Science.gov

Sample records for illegal forest fellings

  1. Understanding felling safety in the New Zealand forest industry.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim A; Parker, Richard J; Ashby, Liz

    2005-03-01

    Highest injury rates within the New Zealand forest sector are reported for the logging operation, with up to 30% of logging injuries occurring during the felling task. This paper reports findings from a detailed task and job safety analysis of the motor-manual (chainsaw) felling task, and an analysis of New Zealand Accident Reporting Scheme data for logging injuries for the five-year period, 1996-2000. Key safety factors, including physical hazards and potential errors and violations associated with the felling task, were determined from the task and job safety analysis, along with possible adverse consequences and potential solutions for reducing injury risk. The potential for injury among inexperienced fellers was noted, as felling safety was dependent upon appropriate assessment of hazards and good judgement in respect of decisions regarding the felling of trees. The analysis of some 351 reported felling injury cases allowed identification of high-risk task elements, common injury initiating events and temporal and logger population injury patterns. Findings from the two methods of analysis were triangulated where possible to produce a better understanding of key risk areas. The potential risk associated with inexperienced employees, who incurred a high proportion of felling injuries, and the need for good judgement and decision making for different aspects of the felling task were particularly noted. PMID:15694070

  2. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. PMID:27444722

  3. Carbon uptake before and after the felling of an Eucalyptus forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pita, Gabriel; Rodrigues, Abel; Mateus, Joao; Santos Pereira, Joao

    2010-05-01

    Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an eddy covariance system. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. during the period of analyses the total annual precipitation has varied between a minimum of 248mmYr-1 (2005) to a maximum of 796mm Yr-1 (2007), pattern typical of a Mediterranean climate. The diminution of precipitation (and also how it is distributed along the year) affects the forest uptake of Carbon .The GPP and the Reco show lower values in dry years, both in the adult forest as in the young one. The GPP of the growing eucalyptus has been affected by the dry year but also by the thinning that took place in Oct 2008. The Ecosystem total respiration shows high values after the felling ( the same order of magnitude as the forest before the felling) due to the leaves and branches that were left over the soil after the harvesting. Three years after the felling the GPP of the young forest is 61% the value of the adult forest (mean value, excluding the dry year). The seasonal pattern of RECO is similar before and after the felling, but in the young forest the GPP is lower and the NEE becomes positive in the summer time. In an annual base the growing eucalyptus forest only in the first year after felling was a source of carbon.

  4. Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange and Evapotranspiration After the Felling of an Eucalyptus Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pita, Gabriel; Rodrigues, Abel; Mateus, Antonio; Pereira, Santos J.

    2011-01-01

    Espirra site (38o38’N,8o36’W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9oC. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an eddy covariance system. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. During the period of analyses the total annual precipitation has varied between a minimum of 248mmYr-1 (2005) to a maximum of 796mm Yr-1 (2007), pattern typical of a Mediterranean climate. The diminution of precipitation (and also how it is distributed along the year) affects the forest uptake of Carbon .The GPP and the TER show lower values in dry years, both in the adult forest as in the young one. The GPP of the growing eucalyptus has been affected by the dry year but also by the thinning that took place in Oct 2008. The Ecosystem total respiration shows high values after the felling ( the same order of magnitude as the forest before the felling) due to the leaves and branches that were left over the soil after the harvesting. Three years after the felling the GPP of the young forest is 61% the value of the adult forest (mean value, excluding the dry year). The seasonal pattern of TER is similar before and after the felling, but in the young forest the GPP is lower and the NEE becomes positive in winter time. In an annual base the growing eucalyptus forest only in the first year after felling was a source of carbon.

  5. Impact of timber felling on the ambient monoterpene concentration of a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Tommi; Ryyppö, Aija; Kellomäki, Seppo

    The biogenic VOC emissions from the forests in Finland are dominated by monoterpenes. Annually, 4000-5500 km 2 of forests are felled, which corresponds to 2-3% of the total forest land. Damaging plant organs has been found to increase the terpene emissions of conifers, and therefore tree cuttings can be expected to increase monoterpene emissions from a managed site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of felling of Scots pine timber on the ambient monoterpene concentration of forest air below the canopy layer. To achieve this, three experimental plots (diameter 25 m) established in an even aged Scots pine stand (ca. 40 years) were felled manually in June 8-9 2004 with different intensities: one was clear-cut and two thinned with removal of 30% and 60% of the tree basal area. The felled biomass was left at the plots for the measurement period of June-September. The aerial monoterpene concentration was increased 2-3 fold by clear-cutting during the first 7 weeks after the felling. The increment of concentration due to the clear-cut was greater than in the thinnings, which also increased the concentration significantly compared to the control plot in untouched forest. The last concentration observations in late-September (15 weeks after felling) showed negligible differences between the plots. The amount of logging residue left at the site was respectively largest at the clear-cut plot, and the residue is considered to be the most important factor explaining the increment of the monoterpene concentration. The aerial monoterpene concentration cannot directly be used to describe the monoterpene flux of the site, and the actual increment of emitted monoterpenes due to the fellings remain unclear. However, the significant increase in the ambient concentration induced by the felling implies that there is a great potential impact on local or even regional atmospheric chemistry.

  6. Changes in the vegetation cover and soils under natural overgrowth of felled areas in fir forests of the Yenisei Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefilova, O. V.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The results of the integrated analysis of changes in the state of vegetation and soils (Cutanic Albeluvisol) at the different stages of natural forest regeneration (4-, 11- and 24-year-old felled areas) and in a mature fir forest of the short grass-green moss forest types in the northern part of the western slope of the Yenisei Ridge are presented. A dynamic trend of fir forests restoration to the formation of the structure characteristics of the initial forest types is shown to be performed through the stages of forest meadows and secondary short grass (forbs) and birch stands. The changes in vegetation are accompanied by the fast transformation of the soil properties towards the improvement of soil fertilization However, these changes are temporary.

  7. Phosphorus loading to tropical rain forest streams after clear-felling and burning in Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmer, Anders

    1996-07-01

    Most estimates of P export from natural or disturbed humid tropical ecosystems by streams have been based only on export of dissolved P, even though P often is limiting and can be expected to be strongly associated to particles. Therefore loss of ignition (LOI) and particulate P (Ppart) analyses were made on organic and inorganic detritus resulting from surface erosion and on stream-suspended sediments in an undisturbed rain forest (control), as well as during and after conversion of rain forest into forest plantation. Control forest surface erosion and stream sediments consisted mainly of organics, and dissolved P (Pdiss) dominated over Ppart in stream water. The same relation was found after conversion, with a maximum mean Pdiss/Ppart ratio of up to 10 after burning, compared with 2-2.5 for control forests. This larger difference was assumed to depend on PO4 dissolved from ashes to larger concentrations than could be adsorbed during the short time (<1 hour) to reach peak flow during rainstorms.

  8. Water-yield changes after clear-felling tropical rainforest and establishment of forest plantation in Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmer, A.

    1992-06-01

    A paired catchment experiment was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia to monitor water-yield changes due to different methods of clear-felling tropical rainforest and establishment of tree plantation with fast-growing trees ( Acacia mangium). The study included five catchments; treatments before planting were: (I) cutting and burning of secondary vegetation (forest fire 1982/1983), (2) clear-felling, manual log extraction and no burning, (3) clear-felling, tractor log extraction and burning. Two catchments were monitored as controls; one for the secondary vegetation and one for the rain forest. A calibration monitoring period for all catchments for 27.5 months started in August 1985. The results presented here include this calibration period and 32.5 months during and after treatments. Multiple regression analyses on runoff from treated and reference catchments before and after treatment were used to determine the increase in runoff due to treatments. Mean yearly areal rainfall was 3352 mm and mean yearly runoff 1956 mm for the control catchments for the 5 years of study. Calculated water-yield increases were for (1) 1008, (2) 447 and (3) 1190 mm for the first 32.5 months treatment and plantation establishment. The fastest runoff generation during storms was found after cutting, burning and no soil disturbance, leaving no vegetation to transpire and minimum disturbance to natural waterways. The use of tractors, causing soil disturbance, severe loss of infiltrability and top soil hydraulic conductivity resulted in decreased mean stormflow discharge during and after treatment. Later, with maintained low infiltrability and prolonged erosior clearing new waterways instead of the disturbed ones, a faster runoff generation and larger runoff increase were found in the last year of study.

  9. Water chemistry in 179 randomly selected Swedish headwater streams related to forest production, clear-felling and climate.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Stefan; Fröberg, Mats; Yu, Jun; Nisell, Jakob; Ranneby, Bo

    2014-12-01

    From a policy perspective, it is important to understand forestry effects on surface waters from a landscape perspective. The EU Water Framework Directive demands remedial actions if not achieving good ecological status. In Sweden, 44 % of the surface water bodies have moderate ecological status or worse. Many of these drain catchments with a mosaic of managed forests. It is important for the forestry sector and water authorities to be able to identify where, in the forested landscape, special precautions are necessary. The aim of this study was to quantify the relations between forestry parameters and headwater stream concentrations of nutrients, organic matter and acid-base chemistry. The results are put into the context of regional climate, sulphur and nitrogen deposition, as well as marine influences. Water chemistry was measured in 179 randomly selected headwater streams from two regions in southwest and central Sweden, corresponding to 10 % of the Swedish land area. Forest status was determined from satellite images and Swedish National Forest Inventory data using the probabilistic classifier method, which was used to model stream water chemistry with Bayesian model averaging. The results indicate that concentrations of e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter are related to factors associated with forest production but that it is not forestry per se that causes the excess losses. Instead, factors simultaneously affecting forest production and stream water chemistry, such as climate, extensive soil pools and nitrogen deposition, are the most likely candidates The relationships with clear-felled and wetland areas are likely to be direct effects. PMID:25260924

  10. Nitrogen transformations following tropical forest felling and burning on a volcanic soil

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, P.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Ewel, J.J.; Mazzarino, M.J.; Robertson, G.P.

    1987-06-01

    The authors measured nitrogen transformations and loss following forest clearing in a relatively fertile tropical forest site. Nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and amounts of ammonium and nitrate increased substantially in surface soils during the 6 mo following burning, then returned to background levels. The nitrogen content of microbial biomass declined to half its original value 6 mo after clearing and remained low in the cleared sites. Plant uptake of nitrogen was substantial on cleared plots (50 g/m/sup 2/), but it accounted for only 18% of /sup 15/N label added to field plots. Microbial immobilization of /sup 15/N was small relative to that in a cleared temperature site, and measurements of dinitrification potentials suggested that relatively little mineralized nitrogen was lost to the atmosphere. Substantial amounts of nitrogen (40-70 g/m/sup 2/) were retained as exchangeably bound nitrate deep in the soils of a cleared plot on which revegetation was prevented; this process accounted for 12% of the /sup 15/N label added to field plots.

  11. Nitrogen transformations following tropical forest felling and burning on a volcanic soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Ewel, John J.; Mazzarino, Maria Julia; Robertson, G. Philip

    1987-01-01

    Nitrogen transformations and loss were measured following forest clearing in a relatively fertile tropical forest site. Nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and amounts of ammonium and nitrate increased substantially in surface soils during the 6 mo following burning, then returned to background levels. The nitrogen content of microbial biomass declined to half its original value 6 mo after clearing and remained low in the cleared sites. Plant uptake of nitrogen was substantial on cleared plots (50 g/sq m), but it accounted for only 18 percent of N-15 label added to field plots. MIcrobial immobilization of N-15 was small relative to that in a cleared temperate site, and measurements of denitrification potentials suggested that relatively little mineralized nitrogen was lost to the atmosphere. Substantial amounts of nitrogen (40-70 g/sq m) were retained as exchangeably bound nitrate deep in the soils of a cleared plot on which revegetation was prevented; this process accounted for 12 percent of the N-15 label added to field plots.

  12. Rakshasutra movement: a women's campaign to save Uttarakhand forests.

    PubMed

    Bhai, S

    1999-01-01

    Villagers, particularly the women, have once again come forward to launch another novel movement to save Uttarakhand forests and the environment. Established in July 1995, the Rakshasutra (Safety thread) movement struggled to stop the operations of Uttar Pradesh Forest Corporation (UPFC). Through the help of the Himalayan Environmental Education Society volunteers, women consolidated and unite to protest against illegal felling and selling of trees in the region. Moreover, the National Commission for Women also voiced their concerns regarding this issue and supported women in this movement to save the forests. In Tehri, a group of environmentalists, social workers, and women activists initiated an action program to investigate the increasing tree felling activities of UPFC. Their campaign, and the strong public opinion it generated, forced UPFC to put an end to its illegal business. PMID:12322447

  13. The Invasion of Illegals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Olmo, Frank

    1973-01-01

    Describes the issues created by the growing number of illegal migrants from Mexico, the Federal legislation pending on the matter, the occasional raids by immigration officials which netted 11,500 illegal aliens last spring and incensed many Mexican-American activities, and the division among Chicanos on the alien issue. (Author/JM)

  14. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is your policy on illegal... NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  17. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  19. The Double-Needle Felling Machine. Module 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the double-needle felling machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (straight seams) and performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (curved flat-felled seams). For…

  20. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  1. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  2. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  3. Preteen Children and Illegal Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeganey, Neil; McIntosh, James; MacDonald, Fiona; Gannon, Maria; Gilvarry, Eilish; McArdle, Paul; McCarthy, Steve

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of research on the nature and extent of legal and illegal drug use among preteens and those factors associated with illegal drug use at this young age. The paper is based upon a survey of 2318 ten to twelve year olds in Glasgow and Newcastle. Overall around 30% of children reported having been exposed to illegal…

  4. [Dangerous, illegal captivities].

    PubMed

    Winnik, Lidia; Lis, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    On the 21st of August 1997 the Polish legislature introduced the first animal protection law nr 724. This act however failed to specify in a clear and proper manner the problem of possession and maintenance of dangerous animals, which allows its multiple interpretations. Poland ratified the Washington Convention in 1990 restricting the trade of animals classified as endangered species. The present regulations enable illegal purchase and trade of those animals. According to the available data illegal trade of such animals, as well as the trade of products obtained from them, ranks in the third position in terms of crime generated income, only after the trade of drugs and weapons. In our country the sales of such animals have been growing at an alarming rate. The animals often get out of the control of their owners, or are abandoned by them. The presented work describes cases of reptiles being found in public places in our region. It also mentions the problem of possible dangers associated with intentional letting out of such animals in public places. The aim of the following paper is the analysis of the problem of raising of exotic animals, in particular venomous snakes and other animals, the possession of which may be dangerous not only for the owner but also for the people around. The existing laws and executive procedures have been discussed. Both, the family doctors as well as toxicologists have little knowledge as far as diagnosis and treatment of cases of stinging and biting by exotic animals is concerned. The authors suggest providing medical emergency doctors, family doctors and surgeons, with clinic toxicology programs, as well as introduction of special courses for middle medical personnel. Establishment of a central database and a database concerned with basic polyvalent serums are crucial in our country in order have the Toxicology Centers ready to face possible dangers associated with dangerous animals, and to prepare emergency solutions in cases of

  5. Recovering of carbon fixation in a eucalyptus site after felling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M.; Pita, G. P. A.; Mateus, A.; Santos Pereira, J.

    2009-04-01

    Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an ultrasonic Gill anemometer R2, an open path analyzer IRGA LI-7500 and a microclimate unit at its top. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. For the 2002-2006 period, mean annual values of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross production(GPP) and ecosystem respiration(Reco) were -533.3 gCm-2, 1628.6 gCm-2 and 1095.2 gCm-2. Seasonal patterns of carbon fixation for the five years showed a decrease in July-August periods due to highest air temperatures, atmospheric water vapour deficits and stomata partial closure to prevent water transpiration losses. For the period 2002-2006, the dry year of 2005 with a precipitation of about 390 mm, corresponded to the smaller carbon fixation of 390 gCm-2. Similarly, values of Reco, GPP and estimated leaf area index (less than three) were also minimal in 2005. Water use efficiency, WUE (ratio GPP/precipitation) was maximum in summer periods and in driest years, reaching values of about 12g/L-1. Recovery of carbon sink capacity, after the felling, begun after August 2007. The 2007 and 2008 annual NEE values were respectively 105.8 gCm-2 and -35.78 gCm-2. This negative value of NEE for 2008 is indicative of a carbon sink recovery. Annual Reco values for 2007 and 2008 were respectively 1059.03 gCm-2 and 1148.21 gCm-2. For GPP the annual values of

  6. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

  7. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  8. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  9. 12. THE DIVISION OF STOCKHAM'S WORKFORCE FELL MOSTLY ALONG RACIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. THE DIVISION OF STOCKHAM'S WORKFORCE FELL MOSTLY ALONG RACIAL BOUNDARIES. THESE WHITE COLLAR WORKERS TYPIFIED THE MAKEUP OF ENGINEERING, ACCOUNTING, SALES, AND SUPERVISORY STAFFS OF THE FIRM CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  11. Anaemia, diarrhoea and opportunistic infections in Fell ponies.

    PubMed

    Richards, A J; Kelly, D F; Knottenbelt, D C; Cheeseman, M T; Dixon, J B

    2000-09-01

    This report summarises clinical and pathological observations on Fell pony foals with a range of signs that included ill thrift, anaemia, respiratory infection, glossal hyperkeratosis and diarrhoea. Some of the foals had normochromic, normocytic anaemia and some had low levels of plasma proteins, including immunoglobulin G. Antibiotic and supportive treatment was ineffective and all affected foals died or were killed on humane grounds. Postmortem examination of 12 foals and tissues from 2 other foals revealed a range of lesions that included glossal hyperkeratosis, typhlocolitis, intestinal cryptosporidiosis, granulomatous enteritis, proliferative and necrotising bronchiolitis consistent with adenovirus infection; lesions similar to those in the respiratory tract were present in the salivary gland and pancreas of individual foals. Lymphoid tissue was judged to be smaller than expected. These observations suggest the possibility of opportunistic infections secondary to some form of undefined immunocompromised state. PMID:11037259

  12. Utilization of felled trees as supplemental boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lederer, C.C.; Schugar, S.

    1983-04-01

    A valuable natural resource, wood, is being generated in tremendous quantities every year in the City of Detroit as a result of the City's obligation to fell and remove dead trees, principally elms. The bulk of this resource, 115,000 tons of wood every year, is presently being burned at the City's public works facilities, serving only to fill the air with smoke. There are a number of ways to use this wood productively instead of wasting it. The purpose of our project was to explore the economic and technical feasibility of using the wood to supplement coal in a type of existing small industrial boiler that normally would not be considered as suitable for burning a coal/wood mixture, the boiler equipped with a single-retort, underfeed coal stoker. 4 figs.

  13. The Maharashtra Felling of Trees (Regulation) (Amendment) Act, 1988 (No. 26 of 1989), 5 August 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Act amends the Maharashtra (India) Felling of Trees (Regulation) Act, 1964, to authorize the Tree Officer to order the planting of trees in any land (other than government-designated drought land) that he thinks does not contain an adequate number of trees. Owners and occupiers of the land must comply with the order, after being given a reasonable opportunity to be heard. If they do not comply, they can be charged for expenses incurred in having the trees planted. In 1989 the government of West Bengal enacted The Indian Forest (West Bengal Amendment) Act, 1989 (No. 22 of 1988) (Calcutta Gazette, Extraordinary, Part III, 3 February 1989). This Act increases the punishment for various infractions of the Indian Forest Act, 1927, as applied to West Bengal and inserts new language relating to the power of officers to stop and search vehicles; the ability of the state government to seize contraband and related tools, vehicles, boats, and cattle; and punishment for abetting offenses delineated by the Act. PMID:12344326

  14. The effect of felled tree stems as bio-engineering type rockfall protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Christophe; Bourrier, Franck; Berger, Frederic; Dorren, Luuk; Astrade, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In mountainous regions forested slopes play an important protective role against rockfall. Up to now, most of the researches on rockfall protection forest have been and are focused on the dissipative effect of standing and living trees. There are hardly any studies on the protective capacity of tree stumps and lying stems against snow avalanches and rockfalls. Although, these techniques are more and more used throughout the Alps. In Austria, the felling technique Alpi has been developed, which allows a specialised lumberjack to create small rockfall barriers using one or two tree stems anchored on high tree stumps. Lying tree stems can be then used to increase efficiently the roughness of the soil and so to limit or avoid triggering and propagation falling rocks. But, due to the wood decay, the efficiency of such bio-engineering type protective works is decreasing with time. One of the questions that the forest and natural hazard managers have to answer is: what is the lifetime of such protective structures? In order to answer to this question we have developed a specific research on this thematic. The main objectives of this research program are to quantify the efficacy of these bio-engineering type rockfall fences depending on their characteristics (stump and stems density, position on the slope, tree species, etc.), and to evaluate their resistance over time. To achieve these objectives we have developed two types of experiments. The first one, performed during the summer 2009 on our experimental site test of Vaujany (France), are full scale rockfall experiments on four felled trees, which have been anchored on their stumps and are lying in an oblique direction to the slope. In total, fifty rocks (from 522 at 2242 kg) have been released one by one. For each rock, the trajectory has been filmed with high speed digital cameras. The second type of experiment is the uprooting of tree stumps (spruce, fir and beech) of different ages and diameter. To uproot the stumps

  15. Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, David J.; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged. PMID:19240812

  16. Forest biomass as a source of renewable energy in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tuerker, M.F.; Ayaz, H.; Kaygusuz, K.

    1999-10-01

    In Turkey illegal cutting takes place, which cannot be controlled. Legal cuttings have also been done by several state forest enterprises. As a result, the amount of wood raw material produced by forest enterprises legally and by forest villagers illegally has exceeded the potential capacity of the forest. According to the research related to Macka and other Turkish state forests, the state forests have been decreasing day by day. This is because the amount of wood raw material taken from the forests has exceeded the production potential of the forest. That study concluded that the Macka and other Turkish forests will be exhausted after 64 and 67 years, respectively. This study also examined both establishing and exploiting energy forests near the forest villages and producing fuel briquettes manufactured using the residues of agriculture, forestry, and stock breeding to diminish the demand for illegal fuel wood cutting from the state forests.

  17. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. PMID:25451516

  18. Felled trees as a rockfall protection system: Impact on simply supported fresh wood stems, experimental and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Ignacio; Bourrier, Franck; Bertrand, David; Berger, Frédéric; Limam, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Forest is a well known and efficient natural protection solution against rockfall. In forested areas, the maintenance of forests is required to ensure their protective function and health. During this process that consists in removing some trees, the protective capacity of the forest decreases. To compensate the temporary loss of protection, some of the felled trees can be left in an oblique position to the slope. It is a financially feasible solution to ensure the protection against rockfall during the regeneration of forests. Thus, felled trees can become a useful protection system if they are correctly placed. No studies have been done concerning the efficiency of these devices and particularly their resistance to rock impacts and their energy dissipation capacity. In order to estimate the capacity of these devices to dissipate energy, it is necessary to study the dynamic response of tree stems under impact as well as rock's trajectory changes due the interaction with such structures. Experimental and numerical studies are carried out to determine the efficacy of this devices. Laboratory experiments enabled studying the response of fresh wood stems under dynamic and quasi-static loadings. A Mouton-Charpy pendulum was used on the dynamic loading tests performed onto simply supported stems. The experimental device was instrumented in order to obtain the impact force data and the stem's displacements fields. The mechanical properties of fresh wood are analyzed from the experimental results which also allow carrying out a detailed study of the stems dynamic response. A numerical model based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) enables to simulate the interaction of a rock and a felled tree device. To simulate the rock - tree interactions, rocks are represented by spherical solid bodies while cylindrical bodies represent the trees. The fresh wood constitutive law and the contact law are integrated on the model allowing realistic simulations. The numerical model is

  19. Observed cold season changes in a Fennoscandian fell area over the past three decades.

    PubMed

    Kivinen, Sonja; Rasmus, Sirpa

    2015-04-01

    We studied trends and variability in snow and climate characteristics in 1978-2012 in the Värriötunturit fell area, northern Finland. Cold season changes were examined using long-term observational data on snow depths, meteorological data, large-scale climate indices, and reindeer herders' experiences with difficult snow conditions. Snow depths declined, and temperatures increased significantly over the study period, with the largest changes observed in October-December and in April. Snow depths decreased particularly in forests at lower altitudes but not in treeless areas at higher altitudes. Interannual variability (but not the trends) in snow depths could be partially linked to large-scale climate indices. A majority of difficult reindeer grazing conditions were related to deep snow in the winter or spring. Our observations suggest that shortened duration of snow cover may facilitate reindeer grazing, whereas potentially more frequent formation of ice layers and mold growth on pastures in the future is disadvantageous for reindeer husbandry. PMID:25001240

  20. Beware of Illegally Marketed Diabetes Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as hypoglycemia. FDA also looks at illegal marketing of prescription drugs by fraudulent online pharmacies. Signs ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  1. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. PMID:24334193

  2. Controlling illegal stimulants: a regulated market model

    PubMed Central

    Haden, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Prohibition of illegal drugs is a failed social policy and new models of regulation of these substances are needed. This paper explores a proposal for a post-prohibition, public health based model for the regulation of the most problematic drugs, the smokable and injectable stimulants. The literature on stimulant maintenance is explored. Seven foundational principles are suggested that could support this regulatory model of drug control that would reduce both health and social problems related to illegal stimulants. Some details of this model are examined and the paper concludes that drug policies need to be subject to research and based on evidence. PMID:18215317

  3. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  4. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  5. Looking Out for Our Country's Illegal Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2007-01-01

    Illegal migrants are a nonentity in the United States, and, to a certain extent, many prefer it that way. They exist in society's netherworld, living under their own code of survival by whatever means they can, since the alternatives are less inviting. Mostly, they struggle. People take advantage of them at every opportunity because they are…

  6. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  7. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  8. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  9. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  10. Health care and the illegal immigrant.

    PubMed

    Glen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether illegal immigrants should be entitled to some form of health coverage in the United States sits at the intersection of two contentious debates: health reform and immigration reform. Proponents of extending coverage argue that the United States has a moral obligation to provide health care to all those within its borders. Conversely, those against doing so argue that immigrants illegally present in the country should not be entitled to public benefits. This Article seeks to chart a middle course between these extremes while answering two questions. First, does constitutional law mandate extending health coverage to illegal immigrants? Second, even if not legally mandated, are there compelling policy reasons for extending such coverage? This Article concludes that while health coverage for illegal immigrants is not required under prevailing constitutional norms, extending coverage as a matter of policy would serve the broader interests of the United States. Extending coverage would be beneficial as a matter of economics and public health, generating spillover benefits for all US citizens and those in the US healthcare and health insurance systems. PMID:23808101

  11. 50 CFR 12.32 - Effect of prior illegality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of prior illegality. 12.32 Section... PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.32 Effect of prior illegality. The effect of any prior illegality on a subsequent holder of any wildlife or...

  12. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  13. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  14. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  15. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  16. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  17. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.131 Illegal use of... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  18. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-18 Illegal bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general....

  20. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  1. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  2. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  3. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  4. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  5. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-18 Illegal bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general....

  6. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  7. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  8. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  9. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-18 Illegal bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general....

  10. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  11. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  12. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  13. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  14. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  15. Expulsion of illegals from Nigeria: round two.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, A

    1986-01-01

    Within 5 years of the initiation of the Protocol on Free Movement of Persons, and the implementation of the 1st phase regarding the right of entry for citizens of the Economic Community of West African States, Nigeria has twice evoked the very clauses of the Protocol to expel and periodically repatriate illegal aliens. The Minister of Internal Affairs gave several reasons why the influex of illegal aliens into Nigeria was difficult to control, 3 of these are: 1) Nigerian borders are too vast and porous and are hence difficult to police effectively; 2) nationals of neighboring countries -- Benin, Niger, Chad, Cameroon -- have common features, cultures, and traditions with Nigerians; and 3) identification of aliens is difficult at 1st sight once they enter Nigeria, and mix with people of the same ethnic and cultural milieu. The period of the short-lived oil boom in Nigeria, the expanded employment opportunities, and the enhanced wages consequent to the huge wage increases of the mid 1970's generated huge wage differentials between Nigeria and its neighbors. Although the events leading to the expulsion of aliens had been gradual, the actual expulsion was less dramatic and sudden than the 1983 quit order. The expulsion of illegal aliens from various parts of Africa is now a common phenomenon. Procedures to be followed before governments expel non-nationals are stated. PMID:12314919

  16. Drivers of illegal resource extraction: an analysis of Bardia National Park, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shova, Thapa; Hubacek, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    While park-people conflicts have received worldwide attention, the extent of illegal resource extraction and the relationship with communities' livelihoods has gained little attention in the literature. Thus this paper investigates the impact of socio-economic factors involved in illegal fuel wood and fodder extraction at Bardia National Park in Nepal. Household questionnaires, key-informant interviews and focus groups were conducted to identify different plant species used by households and explore the causes and mode of resource extraction in three buffer zone villages in the park. Altogether 50 different plants were identified by villagers that were used regularly for different livelihood purposes. Almost half of the respondents met their needs by illegally and regularly extracting resources from the park. Incentive schemes in the form of development projects were important but not sufficient in meeting the basic needs of households' especially for such daily items such as fuel wood and fodder. The results described in this paper showed that proximity and access to resources either in the national park, the buffer zone community forest or the government forest, and impact on the livelihoods significantly influenced the likelihood of illegal resource extraction activities. Villages that differed in terms of their location to the resource base, the provision of alternative resources and influence of these on their livelihoods showed significant differences in terms of their patterns of resource extraction and use of these resources. As resource use options, resource interest, and resource extraction patterns were different between villages and dependent on circumstances specific to villages, site-specific management strategies were necessary and more influential than the enforcement of 'one-size fits all' policies. It is suggested that park management plans should be flexible and adaptive enough to meet site-specific contexts and to endear wider support from local

  17. Effect of Contour Felled Log Treatment on Runoff and Erosion After Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    Contour felled logs (also known as log erosion barriers) are used increasingly to control runoff and erosion after wildfires, yet their effectiveness at different scales and rainfall intensities is poorly understood. Following the June 2000 Hi Meadow Fire near Bailey, Colorado, we instrumented four adjacent, severely burned watersheds (5 to 15 ha) with a total of twelve rainfall gages, eight 1-meter long sediment traps, eight 10-meter long sediment traps, 4 check dams, and 4 stream gages. Two watersheds were treated with contour felled logs, and two were not. With this network of instruments, we examined rainfall, runoff, and sediment production relationships at the plot (1 m2), hillslope (500 m2) and watershed (5 ha and 15 ha) scales in the summer and fall of 2001. To date, seven storms have produced runoff. The maximum intensity storm rained 5 mm in 15 minutes. Preliminary results suggest that the contour felled log treatment is less important in determining runoff and sediment production than other basin characteristics such as channel morphology, soil properties and revegetation rates. At the plot scale, our data show no significant difference between treated and untreated areas in erosion and runoff. However, the contour felled log treatment may reduce erosion and runoff at the hillslope and watershed scales in low and medium intensity storms (less than 6 mm/hr). This study can help guide future studies on runoff and erosion mitigation as well as cost-benefit analysis of post-fire rehabilitation.

  18. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  19. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  20. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  1. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  2. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  3. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." PMID:12341287

  4. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool. PMID:26245790

  5. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  6. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  7. Harvesting residual biomass and swathe-felling with a mobile chipper

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, P.; Nicholson, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A harvesting machine and auxiliary equipment are being developed to recover logging residues in the form of chips for fuel and fiber, and to deliver such wood into roadside piles at about $11.82/green ton including 30% pretax return on an equipment investment of number470,000. A 575-horsepower tracked mobile chipper equipped with a front-mounted felling bar arranged to cut 6 inches aboveground level across the 9-foot width of the machine fells standing trees (to 12 inches diameter at stump height) and delivers them, along with other logging residues into a three-knife, 550 rev./min. drum chipper mounted immediately behind the felling bar. The felling bar is a 100 to 600 rev./min., 16-inch-diameter, four-knife cylinder extending across the front of the machine near ground level. Chips emerging from the 48-inch-diameter, 47.5-inch-long drum chipper are blown to the rear of the moving machine into one of a pair of self-powered tracked vehicles each carrying a quick-dump chip bin with 10-ton holding capacity. Average speed of the mobile chipper should be one mile per hour over rock-free terrain of less than 30% slope that will support 9 p.s.i. ground pressure. At this speed the harvester will cover about one acre per hour on land averaging 25 tons (green weight) per acre of logging residues in the form of tops and limbs, standing cull trees, and stumps. About 85% of such residue should be recovered as chips. Gross weight of the harvester is about 60,000 pounds. (Refs.1).

  8. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L

    2013-11-15

    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms. PMID:23948439

  9. Fatal injury in tree felling and related activities, Victoria, Australia 1992-2007.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Lisa Ruth; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias

    2010-02-01

    This study aims to examine fatalities resulting from tree felling and related activities in Victoria, Australia, involving work and do-it-yourself (DIY) activities, 1992-2007. Case identification was undertaken using coronial databases. A manual review of coroners' findings of closed cases was performed. Data collected and examined comprised demographics, occupation, incident location, activity, equipment used, injury mechanism and cause of death. Sixty-two cases were identified during the 16-year period; over 50% comprised DIY deaths (n=33). All but one victim was male. The median age for paid workers was less than for DIY (43 years vs 59 years). One-third of work activities were performed by persons outside professional tree-felling industries. While commercial forestry and logging industries experience a high fatality rate in Australia, non-professionals are also vulnerable to tree-felling injury. Study findings identified in excess of 70% of fatal incidents involved persons not employed within a relevant industry. Prevention efforts must focus on safety beyond workplaces and certain industries alone to reduce these deaths. PMID:20179037

  10. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  11. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  12. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  13. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  14. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  15. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  16. HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; El Hamad, Issa; Scarcella, Carmelo; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Cristini, Graziella; Scolari, Carla; Suligoi, Barbara; Luzi, Anna Maria; Bernasconi, Daniela; Lichtner, Miriam; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and place of exposure for illegal migrants in Italy, we tested 3,003 illegal adult migrants for HIV; 29 (0.97%) were HIV positive. Antibody avidity index results (indicators of time of infection) were available for 27 of those persons and showed that 6 (22.2%) presumably acquired their infection after migration. PMID:19891869

  17. College Students' Moral Evaluations of Illegal Music Downloading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambon, Marc M.; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Although unauthorized music downloading is illegal, a majority of college students have downloaded music for free online. Evaluations of illegal music downloading and their association with downloading behavior were examined using social domain theory in a sample of 188 ethnically diverse college students (M[subscript age] = 19.80 years, SD =…

  18. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  19. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  20. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use among Older Methadone Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The overall aims of this study are to describe the life stressors of, exposure to illegal drug use of, and illegal drug use by older methadone clients. Design and Methods. The current study focuses on a sub-sample of the larger administrative data of a methadone clinic that is limited to African American and White clients over the age of…

  1. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  2. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  3. Fell Pony Syndrome: Characterization of Developmental Hematopoiesis Failure and Associated Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Stokol, Tracy; Gould-Earley, Mary Jean; Earley, Ed; Secor, Erica J.; Matychak, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Fell Pony syndrome (FPS) is a fatal immunodeficiency that occurs in foals of the Fell Pony breed. Affected foals present with severe anemia, B cell lymphopenia, and opportunistic infections. Our objective was to conduct a prospective study of potential FPS-affected Fell Pony foals to establish clinical, immunological, and molecular parameters at birth and in the first few weeks of life. Complete blood counts, peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotyping, and serum immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for 3 FPS-affected foals, 49 unaffected foals, and 6 adult horses. In addition, cytology of bone marrow aspirates was performed sequentially in a subset of foals. At birth, the FPS-affected foals were not noticeably ill and had hematocrit and circulating B cell counts comparable to those of unaffected foals; however, over 6 weeks, values for both parameters steadily declined. A bone marrow aspirate from a 3-week-old FPS-affected foal revealed erythroid hyperplasia and concurrent erythroid and myeloid dysplasia, which progressed to a severe erythroid hypoplasia at 5 weeks of life. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the paucity of B cells in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. The mRNA expression of genes involved in B cell development, signaling, and maturation was investigated using qualitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Several genes, including CREB1, EP300, MYB, PAX5, and SPI1/PU.1, were sequenced from FPS-affected and unaffected foals. Our study presents evidence of fetal erythrocyte and B cell hematopoiesis with rapid postnatal development of anemia and B lymphopenia in FPS-affected foals. The transition between fetal/neonatal and adult-like hematopoiesis may be an important aspect of the pathogenesis of FPS. PMID:22593239

  4. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. PMID:20547348

  5. Italy: illegal construction hampers basic services.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    Rome illustrates the contradictions in the economic development in Italy. The city is located midway between Italy's most developed region and its southern regions, which lag behind the rest of the country in economic development. The population of Rome is now 3 million. It is the largest city and has the largest land area. Rome accounts for only 5.6% of the total urban population of the country due to the distribution of large and medium-sized cities throughout Italy. In 1964, a public housing construction plan was drafted to meet the needs of lower income groups. It provided for the development, over 10 years, of about 740,000 units distributed throughout 64 new working districts. At the end of the 10-year period allotted for the program, only 25% of the projects were completed or underway. This was due to the lack of government funds for public housing and the lack of political commitment to allocate what little monies were available. This meant that large numbers of immigrants had no chance to obtain housing unless they moved into the illegal buildings located outside the construction zones circumscribed by the Urban Plan, or moved into zones intended for agricultural use. The sale prices of these zones were much lower than the price of the construction zones stipulated by law. The most dangerous consequence of illegal construction is the lack of services. Roads are unpaved and constitute a major source of dust pollution. Other areas of concern are the lack of a public sewer system, solid waste disposal, and the location of worksites near residential areas. After 1978, Rome experienced a marked decline in its growth rate, from 3.2% per year between 1951-1961 to 2.7% per year between 1971-1979. This trend is no longer due to immigration. It is a result of the displacement of people from the inner city. At this time an effort is being made to accommodate the rapid growth of the past while working to improve the quality of life for all residents. PMID:12311449

  6. Legal Forum. The Right to an Education: Illegal Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court litigation in Texas concerning the rights of children who are illegally residing in the United States to public schooling. Focuses particularly on the issue of whether the equal protection clause in the fourteenth amendment applies to noncitizens. (GC)

  7. IBMDCH: illegal building monitoring in digital city based on HPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dingju; Fan, Jianping

    2008-10-01

    Every year city planners spend a large amount of money and time to monitor illegal buildings by officials on site. Due to such slowness, some city planners ask experts to look for illegal buildings by interpreting remote sensing image. Considering the high cost of human resource, some city planners start to use computer as an aid to the experts. In the way, still, the cost and the time can not satisfy the need for large-scale city monitoring. In order to realize automatic and fast building monitoring, we propose IBMDCH (Illegal Building Monitoring in Digital City based on HPC), in which all illegal buildings in a city can be found out much faster by comparing buildings-image or buildings change image with the official city planning graph of a digital city based on HPC (High Performance Computing).

  8. Russian Federation: penalties eased for possession of illegal drugs.

    PubMed

    2004-04-01

    In November 2003, after long deliberations, the Russian Parliament passed a bill amending the national Criminal Code to differentiate between the liability for possession of illegal drugs for drug users and for drug traffickers. The reforms involved redefining the terms "large" and "extra-large" with respect to the quantities for possession and trafficking of illegal substances. (There is no criminal liability for possession of less than a large amount.) On 16 December 2003, the new bill was enacted into law. PMID:15216819

  9. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  10. Geochemical and microbiological fingerprinting of airborne dust that fell in Canberra, Australia, in October 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Deckker, Patrick; Abed, Raeid M. M.; de Beer, Dirk; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Schefuß, Enno; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Tapper, Nigel J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2008-12-01

    During the night of 22-23 October 2002, a large amount of airborne dust fell with rain over Canberra, located some 200 km from Australia's east coast, and at an average altitude of 650 m. It is estimated that during that night about 6 g m-2 of aeolian dust fell. We have conducted a vast number of analyses to "fingerprint" some of the dust and used the following techniques: grain size analysis; scanning electron microscope imagery; major, trace, and rare earth elemental, plus Sr and Nd isotopic analyses; organic compound analyses with respective compound-specific isotope analyses; pollen extraction to identify the vegetation sources; and molecular cloning of 16S rRNA genes in order to identify dust bacterial composition. DNA analyses show that most obtained 16S rRNA sequences belong mainly to three groups: Proteobacteria (25%), Bacteriodetes (23%), and gram-positive bacteria (23%). In addition, we investigated the meteorological conditions that led to the dust mobilization and transport using model and satellite data. Grain sizes of the mineral dust show a bimodal distribution typical of proximal dust, rather than what is found over oceans, and the bimodal aspect of size distribution confirms wet deposition by rain droplets. The inorganic geochemistry points to a source along/near the Darling River in NW New South Wales, a region that is characteristically semiarid, and both the organic chemistry and palynoflora of the dust confirm the location of this source area. Meteorological reconstructions of the event again clearly identify the area near Bourke-Cobar as being the source of the dust. This study paves the way for determining the export of Australian airborne dust both in the oceans and other continents.

  11. Misoprostol and illegal abortion in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, H L; Teixeira, A C; Santos, A P; Forte, E B; Morais, S M; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G; Herxheimer, A

    1993-05-15

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil, where abortion is legal only in cases of rape or incest, or to save the woman's life. Because misoprostol is an inefficient abortifacient, many women who use it have incomplete abortions and need uterine evacuation. We reviewed the records of women admitted to the main obstetric hospital of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state, Brazil, between January, 1990, and July, 1992, for uterine evacuation after induced abortion. The number of incomplete abortions induced by misoprostol increased substantially during the first half of 1990, and declined thereafter. Of the 593 cases in 1991, 75% were related to misoprostol, 10% to the use of other specified drugs, and 6% to unspecified drugs. For the remaining 9% the procedure used was not recorded; these included 3% in whom abortion had been induced by a clandestine abortionist. The number of uterine evacuations per month fell from 89 in August, 1990, to 62 in July, 1991, when sales of misoprostol in Ceará state were suspended. The fall continued after the sale of misoprostol ceased, to about 20 cases in December, 1991; numbers remained around this level until June, 1992, sustained by clandestine sales. The lack of access to contraception is the main reason for the large numbers of unplanned pregnancies and is a major public health issue for Brazilian women. The prohibition of abortion creates a void in which misuse of medicines is one extra complication, mainly because of the poor control of drug marketing. PMID:8098403

  12. Felled oil palm trunk as a renewable source for biobutanol production by Clostridium spp.

    PubMed

    Komonkiat, Itsara; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to convert felled oil palm trunk to biobutanol by Clostridium spp. For efficient utilization of oil palm trunk, it was separated into sap and trunk fiber. The sap was used directly while the trunk fiber was hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars before use. Among five clostridia strains screened, Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731 was the most suitable strain for butanol production from the sap without any supplementation of nutrients. It produced the highest amount of butanol (14.4 g/L) from the sap (sugar concentration of 50 g/L) with butanol yield of 0.35 g/g. When hydrolysate from the trunk fiber was used as an alternative carbon source (sugar concentration of 30 g/L), of the strains tested Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR 1461 produced the highest amount of butanol (10.0 g/L) with butanol yield of 0.41 g/g. The results presented herein suggest that oil palm trunk is a promising renewable substrate for biobutanol production. PMID:23933028

  13. Subtypes of Pathological Gambling with Concurrent Illegal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Sauchelli, Sarah; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Islam, Mohammed A; Tàrrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are: to explore empirical clusters in a sample of individuals with a gambling disorder (GD) according to the presence of illegal behaviors, to describe the subgroups at a clinical level and to examine whether a temporal change has taken place across the last 9 years. The sample consisted of 378 patients with a GD who consecutively received outpatient treatment, and who reported the presence of the DSM-IV criteria "presence of illegal behavior". Two-step clustering procedure revealed the existence of four empirical groups, which differed in both sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The patients, who have committed illegal acts due to their gambling behavior, are a heterogeneous group in which it is possible to identify different subtypes, based on sociodemographic, psychopathological, clinical and personality characteristics. PMID:25228407

  14. The illegality of private health care in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Colleen M.; Archibald, Tom

    2001-01-01

    WE ADDRESSED THE QUESTION OF WHETHER PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IS ILLEGAL in Canada by surveying the health insurance legislation of all 10 provinces. Our survey revealed multiple layers of regulation that seem to have as their primary objective preventing the public sector from subsidizing the private sector, as opposed to rendering privately funded practice illegal. Private insurance for medically necessary hospital and physician services is illegal in only 6 of the 10 provinces. Nonetheless, a significant private sector has not developed in any of the 4 provinces that do permit private insurance coverage. The absence of a significant private sector is probably best explained by the prohibitions on the subsidy of private practice by public plans, measures that prevent physicians from topping up their public sector incomes with private fees. PMID:11276552

  15. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure. PMID:17688110

  16. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What activities are illegal? 22.12 Section 22.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE...

  17. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  18. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  19. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  20. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  1. Illegal drug impersonators: the synthetic drug abuse boom.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Carol

    2011-10-01

    The Internet has opened the door to marketers of products that contain substances that when ingested mimic the effects of illegal drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and LSD. This article traces the history of synthetic drugs, describes some of the newest substances on the market and their physiologic and psychological effects, and discusses efforts aimed at curbing their sale and use. PMID:23256286

  2. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways. PMID:22669643

  3. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the personal description, circumstances and time of such illegal landing or desertion of such alien crewman... landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such...

  4. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the personal description, circumstances and time of such illegal landing or desertion of such alien crewman... landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such...

  5. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  6. Immigration and Youthful Illegalities in a Global Edge City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinovitzer, Ronit; Hagan, John; Levi, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on immigration and youthful illegalities in the Toronto area, one of the world's most ethnically diverse global cities. While current research documents a negative relationship between crime and immigration, there is little attention to individual level mechanisms that explain the paths through which immigrant youth refrain…

  7. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  8. Analysis of illegal peptide biopharmaceuticals frequently encountered by controlling agencies.

    PubMed

    Vanhee, Celine; Janvier, Steven; Desmedt, Bart; Moens, Goedele; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in genomics, recombinant expression technologies and peptide synthesis have led to an increased development of protein and peptide therapeutics. Unfortunately this goes hand in hand with a growing market of counterfeit and illegal biopharmaceuticals, including substances that are still under pre-clinical and clinical development. These counterfeit and illegal protein and peptide substances could imply severe health threats as has been demonstrated by numerous case reports. The Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) and customs are striving, together with their global counterparts, to curtail the trafficking and distributions of these substances. At their request, suspected protein and peptide preparations are analysed in our Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). It stands to reason that a general screening method would be beneficiary in the battle against counterfeit and illegal peptide drugs. In this paper we present such general screening method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the identification of counterfeit and illegal injectable peptide preparations, extended with a subsequent quantification method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The screening method, taking only 30 min, is able to selectively detect 25 different peptides and incorporates the proposed minimum of five identification points (IP) as has been recommended for sports drug testing applications. The group of peptides represent substances which have already been detected in illegal and counterfeit products seized by different European countries as well as some biopharmaceutical peptides which have not been confiscated yet by the controlling agencies, but are already being used according to the many internet users forums. Additionally, we also show that when applying the same LC gradient, it is also possible to quantify these peptides without the need for

  9. Demographic evidence of illegal harvesting of an endangered asian turtle.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Karraker, Nancy E; Hau, Billy C H

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting pressure on Asian freshwater turtles is severe, and dramatic population declines of these turtles are being driven by unsustainable collection for food markets, pet trade, and traditional Chinese medicine. Populations of big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) have declined substantially across its distribution, particularly in China, because of overcollection. To understand the effects of chronic harvesting pressure on big-headed turtle populations, we examined the effects of illegal harvesting on the demography of populations in Hong Kong, where some populations still exist. We used mark-recapture methods to compare demographic characteristics between sites with harvesting histories and one site in a fully protected area. Sites with a history of illegal turtle harvesting were characterized by the absence of large adults and skewed ratios of juveniles to adults, which may have negative implications for the long-term viability of populations. These sites also had lower densities of adults and smaller adult body sizes than the protected site. Given that populations throughout most of the species' range are heavily harvested and individuals are increasingly difficult to find in mainland China, the illegal collection of turtles from populations in Hong Kong may increase over time. Long-term monitoring of populations is essential to track effects of illegal collection, and increased patrolling is needed to help control illegal harvesting of populations, particularly in national parks. Because few, if any, other completely protected populations remain in the region, our data on an unharvested population of big-headed turtles serve as an important reference for assessing the negative consequences of harvesting on populations of stream turtles. Evidencia Demográfica de la Captura Ilegal de una Tortuga Asiática en Peligro. PMID:23869813

  10. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  11. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  12. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  13. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  14. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  15. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  16. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  17. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  18. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  19. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  20. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  1. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  2. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  3. Management decentralization and montane forest conditions in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Persha, Lauren; Blomley, Tom

    2009-12-01

    We examined how differences in local forest-management institutions relate to disparate anthropogenic forest disturbance and forest conditions among three neighboring montane forests in Tanzania under centralized, comanaged, or communal management. Institutional differences have been shaped by decentralization reforms. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of forest management committees, local government, and village households and measured anthropogenic disturbance, tree structure, and species composition in forest plots. We assessed differences in governance system components of local institutions, including land tenure, decision-making autonomy by forest users, and official and de facto processes of rule formation, monitoring, and enforcement among the three management strategies. We also assessed differences in frequencies of prohibited logging and subsistence pole cutting, and measures of forest condition. An adjacent research forest served as an ecological reference for comparison of forest conditions. Governance was similar for comanaged and centralized management, whereas communal managers had greater tenure security and decision-making autonomy over the use and management of their forest. There was significantly less illegal logging in the communal forest, but subsistence pole cutting was common across all management strategies. The comanaged forest was most disturbed by recent logging and pole cutting, as were peripheral areas of the larger centralized forest. This manifested in more degraded indicators of forest conditions (lower mean tree size, basal area, density of trees >or= 90 cm dbh, and aboveground biomass and higher overall stem density). Greater tenure security and institutional autonomy of the communal strategy contributed to more effective management, less illegal logging, and maintenance of good forest conditions, but generating livelihood benefits was a challenge for both decentralized strategies. Our results underscore the

  4. Positive urgency predicts illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-06-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n=407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  5. Estimates of illegal abortions in Israel, 1980-83.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1990-04-01

    Since the legalization of abortion in Israel in the late 1970s, only aggregate information on legal abortions has been available. A brief history of the public debate and relevant legislation concerning induced abortions in Israel is presented in the first part of this report. The second part presents estimates of the extent of illegal abortions in Israel during the years 1980-83. These estimates were obtained through standardization based on data for selected countries where the abortion law is similar to or more liberal than that in Israel, the system of abortion registration is more reliable and detailed, and the prevailing contraceptive habits and attitudes of women are known. Estimates indicate that: a) the total number of abortions in Israel is about half that quoted by the media from nonscientific sources, and b) the annual number of illegal abortions constitutes between 25 and 30% of the estimated total number of abortions. PMID:2347687

  6. [On the question of the illegality of abortion].

    PubMed

    Salton, J A

    1985-08-01

    The illegality of abortion in Brazil is questioned more and more. It would seem obvious that the prohibition of abortion would result in a decrease in the number of abortions, but upon closer observation, the opposite is true. Abortion related legislation in Brazil is among the most severe in the world. Both the physician and the patient are equally punishable, but this did not stop Brazilian women from having 3.5 million abortions/year. Countries with less severe laws have a much lower abortion rate. There have been extreme physiological and social consequences in Brazil as a result of abortion's illegality. The woman is not only a criminal, she is also a sinner in the eyes of the Church. In most cases, especially in low-income areas, abortion can lead to complications and death. Although there are no statistical data on the number of deaths due to illegal abortion, they would no doubt be alarming. An unwanted, unterminated pregnancy can have disastrous effects upon the mother, the child, and their relationship. These negative effects have been well documented. Prohibition will keep abortion out of the mainstream of national debate and aggravate the situation. A person's sexuality cannot be suppressed and considered evil. In lower income levels, unwanted pregnancy should not be a punishment for being poor. The legalization movement will grow, as it has in developed nations. The members of the Brazilian Society for Scientific Progress must remain active in the debate, because they cannot ignore something of such national importance. PMID:12314816

  7. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries. PMID:25107993

  8. Lasting Reductions in Illegal Moves Following an Increase in Their Cost: Evidence from River-Crossing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Martin E.; Delaney, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present 3 experiments demonstrating ways to reduce illegal moves in problem-solving tasks. They propose a 3-stage framework for the rejection of illegal moves. An illegal move must come to mind and be selected, checked for legality, and correctly rejected. Illegal move reduction can occur at any stage. Control group participants…

  9. Interactive effects between N addition and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; From, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    In management of boreal forests, nitrogen (N) enrichment from atmospheric deposition or from forest fertilization can appear in combination with land-use related disturbances, i.e. tree harvesting by clear-felling. Long-term interactive effects between N enrichment and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function are, however, poorly known. We investigated effects of N enrichment by forest fertilization done > 25 years ago on forest understory species composition in old-growth (undisturbed) forests, and in forests clear-felled 10 years ago (disturbed). In clear-felled forests we also investigated effects of the previous N addition on growth of tree saplings. The results show that the N enrichment effect on the understory species composition was strongly dependent on the disturbance caused by clear-felling. In undisturbed forests, there were small or no effects on understory species composition from N addition. In contrast, effects were large in forests first exposed to N addition and subsequently disturbed by clear-felling. Effects of N addition differed among functional groups of plants. Abundance of graminoids increased (+232%) and abundance of dwarf shrubs decreased (-44%) following disturbance in N fertilized forests. For vascular plants, the two perturbations had contrasting effects on α-(within forests) and β-diversity (among forests): in disturbed forests, N addition reduced, or had no effect on α-diversity, while β-diversity increased. For bryophytes, negative effects of disturbance on α-diversity were smaller in N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized, while neither N addition nor disturbance had any effects on β-diversity. Moreover, sapling growth in forests clear-felled 10 years ago was significantly higher in previously N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized. Our study show that effects of N addition on plant communities may appear small, short-lived, or even absent until exposed to a disturbance. This

  10. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  11. Global Trends and Factors Associated with the Illegal Killing of Elephants: A Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of Carcass Encounter Data

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Robert W.; Underwood, Fiona M.; Blanc, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), set up by the 10th Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002–2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE) as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process. PMID:21912670

  12. Global trends and factors associated with the illegal killing of elephants: A hierarchical bayesian analysis of carcass encounter data.

    PubMed

    Burn, Robert W; Underwood, Fiona M; Blanc, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), set up by the 10(th) Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002-2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE) as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process. PMID:21912670

  13. The making of Amerexico: (mis)handling illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Andreas, P

    1994-01-01

    The border and social policies that the United States shares with Mexico have had only a modest impact on the level of illegal immigration. Alternative methods could reduce the social backlash against Mexican immigrants in US states of destination. Federal Relief Aid to states affected by new arrivals would ameliorate hostility. Although economic stagnation may depress the flow of immigrants or job opportunities, legal or illegal, economic recovery is dependent on the hard work of immigrants. The political solution has been to tighten border controls. Other options are possible. There should be pressure placed on multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to incorporate immigration issues in economic policy decisions. Many market reforms have contributed to greater emigration. The US has the option to use both supply and demand side options. Enforcement of workplace rules on minimum wages and health and safety standards would make it more difficult to exploit immigrant workers and would decrease the incentive to hire illegal workers. In a deregulated market stricter work standards were considered difficult to attain. A 1993 opinion poll revealed that 65% thought immigration was not beneficial. Border apprehension rates have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The most recent policies aim to encourage the mobility of capital and trade through the NAFTA free trade agreement while trying to discourage human resource mobility. The push factors in Mexico are identified as high levels of poverty and unemployment, overpopulation, and economic stagnation. NAFTA and prior economic development efforts have not addressed the push factors. Disruption of traditional ways and changes toward greater industrialization spur emigration. The US program to develop border export industry encouraged migration from the interior of Mexico to border areas. Recent Mexican policies have changed the incentives for small farmers to stay on

  14. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:23027783

  15. Safe return to homeland of an illegal immigrant with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Vesga-López, Oriana; Weder, Natalie D; Jean-Baptiste, Michel; Dominguez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    The disposition of illegal immigrants who lack social support and wish to return to their homeland is a frequent and difficult challenge for many mental health facilities in the United States. This case involved an undocumented Mexican patient with severe psychosis who was safely transferred to his hometown according to his and his family's wishes through the use of specific services provided by the Mexican Consulate. We hope that publication of this case will make the medical community more aware of the availability of these underused services, which can make a major difference in the prognosis of some undocumented patients who would otherwise be left without resources or appropriate care. PMID:19182568

  16. [Is illegal abortion a secure procedure? A case report].

    PubMed

    Iris, J M; Frappé, H; Ponce, G

    1996-06-01

    Woman with illegal abortion presenting bleeding and shock secondary to hypovolemia and sepsis. In the laparotomy there is no uterine perforation and the patient develops disseminated coagulation. The patient is taken to the operating room and bleeding stops. She receives more fluids than necessary and develops pulmonary edema. 48 hours after she develops shock secondary to tamponade and disappears with pericardiocentesis. A month and a half later she goes to the hospital because of ileus secondary to blood in peritoneo of an ovary cyst. Many pathologies and iatrogenesis characterized this case report. PMID:8754726

  17. Do immigrants working illegally reduce the natives' legal employment? Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Venturini, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how immigrants working illegally in the shadow economy affect the legal employment of native and foreign workers in the official economy of Italy. The data set used was provided by the Central Statistical Office and includes information regarding the units of labor employed both in official production and in underground production; employment in the latter is subdivided into native workers and foreign workers. Estimates were then made as to how "legal employment" has reacted to changes in "illegal employment", with special reference to the effect of the foreign component of "illegal labor". The results of the cross sector-time series analysis of the demand for legal labor in the Italian economy from 1980 to 1995 showed that the increase of illegal units of labor produces a reduction in the use of legal labor, albeit a very limited one. An analysis by sectors shows that the competitive effects of illegal foreign workers is not homogeneous and is strongest in the agricultural sector while complementarity between the two categories of labor is evident in the nontradable services sector. When comparing the number of effects of illegal foreign and illegal native workers, illegal native workers are lower than the illegal foreign workers. Despite regularization in Italy and the lack of flexibility in the labor market, neither regular nor nonregular foreign workers have begun to openly displace native workers. PMID:12295037

  18. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included. PMID:21479548

  19. Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Stephen; Wittemyer, George; Hart, John; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Aba’a, Rostand; Abitsi, Gaspard; Ambahe, Ruffin D.; Amsini, Fidèl; Bakabana, Parfait C.; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Bayogo, Rosine E.; Bechem, Martha; Beyers, Rene L.; Bezangoye, Anicet N.; Boundja, Patrick; Bout, Nicolas; Akou, Marc Ella; Bene, Lambert Bene; Fosso, Bernard; Greengrass, Elizabeth; Grossmann, Falk; Ikamba-Nkulu, Clement; Ilambu, Omari; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Iyenguet, Fortune; Kiminou, Franck; Kokangoye, Max; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Latour, Stephanie; Liengola, Innocent; Mackaya, Quevain; Madidi, Jacob; Madzoke, Bola; Makoumbou, Calixte; Malanda, Guy-Aimé; Malonga, Richard; Mbani, Olivier; Mbendzo, Valentin A.; Ambassa, Edgar; Ekinde, Albert; Mihindou, Yves; Morgan, Bethan J.; Motsaba, Prosper; Moukala, Gabin; Mounguengui, Anselme; Mowawa, Brice S.; Ndzai, Christian; Nixon, Stuart; Nkumu, Pele; Nzolani, Fabian; Pintea, Lilian; Plumptre, Andrew; Rainey, Hugo; de Semboli, Bruno Bokoto; Serckx, Adeline; Stokes, Emma; Turkalo, Andrea; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vosper, Ashley; Warren, Ymke

    2013-01-01

    African forest elephants– taxonomically and functionally unique–are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002–2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced. PMID:23469289

  20. Devastating decline of forest elephants in central Africa.

    PubMed

    Maisels, Fiona; Strindberg, Samantha; Blake, Stephen; Wittemyer, George; Hart, John; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Aba'a, Rostand; Abitsi, Gaspard; Ambahe, Ruffin D; Amsini, Fidèl; Bakabana, Parfait C; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Bayogo, Rosine E; Bechem, Martha; Beyers, Rene L; Bezangoye, Anicet N; Boundja, Patrick; Bout, Nicolas; Akou, Marc Ella; Bene, Lambert Bene; Fosso, Bernard; Greengrass, Elizabeth; Grossmann, Falk; Ikamba-Nkulu, Clement; Ilambu, Omari; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Iyenguet, Fortune; Kiminou, Franck; Kokangoye, Max; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Latour, Stephanie; Liengola, Innocent; Mackaya, Quevain; Madidi, Jacob; Madzoke, Bola; Makoumbou, Calixte; Malanda, Guy-Aimé; Malonga, Richard; Mbani, Olivier; Mbendzo, Valentin A; Ambassa, Edgar; Ekinde, Albert; Mihindou, Yves; Morgan, Bethan J; Motsaba, Prosper; Moukala, Gabin; Mounguengui, Anselme; Mowawa, Brice S; Ndzai, Christian; Nixon, Stuart; Nkumu, Pele; Nzolani, Fabian; Pintea, Lilian; Plumptre, Andrew; Rainey, Hugo; de Semboli, Bruno Bokoto; Serckx, Adeline; Stokes, Emma; Turkalo, Andrea; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vosper, Ashley; Warren, Ymke

    2013-01-01

    African forest elephants- taxonomically and functionally unique-are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002-2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced. PMID:23469289

  1. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  2. Fell runners and walking walls: towards a sociology of living landscapes and aesthetic atmospheres as an alternative to a Lakeland picturesque.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    This article draws on analysis of data generated by way of an ethnography of fell running in the English Lake District and suggests that participants who have lived and run in the area for many years experience a particular mode of aesthetic. The Lake District has long been valued for its outstanding scenery represented in the aesthetic of the picturesque comprising relatively static landscapes that should be conserved. Established fell runners who have run in the area for many decades apprehend and appreciate the landscape in more complex, rooted and situated ways. The anthropologist Ingold, distinguishes between landscape and landsceppan, and this insight is instructive for grasping the way in which the runners do not simply scope scenery but work with the land: they shape it and are shaped by it. Fell runners are elements within the living environment and along with walls, sheep, becks, sun, rain--what Ingold evocatively calls the 'weather-world'--are mobile. Movement is central to their aesthetic, they enjoy not so much the scenic but rather a fellsceppan and do so through their fast eye-gait-footwork and their lively, variable occupation with the terrain. The fells infiltrate and interpenetrate the runners and movement through the fells generates a somatic aesthetic. The pleasure in turn breeds existential capital an embodied gratification that serves as an attractor that binds those who appreciate feelings of being alive with and in the fells. PMID:26399836

  3. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... Identification and Certification of Nations § 300.202 Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  4. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  5. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  6. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  7. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  8. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  9. Doping Attitudes and the Use of Legal and Illegal Performance-Enhancing Substances among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Violani, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    Using retrospective self-reporting, rates of illegal and legal performance-enhancing substance (PES) use in the past three months among more than 3,400 Italian high school adolescents were obtained and estimated. The study focused on the extent to which these sociodemographic characteristics and illegal PES use were associated with adolescents'…

  10. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, familial status or...

  11. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  12. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  13. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  15. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  16. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  17. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  18. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  19. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  20. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  2. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  3. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  4. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  5. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  6. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  7. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  8. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  9. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  10. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  11. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  12. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  13. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  14. A computable general equilibrium assessment of the impact of illegal immigration on the Greek economy.

    PubMed

    Sarris, A H; Zografakis, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the impact of illegal immigrants on the small type economy of Greece by using the multisectoral computable general equilibrium model. The theoretical analysis utilizes a model showing that there is no equivocal case for illegal immigration leading to the decline in the real wages of unskilled labor and increases in the real wages of skilled labor. The empirical analysis uses an applied general equilibrium model for Greece, showing that the inflow of illegal immigrants has resulted in declines of the real disposable incomes of two classes of households, namely, those headed by an unskilled person, and those belonging to the poor and middle class income bracket. The results, on the other hand, showed that the large increase in the influx of illegal immigrants is macroeconomically beneficial, having significant adverse distribution implications when flexible wage adjustment is assumed in various labor markets. It appears that unskilled and hired agricultural workers are among those that are severely affected by the inflow of illegal workers. The results also appear to be fairly sensitive with respect to the elasticities of labor supply and demand, while they appear to be quite insensitive to the elasticity of substitution in import demand and export supply. Furthermore, it is also insensitive to the various parameters concerning the structure of the illegal labor market such as the amount of wage differential between illegal and domestic unskilled labor as well as the monetary amounts that illegal laborers remit abroad. PMID:12295038

  15. Policies and Procedures Concerning Illegal Drug Use by Students. Higher Education Surveys Report, Survey Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Bradford W.; Farris, Elizabeth

    Procedures concerning illegal drug use by college students were investigated at 546 colleges and universities in the fall 1986 Higher Education Survey. Seventy-three percent of the institutions had a written policy on illegal drug use by students, and more than half of them established or revised their policy within the last 5 years. Three-fourths…

  16. Father Absence as a Risk Factor for Substance Use and Illegal Behavior by the Adolescent Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Ali, Asad; McMurphy, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Illegal behavior, drug trafficking, and substance abuse levels of two groups (both parents, mother only) of inner-city African-American youth were compared. African-American subjects who had been raised in mother-only households reported significantly fewer illegal offenses. Findings are contrary to common attitudes regarding the effects of…

  17. Illegal Immigration and the Colonization of the American Labor Market. Center for Immigration Studies Paper 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.

    This paper finds that the ready availability of illegal-immigrant workers from Mexico in major industries in the Southwest region of the United States is having far-reaching and often unanticipated consequences for patterns of investment, employment, and business competition. It reviews the displacement of U.S. workers by illegal immigrants in…

  18. Educators, Illegal Behavior, and Deterrence: A Resource Allocation Approach to Malpractice in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, F. Howard

    1982-01-01

    Views illegal behavior in education, from sexual discrimination to professional malpractice, as a problem in optimal resource allocation. Urges effective use of fines or their equivalent, so administrators can weigh the benefits of illegal activity against the costs of apprehension and punishment. (Author/RW)

  19. Trade-Offs Between Forest Protection and Wood Supply in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; Zanchi, Giuliana; Lindner, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Forest protection is one of the main measures to prevent loss of biological and landscape diversity. This study aimed to assess to what extent forests are currently protected and how felling restrictions affect the potential annual wood supply within 27 European Union member states, Norway, and Switzerland and to discuss trade-offs between intensified use of forest biomass and forest protection efforts. Protected forests covered 33 million ha (20 % of total forest area) in 2005, of which 16 million ha was protected for biodiversity and the remaining area for landscape diversity. Within the protected areas, on average 48 % of the volume cannot be harvested in forests protected for biodiversity and 40 % in forests protected for landscapes. Consequently, 73 million m3 (10 % of the annual theoretical potential supply from the total forest area) of wood cannot be felled from the protected forests in Europe. Protected forests do not necessarily affect wood supply given the current demand for wood in Europe. However, if demand for wood from European forests for material and energy use significantly increases, the impact of existing protected forest networks may become significant after all. On the other hand, wood harvesting is allowed to a fair extent in many protected areas. Hence, the question could be raised whether biodiversity and landscape diversity within designated areas are sufficiently protected. Careful planning is required to accommodate both the protection of biological and landscape diversity and demand for wood, while not forgetting all other services that forests provide.

  20. Trade-offs between forest protection and wood supply in Europe.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; Zanchi, Giuliana; Lindner, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Forest protection is one of the main measures to prevent loss of biological and landscape diversity. This study aimed to assess to what extent forests are currently protected and how felling restrictions affect the potential annual wood supply within 27 European Union member states, Norway, and Switzerland and to discuss trade-offs between intensified use of forest biomass and forest protection efforts. Protected forests covered 33 million ha (20% of total forest area) in 2005, of which 16 million ha was protected for biodiversity and the remaining area for landscape diversity. Within the protected areas, on average 48% of the volume cannot be harvested in forests protected for biodiversity and 40% in forests protected for landscapes. Consequently, 73 million m(3) (10% of the annual theoretical potential supply from the total forest area) of wood cannot be felled from the protected forests in Europe. Protected forests do not necessarily affect wood supply given the current demand for wood in Europe. However, if demand for wood from European forests for material and energy use significantly increases, the impact of existing protected forest networks may become significant after all. On the other hand, wood harvesting is allowed to a fair extent in many protected areas. Hence, the question could be raised whether biodiversity and landscape diversity within designated areas are sufficiently protected. Careful planning is required to accommodate both the protection of biological and landscape diversity and demand for wood, while not forgetting all other services that forests provide. PMID:24699992

  1. Ethanol isotope method (EIM) for uncovering illegal wine.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, I; Sparks, K L; Sparks, J P; Čukalović, I Leskošek; Jović, S

    2013-01-01

    Isotopic methods have proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the determination of origin and authenticity of wine. In addition, measuring the stable isotope ratio provides useful information for the detection of many illegal practices in the production of wine. The determinations of the stable isotope composition of compounds are based on measuring the relative ratios using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. This article describes a new isotopic method for measuring the δD value of non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in ethanol for investigating adulteration practices in wine making. With this new method, we are able to determine the addition of water and sugar in wine with higher accuracy, repeatability and reliability. PMID:22462798

  2. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.M.; Anthony, S.J.; Switzer, W.M.; Epstein, J.H.; Seimon, T.; Jia, H.; Sanchez, M.D.; Huynh, T.T.; Galland, G.G.; Shapiro, S.E.; Sleeman, J.M.; McAloose, D.; Stuchin, M.; Amato, G.; Kolokotronis, S.-O.; Lipkin, W.I.; Karesh, W.B.; Daszak, P.; Marano, N.

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  3. Illegal or legitimate use? Precursor compounds to amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F

    2000-02-01

    The interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine positive test results in biological samples is a challenge to clinical and forensic toxicology for several reasons. The effects of pH and dilution of urine samples and the knowledge about legitimate and illicit sources have to be taken into account. Besides a potentially legal prescription of amphetamines, many substances metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine in the body: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, and prenylamine. Especially the knowledge of potential origins of methamphetamine and amphetamine turns out to be very important to prevent a misinterpretation of the surrounding circumstances and to prove illegal drug abuse. In this review, potential precursor compounds are described, including their medical use and major clinical effects and their metabolic profiles, as well as some clues which help to identify the sources. PMID:10711406

  4. Firearm retailers' willingness to participate in an illegal gun purchase.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen

    2010-09-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or "straw" purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun's use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. PMID:20803095

  5. Zoonotic Viruses Associated with Illegally Imported Wildlife Products

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence. PMID:22253731

  6. Canvasback mortality from illegal hunting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Nissen, J.M.; Wetzel, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the consequences of local hunting on illegal kill of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), we studied the behavior of hunters on a 646-ha area open to duck hunting (closed to canvasback hunting) on Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, Wisconsin, during the 1991 and 1992 waterfowl hunting seasons. Law enforcement officers observed 258 hunting parties for 419 hours. Of 94 hunting parties encountering canvasbacks, 41 (44%) shot at the ducks on 56 occasions, or 27% of 207 encounters observed, Based on a ratio estimator, there were 790 (95% CI = 376) attempts to shoot at canvasbacks on the Lake Onalaska study area during 1991 and 837 (95% CI = 390) during 1992. Mortality of canvasbacks, excluding crippling loss, was estimated to be 128 during 1991 and 166 during 1992. Thus, total canvasback losses may be higher than currently estimated on a flyway or national basis. This estimating technique offers a promising method for enumerating hunter take of protected and legal species.

  7. [Current situation and issues for analyzing illegal drug products].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Motoki, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-two psychotropic substances (31 compounds and one plant) have been controlled as designated substances (Shitei-yakubutsu) in Japan by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law since April 2007. Although the trafficking of these drugs has decreased because of this regulation, new designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones) have appeared, one after the other. As of October 2011, 40 compounds had been newly added to this category. Analytical methods have become more complicated due to this increase in the number of designated substances. Moreover, many reference substances for such designated substances and other new designer drugs are not commercially available. For the reasons stated above, a lot of time and effort is required to analyze the illegal drug products available on the market. PMID:23292013

  8. [Clandestine places: illegal sale of alcohol for urban worker populations].

    PubMed

    Hamel, P; Asún, D

    1978-03-01

    The authors have studied the illegal commerce of alcohol in popular urban communities. This sale is done in so called clandestine places. The study was approached from a cultural-anthropological point of view and its objective is a descriptive-exploratory study based on observation and interview techniques. A definition and a tipology of these places was attempted, emphasizing group dynamics and interpersonal relations between the owner of the place and the customer; among the customers; among the place itself and the rest of the community organizations, formal and informal ones. A primary analysis was done, according to which these clandestine places appear legitimized by nets of interpersonal relations, critical economic situations and places that satisfy recreational needs of the inhabitants. In order to eliminate the former, adecuate substitutes for recreation and social interaction ought to be considered. PMID:685704

  9. Unemployment and illegal drug use: concordant evidence from a prospective study and national trends.

    PubMed Central

    Peck, D F; Plant, M A

    1986-01-01

    Data from a previous study of 1036 young people in the Lothian region that indicated an association between unemployment and illegal drug use were examined in more depth to investigate the inter-relation between duration of unemployment and the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. After factors such as social class background and educational qualifications had been taken into account a weak but significant association was found between duration of unemployment and illegal drug use. No such association was found for alcohol or tobacco. Similar results were obtained from an analysis of national statistics related to unemployment and illegal drug use. Both sets of data thus indicate that illegal drug use is moderately associated with unemployment. PMID:3094720

  10. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. PMID:25996571

  11. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  12. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  13. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  14. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (MAY 2014) (a) If...

  15. The Characteristics and Role of Illegal Aliens in the U.S. Labor Market: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.; Houstoun, Marion F.

    Data on the characteristics and labor market experiences of illegal aliens in the U.S. work force were collected by voluntary interviews with 793 apprehended illegal immigrants who had worked at least two weeks in the U.S. From the resulting diverse collection of case histories, it was concluded that (1) illegal workers in the U.S. are likely to…

  16. Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries across the globe, tropical forest cover is increasing. The national-scale reforestation of Vietnam since 1992 is assumed to contribute to this recovery. It is achieved, however, by the displacement of forest extraction to other countries on the order of 49 (34–70) M m3, or ≈39% of the regrowth of Vietnam's forests from 1987 to 2006. Approximately half of wood imports to Vietnam during this period were illegal. Leakage due to policies restricting forest exploitation and displacement due to growing domestic consumption and exports contributed respectively to an estimated 58% and 42% of total displacement. Exports of wood products from Vietnam also grew rapidly, amounting to 84% of the displacement, which is a remarkable feature of the forest transition in Vietnam. Attribution of the displacement and corresponding forest extraction to Vietnam, the source countries or the final consumers is thus debatable. Sixty-one percent of the regrowth in Vietnam was, thus, not associated with displacement abroad. Policies allocating credits to countries for reducing deforestation and forest degradation should monitor illegal timber trade and take into account the policy-induced leakage of wood extraction to other countries. PMID:19805270

  17. Non-destructive analyses on a meteorite fragment that fell in the Madrid city centre in 1896.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Tormo, Laura; Rubio Ordoñez, Alvaro; Garcia-Moreno, Olga

    2013-09-30

    The historical Madrid meteorite chondrite fell in 1896 showing thin melt veins with a 65% of brecciated forsterite fragments surrounded by a fine grained matrix formed by troilite, chromite and Fe-Ni blebs. It exhibits a delicate iron infill, neo-formation of troilite in pockets and shock veins and neo-formation of Na-feldspar formed at high temperature and fast quenching. The semi-quantitative mineral determinations were performed with IMAGEJ freeware and chemical mappings resulting in the following approximated compositions: olivine (~55%); augite (~10%); enstatite (~10%); plagioclase (~10%); chromite (~2%); troilite (~4%), kamacite-taenite α-γ-(Fe, Ni) (~7%) and merrillite (~7%). The specimen was also studied by computer tomography, micro-Raman spectroscopy and spectral cathodoluminescence. X-ray diffraction patterns were also recorded in non-destructive way on a polished surface because of the small size of the specimen. This combination of non-destructive techniques provides an improved knowledge on the Madrid-1896 meteorite compared to the previous study performed on the same specimen carried out twenty years ago by electron probe microanalysis and optical microscopy in destructive way. Limits of these techniques are the specimen's size in the analytical chambers and the threshold resolution of the microscopes analyzing shock veins micro-crystals. PMID:23953455

  18. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. PMID:26332105

  19. Firearm Retailers’ Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99–21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun’s use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9489-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20803095

  20. Tracking Vessels to Illegal Pollutant Discharges Using Multisource Vessel Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busler, J.; Wehn, H.; Woodhouse, L.

    2015-04-01

    Illegal discharge of bilge waters is a significant source of oil and other environmental pollutants in Canadian and international waters. Imaging satellites are commonly used to monitor large areas to detect oily discharges from vessels, off-shore platforms and other sources. While remotely sensed imagery provides a snap-shot picture useful for detecting a spill or the presence of vessels in the vicinity, it is difficult to directly associate a vessel to an observed spill unless the vessel is observed while the discharge is occurring. The situation then becomes more challenging with increased vessel traffic as multiple vessels may be associated with a spill event. By combining multiple sources of vessel location data, such as Automated Information Systems (AIS), Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) and SAR-based ship detection, with spill detections and drift models we have created a system that associates detected spill events with vessels in the area using a probabilistic model that intersects vessel tracks and spill drift trajectories in both time and space. Working with the Canadian Space Agency and the Canadian Ice Service's Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution (ISTOP) program, we use spills observed in Canadian waters to demonstrate the investigative value of augmenting spill detections with temporally sequenced vessel and spill tracking information.

  1. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:24437928

  2. Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26216390

  3. Quantifying the influence of forest removal on stream temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, I.; Millar, C.; Hannah, D. M.; Fryer, R.

    2012-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the role of riparian shading in moderating stream temperature. In particular, there is a need to assess the effects of forest removal (and the counter activity of riparian tree planting) to inform policy decisions aimed at protecting freshwater fish and fisheries under current and future climate. A number of approaches have been used to assess the influence of riparian shading on stream temperature from simple comparisons of forested and non-forested reaches through to more complex BACI style designs where inter-site relationships are established pre- and post- forest removal, with parameter estimates from the two periods used to predict the effect of removal. In most cases, attempts to compare forest felling events have found it challenging to separate effects of (1) felling from (2) inter-annual variability in hydro-climatological conditions as a given event will produce greater changes in a hot-dry year, than in a cold-wet year. Furthermore, many descriptions of felling or forestry effects have been somewhat qualitative, with inadequate consideration of uncertainty and significance of observed changes. Here we present the findings of a study that quantified stream temperature change associated with forest harvesting. Four harvesting events were examined in three catchments in south central Scotland. The percentage area of forest removed ranged between 13 and 39%. Changes in daily temperature, mean, minimum, maximum and range were determined using a BACI experimental design. A novel application of Bayesian generalised additive mixed models (GAMMS) allowed for an assessment of felling effects with associated confidence intervals. The influence of harvesting varied seasonally, with the greatest effects observed during the summer months. The greatest changes were observed for maximum temperature. The ability to detect statistically significant changes was affected markedly by the precision and sampling frequency of temperature data

  4. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present. PMID:24927403

  5. Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

  6. Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... illegal drug on school property (during the 12 months before the survey) Decreased ... on linear and quadratic trend analyses using logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade, p < ...

  7. Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M

    2014-04-01

    This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

  8. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  9. Boiler suppliers ask for investigation of secret, illegal foreign financing deals

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1982-01-01

    The boiler industry has asked the US Department of Commerce to protect it from what it claims may be secret illegal financing deals by foreign suppliers. Complaints by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) cite two cases involving French and Swedish suppliers and warn of South American deals under consideration. ABMA suggests that foreign governments may be subsidizing commercial financing to encourage exports in violation of US tariff laws. Those purchasing the impartial boilers deny that anything improper or illegal was done. (DCK)

  10. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  11. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country’s economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  12. Unsettling drug patent settlements: a framework for presumptive illegality.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    A tidal wave of high drug prices has recently crashed across the U.S. economy. One of the primary culprits has been the increase in agreements by which brand-name drug manufacturers and generic firms have settled patent litigation. The framework for such agreements has been the Hatch-Waxman Act, which Congress enacted in 1984. One of the Act's goals was to provide incentives for generics to challenge brand-name patents. But brand firms have recently paid generics millions of dollars to drop their lawsuits and refrain from entering the market. These reverse-payment settlements threaten significant harm. Courts nonetheless have recently blessed them, explaining that the agreements reduce costs, increase innovation, and are reasonable based on the presumption of validity accorded to patents. Although scholars and the Federal Trade Commission have voiced strong arguments against courts' leniency, these have fallen on judicial deaf ears. In this Article, I apply the framework that the Supreme Court articulated in Verizon Communications v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP, which underscored the importance in antitrust analysis of a regulatory regime addressing the challenged activity. In particular, the Hatch-Waxman Act provides Congress's views on innovation and competition in the drug industry, freeing courts from the thorny task of reconciling the patent and antitrust laws. Unfortunately, mechanisms that Congress employed to encourage patent challenges--such as an exclusivity period for the first generic to challenge validity--have been twisted into barriers preventing competition. Antitrust can play a central role in resuscitating the drafters' intentions and promoting competition. Given the Act's clear purpose to promote patent challenges, as well as the parties' aligned incentives and the severe anticompetitive potential of reverse payments, courts should treat such settlements as presumptively illegal. If the parties can demonstrate that the payments represent

  13. Estimating Fire-Caused Boreal Forest Disturbances Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; Slinkina, O. A.; Soja, A. J.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D.; Yurikova, E. Y.; Cahoon, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Russia accounts for about half of the world's forests, most of which are in Siberia. Numerous forest fires, mostly human-caused, and extensive forest harvesting, including illegal logging, have resulted in considerable ecological damage and economic loss. At present, forest inventory agencies assess the effects of fire based on the known forest area burned. Due to potential cost and difficulty of access types and severity of fire effects are normally not assessed. The lack of reliable estimates of ecological and economic impacts of forest fires prevents development of effective approaches for forest management and forest fire protection. Remote sensing and GIS-based technologies provide for the development of fundamental new methods to assess and monitor forest condition and wildfire behavior and effects. Wildfire and insect and disease outbreaks are the main natural factors responsible for partial or complete mortality of forest stands in Siberia. Negative human influences include forest harvesting, mining, industrial pollution, and human-caused fires. Estimating the scale, rate, and severity of disturbance is of key importance for appraising the resulting ecological and economical damage. In this study, we developed a GIS- and satellite-based methodology to appraise forest damage by taking advantage of unique spectral signature of the underlying forest types. Our focus was on an area of intensive forest harvest in the Angara river basin, which includes the southern and central taiga zones. We have assessed the type, extent, and severity of disturbances in vegetation cover and mapped the current condition of disturbed forest sites.

  14. Longitudinal change mechanisms for substance use and illegal activity for adolescents in treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Brooke D; Godley, Susan H; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Roozen, Hendrik G

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated: (a) the relationships of exposure to the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) with reductions in substance use, illegal activity, and juvenile justice system involvement in adolescents diagnosed with a substance use disorder, and (b) the pathways by which reductions in the target behaviors were achieved. This study is a secondary data analysis of longitudinal data from a large-scale implementation effort for A-CRA. The sample consisted of 1,467 adolescents who presented to substance use treatment and reported past-year engagement in illegal activity. Participants had an average age of 15.8 years (SD = 1.3) and were 25% female, 14% African American, 29% Hispanic, 35% Caucasian, 16% mixed ethnicity, and 6% other ethnicity. Path analyses provided support that participation in A-CRA had a significant, direct association with reduced substance use; a significant, indirect association with reduced illegal activity through reductions in substance use; and a significant indirect association with reduced juvenile justice system involvement through reductions in both substance use and illegal activity. In addition, post hoc analyses using a bootstrapping strategy provided evidence that reductions in substance use partially mediated the relationship between A-CRA and illegal activity. PMID:24128291

  15. Illegal import of bushmeat and other meat products into Switzerland on commercial passenger flights.

    PubMed

    Falk, H; Dürr, S; Hauser, R; Wood, K; Tenger, B; Lörtscher, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2013-12-01

    Illegal imports of meat can present substantial risks to public and animal health. Several European countries have reported considerable quantities of meat imported on commercial passenger flights. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity of meat illegally imported into Switzerland, with a separate estimation for bushmeat. Data were obtained by participation in intervention exercises at Swiss international airports and by analysing data on seizures during the four-year period 2008 to 2011. The study revealed that a wide array of animal species was imported into Switzerland. From the database, the average annual weight of meat seized during the period analysed was 5.5 tonnes, of which 1.4% was bushmeat. However, in a stochastic model the total annual inflow of illegal meat imports was estimated at 1,013 tonnes (95% CI 226 to 4,192) for meat and 8.6 tonnes (95% CI 0.8 to 68.8) for bushmeat. Thus, even for a small European country such as Switzerland the quantities of illegally imported meat and meat products are substantial and the consequences for public and animal health could be high. To reduce the risk, it is essential that surveillance at European airports is harmonised and that passenger information campaigns clarify the consequences of the illegal import of meat, particularly bushmeat. PMID:24761726

  16. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    PubMed

    Sonricker Hansen, Amy L; Li, Annie; Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide. PMID:23236444

  17. Early sexual experience and later onset of illegal drug use among African American students on HBCU campuses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Storr, Carla; Browne, Dorothy C; Wagner, Fernando A

    2011-01-01

    Few studies examine whether early sexual experience is associated with subsequent illegal drug use among adolescents. A sample of 7,372 African American students who had not used illegal drugs before the age of 14 were identified in the dataset of the 2001 Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Substance Use Survey. Using self-reported ages of onset, discrete-time survival models estimated the hazard of illegal drug use onset after age 13 subsequent to first sexual intercourse. Early sex was modestly associated with subsequent illegal drug initiation, particularly among females. Drug use prevention services should be provided to youth engaged in early sexual activity. PMID:20735190

  18. World's forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

    1982-10-01

    An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

  19. On the record in the night of April 5, 687B.C.: stars were not seen and stars fell like rain at midnight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    A long time insoluble mystery is why the night stars were not seen; in a paragraph recorded in Chun Qiu which was one night during the ``Xin Mao'' in April in the seventh year of Lu Zhuang-gong (687.B.C) in night, the stars were not seen and in midnight the stars fell like rain. '' Historically, most of the scholars had considered that ``stars not seen '' and ``stars fell like rain ''as two phenomena not related. On the basis of the brightness in the sky when Leonids appeared in 1533 researched in 1994, collating the relative date ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign, the author found the reason that the stars were not seen in fact was the brightness in sky given by meteor shower. The phenomenon that the stars were not seen and the stars fell like rain at the same period, in midnight are proved concisely. The density of the meteor shower appeared, the sum total of the meteor, the mass of the meteor eclipsing the light of the stars and the area of the concealed stars are also estimated.

  20. The biomedicalisation of illegal abortion: the double life of misoprostol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zordo, Silvia De

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the double life of misoprostol in Brazil, where it is illegally used by women as an abortifacient and legally used in obstetric hospital wards. Based on my doctoral and post-doctoral anthropological research on contraception and abortion in Salvador, Bahia, this paper initially traces the "conversion" of misoprostol from a drug to treat ulcers to a self-administered abortifacient in Latin America, and its later conversion to aneclectic global obstetric tool. It then shows how, while reducing maternal mortality, its use as an illegal abortifacient has reinforced the double reproductive citizenship regime existing in countries with restrictive abortion laws and poor post-abortion care services, where poor women using it illegally are stigmatised, discriminated against and exposed to potentially severe health risks. PMID:27008072

  1. [Application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy to explosive and illegal drug].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Ge, Min; Wang, Wen-Feng

    2008-05-01

    Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many explosives and illicit drugs show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons, explosives and illegal drugs, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. Moreover, THz can penetrate many barrier materials, such as clothing and common packaging materials. THz technique has a great potential and advantage in antiterrorism and security inspection of explosives and illegal drugs due to the ability of high-sensitivity, nondestructive and stand-off inspection of many substances. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to explosives and illegal drugs. Studies on RDX are discussed in details and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced. PMID:18720779

  2. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this. PMID:24841434

  3. Geo-Spatial Aspects of Acceptance of Illegal Hunting of Large Carnivores in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Gangaas, Kristin E.; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P.; Andreassen, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human – wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7–15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3–4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  4. Dissecting the Illegal Ivory Trade: An Analysis of Ivory Seizures Data

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Fiona M.; Burn, Robert W.; Milliken, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions – Transactions Index – and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions – Weights Index – at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants. PMID:24250744

  5. Dissecting the illegal ivory trade: an analysis of ivory seizures data.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Milliken, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions--Transactions Index--and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions--Weights Index--at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants. PMID:24250744

  6. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  7. Illegal alcohol sales and use of alcohol control policies at community festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Patrek, William; Fletcher, Linda A.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to assess the propensity for alcohol sales to underage customers and obviously intoxicated customers at community festivals, and to assess the prevalence of alcohol control policies at these events. A secondary goal was to identify server and festival characteristics and festival policies related to the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. METHODS: We conducted pseudo-underage purchase attempts at 43 festivals and pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at 50 festivals to assess the likelihood of illegal sales. Research staff made observations at festivals and contacted festival planners by telephone following each event to assess which alcohol policies were implemented. We conducted backwards stepwise multivariate analyses for each purchase attempt outcome to identify policies and characteristics related to likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. RESULTS: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers purchased beer in 89% of 95 attempts (standard deviation [SD]=0.31) and pseudo-underage buyers were able to purchase beer in 50% of 82 attempts (SD=0.50). All festival planners reported having at least two of the 10 alcohol policies we assessed, but no festival had implemented all 10 policies. Server characteristics were not related to either purchase attempt outcome. In the multivariate analyses, having more alcohol control policies was related to a greater likelihood of illegal sales to intoxicated customers; however, having more alcohol control policies was associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. Restricting the number of servings per person was also associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. CONCLUSIONS: Propensity for illegal alcohol sales at festivals is very high. Research is needed to identify interventions to prevent illegal alcohol sales at these events. PMID:15842118

  8. Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale. PMID:17407383

  9. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    PubMed

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-04-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale. PMID:17407383

  10. Public spending for illegal drug and alcohol treatment in hospitals: an EU cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Methods Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Results Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Conclusions Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per