these findings when making management decisions in patients who present with acute pain post endoscopic mucosal resection.

Stephenson, James A; Crookdake, Jonathan; Jepson, Steven; Wurm, Peter; Elabassy, Mosheir

2013-01-01

113

Relationship between Ileal symbiont intracellularis and porcine proliferative enteritis.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between Ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis, formerly known as a Campylobacter-like organism, and porcine proliferative enteritis (PE) was studied by use of pigs with experimentally transmitted PE. Twenty one pigs were experimentally inoculated with homogenized ileal mucosa from a pig that died with PE, and 7 were maintained as uninoculated controls. Fecal samples were collected, and pigs were necropsied weekly postinoculation. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to examine tissues for lesions of PE and infectious agents. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and assayed for the presence of sequences specific for IS intracellularis by dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction amplification. IS intracellularis was detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the feces of 20 of 21 inoculated pigs but not in the feces of uninoculated pigs. Seven inoculated pigs but no uninoculated pigs were detected shedding IS intracellularis by dot blot hybridization. Shedding was detected 1 to 5 weeks after inoculation, and clinical signs were seen in the second to fifth weeks after inoculation. Few pigs without lesions of PE were found to shed IS intracellularis. There was a highly significant association between the presence of IS intracellularis in feces or tissue and the presence of microscopic proliferative lesions and between the severity of the lesions of PE and the percentage of IS intracellularis-infected intestinal crypts. Pigs that ceased shedding IS intracellularis were significantly less likely to have proliferative lesions. These and previous reports are consistent with the hypothesis that IS intracellularis is a necessary causative agent of PE. Images

Jones, G F; Ward, G E; Murtaugh, M P; Rose, R; Gebhart, C J

1993-01-01

114

Role of acid back-diffusion, glutathione, oxyradical, and histamine in antral hemorrhagic ulcer in rats: The protective effect of lysozyme chloride and antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of gastric antral hemorrhage and ulceration is unclear. This paper first proposes that antral hemorrhagic ulcers produced in rats are associated with attenuation of defensive parameters (such as mucosal glutathione levels and histamine release, as well as aggravation of aggressive factors) including gastric acid back-diffusion and oxyradical generation. The protective effects of lysozyme chloride and antioxidants on this

Chen-Road Hung; Paulus S. Wang

2002-01-01

115

Glutathione and mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Ribas, Vicent; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C.

2014-01-01

116

Glutathione adducts of oxyeicosanoids.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) is a major cellular antioxidant, which can conjugate chemically reactive, electrophilic molecules and thus, prevent unwanted reactions with important cell constituents. A large number of electrophilic eicosanoids, in particular alpha/beta-unsaturated ketones, are synthesized during arachidonic acid oxidative metabolism which can participate in the Michael addition reaction with GSH catalyzed by the GSH-S-transferase (GST) family. The structures of these adducts have been determined primarily using mass spectrometry techniques in the past after degradation to volatile products, but more recently by electrospray ionization. GSH-adducts have been observed with molecules synthesized through the 5-lipoxygenase (LTB4, LTC4, and 5-oxo-ETE), 12-lipoxygenase (hepoxilin A3), 15-lipoxygenase (13-oxo-ODE), PGH synthase (PGA1, PGA2, PGD2, PGE2, and PGJ2), and cytochrome P450-epoxygenase (14,15-EET) pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. It has also been demonstrated that these oxyeicosanoid GSH-adducts do not represent just inactivation products, but they can both retain (GSH-adduct of hepoxilin A3) or show novel biological activities (LTC4 and FOG7). PMID:12432937

Murphy, Robert C; Zarini, Simona

2002-08-01

117

REGULATION OF GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation. GSH is synthesized in the cytosol of all mammalian cells in a tightly regulated manner. The major determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of cysteine, the sulfur amino acid precursor, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). GCL is composed for a catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit and they are regulated at multiple levels and at times differentially. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis, GSH synthase (GS) is also regulated in a coordinated manner as GCL subunits and its up-regulation can further enhance the capacity of the cell to synthesize GSH. Oxidative stress is well known to induce the expression of GSH synthetic enzymes. Key transcription factors identified thus far include Nrf2/Nrf1 via the antioxidant response element (ARE), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor ? B (NF?B). Dysregulation of GSH synthesis is increasingly being recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary fibrosis, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. Manipulation of the GSH synthetic capacity is an important target in the treatment of many of these disorders.

Lu, Shelly C.

2009-01-01

118

[Recurrent adenomas in ileal pouch following ileoanal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis].  

PubMed

Polyadenoma occuring on ileal pouch is a rare event. The treatment and the frequency of the endoscopic examinations is still matter of controversies. The authors report the case of recurrent endoileal pouch adenoma. PMID:18400433

Bouygues, V; Meurette, G; Bossard, C; Cassagnau, E; Le Rhun, M; Lehur, P-A

2008-05-01

119

Mucosal leishmaniasis ("espundia" Escomel, 1911).  

PubMed

One of the more serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis occurs in espundia when the mucosae of the upper respiratory passages are inflamed. This complication is a metastasis from a skin lesion caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis (Lbb) although cases have been described associated with other leishmanial species. Epidemiological data suggest that a detectable mucosal metastasis occurs in fewer than 5% of patients infected with Lbb in our study area. The determinants of this complication are still largely obscure. The granuloma usually commences on the nasal septum. In about two-thirds of our patients the lesion remained restricted to the nose. In the rest the pharynx, palate, larynx and lips were involved, in this order. It is often difficult to isolate the parasite and for routine diagnosis the leishmanin skin reaction and serological tests are helpful. Although a serious condition, with possible mutilation and even death as subsequent complications, treatment is still mainly with pentavalent antimonials, introduced 40 years ago. These are most unsatisfactory for field use, being given parenterally and relatively toxic. In mucosal leishmaniasis, if sufficient antimony can be administered in a regular daily dose, the relapse rate is small (3 of 42 patients followed for a mean of 5 years). Also, antimony treatment of the initial skin ulcer due to Lbb followed for a mean of 4 years of 83 patients resulted in subsequent mucosal metastasis in only 2. Since espundia is relatively rare, specific treatment targeted to this specific problem is the efficient short term solution. At present there is no satisfactory alternative drug to those in current use. PMID:3037735

Marsden, P D

1986-01-01

120

Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance structures (larynx, pharynx and nasal and oral cavities) or even to compensation mechanisms caused by the presence of lesions in the upper airways and digestive tract.

Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Marcia Mendonca; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jessica Rafael; de Araujo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

2014-01-01

121

Gut luminal endogenous protein: implications for the determination of ileal amino acid digestibility in humans.  

PubMed

The true ileal digestibility assay provides the most informative measure of digestibility to assess bioavailability of amino acids in foods for humans. To determine 'true' estimates of ileal amino acid digestibility, requires that endogenous amino acids present in digesta at the terminal ileum be quantified. The amounts of endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta can be determined after feeding an animal or human a protein-free diet (traditional approach) or by various methods after giving a protein-containing diet. When the protein-free method has been applied with adult human subjects an overall mean value (three separate studies) for endogenous ileal nitrogen flow of 800 mg N/d has been reported. This value is considerably lower than a comparable value obtained after feeding protein of 1852 mg N/d (mean of four separate studies), and thus endogenous ileal N and amino acids should be measured under conditions of protein alimentation. There is some confusion concerning the terminology used to define digestibility, with the term "true" digestibility having different adopted meanings. Here, true amino acid digestibility is defined as apparent amino acid digestibility corrected for the basal amino acid losses determined after giving either a protein-free or a protein-containing diet. Basal losses should be determined at a defined dry-matter and protein intake. The protein-free diet approach to determining endogenous amino acids is considered unphysiological and basal losses refer to ileal endogenous amino acid flows associated with digesta dry-matter flow, and not including "specific" effects of dietary factors such as non starch polysaccharides and anti nutritional factors. Arguments are advanced that the enzyme hydrolysed protein/ultra filtration method may be suitable for routine application with a cannulated pig model, to obtain physiologically-valid basal estimates of ileal endogenous amino acids to allow calculation of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the pig, and then prediction (via statistical relationships) of true coefficients of amino acid digestibility in humans. PMID:23107536

Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

2012-08-01

122

Fusobacterium necrophorum haemolysin stimulates motility of ileal longitudinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum haemolysin (0.5-3.1 mg protein/mL) dose-dependently induced contractions of the isolated ileal longitudinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig. The haemolysin (3.1 mg protein/mL) -induced maximum contraction of 75% of the response to 60 mM K+ declined within 17 min and the muscles then demonstrated rhythmic contractions. Tetrodotoxin (3.1 x 10(-6) M) had no effect on the contraction due to the haemolysin. After incubation in Ca(2+)-free medium, the ileal response to the haemolysin was lost. Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, dose-dependently inhibited the contraction to the haemolysin. The rabbit anti-serum against F. necrophorum haemolysin inhibited the haemolysin-induced contraction of ileal muscle. The bacterial haemagglutinin and the lipopolysaccharide had no effect on the response of ileal muscle. These findings suggest that the haemolysin-induced direct stimulation of ileal motility dependant on Ca2+ influx will increase the probability of contact of F. necrophorum and ileal mucosa and could increase the chances of colonization for F. necrophorum. PMID:10520727

Kanoe, M; Toyoda, Y; Shibata, H; Nasu, T

1999-01-01

123

Management of mucositis in oral irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical

T. Feber

1996-01-01

124

Erythropoietin -induced proliferation of gastric mucosal cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the localization of erythropoietin receptor on gastric specimens and characterize the effects of erythropoietin on the normal gastric epithelial proliferation using a porcine gastric epithelial cell culture model. METHODS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochermistry. Growth stimulation effects of erythropoietin on cultured gastric mucosal cells were determined by ELISA using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). RESULTS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected on cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Erythropoietin receptor was also detected histochemically at the base of gastric mucosal epithelium. BrdU assay demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in growth potential of cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells by administration of erythropoietin, as well as these effects were inhibited by administration of anti- erythropoietin antibody (P?mucosal epithelium via erythropoietin receptor.

Itoh, Kazuro; Sawasaki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Kato, Shingo; Imai, Nobuhiro; Kato, Yoichiro; Shibata, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Makio; Moriguchi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Masato; Ishihata, Fumio; Sudoh, Yushi; Miura, Soichiro

2006-01-01

125

Rescue of ileal Peyer's patch B cells from apoptosis is associated with the induction of Bcl-2 expression.  

PubMed Central

The major site of B-cell genesis in the sheep is the ileal Peyer's patch (PP). The B cells in the ileal PP undergo both extensive proliferation and massive death in association with an ongoing diversification of the immunoglobulin repertoire by somatic hypermutation. Most, if not all, the B-cell death in the ileal PP is due to apoptosis. When placed in culture, ileal PP B cells undergo rapid apoptosis. Here, we investigated the expression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 in ileal PP cells in situ and in culture. Bcl-2 expression has been correlated with the prevention of apoptosis in many cell types. Western blotting, using anti-Bcl-2 monoclonal antibodies, revealed that a Bcl-2-reactive protein of 26,000 MW was expressed in ileal mesenteric lymph node cells, splenocytes and thymocytes from sheep, but was barely detectable in ileal PP B cells in situ or in culture. However, Bcl-2 expression could be markedly induced in ileal PP B cells cultured with phorbol ester and Ca2+ ionophore, a procedure that is known to rescue these cells from apoptosis. We hypothesize that those few B cells that survive a selection event in the ileal PP may begin to express elevated levels of Bcl-2 as they escape from the apoptotic pathway. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Motyka, B; Reynolds, J D

1995-01-01

126

Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase  

SciTech Connect

Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

Raasch, R.J.

1989-01-01

127

Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

2012-01-01

128

Regulation of airway mucosal hydration.  

PubMed

Ion channels control the hydration status of the airway epithelium through apical anion secretion and cation absorption, which is accompanied by osmotically obligated water. The key channels in this process are the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is principally responsible for Cl(-) secretion by airway epithelial cells, and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), which is responsible for the absorption of Na ions. In CF, defective CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion and an accompanying upregulation in ENaC-mediated Na absorption results in a reduction in airway surface liquid volume, leading to poorly hydrated mucus and impaired mucociliary clearance. Restoration of normal airway hydration by modulation of ion channel activity represents an important therapeutic strategy for CF. CFTR corrector and potentiator compounds are being developed with the aim of recovering normal Cl(-) secretion. Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are expressed by the respiratory epithelia and are reported to be functionally upregulated in CF and offer a 'surrogate' pathway for Cl(-) secretion. TMEM16A has recently been described as a CaCC in the airway epithelium and, as such, represents an alternative target for restoring Cl(-) secretion in CF. An alternative therapeutic strategy for CF is to inhibit ENaC, thereby blocking excessive Na absorption. This can be achieved by direct blockade of ENaC or inhibition of the channel-activating proteases (CAPs), whose activity regulates ENaC function. This review will describe the regulation of airway mucosal hydration by ion channels and the efforts currently underway to restore normal mucosal hydration in disease patients by modulating the function of these channels. PMID:22111616

Paisley, Derek; Gosling, Martin; Danahay, Henry

2010-05-01

129

Glutathione metabolism and Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition in which the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism, and functional interactions of glutathione and discuss how these relate to the protection of dopaminergic neurons from oxidative damage and its therapeutic potential in Parkinson disease. PMID:23665395

Smeyne, Michelle; Smeyne, Richard Jay

2013-09-01

130

Motility of the jejunum after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis.  

PubMed Central

Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anastomosis could modify motility of the small intestine through two mechanisms: obstruction or bacterial overgrowth. Motility of the jejunum was measured in 11 patients with ileoanal anastomosis six (n = 6), or 12 (n = 5) months after closure of the loop ileostomy. Manometric recording from the jejunum were made during fasting (four hours) and after a liquid meal (one hour). These findings were compared with those of six healthy volunteers. Motor events were classified as follows: migrating motor complex (MMC), propagated contractions, or discrete clustered contractions. All patients were investigated for bacterial overgrowth (D-glucose breath test). Only two patients had bacterial overgrowth. The frequency of MMC remained unchanged after ileo-anal anastomosis (2.83 (0.37)/four hours) compared with normal volunteers (2.81 (0.29)/four hours). During fasting, four patients had numerous propagated contractions in the jejunum. This condition was associated in two with bacterial overgrowth and in two with intubation of the reservoir. Discrete clustered contractions were found in the seven patients studied postprandially (7.6 (2.5)/h), but not in volunteers. These seven patients emptied their pouch spontaneously and bacterial overgrowth was found in only one. As this motility pattern was previously described in partial small intestinal obstruction, it is postulated that discrete clustered contractions could be the consequence of a functional obstruction as a result of anastomosis of the small intestine to the high pressure zone of the anal sphincters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Chaussade, S; Merite, F; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Couturier, D

1989-01-01

131

Functional activity of murine intestinal mucosal cells is regulated by the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.  

PubMed

To determine whether the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1r) plays a role in the regulation of intestinal functional activity, we analyzed the distribution of the GLP-1r in mouse tissues and tested if tissues expressing the receptor respond to exendin-4 and exendin (9-39) amide, a GLP-1r agonist and antagonist respectively. In ileum, Glp1r mRNA level was two fold higher in extracts from epithelial cells than non-epithelial tissues. By immunohistochemistry, the receptor was localized to the mucosal cell layer of villi of ileum and colon, to the myenteric and submucosal plexus and to Paneth cells. Intravenous administration of exendin-4 to CD-1 mice induced expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in mucosal cells but not in cells of the enteric plexuses or in L cells of ileum. The induction of c-fos was inhibited by the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin. Exendin-4 also increased c-fos expression in ileal segments in vitro, suggesting that this action of the analog was independent of an extrinsic input. The induction of c-fos expression by exendin-4 was inhibited by exendin (9-39) amide, indicating that the action of exendin-4 was mediated by activation of the receptor. Our findings indicate that the GLP-1r is involved in ileal enterocyte and Paneth cell function, that the GLP-1 analog activates c-fos expression in the absence of an extrinsic input and that some of the actions of the receptor is/are mediated by voltage-gated Na channels. PMID:23927844

Kedees, Mamdouh H; Guz, Yelena; Grigoryan, Marine; Teitelman, Gladys

2013-10-01

132

Oral mucositis. A complication of radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Oral mucositis is a complication of head and neck radiotherapy. It is understood what causes the inflammation and what biological tissue changes occur, however, a definite cure for oral mucositis has not yet been found. Supportive treatments, analgesics, antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory agents have been prescribed, none of which has been a thorough measure of treatment. An effective cure for oral mucositis is still in the midst of scientific research. In the interim local palliative treatments will help to alleviate the patients', debilitating symptoms.

Rider, C.A. (Tufts Univ. School of Dental Medicine (USA))

1990-11-01

133

Palliation of radiation-related mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Oral mucositis associated with head and neck radiotherapy can substantially hinder completion of cancer therapy. Alleviation of this often severe stomatitis can provide enhanced patient comfort and facilitate appropriate care. A double-blind format was used in a pilot project to measure, against a control rinse, the effectiveness of an oral rinse consisting of hydrocortisone, nystatin, tetracycline, and diphenhydramine in controlling radiation-related mucositis. A combination of clinical evaluation and patient responses to a questionnaire was used to judge the results of the topical medications. Patients using the experimental medication developed less mucositis than did patients in the control group.

Rothwell, B.R.; Spektor, W.S.

1990-01-01

134

Reduced Glutathione Content of Reticulocytes and Normocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results indicate that the high content of reduced glutathione constitutes a characteristic of the reticulocyte, while the still young but no longer reticulated red blood corpuscles reveal a glutathione content which does not differ from that found in ...

F. Belfiore S. Ferlito J. Meldolesi

1964-01-01

135

An African perspective on mucosal immunity and HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV prevention mandates an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal immunity with attention to some unique features of the epidemic and mucosal environment in the developing world. An effective vaccine will have to induce mucosal protection against a highly diverse virus, which is equipped with a number of immune evasion strategies. Its development will require assessment of mucosal immune responses,

P Pala; V R Gomez-Roman; J Gilmour; P Kaleebu

2009-01-01

136

Postnatal development and lymphocyte production of jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches in normal and gnotobiotic pigs.  

PubMed Central

The development of the number, size, structure and proliferative capacity of Peyer's patches (PP) in the jejunum and ileum has been studied during the early postnatal period of conventional and germ-free pigs. A mean of 15 discrete PP in the jejunum and upper ileum (jejPP) were counted at birth, and the number increased only gradually. A continuous PP is located in the terminal ileum (ileal PP). The length of both jejPP and ileal PP increased with age due to the increase in follicle size and in the number of follicles in the ileal PP. In older pigs, only the ileal PP regressed to small scattered follicles. In germ-free piglets at 39 and 59 days of age, longer PP were found than in normal new-born piglets, but they were significantly shorter than in age-matched controls. Lymphocyte production was studied by the metaphase-arrest technique using vincristine. Lymphocyte production in follicles increased dramatically with age, while in other compartments, such as the inter-follicular and dome area, a low age-independent production of lymphocytes was found. There were no differences in lymphocytopoiesis between jejPP and ileal PP. The present data show major differences in the development, structure and function of PP in pigs in comparison to other species. These species-specific aspects are important for future studies on the immunological function of PP. Images Figure 1 Figure 5

Pabst, R; Geist, M; Rothkotter, H J; Fritz, F J

1988-01-01

137

Risk of ileal pouch neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis  

PubMed Central

Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common surgical option for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch mucosa over time, and even carcinoma in the pouch has been reported. We therefore reviewed the prevalence, nature, and treatment of adenomas and carcinoma that develop after proctocolectomy in the ileal pouch mucosa in patients with FAP. In 25 reports that were reviewed, the incidence of adenomas in the ileal pouch varied from 6.7% to 73.9%. Several potential factors that favor the development of pouch polyposis have been investigated, but many remain controversial. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the age of the pouch is important. The risk appears to be 7% to 16% after 5 years, 35% to 42% after 10 years, and 75% after 15 years. On the other hand, only 21 cases of ileal pouch carcinoma have been recorded in the literature to date. The diagnosis of pouch carcinoma was made between 3 to 20 years (median, 10 years) after pouch construction. Although the risk of malignant transformation in ileal pouches is probably low, it is not negligible, and the long-term risk cannot presently be well quantified. Regular endoscopic surveillance, especially using chromoendoscopy, is recommended.

Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yamao, Kenji

2013-01-01

138

Seasonal variation of glutathione and glutathione reductase in needles of Picea abies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spruce (Picea abies) needles glutathione and glutathione reductase show a periodic seasonal variation with significantly increased levels during the winter. It is proposed that glutathione and glutathione reductase play an important role for the winter hardiness of leaves from evergreen plants.

H. Esterbauer; D. Grill

1978-01-01

139

Targeting Mucosal Healing in Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

The goal of medical treatment for Crohn's disease includes improving patients' quality of life while reducing the need for hospitalization and surgery. The current medical armamentarium includes 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologic agents. In the past, response to treatment was measured by clinical improvement in symptoms; however, with the advent of disease-modifying medications, mucosal healing has emerged as an increasingly important goal of therapy. Mucosal healing, or endoscopic remission, is associated with increased rates of clinical remission, fewer hospitalizations, and fewer abdominal surgeries. Both the immunomodulator and biologic classes of medications are effective at inducing mucosal healing. Despite several limitations, mucosal healing has become a desirable and valid measure of disease activity.

Kakkar, Aarti; Wasan, Sharmeel K.

2011-01-01

140

Mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis using inert bioparticles.  

PubMed

Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens. PMID:23959722

Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A; Cutting, Simon M

2013-11-01

141

Mucosal Vaccination against Tuberculosis Using Inert Bioparticles  

PubMed Central

Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens.

Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A.

2013-01-01

142

Impairment of intestinal glutathione synthesis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Background—Reactive oxygen species contribute to tissue injury in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is the most important intracellular antioxidant. ?Aims—To investigate constituent amino acid plasma levels and the GSH redox status in different compartments in IBD with emphasis on intestinal GSH synthesis in Crohn's disease. ?Methods—Precursor amino acid levels were analysed in plasma and intestinal mucosa. Reduced (rGSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) were determined enzymatically in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells (RBC), muscle, and in non-inflamed and inflamed ileum mucosa. Mucosal enzyme activity of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?GCS) and ?-glutamyl transferase (?GT) was analysed. Blood of healthy subjects and normal mucosa from a bowel segment resected for tumour growth were used as controls. ?Results—Abnormally low plasma cysteine and cystine levels were associated with inflammation in IBD (p<10-4). Decreased rGSH levels were demonstrated in non-inflamed mucosa (p<0.01) and inflamed mucosa (p=10-6) in patients with IBD, while GSSG increased with inflammation (p=0.007) compared with controls. Enzyme activity of ?GCS was reduced in non-inflamed mucosa (p<0.01) and, along with ?GT, in inflamed mucosa (p<10-4). The GSH content was unchanged in PBMC, RBC, and muscle. ?Conclusions—Decreased activity of key enzymes involved in GSH synthesis accompanied by a decreased availability of cyst(e)ine for GSH synthesis contribute to mucosal GSH deficiency in IBD. As the impaired mucosal antioxidative capacity may further promote oxidative damage, GSH deficiency might be a target for therapeutic intervention in IBD. ?? Keywords: Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis; glutathione; amino acids; ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase; mucosa

Sido, B; Hack, V; Hochlehnert, A; Lipps, H; Herfarth, C; Droge, W

1998-01-01

143

Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order \\u000ato gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used.\\u000a\\u000aChapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- \\u000atreatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood \\u000acancer, often causing severe mucositis. DOX-induced mucositis closely \\u000aresembles the characteristics of previously studied methotrexate (MTX)- \\u000ainduced mucositis. Both

Koning de B. A. E

2008-01-01

144

Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS) is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA) is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes

Jorge Herrera; Ludwig Amigo; Constanze Husche; Carlos Benítez; Silvana Zanlungo; Dieter Lütjohann; Juan Francisco Miquel; Flavio Nervi

2009-01-01

145

Localized Pemphigus Vegetans without Mucosal Involvement.  

PubMed

Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris. A 62-year-old woman presented with erythematous moist vegetative plaque on the left breast and left groin. There was no mucosal involvement. Histopathological and direct immunofluorescence findings were suggestive of pemphigus vegetans. She showed excellent response to oral steroids. Literature is scarcely available on the limited involvement with pemphigus vegetans without mucosal involvement. PMID:24700958

Jain, Vk; Jindal, N; Imchen, S

2014-03-01

146

The Mucosal Immune Response to Laryngopharyngeal Reflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) affects up to 20% of Western populations. Although individual morbidity is usually mod- erate,treatmentcostsarehighandthereareassociationswithother diseases, including laryngeal cancer. To date, there have been no studies of the mucosal immune response to this common inflamma- tory disease. Objectives: To determine the mucosal immune response to LPR. Methods: We performed a prospective immunologic study of laryn- gealbiopsiesfrompatientswithLPRandcontrolsubjects(n 512and

Louisa E. N. Rees; Laszlo Pazmany; Danuta Gutowska-Owsiak; Charlotte F. Inman; Anne Phillips; Christopher R. Stokes; Nikki Johnston; Jamie A. Koufman; Gregory Postma; Michael Bailey; Martin A. Birchall

2008-01-01

147

Intestinal flora and mucosal immune responses.  

PubMed

The normal intestinal flora and the mucosal immune system exist in close spatial proximity. A normal structure and function of both very complex systems is required for health and develops in a constant and interactive process. An abnormal host response to the normal intestinal flora leads to chronic intestinal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria may modulate the intestinal flora and the mucosal immune response and are an effective therapy for remission maintenance of ulcerative colitis and pouchitis. PMID:12755368

Heller, Frank; Duchmann, Rainer

2003-04-01

148

Glutathione Deficiency Leads to Mitochondrial Damage in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione deficiency induced in newborn rats by giving buthionine sulfoximine, a selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, led to markedly decreased cerebral cortex glutathione levels and striking enlargement and degeneration of the mitochondria. These effects were prevented by giving glutathione monoethyl ester, which relieved the glutathione deficiency, but such effects were not prevented by giving glutathione, indicating that glutathione is not

Ajey Jain; Johannes Martensson; Einar Stole; Peter A. M. Auld; Alton Meister

1991-01-01

149

Primary Carcinoid Tumor of the Ileal Efferent Limb of an Ileovesicostomy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report on the evaluation and management of a 47-year-old white male found to have primary carcinoid tumor of the ileal segment of his diverting ileovesicostomy thirty-five months after initial creation. Subsequent to presentation with intermittent gross hematuria, CT urogram highlights an 8?mm enhancing lesion near the enterovesical junction of urinary diversion. Office cystoscopy confirms presence of a lesion that was later endoscopically resected and found to be a well-differentiated carcinoid tumor. Evaluation with serum markers, direct visualization utilizing endoscopy, and imaging was without finding of alternate primary or metastatic lesions. The patient ultimately had the proximal ileal portion of his ileovesicostomy excised and the distal portion converted into an ileal conduit. After briefly discussing the carcinoid tumor and the carcinoid syndrome it may cause, we review the literature on the incidence of carcinoid tumors in a population requiring the use of intestine in the urinary tract.

Mellis, Adamantios M.; Parker, Daniel C.; Buethe, David D.; Slobodov, Gennady

2011-01-01

150

Glutathione Protects Lactococcus lactis against Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Glutathione was found in several dairy Lactococcus lactis strains grown in M17 medium. None of these strains was able to synthesize glutathione. In chemically defined medium, L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain SK11 was able to accumulate up to ?60 mM glutathione when this compound was added to the medium. Stationary-phase cells of strain SK11 grown in chemically defined medium supplemented with glutathione showed significantly increased resistance (up to fivefold increased resistance) to treatment with H2O2 compared to the resistance of cells without intracellular glutathione. The resistance to H2O2 treatment was found to be dependent on the accumulation of glutathione in 16 strains of L. lactis tested. We propose that by taking up glutathione, L. lactis might activate a glutathione-glutathione peroxidase-glutathione reductase system in stationary-phase cells, which catalyzes the reduction of H2O2. Glutathione reductase, which reduces oxidized glutathione, was detectable in most strains of L. lactis, but the activities of different strains were very variable. In general, the glutathione reductase activities of L. lactis subsp. lactis are higher than those of L. lactis subsp. cremoris, and the activities were much higher when strains were grown aerobically. In addition, glutathione peroxidase is detectable in strain SK11, and the level was fivefold greater when the organism was grown aerobically than when the organism was grown anaerobically. Therefore, the presence of glutathione in L. lactis could result in greater stability under storage conditions and quicker growth upon inoculation, two important attributes of successful starter cultures.

Li, Yin; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Abee, Tjakko; Molenaar, Douwe

2003-01-01

151

Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma.

Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

2009-01-01

152

Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated.

Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.

2012-01-01

153

Effects of the faecal stream and stasis on the ileal pouch mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effects of the faecal stream and stasis on the mucosa of ileal pouches. Nine patients were followed up. Two pouch biopsy specimens were obtained from each at the time of pouch formation, ileostomy closure, and three, six, and 12 months after operation. None developed pouchitis. Two pouch biopsy specimens each were also obtained from

H J de Silva; P R Millard; N Soper; M Kettlewell; N Mortensen; D P Jewell

1991-01-01

154

Ileal leiomyosarcoma and lymph node granuloma. Relevance of a rare association.  

PubMed

Leiomyosarcoma is rare in ileal location. We report the case of a 61 years old female patient presenting with ileal leiomyosarcoma occurring at 14 years after a uterine carcinoma treated by radiotherapy. The ileal tumor was treated by surgical resection. This tumor was peculiar by the macroscopic polypoid appearance and by expression of PDGFRA protein together with muscle differentiation proteins: smooth muscle actin, desmin and h-caldesmon. Lymph node necrotizing granuloma diagnosis on the surgical resection specimen lead to the diagnosis of tuberculosis and the patient was treated accordingly. At 3 years after the diagnosis, the patient was well, without recurrence or metastases. In conclusion, we report the case of a patient diagnosed with ileal leiomyosarcoma occurring 14 years after adjuvant radiotherapy for uterine carcinoma. Analysis of the intestinal resection specimen lead to the diagnosis of associated tuberculosis. Moreover, the leiomyosarcoma was peculiar by PDGFRA expression, feature which might be of clinical relevance since the treatment options in radioinduced tumors associated with other conditions are limited. PMID:22440051

Badescu, Alina; Lae, Marick; Morin, Anne-Sophie; Handra-Luca, Adriana

2012-10-01

155

Quality of life in patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis at the University of Cincinnati  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In 1978, Drs. Fischer and Martin were among the first to preserve anorectal continence and create a pelvic reservoir in adult patients, in what has become the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA).Methods: Here we review our institutions’ experience with 379 of these procedures from 1978 to present. To assess the specific health concerns of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and

Bruce Robb; Timothy Pritts; Gyu Gang; Brad Warner; Connie Seeskin; Marilyn Stoops; Laura James; Janice Rafferty; Richard Azizkhan; Lester Martin; Michael Nussbaum

2002-01-01

156

Detection of an ileal cavernous hemangioma by technetium-99m red blood cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Patients with arteriovenous malformations of the bowel may have multiple symptoms secondary to chronic blood loss. A case of ileal cavernous hemangioma detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cell imaging in the absence of active gastrointestinal bleeding is presented.

Holloway, H.; Johnson, J.; Sandler, M.

1988-01-01

157

Effect of enterocoated cholestyramine on bowel habit after ileal resection: a double blind crossover study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ileal resection causes malabsorption of bile acid; the increased load of bile acids in the colon induces increased secretion of salt and water and hence diarrhoea. A study was carried out to test the effect of an enterocoated cholestyramine tablet designed to disintegrate in the colon and sequester the bile acids there, thereby minimising diarrhoea induced by bile acids while

O Jacobsen; L Højgaard; E Hylander Møller; T O Wielandt; M Thale; S Jarnum; E Krag

1985-01-01

158

Management of fistula of ileal conduit in open abdomen by intra-condoit negative pressure system  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We aimed to present the management of a patient with fistula of ileal conduit in open abdomen by intra-condoid negative pressure in conjunction with VAC Therapy and dynamic wound closure system (ABRA). PRESENTATION OF CASE 65-Year old man with bladder cancer underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit operation. Fistula from uretero-ileostomy anastomosis and ileus occurred. The APACHE II score was 23, Mannheim peritoneal index score was 38 and Björck score was 3. The patient was referred to our clinic with ileus, open abdomen and fistula of ileal conduit. Patient was treated with intra-conduid negative pressure, abdominal VAC therapy and ABRA. DISCUSSION Management of urine fistula like EAF in the OA may be extremely challenging. Especially three different treatment modalities of EAF are established in recent literature. They are isolation of the enteric effluent from OA, sealing of EAF with fibrin glue or skin flep and resection of intestine including EAF and re-anastomosis. None of these systems were convenient to our case, since urinary fistula was deeply situated in this patient with generalized peritonitis and ileus. CONCLUSION Application of intra-conduid negative pressure in conjunction with VAC therapy and ABRA is life saving strategies to manage open abdomen with fistula of ileal conduit.

Yetisir, Fahri; Salman, A. Ebru; Aygar, Muhittin; Yaylak, Faik; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yalcin, Abdussamet

2014-01-01

159

Stagnant loop syndrome in patients with continent ileostomy (intra-abdominal ileal reservoir)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal absorption and bacteriology of the ileal contents were compared in seven patients with continent ileostomy and seven patients with conventional ileostomy. The absorption of vitamin B12 was reduced in five patients with continent ileostomy and subnormal in two patients with conventional ileostomy. Steatorrhoea was present in four patients with continent and one patient with conventional ileostomy. Increased concentrations of

H Schjonsby; J F Halvorsen; T Hofstad; N Hovdenak

1977-01-01

160

Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed. PMID:22380827

Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

2012-03-01

161

The Roles of Glutathione, Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Reductase and the Carbonyl Protein in Pulmonary and Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background This study determines the protein carbonyls which cause cellular damage and glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase act as antioxidants. Materials and Methods This study was carried out in different categories of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases of newly sputum culture positive diagnosed pulmonary categorie I (n=100), extra pulmonary patients categorie (n=35) before and after the DOTS treatment of 6 months, categorie II (n=100), categorie III (n=100) and in normal control subjects (n=100). Results The serum protein carbonyl levels were significantly increased in the pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The activities of blood glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were found to be significantly decreased in subjects of all the categories of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis. A negative correlation between the carbonyl protein content and glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase was seen in pulmonary tuberculosis, p<0.001. Conclusion Increased antioxidant defense mechanism due to increase oxidative stress in tuberculosis. The changes were reversed after 6 months of antitubercular treatment in patients with a good recovery, but the increase in the oxidative stress was not completely reversed.

Dalvi, Shubhangi M.; Patil, Vinayak W.; Ramraje, Nagsen N.

2012-01-01

162

Strategies for improving mucosal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Within this review we will provide a comprehensive understanding in order to improve existing strategies and to develop new systems to lower the barrier for improving mucosal drug delivery. Mucosal administration of drugs achieves a therapeutical effect as the permeation of significant amounts of a drug is permitted through the absorption membrane. The absorption membrane relies on the mucosal layer and the epithelial tissue. In order to overcome barriers, drug delivery systems have to exhibit various functions and features, such as mucoadhesive and protective activity, solubility improving, permeation and uptake enhancing, and drug release controlling properties. This review also aims to provide an insight of well-distinguished strategies to date, as well as provide a focus on the enhancement of membrane permeability. Furthermore, since the development and functions of drug delivery systems exert a high influence on the ability of drug permeation through membrane, these considerations will also be discussed in this review. PMID:24279493

Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2013-12-01

163

Mucosal mast cell responses in rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with Centrocestus caninus.  

PubMed

Mucosal mast cell (MMC) responses and worm recovery rates in rats experimentally infected with Centrocestus caninus were investigated. Metacercariae of C. caninus, procured from goldfish, Carassius auratus, were orally administered to twenty-five male rats (300 metacercariae each rat). The infected rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-infection (PI) along with the control rats. Worm recovery was performed from each part of small intestine. To investigate MMC, duodenal, jejunal and ileal paraffinized-tissue sections were processed and stained with 1% alcian blue and 0.5% safranin-O. The average worm recovery rates were 42.8, 37.7, 21.2, 12.5 and 3.7% on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 PI, respectively. The majority of the worms (98.9%) were collected from the duodenum and jejunum. The MMC numbers in the infected rats were significantly higher than those of the controls (p<0.05). A peak level was observed on days 14 PI and the numbers gradually decreased thereafter. The results reveal that MMC plays an important role in the expulsion of C. caninus from the host intestine. A more precise description of the role the MMC plays in helminth expulsion is still needed to understand the mechanism of host defense against intestinal helminthic infection, along with other effector cells, such as goblet cells. PMID:17120962

Saenphet, Supap; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Chai, Jong-Yil

2006-05-01

164

Laparoscopic-assisted ileal pouch-rectal muscle sheath anastomosis for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal disease treated by proctocolectomy. While ileal pouch-anal anastomosis\\u000a preserves the anus, defecation dysfunction and incontinence can occur. We herein report the results of an improved laparoscopic-assisted\\u000a ileal pouch-rectal muscle sheath anastomosis after total proctocolectomy which preserves anal function, and compare the results\\u000a with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 22 patients with FAP

Lian-jie Liu; Xiao-hui Shi; Xiao-dong Xu; Hai-feng Gong; Chuan-gang Fu; Hao Wang

165

Endoscopic, assisted, modified turbinoplasty with mucosal flap.  

PubMed

A variety of surgical methods have been developed to reduce the volume of the inferior turbinates, in order to create a more patent nasal airway. We describe a technique used in our department since February 2002 for all patients undergoing inferior turbinectomy. We resect with endoscopic assistance the lateral mucosa and bony inferior turbinate. This technique can reduce a large volume of the turbinate while preserving the mucosal continuity and the submucosa by covering the raw surface with a mucosal flap. We believe our method minimises post-operative side effects and complications such as dryness, infection, bleeding and pain. PMID:22380635

Puterman, M M; Segal, N; Joshua, B-Z

2012-05-01

166

Oxidized Glutathione Promotes Sleep in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutatione is implicated in sleep regulation. There are circadian changes in brain glutathione levels, and nocturnal intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) slow infusion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or reduced glutathione (GSH) promotes rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS) in rats. In the present experiments, we tested the effects of GSSG on duration of sleep, NREMS intensity, and brain temperature in another species, rabbits.

Mayumi Kimura; Levente Kapás; James M Krueger

1998-01-01

167

The extended catalysis of glutathione transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione transferase reaches 0.5–0.8mM concentration in the cell so it works in vivo under the unusual conditions of, [S]?[E]. As glutathione transferase lowers the pKa of glutathione (GSH) bound to the active site, it increases the cytosolic concentration of deprotonated GSH about five times and speeds its conjugation with toxic compounds that are non-typical substrates of this enzyme. This acceleration

Raffaele Fabrini; Alessio Bocedi; Kutayba F. Dawood; Paola Turella; Lorenzo Stella; Michael W. Parker; Jens Z. Pedersen; Giorgio Federici; Giovanni Antonini; Giorgio Ricci

2011-01-01

168

Bcl-2/Caspase 3 mucosal imbalance favors T cell resistance to apoptosis in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to result from complex interplay between genetic, microbial, and immunologic factors. Abnormal cell death by apoptosis may result in the persistence of activated intestinal T cells that contribute to mucosal inflammation and clinical severity. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the mucosal expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in different intestinal compartments and their association with inflammatory indices in dogs with IBD. Apoptosis of lamina propria (LP) T cells in duodenal, ileal, and colonic tissues in control and IBD dogs was analyzed by caspase 3/Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays. Densities and distributions of LP caspase 3 and Bcl-2 cells were correlated to histopathologic lesions and the clinical activity index (CIBDAI). Compared to control tissues, IBD dogs had significantly (P<0.01) fewer caspase 3 cells in colonic mucosa. Double immunostaining identified the majority of apoptotic cells as TUNEL(+)/caspase 3(+). Within intestinal mucosa of IBD dogs, there were significantly greater numbers of Bcl-2 cells at the apical and basilar villus in the duodenum as compared to the colon and to the apical and basilar villus in the ileum (P<0.001 for all comparisons). There were significantly greater numbers of Bcl-2 cells at the apical and basilar villus of the duodenum but significantly fewer numbers of Bcl-2 cells at the apical villus of the ileum in IBD dogs compared with controls (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.02, respectively). There was a significant association between the number of Bcl-2 cells in the duodenum of IBD dogs and the CIBDAI (P<0.001 each for mild, moderate and severe clinical IBD). In conclusion, apoptosis of T lymphocytes varies within intestinal compartments of dogs with IBD. Mucosal imbalance of Bcl-2/caspase 3 expression favors T cell resistance to apoptosis which may contribute to T cell accumulation and chronic intestinal inflammation, similar to human IBD. PMID:24495616

Jergens, A; Young, J; Moore, D; Wang, C; Hostetter, J; Augustine, L; Allenspach, K; Schmitz, S; Mosher, C

2014-04-15

169

Role of glutathione in winemaking: a review.  

PubMed

Glutathione is an important constituent of grapes, must, and wine. However, to date, no review has provided an integrated view of the role of this compound in wine-related systems. In this review, special emphasis is given to its occurrence in grapes, must, and wine and its role as an antioxidant in wine. The effect of glutathione on both desirable and undesirable aroma compounds is also outlined. Furthermore, the use of glutathione-enriched products in winemaking and the various analytical techniques for the quantification of glutathione in must and wine are discussed. Limitations in existing knowledge are also identified. PMID:23240621

Kritzinger, Engela C; Bauer, Florian F; du Toit, Wessel J

2013-01-16

170

Safety Survey of Intranasal Glutathione  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose Glutathione depletion has been documented in several disease states, and exogenous administration has been hypothesized to have therapeutic potential for some conditions. In an effort to reach target tissues of the sinuses and central nervous system (CNS), glutathione is being prescribed as an intranasal spray, although no literature exists to support this mode of administration. The objective of this study was to describe patient-reported outcomes in a population of individuals who have been prescribed intranasal reduced glutathione, (in)GSH. Methods A survey was designed to assess individuals' perception of tolerability, adverse events, and health benefits associated with (in)GSH use. Using a pharmacy database, 300 individuals were randomly selected to receive a survey; any individual who had received one or more prescriptions for (in)GSH between March 2009 and March 2011 was eligible for participation. Results Seventy (70) individuals returned the survey (23.3% response rate) from 20 different states. Reported indications for (in)GSH prescriptions were multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) (n=29), allergies/sinusitis (n=25), Parkinson disease (PD) (n=7), Lyme disease (n=3), fatigue (n=2), and other (n=10). Of the respondents, 78.8% (n=52) reported an overall positive experience with (in)GSH, 12.1% (n=8) reported having experienced adverse effects, and 62.1% (n=41) reported having experienced health benefits attributable to (in)GSH use. Over 86% of respondents considered the nasal spray to be comfortable and easy to administer. Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate patient-reported outcomes among individuals across the country who have been prescribed (in)GSH. The majority of survey respondents considered (in)GSH to be effective and without significant adverse effects. (in)GSH should be further evaluated as a method of treating respiratory and CNS diseases where free-radical burden is a suspected contributor to disease progression.

Vespignani, Marco F.; Finnell, John S.

2013-01-01

171

Determining Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Using the Fluorescence Probe o-Phthalaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the importance of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in cellular signal transduction, gene regulation, redox regulation, and biochemical homeostasis, accurate determination of cellular glutathione levels is critical. Several procedures have been developed, but many suffer from overestimating GSSG or from cellular substances interfering or competing with GSH determination. Assays based on HPLC, with enzymatic reduction of GSSG

Albert P. Senft; Timothy P. Dalton; Howard G. Shertzer

2000-01-01

172

The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: A proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both glutathione and an NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase are present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. It is proposed that glutathione functions to stabilise enzymes of the Calvin cycle, and it may also act to keep ascorbic acid in chloroplasts in the reduced form.

Christine H. Foyer; Barry Halliwell

1976-01-01

173

Effect of Santoquin and oxidized fat on liver and intestinal glutathione in broilers.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine effects of Santoquin (ethoxyquin) and oxidized fat on liver and intestinal reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, and pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) mortality. Male broilers were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of 3.5% normal (NF) or oxidized (OxF) fat with or without ethoxyquin (E). Body weights and feed intake were monitored weekly, and tissues obtained at 3 and 7 wk for GSH and GSSG analysis. Compared to the NF group, NF/E gained more weight during the starter (0 to 3 wk), but not the grower (4 to 7 wk) period. Birds fed NF/E or NF exhibited greater feed efficiency in the starter period and greater gains during the starter and grower periods than birds fed OxF or OxF/E. No differences in PHS mortality between treatments were observed. Birds fed OxF exhibited lower liver GSSG at 3 wk than the other groups, but there were no differences in liver GSH. Duodenal GSH was higher in birds fed OxF/E than in birds of NF group at 3 and 7 wk. Ileal GSH was higher at 3 wk in OxF/E birds than in OxF birds, but no differences were observed at 7 wk. All tissues exhibited higher GSH levels at 7 wk than at 3 wk. Birds fed ethoxyquin, regardless of fat source, exhibited higher duodenal GSH at 3 and 7 wk and higher ileal GSH at 3 wk than birds that did not receive ethoxyquin. Higher GSH would be beneficial by enhancing protection of intestinal cells to deleterious effects of toxins or other forms of oxidative stress. PMID:9200231

Wang, S Y; Bottje, W; Maynard, P; Dibner, J; Shermer, W

1997-07-01

174

Effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosal blood flow in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucralfate possesses site protective and cytoprotective actions and heals ulcers effectively, but its effect on gastric mucosal blood flow is unknown. Using an ex vivo gastric chamber preparation, we studied the effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosal blood flow in rats by laser doppler flowmetry. Under both fasting and fed states, measurements of gastric mucosal blood flow and damage were

B W Chen; W M Hiu; S K Lam; C H Cho; M M Ng; C T Luk

1989-01-01

175

Mechanism of helicobacter pylori -associated gastric mucosal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric mucosal damage and the infiltration of neutrophils. Myeloperoxidase from neutrophils produces hypochlorous acid, which yields monochloramine in the presence of ammonia produced by urease enzyme ofHelicobacter pylori. The target cells of gastric mucosal damage are gastric mucosal cells and endothelial cells. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ammonium, hypochlorous acid, and monochloramine damage

Hiroshi Dekigai; Motomobu Murakami; Toru Kita

1995-01-01

176

Trefoil factors: initiators of mucosal healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract, despite the continual presence of microbial flora and injurious agents, is essential. Epithelial continuity depends on a family of small, yet abundant, secreted proteins — the trefoil factors (TFFs). TFFs protect mucous epithelia from a range of insults and contribute to mucosal repair, although the signalling events that mediate these responses are only

Douglas Taupin; Daniel K. Podolsky

2003-01-01

177

Intestinal mucosal disaccharidases in chronic pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal mucosal disaccharidase activity was measured in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis and in a control group. A significant increase in activities of sucrase and maltase was found in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Since these patients also had mild carbohydrate intolerance, patients with diabetes mellitus were also studied to rule out the possibility that diabetes rather than the

Constantine Arvanitakis; Ward A. Olsen

1974-01-01

178

Mucosal airway laceration secondary to endobronchial ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is becoming the standard of care for mediastinal sampling to diagnose and stage lung cancer. It is considered to be safe and rivals the gold standard, mediastinoscopy, in safety and accuracy. The present article describes a mucosal airway laceration and pneumothorax associated with the procedure.

Sandhu2, Amarinder; Rubio2, Edmundo; Ie2, Susanti; Boyd1, Michael

2012-01-01

179

Endoscopic treatment of a symptomatic ileal lipoma with recurrent ileocolic intussusceptions by using cap-assisted colonoscopy.  

PubMed

A 73-year-old woman presented with intermittent abdominal pain and weight loss of 15 kg for 2 years. Colonoscopy revealed an erythematous polypoid tumor with a long and wide stalk in the cecum, but with air inflation, it abruptly went away through the ileocecal valve (ICV). An abdominal computed tomography showed a well-demarcated pedunculated subepithelial mass of 2.6×2.7 cm size with fat attenuation in the terminal ileum. It was an intussusceptum of the ileal lipoma through the ICV. This ileal lipoma was causing her symptoms because repeated ileocolic intussusceptions resulted in intermittent intestinal obstructions. In order to avoid surgical sequelae of ileal resection, snare polypectomy using cap-assisted colonoscopy technique was performed within the ileum without complications. The histopathology report confirmed it as a subepithelial lipoma. After endoscopic resection of the ileal lipoma, the patient has been free of symptoms and was restored to the original weight. PMID:23964343

Lee, Eun Sung; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Kyung Soo; Lee, Hang Lak; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

2013-07-01

180

CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for adherent-invasive E. coli, supporting ileal mucosa colonization in Crohn disease  

PubMed Central

The ileal mucosa of Crohn disease (CD) patients is abnormally colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) that are able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we show that CD-associated AIEC strains adhere to the brush border of primary ileal enterocytes isolated from CD patients but not controls without inflammatory bowel disease. AIEC adhesion is dependent on type 1 pili expression on the bacterial surface and on carcinoembryonic antigen–related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) expression on the apical surface of ileal epithelial cells. We report also that CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for AIEC adhesion and is abnormally expressed by ileal epithelial cells in CD patients. In addition, our in vitro studies show that there is increased CEACAM6 expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells after IFN-? or TNF-? stimulation and after infection with AIEC bacteria, indicating that AIEC can promote its own colonization in CD patients.

Barnich, Nicolas; Carvalho, Frederic A.; Glasser, Anne-Lise; Darcha, Claude; Jantscheff, Peter; Allez, Matthieu; Peeters, Harald; Bommelaer, Gilles; Desreumaux, Pierre; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

2007-01-01

181

Expression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase pi in canine mammary tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important agents of the antioxidant defense system of the cell because, in conjunction with the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S transferase pi (GSTpi), it plays a central role in the detoxification and biotransformation of chemotherapeutic drugs. This study evaluated the expression of GSH and the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine mammary tumors, relating the clinicopathological parameters, clinical outcome and survival of the bitches. In an in vitro study, the expression of the genes glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) that synthesize GSH and GSH-Px gene were verified by qPCR and subjected to treatment with doxorubicin, to check the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Results The immunohistochemical expression of GSH, GSH-Px and GSTpi was compared with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the clinical outcome in the bitches, including metastasis and death. The results showed that high immunoexpression of GSH was correlated to the absence of tumor ulceration and was present in dogs without metastasis (P??0.05). The analysis of the relative expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of GSH (GCLC and GSS) and GSH-Px by quantitative PCR was done with cultured cells of 10 tumor fragments from dogs with mammary tumors. The culture cells showed a decrease in GCLC and GSS expression when compared with no treated cells (P?

2014-01-01

182

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification. A glutathione test system is a device intended to...

2009-04-01

183

21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1365 Glutathione test system. (a) Identification. A glutathione test system is a device intended to...

2010-04-01

184

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...

2010-04-01

185

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...

2009-04-01

186

Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with either a handsewn or a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), with or without mucosectomy. The purpose of these surgeries is to stop progression to an adenoma-cancer sequence by eradicating the colon, a disease prone organ. Unfortunately, these surgical procedures, which excise the entire colon and rectum while maintaining transanal fecal continence, do not guarantee that patients still won't develop adenomas. Based on the available literature, we therefore reviewed reported incidences of pouch-related adenomas that occurred post prophylactic surgery for FAP. The review consists of a collection of case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports. Objectives To provide available data on the natural history of subsequent adenomas after prophylactic surgery (by type) for FAP. Methods A review was conducted of existing case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports for patients undergoing prophylactic surgery for FAP (1975 – August, 2013). In each case, the adenomas were clearly diagnosed in one of the following: the ileal pouch mucosa (above the ileorectal anastomosis), within the anorectal segment (ARS) below the ileorectal anastomosis, or in the afferent ileal loop. Results A total of 515 (36%) patients with pouch-related adenomas have been reported. Two hundred and eleven (211) patients had adenomas in the ileal pouch mucosa, 295 had them in the ARS and in 9 were in the afferent ileal loop. Patients with pouch adenomas without dysplasia or cancer were either endoscopically polypectomized or were treated with a coagulation modality using either a Nd:Yag laser or argon plasma coagulation (as indicated). Patients with dysplastic pouch adenomas or pouch adenomas with cancer had their pouch excised (pouchectomy). Conclusion In patients with FAP treated with IRA or RPC with IPAA, the formation of adenomas in the pouch-body mucosa or ARS/anastomosis and in the afferent ileal loop is apparent. Because of risks for adenoma recurrence, a life time endoscopic pouch-surveillance is warranted.

M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

2014-01-01

187

Glutathione reductase is not required for maintenance of reduced glutathione in Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

Seven independently isolated glutathione reductase-deficient (gor) Escherichia coli mutants were found to have an in vivo glutathione redox state that did not significantly differ from that of the parental strain, 98 to 99% reduced. Strains containing both a gor mutation and either a trxA mutation (thioredoxin deficient) or a trxB mutation (thioredoxin reductase deficient) were able to maintain a 94 to 96% reduced glutathione pool, suggesting that glutathione can be reduced independently of glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase.

Tuggle, C K; Fuchs, J A

1985-01-01

188

Two thermoformable spiral metallic ureteral stents in a patient with ileal conduit and distal stenosis of the ureters.  

PubMed

The insertion of two thermoformable ureteral titanium spiral stents (Memokath® 051) through ileal conduit due to bilateral ureteral stenosis distally has not been described in the English literature so far. We present the case of a young female patient with a history of ileal conduit urinary diversion due to congenital urinary bladder exstrophy, who had multiple previous surgeries and the insertion of two Memokath® ureteral stents in both ureters due to distal ureteral stenosis. PMID:23154754

Al-Mahmid, M; Ahrens, U; Zimmer, S; Winand, S; Özgür, E; Engelmann, U H; Wille, S

2013-01-01

189

Glutathione and its role in cellular functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione (GSH) is the major cellular thiol participating in cellular redox reactions and thioether formation. This article serves as introduction to the FRBM Forum on glutathione and emphasizes cellular functions: What is GSH? Where does it come from? Where does it go? What does it do? What is new and noteworthy? Research tools, historical remarks, and links to current trends.

Helmut Sies

1999-01-01

190

Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species. The cells of the human brain consume about 20% of the oxygen utilized by the body but constitute only 2% of the body weight. Consequently, reactive oxygen species

Ralf Dringen

2000-01-01

191

Glutathione regulation in rat hepatic stellate cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid peroxidation accompanies many types of liver injury and is believed to promote liver fibrosis. Cellular antioxidants are likely to play an important role in modulating this process; however, little is known about antioxidants in hepatic stellate cells, the major collagen-producing cells of liver. In this study, we measured glutathione homeostasis in stellate cells isolated from rat liver. Glutathione, measured

Jacquelyn J. Maher; Jacqueline M. Saito; Brent A. Neuschwander-Tetri

1997-01-01

192

Spontaneous Perforation as a First Presentation of Ileal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) with Synchronous Breast Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST’s) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Majority of the GISTs are asymptomatic and often diagnosis is incidental. Synchronous second malignancies have been reported in patients with GIST. We report a case of 50-year-old female presenting with features of hollow viscous perforation, found to have ileal GIST with perforations along with a synchronous breast sarcoma. GIST with spontaneous perforation as its first clinical manifestation is rare. Synchronous occurrence of an ileal GIST with a breast sarcoma is unique and deserves reporting. This case report highlights the varied nature of clinical presentation of the GIST and also stresses on the importance of extensive search for the synchronous second malignancies in the extra abdominal sites as well.

Barad, Arun Kumar; Padu, Kemba; Singh K., Sridartha; Singh TH., Sudhir Chandra

2014-01-01

193

A rare case of perforated tubular ileal duplication in 72-year-old male.  

PubMed

Enteric duplication is a rare anomaly, which is common in pediatric population, and it is very rare in adults. Enteric duplication can occur anywhere from mouth to anus. Ileal duplication is the most common (30 %) followed by duodenum, stomach, jejunum, colon and rectum. Though most cases are presented within the first 2 years of life, some may present at later age. Here we report a case of a 72-year-old male presented to us in emergency as acute abdomen, which was presumptively diagnosed as ca rectosigmoid, but later the patient developed perforative peritonitis. On exploratory laparotomy he was diagnosed as a case of perforated ileal duplication cyst. Though these lesions are very rare, the importance of enteric duplication cysts lies in the fact that they can mimic many disease conditions and may be left untreated. PMID:24426635

Ekbote, Gajanan; Pokharkar, Ashish Balwant; Moon, Prashant

2013-06-01

194

[A case of intestinal tuberculosis associated with ileo-ileal fistula].  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman was admitted with fever and right lower abdominal pain that had started 3 days after the administration of antituberculosis agents for pulmonary tuberculosis. She was given a diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis with ileo-ileal fistula formation on computed tomography, colonoscopy and laboratory test findings. She was kept on anti-tuberculosis agents. Soon after, ileus and a micro abscess appeared near the fistula. Ileocecal resection with partial ileal resection resulted in a good postoperative clinical course. Tuberculosis is still a major infectious disease. Intestinal tuberculosis is very rarely associated with fistula formation, and when it occurs, is difficult to differentiate from Crohn disease. Our case strongly suggests that typical intestinal tuberculosis findings can help in differential diagnosis between intestinal tuberculosis and Crohn disease. PMID:20203445

Miura, Tomofumi; Shimizu, Takao; Nakamura, Junichiro; Yamada, Satoshi; Yanagi, Masahiko; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Emura, Iwao; Takahashi, Toru

2010-03-01

195

Spiral bacterium associated with gastric, ileal and caecal mucosa of mice.  

PubMed

A spiral shaped bacterium was seen in smears and histological sections (stained by carbolfuchsin) of gastric, ileal and caecal mucosa as well as in stool smears from mice. A significant correlation between the presence of the spiral bacterium and the occurrence of gastritis was observed but the ileal and caecal mucosa seemed unaffected. The bacterium was Gram negative and grew on BHM and Skirrow's medium, under microaerophilic conditions, at 37 degrees C. Its major biochemical characteristics included positive catalase and oxidase reactions and a rapidly positive urease test. There were 2 or 3 spiral turns per cell and a tuft of up to 12 sheathed flagella on each pointed end. Entwined, braided periplasmic fibrils covered the surface of the cell. This spiral bacterium seemed to be part of the normal intestinal flora but was associated with gastritis. PMID:1447907

Queiroz, D M; Contigli, C; Coimbra, R S; Nogueira, A M; Mendes, E N; Rocha, G A; Moura, S B

1992-10-01

196

A Case of Giant Inflammatory Ileal Polyp Removed by Double-Balloon Enteroscopy  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare benign tumors of the GI tract, that commonly present with intestinal obstruction as a result of intussusceptions in the small bowel. A 39-year old man visited our clinic with an asymptomatic polypoid mass in the distal ileum that was identified on abdominal computed tomography for postoperative surveillance after total gastrectomy due to previously diagnosed early gastric cancer. Retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy was performed to diagnose the ileal mass and a complete resection of the polyp was performed using snare for polypectomy without complications. The final histological finding was an ileal inflammatory polyp. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy is a valuable modality to diagnose and treat small bowel lesions in lieu of surgical procedures in selected cases.

Yoon, Dae Woong; Lee, Jae Hyoung; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae; Choi, Won Jae; Mok, Young Jae

2012-01-01

197

Ileal relaxation induced by Mentha longifolia (L.) leaf extract in rat.  

PubMed

The effect of Mentha longifolia (L.) leaf hydroalcoholic extract (MLE) was examined on rat ileal smooth muscle contractions. Last portion of ileum from male adult Wistar rat was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution. The tissue was contracted by carbachol (CCh, 10 microM), KCl (60 mM) and BaC12 (4 mM) and then MLE (0.0625-1 mg mL(-1)) was added to the bath cumulatively. The effect of MLE on KCl-induced contraction was examined after tissue incubation with propranolol (1 microM), naloxone (1 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM). The effect of MLE on CaCl2-induced ileal contraction in Ca(2+)-free with high potassium Tyrode solution was also evaluated. The role of potassium channels was examined by ileum incubation (5 mim) with tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM). The results showed that KCl-, CCh and BaCl2-induced ileal contractions were inhibited (p < 0.001) by cumulative concentrations of MLE with the same potency. In addition, MLE (0.25-1 mg mL(-1)) inhibited (p < 0.01) ileal contractions induced by CaCl2 (0.45-2.7 mM) in a concentration-related manner. The antispasmodic effect of MLE was affected neither by propranolol, L-NAME nor by naloxone. The MLE concentration-response curve was shifted to the right (p < 0.05) by tissue incubation with TEA. From results it may be suggested that Mentha longifolia hydroalcoholic leaf extract induces its spasmolytic activity mainly through disturbance in calcium mobilization and partly by potassium channels activation. Present results show that Mentha longifolia leaf extract exerts relaxant effects on intestinal smooth muscle, consistent with the traditional use of the plant to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and colic. PMID:18819647

Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Naseri, Zahra Gharib; Mohammadian, Maryam; Birgani, Marzie Omidi

2008-06-15

198

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K

2014-01-01

199

Ileal lipoma - a rare cause of ileocolic intussusception in adults: Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

The occurrence of intussusception in adults is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all cases of intussusceptions and almost 1%-5% of bowel obstruction. The condition is found in less than 1 in 1300 abdominal operations and 1 in 100 patients operated for intestinal obstruction. The child to adult ratio is more than 20:1. We report a rare case of ileocolic intussusception in an adult secondary to an ileal lipoma. PMID:21286220

Balamoun, Hany; Doughan, Samer

2011-01-27

200

Laparoscopic Repair of Ileal Conduit Parastomal Hernia Using the Sling Technique  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair has become a viable option to overcome the challenges that face the hernia surgeon. Multiple techniques have been described over the last 5 years, one of which is the lateralizing “sling” technique, first described by Sugarbaker in1980. In this study, we report the technique and our early results with the laparoscopic modified Sugarbaker repair of parastomal hernias after ileal conduit.

Chand, Bipan

2008-01-01

201

Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Meat Meal and Soybean Meal Fed to Growing Pigs  

PubMed Central

The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) in meat meal (MM), and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM). Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg) surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM.

Kong, C.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, K. H.

2014-01-01

202

Motility of the small intestine after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.  

PubMed Central

Though the mechanisms of continence after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis have been studied, functions of the small intestine have received little attention. However, frequent stools and urgency plague some patients who are otherwise quite continent. Motility of the jejunum and ileum was assessed in eight patients with ulcerative colitis who were studied 4 to 24 months after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; these findings were compared to those in six healthy volunteers. Continuous manometric recordings from the small bowel were obtained in both groups for 16 to 23 hours of fasting; postprandial recordings were made for 6 hours following a mixed meal (800 kcal, 20% protein, 40% fat, 40% carbohydrate) in the ileoanal patients. The duration, velocity of propagation, and periodicity of the migrating motor complex did not differ between the groups (P greater than 0.05). Discrete bursts of clustered contractions were recorded from all of the controls and in five of eight patients. Likewise, we recorded from all controls and five of eight patients large amplitude, prolonged waves of pressure which propagated distally. However, in controls these large amplitude waves were confined to the terminal ileum, but in patients these were detected in the jejunoileum, up to 125 cm proximal to the ileal pouch. We conclude that jejunoileal motility is not greatly altered by proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. However, the appearance of the large amplitude, rapidly propagating waves in the proximal jejunoileum after operation may be a response to increased storage within and distention of the distal bowel.

Stryker, S J; Borody, T J; Phillips, S F; Kelly, K A; Dozois, R R; Beart, R W

1985-01-01

203

Ileo-ileal Intussusception in an Adult Caused by Vanek's Tumour: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Adult intussusception is relatively rare in patients with bowel obstructions. Adult invagination is mostly caused by benign tumours. Intussusceptions caused by inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are uncommon. IFPs are rare, localized, non-neoplastic lesions originating in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. We are reporting a rare case of intestinal obstruction caused by an ileo-ileal intussusception, caused by an IFP, a rare but peculiar and always benign tumour.

Teli, Bhavuray; CP, Madhu; S, Sudhir; MV, Shreeharsha

2013-01-01

204

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever  

PubMed Central

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively.

Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

2014-01-01

205

Laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy with ileal conduit performed completely intracorporeally: the initial 2 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To present the initial 2 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy, bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, and ileal conduit urinary diversion, with the entire procedure performed exclusively by intracorporeal laparoscopic techniques.Methods. Two male patients, 78 and 70 years old, with muscle-invasive, organ-confined, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder underwent the procedure. The entire procedure, including radical cystoprostatectomy, pelvic node dissection,

Inderbir S Gill; Amr Fergany; Eric A Klein; Jihad H Kaouk; Gyung Tak Sung; Anoop M Meraney; Stephen J Savage; James C Ulchaker; Andrew C Novick

2000-01-01

206

Molecular ecological analysis of porcine ileal microbiota responses to antimicrobial growth promoters1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation-independent microbial mo- lecular ecology approaches were used to examine the effects of antibiotic growth promoters on the pig ileal microbiota. Five-week-old barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. Three diets meet- ing or exceeding the minimum nutrient requirements were fed for 5 wk and supplemented as follows: 1) nega- tive control (no antibiotic; n =

C. T. Collier; M. R. Smiricky-Tjardes; D. M. Albin; J. E. Wubben; V. M. Gabert; B. Deplancke; D. Bane; D. B. Anderson; H. R. Gaskins

207

Dysplasia in perforated intestinal pneumatosis complicating a previous jejuno-ileal bypass: A cautionary note  

PubMed Central

We present the case of an elderly woman who developed a bowel perforation related to pneumatosis intestinalis, 33 years after a jejuno-ileal bypass for severe obesity. Final histological examination revealed the presence of dysplasia in the resected specimen. On the basis of our case and a review of the literature, we discuss the etiopathogenesis, the clinical aspects and the treatment of this rare condition.

Portolani, Nazario; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Gadaldi, Stefano; Fisogni, Simona; Villanacci, Vincenzo

2009-01-01

208

Increased activity of digestive enzymes in ileal enterocytes adapting to proximal small bowel resection.  

PubMed Central

The ability of adapting ileal enterocytes to express different digestive enzymes in their brush border membranes was tested in young female Wistar rats (n = 72) receiving 60% proximal small bowel resection. In control rats with intestinal transection both neutral aminopeptidase and alpha-glucosidase activities were shown, by quantitative cytochemistry, to increase during enterocyte migration over the lower part of the villus; thereafter enzyme activities declined or remained approximately constant. Proximal enterectomy increased the amount of alpha-glucosidase but not neutral aminopeptidase activity appearing during early enterocyte development. Thymidine labelled autoradiography showed that the rate of enterocyte migration along the ileal villus nearly doubled after jejunal resection (19.3 v 11.1 microns/h). Nevertheless, the time taken for both peptidase and saccharidase activities to appear at maximal rates in the brush border membrane was diminished by about five hours. Thus ileal enterocytes adapt to proximal small bowel resection by selective increments in enzyme expression, findings that contradict the previous hypothesis of simple metabolic immaturity.

Chaves, M; Smith, M W; Williamson, R C

1987-01-01

209

Outcome of deceased donor renal transplantation in patients with an ileal conduit.  

PubMed

Renal transplantation in recipients with an ileal conduit is uncommon and occasionally controversial as it has been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. We report on 17 patients with an ileal conduit who received a deceased donor renal transplant at our institution between January 1986 and December 2012. We retrospectively reviewed their allograft and surgical outcome. There were four mortalities at five, five, 39, and 66 months post-transplant. Sixteen of 17 grafts functioned immediately; one patient had primary non-function secondary to vascular thrombosis. Thirteen of 17 (76.5%) grafts were functioning at a mean follow-up period of 105 months. The mean serum creatinine at follow-up was 111 ?M (±38.62). Five patients had seven episodes of urosepsis requiring hospital admission, and five patients received treatment for renal stone disease. We conclude that given improvements in immunosuppression, surgical technique, infection treatment, and selection criteria, we believe that renal transplantation in the patient with an ileal conduit yields excellent graft survival, although there is a high morbidity rate in this cohort of patients in the long term. PMID:24476501

McLoughlin, Louise C; Davis, Niall F; Dowling, Catherine M; Power, Richard E; Mohan, Ponusamy; Hickey, David P; Smyth, Gordon P; Eng, Molly M P; Little, Dilly M

2014-03-01

210

Laparoscopic radical cystectomy: neobladder or ileal conduit, debate still goes on  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the pre, intra, and post–operative data between ileal conduit and neobladder urinary diversions during laparoscopic radical cystectomy(LRC). Material and methods Between 2006 and 2011, 63 patients who underwent LRC and urinary diversion had their data input prospectively into a database and said data used for the analysis. The outcome comparators were the patient demographics, operative time, conversion rate, blood loss, transfusion rate, morphine analgesic requirement, length of hospital stay, complication rates, follow up, and quality of life assessments. A Mantel–Haenszel test was used for dichotomous data and an inverse variance method was used for continuous data. P values less than 0.5 were considered significant Results Thirty–nine patients (60 ±7.11 years) had ileal conduits and 24 patients (57 ±8.68 years) had neobladder urinary diversion. No difference was found (P >0.05) regarding age, BMI, smoking history, TURBT pathology result, blood loss, blood transfusion requirement, conversion rates, length of hospital stay, morphine requirement, complications, or follow–up and quality of life. The neobladder groups did have more previous abdominal operations and had significantly longer operative time. Conclusions We found no difference between either types of diversion in all comparative aspects except that the neobladder had longer operative times. This is the first comparative study between ileal conduit and neobladder urinary diversion after laparoscopic radical cystectomy and can pose as a bench mark for future comparisons.

Drewa, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Pawel; Chlosta, Piotr L.

2014-01-01

211

Inhibition of glutathione reductase by oncomodulin.  

PubMed

Evidence for a specific interaction between oncomodulin and glutathione reductase is presented. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) isolated from either the bovine intestinal mucosa or the rat liver was bound in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner to oncomodulin which was covalently attached to Sepharose. In addition, glutathione reductase was able to catalyze the reduction of the disulfide-linked dimer of oncomodulin. The interaction of these proteins could also be indirectly demonstrated by monitoring glutathione reductase activity since oncomodulin was shown to inhibit the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of approximately 5 microM. The kinetic analysis of the oncomodulin-dependent effects on glutathione reductase activity indicates that oncomodulin interacts at a site other than the active site as the oncomodulin-induced inhibition was of the noncompetitive type. The in vivo inhibition of glutathione reductase appears to be an oncomodulin-specific effect as closely related members of the troponin C superfamily such as rabbit (pI 5.5) or carp (pI 4.25) parvalbumins, as well as calmodulin, failed to affect the activity of this enzyme. The present in vitro study indicating that oncomodulin can regulate the activity of glutathione reductase could be very significant with respect to the elucidation of a physiological role for oncomodulin. PMID:2306116

Palmer, E J; MacManus, J P; Mutus, B

1990-02-15

212

Corneal endothelial glutathione after photodynamic change  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit corneal endothelial cells perfused with 5 X 10(-6)M rose bengal and exposed to incandescent light demonstrated no alteration of either total of or percent oxidized glutathione after 1 hr. Addition of 5400 U/ml catalase to the perfusing solution had no effect on total glutathione levels but caused a marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione in corneas exposed to light as well as in those not exposed to light. Substitution of sucrose for glucose in the perfusing solution had no effect on total or percent oxidized glutathione. Perfusion of rabbit corneal endothelium with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light resulted in no change in total glutathione content. A marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione occurred, however, in corneas perfused with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine both in the presence and absence of UV light. It is concluded that photodynamically induced swelling of corneas is not the result of a failure of the glutathione redox system.

Hull, D.S.; Riley, M.V.; Csukas, S.; Green, K.

1982-03-01

213

Glutathione cycle in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Glutathione is the most abundant cellular low-molecular weight thiol and the glutathione redox cycle is the fundamental component of the cellular antioxidant defence system. Concentration of total glutathione and catalytic activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in peripheral blood of patients (n = 109) and healthy subjects (n = 51). Concentration of total glutathione in patients was not changed in comparison to healthy controls. However, we found statistically significant difference between patients with moderate and severe disease stages. Glutathione reductase activity was increased, while glutathione proxidase activity was decreased in the patients with COPD, when compared to healthy controls. We found no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities between stages. Patients who smoked had lower concentration of total glutathione compared with former smokers and never-smoking patients. Lung function parameters were inversely associated with glutathione level. Evidence is presented for differential modulation of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in peripheral blood of patients with stable COPD. We suppose that in addition to glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione reductase-dependent regulation of the glutathione redox state is vital for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:20648694

Biljak, Vanja Radisi?; Rumora, Lada; Cepelak, Ivana; Pancirov, Dolores; Popovi?-Grle, Sanja; Sori?, Jasna; Grubisi?, Tihana Zani?

2010-08-01

214

Lung mucosal immunity: immunoglobulin-A revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Mucosal,defence mechanisms,are critical in preventing colonization of the respiratory tract by pathogens,and penetration of antigens through the epithelial barrier. Recent research has now,illustrated the active contribution of the respiratory epithelium to the exclusion of microbes and particles, but also to the control of the inflammatory,and immune,responses in the airways and in the alveoli. Epithelial cells also mediate,the active transport

C. Pilette; Y. Ouadrhiri; V. Godding; J. P. Vaerman; Y. Sibille

2001-01-01

215

Mucosal Healing and Mortality in Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Celiac disease (CD), characterized by the presence of villous atrophy (VA) in the small intestine, is associated with increased mortality, but it is unknown if this excess mortality is influenced by mucosal recovery. We examined overall mortality according to mucosal recovery in CD. METHODS Through biopsy reports from all pathology departments (n=28) in Sweden we identified 7,648 individuals with CD (defined as VA) who had undergone a follow-up biopsy within 5 years following diagnosis. We then used Cox regression to examine overall mortality according mucosal recovery in the follow-up biopsy (persistence of VA vs. recovery). RESULTS The mean age of CD diagnosis was 28.4, 63% were female, and the median follow-up after diagnosis was 11.5 years. Of the 7,648 patients, persistent VA was present in 3,317 (43%). There were 606 (8%) deaths. Patients with persistent VA were not at increased risk of death compared to those with mucosal healing (Hazard Ratio 1.01; 95% Confidence Interval 0.86-1.19). Mortality was not increased in children with persistent VA (HR 1.09 95% CI 0.37-3.16) or adults (HR 1.00 95% CI 0.85-1.18), including adults older than age 50 years (HR 0.96 95% CI 0.80-1.14). CONCLUSION Persistent VA was not associated with increased mortality in CD in this population followed for a median of 11.5 years. While a follow-up biopsy will determine if there is improvement in histology and allow detection of refractory disease in symptomatic patients, our study suggests that early routine follow up biopsies performed within 5 years does not predict long-term mortality risk.

Lebwohl, Benjamin; Granath, Fredrik; Ekbom, Anders; Montgomery, Scott M.; Murray, Joseph A.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

2013-01-01

216

Mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy with mucosal flaps  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe and assess the efficacy of mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (MENDCR). This is a new technique that involves creation of a large rhinostomy and mucosal flaps. The study involved a prospective non-randomised interventional case series with short perioperative follow up. Method: A prospective series of 104 consecutive endonasal DCRs performed from January 1999 to December 2001 were entered into the study. Patients included in the study had nasolacrimal duct obstruction and had not had previous lacrimal surgery. The technique involved anastomosis of nasal mucosal and lacrimal sac flaps and a large bony ostium. Surgery was performed by two surgeons (AT/PJW). Follow up assessment included nasoendoscopy as well as symptom evaluation. Success was defined as anatomical patency with fluorescein flow on nasoendoscopy and patency to lacrimal syringing. The average follow up time was 9.7 months (range 2–28, SD 6.7 months). Results: There were 104 DCRs performed on 86 patients (30 male, 56 female). The average age of the patients was 59 years (range 3–89, SD 24.1 years). Common presentations were epiphora (77%) and/or mucocele (19%). Septoplasty (SMR) was required in 48 DCRs (46%) and 13 DCRs (12.5%) needed other endoscopic surgery in conjunction with the lacrimal surgery. The surgery was successful in 93 cases (89%). Of the 11 cases that were classified as a failure six patients was anatomically patent but still symptomatic and another two had preoperative canalicular problems. The anatomical patency with this new technique was thus 95% (99 of 104 DCRs). Conclusion: MENDCR involves creation of a large ostium and mucosal preservation for the construction of flaps. The anatomical success is 95% and is similar to external DCR and better then other endonasal approaches. The authors suggest that creation of a large ostium as well as mucosal flaps improves the efficacy of this endonasal technique.

Tsirbas, A; Wormald, P J

2003-01-01

217

Diclofenac delays healing of gastroduodenal mucosal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the water-soluble and delayed-release formulations of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, diclofenac, on the healing of gastroduodenal mucosal lesions were compared in a double-blind, double cross-over, placebo-controlled endoscopic study conducted in 14 healthy volunteers. Severe endoscopic lesions (petechiae, erosions, ulcers, and esophageal candidiasis) were found only in the group taking the soluble formulation of diclofenac (PP<0.05 vs placebo).

Philippe Stadler; David Armstrong; Doron Margalith; Emilia Saraga; Manfred Stolte; Paulo Lualdi; Giuseppe Mautone; Andre Louis Blum

1991-01-01

218

The microbiome and regulation of mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is a mucosal surface constantly exposed to foreign antigens and microbes, and is protected by a vast array of immunologically active structures and cells. Epithelial cells directly participate in immunological surveillance and direction of host responses in the gut and can express numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR9, and nucleotide oligomerization domain 2, as well as produce chemotactic factors for both myeloid and lymphoid cells following inflammatory stimulation. Within the epithelium and in the underlying lamina propria resides a population of innate lymphoid cells that, following stimulation, can become activated and produce effector cytokines and exert both protective and pathogenic roles during inflammation. Lamina propria dendritic cells play a large role in determining whether the response to a particular antigen will be inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. It is becoming clear that the composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome, as a whole community, exerts a profound influence on mucosal immune regulation. The microbiome produces short-chain fatty acids, polysaccharide A, ?-galactosylceramide and tryptophan metabolites, which can induce interleukin-22, Reg3?, IgA and interleukin-17 responses. However, much of what is known about microbiome-host immune interactions has come from the study of single bacterial members of the gastrointestinal microbiome and their impact on intestinal mucosal immunity. Additionally, evidence continues to accumulate that alterations of the intestinal microbiome can impact not only gastrointestinal immunity but also immune regulation at distal mucosal sites. PMID:24329495

McDermott, Andrew J; Huffnagle, Gary B

2014-05-01

219

Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission  

PubMed Central

While there has been great progress in treating HIV-1 infection1, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission2–4. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal transmission in the SIV-rhesus macaque model point to opportunities in the earliest stages of infection where a vaccine or microbicide might be protective, by limiting the expansion of infected founder populations at the portal of entry5, 6. Here we show in this SIV-macaque model, that an outside-in endocervical mucosal signalling system, involving MIP-3?, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CCR5+cell-attracting chemokines produced by these cells, in combination with the innate immune and inflammatory responses to infection in both cervix and vagina, recruit CD4+T cells to fuel this obligate expansion. We then show that glycerol monolaurate, a widely used antimicrobial compound 7 with inhibitory activity against production of MIP-3? and other proinflammatory cytokines8, can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. This novel approach, plausibly linked to interfering with innate host responses that recruit the target cells necessary to establish systemic infection, opens a promising new avenue for development of effective interventions to block HIV-1 mucosal transmission.

Li, Qingsheng; Estes, Jacob D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Duan, Lijie; Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Southern, Peter J.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Brunner, Kevin G.; Nephew, Karla R.; Pambuccian, Stefan; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

2009-01-01

220

Gastroesophageal reflux disease: beyond mucosal injury.  

PubMed

Emerging information on physiology and pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease raises the question of whether our thought process should go beyond mucosal injury and consider 2 parallel tracks that may cross each other at some time, but at other times they may indeed remain parallel, that is, neurally mediated effects of reflux events beyond the esophageal wall and inflammation mediated effect of reflux within the esophageal wall. In this process, intraesophageal events with and without causing mucosal injury may induce changes in the neural function on a temporary or long-term basis resulting in symptoms at different organs and various levels not completely in lock-step with esophageal mucosal injury. Emerging data also suggest the influence of liminal and subliminal esophageal acid exposure on cerebral cortical networks involved in motor function such as swallowing in addition to its effect on sensory centers. These observations suggest the existence of a more extensive influence of esophageal sensory input to the cerebral cortical processing mechanisms than previously thought and may provide new avenues for research in pathophysiology of reflux disease. PMID:17575516

Shaker, Reza

2007-07-01

221

Colitis and colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Trauma, infection, neoplasia, and inflammation can all disrupt the intact intestinal mucosal barrier to intraluminal bacteria and bacterial antigens. This study investigated the relation between colonic inflammation and colonic mucosal barrier function in three experimental models of colitis. There were significantly increased systemic endotoxin concentrations in rats with acetic acid (7.5 (1.7-119.5) pg/ml), ethanol (13.7 (0-111.2) pg/ml), and hapten induced (14.4 (5-31.1) pg/ml) colitis compared with saline controls (3.3 (0-13.7) pg/ml). Data expressed as median (range). There were significant correlations between the systemic endotoxin concentration and both the severity of colitis and of illness in acetic acid induced colitis. A significant increase in colonic permeability to 14C-polyethylene glycol was shown in rats with acetic acid (3.42 (1.36-5.63)%) and hapten induced colitis (2.86 (1.03-8.10)%) compared with saline controls (1.20 (0.67-1.36)%). Data expressed as median (range) of percentage of the intracolonic bolus excreted in urine. There was a significant positive correlation between the severity of colitis and % colonic permeability to 14C-polyethylene glycol. This and other studies provide evidence that mucosal barrier dysfunction is a feature of colitis irrespective of aetiology or species. Such barrier dysfunction may be responsible for the systemic inflammatory response and complications seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Gardiner, K R; Anderson, N H; Rowlands, B J; Barbul, A

1995-01-01

222

Mucosal perforators from the facial artery.  

PubMed

The cutaneous perforators of the facial artery have been well described, but to our knowledge the oral mucosal perforators have not. We studied 10 facial arteries from 10 hemifaces in 5 cadavers. The arteries were injected with latex, and we studied all perforators that extended from the facial artery and headed directly to the oral mucosa. The diameter and length of the facial artery and its mucosal perforators were measured and compared. We found 52 oral mucosal perforators in the 10 facial arteries injected with latex. Their mean (SD) diameter was 0.5 (0.2) mm and the mean (SD) number/facial artery was 5.2 (1.1). Their mean (SD) length was 16.4 (5.3) mm. Most of those to the cheek were localised between the branching-off points of the inferior and superior labial arteries. The facial artery has perforators to the oral mucosa of the cheek, most of them between the points at which the labial arteries emerge. PMID:24703773

Coronel-Banda, Mauricio E; Serra-Renom, Jose M; Lorente, Marian; Larrea-Terán, Wendy P

2014-07-01

223

Mucosal delivery of vaccines: role of mucoadhesive/biodegradable polymers.  

PubMed

Majority of infectious microorganism make their gateway to the host through mucosal surfaces, such as gastrointestinal tract, nasal and vaginal tract. Mucosal immune response structured as sIgA can effectively prevent the attachment and invasion of the microorganism from mucosal surface and thereby serves as an efficient tool against infectious disease. There has been an increased demand for the development of novel vaccine that leads to the induction of immune response in systemic circulation as well as at mucosal surfaces against infectious disease. Mucosal delivery of vaccine provides basis for induction of both mucosal as well as systemic immune responses against the infectious organisms. However, a variety of factors such as mucociliary clearance, presence of deteriorating enzymes, pH extremes (GIT), low permeation and metabolic degradation limit the mucosal delivery of vaccine. Numerous strategies have been explored in the meadow of mucosal vaccination for the purpose of efficient antigen delivery through mucosal route(s). Polymeric carrier(s) such as nanoparticles and microparticles loaded with the antigen can serve as the basis for creation of important formulations for improved vaccine. Biodegradable and mucoadhesive polymeric carrier(s) seems to be most promising candidate for mucosal vaccine delivery. Several polymers from natural and synthetic origin, such as polylactide-co-glycolide, chitosan, alginate, carbopol, gelatin etc., have been explored for the efficient mucosal vaccine delivery and significant results have been obtained. This review outlines the polymers used in mucosal vaccine delivery with special reference to mucoadhesive/biodegradable polymers. This article also covers the recent patent granted in the field on polymeric carrier mediated mucosal vaccination. PMID:20380624

Garg, Neeraj K; Mangal, Sharad; Khambete, Hemant; Sharma, Pradeep K; Tyagi, Rajeev K

2010-06-01

224

Kinetics of the Attachment of Intrinsic Factor-Bound Cobamides to Ileal Receptors  

PubMed Central

To determine whether the molecular configuration of vitamin B12 influences the attachment of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex to ileal microvillous membrane receptor sites, we have examined the kinetics of uptake of intrinsic factor-bound cyanocobalamin by brush borders and microvillous membranes isolated from guinea pig ileum, and have compared this uptake with that of intrinsic factor alone and with that of intrinsic factor complexed with various analogs of cyanocobalamin. We first studied the kinetics of binding of cyanocobalamin and other cobamides to human gastric intrinsic factor. The binding of cyanocobalamin showed saturation kinetics and, at relatively high concentrations of cyanocobalamin, a Scatchard plot of binding was linear. The dissociation constant for the intrinsic factor-cyanocobalamin complex was 0.066 nM. When the binding of various vitamin B12 analogs to intrinsic factor was determined by competition experiments, the analogs could be separated into two categories: those with affinities similar to that of cyanocobalamin and those with affinities much lower than that of cyanocobalamin. The affinity of cyanocobalamin for intrinsic factor was not altered by various substitutions at the -CN position, while removal of a single amido group on the corrin ring of substitution of the dimethylbenzimidazole base greatly reduced affinity. Removal of the base totally abolished binding. These findings, confirming those reported by others, are consistent with the concept that the cyanocobalamin molecule fits into a “pocket” in the intrinsic factor molecule, with the nucleotide base facing inward and the -CN side of the planar corrin ring facing outward. We then investigated the attachment of intrinsic factor-bound cyanocobalamin to ileal receptor. Attachment to microvillous membranes showed saturation kinetics with a dissociation constant of 0.25 nM. Attachment was rapid and was 70% complete within 5 min; the second-order rate constant for attachment was 1.3 × 106 M-1 s-1. The half-time for dissociation of intrinsic factor-bound cyanocobalamin from the ileal receptor was approximately 35 min. Free intrinsic factor inhibited the attachment of intrinsic factor-bound cyanocobalamin, but the rate of attachment of free intrinsic factor was slower than that of intrinsic factor bound to cyanocobalamin. When intrinsic factor was complexed with various analogs of cyanocobalamin, the affinities of these complexes for ileal microvillous membranes were similar to that of intrinsic factor-bound cyanocobalamin. These findings suggest that the molecular configuration of vitamin B12 is not a major determinant in the interaction between intrinsic factor-bound vitamin B12 and its ileal receptor site.

Mathan, V. I.; Babior, Bernard M.; Donaldson, Robert M.

1974-01-01

225

Prolonged hypervolemic hemodilution decreases functional capillary density of ileal mucosa in pigs revealed by sidestream dark-field imaging*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hemodilution changes the physical properties of blood by reducing its hematocrit and blood viscosity. We tested whether prolonged hypervolemic hemodilution (HHD) impairs functional capillary density (FCD) of ileal mucosa in healthy mechanically-ventilated pigs and if there is any correlation between changes in FCD of ileal and sublingual mucosas during HHD. Methods: Sixteen domestic female pigs were anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated, and randomly assigned to the HHD (20 ml/(kg?h) Hartmann’s solution for 3 h) or fluid restrictive (5 ml/(kg?h) Hartmann’s solution for 3 h) group. Microcirculations of sublingual and ileal mucosas via ileostomy were visualized using sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging at baseline conditions (t=0 h) and at selected time intervals of fluid therapy (t=1, 2, and 3 h). Results: A significant decrease of ileal FCD (285 (278–292) cm/cm2) in the HHD group was observed after the third hour of HHD when compared to the baseline (360 (350–370) cm/cm2) (P<0.01). This trend was not observed in the restrictive group, where the ileal mucosa FCD was significantly higher after the third hour of fluid therapy as compared to the HHD group (P<0.01). No correlation between microhemodynamic parameters obtained from sublingual and ileal mucosas was found throughout the study. Conclusions: Prolonged HHD established by crystalloid solution significantly decreased ileal villus FCD when compared to restrictive fluid regimen. An inappropriate degree of HHD can be harmful during uncomplicated abdominal surgery.

Turek, Zdenek; Cerny, Vladimir; Parizkova, Renata; Samek, Jindrich; Oberreiter, Martin

2011-01-01

226

The inhibition of gastric mucosal lesion, oxidative stress and neutrophil-infiltration in rats by the lichen constituent diffractaic acid.  

PubMed

The antiulcerogenic effect of diffractaic acid (DA) isolated from Usnea longissima, a lichen species, on indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric lesions was investigated in rats. Administration of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of DA and ranitidine (RAN) (50 mg/kg dose) reduced the gastric lesions by 43.5%, 52.9%, 91.4%, 96.7% and 72.7%, respectively. It is known that oxidative stress leads to tissue injury in organisms. Thus, in all treated groups of rats, the in vivo activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. IND caused oxidative stress, which resulted in LPO in tissues, by decreasing the levels of GPx, SOD and GSH as compared to healthy rats. In contrast to IND, the administration of DA and RAN showed a significant decrease in LPO level and an increase in tissue SOD, GPx and GSH levels. However, while CAT activity was significantly increased by the administration of IND, the administration of DA and RAN decreased CAT activity. The administration of IND also increased the myeloperoxidase (MPx) activity, which shows neutrophil infiltration into the gastric mucosal tissues. In contrast to IND, the administration of DA and RAN decreased MPx activity. The changes in activities of gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthases (NOS) throughout the development of gastric mucosal damage induced by IND were also studied. A decrease in constitutive NOS (cNOS) activity and an increase in inducible NOS (iNOS) activity were determined in gastric damaged tissues induced by IND. The administration of DA (100 mg/kg dose) and RAN reversed the activities of iNOS and cNOS. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effect of DA can be attributed to its enhancing effects on antioxidant defense systems as well as reducing effects of neutrophil infiltration. PMID:16920514

Bayir, Y; Odabasoglu, F; Cakir, A; Aslan, A; Suleyman, H; Halici, M; Kazaz, C

2006-09-01

227

Glutathione and gamma-glutamyl transferases are involved in the formation of cadmium–glutathione complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a wild-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cadmium induces the activities of both gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) and glutathione transferase 2 (Gtt2). However, Gtt2 activity did not increase under gamma-GT or Ycf1 deficiencies, suggesting that the accumulation of glutathione–cadmium in the cytosol inhibits Gtt2. On the other hand, the balance between the cytoplasmic and vacuolar level of glutathione seems to regulate

Paula Daniela Braga Adamis; Sérgio Cantú Mannarino; Elis Cristina Araújo Eleutherio

2009-01-01

228

Reduction of Intracellular Glutathione Content and Radiosensitivity,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in HeLa, CHO and V79 cells was reduced by incubating the cells in growth medium containing buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or diethyl maleate (DEM). Clonogenicity, single strand DNA breaks (ssb), and double strand ...

O. Vos G. P. van der Schans W. S. D. Roos-Verheij

1986-01-01

229

Inactivation of Glutathione Peroxidase by Superoxide Radical.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase, when in its active reduced form, was inactivated during exposure to the xanthine oxidase reaction. Superoxide dismutase completely prevented this inactivation, whereas catalase, hydroxyl radical scavengers, ...

J. Blum I. Fridovich

1985-01-01

230

Genetics Home Reference: Glutathione synthetase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Glutathione synthetase deficiency Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Educational resources Information pages Patient support For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry ...

231

The immune responses to bacterial antigens encountered in vivo at mucosal surfaces.  

PubMed Central

Mammals have evolved a sophisticated immune system for handling antigens encountered at their mucosal surfaces. The way in which mucosally delivered antigens are handled influences our ability to design effective mucosal vaccines. Live attenuated derivatives of pathogens are one route towards the development of mucosal vaccines. However, some molecules, described as mucosal immunogens, are inherently immunogenic at mucosal surfaces. Studies on mucosal immunogens may facilitate the identification of common characteristics that contribute to mucosal immunogenicity and aid the development of novel, non-living mucosal vaccines and immunostimulators.

Dougan, G; Ghaem-Maghami, M; Pickard, D; Frankel, G; Douce, G; Clare, S; Dunstan, S; Simmons, C

2000-01-01

232

Kinetic studies on the glutathione peroxidase activity of selenium-containing glutathione transferase.  

PubMed

Selenium-containing glutathione transferase (seleno-GST) was generated by biologically incorporating selenocysteine into the active site of glutathione transferase (GST) from a blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Seleno-GST mimicked the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalyzed the reduction of structurally different hydroperoxides by glutathione. Kinetic investigations reveal a ping-pong kinetic mechanism in analogy with that of the natural GPx cycle as opposed to the sequential one of the wild type GST. This difference of the mechanisms might result from the intrinsic chemical properties of the incorporated residue selenocysteine, and the selenium-dependent mechanism is suggested to contribute to enhancement of the enzymatic efficiency. PMID:15949961

Yu, Huijun; Liu, Junqiu; Liu, Xiaoman; Zang, Tianzhu; Luo, Guimin; Shen, Jiacong

2005-07-01

233

Antibodies and Their Receptors: Different Potential Roles in Mucosal Defense  

PubMed Central

Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that mucosal antibodies are not only restricted to the IgM and IgA isotypes, but that also other isotypes and particularly IgG can be found in significant quantities at some mucosal surfaces, such as in the genital tract. Their role is more complex than traditionally believed with, among other things, the discovery of novel function of mucosal immunoglobulin receptors. A thorough knowledge in the source and function and mucosal immunoglobulins is particularly important in development of vaccines providing mucosal immunity, and also in the current climate of microbicide development, to combat major world health issues such as HIV. We present here a comprehensive review of human antibody mediated mucosal immunity.

Horton, Rachel E.; Vidarsson, Gestur

2013-01-01

234

Distribution of macrophages and granulocytes expressing L1 protein (calprotectin) in human Peyer's patches compared with normal ileal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to the cytosolic leucocyte L1 protein (or calprotectin) were examined for reactivity with macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils identified by paired immunofluorescence staining in sections of normal human ileal mucosa, including Peyer's patches. Macrophages were recognised by expression of the myelomonocytic antigen CD68 (monoclonal antibody KP1). Neutrophilic granulocytes were identified by their content of neutrophil elastase, and eosinophilic granulocytes by monoclonal antibody EG2. Virtually all CD68+ macrophages in normal lamina propria and Peyer's patches were L1- and the same was true for most extravasated macrophages in normal peripheral lymph nodes. Some mesenteric lymph nodes, however, and all peripheral lymph nodes with overt pathological processes (malignant lymphoma) contained many CD68+L1+ macrophages. Numerous L1+ cells were also localised to the crypt region and to some extent beneath the villous epithelium in normal lamina propria, but they were mainly identified as EG2+ eosinophils. Such cells were remarkably scarce or absent beneath the follicle associated epithelium in the dome region of Peyer's patches, where CD68+L1- macrophages were abundant. Also subepithelial and interfollicular CD68- interdigitating dendritic cells in Peyer's patches (recognised by antibody to S-100 protein) were usually unreactive with L1 antibody. The L1 protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities in vitro, and its putative antiproliferative properties are interesting in relation to the immunosuppression postulated to take place in lamina propria. The virtual absence of L1 producing cells beneath the follicle associated epithelium in Peyer's patches may support the immunostimulatory function of these macrophage rich structures, which are held to be crucial for induction of specific mucosal immunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Bjerke, K; Halstensen, T S; Jahnsen, F; Pulford, K; Brandtzaeg, P

1993-01-01

235

[Human placental glutathione transport mechanism].  

PubMed

The placental transport mechanism of glutathione (GSH) was investigated using microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from human term placenta. Using (3H-glycine)-labeled-GSH, it was clarified that GSH in the extravesicular compartment of placental microvillous membranes was rapidly degraded by gamma-GTP (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) and resulting amino acid, and 3H-labeled-glycine was actively transported via a sodium cotransport system. AT-125 treated microvillous membrane vesicles almost entirely lost its gamma-GTP activity, and showed intact GSH transport. Using AT-125 treated microvillous membrane vesicles, it was revealed that GSH was transported across the microvillous membrane as an anion via a membrane potential-dependent mechanism. These results indicated that gamma-GTP which existed in microvillous membrane played a role in GSH metabolism and that intracellular GSH was translocated out of the syncythiotrophoblast cell into the maternal blood space via a specific carrier in microvillous membrane because the GSH concentration was higher in intracellular than extracellular and extracellular membrane potential was positively charged. PMID:2885385

Iioka, H; Moriyama, I; Kyuma, M; Akasaki, M; Katoh, Y; Itoh, K; Saitoh, M; Hino, K; Okamura, Y; Itani, Y

1987-05-01

236

Sigma-class glutathione transferases.  

PubMed

Mammalian cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) can be grouped into seven classes. Of these, the sigma class is also widely distributed in nature, with isoforms found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It contains examples of proteins that have evolved specialized functions, such as the cephalopod lens S-crystallins, the mammalian hematopoietic prostaglandin D(2) synthase, and the helminth 28-kDa antigen. In mammals, the sigma-class GST has both anti- and proinflammatory functions, depending on the type of immune response, and an immunomodulatory function is also associated with the enzyme from helminth parasites. In the fly, it is associated with a specific detoxication activity toward lipid oxidation products. Mice genetically depleted of the sigma-class GST, or transgenically overexpressing it, have provided insight into the physiological roles of the GST. Inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme developed by structure-based methods are effective in controlling allergic response. This review covers the structure, function, and pharmacology of vertebrate and invertebrate GSTs. PMID:21425928

Flanagan, Jack U; Smythe, Mark L

2011-05-01

237

Synthesis of glutathione-coated quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on the preparation and characterization of glutathione (GSH) coated near infrared quantum dots (QDs). The preparation method is based on surface modification of hydrophobic core\\/shell CdSeTe\\/CdS by glutathione, which makes the QDs water-soluble. Moreover, tripeptide GSH provides a biocompatible barrier against toxic cadmium ions of QDs core. These GSH-coated NIR QDs are suitable for in vivo

Jana Chomoucka; Jana Drbohlavova; V. Adam; Rene Kizek; Jaromir Hubalek

2009-01-01

238

The influence of soy oligosaccharides on apparent and true ileal amino acid digestibilities and fecal consistency in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Fourteen ileally cannulated pigs (BW = 35 +/- 2 kg) were randomly allotted to a replicated 7 x 7 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the influence of the soybean oligosaccharides (OS), raffinose and stachyose, on ileal nutrient digestibility and fecal consistency. Semipurified diets containing soy protein concentrate (SPC) or soybean meal (SBM) as the sole protein sources were fed. Soy solubles (SS), a by-product of SBM processing containing 3.5% raffinose and 11.5% stachyose, were used to increase dietary raffinose and stachyose concentrations. The seven dietary treatments were SPC, SPC + 9% SS, SBM, SBM + 9% SS, SBM + 18% SS, SBM + 24,000 U alpha-galactosidase enzyme preparation/kg diet, and a low-protein casein (LPC) diet used to calculate true digestibility. Diets, with the exception of the LPC diet, were formulated to contain 17% CP. All diets contained 0.5% chromic oxide as a marker for ileal digestibility determination. The experimental periods were divided into a 5-d diet adaptation followed by 2-d of ileal digesta collection. Diets and digesta were analyzed for DM, N, Cr, amino acids (AA), raffinose, and stachyose. Fecal consistency was determined on d 6 and 7 of each experimental period. The apparent and true ileal AA digestibilities were not different (P < 0.05) for the SPC and SBM control diets. When SS was added to the SPC diet, apparent and true N and AA digestibilities were depressed (P < 0.05) with the exception of Trp and Pro. The apparent and true ileal N and AA digestibilities were not different (P > 0.05) between the SBM control and SBM + 9% SS diets with the exception of Glu. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in apparent and true DM, Val, Gly, and Tyr digestibilities when increasing levels of SS were added to the SBM diet. The addition of alpha-galactosidase did not improve apparent or true ileal N or AA digestibilities except for apparent and true Val and Tyr. Ileal raffinose digestibility was improved (P < 0.05) by addition of a-galactosidase, but was not affected by any other dietary treatment. Ileal stachyose digestibility was not affected (P > 0.58) by treatment. Fecal consistency likewise was not affected (P > 0.36) by dietary treatment. In conclusion, soy OS reduced nutrient digestibilities, but the reductions were small, ranging from approximately 1.1 to 7.4 percentage units. This suggests that other factors may be negatively impacting SBM digestibility. PMID:12350021

Smiricky, M R; Grieshop, C M; Albin, D M; Wubben, J E; Gabert, V M; Fahey, G C

2002-09-01

239

Anti-inflammatory agents in the management of alimentary mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Alimentary mucositis is a significant complication of cancer therapy, with important clinical and economic implications.Materials and methods  In June 2005, the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer\\/International Society for Oral Oncology conducted an evidence-based review of the literature on alimentary mucositis. The goal of this literature review was to update previously published guidelines for the

Rajesh V. Lalla; Mark M. Schubert; Rene-Jean Bensadoun; Dorothy Keefe

2006-01-01

240

Stereoisomers of glutathione: preparation and enzymatic reactivities.  

PubMed

We synthesized a series of stereoisomers of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by the solid-phase method. These peptides were used to examine their reactivities with enzymes acting on glutathione. The glutathione reductase of yeast acted only on LL-GSSG. Glutathione S-transferase catalyzed the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with LL-GSH and DL-GSH (Km (mM): for LL-GSH, 0.035; and for DL-GSH, 0.62), but the DD- and LD-diastereomers were inert. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase catalyzed the transfer of gamma-glutamyl moiety of LL-GSH and DL-GSH to taurine forming gamma-glutamyl taurine and cysteinyl taurine (Km (mM): for LL-GSH, 0.336; and for DL-GSH, 0.628), but the other diastereomers were not the substrates. The occurrence of L-cysteinyl residue in the tripeptides is required for the glutathione analogue to be a substrate of the enzymes. PMID:10450563

Oikawa, T; Yamauchi, T; Kumagai, H; Soda, K

1999-04-01

241

Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

2006-03-01

242

REG3?-deficient mice have altered mucus distribution and increased mucosal inflammatory responses to the microbiota and enteric pathogens in the ileum.  

PubMed

REG3? is considered to have a protective role against infection with Gram-positive bacteria due to its bactericidal activity, but evidence from in vivo studies is lacking. We generated a REG3?(-/-) mouse, and investigated the effect of lack of REG3? on intestinal mucus distribution, spatial compartmentalization of bacteria, and expression of innate immunity genes. Infection studies were also performed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens to investigate the antimicrobial role of REG3?. REG3?(-/-) mice display altered mucus distribution, increased bacterial contact with the epithelium, and elevated inflammatory markers in the ileum without histological evidence of pathology. Infection response pathway genes were differentially expressed in both Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis infected REG3?(-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice. Higher amounts of myeloperoxidase and interleukin-22 transcripts were present in the ileal mucosa of REG3?(-/-) than wt mice, but translocation to the organs was unaffected. We concluded that REG3? has a protective role against mucosal infection with pathogenic Listeria and Salmonella in vivo. REG3? is equally distributed throughout the mucus and its absence results in increased epithelial contact with the microbiota resulting in low-grade inflammation. REG3? can bind to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and influence mucus distribution in the ileum, properties which may contribute to mucosal protection. PMID:24345802

Loonen, L Mp; Stolte, E H; Jaklofsky, M Tj; Meijerink, M; Dekker, J; van Baarlen, P; Wells, J M

2014-07-01

243

Dietary fibre affects intestinal mucosal barrier function and regulates intestinal bacteria in weaning piglets.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fibre source on intestinal mucosal barrier function in weaning piglets. A total of 125 piglets were randomly allotted on the basis of their body weight and litters to one of five experimental diets, i.e. a control diet without fibre source (CT), and diets in which expanded maize was replaced by 10% maize fibre (MF), 10% soyabean fibre (SF), 10% wheat bran fibre (WBF) or 10% pea fibre (PF). The diets and water were fed ad libitum for 30 d. Piglets on the WBF and PF diets had lower diarrhoea incidence compared with the MF- and SF-fed animals. A higher ratio of villous height:crypt depth in the ileum of WBF-fed piglets and higher colonic goblet cells in WBF- and PF-fed piglets were observed compared with CT-, MF- and SF-fed piglets. In the intestinal digesta, feeding WBF and PF resulted in increased Lactobacillus counts in the ileum and Bifidobacterium counts in the colon. Lower Escherichia coli counts occurred in the ileum and colon of WBF-fed piglets than in SF-fed piglets. Tight junction protein (zonula occludens 1; ZO-1) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene mRNA levels were up-regulated in the ileum and colon of pigs fed WBF; however, feeding MF and SF raised IL-1? and TNF-? mRNA levels. Furthermore, higher diamine oxidase activities, transforming growth factor-?, trefoil factor family and MHC-II concentration occurred when feeding WBF and PF. In conclusion, the various fibre sources had different effects on the ileal and colonic barrier function. Clearly, WBF and PF improved the intestinal barrier function, probably mediated by changes in microbiota composition and concomitant changes in TLR2 gene expression. PMID:23656640

Chen, Hong; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Bing; Huang, Zhiqing; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Daiwen

2013-11-01

244

Ipilimumab for Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma  

PubMed Central

The outcome of patients with mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab is not defined. To assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in this melanoma subset, we performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 33 patients with unresectable or metastatic mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab. The clinical characteristics, treatments, toxicities, radiographic assessment of disease burden by central radiology review at each site, and mutational profiles of the patients' tumors were recorded. Available peripheral blood samples were used to assess humoral immunity against a panel of cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. By the immune-related response criteria of the 30 patients who underwent radiographic assessment after ipilimumab at approximately week 12, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 6 immune-related stable disease, and 22 immune-related progressive disease. By the modified World Health Organization criteria, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 5 immune-related stable disease, and 23 immune-related progressive disease. Immune-related adverse events (as graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0) consisted of six patients with rash (four grade 1, two grade 2), three patients with diarrhea (one grade 1, two grade 3), one patient with grade 1 thyroiditis, one patient with grade 3 hepatitis, and 1 patient with grade 2 hypophysitis. The median overall survival from the time of the first dose of ipilimumab was 6.4 months (range: 1.8–26.7 months). Several patients demonstrated serologic responses to cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. Durable responses to ipilimumab were observed, but the overall response rate was low. Additional investigation is necessary to clarify the role of ipilimumab in patients with mucosal melanoma.

Postow, Michael A.; Luke, Jason J.; Bluth, Mark J.; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Panageas, Katherine S.; Lawrence, Donald P.; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Ott, Patrick A.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Harding, James J.; D'Angelo, Sandra P.; Dickson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Gary K.; Chapman, Paul B.; Gnjatic, Sacha; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Hodi, F. Stephen

2013-01-01

245

Validation of mucosal sutureless pancreatojejunostomy after pancreatoduodenectomy.  

PubMed

Although duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy has been considered safer than other techniques, this procedure is particularly difficult when the pancreatic duct is small. It has therefore become increasingly necessary to develop a simple mucosal sutureless pancreatojejunostomy technique to replace the conventional hand-sewing one. Two hundred fourteen patients who underwent mucosal sutureless pancreatojejunostomy were classified into two groups: those with a normal pancreatic duct diameter (less than 3 mm, n = 97) and those with a dilated pancreatic duct (3 mm or greater, n = 117). The rate of clinically significant pancreatic fistula (Grade B or C by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definition) among the patients as a whole was 8 per cent. The overall incidence of pancreatic fistula was significantly higher in the patients with a pancreatic duct diameter of less than 3 mm than in those with a pancreatic duct diameter of 3 mm or greater. However, the incidence of clinically significant pancreatic fistula did not differ between the groups (less than 3 mm, 11%; 3 mm or greater, 5%; P = 0.09). Grade C pancreatic fistula developed in one patient with a pancreatic duct diameter of less than 3 mm and in two with a pancreatic duct diameter 3 mm or greater. Although two patients required reoperation, all of the fistulas were cured and the postoperative mortality rate related to pancreatoduodenectomy was zero. Mucosal sutureless pancreatojejunostomy combined with pancreatic duct stenting is associated with a low rate of clinically significant pancreatic fistula even in patients with a small pancreatic duct diameter less than 3 mm. PMID:24480214

Ishizaki, Yoichi; Yoshimoto, Jiro; Sugo, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Seiji

2014-02-01

246

Oral mucosal immunization using glucomannosylated bilosomes.  

PubMed

The present study embarks on the feasibility of GM-bilosomes as a rationally designed vehicle for oral mucosal immunization. Bilosomes containing BSA as a model antigen were found to have vesicle size of 157 +/- 3 nm, PDI of 0.287 +/- 0.045, zeta potential of -21.8 +/- 2.01 mV and entrapment efficiency of 71.3 +/- 4.3%. Bilosomal formulations were freeze dried and entrapped BSA in freeze dried formulations was found to retain its structural and conformational stability as evident by SDS-PAGE and CD analysis. The GM-bilosomes were also found stable in different simulated biological fluids and bile salt solutions of different concentrations. In-vitro drug release revealed that GM-bilosomes were able to sustain drug release up to 24 h. In-vitro cell uptake in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells demonstrated significantly higher uptake of GM-bilosomes in comparison with bilosomes and free antigen. Intestinal uptake studies on excised rat intestinal sections further demonstrated higher uptake of vesicular systems throughout the intestinal region in comparison with free antigen. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) systemic immune response (serum IgG level) was observed in case of GM-bilosomes in comparison with bilosomes and alum adsorbed BSA (BSA-AL) following oral administration. The immune response observed in case of GM-bilosomes was comparable to BSA-AL administered through im route without any significant difference (p > 0.05). More importantly, GM-bilosomes were found capable of inducing mucosal immune response as well as cell mediated immune response which was not induced by im BSA-AL. In conclusion, GM-bilosomes could be considered as promising carrier and adjuvant system for oral mucosal immunization and productively exploited for oral delivery of other candidate antigens. PMID:24749389

Jain, Sanyog; Indulkar, Anura; Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish K

2014-06-01

247

Prediction of the apparent ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in feedstuffs and feed mixtures for pigs by in vitro analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro method for the prediction of protein and amino acid digestibility at ileal level is described. Values of in vitro digestibility of protein in 15 common feedstuffs were all higher than corresponding values of apparent ileal digestibility. The difference is suggested to correspond to endogenous protein losses (EPL). A close relationship between EPL and in vitro undigested dry

S. Boisen; J. A. Ferna´ndez

1995-01-01

248

The effect of fumaric acid and sodium fumarate supplementation to diets for weanling pigs on amino acid digestibility and volatile fatty acid concentrations in ileal digesta  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out with 12 Camborough × Canabrid barrows to determine the effect of fumaric acid (FA) and sodium fumarate (NaFA) supplementation of the diet on the apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in ileal digesta. The pigs were weaned at 28 days of age (initial and final body weights

V. M. Gabert; W. C. Sauer

1995-01-01

249

The influence of soy oligosaccharides on apparent and true ileal amino acid digestibilities and fecal consistency in growing pigs1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen ileally cannulated pigs (BW = 35 ± 2 kg) were randomly allotted to a replicated 7 × 7 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the influ- ence of the soybean oligosaccharides (OS), raffinose and stachyose, on ileal nutrient digestibility and fecal con- sistency. Semipurified diets containing soy protein con- centrate (SPC) or soybean meal (SBM) as the sole pro-

M. R. Smiricky; C. M. Grieshop; D. M. Albin; J. E. Wubben; V. M. Gabert; G. C. Fahey

250

Evaluation of the homoarginine technique for measuring true ileal amino acid digestibilities in pigs fed a barley-canola meal-based diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homoarginine technique has been suggested as a means to determine true ileal amino acid digestibilities in nonruminant animals fed protein- containing diets. Conditions for guanidinating lysine to homoarginine in barley and canola meal and the effect of this process on nutrient composition and ileal digest- ibilities in the resulting material were investigated. Conditions tested were methylisourea concentration (0.4, 0.5,

C. M. Nyachoti; E. M. McNeilage-Van de Wiele; C. F. M. de Lange; V. M. Gabert

2009-01-01

251

Helminthic therapy: improving mucosal barrier function  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections led to suggestions that helminths could improve inflammatory conditions, which was then tested using animal models. This has translated to clinical investigations aimed at the safe and controlled reintroduction of helminthic exposure to patients suffering from autoimmune diseases (so-called “helminthic therapy”) in an effort to mitigate the inflammatory response. In this review, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials of helminthic therapy, with particular attention to mechanisms of action. Whereas previous reviews have emphasized immune regulatory mechanisms activated by helminths, we propose that enhancement of mucosal barrier function may have an equally important role in improving conditions of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Wolff, Martin J.; Broadhurst, Mara J.

2014-01-01

252

Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital. PMID:24655524

De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

2014-04-01

253

The Gut Microbiota and Mucosal T Cells  

PubMed Central

It is intuitive that immune cells in the gut may require microbiota-derived cues for their differentiation. The proximity between host and microbe in the intestine would seemingly necessitate co-adaptation. However, it has been challenging to determine the members and features of the gut microbiota that influence immune system development and function. The recent identification of immunomodulatory members of the commensal microbiota is providing insight into the dependence of select, intestinal immune cell subsets on specific microbial species. In this review, we focus on the gut microbiota's influence on the development and function of mucosal T cells subsets, specifically intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria CD4 T cells.

Smith, Patrick M.; Garrett, Wendy S.

2011-01-01

254

Mucosal Imprinting of Vaccine-Induced CD8+ T Cells Is Crucial to Inhibit the Growth of Mucosal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Although many human cancers are located in mucosal sites, most cancer vaccines are tested against subcutaneous tumors in preclinical models. We therefore wondered whether mucosa-specific homing instructions to the immune system might influence mucosal tumor outgrowth. We showed that the growth of orthotopic head and neck or lung cancers was inhibited when a cancer vaccine was delivered by the intranasal mucosal route but not the intramuscular route. This antitumor effect was dependent on CD8+ T cells. Indeed, only intranasal vaccination elicited mucosal-specific CD8+ T cells expressing the mucosal integrin CD49a. Blockade of CD49a decreased intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration and the efficacy of cancer vaccine on mucosal tumor. We then showed that after intranasal vaccination, dendritic cells from lung parenchyma, but not those from spleen, induced the expression of CD49a on cocultured specific CD8+ T cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human mucosal lung cancer also expressed CD49a, which supports the relevance and possible extrapolation of these results in humans. We thus identified a link between the route of vaccination and the induction of a mucosal homing program on induced CD8+ T cells that controlled their trafficking. Immunization route directly affected the efficacy of the cancer vaccine to control mucosal tumors.

Sandoval, Federico; Bureau, Michel-Francis; Freyburger, Ludovic; Clement, Olivier; Marcheteau, Elie; Gey, Alain; Fraisse, Guillaume; Bouguin, Cecilia; Merillon, Nathalie; Dransart, Estelle; Tran, Thi; Quintin-Colonna, Francoise; Autret, Gwennhael; Thiebaud, Marine; Suleman, Muhammad; Riffault, Sabine; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Launay, Odile; Danel, Claire; Taieb, Julien; Richardson, Jennifer; Zitvogel, Laurence; Fridman, Wolf H.; Johannes, Ludger; Tartour, Eric

2014-01-01

255

Mucosal imprinting of vaccine-induced CD8? T cells is crucial to inhibit the growth of mucosal tumors.  

PubMed

Although many human cancers are located in mucosal sites, most cancer vaccines are tested against subcutaneous tumors in preclinical models. We therefore wondered whether mucosa-specific homing instructions to the immune system might influence mucosal tumor outgrowth. We showed that the growth of orthotopic head and neck or lung cancers was inhibited when a cancer vaccine was delivered by the intranasal mucosal route but not the intramuscular route. This antitumor effect was dependent on CD8? T cells. Indeed, only intranasal vaccination elicited mucosal-specific CD8? T cells expressing the mucosal integrin CD49a. Blockade of CD49a decreased intratumoral CD8? T cell infiltration and the efficacy of cancer vaccine on mucosal tumor. We then showed that after intranasal vaccination, dendritic cells from lung parenchyma, but not those from spleen, induced the expression of CD49a on cocultured specific CD8? T cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human mucosal lung cancer also expressed CD49a, which supports the relevance and possible extrapolation of these results in humans. We thus identified a link between the route of vaccination and the induction of a mucosal homing program on induced CD8? T cells that controlled their trafficking. Immunization route directly affected the efficacy of the cancer vaccine to control mucosal tumors. PMID:23408053

Sandoval, Federico; Terme, Magali; Nizard, Mevyn; Badoual, Cécile; Bureau, Michel-Francis; Freyburger, Ludovic; Clement, Olivier; Marcheteau, Elie; Gey, Alain; Fraisse, Guillaume; Bouguin, Cécilia; Merillon, Nathalie; Dransart, Estelle; Tran, Thi; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Autret, Gwennhael; Thiebaud, Marine; Suleman, Muhammad; Suleman, Muhammed; Riffault, Sabine; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Launay, Odile; Danel, Claire; Taieb, Julien; Richardson, Jennifer; Zitvogel, Laurence; Fridman, Wolf H; Johannes, Ludger; Tartour, Eric

2013-02-13

256

The Glutathione System of Aspergillus nidulans Involves a Fungus-specific Glutathione S-Transferase*S?  

PubMed Central

The tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. This study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. A recombinant dimeric protein of A. nidulans glutathione reductase (GR) contained FAD and reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using NADPH as an electron donor. A deletion strain of the GR gene (glrA) accumulated less intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), indicating that the fungal GR contributes to GSSG reduction in vivo. Growth of the deletion strain of glrA was temperature-sensitive, and this phenotype was suppressed by adding GSH to the medium. The strain subsequently accumulated more intracellular superoxide, and cell-free respiration activity was partly defective. Growth of the strain decreased in the presence of oxidants, which induced glrA expression 1.5-6-fold. These results indicated that the fungal glutathione system functions as an antioxidant mechanism in A. nidulans. Our findings further revealed an initial proteomic differential display on GR-depleted and wild type strains. Up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxins, catalases, and cytochrome c peroxidase in the glrA-deletion strain revealed interplay between the glutathione system and both the thioredoxin system and hydrogen peroxide defense mechanisms. We also identified a hypothetical, up-regulated protein in the GR-depleted strains as glutathione S-transferase, which is unique among Ascomycetes fungi.

Sato, Ikuo; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

2009-01-01

257

Selenium, glutathione and glutathione peroxidases in blood of patients with chronic liver diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances in the antioxidant system could play a role in pathogenesis of chronic liver disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the levels\\/activities of antioxidants in blood of patients with chronic liver disease. We estimated selenium and glutathione concentrations and glutathione peroxidase ac- tivities in blood of 59 patients with chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection (group

Jolanta Czuczejko; A. Zachara; Ewa Staubach-Topczewska

258

Complications and risk factors after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study determined predictive factors for postoperative complications and outcome after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis treated by colectomy and ileostomy are at high risk of troublesome bleeding from peristomal varices. METHODS: Postoperative complications and outcome were assessed in 40 patients with ulcerative colitis and sclerosing cholangitis who received an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis between January 1981 and February 1990. RESULTS: Immediate postoperative and remote ileoanal anastomosis-related complications were high but related directly to the severity of liver disease. No patient had perianastomotic anal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with both ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is safe and is not associated with perianastomotic bleeding.

Kartheuser, A H; Dozois, R R; Wiesner, R H; LaRusso, N F; Ilstrup, D M; Schleck, C D

1993-01-01

259

N-Nitrosamines and their effects on the level of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the liver of male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the influence of different chemical structure of N-nitroso compounds on the hepatic level of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GSH-R) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in the liver of male Balb\\/C mice after treatment with 20 mg\\/kg body weight of each compound for 1 h as a single dose. The level of reduced glutathione decreased significantly

Salah A. Sheweita; Mostafa H. Mostafa

1996-01-01

260

Heavy Metal-Induced Changes in the Glutathione Levels and Glutathione Reductase/Glutathione S-Transferase Activities in the Liver of Male Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferases catalyze the metabolism of reactive substances of exogenous or endogenous origin and are involved in inactivation processes of xenobiotics and their metabolites. The present study aims at investigating the influence of heavy metals on the hepatic level of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase activities in the liver of male mice after single-dose (1 and 24

Salah A. Sheweita

1998-01-01

261

Glutathione Reductase, Selenium-Dependent Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Levels, and Lipid Peroxidation in Freshwater Bivalves, Unio tumidus,as Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination in Field Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of antioxidant parameters in the freshwater bivalve,Unio tumidus,as biomarkers of exposure to pollutants and to study their potential interest in predicting toxicity. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), non-selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (non-Se-GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities; reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione levels; and lipid peroxidation were

C. Cossu; A. Doyotte; M. C. Jacquin; M. Babut; A. Exinger; P. Vasseur

1997-01-01

262

Modulation of ileal apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT by protein kinase C.  

PubMed

Ileal apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for reabsorbing the majority of bile acids from the intestinal lumen. Rapid adaptation of ASBT function in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli is essential for the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis. However, not much is known about molecular mechanisms responsible for acute posttranscriptional regulation of ileal ASBT. The protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway represents a major cell signaling mechanism influencing intestinal epithelial functions. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate ASBT regulation in intestinal Caco-2 monolayers by the well-known PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Our results showed that Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]taurocholic acid uptake in Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited in response to 2 h incubation with 100 nM PMA compared with incubation with 4alpha-PMA (inactive form). The inhibitory effect of PMA was blocked in the presence of 5 microM bisindolylmaleimide I (PKC inhibitor) but not 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (Ca(2+) chelator) or LY-294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). PMA inhibition of ASBT function was also abrogated in the presence of myristoylated PKCzeta pseudosubstrate peptide, indicating involvement of the atypical PKCzeta isoform. The inhibition by PMA was associated with a significant decrease in the maximal velocity of the transporter and a reduction in ASBT plasma membrane content, suggesting a modulation by vesicular recycling. Our novel findings demonstrate a posttranscriptional modulation of ileal ASBT function and membrane expression by phorbol ester via a PKCzeta-dependent pathway. PMID:19571234

Sarwar, Zaheer; Annaba, Fadi; Dwivedi, Alka; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A

2009-09-01

263

Effect of monoclonal antibodies to enteroglucagon on ileal adaptation after proximal small bowel resection.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of circumstantial clinical and experimental evidence, it has been suggested that enteroglucagon (EG) may act as an enterotrophic factor. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of long term in vivo immunoneutralisation of EG, using monoclonal antibodies to EG, on the hyperplastic ileal response after small bowel resection. Nineteen rats had a 70% proximal resection. A group of 10 rats was given iv 0.5 ml of undiluted hybridoma ascites immediately after the operation and on the 7th day postoperatively. Furthermore 0.025 ml/day of the same hybridoma ascitic fluid was continuously delivered ip for 14 days via mini-osmotic pumps. The hybridoma ascites was prepared from the clone 23.6B4 synthesising a monoclonal antibody directed toward the N-terminal to central region of the glucagon molecule which showed a marked crossreaction with EG. A control group of 9 rats was given a corresponding amount of antibody-free plasmacytoma ascites (Ag 8.653) by the same technique. Seven and 14 days postoperatively there was a plasma anti-EG-antibody excess with an excess binding capacity of 84.9 glucagon eq nM and 88.5 glucagon eq nM respectively. The three dimensional architecture and the proliferative activity of the ileal remnant were evaluated two weeks postoperatively. Despite a continuous immunoneutralisation of circulating endogenous EG by monoclonal antibodies, the adaptive response of the ileal remnants was of the same magnitude as that seen in the control group. These data do not support the hypothesis that EG is a circulating enterotrophic regulatory peptide.

Gregor, M; Menge, H; Stossel, R; Riecken, E O

1987-01-01

264

Biological Activity of Recombinant Accessory Cholerae Enterotoxin (Ace) on Rabbit Ileal Loops and Antibacterial Assay  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) causes a potentially lethal disease named cholera. The cholera enterotoxin (CT) is a major virulence factor of V. cholerae. In addition to CT, V. cholerae produces other putative toxins, such as the zonula occludens toxin (Zot) and accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace). The ace gene is the third gene of the V. cholerae virulence cassette. The Ace toxin alters ion transport, causes fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops, and is a cause of mild diarrhea. The aim of this study is the cloning and overexpression of the ace gene into Escherichia coli (E. coli) and determination of some characteristics of the recombinant Ace protein. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the ace gene was amplified from V. cholerae strain 62013, then cloned in a pET28a expression vector and transformed into an E. coli (DH5 ?) host strain. Subsequently, the recombinant vector was retransformed into E. coli BL21 for expression, induced by isopropythio-?-D-galctoside (IPTG) at a different concentration, and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. A rabbit ileal loop experiment was conducted. Antibacterial activity of the Ace protein was assessed for E. coli, Stapylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Results: The recombinant Ace protein with a molecular weight of 18 kDa (dimeric form) was expressed in E. coli BL21. The Ace protein showed poor staining with Coomassie blue stain, but stained efficiently with silver stain. Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant Ace protein reacted with rabbit anti-V. cholerae polyclonal antibody. The Ace protein had antibacterial activity at a concentration of ?200 µg/ml and caused significant fluid accumulation in the ligated rabbit ileal loop test. Conclusion: This study described an E. coli cloning and expression system (E. coli BL21- pET-28a-ace) for the Ace protein of V. cholerae. We confirmed the antibacterial properties and enterotoxin activity of the resultant recombinant Ace protein.

Anvari, Shaghayegh; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Boustanshenas, Mina

2012-01-01

265

Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in egg from hyperimmunized hens fed to weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in egg from hens hyperimmunized with Escherichia coli K88 antigens (EGG) fed to weaned pigs. Spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) was included for comparison. Eight barrows (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc; initial BW of 17 ± 1 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 2 diets in a completely randomized design to give 4 replicates per diet. The diets were corn (Zea mays) starch based with either EGG or SDPP as the sole source of protein and were formulated to contain 130 g/kg CP. At the end of the study, a 50 g/kg casein diet was fed to all pigs (n = 8) to quantify endogenous N and AA losses to determine SID. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was included in the diets as an indigestible maker. Each period lasted for 7 d. Pigs were adapted to their respective diets for 5 d followed by 12 h of continuous ileal digesta collection on days 6 and 7. Daily feed allowance was set at 4% BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs had unlimited access to water via low pressure nipple drinkers. The AID (%) of CP and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in EGG compared with SDPP. The SID (%) of CP (82 vs. 96) and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed EGG compared with SDPP. In conclusion, the average AID and SID of N and indispensable AA in EGG are lower than in SDPP when fed at high levels. PMID:23365342

Heo, J M; Kiarie, E; Kahindi, R K; Maiti, P; Woyengo, T A; Nyachoti, C M

2012-12-01

266

True ileal digestibility of amino acids in sow's milk for 17-day-old pigs.  

PubMed

The digestibility of amino acids in sow's milk consumed by young pigs is currently unknown because of difficulties associated with collecting an adequate quantity of milk, and also problems in cannulating suckling pigs. A total of 14 kg of sow's milk was collected, two soluble indigestible markers (Co-EDTA and YbC13) were added, and the milk was fed to four pigs at 17 d of age that were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. Another four cannulated pigs were offered a similar amount of a 20% DM liquid diet based on enzymatically hydrolyzed casein and lactose to assess endogenous amino acid losses. All pigs were fed about 875 g of each diet per day in 10 hourly meals from 0700 to 1700. Following 2 d of adaptation, ileal digesta were collected from 0800 to 1800 for 2 d. Diets and digesta were analyzed for amino acids using appropriate hydrolysis and preoxidation procedures. Average nitrogen true digestibility was 88%, whereas amino acid true digestibilities ranged from 84% (cystine and threonine) to 100% (methionine, histidine, and glutamic acid); the average for all amino acids was 92 +/- 4%. Based on average values, true digestibility of essential amino acids was not different from that of nonessential amino acids (P > 0.10). In whole milk, amino acids found in abundance in whey proteins (i.e., cystine, glycine, and threonine) were less (P < 0.05) digestible than amino acids predominating in casein proteins (i.e., glutamic acid, proline, and methionine). When true ileal digestible amino acid concentrations in sow's milk were expressed as ratios to digestible lysine, it appeared that threonine, tryptophan, and arginine were lower than what might be considered optimal. In conclusion, amino acids in sow's milk were highly digestible, but most of the amino acids had true ileal digestibility values significantly less than 100%. PMID:11263831

Mavromichalis, I; Parr, T M; Gabert, V M; Baker, D H

2001-03-01

267

Dietary electrolyte balance influences ileal endogenous amino acid losses in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of nitrogen-free diets formulated with 2 ratios of corn starch and dextrose and 2 levels of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB; calculated as Na + K - Cl(-), in mEq/kg of diet) on ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) losses in 48-d-old broiler chickens. On d 43, 240 broiler chickens were allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages per diet in a completely randomized design. Each experimental diet was fed for 5 d (d 43-48). All diets were free of nitrogen with 2 ratios of corn starch-to-dextrose (0.31 and 1.04) and 2 levels of DEB (108 and 219 mEq/kg of diet). Final BW and BW loss between birds fed the 2 corn starch-to-dextrose ratios and between birds fed 2 levels of DEB were not different (P > 0.05). Birds fed the diet containing a high level of DEB consumed less (P < 0.05) feed than birds on the low-DEB diet. Birds on the high-corn starch-to-dextrose (1.04) diet showed a tendency for higher (P = 0.08) feed intake. High dietary dextrose level (corn starch-to-dextrose ratio of 0.31) resulted in higher (P < 0.05) ileal DM and energy digestibility. A high level of DEB resulted in higher (P < 0.05) ileal endogenous nitrogen loss. Arginine, Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Glu, Gly, Pro, and Tyr secretion into the gut increased (P ? 0.05) with an increasing level of DEB. Endogenous His, Lys, Thr, Asp, Cys, and Ser showed a tendency for increased (P ? 0.1) losses with a high level of DEB. Mean ileal EAA losses for the indispensable and dispensable amino acids for the low-DEB diet were 81 and 82%, respectively, that of the birds fed the high-DEB diet. The 4 amino acids with the lowest endogenous flow were Met, His, Tyr, and Cys, whereas the highest endogenous flow was found in Glu, Asp, Val, and Leu. Data from the current study showed that EAA losses in the ileum of broiler chickens are significantly affected by DEB, but not by the ratio of corn starch to dextrose. PMID:24706971

Adedokun, S A; Applegate, T J

2014-04-01

268

Traumatic ileal perforation in post-traumatic ventral hernia: adding insult to injury.  

PubMed

Rupture of abdominal wall with formation of ventral hernia is a rare complication following blunt abdominal trauma. Small intestinal rupture within such a hernial sac, resulting from a subsequent blunt trauma is rarer still. Ventral hernias often go untreated in developing countries because of their seemingly innocuous nature, ignorance and financial constraints. Blunt trauma in patients with hernia warrants a thorough clinical examination along with evaluation for intestinal injury, since even trivial trauma can cause potentially serious intra-peritoneal visceral injury. A case of fatal traumatic ileal perforation in pre-existing post-traumatic ventral hernia (from blunt trauma sustained 10 years earlier) is being reported. PMID:18182144

Rab, Atia Zaka-Ur-; Fakir, Saifuddin Bulbul; S, Peethambaran M

2007-12-01

269

Ileo-ileal intussusception caused by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the ileum  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of adult intussusception from small intestinal lymphoma is quite rare. We present an 82-year-old man with a two-month history of intermittent abdominal pain, nausea and fatigue. Clinical symptoms included moderate abdominal tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a mass in the terminal ileum with the sign of “bowel within bowel” which was suspicious of ileo-ileum intussusception. The patient underwent laparoscopic segmental ileal resection. Pathologic evaluation revealed a diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the ileum. The postoperative course was uneventful.

Xu, Xie-Qun; Hong, Tao; Li, Bing-Lu; Liu, Wei

2013-01-01

270

Sonographic diagnosis of fetal intestinal volvulus with ileal atresia: a case report.  

PubMed

Fetal intestinal volvulus is a rare life-threatening condition usually manifesting after birth with most cases being associated with intestinal malrotation. It appears on prenatal sonography (US) as a twisting of the bowel loops around the mesenteric artery, leading to mechanical obstruction and ischemic necrosis of the bowel. We report a case of intrauterine intestinal volvulus with ileal atresia, suspected when US revealed a typical "whirlpool" sign at 37 weeks' gestation, with a segment of markedly distended bowel loops and small amount of fetal ascites. PMID:22585388

Yu, Wang; Ailu, Cai; Bing, Wang

2013-05-01

271

Laparoscopic ileal pouch–anal anastomosis reduces abdominal and pelvic adhesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Postoperative adhesions are an expected outcome for the majority of open abdominal operations, occurring in more than 90%\\u000a of cases. Adhesions are responsible for more than 75% of small bowel obstruction cases. This study aimed to evaluate adhesions\\u000a to the anterior abdominal wall and adnexal organs after laparoscopic ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients who underwent laparoscopic IPAA for ulcerative colitis

Adrian A. Indar; Jonathan E. Efron; Tonia M. Young-Fadok

2009-01-01

272

Trends in the management and outcome of jejuno-ileal atresia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate contemporary patterns of presentation and trends in the management and outcome of newborn infants with jejuno-ileal atresia at a regional paediatric surgical centre in the United Kingdom. The hospital neonatal surgical registry was used to identify patients with jejuno-ileal atresia (n = 83) admitted between 1976 - 1998, excluding those associated with gastroschisis. The clinical records were reviewed and antenatal information, patient demographics, associated anomalies, operative treatment, post-operative management and outcomes were analysed in three time periods to identify trends in management and survival: Group 1 1976 - 1982 (n = 32), Group 2 1983 - 1990 (n = 21), and Group 3 1991 - 1998 (n = 30). Overall survival was 90 %. The number of patients with associated anomalies were Group 1, 10 (31 %); Group 2, 7 (33 %); and Group 3, 11 (37 %). Cystic fibrosis was encountered in 4 (13 %), 1 (5 %) and 4 (13 %) patients, respectively. Resection with primary anastomosis was the definitive management in most of patients: Group 1, 25 (78 %); Group 2, 17 (81 %); and Group 3, 27 (90 %). Initial stoma followed by delayed primary anastomosis was performed in 14 infants; eight patients had divided stomas while 6 had Bishop-Koop stoma. Tapering was used in 10 patients (12 %) with proximal jejuno-ileal atresia. Parenteral nutrition was increasingly utilised over the three time periods studied. There were no deaths in Group 3 compared to 6 deaths in Group 1 and 2 in Group 2 (P = 0.02). Most of the deaths were due to overwhelming sepsis. Mortality did not correlate significantly with the TYPE of atresia, presence of associated anomalies or the need for long-term total parenteral nutrition. The overall complication rate in survivors was 18 %. In the infants undergoing Bishop-Koop operation the complication rate was 50 %. This study has shown a significant reduction in mortality from jejuno-ileal atresia, which may be attributed primarily to advances in perioperative management, including parenteral nutrition. Generous resection of the atretic segment with primary anastomosis is more frequently employed in preference to initial stoma formation. Cystic fibrosis remains an important co-morbid condition that must be excluded promptly in all newborns. PMID:12101497

Kumaran, N; Shankar, K R; Lloyd, D A; Losty, P D

2002-06-01

273

Corticotropin-releasing hormone acts on guinea pig ileal smooth muscle via protein kinase A  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contraction studies corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was found to relax ileal but not gastric and jejunal smooth muscles\\u000a of the guinea-pig, precontracted with BaCl2. Under whole-cell patch-clamp conditions, CRH concentration-dependently activated Ca2+-sensitive K+ currents (I\\u000a K) with ED50=20 pM at 100 nM and ED50=0.13 pM at 500 nM intracellular Ca2+ respectively. This increase was accompanied by significant hyperpolarization of the

D. B. Duridanova; P. S. Petkova-Kirova; L. T. Lubomirov; H. Gagov; K. Boev

1999-01-01

274

Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) Score, a Good Alternative Instrument for Measuring Quality of Life in Patients with Ileal Urinary Diversions  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the use of the SIP score and the quality of life impairment in patients with ileal conduit and orthotropic ileal derivations by Hautmann and AbolEnein/Ghoneim. Methods: Prospectively evaluated 146 patients in different age groups. In 66 patients ileal conduit derivation was performed, in 20 patients orthotropic derivation using Hautman technique was recorded and in 20 of them AbolEnein/Ghoneim was used. Prior to examining patients with urinary diversions, 40 patients with minor urological symptoms not requiring any active treatment, were surveyed in order to validate SIP score. Six months after the operation, all patients with urinary diversions filled the SIP score questionnaire. Results: Using Crombach’s Alpha equation the high reliability of SIP questionnaire was proven. Average scale value was 0,93. Using descriptive statistics mean values of all categories and dimensions of the SIP questionnaire of examined patients were determined, calculated according to the questionnaire manual being converted to percentage. Total value of SIP score for the ileal conduit group was 34,76% and in orthotropic derivation 18,52% respectively. For Hautmann procedure total SIP score was 18,35% and for AbolEnein/Ghoneim 18,7%. In the control group total SIP score was 9%. The most influential dimensions on the total score of ileal conduit were physical and psycho-social, while independent dimension did not significantly influent total SIP score. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the lack of questionnaires on quality of life for urinary derivations, SIP score as a general disease influence to the quality of life questionnaire represents a reliable alternative for objectification and quantification of the quality of life upon urinary derivation. According to this instrument, orthotropic derivations provide significantly better quality of life compared to ileal conduit.

Prcic, Alden; Aganovic, Damir; Hadziosmanovic, Osman

2013-01-01

275

Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis  

PubMed Central

Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle.

2014-01-01

276

Iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury.  

PubMed

Severe gastrointestinal erosion, ulcer, necrosis and strictures after an acute iron overdose are well described. However, gastric mucosal injury in patients receiving therapeutic iron has received only scant recognition despite its wide use. We report a case of iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury in a 76-year-old male who presented with iron deficiency anemia and had been taking ferrous sulfate tablet for 4 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a pale, villous appearing flat lesion along the lesser curvature of gastric body. Histopathologic examination of EGD biopsies of the flat lesion showed brown crystalline materials deposited in the lamina propria of gastric mucosa, which was accompanied with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and foreign body reaction. The crystalline materials were covered and admixed with gastric epithelium. Prussian blue iron stain confirmed that the brown crystalline materials were iron. The iron and hemosiderin accumulation was also seen in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and lumen of fundic gastric glands. The recognition and reporting by pathologists of iron-induced changes in EGD biopsies will alert clinicians to this underrecognized but easily correctable complication by alternative forms of iron therapy, such as liquid preparation. PMID:19232839

Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Wieczorek, Rosemary; DeSoto, Fidelina

2009-01-01

277

Septal perforation repair: mucosal regeneration technique.  

PubMed

A novel method for repair of septal perforations. Fifteen volunteers with symptomatic septal perforations were recruited. Open technique rhinoplasty approach was preferred: auricular conchal cartilage graft with intact perichondrium on both sides was harvested and shaped to fit the perforated site and attached to the septum with absorbable sutures. All margins of the graft were covered with nasal mucosa. The severity of patient symptoms was assessed at preoperation, 3 and 6 months postoperatively via visual analogue scale (VAS). Crust formation, whistling, nasal blockage, epistaxis and overall comfort were evaluated. Mucosal physiology was assessed by nasal mucociliary clearance time. The mean age of the patients was 47.3 years. Average perforation size was 1.86 ± 0.78 cm. 14/15 (93.3%) perforations were repaired, and only one patient required revision surgery. VAS scores improved significantly (p < 0.001). Mean mucociliary clearance time improved from 17.6 ± 3.83 to 10.3 ± 3.30 min and 9.3 ± 3.36 min at 3 and 6 months, respectively. This is a novel, simple and safe method for repairing the deficient mucosal area in septal perforations up to 25 mm in diameter. PMID:22350430

Yenigun, Alper; Meric, Aysenur; Verim, Aysegul; Ozucer, Berke; Yasar, Husamettin; Ozkul, Murat Haluk

2012-12-01

278

Th17 cells and Mucosal Host Defense  

PubMed Central

Th17 cells are a new lineage of T-cells that are controlled by the transcription factor ROR?t and develop independent of GATA-3, T-bet, Stat 4 and Stat 6. Novel effector molecules produced by these cells include IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-26. IL-17RA binds IL-17A and IL-17F and is critical for host defense against extracellular planktonic bacteria by regulating chemokine gradients for neutrophil emigration into infected tissue sites as well as host granulopoiesis. Moreover IL-17 and IL-22 regulate the production of antimicrobial proteins in mucosal epithelium. Although TGF-?1 and IL-6 have been shown to be critical for development of Th17 cells from naïve precursors, IL-23 is also important in regulating IL-17 release in mucosal tissues in response to infectious stimuli. Compared to Th1 cells, IL-23 and IL-17 show limited roles in controlling host defense against primary infections with intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggesting a predominate role of the Th17 lineage in host defense against extracellular pathogens. However in the setting of chronic biofilm infections, as that occurs with Cystic Fibrosis or bronchetctasis, Th17 cells may be key contributors of tissue injury.

Aujla, Shean J.; Dubin, Patricia J.; Kolls, Jay K.

2008-01-01

279

Mucosal immunity against parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes  

PubMed Central

The last two decades witnessed significant advances in the efforts of immunoparasitologists to elucidate the nature and role of the host mucosal defence mechanisms against intestinal nematode parasites. Aided by recent advances in basic immunology and biotechnology with the concomitant development of well defined laboratory models of infection, immunoparasitologists have more precisely analyzed and defined the different immune effector mechanisms during the infection; resulting in great improvement in our current knowledge and understanding of protective immunity against gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites. Much of this current understanding comes from experimental studies in laboratory rodents, which have been used as models of livestock and human GI nematode infections. These rodent studies, which have concentrated on Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti/S. venezuelensis, Trichinella spiralis and Trichuris muris infections in mice and rats, have helped in defining the types of T cell responses that regulate effector mechanisms and the effector mechanisms responsible for worm expulsion. In addition, these studies bear indications that traditionally accepted mechanisms of resistance such as eosinophilia and IgE responses may not play as important roles in protection as were previously conceived. In this review, we shall, from these rodent studies, attempt an overview of the mucosal and other effector responses against intestinal nematode parasites beginning with the indices of immune protection as a model of the protective immune responses that may occur in animals and man.

Onah, Denis Nnabuike

2000-01-01

280

Simultaneous occurrence of jejuno-jejunal and ileo-ileal intussusception in a child: a rare occurrence.  

PubMed

Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in infants and children. This condition is frequent in children and presents with the classic triad of cramping abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea and a palpable tender mass. Small bowel intussusceptions are much less common, with jejuno-ileal and duodeno-jejunal intussusceptions being the rarest types of all. Multiple simultaneous intussusception is a peculiar variety of intussusception. The authors report the simultaneous occurrence of jejuno-jejunal and ileo-ileal intussusception in a patient. As this is an extremely uncommon entity, it is being reported with a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:22715228

Pandey, A; Rawat, J D; Wakhlu, A; Kureel, S N; Gopal, S C

2011-01-01

281

Evaluation of an Alternative Mucosal Irritation Test Using Slugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate an alternative mucosal irritation test using the slug Arion lusitanicus as test organism. The effect of 28 reference substances on the mucosal tissue of the slugs was determined by the amount of mucus produced, the reduction in body weight, and the release of proteins from the body wall. The data of the

E. Adriaens; J. P. Remon

2002-01-01

282

Prevention of oral mucositis in paediatric patients treated with chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of two protocols for oral care using either chlorhexidine or benzydamine as oral rinses to alleviate mucositis in children undergoing chemotherapy. Eligible participants were randomised to receive either protocol for 3 weeks in a two-period crossover design. The occurrence of ulcerative lesions and severity of mucositis were measured at baseline and twice weekly, using the

K. K. F Cheng; A. M Chang; M. P Yuen

2004-01-01

283

Indomethacin and turnover of gastric mucosal cells in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Mucosal morphology and the balance between cell loss and cell renewal were analyzed during treatment with a nonulcerative dose of indomethacin. All rats were treated twice daily by subcutaneous injection of 2 mg/kg indomethacin or the solvent. The following parameters were assessed: cell proliferation on day 3 (determination of in vitro (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation), cell migration on days 1 and 3 (autoradiography), cell shedding on days 7 and 14 (measurement of the remaining DNA-bound mucosal radioactivity after in vivo labeling with (/sup 3/H)thymidine prior to treatment), mucosal morphology on day 14 (light microscopy), ex vivo mucosal prostaglandin E/sub 2/ on day 14, and serum gastrin on days 0, 7, and 14. Indomethacin treatment had no effect on serum gastrin levels but reduced mucosal prostaglandin E/sub 2/. Indomethacin produced a significant increase of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation, cell migration, and loss of mucosal DNA-bound radioactivity in the corpus and, to a lesser degree, in the antrum. Morphologically, this led to a hyperplasia of parietal cells and chief cells in the corpus, but antral morphology remained unchanged. The authors conclude that indomethacin stimulates the turnover of gastric mucosal cells. In the corpus, but not in the antrum, proliferation exceeds shedding, thus leading to increase mucosal volume.

Baumgartner, A.; Koelz, H.R.; Halter, F.

1986-06-01

284

Mucosal barrier injury and stem cell transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy used to prepare for a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is unfortunately complicated by damage to the mucosa of the digestive tract. The resultant, mucosal barrier injury (MBI) causes painful ulcerations, which are readily apparent in mouth and are known as mucositis. This makes eating and drinking difficult at a time when

Nicolina Maria Anna Blijlevens

2005-01-01

285

The potential of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as mucosal adjuvants.  

PubMed

The development of mucosal vaccines for humans has been hindered by the lack of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants. Bacterial toxins are commonly used as adjuvants in animal models, but they are too toxic for use in humans. A novel class of adjuvant is CpG DNA, which contains unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in particular base contexts (CpG motifs). CpG DNA is most often coadministered with antigen in the form of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN), which are made with a nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate backbone. The vast majority of studies using CpG DNA as adjuvant have been with parenteral delivery; recently, however, mucosal immunization with CpG DNA as adjuvant has also been shown to induce both systemic (humoral and cellular) and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. This review will highlight the recent uses of CpG DNA as an adjuvant at mucosal surfaces. PMID:11642598

McCluskie, M J; Weeratna, R D; Payette, P J; Davis, H L

2001-01-01

286

Recent progress in HIV vaccines inducing mucosal immune responses.  

PubMed

In spite of several attempts over many years at developing a HIV vaccine based on classical strategies, none has convincingly succeeded to date. As HIV is transmitted primarily by the mucosal route, particularly through sexual intercourse, understanding antiviral immunity at mucosal sites is of major importance. An ideal vaccine should elicit HIV-specific antibodies and mucosal CD8 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as a first line of defense at a very early stage of HIV infection, before the virus can disseminate into the secondary lymphoid organs in mucosal and systemic tissues. A primary focus of HIV preventive vaccine research is therefore the induction of protective immune responses in these crucial early stages of HIV infection. Numerous approaches are being studied in the field, including building upon the recent RV144 clinical trial. In this article, we will review current strategies and briefly discuss the use of adjuvants in designing HIV vaccines that induce mucosal immune responses. PMID:25009956

Pavot, Vincent; Rochereau, Nicolas; Lawrence, Philip; Girard, Marc P; Genin, Christian; Verrier, Bernard; Paul, Stéphane

2014-07-31

287

Vaccines for mucosal immunity to combat emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The mucosal immune system consists of molecules, cells, and organized lymphoid structures intended to provide immunity to pathogens that impinge upon mucosal surfaces. Mucosal infection by intracellular pathogens results in the induction of cell- mediated immunity, as manifested by CD4-positive (CD4 + ) T helper-type 1 cells, as well as CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These responses are normally accompanied by the synthesis of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies, which provide an important first line of defense against invasion of deeper tissues by these pathogens. New-generation live, attenuated viral vaccines, such as the cold-adapted, recombinant nasal influenza and oral rotavirus vaccines, optimize this form of mucosal immune protection. Despite these advances, new and reemerging infectious diseases are tipping the balance in favor of the parasite; continued mucosal vaccine development will be needed to effectively combat these new threats.

van Ginkel, F. W.; Nguyen, H. H.; McGhee, J. R.

2000-01-01

288

Investigations of TB vaccine-induced mucosal protection in mice.  

PubMed

A better understanding of mucosal immunity is required to develop more protective vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We developed a murine aerosol challenge model to investigate responses capable of protecting against mucosal infection. Mice received vaccinations intranasally with CpG-adjuvanted antigen 85B (Ag85B/CpG) and/or Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Protection against aerosol challenge with a recombinant GFP-expressing BCG was assessed. Mucosal prime/boost vaccinations with Ag85B/CpG and BCG were protective, but did not prevent lung infection indicating more efficacious mucosal vaccines are needed. Our novel finding that protection correlated with increased airway dendritic cells early post-challenge could help guide the development of enhanced mucosal vaccines. PMID:24120457

Blazevic, Azra; Eickhoff, Christopher S; Stanley, Jaime; Buller, Mark R; Schriewer, Jill; Kettelson, Eric M; Hoft, Daniel F

2014-01-01

289

Trialkyl phosphorothioates and glutathione S-transferases.  

PubMed

Using a rat liver cytosol source of enzyme trialkyl phosphorothioates have been shown to be substrates of glutathione S-transferases. Using OSS-trimethyl phosphorodithioate (OSS-Me(O] and OOS-trimethyl phosphorothioate (OOS-Me(O] the methyl transferred to the sulphydryl of glutathione is that attached to phosphorus via an oxygen atom. Fractionation of liver cytosol has shown that although the bulk activity is due to the three isozymes (1-1; 3-4; 1.2), OSS-Me(O) is a general substrate for glutathione S-transferases. The specific activity is low compared with the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. PMID:4028290

Aldridge, W N; Grasdalen, H; Aarstad, K; Street, B W; Norkov, T

1985-07-01

290

Ileocolic intussusception due to giant ileal lipoma: Review of literature and report of a case  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Intussusception in adults accounts for less than 5% of all intussusceptions. It occurs when a segment of intestine invaginates into itself. PRESENTATION OF A CASE We report a case of ileocolic intussusception in an adult caused by a giant ileal lipoma. DISCUSSION Intussusceptions can be classified as ileocolic, ileocecal, colo-colic and ileo-ileal. Most are due to neoplasms (60% malign and 24–40% benign). In the colon, the possibility of malignancy is higher than in small intestine. Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal intestinal tumors, accounting for less than 5% of all gastrointestinal tumors. They are more frequent in colon than small intestine. Small lipomas (less than 2 cm) are usually asymptomatic. Larger lesions may produce symptoms such as abdominal pain, obstruction or intussusception. Lipomas can be diagnosed with endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, barium enemas, CT and US. CONCLUSION Intussusceptions in adults is a rare condition, most of them are caused by a malign neoplasms followed by benign neoplasms. US and CT are useful for diagnosis. Surgery is mandatory.

Minaya Bravo, Ana Maria; Vera Mansilla, Cristina; Noguerales Fraguas, Fernando; Granell Vicent, Francisco Javier

2012-01-01

291

Robotic Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Formation: Initial Experience from a Single UK Centre  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe our technique of robotic intracorporeal ileal conduit formation (RICIC) during robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). To report our initial results of this new procedure. Patients and Methods. Seven male and one female patients underwent RARC with RICIC over a six-month period. Demographic, operative, and outcome data was collected prospectively. Median patient age was 75 years (range 62–78 years). Median followup was 9 months (range 7–14 months). Results. RARC with RICIC was performed successfully in all eight patients. The median total operating time was 360 minutes (range 310–440 minutes) with a median blood loss of 225?mL (range 50–1000?mL). The median length of stay was nine days (range 6–34 days). Four patients (50%) were discharged within seven days. Four patients (50%) experienced one or more complications. This included two Clavien I complications, two Clavien II complications, and two Clavien III complications. Two patients (25%) required transfusion of two units each. To date, there have been no complications associated with the ileal conduit. Conclusion. Whilst being technically challenging, this procedure is safe, feasible, and reproducible. Patients who avoid complication show potential for rapid recovery and early discharge.

Bishop, Conrad V.; Adshead, James M.

2013-01-01

292

Gallbladder Stones Following Ileal Resection for Gangrenous Intussusceptions: A Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Intussusceptions are the most common causes of bowel obstruction in infancy and childhood in this environment they present late, resulting in gangrene of the intussusception consequently resection of the affected bowel and a limited or extended right hemicolectomy (RH) to establish bowel continuity. Aim: The aim of the following study is to follow-up these children that had a limited ileal resection for gangrenous intussusceptions and document the formation of stones in their gallbladders. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 patients who had limited ileal resection during infancy for gangrenous intussusceptions were matched with sixteen patients who had manual reduction for viable intussusceptions during infancy. Both groups had ultrasound scans of their gallbladders to document the formation of stones in their gallbladders. Results: No gallbladder stones were found in both groups, however, one male child that had a resection and a RH for a gangrenous intussusception at the age of 4 months and was seen at an interval of 72 months had a thickened gallbladder on ultrasonography, another child, a female child operated on at the age of 6 months and seen at an interval of 57 months also had a thickened gallbladder on ultrasonography. Conclusion: Although no stones were seen, we suggest a prolonged follow-up of these patients with either periodic ultrasonography of the their gallbladders or with the periodic estimation of their serum bile acids.

Osuoji, Roland Iheanyichukwu; Balogun, Babajide Olawale; Olofinlade, Olatunbosun Olabode

2014-01-01

293

Cellular distribution of neutral and basic amino acid transport systems in rabbit ileal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

1. An autoradiographic technique is described whereby the cellular location of tritiated amino acids can be determined following uptake by rabbit ileal mucosa. 2. Stirring solutions in contact with the intestinal mucosa during measurement of rapid influx changes the quantity, but not the distribution, of alanine taken up by the tissue. 3. Conditions predicted to favour either a high affinity system (Ly1) or a low affinity system (Ly2) were used to measure lysine distribution following uptake. Maximal uptake for both transport systems occurred in fully differentiated enterocytes at the tips of villi. Initial maturation of the Ly1 system, which was slow, was followed by a rapid phase of development. The Ly2 system lacked this rapid phase of late development. 4. The cellular distribution of alanine entering on a low affinity Na-independent neutral amino acid carrier closely resembles that determine for Ly1 system for lysine entry. 5. Arginine is a potent inhibitor of lysine uptake through the Ly2 system. Little or no diffusion of lysine appears to take place into rabbit ileal enterocytes. 6. The different distribution of the high and low affinity systems for lysine transport provides further support for their independent existence. It also suggests that more than one message exists fo the switching on of amino acid transport function in differentiating enterocytes. Images A B C and D

King, I S; Sepulveda, F V; Smith, M W

1981-01-01

294

Multiple ileal perforations due to regular diclofenac sodium injections: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Although the adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the upper gastrointestinal tract have been well characterized, those specific to the lower gastrointestinal tract are less clear, as only a limited number of articles and case reports exist in the literature. Case presentation We describe a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department due to sudden onset abdominal distension and pain. Notably, she reported using intramuscular diclofenac sodium twice daily for 14 days after knee joint replacement surgery. The patient denied any other coexisting diseases. As a subsequent X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan showed free air in the abdomen, an exploratory laparotomy was performed, revealing four free perforations in the terminal ileum. Findings on microscopic analysis were non-specific. Conclusion We report a unique case of multiple ileal perforations due to regular diclofenac sodium injections and contend that ileal perforation can be considered as a source for pneumoperitoneum with concomitant peritonitis in patients with a history of NSAID use if other possibilities are excluded.

2013-01-01

295

Listerial invasion protein internalin B promotes entry into ileal Peyer's patches in vivo.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) invades the host intestine using listerial invasion proteins, internalins. The in vivo role of internalin A (InlA) and internalin B (InlB) is reported here. Intragastric (i.g.) administration and ligated loop assays with ?inlB-Lm demonstrated that a lack of InlB significantly attenuates the invasive ability of Lm into various organs. On the other hand, InlA(m)-Lm expressing a mutant InlA with two substitutions, S192N and Y369S, which has been reported to increase the affinity of InlA to mouse E-cadherin, resulted in little increase in intestinal infection according to both ligated loop and i.g. infection assays. Lm preferentially enters ileal Peyer's patch (PP) via M cells and ?inlB-Lm showed severely reduced ability to invade though these cells. The present results reveal the importance of InlB, which accelerates listerial invasion into M cells on ileal PPs in vivo. PMID:21204945

Chiba, Sayuri; Nagai, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Baba, Yukiko; Nagai, Shigenori; Koyasu, Shigeo

2011-02-01

296

Treatment of joint pain in Crohn's patients with budesonide controlled ileal release.  

PubMed

1. Joint pain is a frequent manifestation of Crohn's disease. Budesonide controlled ileal release (CIR) is a predominantly topically acting glucocorticosteroid, which is effective in treating active ileal or ileocaecal Crohn's disease. 2. Therefore, it was of interest to study the effect of this predominantly topically acting therapy on the treatment of an extraintestinal symptom of Crohn's disease by analysing data collected from budesonide CIR (Entocort; Astra Draco AB, Lund, Sweden) trials. 3. Three large studies of budesonide CIR treatment in active Crohn's disease provided a reliable source of clinical data. Of the 611 patients treated in the prospective double-blind controlled trials, 291 had joint pain (arthritis/arthralgia) at entry, which was recorded as part of the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. Statistical analysis was based on all patients treated, provided that the patient had joint pain at the start of treatment. 4. Daily oral budesonide CIR (9mg) resulted in clinical remission of joint pain in 74% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 67-82%) of patients. This outcome was nearly twice as good as placebo (41%; 95% CI 34-57%) and as good as the outcome effected by daily oral prednisolone (40mg; 72%; 95% CI 60-84%). The favourable response to budesonide CIR (9 mg) did not correlate with glucocorticosteroid-associated side effects or with adrenal suppression, which were half those in the prednisolone (40 mg/day) group. 5. The favourable outcome may relate to restitution of normal intestinal immune function. PMID:10779128

Florin, T H; Graffner, H; Nilsson, L G; Persson, T

2000-04-01

297

A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Recent evidence shows that subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significantly lower levels of glutathione than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of two commonly used glutathione supplements in subjects diagnosed with an ASD to determine their efficacy in increasing blood glutathione levels in subjects diagnosed with an ASD. Material/Methods The study was an eight-week, open-label trial using oral lipoceutical glutathione (n=13) or transdermal glutathione (n=13) in children, 3–13 years of age, with a diagnosis of an ASD. Subjects underwent pre- and post-treatment lab testing to evaluate plasma reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, cysteine, taurine, free and total sulfate, and whole-blood glutathione levels. Results The oral treatment group showed significant increases in plasma reduced glutathione, but not whole-blood glutathione levels following supplementation. Both the oral and transdermal treatment groups showed significant increases in plasma sulfate, cysteine, and taurine following supplementation. Conclusions The results suggest that oral and transdermal glutathione supplementation may have some benefit in improving some of the transsulfuration metabolites. Future studies among subjects diagnosed with an ASD should further explore the pharmacokinetics of glutathione supplementation and evaluate the potential effects of glutathione supplementation upon clinical symptoms.

Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Audhya, Tapan; Geier, Mark R.

2011-01-01

298

Glutathione synthetic activity in the lungs in newborn guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Depletion of glutathione, a key antioxidant, accelerates lung injury. Glutathione concentrations are reduced significantly in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome, leaving them at greater risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A study was designed to verify if the increased glutathione synthetic activity observed in oxygen-dependent and ventilated newborn infants was caused by their postsurgical state. Our objective was to evaluate the role of a general surgical procedure as a factor affecting lung glutathione. One-day-old guinea pig pups, a well characterized animal model for the study of neonatal lung disease, were divided between those undergoing a standardized surgical procedure and those that did not. The pups were fed by their mother. After 4 days the lungs were sampled to determine total glutathione content, activities of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, glutathione peroxidase, and reductase as well as the glutathione synthetic activity. The surgical procedure was associated with a specific stimulatory effect limited to glutathione synthetic activity (p < 0.02) leading to an increased (p < 0.02) pulmonary glutathione content. Glutathione concentration was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.67) with the synthetic activity. We concluded that in this animal model an invasive procedure such as a general surgical procedure affects lung glutathione metabolism in a fashion similar to that of hyperoxia. In the lungs, the synthetic activity is a stronger determinant of glutathione concentrations than the activities of the other enzymes involved in maintaining glutathione levels. PMID:9835629

Lavoie, J C; Spalinger, M; Chessex, P

1999-01-01

299

Glutathione Transferase (GST)-Activated Prodrugs.  

PubMed

Glutathione transferase (formerly GST) catalyzes the inactivation of various electrophile-producing anticancer agents via conjugation to the tripeptide glutathione. Moreover, several data link the overexpression of some GSTs, in particular GSTP1-1, to both natural and acquired resistance to various structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. Tumor overexpression of these proteins has provided a rationale for the search of GST inhibitors and GST activated cytotoxic prodrugs. In the present review we discuss the current structural and pharmacological knowledge of GST-activated cytotoxic compounds. PMID:24300447

Ruzza, Paolo; Calderan, Andrea

2013-01-01

300

Glutathione Transferase (GST)-Activated Prodrugs  

PubMed Central

Glutathione transferase (formerly GST) catalyzes the inactivation of various electrophile-producing anticancer agents via conjugation to the tripeptide glutathione. Moreover, several data link the overexpression of some GSTs, in particular GSTP1-1, to both natural and acquired resistance to various structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. Tumor overexpression of these proteins has provided a rationale for the search of GST inhibitors and GST activated cytotoxic prodrugs. In the present review we discuss the current structural and pharmacological knowledge of GST-activated cytotoxic compounds.

Ruzza, Paolo; Calderan, Andrea

2013-01-01

301

Glutathione S-Transferases in Pediatric Cancer  

PubMed Central

The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed polymorphic enzymes important for detoxifying endogenous and exogenous compounds. In addition to their classic activity of detoxification by conjugation of compounds with glutathione, many other functions are now found to be associated with GSTs. The associations between GST polymorphisms/functions and human disease susceptibility or treatment outcome, mostly in adults, have been extensively studied and reviewed. This mini review focuses on studies related to GST epidemiology and functions related to pediatric cancer. Opportunities to exploit GST in pediatric cancer therapy are also discussed.

Luo, Wen; Kinsey, Michelle; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

302

Effects of Hulls of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) with a Low or High Content of Condensed Tannins on the Apparent Ileal and Fecal Digestibility of Nutrients and the Excretion of Endogenous Protein in Ileal Digesta and Feces of Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments (Exp. 1, 2, and 3) with young pigs (BW 10 to 26 kg), the effects of dietary inclusion of hulls of faba beans ( Vicia faba L. (200 g\\/kg) with a low (<.l% catechin equivalents; LT) or high tannin content (3.3% catechin equiva- lents; HT) on the apparent ileal (Exp. 1 and 2) and fecal (Exp. 3)

A. J. M. Jansman; M. W. A. Verstegenf; J. Huisman; J. W. O. van den Berg

2010-01-01

303

Further characterisation of the 'ileal brake' reflex in man--effect of ileal infusion of partial digests of fat, protein, and starch on jejunal motility and release of neurotensin, enteroglucagon, and peptide YY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that ileal infusion of partially digested triglyceride inhibits jejunal motility. The partial digest used in those studies contained a mixture of glycerol, free fatty acid, mono-, di-, and triglycerides. In Part I of the present study we have separately infused emulsions containing either glycerol 3.1 g (n = 6), oleic acid 9.6 g (n = 6),

R C Spiller; I F Trotman; T E Adrian; S R Bloom; J J Misiewicz; D B Silk

1988-01-01

304

Endoscopic mucosal resection with circumferential mucosal incision of duodenal carcinoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Duodenal carcinoids are a rare form of neuroendocrine tumors, and tend to invade the submucosa during the early stage. Endoscopic treatment is generally recommended for duodenal carcinoids less than 10 mm in diameter. Although a few reports have described the use of endoscopic resection of duodenal carcinoids, there are no published studies on endoscopic mucosal resection with circumferential mucosal incision (EMR-CMI). We performed EMR-CMI for 5 cases of duodenal carcinoids in the duodenal bulb. The mean tumor diameter was 4.6 ± 1.8 mm. Although all of the tumors were located in the submucosa, R0 resection was performed without complication in each case. EMR-CMI may thus be a safe and effective treatment for duodenal carcinoids less than 10 mm in diameter.

Otaki, Yuzo; Homma, Kiyoaki; Nawata, Yoshitakata; Imaizumi, Kazuomi; Arai, Shigeru

2013-01-01

305

Glutathione-Binding Site of a Bombyx mori Theta-Class Glutathione Transferase  

PubMed Central

The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily plays key roles in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a silkworm protein belonging to a previously reported theta-class GST family. The enzyme (bmGSTT) catalyzes the reaction of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)-propane, and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the catalytic site revealed that Glu66 and Ser67 are important for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTT and into the metabolism of exogenous chemical agents.

Hossain, M. D. Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Kohji

2014-01-01

306

Head and neck mucosal melanoma: a review.  

PubMed

: Head and neck mucosal melanoma (MM) is an aggressive and rare neoplasm of melanocytic origin. To date, few retrospective series and case reports have been reported on MM. This article reviews the current evidence on head and neck MM and the molecular pathways that mediate the pathogenesis of this disease. Head and neck MM accounts for 0.7%-3.8% of all melanomas and involve (in decreasing order of frequency) the sinonasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus. Although many studies have examined MM of the head and neck and the underlying molecular pathways, individual genetic and molecular alterations were less investigated. Further studies are needed to complement existing data and to increase our understanding of melanocytes tumorigenesis. PMID:24423929

Lourenço, Silvia V; Fernandes, Juliana D; Hsieh, Ricardo; Coutinho-Camillo, Claudia M; Bologna, Sheyla; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

2014-07-01

307

Glutathione S-transferases in small intestinal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease.  

PubMed

Patients with villous atrophy due to coeliac disease have an increased risk of developing small intestinal malignancies. Intestinal glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) are involved in the protection against carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate GSH content and GST enzyme activity in small intestinal mucosa of untreated coeliacs compared to controls. We evaluated GSH content and GST enzyme activity, including the levels of GST classes alpha, mu, pi and theta, in small intestinal biopsies of untreated coeliacs (flat mucosa, Marsh IIIC, n = 12) compared to normal subjects (n = 23). Next, we evaluated GSH and GST's in coeliacs in remission (Marsh 0 - I, n = 11), coeliacs with persisting villous atrophy while on a gluten-free diet (partial villous atrophy, Marsh IIIA (n = 5); subtotal villous atrophy, Marsh IIIB (n = 6)) and patients with infiltrative / crypt-hyperplastic Marsh II lesions (n = 4). Total GST enzyme activity and content of GSTalpha are markedly suppressed in Marsh IIIC lesions compared to controls (resp. 220 +/- 79 vs. 464 +/- 189 nmol / mg protein*min (P < 0.001) and 2.79 +/- 2.46 vs. 6.47 +/- 2.29 mg / mg protein (P < 0.001)). In coeliacs in remission these levels normalized. Total GST enzyme activity and GSTalpha levels are proportionately lowered according to the degree of mucosal pathology in Marsh II, IIIA and IIIB. (Spearman's sigma correlation coefficient for total GST, -0.596, P < 0.001; GSTalpha, -0.620, P < 0.001). GSTmu, pi and theta and GSH levels are not significantly different in the selected study groups of mucosal pathology compared to controls. Total GST enzyme activity and content of GSTalpha in small intestinal mucosa are significantly lower in untreated coeliac disease compared to controls. In Marsh II, IIIA and IIIB, GST enzyme activity and GSTalpha content are proportionally lower according to the degree of mucosal pathology. Normal values are seen in coeliacs in remission. This correlation between coeliac disease and a suppressed GSH / GST detoxification system may explain in part the carcinogenic risk in untreated coeliac disease. PMID:11267937

Wahab, P J; Peters, W H; Roelofs, H M; Jansen, J B

2001-03-01

308

Budesonide prolongs time to relapse in ileal and ileocaecal Crohn's disease. A placebo controlled one year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the topical corticosteroid budesonide, given in an oral controlled release formulation for maintenance of remission in patients with ileal and ileocaecal Crohn's disease (CD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Out of 176 patients with active CD who had achieved remission (CD activity index score < or = 150) after 10 weeks' treatment

R Löfberg; P Rutgeerts; H Malchow; C Lamers; A Danielsson; G Olaison; D Jewell; O Ostergaard Thomsen; H Lorenz-Meyer; H Goebell; H Hodgson; T Persson; C Seidegård

1996-01-01

309

A note on the effects of selected prebiotics on the performance and ileal microbiota of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to study the infl uence of lactose, inulin, and modifi ed ?-glucan as additives to maize-based diets on the performance of broiler chickens, as well as on the pH in the crop, gizzard, ileum, caeca and on populations of selected ileal microfl ora species. Over the entire experimental period (day 1 - day 42),

S. Kaczmarek; A. Rutkowski

310

Regional and processor variation in the ileal digestible amino content of soybean meals measured in growing swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess differences in soybean meal quality related to region of production, researchers in Illinois, Kansas, North Carolina, The Netherlands, and Ohio collected four soybean meal samples processed locally at least 15 d apart. These samples were assayed for ileal amino acid digestibility by pigs using a common soybean meal and a soy protein concentrate as refer- ences, and a

Kempen van T. A. T. G; I. B. Kim; A. J. M. Jansman; M. W. A. Verstegen; J. D. Hancock; D. J. Lee; V. M. Gabert; D. M. Albin; G. C. Fahey Jr; C. M. Grieshop; D. Mahan

2002-01-01

311

Partial sleep deprivation compromises gastric mucosal integrity in rats.  

PubMed

The gastric mucosa is most susceptible to stress that has been shown to induce mucosal damage in humans and animals. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of partial sleep deprivation, as a source of psychophysiological stress, on gastric functions and its effect on mucosal integrity. Sprague-Dawley rats were partially sleep deprived (PSD) for 7 or 14 days by housing inside slowly rotating drums. Gastric tissues and plasma were sampled at the end of the sleep deprivation periods and mucosal lesion scores were evaluated. Morphological examination was performed after Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Plasma levels of noradrenaline, adrenaline, gastrin, histamine and somatostatin were determined with enzyme immunoassays. Gastric acidity was measured with acid-base titration in pylorus ligated rats. Gastric mucosal blood flow was evaluated with Laser Doppler Flowmetry. It was found that gastric lesions were induced in about 30%-50% of the PSD rats. Gastric acidity as well as plasma levels of noradrenaline, gastrin and histamine were elevated. Gastric mucosal blood flow and plasma somatostatin level were on the contrary reduced, especially in rats with PSD for 14 days. It is concluded that partial sleep deprivation compromises gastric mucosal integrity by increasing gastric acidity, plasma levels of noradrenaline, gastrin, histamine, and decreasing gastric mucosal blood flow. These results provided experimental evidence on the gastric damaging effects of PSD and it could be one of the risk factors contributing to gastric ulcer formation. PMID:15862606

Guo, Jin Sheng; Chau, Jenny Fung Ling; Cho, Chi Hin; Koo, Marcel Wing Leung

2005-05-27

312

Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function  

SciTech Connect

Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-07-01

313

Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host's defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed.

Li, Wu; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

2012-01-01

314

Omega-3 fatty acids in ileal effluent after consuming different foods containing microencapsulated fish oil powder - an ileostomy study.  

PubMed

The intestinal absorption of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LCPUFA), [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], after consuming fish oil gelatine capsules or different food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil, was determined using human ileostomates. The total amount of ?3 LCPUFA consumed per dose of fish oil capsule was 266 mg while that for fortified orange juice, yoghurt and cereal bar was 284 mg per serving of food product. In a time course experiment ?3 LCPUFA was measured in ileal effluent over 24 h post ingestion. Only 0.58-0.73% of the total ?3 LCPUFA dose was recovered in the ileal effluent irrespective of whether the fish oil was delivered in a gelatine capsule or in the form of a microencapsulated powder incorporated into fortified foods. Excretion of ?3 LCPUFA was detected in the 2-18 h effluent collections with none detected at 0 h or 24 h. post ingestion. The transit time of the minimal amount of ?3 LCPUFA that remained in the ileal effluent was dependent on the method of delivery of the fish oil. The ?3 LCPUFA content in the ileal effluent peaked at 2-8 h and declined after 10 h after consumption of fish oil capsules and fortified orange juice. In contrast, two peaks in ?3 LCPUFA content were observed in the ileal effluent, first at 2-8 h and again at 14-16 h, after consumption of fortified yoghurt and cereal bar. The highest recovery of the small amount of ?3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent at 14-16 h was obtained when fortified cereal bar was consumed. The results suggest that the delivery of fish oil through food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil does not compromise the bioavailability of the ?3 LCPUFA as evidence by no statistical differences detected in the remaining portion of ?3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent (p = 0.58). However, the food matrix in which the microencapsulated oil was delivered may alter the transit kinetics of the ?3 LCPUFA through the small intestine. PMID:22992723

Sanguansri, Luz; Shen, Zhiping; Weerakkody, Rangika; Barnes, Mary; Lockett, Trevor; Augustin, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

315

Binding of Glutathione by Rat Liver Cytosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione (GSH) binding to rat liver cytosol at two different protein concentrations and a range of GSH concentrations was determined using rapid ultrafiltration. Two binding sites and nonspecific binding were determined by computer fit of the data. The high-affinity site had a similar affinity and capacity for GSH as that of the GSH S-transferases. Using the converged parameters and an

Y. Sugiyama; N. Kaplowitz

1984-01-01

316

Five Decades with Glutathione and the GSTome  

PubMed Central

Uncle Folke inspired me to become a biochemist by demonstrating electrophoresis experiments on butterfly hemolymph in his kitchen. Glutathione became the subject for my undergraduate project in 1964 and has remained a focal point in my research owing to its multifarious roles in the cell. Since the 1960s, the multiple forms of glutathione transferase (GST), the GSTome, were isolated and characterized, some of which were discovered in our laboratory. Products of oxidative processes were found to be natural GST substrates. Examples of toxic compounds against which particular GSTs provide protection include 4-hydroxynonenal and ortho-quinones, with possible links to the etiology of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and other degenerative conditions. The role of thioltransferase and glutathione reductase in the cellular reduction of disulfides and other oxidized forms of thiols was clarified. Glyoxalase I catalyzes still another glutathione-dependent detoxication reaction. The unusual steady-state kinetics of this zinc-containing enzyme initiated model discrimination by regression analysis. Functional properties of the enzymes have been altered by stochastic mutations based on DNA shuffling and rationally tailored by structure-based redesign. We found it useful to represent promiscuous enzymes by vectors or points in multidimensional substrate-activity space and visualize them by multivariate analysis. Adopting the concept “molecular quasi-species,” we describe clusters of functionally related enzyme variants that may emerge in natural as well as directed evolution.

Mannervik, Bengt

2012-01-01

317

Inhibition of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Transferase in Mouse Liver by Misonidazole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanisms of toxicity and sensitization by the radiosensitizer misonidazole (1-(nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-methoxy-2-propanol) are not well understood. The authors report here on the inhibition of total glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), selenium-dependent g...

K. S. Kumar J. F. Weiss

1986-01-01

318

Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and the modulating effect of glutathione ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the therapeutic advantage of glutathione ester along with cisplatin. Comparisons were made with renal reduced glutathione, enzymatic antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation levels. Cisplatin caused differential toxic effects on renal antioxidants and lipid peroxidation. However administration of glutathione ester modulates the toxic effects of cisplatin observed in renal antioxidants and lipid peroxidation. The

E. Babu; V. K. Gopalakrishnan; I. Navis Paul Sriganth; R. Gopalakrishnan; D. Sakthisekaran

1995-01-01

319

Subcellular Distribution of Glutathione Precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Abstract Glutathione is an important antioxidant and has many important functions in plant development, growth and defense. Glutathione synthesis and degradation is highly compartment-specific and relies on the subcellular availability of its precursors, cysteine, glutamate, glycine and ?-glutamylcysteine especially in plastids and the cytosol which are considered as the main centers for glutathione synthesis. The availability of glutathione precursors within these cell compartments is therefore of great importance for successful plant development and defense. The aim of this study was to investigate the compartment-specific importance of glutathione precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The subcellular distribution was compared between wild type plants (Col-0), plants with impaired glutathione synthesis (glutathione deficient pad2-1 mutant, wild type plants treated with buthionine sulfoximine), and one complemented line (OE3) with restored glutathione synthesis. Immunocytohistochemistry revealed that the inhibition of glutathione synthesis induced the accumulation of the glutathione precursors cysteine, glutamate and glycine in most cell compartments including plastids and the cytosol. A strong decrease could be observed in ?-glutamylcysteine (?-EC) contents in these cell compartments. These experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) – the first enzyme of glutathione synthesis – causes a reduction of ?-EC levels and an accumulation of all other glutathione precursors within the cells.

Koffler, Barbara Eva; Maier, Romana; Zechmann, Bernd

2011-01-01

320

Busulfan-Glutathione Conjugation Catalyzed by Human Liver Cytosolic Glutathione S-Transferases1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the catalytic activity of glutathione .S'-transferases (GST) in the conjugation of busulfan with glutathione (GSH) in human liver cytosol. purified human liver GST. and cDNA-expressed GST-al-1. Human liver microsomes and cytosol were incubated with 40 \\/IM busulfan and 1 m\\\\i (.SII. Cytosol catalyzed the formation of the GSH-husulfan tetrahydrothiophenium ion i III I ' i in a

John P. Gibbs; Maciej Czerwinski; John T. Slattery

1996-01-01

321

Interaction of the mycotoxin penicillic acid with glutathione and rat liver glutathione S-transferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro interaction of the mycotoxin penicillic acid (PA) with rat liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) was studied using reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrates. The inhibition of the GST activity by PA in crude extracts was dose dependent. Each of the different GST isoenzymes was inhibited, albeit at different degrees. Kinetic studies never revealed competitive inhibition kinetics. The conjugation

Paul J. Dierickx; Jacques O. De Beer

1984-01-01

322

High-resolution genomic profiling reveals gain of chromosome 14 as a predictor of poor outcome in ileal carcinoids.  

PubMed

Ileal carcinoids are malignant neuroendocrine tumours of the small intestine. The aim of this study was to obtain a high-resolution genomic profile of ileal carcinoids in order to define genetic changes important for tumour initiation, progression and survival. Forty-three patients with ileal carcinoids were investigated by high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The average number of copy number alterations (CNAs) per tumour was 7.1 (range 1-22), with losses being more common than gains (ratio 1.4). The most frequent CNA was loss of chromosome 18 (74%). Other frequent CNAs were gain of chromosome 4, 5, 14 and 20, and loss of 11q22.1-q22.2, 11q22.3-q23.1 and 11q23.3, and loss of 16q12.2-q22.1 and 16q23.2-qter. Two distinct patterns of CNAs were found; the majority of tumours was characterized by loss of chromosome 18 while a subgroup of tumours had intact chromosome 18, but gain of chromosome 14. Survival analysis, using a series of Poisson regressions including recurrent CNAs, demonstrated that gain of chromosome 14 was a strong predictor of poor survival. In conclusion, high-resolution profiling demonstrated two separate patterns of CNAs in ileal carcinoids. The majority of tumours showed loss of chromosome 18, which most likely represents a primary event in the development and pathogenesis of tumours. A different genetic pathway is operative in a subgroup of tumours; this is characterized by gain of chromosome 14 and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. Predictive fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of chromosome 14 status in patients with ileal carcinoids is suggested. PMID:19458023

Andersson, Ellinor; Swärd, Christina; Stenman, Göran; Ahlman, Håkan; Nilsson, Ola

2009-09-01

323

The Level of Protein in Milk Formula Modifies Ileal Sensitivity to LPS Later in Life in a Piglet Model  

PubMed Central

Background Milk formulas have higher protein contents than human milk. This high protein level could modify the development of intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune functions and have long-term consequences. Methodology/Principal findings We investigated the effect of a high protein formula on ileal microbiota and physiology during the neonatal period and later in life. Piglets were fed from 2 to 28 days of age either a normoprotein (NP, equivalent to sow milk) or a high protein formula (HP, +40% protein). Then, they received the same solid diet until 160 days. During the formula feeding period ileal microbiota implantation was accelerated in HP piglets with greater concentrations of ileal bacteria at d7 in HP than NP piglets. Epithelial barrier function was altered with a higher permeability to small and large probes in Ussing chambers in HP compared to NP piglets without difference in bacterial translocation. Infiltration of T cells was increased in HP piglets at d28. IL-1? and NF-?B sub-units mRNA levels were reduced in HP piglets at d7 and d28 respectively; plasma haptoglobin also tended to be reduced at d7. Later in life, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in response to high doses of LPS in explants culture was reduced in HP compared to NP piglets. Levels of mRNA coding the NF-?B pathway sub-units were increased by the challenge with LPS in NP piglets, but not HP ones. Conclusions/Significance A high protein level in formula affects the postnatal development of ileal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune function in piglets and alters ileal response to inflammatory mediators later in life.

Gras-Le Guen, Christele; Lalles, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaelle

2011-01-01

324

Systematic characterization of porcine ileal Peyer's patch, II. A role for CD154 on T cells in the positive selection of immature porcine ileal Peyer's patch B cells  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that the majority (? 90%) of porcine ileal Peyer's patch (IPP) follicular cells are immature B cells destined to die by apoptosis, when incubated at 37°. In this paper we approached the mechanisms responsible for positive selection of porcine IPP follicular immature B?cell selection, by screening for various cell types, cytokines and polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for promoting the survival of IPP B cells. Of these reagents, only CD3 cross?linked purified T cells from mesenteric lymph nodes were able to rescue IPP follicular B cells from apoptosis, although polyclonal anti?IPP lymphocyte antibodies delayed apoptosis. This survival effect could be reproduced simply by incubating IPP follicular B cells with soluble and cell membrane?expressed CD154, an observation consistent with the demonstrated presence of CD40 and CD154 on porcine IPP follicular B cells and activated T cells, respectively. The IPP follicular B cells rescued in this manner expressed a more mature surface marker phenotype. Immunohistology and fluorescence?activated cell sorter analysis demonstrated that subpopulations of IPP follicular T cells (less than 0·5%) express CD154. Thus, perhaps unexpectedly, CD154 on T cells may play a role in the positive selection of immature B cells in the porcine IPP. The origin and control of the activated T cells identified within the porcine IPP remains to be investigated.

Andersen, J K; Takamatsu, H; Pullen, L; Parkhouse, R M E

1999-01-01

325

Effects of redox cycling compounds on glutathione content and activity of glutathione-related enzymes in rainbow trout liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fish, as in other aerobic organisms, glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes are important components in the defences against oxidative stress. To study if hepatic glutathione levels and\\/or activities of glutathione-related enzymes can act as indicators of oxidative stress in fish, we injected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intraperitoneally with paraquat (PQ), menadione (MD), naphthazarin (DHNQ), or ?-naphthoflavone (?-NF), all known to

Eir??kur Stephensen; Joachim Sturve; Lars Förlin

2002-01-01

326

Novel interaction of diethyldithiocarbamate with the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system  

SciTech Connect

Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) exhibits a variety of pharmacologic activities, including both radioprotective and sensitizing properties. Since the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase system may be a significant factor in determining radiation sensitivity, the potential mechanisms of action of DDC in relation to this system were examined in vitro. The interaction of DDC with reduced glutathione (GSH) was tested using a simple system based on the reduction of cytochrome c. When DDC(0.005 mM) was incubated with GSH(0.5mM), the reduction of cytochrome c was eightfold greater than that expected from an additive effect of DDC and GSH could be replaced by oxidized glutathione and glutathione reductase. Cytochrome c reduced by DDC was oxidized by mitochondria. The interaction of DDC with both the hexosemonophosphate shunt pathway and the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggests the possibility of linking these two pathways through DDC. Oxidation of DDC. Oxidation of DDC by peroxide and reversal by GSH indicated that the drug can engage in a cyclic reaction with peroxide and GSH. This was confirmed when DDC was used in the assay system for glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) without GSHPx DDC at a concentration of 0.25 mM was more active than 0.01 unit of pure GSHPx in eliminating peroxide, and much more active than the other sulfhydryl compounds tested. These studies indicate that DDC can supplement GSHPx activity or substitute for it in detoxifying peroxides, and suggests a unique role in the chemical modification of radiation sensitivity.

Kumar, K.S.; Sancho, A.M.; Weiss, J.F.

1986-08-01

327

New Insights into Mechanism of Inflammatory and Allergic Diseases in Mucosal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal immune system is a major component of the mucosal barrier to foreign antigens including microbial and dietary antigens. Under normal circumstances, the mucosal immune system employs tightly regulated dynamic mucosal intra- and internets for the maintenance of an appropriate immunological balance between the host and gut environments. For example, mucosally induced tolerance is usually induced against enteric commensal

Mi-Na Kweon; Ichiro Takahashi; Hiroshi Kiyono

2001-01-01

328

Substitution Urethroplasty for Anterior Urethral Strictures: Buccal versus Lingual Mucosal Graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To compare the results of substitution urethroplasty and donor site morbidity between buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and lingual mucosal graft (LMG). Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft substitution urethroplasty by Barbagli’s technique between January 2004 and August 2008 were included in this study. Patients who underwent buccal (cheek, lip) mucosal graft urethroplasty

Abhay Kumar; Suren K. Das; Sameer Trivedi; Udai S. Dwivedi; Pratap B. Singh

2010-01-01

329

The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed

Joel B. Epstein; Frances L. W. Wong

1994-01-01

330

Uptake through glycoprotein 2 of FimH+ bacteria by M cells initiates mucosal immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal immune system forms the largest part of the entire immune system, containing about three-quarters of all lymphocytes and producing grams of secretory IgA daily to protect the mucosal surface from pathogens. To evoke the mucosal immune response, antigens on the mucosal surface must be transported across the epithelial barrier into organized lymphoid structures such as Peyer's patches. This

Koji Hase; Kazuya Kawano; Tomonori Nochi; Gemilson Soares Pontes; Shinji Fukuda; Masashi Ebisawa; Kazunori Kadokura; Toru Tobe; Yumiko Fujimura; Sayaka Kawano; Atsuko Yabashi; Satoshi Waguri; Gaku Nakato; Shunsuke Kimura; Takaya Murakami; Mitsutoshi Iimura; Kimiyo Hamura; Shin-Ichi Fukuoka; Anson W. Lowe; Kikuji Itoh; Hiroshi Kiyono; Hiroshi Ohno

2009-01-01

331

An enzyme catalysing the conjugation of epoxides with glutathione  

PubMed Central

1. Liver supernatant preparations from rats and ferrets catalyse the conjugation of some epoxides with glutathione. The enzyme involved might be called `glutathione S-epoxidetransferase', as it is different from glutathione S-aryltransferase, the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 4-nitro-pyridine N-oxide and other cyclic compounds with glutathione and from the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of iodomethane and glutathione. 2. The enzyme does not catalyse the reaction with cysteine. It is not inactivated by dialysis but is unstable at pH 5·0. 3. The role of the enzyme in metabolism of foreign compounds is discussed.

Boyland, E.; Williams, K.

1965-01-01

332

Recent advances in mucosal immunization using virus-like particles.  

PubMed

Mucosal immunization offers the promises of eliciting a systemic and mucosal immune response, as well as enhanced patient compliance. Mucosal vaccination using defined antigens such as proteins and peptides requires delivery systems that combine good safety profiles with strong immunogenicity, which may be provided by virus-like particles (VLP). VLP are assembled from viral structural proteins and thus are devoid of any genetic material. They excel by mimicking natural pathogens, therefore providing antigen-protecting particulate nature, inherent immune-cell stimulatory mechanisms, and tissue-specific targeting depending on their parental virus. Nevertheless, despite of promising preclinical results, VLP remain rarely investigated in clinical studies. This review is intended to give an overview of obstacles and promises of VLP-based mucosal immunization as well as to identify strategies to further improve VLP while maintaining a good safety and tolerability profile. PMID:23548071

Vacher, Gaëlle; Kaeser, Matthias D; Moser, Christian; Gurny, Robert; Borchard, Gerrit

2013-05-01

333

Isolated ileal perforation due to cytomegalovirus reactivation during management of terbinafine hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

We report a case of 71-year-old man who developed a hypersensitivity syndrome associated with terbinafine. He was placed on terbinafine (250 mg/d) for the treatment of tinea pedis due to diabetes mellitus. Following the treatment with terbinafine, he developed drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). Systemic corticosteroid led to transient improvement of his clinical manifestations. Three months after disease onset, he presented with panperitonitis due to ileal perforation, and underwent an emergency operation. The affected ileum was resected and ileostomy was performed in the terminal ileum. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG antibodies were significantly increased, high-titer CMV antigenemia was detected, and pathological examination of the resected ileum confirmed CMV infection. Based on these observations, we strongly recommend that physicians monitor reactivation of the family of herpesvirus other than herpesvirus 6, to manage DIHS properly.

Sano, Soichi; Ueno, Hiroki; Yamagami, Keiko; Yakushiji, Yosuke; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Isao; Takemura, Masashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Hosoi, Masayuki

2010-01-01

334

Isolated ileal perforation due to cytomegalovirus reactivation during management of terbinafine hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

We report a case of 71-year-old man who developed a hypersensitivity syndrome associated with terbinafine. He was placed on terbinafine (250 mg/d) for the treatment of tinea pedis due to diabetes mellitus. Following the treatment with terbinafine, he developed drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). Systemic corticosteroid led to transient improvement of his clinical manifestations. Three months after disease onset, he presented with panperitonitis due to ileal perforation, and underwent an emergency operation. The affected ileum was resected and ileostomy was performed in the terminal ileum. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG antibodies were significantly increased, high-titer CMV antigenemia was detected, and pathological examination of the resected ileum confirmed CMV infection. Based on these observations, we strongly recommend that physicians monitor reactivation of the family of herpesvirus other than herpesvirus 6, to manage DIHS properly. PMID:20614493

Sano, Soichi; Ueno, Hiroki; Yamagami, Keiko; Yakushiji, Yosuke; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Isao; Takemura, Masashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Hosoi, Masayuki

2010-07-14

335

Terminal ileal stricture in Crohn's disease: treatment using a metallic enteral endoprosthesis.  

PubMed

Enteral strictures are a frequent indication for surgery in Crohn's disease. Postoperative complications are increased in patients with poor preoperative nutritional status, which is common in this patient population. We present a 49-year-old female with longstanding Crohn's disease admitted to our Digestive Health Center with four weeks of increasing abdominal symptoms and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction caused by ileal stricture. Given her poor nutritional status, our team elected to pursue metallic enteral stenting as a bridge to surgical resection. Two Wallstents were placed; luminal patency was subsequently confirmed by a fluoroscopic study. The patient tolerated regular diet and was discharged. When seen in follow-up, she remained asymptomatic and wished to defer surgical intervention indefinitely. PMID:15785899

Bickston, S J; Foley, E; Lawrence, C; Rockoff, T; Shaffer, H A; Yeaton, P

2005-05-01

336

Retubularization of the ileocystoplasty patch for conversion into an ileal conduit  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We present the outcomes and long-term follow-up of patients who underwent conversion to an ileal conduit urinary diversion using the retubularized patch from the initial augmentation ileocystoplasty. Methods: We reviewed the charts of all patients who underwent this surgery at our centre. The indications for surgery, workup, clinical outcomes and complication rates were assessed. Patient-reported symptom response based on global response assessment (GRA) was determined and used as a subjective measure of overall treatment effectiveness. Results: Thirteen patients with either bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) (n = 11) or neurogenic bladder (n = 2) were followed for a mean of 80 months. The most common indication for surgical conversion was persistent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or bladder pain. Late complications were frequent, typically low-grade, and usually manageable with conservative therapy; the most common were urinary tract infections (n = 6) and parastomal hernias (n = 5). Two patients developed ureteric strictures. Nine of 13 patients required additional surgery to manage complications or persistent symptoms. Only 5 of 11 GRA respondents reported a successful therapeutic outcome and BPS/IC patients who underwent concurrent cystourethrectomy tended to be most satisfied (2/3). Nevertheless, several patients still achieved symptom control when no other treatment options were available to them. Conclusion: Conversion to an ileal conduit using the retubularized ileocystoplasty patch offers several technical and therapeutic advantages over creating a urinary diversion from a new bowel segment. It should therefore be considered a viable treatment option in patients who have exhausted more conservative management of their LUTS.

Massaro, Peter A.; Gajewski, Jerzy B.; Bailly, Greg

2013-01-01

337

Pharmacological characterization of a 7-benzylidenenaltrexone-preferring opioid receptor in porcine ileal submucosa  

PubMed Central

In the intestine, opioids produce antidiarrhoeal and constipating actions that are mediated by enteric neurones. Through interactions with opioid receptors (ORs) on submucosal neurones, opioids suppress active ion transport evoked by transmural electrical stimulation (TES) in mucosa–submucosa sheets from the porcine ileum. In this study, we examined the pharmacological characteristics of the previously described OR, which is sensitive to the ?1-OR antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone and modulates neurogenic transepithelial ion transport in this tissue preparation. Increases in short-circuit current (Isc, a measure of active anion transport) evoked by TES in ileal mucosa–submucosa sheets were inhibited by opioid agonists possessing high selectivity for either ?- or ?-ORs including [D-Pen2,5]enkephalin (DPDPE), [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin II, and [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO). As determined by the Schild analysis, the actions of these agonists were competitively inhibited by 7-benzylidenenaltrexone. The nonequilibrium ?-OR antagonist ?-funaltrexamine inhibited the actions of DAMGO only at a high concentration (1 ?M) but did not alter DPDPE or deltorphin II action. At concentrations up to 10 ?M, the nonequilibrium ?-OR antagonist naltrindole 5?-isothiocyanate did not alter the actions of ?- or ?-OR agonists. Radioligand binding analyses of neuronal homogenates from the ileal submucosa revealed that the nonselective OR ligand [3H]diprenorphine bound to two populations of specific binding sites. One of these sites possessed binding characteristics similar to the ?-OR. In summary, neurogenic ion transport in the porcine intestine is modulated by an OR which shares pharmacological characteristics of both ?- and ?-ORs and may represent a novel receptor entity.

Townsend, De Wayne; Brown, David R

2003-01-01

338

Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further. PMID:22080020

Amad, A A; Männer, K; Wendler, K R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

2011-12-01

339

Effects of dietary supplementation with a protease on the apparent ileal digestibility of the weaned piglet.  

PubMed

The effects of an acid-stable protease (RONOZYME ProAct) supplemented to a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients were evaluated in 120 weaned piglets (28 d old; 8.17 ± 0.90 kg). Pigs were divided into 2 equal groups and had free access to mash diet containing 0.4% Cr(2)O(3) as indigestible marker [basal diet (Std)] or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME ProAct at 15,000 PROT [the amount of enzyme that releases 1 ?mol of pnitroaniline from 1 ?M of substrate (Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroaniline) per min at pH 9.0 and 37°C)/kg (ProA). The ileal content was collected for the digestibility determination after euthanasia of 35 piglets of each group after 14 d of study and 25 piglets of each group after 29 d. Compared to group Std, AID of CP was increased (P < 0.05) after 29 d of treatment in group ProA. The AID of the indispensable AA, Met + Cys, and branched-chain AA was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the study. In the protease supplemented pigs, the AID of the individual AA was not improved after 14 d of treatment whereas it was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the experiment for Arg, Asp + Asn, Glu + Gln, His, Ile, Lys, Phe, Thr, Tyr ,and Val. In conclusion, dietary protease supplementation increased AID of AA in piglets. PMID:23365313

Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Wilson, J W

2012-12-01

340

Complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the outcomes of treatments for complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Between March 1998 and February 2013, 72 patients (28 male and 44 female, median age 43.0 years ± 14.0 years) underwent total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The study cohort was registered prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Patient characteristics, medical management histories, operative findings, pathology reports and postoperative clinical courses, including early postoperative and late complications and their treatments, were reviewed from a medical record system. All of the ileal pouches were J-pouch and were performed with either the double-stapling technique (n = 69) or a hand-sewn (n = 3) technique. RESULTS: Thirty-one (43.1%) patients had early complications, with 12 (16.7%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Pouch bleeding, pelvic abscesses and anastomosis ruptures were managed conservatively. Patients with pelvic abscesses were treated with surgical drainage. Twenty-seven (38.0%) patients had late complications during the follow-up period (82.5 ± 50.8 mo), with 21 (29.6%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Treatment for pouchitis included antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs. Pouch-vaginal fistulas, perianal abscesses or fistulas and anastomosis strictures were treated surgically. Pouch failure developed in two patients (2.8%). Analyses showed that an emergency operation was a significant risk factor for early pouch-related complications compared to elective procedures (55.6% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05). Pouchitis was related to early (35.3%) and the other late pouch-related complications (41.2%) (P < 0.05). The complications did not have an effect on pouch failure nor pouch function. CONCLUSION: The complications following IPAA can be treated successfully. Favorable long-term outcomes were achieved with a lower pouch failure rate than reported in Western patients.

Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Moon, Sang Hui; Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo

2014-01-01

341

Polymeric penetration enhancers promote humoral immune responses to mucosal vaccines.  

PubMed

Protective mucosal immune responses are thought best induced by trans-mucosal vaccination, providing greater potential to generate potent local immune responses than conventional parenteral vaccination. However, poor trans-mucosal permeability of large macromolecular antigens limits bioavailability to local inductive immune cells. This study explores the utility of polymeric penetration enhancers to promote trans-mucosal bioavailability of insulin, as a biomarker of mucosal absorption, and two vaccine candidates: recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Responses to vaccinating antigens were assessed by measurement of serum and the vaginal humoral responses. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), Dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin (DM-?-CD) and Chitosan enhanced the bioavailability of insulin following intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL), intravaginal (I.Vag) and intrarectal (IR) administration. The same penetration enhancers also increased antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses to the model vaccine antigens in serum and vaginal secretions following IN and SL application. Co-delivery of both antigens with PEI or Chitosan showed the highest increase in systemic IgG and IgA responses following IN or SL administration. However the highest IgA titres in vaginal secretions were achieved after IN immunisations with PEI and Chitosan. None of the penetration enhancers were able to increase antibody responses to gp140 after I.Vag immunisations, while in contrast PEI and Chitosan were able to induce TT-specific systemic IgG levels following I.Vag administration. In summary, we present supporting data that suggest appropriate co-formulation of vaccine antigens with excipients known to influence mucosal barrier functions can increase the bioavailability of mucosally applied antigens promoting the induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses. PMID:24657807

Klein, Katja; Mann, Jamie F S; Rogers, Paul; Shattock, Robin J

2014-06-10

342

Development of Palifermin (rHuKGF) for Mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucositis is a painful adverse event caused by chemo- and\\/or radiation therapy in cancer patients. It occurs in about 40%\\u000a of patients receiving chemoradiotherapy and can have profound effects on their quality of life and treatment protocol. Mucositis\\u000a patients are more susceptible to infections and frequently require longer hospital stays, which lead to significant increases\\u000a in medical costs. At present,

Ping Wei; Catherine L. Farrell

343

Microencapsulation of Vaccine Antigens and Adjuvants for Mucosal Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of vaccine antigens that can trigger potent mucosal immune response is one of the effective strategies to overcome a wide array of infectious diseases. Microencapsulation of vaccine antigens with Poly(lactide-co-glycolic acids) (PLGA), an FDA approved biodegradable polymer, has been investigated for targeted M-cell uptake. While PLGA possesses many attractive properties, a successful PLGA based mucosal-targeted vaccine has yet to

Thejani E. Rajapaksa; David D. Lo

2010-01-01

344

5 Morphology of the mucosal lesion in gluten sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluten sensitivity is associated with a spectrum of mucosal lesions, arbitrarily termed pre-infiltrative, infiltrative-hyperplastic, flat-destructive and atrophic-hypoplastic. Histologically and immunohistologically these lesions are all compatible with T-cell-driven events operative at a local mucosal level. They are classifiable either in terms of antibody titres (pre-infiltrative) (see Chapter 10) or by the characteristic disposition of IELs throughout the surface and crypt epithelium.

Michael N. Marsh; Peter T. Crowe

1995-01-01

345

Functional outcomes following endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy with mucosal repair.  

PubMed

Endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy is an effective treatment for cricopharyngeal dysfunction, but concern remains over the risk of serious complications following the procedure. Some authors have therefore considered endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy with mucosal repair; however, outcome data for the procedure is scanty. This study aims to identify functional outcomes in a series of patients following endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy with mucosal repair. Endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy with mucosal repair was performed on 38 subjects in two centres over a period of 33 months. Pre- and post-operative outcomes were evaluated in 32 subjects using the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire and Reflux Symptom Index. An improvement in swallowing scores was seen in 30 subjects (94 %, p < 0.001). The Reflux Symptom Index improved 28 subjects (88 %, p < 0.001). Mean procedure time was 58 min. One subject (2.6 %) developed mediastinitis following surgery, and four experienced (12.5 %) a recurrence of dysphagic symptoms. Endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy with mucosal repair is an effective treatment for cricopharyngeal dysfunction. The complication rate observed in this study was comparable or lower than previously reported studies into endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy without mucosal repair. Larger studies may be required to determine the additional benefit of mucosal repair over endoscopic laser cricopharyngeal myotomy alone. PMID:24337898

Dale, O T; Mackeith, S; Burgess, C A; Rourke, T J; Winter, S C; Corbridge, R J

2014-06-01

346

Cancer therapy and oral mucositis. An appraisal of drug prophylaxis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis as a consequence of cytotoxic therapy is a major cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Cancer therapy-induced tissue damage leading to mucositis can occur through either direct or indirect stomatotoxicity. Once mucositis has occurred, treatment consists of measures to palliate symptoms. The prevention of cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis is less standardised. Numerous drugs have been used as prophylactic agents to prevent chemo- and radiotherapy-induced mucositis. Controlled trials have shown some degree of prophylactic efficacy for sucralfate, chlorhexidine and benzydamine. Positive but non-placebo-controlled trials requiring more study have been conducted with dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2), silver nitrate, beta-carotene, pentoxifylline and lozenges containing polymixin B, tobramycin and amphotericin B. Current studies have shown a lack of efficacy with allopurinol and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Nonpharmacological methods such as oral cryotherapy and helium-neon laser treatments have shown some promise. At the present time no agent has been shown to be uniformly efficacious and can be accepted as standard therapy. Additional studies combining several agents or incorporating nonpharmacological manoeuvres for mucositis prevention are needed. PMID:8240724

Verdi, C J

1993-09-01

347

Using Light to Treat Mucositis and Help Wounds Heal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuing program of research and development is focusing on the use of controlled illumination by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to treat mucositis and to accelerate healing of wounds. The basic idea is to illuminate the affected area of a patient with light of an intensity, duration, and wavelength (or combination of wavelengths) chosen to produce a therapeutic effect while generating only a minimal amount of heat. This method of treatment was originally intended for treating the mucositis that is a common complication of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer. It is now also under consideration as a means to accelerate the healing of wounds and possibly also to treat exposure to chemical and radioactive warfare agents. Radiation therapy and many chemotherapeutic drugs often damage the mucosal linings of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, leading to mouth ulcers (oral mucositis), nausea, and diarrhea. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy is currently the standard of care for ischemic, hypoxic, infected, and otherwise slowlyhealing problem wounds, including those of oral mucositis. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy increases such cellular activities as collagen production and angiogenesis, leading to an increased rate of healing. Biostimulation by use of laser light has also been found to be effective in treating mucositis. For hyperbaricoxygen treatment, a patient must remain inside a hyperbaric chamber for an extended time. Laser treatment is limited by laser-wavelength capabilities and by narrowness of laser beams, and usually entails the generation of significant amounts of heat.

Ignatius, Robert W.; Martin, Todd S.; Kirk, Charles

2008-01-01

348

Inside the brachycephalic nose: intranasal mucosal contact points.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intranasal mucosal contact points in brachycephalic and normocephalic dogs. In total, 82 brachycephalic dogs (42 pugs and 40 French bulldogs) were evaluated by rhinoscopy for their intranasal mucosal contact and 25 normocephalic dogs were evaluated as a control group. Of those, 162 brachycephalic nasal cavities were evaluable and 140 had contact between intranasal structures (87%). Intraconchal and septoconchal mucosal contact points were the most commonly detected sites of contact. French bulldogs had a significantly higher prevalence of mucosal contact and had 3 mean contact points compared with 1.7 mean contact points per nasal cavity in pugs. Septal deviations were present in 62% of brachycephalic dogs. In the control group, mucosal contact points were present in only 7 of 50 nasal cavities (14%), and septal deviations occurred in 16% of those cases. Contact point average was 0.1 in large and 0.3 in small normocephalic dogs. Intranasal mucosal contact was identified as a common and previously unreported problem in brachycephalic dogs. Numerous contact points reduce the lumen of the intranasal passageways and indicate potential intranasal obstruction. Affected dogs might benefit from removal of obstructing conchae, potentially using laser-assisted turbinectomy. PMID:24659729

Schuenemann, Riccarda; Oechtering, Gerhard U

2014-01-01

349

[Clinicopathological study of acute esophageal mucosal lesion].  

PubMed

Acute esophageal mucosal lesion (AEML) is a comprehensive disease that includes necrotizing esophagitis and acute erosive esophagitis, which result in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, little is known about AEML. We examined the clinicopathological features of 57 AEML cases. AEML presented as acute diffuse esophagitis showing an endoscopically erosive mucosa. The disease did not include corrosive injury, radiation-induced damage, infectious esophagitis, or acute exacerbation of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease. AEML predominantly affected elderly men, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding was the frequent presenting symptom. Severe underlying diseases such as cranial nerve disease or pneumonia were observed in 98% of the patients. Esophageal sliding hernia and gastroduodenal ulcers were endoscopically observed in 67% and 63% of the patients, respectively. Deaths due to exacerbation of the underlying diseases accounted for 16%. Most cases rapidly improved with conservative management using a proton pump inhibitor or an H2 blocker. Therefore, AEML should be considered a disease having characteristics different from those of common gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:23831655

Kawauchi, Hirohito; Ohta, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Yu; Yoshizaki, Koji; Sakamoto, Jun; Amitsuka, Hisato; Kimura, Keisuke; Maemoto, Atsuo; Orii, Fumika; Ashida, Toshifumi

2013-07-01

350

Dendritic Cells at the Oral Mucosal Interface  

PubMed Central

The mucosal lining of the respiratory and digestive systems contains the largest and most complex immune system in the body, but surprisingly little is known of the immune system that serves the oral mucosa. This review focuses on dendritic cells, particularly powerful arbiters of immunity, in response to antigens of microbial or tumor origin, but also of tolerance to self-antigens and commensal microbes. Although first discovered in 1868, the epidermal dendritic Langerhans cells remained enigmatic for over a century, until they were identified as the most peripheral outpost of the immune system. Investigators’ ability to isolate, enrich, and culture dendritic cells has led to an explosion in the field. Presented herein is a review of dendritic cell history, ontogeny, function, and phenotype, and the role of different dendritic cell subsets in the oral mucosa and its diseases. Particular emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of recognition and capture of microbes by dendritic cells. Also emphasized is how dendritic cells may regulate immunity/tolerance in response to oral microbes.

Cutler, C.W.; Jotwani, R.

2008-01-01

351

Mucosal ablation therapy of barrett esophagus.  

PubMed

Barrett esophagus is defined by the metaplasia of existing squamous mucosa into a specialized intestinal-type mucosa. The importance of this metaplasia is the association of this condition with the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Elimination of the metaplastic mucosa may decrease the cancer risk. Currently, several forms of therapy have evolved with the goal of replacing the specialized mucosa with normal squamous mucosa. These proposed treatments include photodynamic therapy and thermal techniques. The effectiveness of photodynamic therapy varies depending on the pharmaceutical photosensitizer used and the wavelength of light applied to activate the drug. Thermal techniques include multipolar coagulation, argon plasma coagulation, KTP:YAG laser therapy, Nd:YAG laser therapy, and argon laser therapy. Finally, mucosal resection has been attempted through the endoscope to remove large areas of the Barrett mucosa. All of these ablative strategies attempt to destroy the metaplastic mucosa and promote the regrowth of squamous epithelium. These therapies have demonstrated the ability to "reverse" the metaplasia to varying degrees, but a decrease in cancer risk has not been demonstrated conclusively with any of these treatment methods. PMID:11322361

Wang, K K; Sampliner, R E

2001-04-01

352

Mucosal Inflammatory Response to Salmonella typhimurium Infection  

PubMed Central

The human intestinal epithelium consists of a single layer of epithelial cells that forms a barrier against food antigens and the resident microbiota within the lumen. This delicately balanced organ functions in a highly sophisticated manner to uphold the fidelity of the intestinal epithelium and to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. On the luminal side, this barrier is fortified by a thick mucus layer, and on the serosal side exists the lamina propria containing a resident population of immune cells. Pathogens that are able to breach this barrier disrupt the healthy epithelial lining by interfering with the regulatory mechanisms that govern the normal balance of intestinal architecture and function. This disruption results in a coordinated innate immune response deployed to eliminate the intruder that includes the release of antimicrobial peptides, activation of pattern-recognition receptors, and recruitment of a variety of immune cells. In the case of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response. As the role of the intestinal epithelium in initiating an immune response has been increasingly realized, this review will highlight recent research that details progress made in understanding mechanisms underlying the mucosal inflammatory response to Salmonella infection, and how such inflammatory responses impact pathogenic fitness of this organism.

Patel, Samir; McCormick, Beth A.

2014-01-01

353

Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

2014-09-15

354

Measurement of true ileal digestibility and total tract retention of phosphorus in corn and canola meal for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The study reported herein was conducted to determine and compare the nonphytate P, digestible P, and retainable P contents of corn and canola meal for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each of ingredient to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 8 cages each (6 birds per cage). A total of 192 broilers (Ross 308), 21 d old, were assigned to the 8 test diets. Ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients of P were determined by the indicator and total collection methods, respectively, and linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility and true P retention coefficients. The apparent ileal digestibility of P in corn was influenced (quadratic, P < 0.05) by increasing dietary nonphytate P concentrations, whereas P retention was unaffected (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal P digestibility in broilers fed diets based on canola meal was similar (P > 0.05) at different P concentrations. Phosphorus retention in broilers fed diets based on canola meal (linear, P < 0.01) decreased with increasing P concentrations. True ileal P digestibility and true P retention coefficients of corn were determined to be 0.676 and 0.632, respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 0.469 and 0.486, respectively. In both ingredients, the determined true ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients were not different (P > 0.05). Total P, nonphytate P, true digestible P, and true retainable P contents of corn were determined to be 2.5, 0.8, 1.7, and 1.6 g/kg (as received), respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 9.7, 2.8, 4.6, and 4.7 g/kg (as received), respectively. The present data demonstrated that the regression method can be successfully used to measure true P digestibility of low and high P feed ingredients and that both true ileal digestibility and retention coefficients are suitable to assess P availability in broilers. PMID:24570463

Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

2014-02-01

355

A glutathione reductase mutant of yeast accumulates high levels of oxidized glutathione and requires thioredoxin for growth.  

PubMed Central

A glutathione reductase null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated in a synthetic lethal genetic screen for mutations which confer a requirement for thioredoxin. Yeast mutants that lack glutathione reductase (glr1 delta) accumulate high levels of oxidized glutathione and have a twofold increase in total glutathione. The disulfide form of glutathione increases 200-fold and represents 63% of the total glutathione in a glr1 delta mutant compared with only 6% in wild type. High levels of oxidized glutathione are also observed in a trx1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (22% of total), in a glr1 delta, trx1 delta double mutant (71% of total), and in a glr1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (69% of total). Despite the exceptionally high ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione, the glr1 delta mutant grows with a normal cell cycle. However, either one of the two thioredoxins is essential for growth. Cells lacking both thioredoxins and glutathione reductase are not viable under aerobic conditions and grow poorly anaerobically. In addition, the glr1 delta mutant shows increased sensitivity to the thiol oxidant diamide. The sensitivity to diamide was suppressed by deletion of the TRX2 gene. The genetic analysis of thioredoxin and glutathione reductase in yeast runs counter to previous studies in Escherichia coli and for the first time links thioredoxin with the redox state of glutathione in vivo. Images

Muller, E G

1996-01-01

356

Colloidal bismuth subcitrate-induced changes on gastric mucosal hemodynamics in the rat: Gastric mucosal blood flow after CBS treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The belief that blood flow plays a central role in cytoprotection and there being no data available, at present, regarding\\u000a the possible action of Colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS-DENOL®) on the gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF), led us to investigate\\u000a its influence on mucosal hemodynamics in the rat stomach. Measurements of GMBF were performed in 32 male Wistar rats, treated\\u000a by

Efthimios Eleftheriadis; Katerina Kotzampassi; Emmanouel Tzartinoglou; Aziz Salem; Homeros Aletras

1991-01-01

357

Glutathione in liver diseases and hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant as well as redox and cell signaling regulator. GSH guards cells against oxidative injury by reducing H2O2 and scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals. In addition, GSH-induced redox shift with or without ROS subjects some cellular proteins to varied forms of oxidation, altering the function of signal transduction and transcription factor molecules. Increasing evidence

Liyun Yuan; Neil Kaplowitz

2009-01-01

358

Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals.  

PubMed

Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg) was studied for its antiulcer and mucosal defensive factors in normal and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by administering streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg, ip) to 5 days old rat pups. The animals showing blood glucose level >140mg/dL after 12 weeks of STZ administration were considered as NIDDM positive. Effects of MSE were compared with known ulcer protective drug, sucralfate (SFT, 500 mg/kg) and anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (GLC, 0.6 mg/kg) when administered orally, once daily for 6 days against gastric ulcers (GU) induced by cold-restraint stress (CRS) and ethanol and subsequent changes in gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide) and anti-oxidants enzymes (super oxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione (GSH) levels. MSE showed better ulcer protective effect in NIDDM rats compared with SFT and GLC in CRS-induced GU. NIDDM caused a significant decrease in gastric mucosal glycoprotein level without having any effect on cell proliferation. However, all the test drugs reversed the decrease in glycoprotein level in NIDDM rats, but cell proliferation was enhanced in case of MSE alone. Both CRS or NIDDM as such enhanced gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD, but decreased CAT levels while CRS plus NIDDM rats caused further increase in LPO and NO level without causing any further changes in SOD and CAT level. MSE pretreatment showed reversal in the levels of all the above parameters better than GLC. Ethanol caused a decrease in glutathione level which was further reduced in NIDDM-ethanol rats. MSE reversed the above changes significantly in both normal as well as in NIDDM rats, while GLC reversed it only in NIDDM rats. However, SFT was ineffective in reversing the changes induced by CRS or ethanol or when given in NIDDM-CRS or NIDDM-ethanol rats. The results indicated that the ulcer protective effect of MSE could be due to its predominant effect on mucosal glycoprotein, cell proliferation, free radicals and antioxidant systems. PMID:16629371

Mohan Kumar, M; Joshi, M C; Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, R K

2006-04-01

359

Selenium, glutathione and glutathione peroxidases in blood of patients with chronic liver diseases.  

PubMed

Disturbances in the antioxidant system could play a role in pathogenesis of chronic liver disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the levels/activities of antioxidants in blood of patients with chronic liver disease. We estimated selenium and glutathione concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of 59 patients with chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection (group 1) and 64 patients with alcoholic, autoimmune or cryptogenic chronic liver disease (group 2). The results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Whole blood and plasma selenium and red cell glutathione concentrations were significantly lower in the patients compared with the controls. Red cell glutathione peroxidase activity was slightly reduced in both subgroups of group 1 and in group 2 with normal alanine aminotransferase values. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity was slightly but significantly higher in patients with elevated aminotransferase values. The findings suggest that disturbances in antioxidant parameters in blood of patients with chronic liver disease may be the cause of the peroxidative damage of cells. PMID:14740001

Czuczejko, Jolanta; Zachara, Bronis?aw A; Staubach-Topczewska, Ewa; Halota, Waldemar; Kedziora, Józef

2003-01-01

360

Glutathione-Enhancing Agents Protect against Steatohepatitis in a Dietary Model  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and steatohepatitis (NASH) may accompany obesity, diabetes, parenteral nutrition, jejeuno-ileal bypass, and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Currently there is no FDA approved and effective therapy available. We investigated the potential efficacy of those agents that stimulate glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis on the development of experimental steatohepatitis. Rats fed (ad libitum) amino acid based methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet were further gavaged with (1) vehicle (MCD), (2) S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), or (3) 2(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (PTCA). Results: MCD diet significantly reduced hematocrit, and this abnormality improved in the treated groups (p < 0.01). Serum transaminases were considerably elevated (AST: 5.8-fold; ALT: 3.22-fold) in MCD rats. However, administration of GSH-enhancing agents significantly suppressed these abnormal enzyme activities. MCD rats developed severe liver pathology manifested by fatty degeneration, inflammation, and necrosis, which significantly improved with therapy. Blood levels of GSH were significantly depleted in MCD rats but normalized in the treated groups. Finally, RT-PCR measurements showed a significant upregulation of genes involved in tissue remodeling and fibrosis (matrix metalloproteinases, collagen-?1), suppressor of cytokines signaling1, and the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and TGF-?) in the livers of rats fed MCD. GSH-enhancing therapies significantly attenuated the expression of deleterious proinflammatory and fibrogenic genes in this dietary model. This is the first report that oral administration of SAMe and PTCA provide protection against liver injury in this model and suggests therapeutic applications of these compounds in NASH patients.

Im, Hee-Jeong; Chen, Theresa S.; de Villiers, Willem J. S.; McClain, Craig J.

2010-01-01

361

Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed Extracts Protects Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Mucosal Injury  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption.

Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

362

Azadirachta indica Attenuates Colonic Mucosal Damage in Experimental Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica leaves indicated the presence of active principles with proven antioxidants, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, free radical scavenging and healing properties. In the present study we evaluated the healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Azadirachta indica extract (500 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days and studied for its effects on diarrhoea, food and water intake, body weight changes, colonic damage and inflammation, histology, antibacterial activity and free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and myeloperoxidase activities in colonic tissue. Intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid increased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, but decreased body weight which were reversed by Azadirachta indica extract and sulfasalazine (positive control) treatments. Azadirachta indica extract showed antibacterial activity. Azadirachta indica extract and sulfasalazine enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities affected in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Azadirachta indica extract, thus seemed to be effective in healing trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:24403663

Gautam, M K; Goel, Shalini; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K

2013-09-01

363

Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated; whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid, retinol and ?-carotene levels were measured in all the groups. RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid, retinol and ?-carotene levels. CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity.

Birdane, Fatih Mehmet; Cemek, Mustafa; Birdane, Yavuz Osman; Gulcin, Ilhami; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin

2007-01-01

364

Proanthocyanidin from grape seed extracts protects indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption. PMID:24868202

Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

365

Azadirachta indica Attenuates Colonic Mucosal Damage in Experimental Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

Azadirachta indica leaves indicated the presence of active principles with proven antioxidants, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, free radical scavenging and healing properties. In the present study we evaluated the healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Azadirachta indica extract (500 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days and studied for its effects on diarrhoea, food and water intake, body weight changes, colonic damage and inflammation, histology, antibacterial activity and free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and myeloperoxidase activities in colonic tissue. Intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid increased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, but decreased body weight which were reversed by Azadirachta indica extract and sulfasalazine (positive control) treatments. Azadirachta indica extract showed antibacterial activity. Azadirachta indica extract and sulfasalazine enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities affected in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Azadirachta indica extract, thus seemed to be effective in healing trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

Gautam, M. K.; Goel, Shalini; Ghatule, R. R.; Singh, A.; Joshi, V. K.; Goel, R. K.

2013-01-01

366

Glutathione is a Physiologic Reservoir of Neuronal Glutamate  

PubMed Central

Glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain, participates in a multitude of physiologic and pathologic processes, including learning and memory. Glutathione, a tripeptide composed of the amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, serves important cofactor roles in antioxidant defense and drug detoxification, but glutathione deficits occur in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Glutathione synthesis and metabolism are governed by a cycle of enzymes, the ?-glutamyl cycle, which can achieve intracellular glutathione concentrations of 1-10 millimolar. Because of the considerable quantity of brain glutathione and its rapid turnover, we hypothesized that glutathione may serve as a reservoir of neural glutamate. We quantified glutamate in HT22 hippocampal neurons, PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons after treatment with molecular inhibitors targeting three different enzymes of the glutathione metabolic cycle. Inhibiting 5-oxoprolinase and ?-glutamyl transferase, enzymes that liberate glutamate from glutathione, leads to decreases in glutamate. In contrast, inhibition of ?-glutamyl cysteine ligase, which uses glutamate to synthesize glutathione, results in substantial glutamate accumulation. Increased glutamate levels following inhibition of glutathione synthesis temporally precede later effects upon oxidative stress.

Koga, Minori; Serritella, Anthony V.; Messmer, Marcus M.; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Hester, Lynda D.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Sawa, Akira; Sedlak, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

367

Selective neutralization of a bacterial enterotoxin by serum immunoglobulin A in response to mucosal disease.  

PubMed Central

One-third of convalescent-phase serum samples (6 of 18) from patients with Clostridium difficle-associated diarrhea demonstrated neutralization of the clostridial enterotoxin, toxin A. Although appreciable amounts of toxin A-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA were present in these sera, the ability to neutralize the cytotoxic activity of toxin A on OTF9-63 cells in vitro was confined to the IgA fraction and the IgA1 subclass in serum samples from all six patients. In contrast to the patients with C. difficile diarrhea, this activity was present in both the IgA and IgG fractions in sera from two C. difficile-infected patients without diarrhea, one of whom presented with a splenic abscess. Sera and purified IgA which neutralized the cytotoxicity of toxin A on OTF9-63 cell cultures in vitro also neutralized the enterotoxicity of toxin A in rabbit ileal loops in vivo. This activity was not Fc dependent, since IgA retained neutralizing activity after pepsin digestion and F(ab')2 purification. The transition from nonneutralizing toxin A-specific IgA in the acute-phase sera to neutralizing specific IgA in the convalescent-phase sera was accompanied by a shift from a polymeric to a predominantly monomeric form of specific IgA. However, the neutralizing activity in convalescent-phase sera was present as both monomeric and polymeric IgA. Convalescent-phase sera from other patients with C. difficile diarrhea that failed to neutralize toxin A also failed to produce a predominantly monomeric-form specific IgA response. We conclude that serum IgA, not IgG, characteristically neutralizes toxin A in patients with C. difficile diarrhea who develop neutralizing systemic responses. This neutralization of an enteric bacterial toxin is a unique and selective role for serum IgA which provides a novel functional link between the systemic and mucosal immune systems.

Johnson, S; Sypura, W D; Gerding, D N; Ewing, S L; Janoff, E N

1995-01-01

368

Subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Glutathione plays numerous important functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whereas it can be found in virtually all eukaryotic cells, its production in prokaryotes is restricted to cyanobacteria and proteobacteria and a few strains of gram-positive bacteria. In bacteria, it is involved in the protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), osmotic shock, acidic conditions, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. Glutathione synthesis in bacteria takes place in two steps out of cysteine, glutamate, and glycine. Cysteine is the limiting factor for glutathione biosynthesis which can be especially crucial for cyanobacteria, which rely on both the sufficient sulfur supply from the growth media and on the protection of glutathione against ROS that are produced during photosynthesis. In this study, we report a method that allows detection and visualization of the subcellular distribution of glutathione in Synechocystis sp. This method is based on immunogold cytochemistry with glutathione and cysteine antisera and computer-supported transmission electron microscopy. Labeling of glutathione and cysteine was restricted to the cytosol and interthylakoidal spaces. Glutathione and cysteine could not be detected in carboxysomes, cyanophycin granules, cell walls, intrathylakoidal spaces, periplasm, and vacuoles. The accuracy of the glutathione and cysteine labeling is supported by two observations. First, preadsorption of the antiglutathione and anticysteine antisera with glutathione and cysteine, respectively, reduced the density of the gold particles to background levels. Second, labeling of glutathione and cysteine was strongly decreased by 98.5% and 100%, respectively, in Synechocystis sp. cells grown on media without sulfur. This study indicates a strong similarity of the subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria and plastids of plants and provides a deeper insight into glutathione metabolism in bacteria. PMID:20349253

Zechmann, Bernd; Tomasi?, Ana; Horvat, Lucija; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

2010-10-01

369

Subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Glutathione plays numerous important functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whereas it can be found in virtually all eukaryotic cells, its production in prokaryotes is restricted to cyanobacteria and proteobacteria and a few strains of gram-positive bacteria. In bacteria, it is involved in the protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), osmotic shock, acidic conditions, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. Glutathione synthesis in bacteria takes place in two steps out of cysteine, glutamate, and glycine. Cysteine is the limiting factor for glutathione biosynthesis which can be especially crucial for cyanobacteria, which rely on both the sufficient sulfur supply from the growth media and on the protection of glutathione against ROS that are produced during photosynthesis. In this study, we report a method that allows detection and visualization of the subcellular distribution of glutathione in Synechocystis sp. This method is based on immunogold cytochemistry with glutathione and cysteine antisera and computer-supported transmission electron microscopy. Labeling of glutathione and cysteine was restricted to the cytosol and interthylakoidal spaces. Glutathione and cysteine could not be detected in carboxysomes, cyanophycin granules, cell walls, intrathylakoidal spaces, periplasm, and vacuoles. The accuracy of the glutathione and cysteine labeling is supported by two observations. First, preadsorption of the antiglutathione and anticysteine antisera with glutathione and cysteine, respectively, reduced the density of the gold particles to background levels. Second, labeling of glutathione and cysteine was strongly decreased by 98.5% and 100%, respectively, in Synechocystis sp. cells grown on media without sulfur. This study indicates a strong similarity of the subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria and plastids of plants and provides a deeper insight into glutathione metabolism in bacteria.

Tomasic, Ana; Horvat, Lucija; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

2010-01-01

370

Molecular mechanisms of primary and secondary mucosal immunity using avian infectious bronchitis virus as a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mucosal immune responses are critical for protection of hosts from clinical illness and even mortality caused by mucosal pathogens, the molecular mechanism of mucosal immunity, which is independent of systemic immunity, remains elusive. To explore the mechanistic basis of mucosal protective immunity, gene transcriptional profiling in mucosal tissues was evaluated after the primary and secondary immunization of animals with

Xueshui Guo; Artur J. M. Rosa; Ding-Geng Chen; Xiuqing Wang

2008-01-01

371

Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish  

PubMed Central

As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity.

Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol

2012-01-01

372

Vasomotion induces regular major oscillations in jejunal mucosal tissue oxygenation.  

PubMed

The mucosa of the small intestine has some unique microcirculatory features that may result in significant tissue oxygenation changes even under physiological conditions. To prove this hypothesis we investigated mucosal and serosal oxygenation in an autoperfused, innervated jejunal segment in pigs. Eight animals (30-40 kg) were anesthetized, paralyzed, and normoventilated. A small segment of the jejunal mucosa and serosa was exposed by a midline laparotomy and an antimesenteric incision. Mucosal and serosal oxygen tensions were measured using Clark-type surface oxygen electrodes. Mucosal hemoglobin saturation and concentration were determined by tissue reflectance spectrophotometry. Systemic hemodynamics, mesenteric-venous acid base, and blood gas variables, as well as systemic acid-base and blood gas variables and jejunal electromyogenic potentials, were recorded. Measurements were performed after a rest period at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min. All animals remained hemodynamically stable. At time 0 the jejunal oxygen extraction ratio was 0.33 +/- 0.05, the mean serosal PO2 was 60.25 +/- 7.69, the mean mucosal PO2 was 25.47 +/- 4.41 mmHg, and the mean mucosal hemoglobin saturation was 46.36 +/- 6.22%. Mean values did not change with time. In contrast to serosal PO2, mucosal PO2, mucosal hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentration showed rhythmic oscillations with a frequency of 3.4-5 cycles/min that were unrelated to systemic hemodynamic parameters, respiratory frequency, and intestinal peristalsis. From this we concluded that the jejunal mucosa demonstrates significant, regular changes in oxygenation parameters that are locally mediated. We speculate that the physiological basis for this phenomenon is the countercurrent arrangement of microvessels in conjunction with vasomotion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8023946

Hasibeder, W; Germann, R; Sparr, H; Haisjackl, M; Friesenecker, B; Luz, G; Pernthaler, H; Pfaller, K; Maurer, H; Ennemoser, O

1994-06-01

373

Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison).  

PubMed

Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p < 0.001). The ATTD of CP in mink (77.8%) did not differ from AID, ACD (78.5%) and SID (79.6%) in dogs. Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p < 0.01) and for AA ranking with respect to digestibility level (p < 0.001). In dogs, ether extract digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs. PMID:24870271

Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Oystein

2014-01-01

374

Gata4 Is Essential for the Maintenance of Jejunal-Ileal Identities in the Adult Mouse Small Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gata4, a member of the zinc finger family of GATA transcription factors, is highly expressed in duodenum and jejunum but is nearly undetectable in distal ileum of adult mice. We show here that the caudal reduction of Gata4 is conserved in humans. To test the hypothesis that the regional expression of Gata4 is critical for the maintenance of jejunal-ileal homeostasis

Tjalling Bosse; Christina M. Piaseckyj; Ellen Burghard; John J. Fialkovich; Satish Rajagopal; William T. Pu; Stephen D. Krasinski

2006-01-01

375

Pathogenesis of tropical sprue: A pilot study of antroduodenal manometry, duodenocaecal transit time & fat-induced ileal brake  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) due to ileal brake-induced hypomotility may cause tropical sprue (TS). We evaluated effect of infusion of fat or placebo in duodenum randomly in patients with TS and healthy controls on antroduodenal manometry (ADM) and mediators of ileal brake, and duodenocaecal transit time (DCTT). Methods: ADM and DCTT (lactulose hydrogen breath test, HBT) were evaluated with placebo and fat in eight controls and 13 patients with TS (diagnostic criteria: tests showing malabsorption of two unrelated substances, abnormal duodenal histology, absence of other causes, response to antibiotics and folate). Results: Patients with TS (6 had SIBO by glucose HBT) were similar in age and gender with controls. After fat infusion, proximal gut motility index (MI) was reduced compared to fasting state in TS, and DCTT was longer in TS than controls (200 min, 120-380 vs. 130, 70-160, P=0.001), though comparable after placebo (70 min, 30-140 vs. 60, 40-90). TS patients had higher PYY and neurotensin than controls after fat infusion. DCTT after fat infusion correlated with plasma level of PYY in TS but not in controls. Post-fat PYY and neurotensin levels were higher in TS with lower BMI (<16 kg/m2) than those with higher BMI. Parameters of ileal brake (post-fat DCTT, PYY and neurotensin) were higher in patients with than without SIBO. Interpretation & conclusions: Fat infusion reduced proximal gut MI, increased DCTT, PYY, and neurotensin among patients with TS. Malabsorbed fat might cause exaggerated ileal brake reducing gut motility, promoting SIBO and bacterial colonization and malabsorption in TS.

Ghoshal, Uday C.; Kumar, Sunil; Misra, Asha; Choudhuri, Gourdas

2013-01-01

376

Incidence and natural history of dysplasia of the anal transitional zone after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Preservation of the anal transitional zone during ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is still controversial because of the risk of dysplasia and the theoretical risk of associated cancer. Without long-term follow-up data, the natural history and optimal treatment of anal transitional zone dysplasia are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term risk of dysplasia in the anal

M. G. O'Riordain; V. W. Fazio; I. C. Lavery; F. Remzi; N. Fabbri; J. Meneu; J. Goldblum; R. E. Petras

2000-01-01

377

Regional and processor variation in the ileal digestible amino acid content of soybean meals measured in growing swine.  

PubMed

To assess differences in soybean meal quality related to region of production, researchers in Illinois, Kansas, North Carolina, The Netherlands, and Ohio collected four soybean meal samples processed locally at least 15 d apart. These samples were assayed for ileal amino acid digestibility by pigs using a common soybean meal and a soy protein concentrate as references, and a low-protein casein diet for determination of endogenous amino acid losses. Digestibility was determined at each university using seven barrows surgically fitted with ileal cannulas in a 7 x 7 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained 17% CP from the test material except for the low-protein casein diet. Animals were fed twice daily, 12 h apart, at a level of 45 g x kg(-0.75) BW for each meal. Following a 5-d adaptation period, ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods for 2 d to be used for determination of ileal digestibility. Variation in amino acid digestibility was very small among and within sites and was much smaller than variation in the concentration of amino acids. Among sites, samples from The Netherlands had less total and thus digestible lysine and methionine than the U.S. samples (P < 0.05). The soybean meals tested in this experiment were approximately 4% higher in amino acids than that reported in the NRC (1998). True (standardized) digestibilities, however, were very similar to NRC values except for cysteine and threonine, which were 5 and 3 percentage points lower in this experiment, respectively. In conclusion, soybeans grown in the United States and locally processed into soybean meal were very similar in nutritional composition. Soybean meals produced in The Netherlands were lower in lysine and methionine (P < 0.05) but had a digestibility similar to that produced in the United States. PMID:11883431

van Kempen, T A T G; Kim, I B; Jansman, A J M; Verstegen, M W A; Hancock, J D; Lee, D J; Gabert, V M; Albin, D M; Fahey, G C; Grieshop, C M; Mahan, D

2002-02-01

378

Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice.  

PubMed

Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis. PMID:24688219

Nakahashi, Otoki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tanaka, Sarasa; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Kaneko, Ichiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Takeda, Eiji

2014-03-01

379

Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice  

PubMed Central

Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis.

Nakahashi, Otoki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tanaka, Sarasa; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Kaneko, Ichiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

2014-01-01

380

Serum and Colonic Mucosal Immune Markers in Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Low-grade colonic mucosal inflammation has been postulated to have an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The objectives of this study were (i) to identify serum and tissue-based immunological and neuroendocrine markers associated with mucosal inflammation in male (M) and female (F) patients with non-post-infectious IBS (non-PI-IBS) compared with healthy controls and (ii) to assess possible correlations of such markers with IBS symptoms. METHODS Sigmoid mucosal biopsies were obtained from 45 Rome II positive IBS patients without a history of PI-IBS (26 F, 35.5% IBS-C, 33.3% IBS-D, 31.1% IBS-A/M) and 41 healthy controls (22 F) in order to measure immunological markers (serum cytokine levels, colonic mucosal mRNA levels of cytokines, mucosal immune cell counts) and neuroendocrine markers associated with mucosal inflammation (corticotropin releasing factor- and neurokinin (NK)-related ligands and receptors, enterochromaffin cells). Symptoms were measured using validated questionnaires. RESULTS Of all the serum and mucosal cytokines measured, only interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression showed a group difference, with female, but not male, patients showing lower levels compared with female controls (18.0 ± 2.9 vs. 29.5 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). Mucosal mRNA expression of NK-1 receptor was significantly lower (1.15 ± 0.19 vs. 2.66 ± 0.56, P = 0.008) in female, but not male, patients compared with healthy controls. No other significant differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS Immune cell counts and levels of cytokines and neuropeptides that are associated with inflammation were not significantly elevated in the colonic mucosa of non-PI-IBS patients, and did not correlate with symptoms. Thus, these findings do not support that colonic mucosal inflammation consistently has a primary role in these patients. However, the finding of decreased IL-10 mRNA expression may be a possible biomarker of IBS and warrants further investigation.

Chang, Lin; Adeyemo, Mopelola; Karagiannides, Iordanis; Videlock, Elizabeth J.; Bowe, Collin; Shih, Wendy; Presson, Angela P.; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Cortina, Galen; Gong, Hua; Singh, Sharat; Licudine, Arlene; Mayer, Minou; Tache, Yvette; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Mayer, Emeran A.

2012-01-01

381

Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an “as needed” basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses.

Guilford, Frederick T.; Hope, Janette

2014-01-01

382

Fine and ultrafine particles of the diet: influence on the mucosal immune response and association with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Crohn's disease is a modern Western disease characterised by transmural inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is of unknown aetiology, but evidence suggests that it results from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Bacterial-sized microparticles (0.1-1.0 microm) are potent adjuvants in model antigen-mediated immune responses and are increasingly associated with disease. Microparticles of TiO2 and aluminosilicate accumulate in macrophages of human gut-associated lymphoid tissue where the earliest signs of lesions in Crohn's disease are observed. Dietary microparticles are of endogenous or exogenous origin. Endogenous microparticles dominate and are calcium phosphate (most probably hydroxyapatite), which precipitates in the lumen of the mid-distal gastrointestinal tract due to secretion of Ca and phosphate in the succus entericus. Exogenous dietary microparticles are contaminants (soil and/or dust) and food additives. TiO2, for example, is a food colourant, and aluminosilicates are anti-caking agents, although some aluminosilicates occur as natural contaminants. Food additives alone account for ingestion of approximately 10(12) particles/person per d. Possible mechanisms for the role of exogenous and endogenous dietary microparticles in promoting toleragenic or immune responses of gastrointestinal mucosal phagocytosis are discussed. In a double-blind randomised pilot study we have shown that a diet low in Ca and exogenous microparticles appears to alleviate the symptoms of ileal Crohn's disease, with a significant (P= 0.002) improvement in the Crohn's disease activity index. A multi-centre trial and further mechanistic studies at the cellular level are underway. PMID:12002786

Lomer, Miranda C E; Thompson, Richard P H; Powell, Jonathan J

2002-02-01

383

Mucosal mast cells and developmental changes in gastric absorption.  

PubMed

We aimed to establish whether gastric mucosal mast cells undergo degranulation during normal postnatal development and to correlate this with gastric electrical parameters, paracellular permeability, and macromolecular absorption. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied between 10 and 30 days after birth. Gastric mucosal mast cell degranulation occurred and was maximal on days 15 and 17, measured by histology and gastric and serum levels of rat mast cell protease II. Short-circuit current, transepithelial conductance, and permeability of voltage-clamped glandular stomach were elevated in younger animals, falling with age except for a transient but significant increase in conductance and permeability at 17 days, closely correlated with maximal mast cell degranulation. Macromolecular uptake was significantly increased in animals aged 10-15 days. Concanavalin A and antigen-induced mast cell degranulation increased conductance and permeability in vitro in younger animals. We conclude that 1) gastric mucosal mast cells degranulate during development, 2) the neonatal stomach has increased permeability and uptake of macromolecules, and 3) gastric mucosal mast cell degranulation during development may affect mucosal permeability. PMID:7840194

Catto-Smith, A G; Ripper, J L

1995-01-01

384

Airway structural cells regulate TLR5-mediated mucosal adjuvant activity.  

PubMed

Antigen-presenting cell (APC) activation is enhanced by vaccine adjuvants. Most vaccines are based on the assumption that adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists depends on direct, functional activation of APCs. Here, we sought to establish whether TLR stimulation in non-hematopoietic cells contributes to flagellin's mucosal adjuvant activity. Nasal administration of flagellin enhanced T-cell-mediated immunity, and systemic and secretory antibody responses to coadministered antigens in a TLR5-dependent manner. Mucosal adjuvant activity was not affected by either abrogation of TLR5 signaling in hematopoietic cells or the presence of flagellin-specific, circulating neutralizing antibodies. We found that flagellin is rapidly degraded in conducting airways, does not translocate into lung parenchyma and stimulates an early immune response, suggesting that TLR5 signaling is regionalized. The flagellin-specific early response of lung was regulated by radioresistant cells expressing TLR5 (particularly the airway epithelial cells). Flagellin stimulated the epithelial production of a small set of mediators that included the chemokine CCL20, which is known to promote APC recruitment in mucosal tissues. Our data suggest that (i) the adjuvant activity of TLR agonists in mucosal vaccination may require TLR stimulation of structural cells and (ii) harnessing the effect of adjuvants on epithelial cells can improve mucosal vaccines. PMID:24064672

Van Maele, L; Fougeron, D; Janot, L; Didierlaurent, A; Cayet, D; Tabareau, J; Rumbo, M; Corvo-Chamaillard, S; Boulenouar, S; Jeffs, S; Vande Walle, L; Lamkanfi, M; Lemoine, Y; Erard, F; Hot, D; Hussell, T; Ryffel, B; Benecke, A G; Sirard, J-C

2014-05-01

385

Molecular ecological analysis of porcine ileal microbiota responses to antimicrobial growth promoters.  

PubMed

Cultivation-independent microbial molecular ecology approaches were used to examine the effects of antibiotic growth promoters on the pig ileal microbiota. Five-week-old barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. Three diets meeting or exceeding the minimum nutrient requirements were fed for 5 wk and supplemented as follows: 1) negative control (no antibiotic; n = 5), 2) continuous tylosin administration (n = 5), and 3) an antibiotic rotation sequence (wk 1, chlorotetracycline sulfathiazole penicillin; wk 2, bacitracin and roxarsone; wk 3, lincomycin; wk 4, carbadox; wk 5, virginiamycin; n = 5). Ileal luminal contents were collected for DNA isolation at the end of each of the 5 wk of the testing period. The V3 region of 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR and analyzed via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Resulting PCR-DGGE band numbers (bacterial species) were counted, and the banding patterns analyzed by calculating Sorenson's pairwise similarity coefficients (C(S)), an index measuring bacterial species in common among samples. Band numbers and total bacterial DNA concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) temporally in antibiotic-treated pigs compared with controls. Comparisons between treatments yielded low intertreatment C(S) indices, indicating treatment-dependent alterations in banding patterns, whereas intratreatment comparisons revealed increased homogeneity in antibiotic-treated vs. control pigs. Sequence analysis of treatment-specific bands identified three Lactobacillus, one Streptococcus, and one Bacillus species that were diminished with antibiotic rotation treatment, whereas tylosin selected for the presence of L. gasseri. Lactobacillus-specific qPCR was performed and analyzed as a percentage of total bacteria to further evaluate the effects of antibiotic administration on this genus. Total bacteria were decreased (P < 0.05) by tylosin and rotation treatments, whereas the percentage of lactobacilli increased (P < 0.05) by d 14 and through d 28 in tylosin-treated pigs. The decrease in total bacteria by antibiotics may reduce host-related intestinal or immune responses, which would divert energy that could otherwise be used for growth. Conversely, the ability of tylosin to improve animal growth may relate to its apparent selection for lactobacilli, commensals known to competitively exclude potentially pathogenic species from colonizing the intestine. PMID:14677859

Collier, C T; Smiricky-Tjardes, M R; Albin, D M; Wubben, J E; Gabert, V M; Deplancke, B; Bane, D; Anderson, D B; Gaskins, H R

2003-12-01

386

Cell free glutathione synthesizing activity of mercury resistant bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Reduced glutathione (GSH) is present in all living cells and is known to have a generalized role in protecting the cells from heavy metal toxicity. Depletion of both GSH and glutathione reductase (GR) level upon treatment with mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) is reported in various organs of rat. However, the effect of HgCl{sub 2} on glutathione level in bacterial system is not known. In the present communication, the authors report the results of their investigation on the glutathione status in mercury resistant bacterial cells exposed to HgCl{sub 2}.

Gachhui, R.; Pahan, K.; Ray, S., R.; Chaudhuri, J.; Mandal, A. (Univ. Coll. of Science, Calcutta (India))

1991-03-01

387

Enhancing glutathione synthesis can decrease zinc-mediated toxicity.  

PubMed

Zinc toxicity has been linked to cellular glutathione: A decrease in glutathione is followed by an increase in zinc-mediated toxicity. The question arises whether an increase in glutathione synthesis might decrease zinc-mediated cytotoxicity. We incubated five cell lines (hepatoma and lung-derived) with zinc chloride and 2 mmol/l N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to support glutathione synthesis. In all but one hepatic cell line, the glutathione content was increased by NAC as compared to the D-enantiomere NADC, whereas NADC did not increase GSH content as compared to not treated controls. In both alveolar epithelial cell lines, an increase in zinc tolerance was observed due to NAC as compared to NADC. In native fibroblast-like and the hepatoma cell lines, no changes in zinc tolerance were found due to NAC. In the fibroblast-like cells, zinc tolerance was increased due to NAC only after cellular glutathione had been previously decreased (by lowered cysteine concentrations in the medium). Enhancing glutathione synthesis can antagonize zinc-mediated toxicity in the alveolar epithelial cell lines, whereas some other characteristics than glutathione synthesis might be more important in other cell types. Furthermore, NAC acted as a GSH precursor only at cysteine medium concentrations of 10 micromol/l or below and therefore might be described as a poor cysteine repletor for glutathione synthesis. PMID:18193173

Walther, Udo Ingbert; Walther, Sabine Christine; Mückter, Harald; Fichtl, Burckhard

2008-06-01

388

Glutathione redox regulation of in vitro embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Production of embryos in culture via either somatic embryogenesis or androgenesis has long been used as a propagation tool and as a model system in the investigation of structural, physiological, and molecular events governing embryo development. Despite the similar external morphology to their zygotic counterparts, cultured embryos often fail to develop properly and convert into viable plants during post-embryonic growth. These deficiencies are the results of structural and physiological deviations ascribed to sub-optimal culture conditions. In an attempt to enhance embryo yield and quality we have conducted a series of investigations into the role of glutathione during embryogenesis. Changes in the glutathione redox state represent a key metabolic switch which triggers embryo growth. The imposition of a reduced environment during the early embryonic phases promotes cellular proliferation and increases the number of immature embryos, possibly by promoting the synthesis of nucleotides in support of energetic processes and mitotic activity. Continuation of embryo development is best achieved if the glutathione pool is experimentally switched towards an oxidized state; a condition which favors histodifferentiation and post-embryonic growth in both angiosperm and gymnosperms species. Among the structural events favored by the imposed oxidized environment is the proper formation of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which acquires a "zygotic-like" appearance. The apical poles of treated embryos are well organized and display a proper expression and localization of meristem marker genes. These conditions are not met in control embryos which form abnormal SAMs characterized by the presence of intercellular spaces and differentiation of meristematic cells. Such meristems fail to reactivate at germination resulting in embryo abortion. Physiological and molecular studies have further demonstrated that the oxidized glutathione environment induces several responses, including changes in ascorbate metabolism, abscisic acid and ethylene synthesis, as well as alterations in storage product deposition patterns. This review attempts to relate these responses to the improved embryonic performance and proposes improved culture conditions to be applied for those cell lines and species recalcitrant to in vitro embryogenesis. PMID:19963394

Stasolla, Claudio

2010-05-01

389

Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Transferase Activity in Rat Lung and Liver Following Cadmium Inhalation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 2 hr inhalation exposure to 4.6 mg Cd/cu m decreased pulmonary total glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity and non-selenium peroxidase (GSH non-Se-Px) activity but had no effect on GSH selenium peroxidase (Se-Px) activity. Seventy-two hrs after expos...

E. C. Grose J. H. Richards R. H. Jaskot M. G. Menache J. A. Graham

1987-01-01

390

Role of mucosal dendritic cells in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal innate and adaptive immune system continuously faces the challenge of potent stimuli from the commensal microflora and food constituents. These local immune responses require a tight control, the outcome of which is in most cases the induction of tolerance. Local T cell immunity is an important compartment of the specific intestinal immune system. T cell reactivity is programmed during the initial stage of its activation by professional presenting cells. Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) are assumed to play key roles in regulating immune responses in the antigen-rich gastrointestinal environment. Mucosal DCs are a heterogeneous population that can either initiate (innate and adaptive) immune responses, or control intestinal inflammation and maintain tolerance. Defects in this regulation are supposed to lead to the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). This review will discuss the emerging role of mucosal DCs in regulating intestinal inflammation and immune responses.

Niess, Jan Hendrik

2008-01-01

391

Immunomodulation by mucosal gene transfer using TGF-beta DNA.  

PubMed Central

This report evaluates the efficacy of DNA encoding TGF-beta administered mucosally to suppress immunity and modulate the immunoinflammatory response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. A single intranasal administration of an eukaryotic expression vector encoding TGF-beta1 led to expression in the lung and lymphoid tissue. T cell-mediated immune responses to HSV infection were suppressed with this effect persisting as measured by the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction for at least 7 wk. Treated animals were more susceptible to systemic infection with HSV. Multiple prophylactic mucosal administrations of TGF-beta DNA also suppressed the severity of ocular lesions caused by HSV infection, although no effects on this immunoinflammatory response were evident after therapeutic treatment with TGF-beta DNA. Our results demonstrate that the direct mucosal gene transfer of immunomodulatory cytokines provides a convenient means of modulating immunity and influencing the expression of inflammatory disorders.

Kuklin, N A; Daheshia, M; Chun, S; Rouse, B T

1998-01-01

392

Mucosal immunity in the gut: the non-vertebrate perspective.  

PubMed

Much is now known about the vertebrate mechanisms involved in mucosal immunity, and the requirement of commensal microbiota at mucosal surfaces for the proper functioning of the immune system. In comparison, very little is known about the mechanisms of immunity at the barrier epithelia of non-vertebrate organisms. The purpose of this review is to summarize key experimental evidence illustrating how non-vertebrate immune mechanisms at barrier epithelia compare to those of higher vertebrates, using the gut as a model organ. Not only effector mechanisms of gut immunity are similar between vertebrates and non-vertebrates, but it also seems that the proper functioning of non-vertebrate gut defense mechanisms requires the presence of a resident microbiota. As more information becomes available, it will be possible to obtain a more accurate picture of how mucosal immunity has evolved, and how it adapts to the organisms' life styles. PMID:23537860

Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Mulero, Victor

2013-01-01

393

Pathogenesis of mucosal biofilm infections: challenges and progress  

PubMed Central

Living-tissue biofilms remained unrecognized until very recently, mainly as a result of traditional microbial sampling techniques or histologic processing, which disrupt the spatial organization of the tissue microorganisms. Thus, the biofilm nature of certain mucosal infections was frequently unintentionally missed or disregarded. To a large extent, the study of human tissue biofilms is still in its infancy. However, with the advent of newer methodologies, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and endoscopic confocal laser scanning microscopy, which combine the identification of microbes with in situ, direct visualization of their relationships with each other and with their substratum, mucosal tissue biofilms are becoming easier to study and, thus, their role in human infections is becoming more apparent. This review summarizes the challenges in the study of tissue biofilms, proposes two inflammation-centered – albeit opposite – pathogenetic models of mucosal tissue biofilm infections and suggests directions for future research and novel therapeutic approaches.

Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

2009-01-01

394

Border maneuvers: deployment of mucosal immune defenses against Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent protozoan pathogen that is transmitted through oral ingestion of infectious cysts. As such, mucosal immune defenses in the intestine constitute the first and arguably most important line of resistance against the parasite. The response to infection is now understood to involve complex three-way interactions between Toxoplasma, the mucosal immune system, and the host intestinal microbiota. Productive outcome of these interactions ensures resolution of infection in the intestinal mucosa. Nonsuccessful outcome may result in emergence of proinflammatory damage that can spell death for the host. Here, we discuss new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning these disparate outcomes, with particular reference to initiators, effectors, and regulators of mucosal immunity stimulated by Toxoplasma in the intestine. PMID:24717355

Cohen, S B; Denkers, E Y

2014-07-01

395

Limitations in assessment of mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

An emerging parameter to define the effectiveness of new therapeutic agents in clinical trials, and by extension, for use in day-to-day clinical practice has been labeled mucosal healing. It has been hypothesized that complete healing of the intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases should result in reduced disease complications, reduced hospitalization and reduced surgical treatment. By implication, the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease might then be altered. Measurement of mucosal healing, however, is largely observational, requiring repeated invasive endoscopic examinations, sometimes with mucosal biopsies. Other indirect imaging methods may play a role in this assessment along with other surrogate markers, including intestinal permeability. These measurements may have significant limitations that prohibit precise correlation with symptom-based disease activity indices in clinical trials. This likely reflects the dynamic nature of this evolving and individualized inflammatory process that tends to be focused, but not limited, to the mucosa of the intestinal tract.

Freeman, Hugh James

2010-01-01

396

Long-Term Followup of Patients with Active J-Reservoirs after Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis with regard to Reservoir Function, Mucosal Changes, and Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective. Study the functional results and mucosal changes in the ileal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy with J-reservoir for ulcerative colitis. Material and Methods. Followup study of 125 patients with J-reservoir with one disease-specific- and one general (SF-36) quality of life-questionnaire, rectoscopy with biopsies, and stool samples to evaluate inflammation, dysplasia, presence of Helicobacter pylori and calprotectin level. Results. Fourteen J-reservoirs were removed or deactivated, leaving 111 patients for followup. The followup time was 6.8 (1–15) years. 87.4% of the patients were satisfied. 93.1% had some kind of functional restriction: food- (75.5%), social- (28.9%), physical- (37%) or sexual restriction (15.3%). 18.6% had often or sometimes faecal incontinence. Low daytime faecal frequency was associated with good quality of life. 13 patients (12.6%) had a less favourable result. There was no pouch-dysplasia. Calprotectin levels were increased in patients with visible pouch inflammation or history of pouchitis. HP was diagnosed by RUT in 42.3%, but was not associated with inflammation or pouchitis. Conclusions. Most patients were satisfied with the J-reservoir in spite of a high frequency of various restrictions. 12.6% (13 patients) had a less favourable functional result, partly due to a high frequency of defecations, pain, pouchitis and inflammation.

R?kke, Ola; Iversen, Knut; Olsen, Torill; Ristesund, S?lvi-May; Eide, Geir Egil; Turowski, Gitta Erika

2011-01-01

397

The ratio of reduced glutathione\\/oxidized glutathione is maintained in the liver during short-term hepatic hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy persists as to whether reperfusion-induced injuries actually occur in the hepatocyte. The liver is the major source\\u000a of glutathione, a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the ratio of reduced\\u000a glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) [GSH: GSSG] as an index of hepatic metabolic stress. A total of 121 rats

Ryusuke Denno; Arimichi Takabayashi; Motoki Sugano; Masaaki Awane; Maeng-Bong Jin; Taisuke Morimoto; Koichi Tanaka; Yoshio Yamaoka; Nobuaki Kobayashi; Kazue Ozawa

1995-01-01

398

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht, Iran, enrolled in a cross-sectional study. For each individual a detailed questionnaire based on the world health organization (WHO) guidelines in order to diagnosis of the lesions was filled and it contained all the required data. Participants were divided into two groups with and without oral mucosal lesions and oral mucosal lesions were divided into two groups with and without. Demographic characteristics and clinical information including age, sex, smoking (cigarette and tobacco), opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene were collected and compared between these two groups. Results The prevalence of mucosal lesions in our study was 19.4%. Our data demonstrated higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in males and young adults (30-40 years). The most common mucosal lesion among our participants was Fissured tongue(4%), followed by Fordyce granules(2.8%), geographic tongue(2.6%) , Pigmentation(2.5%), Candida(1.8%), Smoker Plate(1.6%), lingual Varices(1.5%), Petechiae(1.4%) and lingual labial(1.4%) . Leukoplakia was observed only in two people (0.1%).No case of malignant lesions was detected. No statistically significant difference was confirmed between the two groups regarding smoking, opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene. Conclusions Our data has provided baseline information about epidemiologic aspects of oral mucosal lesions which can be valuable in organized national program targeting on oral health and hygiene in the society.

Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

2013-01-01

399

New mucosal flap modification for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in Asians  

PubMed Central

AIM To describe a simple modification of fashioning the mucosal flap for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EES-DCR) in Asians and investigate its efficacy. METHODS A total of 120 patients with unilateral primary chronic dacryocystitis (PCD) were randomized into two groups: the new shaped nasal mucosal flap group (group A) and the removed nasal mucosal flap group (group B). All patients underwent standard EES-DCR. Patients in group A were performed a new shaped nasal mucosal flap covering the bared bone around the opened sac and those in group B was removed the nasal mucosal flap uncovering the bared bone. Patients were followed up for one year. The occurrence of granulation tissue, the proliferation of scar tissue and success rate of EES-DCR was compared. RESULTS In the present study, complete postoperative data were acquired from 54 patients in group A and from 57 patients in group B. During process of review, the occurrence of granulation tissue was at the ostium margins account for 15% (8/54) in group A and 39% (22/57) in group B (P<0.05). At the one-year review, scar tissue was present in 5 patients in group A compared with 18 in group B (P<0.05). The success rate of EES-DCR was 98% (53/54) in group A and 84% (48/57) in group B (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The simple modification of fashioning nasal mucosal flap can effectively cover the bared bone around the opened sac and reduce formation of granulation tissue, lessen the risk of scar tissue formation and closure of ostium, thus improve the success rate of EES-DCR in Asians.

Ji, Qing-Shan; Zhong, Jing-Xiang; Tu, Yun-Hai; Wu, Wen-Can

2012-01-01

400

Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

1987-09-01

401

Successful Endoscopic Mucosal Resection of a Low Esophageal Carcinoid Tumor  

PubMed Central

Esophageal carcinoid tumors remain some of the rarest of all carcinoid tumors, with only several cases previously reported in the literature. The endoscopic mucosal resection of selected carcinoid tumors has been shown to be a valid, safe, and effective method of treatment. Endoscopic ultrasonography is the technique of choice to select patients eligible for endoscopic resection. Here, we report successful endoscopic mucosal resection of a low esophageal carcinoid tumor and review the relevant literature. The present case is the first reported case of esophageal carcinoid tumor in Korea.

Lim, Chang Sup; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Hyung Hun; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Bong Jin; Ku, Dong Young

2013-01-01

402

[Investigation of how to prevent mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy].  

PubMed

Chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe oral mucositis; an adverse, painful event. Oral mucositis also causes nutritional deficiency by making oral feeding difficult. This may lead to prolongation of hospitalization due to complications caused by malnutrition. However, an effective way to prevent oral mucositis completely, remains to be found. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of oral mucositis, and nutritional conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, reduction of body weight, and length of hospital stay (days) when the mouth was rinsed using rebamipide solution (R solution), or Poraprezinc-alginate sodium solution (P-A solution) (both considered to be effective for oral mucositis). A mouth rinsed with sodium azulene sulfonate (S solution) was used as a control. The mouth was rinsed out six times per day continuously during chemoradiotherapy. In the study, 31 patients were assigned to rinse their mouths using R solution, 11 patients using PA solution, and 15 patients using S solution (reduction rate of body weight in 14 patients). For the evaluation, the criteria for adverse drug reactions CTCAE (v3. 0) were used. Grade 1 and over, oral mucositis occurred in 48% of the R solution group, 36% of the P-A solution group, and 80% of the S solution group, indicating that the P-A solution group significantly prevented the occurrence of oral mucositis as opposed to the S solution group. A reduction in body weight was observed in 81% of the R solution group, 82% of the P-A solution group, and 79% of the S solution group, indicating a similar weight reduction rate among individual solution groups. Hypoalbuminemia equal to grade 2 or higher occurred in 3% of the R solution group, 18% of the P-A solution group, and 29% of the S solution group, indicating that the R group significantly prevented the occurrence of hypoalbuminemia compared to the S solution group. In addition, the length of hospital stays were 44 ± 8. 0 days for the R solution group, 52 ± 18. 8 days for the P-A solution group, and 61 ± 19. 5 days for the S solution group, indicating that the R solution group significantly shortened the length of hospital stay compared to the S solution group. These results suggested that the use of an R or P-A solution may be effective in preventing oral mucositis and impaired nutrition of those undergoing chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. PMID:21996960

Tosaka, Chihiro; Tajima, Hakuju; Inoue, Tadao; Moya, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Miyuki; Miura, Koki; Tada, Yuichiro; Masubuchi, Tatsuo; Hushimi, Chihiro; Kamata, Shinetsu

2011-10-01

403

Mucosal genetic immunization through microsphere-based oral carriers.  

PubMed

Polymeric carriers in the form of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and alginate (ALG) microspheres were used for encapsulation of plasmid DNA for oral mucosal immunization. Access into the intestinal mucosa by pVAX1 eukaryotic expression plasmid vectors carrying gene-coding sequences, either for the cholera enterotoxin B subunit (ctxB) immunostimulatory antigen or the green fluorescent protein (GFP), delivered from both types of microsphere carriers were examined in orally immunized BALB/c mice. Demonstration of transgene protein expression and IgA antibody responses at local mucosal sites suggest immunological response to a potential oral DNA vaccine formulated within the microsphere carriers. PMID:24051430

Rosli, Rozita; Nograles, Nadine; Hanafi, Aimi; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Abdullah, Syahril

2013-10-01

404

Characteristics of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptors Involved in Contraction of Feline Ileal Longitudinal Smooth Muscle  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have demonstrated that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can induce muscle contraction or relaxation response and enhance secretion in the gastrointestinal tract via a multiplicity of 5-HT receptor subtypes. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT-induced contractile response in longitudinal smooth muscle isolated from the feline ileum. Addition of 5-HT into muscle chambers enhanced the basal tone and spontaneous activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The neurotoxin tetrodotoxin did not alter the 5-HT-induced contraction of the longitudinal muscles. Neither atropine nor guanethidine affected the contraction. The 5-HT agonists, 5-methylserotonin hydrochloride and mosapride, also evoked concentration-dependent contractions. The 5-HT-induced contraction was enhanced by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron but was inhibited by the 5-HT1 receptor antagonist methysergide and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR113808. These results indicate that 5-HT1 and 5-HT4 receptors may mediate the contraction of the 5-HT-induced response and 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors may mediate 5-HT-induced relaxation in feline ileal longitudinal smooth muscles.

Wang, YiYi; Park, Sun Young; Oh, Kyung Hoon; Min, Youngsil; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Seok-Yong

2011-01-01

405

The Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Potentiates Intestinal Inflammation by Salmonella Typhimurium in Porcine Ileal Loops  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Both deoxynivalenol (DON) and nontyphoidal salmonellosis are emerging threats with possible hazardous effects on both human and animal health. The objective of this study was to examine whether DON at low but relevant concentrations interacts with the intestinal inflammation induced by Salmonella Typhimurium. Methodology By using a porcine intestinal ileal loop model, we investigated whether intake of low concentrations of DON interacts with the early intestinal inflammatory response induced by Salmonella Typhimurium. Results A significant higher expression of IL-12 and TNF? and a clear potentiation of the expression of IL-1?, IL-8, MCP-1 and IL-6 was seen in loops co-exposed to 1 µg/mL of DON and Salmonella Typhimurium compared to loops exposed to Salmonella Typhimurium alone. This potentiation coincided with a significantly enhanced Salmonella invasion in and translocation over the intestinal epithelial IPEC-J2 cells, exposed to non-cytotoxic concentrations of DON for 24 h. Exposure of Salmonella Typhimurium to 0.250 µg/mL of DON affected the bacterial gene expression level of a limited number of genes, however none of these expression changes seemed to give an explanation for the increased invasion and translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium and the potentiated inflammatory response in combination with DON. Conclusion These data imply that the intake of low and relevant concentrations of DON renders the intestinal epithelium more susceptible to Salmonella Typhimurium with a subsequent potentiation of the inflammatory response in the gut.

Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An; Verbrugghe, Elin; Goossens, Joline; Van Deun, Kim; Boyen, Filip; Thompson, Arthur; Shearer, Neil; De Backer, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

2011-01-01

406

Antimicrobial susceptibility of ileal symbiont intracellularis isolated from pigs with proliferative enteropathy.  

PubMed Central

Proliferative enteropathy is caused by the microaerophilic obligate intracellular bacterium ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the lack of in vivo or in vitro data on the activities of antimicrobial agents. A new procedure for determining the susceptibility of IS intracellularis was developed by using a tissue culture system which promotes the in vitro multiplication of this organism. Nineteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated in triplicate cultures for their intracellular and extracellular activities against up to three IS intracellularis strains isolated from pigs with proliferative enteropathy. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration which prevented multiplication of 99% of the IS intracellularis isolates. Penicillin, erythromycin, difloxacin, virginiamycin, and chlortetracycline were the most active compounds tested, all with MICs of < or = 1 microgram/ml. Tiamulin and tilmicosin were the next most active compounds, with MICs of < or = 4 micrograms/ml. The MICs of aminoglycosides were generally > 32 micrograms/ml. Both lincomycin and tylosin were relatively inactive against the IS intracellularis strains tested, with MICs of 32 and 64 micrograms/ml, respectively. These results indicate that some compounds capable of intracytoplasmic accumulation and blocking bacterial protein synthesis were active against IS intracellularis strains isolated from pigs with proliferative enteropathy. The in vitro cultivation system shows promise as a method for studying the interaction between IS intracellularis and antimicrobial agents and for screening new antibiotics for use in therapy.

McOrist, S; Mackie, R A; Lawson, G H

1995-01-01

407

The stapled ileal pouch--anal anastomosis. A randomized study comparing two different pouch designs.  

PubMed

Thirty patients were operated on with restorative proctocolectomy with an end-to-end ileal pouch-anal anastomosis constructed by double stapling (STP). Pouches were randomized to either J type or K type (folded by the principles used for the Kock continent ileostomy). Manovolumetric and functional results were compared. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months. K pouches acquired a significantly larger volume than the J-configurated pouches, and at 6 months the mean +/- SD volumes amounted to 361 +/- 59.8 ml versus 283 +/- 43.0 ml (p less than 0.01) with a concomitant reduction in 24-h frequency (4.4 +/- 1.5 versus 5.8 +/- 1.9; p less than 0.05). The initial postoperative mean reduction of resting anal pressure amounted to 33%. which was similar to that observed in a group of matched historical controls operated on with endoanal mucosectomy and hand-sutured pouch-anal anastomosis. Compared with these controls STP patients showed a superior overall functional result, most marked in the early postoperative period. PMID:2274738

Hallgren, T; Fasth, S; Nordgren, S; Oresland, T; Hultén, L

1990-11-01

408

Mucus Properties and Goblet Cell Quantification in Mouse, Rat and Human Ileal Peyer's Patches  

PubMed Central

Peyer's patches (PPs) are collections of lymphoid follicles in the small intestine, responsible for scanning the intestinal content for foreign antigens such as soluble molecules, particulate matter as well as intact bacteria and viruses. The immune cells of the patch are separated from the intestinal lumen by a single layer of epithelial cells, the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). This epithelium covers the dome of the follicle and contains enterocyte-like cells and M cells, which are particularly specialized in taking up antigens from the gut. However, the presence and number of goblet cells as well as the presence of mucus on top of the FAE is controversial. When mouse ileal PPs were mounted in a horizontal Ussing-type chamber, we could observe a continuous mucus layer at mounting and new, easily removable mucus was released from the villi on the patch upon stimulation. Confocal imaging using fluorescent beads revealed a penetrable mucus layer covering the domes. Furthermore, immunostaining of FAE from mice, rats and humans with a specific antibody against the main component of intestinal mucus, the MUC2 mucin, clearly identify mucin-containing goblet cells. Transmission electron micrographs further support the identification of mucus releasing goblet cells on the domes of PPs in these species.

Ermund, Anna; Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Keita, Asa V.

2013-01-01

409

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment of urothelial carcinoma arising in the ileal neobladder after radical cystectomy.  

PubMed

In January 2005, a 66-year-old man underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder reconstruction for invasive bladder cancer. A total of 3 years after the cystectomy, left-side ureteral cancer was diagnosed, and a nephroureterectomy was carried out in May 2008. In October 2011, he complained of asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria. We detected multiple papillary pedunculated and broad-based tumors in the left side and the dome of the neobladder. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, and a pathological diagnosis of high-grade pTa urothelial carcinoma was made. A total of 4 months later, tumors recurred in the right side and anterior wall of the neobladder. We carried out transurethral resection of the bladder tumor again; the pathological diagnosis was high-grade pTa urothelial carcinoma with carcinoma in situ. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation was carried out seven times into the neobladder, without any severe side-effects. Tumor recurrence was not observed up to 8 months after bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment. PMID:23991753

Yamashita, Ryo; Matsuzaki, Masato; Niwakawa, Masashi; Ito, Ichiro

2014-03-01

410

[Long-term outcomes of ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis in children with ulcerative colitis].  

PubMed

The present study investigated the long-term outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy in pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We report a series of 25 patients who underwent total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis (IACA). Surgery was performed for medically intractable colitis and severe colitis in 14 and 11 patients, respectively. Early and late complications were observed in 6 (24%) and 14 (56%) patients, respectively. The long-term quality of life outcomes were satisfactory, including both bowel function and social function. Growth retardation was observed in 6 patients. Five patients exhibited catch-up growth and 3 patients overcame growth retardation. Patients with growth retardation tended to have a younger onset and longer duration of UC, as well as a longer duration and higher total dose of steroid use. In conclusion, the long-term outcomes of pediatric patients with UC undergoing IACA are satisfactory. Furthermore, to minimize the risk of growth retardation, surgery should be performed without delay. PMID:24305096

Tatsumi, Kenji; Sugita, Akira; Koganei, Kazutaka; Futatsuki, Ryo; Kuroki, Hirosuke; Yamada, Kyoko; Nakao, Sayumi; Sako, Minako; Kimura, Hideaki; Arai, Katsuhiko; Fukushima, Tsuneo

2013-12-01

411

Large bifid ureteric calculus in a patient with an ileal conduit.  

PubMed

Urinary diversion after extirpative surgery of the bladder is done by various methods. Conduit urinary diversion is the most commonly practiced method of urinary diversion. It is relatively easy to perform and has a lower complication rate than other forms of diversion, e.g., orthotopic neobladder and continent cutaneous urinary diversion. Urolithiasis is a known and common complication of urinary diversion. Upper tract calculi in these cases often manifest symptomatically as occurs in the general population. Stones in the conduit can have a variable clinical presentation. Asymptomatic presentation is also noted in a few cases. We report a case of a large silent bifid ureteric calculus within an ileal conduit in a woman who had undergone urinary diversion 32 years earlier. Plain X-ray of the abdomen is the only investigation necessary to rule out urinary lithiasis in those who have had urinary diversion for a long time. This simple tool can diagnose the condition well in advance and aid in planning the management of this condition. PMID:23248527

Rajaian, Shanmugasundaram; Kekre, Nitin S

2012-09-01

412

Structural Requirements for Cooperativity in Ileal Bile Acid-binding Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Ileal bile acid-binding proteins (I-BABP), belonging to the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins, control bile acid trafficking in enterocytes and participate in regulating the homeostasis of these cholesterol-derived metabolites. I-BABP orthologues share the same structural fold and are able to host up to two ligands in their large internal cavities. However variations in the primary sequences determine differences in binding properties such as the degree of binding cooperativity. To investigate the molecular requirements for cooperativity we adopted a gain-of-function approach, exploring the possibility to turn the noncooperative chicken I-BABP (cI-BABP) into a cooperative mutant protein. To this aim we first solved the solution structure of cI-BABP in complex with two molecules of the physiological ligand glycochenodeoxycholate. A comparative structural analysis with closely related members of the same protein family provided the basis to design a double mutant (H99Q/A101S cI-BABP) capable of establishing a cooperative binding mechanism. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild type and mutant complexes and essential dynamics analysis of the trajectories supported the role of the identified amino acid residues as hot spot mediators of communication between binding sites. The emerging picture is consistent with a binding mechanism that can be described as an extended conformational selection model.

Zanzoni, Serena; Assfalg, Michael; Giorgetti, Alejandro; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette

2011-01-01

413

Characteristics of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors involved in contraction of feline ileal longitudinal smooth muscle.  

PubMed

A number of studies have demonstrated that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can induce muscle contraction or relaxation response and enhance secretion in the gastrointestinal tract via a multiplicity of 5-HT receptor subtypes. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT-induced contractile response in longitudinal smooth muscle isolated from the feline ileum. Addition of 5-HT into muscle chambers enhanced the basal tone and spontaneous activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The neurotoxin tetrodotoxin did not alter the 5-HT-induced contraction of the longitudinal muscles. Neither atropine nor guanethidine affected the contraction. The 5-HT agonists, 5-methylserotonin hydrochloride and mosapride, also evoked concentration-dependent contractions. The 5-HT-induced contraction was enhanced by the 5HT(2) receptor antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron but was inhibited by the 5-HT(1) receptor antagonist methysergide and 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist GR113808. These results indicate that 5-HT(1) and 5-HT(4) receptors may mediate the contraction of the 5-HT-induced response and 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(3) receptors may mediate 5-HT-induced relaxation in feline ileal longitudinal smooth muscles. PMID:22128258

Wang, Yiyi; Park, Sun Young; Oh, Kyung Hoon; Min, Youngsil; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Seok-Yong; Sohn, Uy Dong

2011-10-01

414

Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. Methods We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. Results We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione