Science.gov

Sample records for illegal immigration defense

  1. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  2. Health care and the illegal immigrant.

    PubMed

    Glen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether illegal immigrants should be entitled to some form of health coverage in the United States sits at the intersection of two contentious debates: health reform and immigration reform. Proponents of extending coverage argue that the United States has a moral obligation to provide health care to all those within its borders. Conversely, those against doing so argue that immigrants illegally present in the country should not be entitled to public benefits. This Article seeks to chart a middle course between these extremes while answering two questions. First, does constitutional law mandate extending health coverage to illegal immigrants? Second, even if not legally mandated, are there compelling policy reasons for extending such coverage? This Article concludes that while health coverage for illegal immigrants is not required under prevailing constitutional norms, extending coverage as a matter of policy would serve the broader interests of the United States. Extending coverage would be beneficial as a matter of economics and public health, generating spillover benefits for all US citizens and those in the US healthcare and health insurance systems. PMID:23808101

  3. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." PMID:12341287

  4. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  5. Immigration and Youthful Illegalities in a Global Edge City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinovitzer, Ronit; Hagan, John; Levi, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on immigration and youthful illegalities in the Toronto area, one of the world's most ethnically diverse global cities. While current research documents a negative relationship between crime and immigration, there is little attention to individual level mechanisms that explain the paths through which immigrant youth refrain…

  6. Illegal Immigration and the Colonization of the American Labor Market. Center for Immigration Studies Paper 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.

    This paper finds that the ready availability of illegal-immigrant workers from Mexico in major industries in the Southwest region of the United States is having far-reaching and often unanticipated consequences for patterns of investment, employment, and business competition. It reviews the displacement of U.S. workers by illegal immigrants in…

  7. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure. PMID:17688110

  8. Essays on Legal and Illegal Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Susan, Ed.

    Major issues of the debate that led to the passage of an immigration reform bill are discussed and analyzed in this collection of six papers that were delivered as public lectures at Western Michigan University during the 1984-85 academic year. The essays reflect a broad range of views on the effects of immigration on the United States economy and…

  9. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  10. The making of Amerexico: (mis)handling illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Andreas, P

    1994-01-01

    The border and social policies that the United States shares with Mexico have had only a modest impact on the level of illegal immigration. Alternative methods could reduce the social backlash against Mexican immigrants in US states of destination. Federal Relief Aid to states affected by new arrivals would ameliorate hostility. Although economic stagnation may depress the flow of immigrants or job opportunities, legal or illegal, economic recovery is dependent on the hard work of immigrants. The political solution has been to tighten border controls. Other options are possible. There should be pressure placed on multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to incorporate immigration issues in economic policy decisions. Many market reforms have contributed to greater emigration. The US has the option to use both supply and demand side options. Enforcement of workplace rules on minimum wages and health and safety standards would make it more difficult to exploit immigrant workers and would decrease the incentive to hire illegal workers. In a deregulated market stricter work standards were considered difficult to attain. A 1993 opinion poll revealed that 65% thought immigration was not beneficial. Border apprehension rates have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The most recent policies aim to encourage the mobility of capital and trade through the NAFTA free trade agreement while trying to discourage human resource mobility. The push factors in Mexico are identified as high levels of poverty and unemployment, overpopulation, and economic stagnation. NAFTA and prior economic development efforts have not addressed the push factors. Disruption of traditional ways and changes toward greater industrialization spur emigration. The US program to develop border export industry encouraged migration from the interior of Mexico to border areas. Recent Mexican policies have changed the incentives for small farmers to stay on

  11. Coping with Illegal Immigrants in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Superintendent Steve Joel had reason to be concerned when he got a call from the police chief telling him that federal immigration authorities were coming to the local Swift & Company meat-packing plant to round up undocumented workers as part of a six-state raid. Of the 8,000 students in the Grand Island School District in Central Nebraska, some…

  12. Safe return to homeland of an illegal immigrant with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Vesga-López, Oriana; Weder, Natalie D; Jean-Baptiste, Michel; Dominguez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    The disposition of illegal immigrants who lack social support and wish to return to their homeland is a frequent and difficult challenge for many mental health facilities in the United States. This case involved an undocumented Mexican patient with severe psychosis who was safely transferred to his hometown according to his and his family's wishes through the use of specific services provided by the Mexican Consulate. We hope that publication of this case will make the medical community more aware of the availability of these underused services, which can make a major difference in the prognosis of some undocumented patients who would otherwise be left without resources or appropriate care. PMID:19182568

  13. A computable general equilibrium assessment of the impact of illegal immigration on the Greek economy.

    PubMed

    Sarris, A H; Zografakis, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the impact of illegal immigrants on the small type economy of Greece by using the multisectoral computable general equilibrium model. The theoretical analysis utilizes a model showing that there is no equivocal case for illegal immigration leading to the decline in the real wages of unskilled labor and increases in the real wages of skilled labor. The empirical analysis uses an applied general equilibrium model for Greece, showing that the inflow of illegal immigrants has resulted in declines of the real disposable incomes of two classes of households, namely, those headed by an unskilled person, and those belonging to the poor and middle class income bracket. The results, on the other hand, showed that the large increase in the influx of illegal immigrants is macroeconomically beneficial, having significant adverse distribution implications when flexible wage adjustment is assumed in various labor markets. It appears that unskilled and hired agricultural workers are among those that are severely affected by the inflow of illegal workers. The results also appear to be fairly sensitive with respect to the elasticities of labor supply and demand, while they appear to be quite insensitive to the elasticity of substitution in import demand and export supply. Furthermore, it is also insensitive to the various parameters concerning the structure of the illegal labor market such as the amount of wage differential between illegal and domestic unskilled labor as well as the monetary amounts that illegal laborers remit abroad. PMID:12295038

  14. Do immigrants working illegally reduce the natives' legal employment? Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Venturini, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how immigrants working illegally in the shadow economy affect the legal employment of native and foreign workers in the official economy of Italy. The data set used was provided by the Central Statistical Office and includes information regarding the units of labor employed both in official production and in underground production; employment in the latter is subdivided into native workers and foreign workers. Estimates were then made as to how "legal employment" has reacted to changes in "illegal employment", with special reference to the effect of the foreign component of "illegal labor". The results of the cross sector-time series analysis of the demand for legal labor in the Italian economy from 1980 to 1995 showed that the increase of illegal units of labor produces a reduction in the use of legal labor, albeit a very limited one. An analysis by sectors shows that the competitive effects of illegal foreign workers is not homogeneous and is strongest in the agricultural sector while complementarity between the two categories of labor is evident in the nontradable services sector. When comparing the number of effects of illegal foreign and illegal native workers, illegal native workers are lower than the illegal foreign workers. Despite regularization in Italy and the lack of flexibility in the labor market, neither regular nor nonregular foreign workers have begun to openly displace native workers. PMID:12295037

  15. The Politics of Illegal Immigration, Bilingual Education, and the Commodity of the Post-Technological Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Heliodoro T., Jr.; Sanchez, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing number of undocumented workers entering the United States and the costs associated with educating their children, bilingual education may soon become the target of opponents of illegal immigration. Furthermore, recent leftist shifts in Latin American governments have provided an impetus for an educated biliterate population…

  16. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s. PMID:12339919

  17. Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

    2005-10-01

    This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up. PMID:19813289

  18. An Elusive Concept: The Changing Definition of Illegal Immigrant in the Practice of Immigration Control in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Kristin; Santamaria, Ulysses

    1984-01-01

    Against a backdrop of administrative rather than criminal justice, examines the changing concepts in United Kingdom immigration practice, where immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the United Kingdom, the burden of proof of legality of status being increasingly upon the immigrant. (RDN)

  19. An Exploratory Study to Determine the Need for a Program of Research on the Policy Implications of Illegal Immigration for Youth Employment in the Unted States. Final Report, August 1978 through March 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Arlene P.

    A study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge of the impact of illegal immigration on youth unemployment and to analyze its policy relevance. Data collection methods included source identification and review; interviews with theoreticians, scholars, and administrators; and coordination of information on illegal immigration impact with…

  20. Case report: illegal immigration via overloaded vans and the effects on a trauma system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Darlene; Plata, Elizabeth; Caruso, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Arizona-Mexico border consists of 375 square miles of rural desert where temperature extremes, excessive sun exposure, and a lack of food and water are common. The desert poses an especially deadly threat to immigrants who attempt to cross it on foot. In an effort to smuggle humans across this region, smugglers transport people in vans that are loaded beyond the recommended vehicle weight limitations. The unrestrained occupants change the vehicle's center of gravity and increase the propensity for van rollovers. Van rollovers produce multiple casualties that quickly outstrip the resources of rural providers. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases that involved multiple victims injured in van rollovers that occurred on two consecutive days. The rollovers occurred in the rural areas outside of Phoenix, Arizona, and eventually taxed the entire metropolitan Phoenix area trauma system. PMID:15627124

  1. The Invasion of Illegals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Olmo, Frank

    1973-01-01

    Describes the issues created by the growing number of illegal migrants from Mexico, the Federal legislation pending on the matter, the occasional raids by immigration officials which netted 11,500 illegal aliens last spring and incensed many Mexican-American activities, and the division among Chicanos on the alien issue. (Author/JM)

  2. Immigration: an international economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R

    1984-01-01

    The creation of an effective US immigration policy has been complicated by the diversity of political interests and the absence of reliable statistics to determine the magnitude of the impact on the American economy. Estimates of the number of illegal aliens in the US range from 1 to 12 million. While political biases and complexities and data inadequacies complicate this analysis, some generalizations seem to be confirmed by worldwide experience. There are 2 mutually-supportive, short-run ways to reduce the flow of undocumented workers: 1) to better police US borders and shorelines and 2) to remove the motive for entry by making it illegal for employers to hire workers who are not authorized to work in the US. To give employers an easy defense and to facilitate their compliance with immigration laws, an effective worker identification system should be developed. To avoid the civil liberties, international relations, and human problems associated with mass deportations, illegal immigrants who entered the US before January 1, 1981 and who have been in continuous residence for at least 1 year, should be permitted to remain in the US as permanent resident aliens. The US should not adopt a new guest worker program. The proper sequence of changes in immigration policy is very important. Dealing with illegal immigration is essential; all these measures should be in place before an amnesty is granted. Because it is important to have friendly relations with neighboring countries and because the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is to reduce the wide disparities in employment opportunities between countries, the US should work with other countries to control illegal immigration, but should not link control to energy, trade, or other policies. It is particularly important to discuss immigration control plans with other countries, especially Mexico, and to do everything consistent with US interests to minimize the adverse impact of our immigration policies on our

  3. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  4. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  5. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  6. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says. "The hot-button issue became…

  7. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  8. In Defense of the Alien. Volume II. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on Alien's Rights: Options for the 1980s (Washington, D.C., March 29-30, 1979). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This collection of papers from a 1979 legal symposium presents the views of government representatives and experts from the private sector concerning the rights of legal and illegal aliens in the United States, international trends in aliens' rights, and immigration/refugee policy options and issues for the l980s. Issues considered include: (1)…

  9. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  10. Educating Recent Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles all related to the theme of education for recent legal and illegal immigrants. In "Golden Lord with Us from the Main Forest: Some Thoughts on the Education of Recent Immigrants," Aurelio M. Montemayor reflects on his experiences growing up in a bilingual, bicultural extended family of Mexican-American…

  11. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  12. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530

  13. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  14. The Characteristics and Role of Illegal Aliens in the U.S. Labor Market: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.; Houstoun, Marion F.

    Data on the characteristics and labor market experiences of illegal aliens in the U.S. work force were collected by voluntary interviews with 793 apprehended illegal immigrants who had worked at least two weeks in the U.S. From the resulting diverse collection of case histories, it was concluded that (1) illegal workers in the U.S. are likely to…

  15. Fighting for Immigrant Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2007-01-01

    On the morning of Dec. 12, 2006, hundreds of federal agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement descended upon six Swift and Co. meat-packing plants in Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota and Utah affecting communities. These federal crackdowns on illegal immigrants reverberate in schools too, forcing superintendents to confront some…

  16. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  17. Immigration to the U.S.: The Unfinished Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; Gardner, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Several times early in the twentieth century total annual immigration exceeded one million people. Current immigration figures may match those record totals. Since 1979, legal immigrants have averaged 566,000 a year; newly arrived refugees and asylees approved have averaged 135,000; and the "settled" illegal immigrant population may be growing by…

  18. Anti-Immigration Movements in the 1990s: A New Perspective in the Post Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yatani, Choichiro

    The United States has been through anti-immigration movements every few decades since its founding. A new face of the anti-immigration movement can be seen emerging from current events including: (1) California's Proposition 187, under which illegal immigrants are barred from public education and teachers are required to report illegal immigrants…

  19. Equal Protection, Immigration, and Education: "Plyler v. Doe"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joseph R.; Doppen, Frans H.; Hollstein, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    When the Texas state legislature passed a law in the 1970s allowing school districts to deny enrollment or charge tuition to illegal immigrant children, the Tyler Independent School District instituted a $1,000 tuition rate for illegal immigrant children. Sixteen undocumented children from four Mexican families in Tyler filed a class-action suit…

  20. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  1. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  2. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  3. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  4. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  5. In Defense of the Alien. Volume VII. Immigration Reform and Refugee Developments. Proceedings of the Center for Migration Studies Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy (7th, Washington, DC, March 29-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1984 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy are collected in this book. Following a brief introduction, 16 papers are presented under three major headings: Immigration Legislation Reform; Immigration Legislation Practice; and Refugees: Policy and Legal Developments. The papers (and their authors)…

  6. Culturally Speaking: Immigrant Authors Writing for Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the memory of a student shot and killed due to suspicion that he was an illegal immigrant, the author has compiled a bibliography of books written by immigrants or their descendents. These books, based on family experiences that include the immigrant experience, can add richness and diversity to U.S. children's literature.

  7. Immigration and California: Issues for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    If the immigration pattern of the 1970's persists in the 1980's, California can expect, annually, approximately 250,000 new immigrants, the majority from Latin America and Asia. Of these immigrants, concentrated in the working ages, 60 percent will be poorly educated and generally unskilled refugees and illegals and will be potentially heavy users…

  8. The Educational Rights of Unauthorized Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A 2007 report from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO 2007) estimated that 12 million "unauthorized immigrants" lived in the United States, defining the term "unauthorized immigrants" as "foreign citizens residing in the United States illegally." Without providing exact numbers, in his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama addressed…

  9. The Economic Effects of Immigration: Specification of a Model. Impacts of Immigration in California, Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Frank

    Many of the arguments behind efforts to reform this nations's immigration laws allege that immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, take jobs away from native workers, depress wages, and receive public services valued in excess of their tax contributions. To provide a basis for appraising these economic arguments, this paper presents a model for…

  10. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  11. A Conceptual Analysis of the "Alien Invasion": Institutionalized Support of Illegal Mexican Aliens in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ellwyn R.

    1976-01-01

    Organizes and conceptually clarifies the various elements within the illegal Mexican immigration situation, specifically focuses on how many and who the aliens are, why they are here, and which institutions within the society are supportive of them. (Author)

  12. The Effects of Gendered Immigration Enforcement on Middle Childhood and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnographic study on Mexican immigrant fathers and their second-grade children, this article examines the masked realities behind current immigration policies that equate "illegal" with "Mexican immigrant" and how the enforcement of these policies, which overwhelmingly target Mexican immigrant men, affect…

  13. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  14. Immigration and the Italian labour market: a contradiction.

    PubMed

    Neri, F

    1988-01-01

    The role of immigration in the evolution of the labor force in Italy is analyzed. The author notes that not only is there a growing number of foreign immigrants, but return migration of natives to Italy is greater than Italian emigration. It is also noted that neither Italian migration policy nor the statistical system have evolved to cope with these new conditions. The high level of illegal immigration is also described, and the author concludes that such immigrants either find work in positions Italians no longer wish to fill, or in the black, or illegal, economy. PMID:12342265

  15. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants. PMID:15693224

  16. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  17. Immigration reform, American style.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status. PMID:12159575

  18. [French immigration policy at a turning point?].

    PubMed

    Wihtol De Wenden, C

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France. PMID:12321430

  19. U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest. The Final Report and Recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy with Supplemental Views by Commissioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy.

    This final report (March, 1981) of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy reviews the provisions and effects of the Immigration and Nationality Act and makes recommendations related to the following areas of study: international issues, undocumented/illegal aliens, the admission of immigrants, phasing in new programs, refugee and…

  20. Preteen Children and Illegal Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeganey, Neil; McIntosh, James; MacDonald, Fiona; Gannon, Maria; Gilvarry, Eilish; McArdle, Paul; McCarthy, Steve

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of research on the nature and extent of legal and illegal drug use among preteens and those factors associated with illegal drug use at this young age. The paper is based upon a survey of 2318 ten to twelve year olds in Glasgow and Newcastle. Overall around 30% of children reported having been exposed to illegal…

  1. [Dangerous, illegal captivities].

    PubMed

    Winnik, Lidia; Lis, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    On the 21st of August 1997 the Polish legislature introduced the first animal protection law nr 724. This act however failed to specify in a clear and proper manner the problem of possession and maintenance of dangerous animals, which allows its multiple interpretations. Poland ratified the Washington Convention in 1990 restricting the trade of animals classified as endangered species. The present regulations enable illegal purchase and trade of those animals. According to the available data illegal trade of such animals, as well as the trade of products obtained from them, ranks in the third position in terms of crime generated income, only after the trade of drugs and weapons. In our country the sales of such animals have been growing at an alarming rate. The animals often get out of the control of their owners, or are abandoned by them. The presented work describes cases of reptiles being found in public places in our region. It also mentions the problem of possible dangers associated with intentional letting out of such animals in public places. The aim of the following paper is the analysis of the problem of raising of exotic animals, in particular venomous snakes and other animals, the possession of which may be dangerous not only for the owner but also for the people around. The existing laws and executive procedures have been discussed. Both, the family doctors as well as toxicologists have little knowledge as far as diagnosis and treatment of cases of stinging and biting by exotic animals is concerned. The authors suggest providing medical emergency doctors, family doctors and surgeons, with clinic toxicology programs, as well as introduction of special courses for middle medical personnel. Establishment of a central database and a database concerned with basic polyvalent serums are crucial in our country in order have the Toxicology Centers ready to face possible dangers associated with dangerous animals, and to prepare emergency solutions in cases of

  2. In Defense of the Alien. Volume III. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (New York, New York, March 20-21, 1980). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This volume presents viewpoints of immigration law experts, policy makers, and representatives from the private sector on reforms of U.S. immigration/refugee law and policy proposed by the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Areas analyzed include effects of immigration and immigration policy on the U.S. population and on the…

  3. The Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on Immigrant Health: Perceptions of Immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  4. With Immigrants, Districts Balance Safety, Legalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses attempts by schools to navigate stepped-up federal efforts to curb illegal immigration, protection of student privacy, and the safety of students during enforcement operations. In Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico, for example, school personnel are barred from putting information about a child's immigration…

  5. Integration and immigration pressures in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1991-01-01

    "With xenophobia resurgent in Europe, this article addresses some of the complexities of immigration and integration in EC [European Community] and EFTA [European Free Trade Association] countries. The categories of legal and illegal immigrants (including estimates thereof) are first described, as are the necessary ingredients of an integration policy (a framework law, a secure environment, cultural tolerance, demarginalization in housing and the labour market). The author then considers what types of action would help to ease the present immigration pressure, discussing in turn quota policies, project-tied or training migration and, finally, the use of international aid." PMID:12317134

  6. Italy: illegal construction hampers basic services.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    Rome illustrates the contradictions in the economic development in Italy. The city is located midway between Italy's most developed region and its southern regions, which lag behind the rest of the country in economic development. The population of Rome is now 3 million. It is the largest city and has the largest land area. Rome accounts for only 5.6% of the total urban population of the country due to the distribution of large and medium-sized cities throughout Italy. In 1964, a public housing construction plan was drafted to meet the needs of lower income groups. It provided for the development, over 10 years, of about 740,000 units distributed throughout 64 new working districts. At the end of the 10-year period allotted for the program, only 25% of the projects were completed or underway. This was due to the lack of government funds for public housing and the lack of political commitment to allocate what little monies were available. This meant that large numbers of immigrants had no chance to obtain housing unless they moved into the illegal buildings located outside the construction zones circumscribed by the Urban Plan, or moved into zones intended for agricultural use. The sale prices of these zones were much lower than the price of the construction zones stipulated by law. The most dangerous consequence of illegal construction is the lack of services. Roads are unpaved and constitute a major source of dust pollution. Other areas of concern are the lack of a public sewer system, solid waste disposal, and the location of worksites near residential areas. After 1978, Rome experienced a marked decline in its growth rate, from 3.2% per year between 1951-1961 to 2.7% per year between 1971-1979. This trend is no longer due to immigration. It is a result of the displacement of people from the inner city. At this time an effort is being made to accommodate the rapid growth of the past while working to improve the quality of life for all residents. PMID:12311449

  7. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  8. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12341015

  9. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  10. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  11. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  12. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  13. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  14. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  15. Immigration and the Low-Cost Housing Shortage: The Los Angeles Area's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, John

    Rising housing costs, increased homelessness, and the debate over illegal immigrants residing in publically assisted housing have renewed media and public interest in immigration's contribution to the Los Angeles, California area's problems of scarce low-cost housing, homelessness, and housing code violations. Recent data suggest that immigrants…

  16. State of Outrage: Immigrant-Related Legislation and Education in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Williams, Tiffany R.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, Arizona made national headlines when Governor Jan Brewer signed SB 1070, the "Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act" which was aimed at deterring illegal immigration to Arizona. SB 1070 is the most prominent of a series of laws and other state policies targeting immigrants in Arizona that date back to the late…

  17. Immigrants and refugees: the psychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, J David

    2006-12-01

    Psychiatric studies of immigrants have yielded contradictory findings regarding rates of mental illness. Current evidence suggests that rates of schizophrenia (and probably other disorders) among immigrant groups are low compared with native-born populations when sending and receiving countries are socially and culturally similar. The rates for immigrants are higher when sending and receiving countries are dissimilar, probably because of multiple social problems faced by immigrants in the receiving country. Refugees who flee their own country because of fears of violence or starvation often have had extremely traumatic experiences, which may result in PTSD and sometimes chronic impairment. Asylum seekers who arrive illegally to seek refuge in a foreign country also may have multiple traumas and experience further distress from their uncertain residency and legal status. Although much is known about the effects of migration, competent culturally sensitive services for migrants remain inadequate to meet the need. PMID:17166947

  18. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  19. Speaking, Reading and Earnings among Low-Skilled Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    The determinants of English language fluency among immigrants and the effects of fluency on earnings are examined, using a unique data set and a sample of more than 800 illegal aliens apprehended in Los Angeles, California. Analysis of the data show the importance of certain variables not previously available, speaking fluency at migration and…

  20. Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, David J.; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged. PMID:19240812

  1. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. PMID:27444722

  2. [A preliminary appraisal of the new Italian immigration law].

    PubMed

    Bonetti, P

    1998-01-01

    Italian Law no. 40, of March 6, 1998, on immigration and foreigners, which entered into force on March 27, 1998, is a complex and detailed document. The objectives of the law were a more efficacious programming of the immigrant labor flow; the increase of prevention and containment of illegal immigration; and the expansion of the measures for effective integration of foreigners with regular permits to stay. The new law also provides annual planning for the immigration flow on the basis of an appropriate quota established by the government. Various types of wages are also determined for menial jobs and every year Italians and foreigners with regular residence permits may apply within the first 60 days from the publication of the annual quota for these jobs. The new law is extremely strict in the matter of prevention and containment of illegal immigration dealing with not only new arrivals at the border, but also with those already illegally in the country. Temporary centers are also set up for their accommodation (but no longer than 30 days) until the expulsions are carried out. The part allowing public security authorities to accompany foreigners to the border for expulsion without prior judiciary review is in violation of the constitutional premise of personal freedom. An illegal alien may also be penalized by immediate expulsion from the country and prohibition of re-entry for at least 5 years. It was estimated that there were 200,000 illegal aliens in Italy in 1998. They are supposed to be expelled within 15 days, although this can be appealed in the case of minors, pregnant women or women with children less than 6 months old, the persecuted, or persons living with Italian citizens. Another new feature is the residency card. PMID:12348669

  3. One in Ten: Protecting Children's Access to Federal Public Benefits under the New Welfare and Immigration Laws. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sheri A.

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act of 1996 revised laws governing privacy and confidentiality of information that government agencies collect from immigrants during the benefits application process. Noting that these changes evoked confusion and anxiety in the…

  4. What Is the Impact of English-Only and New Immigration Laws on Non-English Speaking Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deMoraes, Beatriz B.

    The annotated bibliography cites 21 articles and legal documents relating to the effects of English-only policies on the quality and availability of health care for immigrants and limited English-speakers. Article topics include eviction of illegal immigrants from nursing homes, health care for undocumented aliens, welfare reform and care for…

  5. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. PMID:26245767

  6. Beware of Illegally Marketed Diabetes Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as hypoglycemia. FDA also looks at illegal marketing of prescription drugs by fraudulent online pharmacies. Signs ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  7. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection and homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandon, Christopher; Kimber, Paul K.

    2003-09-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for border protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit illegal immigration and smuggling. After 9/11 defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the provision of police and para-military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSU's). This approach may also be considered for the US Homeland Defense initiative. These MSU's utilize standard road vehicles converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSU will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets while retaining the highest performance derived from the latest military standard thermal imagers.

  8. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. PMID:24334193

  9. The Influence of Religious Coping on the Acculturative Stress of Recent Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mariana; Dillon, Frank; Ruffin, Beverly; De La Rosa, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Acculturative stress negatively impacts the physical and mental health of Latino immigrants. Little is known about the pre-immigration resources that may influence the acculturative stress of Latino immigrants. Religion plays a prominent role in Latino culture and may prove to be an influential resource during difficult life transitions, such as those experienced during the immigration process. The present study examines the association between religious coping resources prior to immigration and acculturative stress after immigration within a multiethnic sample of 527 adult Latinos who have lived in the United States for less than 1 year. Path analyses revealed that pre-immigration external religious coping was associated with high levels of post-immigration acculturative stress. Illegal immigrant status was associated with high levels of pre-immigration religious coping as well as post-immigration acculturative stress. These findings expand scientific understanding as to the function and effect of specific religious coping mechanisms among Latino immigrants. Furthermore, results underscore the need for future research, which could serve to inform culturally relevant prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24307865

  10. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  11. Controlling illegal stimulants: a regulated market model

    PubMed Central

    Haden, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Prohibition of illegal drugs is a failed social policy and new models of regulation of these substances are needed. This paper explores a proposal for a post-prohibition, public health based model for the regulation of the most problematic drugs, the smokable and injectable stimulants. The literature on stimulant maintenance is explored. Seven foundational principles are suggested that could support this regulatory model of drug control that would reduce both health and social problems related to illegal stimulants. Some details of this model are examined and the paper concludes that drug policies need to be subject to research and based on evidence. PMID:18215317

  12. In Defense of the Alien. Volume I. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (Washington, D.C., March 2-3, 1978). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The articles in this volume present the views of government representatives and others on law and policy affecting aliens, especially undocumented aliens, in the United States. Part 1 of the volume deals with legal rights and legal representation. Individual papers discuss the role and activities of the Immigration and Naturalization Service;…

  13. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: Its Effects on New York City and on City Government. Testimony before the City Council Committee on International Intergroup Relations and Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Simpson-Rodino Act) has many negative consequences for the city of New York (New York). Major provisions that will affect the city include the following: (1) sanctions on employers of illegal aliens; (2) an amnesty program for illegal aliens; (3) a 5-year limitation on newly amnestied aliens'…

  14. Looking Out for Our Country's Illegal Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2007-01-01

    Illegal migrants are a nonentity in the United States, and, to a certain extent, many prefer it that way. They exist in society's netherworld, living under their own code of survival by whatever means they can, since the alternatives are less inviting. Mostly, they struggle. People take advantage of them at every opportunity because they are…

  15. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  16. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  17. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  18. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  19. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  20. The unwelcome guests: Indonesian immigrants and Malaysian public responses.

    PubMed

    Kassim, A

    1987-09-01

    The author examines attitudes among different sections of the Malaysian population toward the presence of immigrants from Indonesia, many of whom are illegal migrants. Data are from a review of Malaysian newspaper articles and from a survey conducted in 1985 in two squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur. The author concludes that in recent years, the mood of the general public has turned against Indonesian migrants. PMID:12157842

  1. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  2. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  3. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.131 Illegal use of... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  4. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-18 Illegal bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general....

  5. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  6. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  7. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  8. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  9. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-18 Illegal bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general....

  10. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  11. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  12. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  13. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-18 Illegal bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general....

  14. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  15. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  16. 50 CFR 12.32 - Effect of prior illegality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of prior illegality. 12.32 Section... PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.32 Effect of prior illegality. The effect of any prior illegality on a subsequent holder of any wildlife or...

  17. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  18. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  19. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  20. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  1. One century of foreign immigration to the United States: 1880-1979.

    PubMed

    Carlson, A W

    1985-09-01

    , children, or others with no occupation. In the 1970s, 1 in 10 immigrants was a professional or technical worker, probably from Asia. In 1900, most immigrants headed for mainly northern, industrialized cities, especially New York. In recent years, too destinations have included New York, California, Washington, Texas, and Florida. Throughout the century, 3/5 immigrants went to only 5 states, so many states have received very few immigrants since 1900. Due to the amount spent on receiving refugees, and economic and job problems, many Americans think immigration should be greatly limited. Today's 1 million legal and illegal immigrants will continue to change the composition of the American population, as the long established Northern and Western European population declines. PMID:12159645

  2. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  3. Tell Me the Name of Grant's Horse: Language Issues in the 1986 Immigration Act, March 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    The content of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act is described, its current interpretations are examined, and the implications for developing a responsible language and citizenship curriculum to conform to the legislation are discussed. Specific attention is focused on the law's requirement that illegal aliens applying for amnesty and…

  4. Anti-Immigrant Legislation, Social Justice, and the Right to Equal Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronicolos, Loucas; New, William S.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a contextual analysis of policies seeking to exclude illegal immigrant youth from public education and the related legal standards, focusing on social justice and the equality issues that are raised by the exclusion of any group of children from educational opportunity. Advances the thesis that every individual's interest in meaningful…

  5. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  6. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  7. Expulsion of illegals from Nigeria: round two.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, A

    1986-01-01

    Within 5 years of the initiation of the Protocol on Free Movement of Persons, and the implementation of the 1st phase regarding the right of entry for citizens of the Economic Community of West African States, Nigeria has twice evoked the very clauses of the Protocol to expel and periodically repatriate illegal aliens. The Minister of Internal Affairs gave several reasons why the influex of illegal aliens into Nigeria was difficult to control, 3 of these are: 1) Nigerian borders are too vast and porous and are hence difficult to police effectively; 2) nationals of neighboring countries -- Benin, Niger, Chad, Cameroon -- have common features, cultures, and traditions with Nigerians; and 3) identification of aliens is difficult at 1st sight once they enter Nigeria, and mix with people of the same ethnic and cultural milieu. The period of the short-lived oil boom in Nigeria, the expanded employment opportunities, and the enhanced wages consequent to the huge wage increases of the mid 1970's generated huge wage differentials between Nigeria and its neighbors. Although the events leading to the expulsion of aliens had been gradual, the actual expulsion was less dramatic and sudden than the 1983 quit order. The expulsion of illegal aliens from various parts of Africa is now a common phenomenon. Procedures to be followed before governments expel non-nationals are stated. PMID:12314919

  8. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a fee for employment who shows good...

  9. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  10. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  11. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  12. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  13. Immigrants, Germans and national identity in the new Germany: some policy issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, P N

    1996-06-01

    "This paper considers how the role and status of Germany's diverse immigrant population has been affected by its new geopolitical situation, in particular unification, since 1989.... The paper shows how the integration prospects for Germany's older immigrant populations have been dented by the combination of economic restructuring and a huge upsurge in new types of immigration. Prominent among the latter are ethnic German resettlers (or Aussiedler), and the paper examines how these immigrants find themselves in a weak position.... The paper concludes that, although there would appear to be no major labour shortages within the economy, Germany has to develop a more extensive range of migration policies to cater for the huge demand for economically motivated migration. The alternative will inevitably be a further growth in illegal migration, which would not be helpful to the position of established immigrant populations." PMID:12347603

  14. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  15. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  16. Immigration in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    This book examines the effects of immigration in New York City (New York) today, with particular attention to those "new immigrants" who arrived after 1965. Immigrant interaction with the city's public and private social services is emphasized. Data were drawn from interviews and from the 1980 U.S. Census. Part I: "The Background," is comprised of…

  17. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool. PMID:26245790

  18. Challenging Racist Nativist Framing: Acknowledging the Community Cultural Wealth of Undocumented Chicana College Students to Reframe the Immigration Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Huber, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Using the critical race "testimonios" of ten Chicana undergraduate students at a top-tier research university, Lindsay Perez Huber interrogates and challenges the racist nativist framing of undocumented Latina/o immigrants as problematic, burdensome, and "illegal." Specifically, a community cultural wealth framework (Yosso, 2005) is utilized and…

  19. Steep Houses in Basic Writing: Advocating for Latino Immigrants in a North Georgia Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Recounting the controversy surrounding a town hall meeting on "illegal" Latino immigration at a two-year college in North Georgia, this ethnographic narrative details the aftermath that ensued and its consequences for an ESL basic writing instructor. Fallout included the potential loss of her job, the rumored reallocation of a $5 million…

  20. HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; El Hamad, Issa; Scarcella, Carmelo; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Cristini, Graziella; Scolari, Carla; Suligoi, Barbara; Luzi, Anna Maria; Bernasconi, Daniela; Lichtner, Miriam; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and place of exposure for illegal migrants in Italy, we tested 3,003 illegal adult migrants for HIV; 29 (0.97%) were HIV positive. Antibody avidity index results (indicators of time of infection) were available for 27 of those persons and showed that 6 (22.2%) presumably acquired their infection after migration. PMID:19891869

  1. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  2. College Students' Moral Evaluations of Illegal Music Downloading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambon, Marc M.; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Although unauthorized music downloading is illegal, a majority of college students have downloaded music for free online. Evaluations of illegal music downloading and their association with downloading behavior were examined using social domain theory in a sample of 188 ethnically diverse college students (M[subscript age] = 19.80 years, SD =…

  3. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  4. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  5. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  6. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  7. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  8. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  9. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illegible inspection marks. 160.35 Section 160.35... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection marks. In case any mark placed on a container of rosin by or under the direction of an official...

  10. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  11. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use among Older Methadone Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The overall aims of this study are to describe the life stressors of, exposure to illegal drug use of, and illegal drug use by older methadone clients. Design and Methods. The current study focuses on a sub-sample of the larger administrative data of a methadone clinic that is limited to African American and White clients over the age of…

  12. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  13. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  14. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  15. Are healthcare professionals working in Australia's immigration detention centres condoning torture?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2016-07-01

    Australian immigration detention centres are in secluded locations, some on offshore islands, and are subject to extreme secrecy, comparable with 'black sites' elsewhere. There are parallels between healthcare professionals working in immigration detention centres and healthcare professionals involved with or complicit in torture. In both cases, healthcare professionals are conflicted between a duty of care to improve the health of patients and the interests of the government. While this duality of interests has been recognised previously, the full implications for healthcare professionals working in immigration detention have not been addressed. The Australian Government maintains that immigration detention is needed for security checks, but the average duration of immigration detention has increased from 10 weeks to 14 months, and detainees are not informed of the progress of their application for refugee status. Long-term immigration detention causes major mental health problems, is illegal in international law and arguably fulfils the recognised definition of torture. It is generally accepted that healthcare professionals should not participate in or condone torture. Australian healthcare professionals thus face a major ethical dilemma: patients in immigration detention have pressing mental and physical health needs, but providing healthcare might support or represent complicity in a practice that is unethical. Individual healthcare professionals need to decide whether or not to work in immigration detention centres. If they do so, they need to decide for how long and to what extent restrictive contracts and gagging laws will constrain them from advocating for closing detention centres. PMID:26699920

  16. Focus: immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, D

    1994-01-01

    This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto. PMID:12320209

  17. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  18. [Hysteria and psychosomatic disorders in Portuguese immigrants].

    PubMed

    de Barros-Ferreira, M

    1976-01-01

    Seventy patients presenting symptoms of hysteria (49 women and 21 men) were selected among patients observed at the Institute Minkowska during the year. This work is part of a research work on socio-cultural and environmental factors which can change mental status of immigrants. These are all portugese workers presenting for the first time atypical mental troubles called by the author: "bastard hysterical syndrome of the immigrant" and characterized partly or totally by the following symptoms: fatigue, anxiety, sense of suffocation, dyspnea, coughing, unilateral chills or generalized chil, abdominal or gastric pains, headaches and "diffused pains", paresthesia, aching back, tears and sorrow, fear of dying or having a cancer, asthenia, leg paresthesia and contractions, vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac pains, palpitations, dizziness and collapsing. These troubles appear sometimes without apparent motives but they are almost always due to a precipitating cause expressed by the patient: a delivery, a familial death, a homosexual proposition, a trauma without importance, a working conflict etc... But the most frequent cause invoked is "the french climate" without knowing precisely what the word "climate" means: atmospheric conditions, athmosphere or reception milieu? This latest interpretation seems more likely after months of psychotherapy. Most patients are not french speaking and cannot write; their origin is rural (familial villages well structured regarding their food and sexual economy), and people well "armed" by a system of defense mechanisms and well adopted conditioned reflexes. In this work, hysteria of the portugese immigrant is compared to childhood hysteria. As the hysterical burst of the child is aimed at calling attention, love of the mother, at finding a solution to a familial or social conflict, the hysterical burst of the immigrant is aimed at the absent family or at its substitutes, the bos, social security, the doctor. Furthermore, the attitude of the

  19. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  20. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories." PMID:12179830

  1. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  2. Irelands' Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    In industrialised Western nations generally, and European Union (EU) nations particularly, immigration is an issue of considerable concern and debate. In the EU, however, discussion of immigration has tended to centre on a number of policy issues, from reliance on welfare provision, to labour force participation, to healthcare provision, to…

  3. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They Come,"…

  4. Immigrants and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olneck, Michael R.

    The ways in which educators and schools in the United States have responded to the children of immigrants are explored, and the patterns, causes, and consequences of educational outcomes on immigrants are reviewed. The literature on which this paper draws is diverse, encompassing the work of historians and social scientists. Results of scholarship…

  5. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  6. Immigrants in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suarez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and…

  7. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  8. Legal Forum. The Right to an Education: Illegal Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court litigation in Texas concerning the rights of children who are illegally residing in the United States to public schooling. Focuses particularly on the issue of whether the equal protection clause in the fourteenth amendment applies to noncitizens. (GC)

  9. IBMDCH: illegal building monitoring in digital city based on HPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dingju; Fan, Jianping

    2008-10-01

    Every year city planners spend a large amount of money and time to monitor illegal buildings by officials on site. Due to such slowness, some city planners ask experts to look for illegal buildings by interpreting remote sensing image. Considering the high cost of human resource, some city planners start to use computer as an aid to the experts. In the way, still, the cost and the time can not satisfy the need for large-scale city monitoring. In order to realize automatic and fast building monitoring, we propose IBMDCH (Illegal Building Monitoring in Digital City based on HPC), in which all illegal buildings in a city can be found out much faster by comparing buildings-image or buildings change image with the official city planning graph of a digital city based on HPC (High Performance Computing).

  10. Russian Federation: penalties eased for possession of illegal drugs.

    PubMed

    2004-04-01

    In November 2003, after long deliberations, the Russian Parliament passed a bill amending the national Criminal Code to differentiate between the liability for possession of illegal drugs for drug users and for drug traffickers. The reforms involved redefining the terms "large" and "extra-large" with respect to the quantities for possession and trafficking of illegal substances. (There is no criminal liability for possession of less than a large amount.) On 16 December 2003, the new bill was enacted into law. PMID:15216819

  11. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  12. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  13. The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide: Constructing the "Illegal Immigrant" in the Arizona Voter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    This "essay" (article) is a close and critical look at The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide, a document made available to the Arizona public prior to the 2010 state General elections. Though the guide is described as "a nonpartisan, plain-language handbook" by its authors, it can be implicated in the…

  14. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  15. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  16. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  17. [Antenatal care in immigrants].

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J; Coll, C; Coloma, M; Martín, J I; Padrón, E; González González, N L

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of immigration has had an impact on the health care of the population. The immigrant population in Spain today represents approximately 8% of the total population. The majority of this population proceeds from countries with low income, and its origin and distribution is diverse. The immigrant population is characterised by its being young and healthy, and with a capacity to adapt to changes, but its social, economic and labour conditions are frequently insecure and favour vulnerability to disease. In spite of the number of immigrants of the male sex being globally higher than that of women, the percentage of immigrants of the female sex is growing. This increase of the female immigrant population has resulted in the appearance of specific health care needs, especially with respect to sexual and reproductive health. To which we must add a substantial increase in pathologies prevalent in the countries of origin, such as anaemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, haemoglobinopathies, consanguinity, hypocalcaemia, hepatitis B and/or C, sexually transmitted infections, infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods, such as Chagas disease and other parasitoses, as well as genital mutilations. The aim of this article is to analyse the factors that make it difficult to control gestation in the immigrant population, as well as to establish guidelines for acting in antenatal care consultations. Insistence is placed on health education and prevention during pregnancy, and consideration is given to the appearance of rare diseases related to some of these groups. PMID:16721417

  18. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  19. Immigration measures, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them. PMID:12289341

  20. Immigration and ageing.

    PubMed

    Rowland, D T

    1986-05-01

    "This paper aims to provide an overview of immigration and ageing, and to highlight some implications of the numbers and characteristics of the immigrant elderly for the development of policies for aged care [in Australia]. Particular attention is given to the issues of demographic ageing, family support and institutionalisation." The author uses data from recent official and other published sources to examine the elderly immigrant population by birthplace and racial origin, sex, proportion institutionalized, and proportion handicapped. It is found that "insufficient recognition of the widespread lack of fluency in English among the ethnic minority aged is the greatest obstacle to achieving adequate provision for their needs." PMID:12268076

  1. Epidemic of gynecomastia among illegal Haitian entrants.

    PubMed Central

    Sattin, R W; Roisin, A; Kafrissen, M E; Dugan, J B; Farer, L S

    1984-01-01

    Gynecomastia may occur as a normal physiologic development at certain ages or as a result of a variety of pathological conditions. An outbreak of gynecomastia was investigated at two processing centers of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) between December 2, 1981, and May 14, 1982. At the Fort Allen Service Processing Center, Puerto Rico, gynecomastia was initially detected in 77 of 540 Haitian male entrants (14 percent) and in only 6 of 186 male employees of the center (3 percent) who were 18-50 years old; the difference in prevalence was statistically significant. At the Krome North Service Processing Center in Miami, Fla., gynecomastia was initially detected in 52 of 512 Haitian males 18-50 years old (10 percent). Two case-control studies did not demonstrate an association between gynecomastia and a number of factors that might have been related to an exogenous estrogen or to a substance with an estrogenic effect. Estrogen or estrogen-like substances were not found in food, water, or environmental samples. When the populations were rescreened several months later, 76 of the persons with gynecomastia detected in the first screening had had total or partial remission. Persons with remission had arrived earlier--a mean of 21.6 days for those at Fort Allen and 36.7 for those at Krome--than did those with newly detected gynecomastia and those with continuing cases. The difference in arrival dates was significant (P less than .005 for Fort Allen and P less than .001 for Krome). These results, in view of nutritional deprivation in Haiti, suggest that these cases may have been an outbreak of refeeding gynecomastia. PMID:6435165

  2. The political and socioeconomic context of legal and illegal Mexican migration to the United States (1942-1984).

    PubMed

    Hansen, L O

    1988-03-01

    The US manpower shortage in industry and agriculture during World War II, combined with Mexico's burden of an excess number of unemployed laborers, provided the basis for serious labor negotiations between the US and Mexico. The result was the Bracero Agreement of 1942, a bilateral agreement involving annual quotas for the temporary hiring of Mexican braceros. On the surface the program worked well. However, there were points of contention between the 2 countries: 1) in opposition to Mexico's policy of placing recruitment centers in the interior of the country, US policy called for placing the centers near the border, to reduce transportation costs; 2) Texas, which received no braceros because of racial discrimination, relied upon illegal aliens for manual labor; 3) Texas flagrantly violated a 1948 agreement when the Border Patrol welcomed aliens across the river despite Mexican officials' threats to close the border; 4) legal braceros were confronted with competition from illegals who were willing to work for a lower wage; 5) in 1954, the Border patrol physically helped aliens across the border, while Mexican policy were physically restraining them; 6) with the conclusion of a new Bracero agreement in March 1954, illegal aliens were no longer needed, so more than 1 million were apprehended and deported to Mexico's interior. The termination of the Bracero Program in 1964 gave new impetus to illegal trafficking and the number of illegals apprehended began to increase steadily in 1965. The migration flow after 1964 was influenced by the following socioeconomic conditions in Mexico: 1) unemployment, 2) very large disparities in income distribution, 3) a discrimination of the rural sector in favor of the urban in the allocation of government funds, and 4) a dependency on foreign capital and technology. Also, it was cheap labor for the US. Neither the US nor Mexico has adopted policies related to either economic development or immigration that would systematically

  3. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Immigrant Youth Feeling Unsafe in School: A Social-Ecological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Merrin, Gabriel J; Crosby, Shantel; Jozefowicz, Debra M Hernandez; Lee, Jeoung Min; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing proportion of immigrant youth in U.S. school districts, no studies have investigated their perceptions of their school. This study examines factors associated with perceptions of school safety among immigrant youth within individual, family, peer, and school contexts. Data were drawn from Wave II of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (n = 4288) and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted. African-Americans, females, and youth with limited English proficiency were more likely to perceive their school as unsafe. Youth who reported that family cohesion was important and those who had close friends perceived their school as safe. Also, those who experienced illegal activities in school reported feeling unsafe. Assessment and intervention in schools needs to consider individual and contextual factors associated with perceptions of school safety. Additional research is needed to examine individual and contextual factors related to immigrant youths' perceptions of school. PMID:26137983

  4. A Systematic Review of the Physical, Mental, Social, and Economic Problems of Immigrant Women in the Perinatal Period in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Minatani, Mariko; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-12-01

    The perinatal mortality of immigrants in Japan is higher than that of Japanese women. However, details of the problems of immigrant perinatal women that contribute to worsening of their health are still unknown. This review describes the physical, psychological, social, and economic problems of immigrant women during the perinatal period in Japan. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku-Chuo Zasshi were searched and 36 relevant articles were reviewed. The related descriptions were collected and analyzed by using content analysis. The results showed that immigrant perinatal women in Japan experienced the following problems: language barriers, a problematic relationship with a partner, illegal residency, emotional distress, physical distress, adjustment difficulties, lack of utilization of services, social isolation, lack of support, lack of information, low economic status, unsatisfactory health care, and discrimination. These results indicated that multilingual services, strengthening of social and support networks, and political action are necessary to resolve their problems. PMID:25784144

  5. Subtypes of Pathological Gambling with Concurrent Illegal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Sauchelli, Sarah; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Islam, Mohammed A; Tàrrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are: to explore empirical clusters in a sample of individuals with a gambling disorder (GD) according to the presence of illegal behaviors, to describe the subgroups at a clinical level and to examine whether a temporal change has taken place across the last 9 years. The sample consisted of 378 patients with a GD who consecutively received outpatient treatment, and who reported the presence of the DSM-IV criteria "presence of illegal behavior". Two-step clustering procedure revealed the existence of four empirical groups, which differed in both sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The patients, who have committed illegal acts due to their gambling behavior, are a heterogeneous group in which it is possible to identify different subtypes, based on sociodemographic, psychopathological, clinical and personality characteristics. PMID:25228407

  6. The illegality of private health care in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Colleen M.; Archibald, Tom

    2001-01-01

    WE ADDRESSED THE QUESTION OF WHETHER PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IS ILLEGAL in Canada by surveying the health insurance legislation of all 10 provinces. Our survey revealed multiple layers of regulation that seem to have as their primary objective preventing the public sector from subsidizing the private sector, as opposed to rendering privately funded practice illegal. Private insurance for medically necessary hospital and physician services is illegal in only 6 of the 10 provinces. Nonetheless, a significant private sector has not developed in any of the 4 provinces that do permit private insurance coverage. The absence of a significant private sector is probably best explained by the prohibitions on the subsidy of private practice by public plans, measures that prevent physicians from topping up their public sector incomes with private fees. PMID:11276552

  7. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  8. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  9. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

  10. America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Ann, Ed.

    This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

  11. Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Natives' attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy are important factors in the context of reception of immigrants since they contribute to a warm or chilly welcome, which potentially shapes immigrant and ethnic identities and inter-group relations. Public opinion polls show a recent “warming” of Americans' traditional ambivalence about immigration. Empirical research on attitudes toward immigrants and racial groups formed by recent waves of immigrants resonate with the dynamic nature of Blumer's (1958) theory of prejudice as a sense of relative group position. To better understand this dynamism, research that intentionally contrasts study sites on conflict and contact conditions and the presence of absence of symbolic politics, as well as research with different native-born racial and ethnic groups, would reveal a broader range of natives' attitude formation processes and the role they play in immigrant reception. PMID:26966338

  12. Values as Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    The author outlines a cognitive approach for explaining how and why people use values as defenses. He examines the relationship between defensive values and irrational beliefs, suggests a number of criteria for diagnosing the presence of defensive values, and proposes some strategies for dealing with defensive values in counseling. (Author)

  13. Children of Immigrants: Immigration Trends. Fact Sheet No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuny, Karina; Chaudry, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of publications on children of immigrants. The series updates the Urban Institute's May 2006 fact sheet that described the characteristics of children of immigrants in the early 2000s. The current series profiles the population of children of immigrants in the United States using data from the 2007 American…

  14. Legacies of Immigration: Children of Immigrants' Experiences Navigating Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Fanny P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration, as a continuous phenomenon, extends beyond a singular migratory event that an individual experiences. The purpose of this research project was to explore the college experiences of second-generation immigrants and how their family relationships, immigrant histories, and socioeconomic status directly and indirectly shaped their…

  15. New Directions in Immigration History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine S.

    1987-01-01

    Defines new directions that immigration history has taken in the 1980s, and indicates areas in which further work should be done. A variety of subjects are discussed - from recent immigration arrivals to new methods of historical data collection. (BSR)

  16. Immigration: One of Today's Enigmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Ellen G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the issues and questions involved in the current debate on immigration policy. Discusses recent amendments to the immigration laws, closing the borders to the unskilled and poor. Outlines the four types of potentially acceptable immigration applicants and considers the economic impact of the current policy. (MJP)

  17. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways. PMID:22669643

  18. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the personal description, circumstances and time of such illegal landing or desertion of such alien crewman... landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such...

  19. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the personal description, circumstances and time of such illegal landing or desertion of such alien crewman... landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such...

  20. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What activities are illegal? 22.12 Section 22.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE...

  1. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  2. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  3. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  4. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  5. Illegal drug impersonators: the synthetic drug abuse boom.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Carol

    2011-10-01

    The Internet has opened the door to marketers of products that contain substances that when ingested mimic the effects of illegal drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and LSD. This article traces the history of synthetic drugs, describes some of the newest substances on the market and their physiologic and psychological effects, and discusses efforts aimed at curbing their sale and use. PMID:23256286

  6. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  7. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    PubMed

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. PMID:26851978

  8. Analysis of illegal peptide biopharmaceuticals frequently encountered by controlling agencies.

    PubMed

    Vanhee, Celine; Janvier, Steven; Desmedt, Bart; Moens, Goedele; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in genomics, recombinant expression technologies and peptide synthesis have led to an increased development of protein and peptide therapeutics. Unfortunately this goes hand in hand with a growing market of counterfeit and illegal biopharmaceuticals, including substances that are still under pre-clinical and clinical development. These counterfeit and illegal protein and peptide substances could imply severe health threats as has been demonstrated by numerous case reports. The Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) and customs are striving, together with their global counterparts, to curtail the trafficking and distributions of these substances. At their request, suspected protein and peptide preparations are analysed in our Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). It stands to reason that a general screening method would be beneficiary in the battle against counterfeit and illegal peptide drugs. In this paper we present such general screening method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the identification of counterfeit and illegal injectable peptide preparations, extended with a subsequent quantification method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The screening method, taking only 30 min, is able to selectively detect 25 different peptides and incorporates the proposed minimum of five identification points (IP) as has been recommended for sports drug testing applications. The group of peptides represent substances which have already been detected in illegal and counterfeit products seized by different European countries as well as some biopharmaceutical peptides which have not been confiscated yet by the controlling agencies, but are already being used according to the many internet users forums. Additionally, we also show that when applying the same LC gradient, it is also possible to quantify these peptides without the need for

  9. Demographic evidence of illegal harvesting of an endangered asian turtle.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Karraker, Nancy E; Hau, Billy C H

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting pressure on Asian freshwater turtles is severe, and dramatic population declines of these turtles are being driven by unsustainable collection for food markets, pet trade, and traditional Chinese medicine. Populations of big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) have declined substantially across its distribution, particularly in China, because of overcollection. To understand the effects of chronic harvesting pressure on big-headed turtle populations, we examined the effects of illegal harvesting on the demography of populations in Hong Kong, where some populations still exist. We used mark-recapture methods to compare demographic characteristics between sites with harvesting histories and one site in a fully protected area. Sites with a history of illegal turtle harvesting were characterized by the absence of large adults and skewed ratios of juveniles to adults, which may have negative implications for the long-term viability of populations. These sites also had lower densities of adults and smaller adult body sizes than the protected site. Given that populations throughout most of the species' range are heavily harvested and individuals are increasingly difficult to find in mainland China, the illegal collection of turtles from populations in Hong Kong may increase over time. Long-term monitoring of populations is essential to track effects of illegal collection, and increased patrolling is needed to help control illegal harvesting of populations, particularly in national parks. Because few, if any, other completely protected populations remain in the region, our data on an unharvested population of big-headed turtles serve as an important reference for assessing the negative consequences of harvesting on populations of stream turtles. Evidencia Demográfica de la Captura Ilegal de una Tortuga Asiática en Peligro. PMID:23869813

  10. [Immigration in a country of immigration: the Canadian experience].

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, R

    1994-01-01

    "Until well after the Second World War, Canadian immigration policy favoured immigration in general, but it was characterised by ethnic and racial preferences and waves of discrimination. Only after 1962 was a less discriminatory point system...implemented which selected immigrants according to their standard of education and the demands of the Canadian labour market. This policy still indirectly favoured 'old' immigration groups. Since 1978 a new immigration law has been the basis of an annual immigration plan taking into account social, humanitarian, and economic criteria. One of its consequences has been the shift towards a greater proportion of Asian immigrants. This change has led to various tensions in the Canadian public." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12320693

  11. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  12. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  13. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  14. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  15. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  16. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  17. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is your policy on illegal... NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  19. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  20. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  1. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  2. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  5. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  6. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  7. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  10. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What is the…

  11. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  12. [Focus on Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Chester, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This journal issue consists of articles and other information about immigration issues, as well as discussions of the utility of racial and ethnic categories. "An International Perspective on Migration" (Cathi Tactaquin) examines the intertwined economic, political, and environmental causes of international migration; discusses how development…

  13. U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip; Martin, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on U.S. immigration, exploring global issues that affect immigration, such as: economic trends, post-cold war events, and transnationalism. Addresses legal immigration, including permanent and temporary status, refugees and asylees, unauthorized migration, integrating immigrants, and administration of immigration programs. (CMK)

  14. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  15. Positive urgency predicts illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-06-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n=407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  16. Estimates of illegal abortions in Israel, 1980-83.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1990-04-01

    Since the legalization of abortion in Israel in the late 1970s, only aggregate information on legal abortions has been available. A brief history of the public debate and relevant legislation concerning induced abortions in Israel is presented in the first part of this report. The second part presents estimates of the extent of illegal abortions in Israel during the years 1980-83. These estimates were obtained through standardization based on data for selected countries where the abortion law is similar to or more liberal than that in Israel, the system of abortion registration is more reliable and detailed, and the prevailing contraceptive habits and attitudes of women are known. Estimates indicate that: a) the total number of abortions in Israel is about half that quoted by the media from nonscientific sources, and b) the annual number of illegal abortions constitutes between 25 and 30% of the estimated total number of abortions. PMID:2347687

  17. [On the question of the illegality of abortion].

    PubMed

    Salton, J A

    1985-08-01

    The illegality of abortion in Brazil is questioned more and more. It would seem obvious that the prohibition of abortion would result in a decrease in the number of abortions, but upon closer observation, the opposite is true. Abortion related legislation in Brazil is among the most severe in the world. Both the physician and the patient are equally punishable, but this did not stop Brazilian women from having 3.5 million abortions/year. Countries with less severe laws have a much lower abortion rate. There have been extreme physiological and social consequences in Brazil as a result of abortion's illegality. The woman is not only a criminal, she is also a sinner in the eyes of the Church. In most cases, especially in low-income areas, abortion can lead to complications and death. Although there are no statistical data on the number of deaths due to illegal abortion, they would no doubt be alarming. An unwanted, unterminated pregnancy can have disastrous effects upon the mother, the child, and their relationship. These negative effects have been well documented. Prohibition will keep abortion out of the mainstream of national debate and aggravate the situation. A person's sexuality cannot be suppressed and considered evil. In lower income levels, unwanted pregnancy should not be a punishment for being poor. The legalization movement will grow, as it has in developed nations. The members of the Brazilian Society for Scientific Progress must remain active in the debate, because they cannot ignore something of such national importance. PMID:12314816

  18. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries. PMID:25107993

  19. Lasting Reductions in Illegal Moves Following an Increase in Their Cost: Evidence from River-Crossing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Martin E.; Delaney, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present 3 experiments demonstrating ways to reduce illegal moves in problem-solving tasks. They propose a 3-stage framework for the rejection of illegal moves. An illegal move must come to mind and be selected, checked for legality, and correctly rejected. Illegal move reduction can occur at any stage. Control group participants…

  20. Immigration, Integration and Ghetto Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    We study ghetto formation in a population with natives and immigrants in the framework of the two-dimensional Ising-model with Kawasaki-exchange dynamics. It is the phase structure of the Ising model, the integration speed and the immigration rate which determine whether ghetto formation between natives and immigrants can be avoided or not. Our simulations are performed in- and out-of-equilibrium.

  1. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  2. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  3. "Reasonable suspicion" about tough immigration legislation: enforcing laws or ethnocentric exclusion?

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sahana; Molina, Ludwin E; Adams, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether support for tough immigration legislation reflects identity-neutral enforcement of law or identity-relevant defense of privilege. Participants read a fabricated news story in which law-enforcement personnel detained a person due to "reasonable suspicion" that he was an undocumented immigrant. We manipulated descriptions of the detainee so that he was either (a) an undocumented immigrant (both studies), (b) a documented immigrant (Study 1), or (c) a U.S. citizen (Study 2) of either Mexican or Canadian origin. Participants in both studies endorsed tougher punishment of an undocumented detainee and rated tough treatment as more fair when the detainee was of Mexican than Canadian origin (regardless of documentation status). Across both studies, the patterns of ethnocentric exclusion-harsher treatment toward Mexican immigrants than Canadian immigrants-were particularly pronounced among participants who defined American identity in terms of assimilation to Anglocentric cultural values (e.g., being able to speak English). Overall, results suggest that people may support tough measures to restrict immigration to defend against symbolic threats-especially threats that cultural "others" pose to Anglocentric understandings of American identity. PMID:23875856

  4. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  5. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. PMID:25451516

  6. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:23027783

  7. [Is illegal abortion a secure procedure? A case report].

    PubMed

    Iris, J M; Frappé, H; Ponce, G

    1996-06-01

    Woman with illegal abortion presenting bleeding and shock secondary to hypovolemia and sepsis. In the laparotomy there is no uterine perforation and the patient develops disseminated coagulation. The patient is taken to the operating room and bleeding stops. She receives more fluids than necessary and develops pulmonary edema. 48 hours after she develops shock secondary to tamponade and disappears with pericardiocentesis. A month and a half later she goes to the hospital because of ileus secondary to blood in peritoneo of an ovary cyst. Many pathologies and iatrogenesis characterized this case report. PMID:8754726

  8. Immigrant Identity in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I report research on representations of immigrant identities in one university where teacher candidates matriculated in undergraduate and graduate degree programs. The case study occurred in a community where immigrants were highly visible. A content analysis of curriculum for teacher preparation provided a view of factors that…

  9. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  10. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  11. Identity Transformation of Korean Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov

    Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's expansion of it are…

  12. Immigration and the American Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    Examines the debate over immigration in the United States and its influence on national racial and ethnic demographics as well as the economic and social impact. Questions of environmentalism and multiculturalism coupled with American racism and the need for immigration restriction are addressed. (GR)

  13. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials. PMID:20568574

  14. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  15. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  16. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  17. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  18. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  19. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  20. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  1. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  2. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  4. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  10. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  12. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  13. Immigrant Family Stability: Some Primary Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Geraldine

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that immigration entails redefinition of sex roles and kin obligations in immigrant families; reveals a trend toward increasingly differentiated nuclear families among immigrants; and identifies pressures that may make immigrant families more susceptible to instability than American families, and countervailing forces that may contribute…

  14. Teacher Education and Immigrant Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faltis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980s, well more than half of all immigrants and children of recent immigrants are of people of color. Many recent immigrants of color communicate in their daily lives via a language (or via languages) other than English, and many immigrant children of color are emerging bilinguals, who acquire hybrid varieties of English. While almost…

  15. Counseling Immigrant Students in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Karen D.; Davis, Terah

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2010 United States Census, one out of every five children live in an immigrant family with either one or both parents being immigrants. This paper will explore the unique needs of children of immigrants who come to school as immigrant students. A discussion of the use of Reality Therapy as a counseling approach with this…

  16. Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Alienization, Fence Logic, and the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeChaine, D. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Current figurations of the "immigration problem" in the United States challenge our understanding of the rhetoricity of contemporary bordering practices. The public discourse of the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps serves to chart the alienization of undocumented migrants and the enactment of alien abjection on the U.S.-Mexico border. Alienization…

  17. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included. PMID:21479548

  18. Detection of illegal border crossing, a pattern recognition approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Frerking, C.J.; Myers, D.W.

    1993-09-29

    This report describes a new algorithm developed for the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in support of the INSENS project for classifying vehicles and pedestrians using seismic data. This algorithm is less sensitive to nuisance alarms due to environmental events than the previous algorithm. Furthermore, the algorithm is simple enough that it scan be; implemented in the 8-bit microprocessor used in the INSENS system.

  19. The psychometric and psychosocial dimension of Albanian immigration: data from a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Naimo, M; Massagli, A; Degortes, D; Favaro, A; Campagnola, N; Vidotto, G

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a wider ministerial project aimed at analysing--both the healthcare and psychological aspects--the phenomenon of illegal immigration, in particular Albanian immigration in Apulia. The CBA 2.0 Primary Scale was duly translated, in accordance with the guidelines set out in literature, to allow for identification and future use of psychological tools in Albanian and therefore assess the psychological dimension of a sample group of adult Albanians. Moreover, the eventual presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in subjects who arrived in Italy after a traumatic journey was studied. 82 Albanians were chosen (47 male and 35 female) having lived in Italy for over a year. All subjects were given the Albanian version of CBA 2.0 Primary Scale; subjects who had entered Italy illegally were asked to answer the DSM-IV questionnaire to assess PTSD and MDD and a semi-structured questionnaire made up to evaluate their experiences, before, during and after the trauma of their journey. CBA 2.0 translated into Albanian does not reveal psychological disturbances of clinical significance but did reveal values of hardship significantly lower than the normal Italian standards. Only 3 cases of PTSD and 6 of MDD arose from the questionnaire regarding the assessment of PTSD and MMD. PMID:18924300

  20. Immigrant unemployment: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Miller, P W; Neo, L M

    1997-01-01

    "Between 1980 and 1996 both male and female immigrants experienced higher unemployment rates than Australia-born workers....A multivariate analysis is used in this article to examine unemployment rate differentials between Australia-born and immigrants from English-speaking countries and immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. A feature of the analysis is decomposition of unemployment rate differences between birthplace groups into a component attributable to the different characteristics of the birthplace groups (e.g. different mean levels of education) and a part that is viewed as an impact associated simply with being foreign born." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292381

  1. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique. PMID:23421665

  2. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, familial status or...

  3. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  4. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  5. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  7. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  8. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  9. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  10. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  11. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  12. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  14. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  15. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  16. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  17. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  18. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  19. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  20. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  1. Doping Attitudes and the Use of Legal and Illegal Performance-Enhancing Substances among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Violani, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    Using retrospective self-reporting, rates of illegal and legal performance-enhancing substance (PES) use in the past three months among more than 3,400 Italian high school adolescents were obtained and estimated. The study focused on the extent to which these sociodemographic characteristics and illegal PES use were associated with adolescents'…

  2. Educators, Illegal Behavior, and Deterrence: A Resource Allocation Approach to Malpractice in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, F. Howard

    1982-01-01

    Views illegal behavior in education, from sexual discrimination to professional malpractice, as a problem in optimal resource allocation. Urges effective use of fines or their equivalent, so administrators can weigh the benefits of illegal activity against the costs of apprehension and punishment. (Author/RW)

  3. Policies and Procedures Concerning Illegal Drug Use by Students. Higher Education Surveys Report, Survey Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Bradford W.; Farris, Elizabeth

    Procedures concerning illegal drug use by college students were investigated at 546 colleges and universities in the fall 1986 Higher Education Survey. Seventy-three percent of the institutions had a written policy on illegal drug use by students, and more than half of them established or revised their policy within the last 5 years. Three-fourths…

  4. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... Identification and Certification of Nations § 300.202 Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  5. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  6. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  7. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  8. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  9. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  10. Father Absence as a Risk Factor for Substance Use and Illegal Behavior by the Adolescent Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Ali, Asad; McMurphy, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Illegal behavior, drug trafficking, and substance abuse levels of two groups (both parents, mother only) of inner-city African-American youth were compared. African-American subjects who had been raised in mother-only households reported significantly fewer illegal offenses. Findings are contrary to common attitudes regarding the effects of…

  11. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PMID:23148903

  12. How Do Tougher Immigration Measures Affect Unauthorized Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees’ intent to return to the United States in the near future. PMID:23532619

  13. Ethanol isotope method (EIM) for uncovering illegal wine.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, I; Sparks, K L; Sparks, J P; Čukalović, I Leskošek; Jović, S

    2013-01-01

    Isotopic methods have proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the determination of origin and authenticity of wine. In addition, measuring the stable isotope ratio provides useful information for the detection of many illegal practices in the production of wine. The determinations of the stable isotope composition of compounds are based on measuring the relative ratios using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. This article describes a new isotopic method for measuring the δD value of non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in ethanol for investigating adulteration practices in wine making. With this new method, we are able to determine the addition of water and sugar in wine with higher accuracy, repeatability and reliability. PMID:22462798

  14. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.M.; Anthony, S.J.; Switzer, W.M.; Epstein, J.H.; Seimon, T.; Jia, H.; Sanchez, M.D.; Huynh, T.T.; Galland, G.G.; Shapiro, S.E.; Sleeman, J.M.; McAloose, D.; Stuchin, M.; Amato, G.; Kolokotronis, S.-O.; Lipkin, W.I.; Karesh, W.B.; Daszak, P.; Marano, N.

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  15. Canvasback mortality from illegal hunting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Nissen, J.M.; Wetzel, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the consequences of local hunting on illegal kill of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), we studied the behavior of hunters on a 646-ha area open to duck hunting (closed to canvasback hunting) on Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, Wisconsin, during the 1991 and 1992 waterfowl hunting seasons. Law enforcement officers observed 258 hunting parties for 419 hours. Of 94 hunting parties encountering canvasbacks, 41 (44%) shot at the ducks on 56 occasions, or 27% of 207 encounters observed, Based on a ratio estimator, there were 790 (95% CI = 376) attempts to shoot at canvasbacks on the Lake Onalaska study area during 1991 and 837 (95% CI = 390) during 1992. Mortality of canvasbacks, excluding crippling loss, was estimated to be 128 during 1991 and 166 during 1992. Thus, total canvasback losses may be higher than currently estimated on a flyway or national basis. This estimating technique offers a promising method for enumerating hunter take of protected and legal species.

  16. [Clandestine places: illegal sale of alcohol for urban worker populations].

    PubMed

    Hamel, P; Asún, D

    1978-03-01

    The authors have studied the illegal commerce of alcohol in popular urban communities. This sale is done in so called clandestine places. The study was approached from a cultural-anthropological point of view and its objective is a descriptive-exploratory study based on observation and interview techniques. A definition and a tipology of these places was attempted, emphasizing group dynamics and interpersonal relations between the owner of the place and the customer; among the customers; among the place itself and the rest of the community organizations, formal and informal ones. A primary analysis was done, according to which these clandestine places appear legitimized by nets of interpersonal relations, critical economic situations and places that satisfy recreational needs of the inhabitants. In order to eliminate the former, adecuate substitutes for recreation and social interaction ought to be considered. PMID:685704

  17. [Current situation and issues for analyzing illegal drug products].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Motoki, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-two psychotropic substances (31 compounds and one plant) have been controlled as designated substances (Shitei-yakubutsu) in Japan by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law since April 2007. Although the trafficking of these drugs has decreased because of this regulation, new designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones) have appeared, one after the other. As of October 2011, 40 compounds had been newly added to this category. Analytical methods have become more complicated due to this increase in the number of designated substances. Moreover, many reference substances for such designated substances and other new designer drugs are not commercially available. For the reasons stated above, a lot of time and effort is required to analyze the illegal drug products available on the market. PMID:23292013

  18. Firearm retailers' willingness to participate in an illegal gun purchase.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen

    2010-09-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or "straw" purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun's use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. PMID:20803095

  19. Illegal or legitimate use? Precursor compounds to amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F

    2000-02-01

    The interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine positive test results in biological samples is a challenge to clinical and forensic toxicology for several reasons. The effects of pH and dilution of urine samples and the knowledge about legitimate and illicit sources have to be taken into account. Besides a potentially legal prescription of amphetamines, many substances metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine in the body: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, and prenylamine. Especially the knowledge of potential origins of methamphetamine and amphetamine turns out to be very important to prevent a misinterpretation of the surrounding circumstances and to prove illegal drug abuse. In this review, potential precursor compounds are described, including their medical use and major clinical effects and their metabolic profiles, as well as some clues which help to identify the sources. PMID:10711406

  20. Zoonotic Viruses Associated with Illegally Imported Wildlife Products

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence. PMID:22253731

  1. Unemployment and illegal drug use: concordant evidence from a prospective study and national trends.

    PubMed Central

    Peck, D F; Plant, M A

    1986-01-01

    Data from a previous study of 1036 young people in the Lothian region that indicated an association between unemployment and illegal drug use were examined in more depth to investigate the inter-relation between duration of unemployment and the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. After factors such as social class background and educational qualifications had been taken into account a weak but significant association was found between duration of unemployment and illegal drug use. No such association was found for alcohol or tobacco. Similar results were obtained from an analysis of national statistics related to unemployment and illegal drug use. Both sets of data thus indicate that illegal drug use is moderately associated with unemployment. PMID:3094720

  2. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. PMID:25996571

  3. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  4. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  5. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  6. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (MAY 2014) (a) If...

  7. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  8. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  9. [Some materials for the study of "labor force differences" of immigrants from outside the European Union].

    PubMed

    Piras, L

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of the productive behavior of immigrants arriving from outside the European Union comprise the phase preceding the immigration, the phase of first permanent residence, and the phase of secondary socialization to labor. The extra-community labor migration carries within itself all the individual cultural patrimony (values, conduct, faith, identity, lifestyle) which are invested into the transformation process and change through contact with the other culture. The differentiated labor-specific evolution of the extra-community migration was analyzed by means of a mathematical formula using the variables of compensation for work (salary), performance (effort), immigration, socialization to work, and the economic impact of differential work contribution, all of which individually and jointly exert an effect on the labor market. In the regular Italian labor market there is, however, a surplus; the irregular (underground) economy is differentiated by the variable of effort that immigrants exert in order to obtain employment. Labor behavior is determined by the competitiveness of the labor force and dangers inherent in leaving one's country and entering a foreign land illegally. Statistically, in the long term, individual situations show a diminishing trend vis-a-vis the risk of repatriation connected to the loss of the residency permit because of gradual integration into the labor market. The initial labor-specific effort (salary/performance) is reduced vis-a-vis a progressive process of socialization owing to work. New lifestyles and consumption patterns are acquired which also facilitate social integration. The human capital of the immigrant increases by progressive acquisition of language and other cultural instruments. PMID:12348671

  10. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. PMID:26332105

  11. Homicide victims among Australian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, E V

    1994-09-01

    The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261

  12. 76 FR 67361 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Part 42 RIN 1400-AC86 Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as... the IASA into law, modifying the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) as regards adoptions from... Subjects in 22 CFR Part 42 Immigration, Passports and Visas. Accordingly, for the reasons set forth in...

  13. Immigration Patterns, Public Opinion, and Government Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for illustrating how shifting patterns of immigration and public reaction have influenced public policy toward immigration restriction. Details objectives and procedures for activities using National Archives documents. Includes a worksheet and copies of government documents. (CH)

  14. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  15. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  16. Mental health of immigrants and refugees.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andrés J; Rothe, Eugenio; Pumariega, Joanne B

    2005-10-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants. With the exception of Native-Americans, every other American is, or descends from, an immigrant. First and second generation immigrant children are the most rapidly growing segment of the American population, with the great majority of this population being of non-European origin. This paper reviews the unique risk factors and mental health needs of our new immigrant populations, as well as treatment and services approaches to address their unique needs. PMID:16142540

  17. [Demographic developments in 1996: increased immigration].

    PubMed

    De Beer, J; Prins, C J

    1997-03-01

    "The major demographic event [in the Netherlands] in 1996 has been the increase in immigration from 96 thousand to 109 thousand. Both the immigration from countries such as Turkey and Morocco and the immigration from the countries of the European Union increased. The number of asylum seekers, however, decreased. The numbers of births, deaths and emigrants hardly changed in 1996. In spite of the increase in immigration, population growth was only slightly higher than in the preceding year." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321087

  18. [What is the effect of immigration policy?].

    PubMed

    De Beer, J

    1998-08-01

    "In 1993 and 1994 the Dutch government took new measures in order to restrict immigration. The effect of these measures on the size of immigration is estimated by adding intervention variables to a regression model in which immigration is explained by a linear trend and the unemployment rate.... It is estimated that immigration in 1994-1997 was 20% lower than it would have been if the restrictive measures had not been taken." (EXCERPT) PMID:12294178

  19. Development in Children of Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Cowden, John D; Kreisler, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Children of immigrant families experience developmental processes in the contexts of migration and settlement, presenting immigration-specific challenges. Child health providers can use awareness of the cultural-ecological model of immigrant child development to explore how acculturation, ethnic identity formation, and bilingualism affect the children and families under their care. Cross-cultural strategies for evaluating and supporting immigrant child development are presented to guide the provider in clinical interactions and community efforts. PMID:27565358

  20. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  1. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  2. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  3. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  4. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  5. The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.; And Others

    This report examines whether the economic well-being of male immigrants to the United States improves substantially over time, details differences in economic progress of immigrants from different countries of origin, and assesses the impact of educational attainment on immigrants' earnings. Analyses are based on Public Use Micro Samples of the…

  6. Immigrant Education in Sweden: Lessons for America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Gunilla; Farber, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Although state services for immigrants are quite generous, immigrant communities have struggled, socially and economically, to enter mainstream Swedish society. A growing sense of transgenerational isolation is evident. Education of immigrant children is characterized by "negative tolerance" and lack of bilingual support. Conceptions of…

  7. Health Status of Older Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, K. Bruce; Filice, John K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged 55[thorn]) immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to…

  8. The Effect of Literacy on Immigrant Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Ana; Green, David A.; Riddell, W. Craig

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of literacy on immigrant earnings and the sources of lower returns to education and experience among immigrants. We find that the native-born literacy distribution dominates that for immigrants. However, the two groups obtain similar returns to literacy skills, contrary to discrimination-based explanations for…

  9. Primary Health Care Needs of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This report constitutes the response by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) to 1977 and 1978 Congressional directives to assess immigrants' access to health care and the impact of immigrants on public health services and resources. Areas covered in the report are: (1) the primary health care needs of immigrants, including…

  10. Ethnicities: Children of Immigrants in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G., Ed.; Portes, Alejandro, Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading scholars in immigration studies shows how the children of immigrants in diverse groups are faring and assimilating in the United States. The 10 papers are (1) "Introduction--Ethnogenesis: Coming of Age in Immigrant America" (Ruben G. Rumbaut and Alejandro Portes); (2) "The Demographic Diversity of Immigrants…

  11. Psychological Acculturation of Young Visible Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the psychological acculturation of young visible immigrants in Western industrialized countries, examining the psychosocial milieu that parents and society provide them, and the inability to assimilate or acculturate. "Visible" immigrant is a value neutral term for nonwhite or non-Caucasian immigrants. (SLD)

  12. Immigrant Youth Mental Health, Acculturation, and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frabutt, James M.

    2006-01-01

    One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…

  13. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  14. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  15. Immigrants as Portrayed in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Fu, Danling; Lowery, Ruth McKoy

    2004-01-01

    America is a nation of immigrants, many of whom came as part of families, who left their home countries for different reasons to settle here. In the late nineteenth century, immigrants came from Northern Europe and then from Southern Europe, but recent immigrants tend to come from Eastern Europe (mostly old Soviet Union countries), Hispanic, and…

  16. Intergroup Relations and Predictors of Immigrant Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danso, Kofi; Lum, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from 1,036 participants, which included 4 immigrant groups, we examined the factors that influence immigrants' experiences as they interact with nonimmigrant Americans. Logistic and multinomial regression results indicate that non-European immigrants were more likely to report negative experiences with Americans. The odds of…

  17. Counselling Immigrants: School Contexts and Emerging Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Investigates strategies employed by Israeli secondary school counselors working with immigrant students from the former Soviet Union. Findings highlight the importance counselors attribute to the school context and its organizational culture when working with immigrants. Four counselor roles for working with immigrants emerged. Discusses…

  18. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... State, is set forth in the Schedule of Fees, 22 CFR 22.1. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants....

  19. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... State, is set forth in the Schedule of Fees, 22 CFR 22.1. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants....

  20. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Lottery fee, as prescribed by the Secretary of State, is set forth in the Schedule of Fees, 22 CFR 22.1. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants....

  1. Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Julian L.

    This report contains economic and demographic facts related to immigration, but it does not advocate any position or ideology nor make any judgments about whether immigrants should receive government services. When possible, data are presented as graphs. A review of the facts makes it apparent that the rate of U.S. immigration in the 1990s is…

  2. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:24437928

  3. Tracking Vessels to Illegal Pollutant Discharges Using Multisource Vessel Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busler, J.; Wehn, H.; Woodhouse, L.

    2015-04-01

    Illegal discharge of bilge waters is a significant source of oil and other environmental pollutants in Canadian and international waters. Imaging satellites are commonly used to monitor large areas to detect oily discharges from vessels, off-shore platforms and other sources. While remotely sensed imagery provides a snap-shot picture useful for detecting a spill or the presence of vessels in the vicinity, it is difficult to directly associate a vessel to an observed spill unless the vessel is observed while the discharge is occurring. The situation then becomes more challenging with increased vessel traffic as multiple vessels may be associated with a spill event. By combining multiple sources of vessel location data, such as Automated Information Systems (AIS), Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) and SAR-based ship detection, with spill detections and drift models we have created a system that associates detected spill events with vessels in the area using a probabilistic model that intersects vessel tracks and spill drift trajectories in both time and space. Working with the Canadian Space Agency and the Canadian Ice Service's Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution (ISTOP) program, we use spills observed in Canadian waters to demonstrate the investigative value of augmenting spill detections with temporally sequenced vessel and spill tracking information.

  4. Firearm Retailers’ Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99–21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun’s use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9489-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20803095

  5. Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26216390

  6. Food Insecurity and Its Sociodemographic Correlates among Afghan Immigrants in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Rasoul; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal

    2013-01-01

    The study determined the prevalence of food insecurity and its sociodemographic determinants among Afghan immigrants in two major cities of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 310 adult females from immigrant Afghan households in Tehran (n=155) and Mashhad (n=155), who were recruited through multistage sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, using a questionnaire. Food security was measured by a locally-adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. More than 60% suffered from moderate-to-severe food insecurity, 37% were mildly food-insecure while about 23% were food-secure. Food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in female-headed households, households whose head and spouse had lower level of education, belonged to the Sunni sect, and those with illegal residential status, unemployment/low job status, not owning their house, low socioeconomic status (SES), and living in Mashhad. Prevalence of food insecurity was relatively high among Afghan immigrants in Iran. This calls for the need to develop community food security strategies for ensuring their short- and long-term health. PMID:24288950

  7. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  8. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  9. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  10. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  11. Censorship: Tactics for Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Skip

    1998-01-01

    Book banners are generally successful because they have a wide network of support, including national coalitions with sophisticated organizational methods--such as electing certain people to school boards. School officials should get organized and devise defensive strategies, such as inviting critics to class, asking what they would like to…

  12. Defense Language Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Discussed in this Defense Language Institute (DLI) brochure are its intensive language programs' history, and its four schools, which are located in Monterey, California, Washington, D.C., Lackland Air Force Base, and Fort Bliss, Texas. Proficiency levels determined by the DLI and utilization of the audiolingual method are also described.…

  13. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12346372

  14. Illnesses among recently immigrated children.

    PubMed

    Schwarzwald, Heidi

    2005-04-01

    The number of children immigrating to the United States has increased steadily during the last decade. American families are adopting a significant portion of these children, more than 20,000. Recently immigrated children face many different health risks when compared to children born in the United States. They are subject to many infectious diseases no longer seen commonly in the United States such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV. They are more likely to have inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable illnesses. Recent immigrants have a higher likelihood of having malnutrition and developmental delay. Finally, many will have suffered psychological trauma in either institutions or refugee camps. These children require specialized testing, care, and treatment in the pediatric office. PMID:15825138

  15. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present. PMID:24927403

  16. Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M

    2014-04-01

    This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

  17. Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... illegal drug on school property (during the 12 months before the survey) Decreased ... on linear and quadratic trend analyses using logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade, p < ...

  18. Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

  19. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  20. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization. PMID:17875603

  1. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  2. 9. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT DEARBORN - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. Boiler suppliers ask for investigation of secret, illegal foreign financing deals

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1982-01-01

    The boiler industry has asked the US Department of Commerce to protect it from what it claims may be secret illegal financing deals by foreign suppliers. Complaints by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) cite two cases involving French and Swedish suppliers and warn of South American deals under consideration. ABMA suggests that foreign governments may be subsidizing commercial financing to encourage exports in violation of US tariff laws. Those purchasing the impartial boilers deny that anything improper or illegal was done. (DCK)

  4. On the intended and unintended consequences of enhanced U.S. Border and interior immigration enforcement: evidence from Mexican deportees.

    PubMed

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Pozo, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Since about 2000, a number of federal and state policies have been implemented in the United States with the intention of stemming the flow of illegal immigration. In this article, we focus on two initiatives: (1) Operation Streamline, as an example of increased border enforcement by the federal government; and (2) state-level omnibus immigration laws, as an illustration of enhanced interior enforcement by state governments. We investigate whether these policies have reduced the intentions of deported Mexican immigrants to attempt a new unauthorized crossing. Although state-level omnibus immigration laws reduce the proportion of deportees intending to attempt a new crossing, increased border enforcement has proven to be far less effective. In addition, we ascertain the human costs associated with these policies. Our findings are mixed in this regard. Noteworthy is how the adoption of more stringent interior enforcement seems to result in a "herding" or "ganging-up" effect, whereby the incidence of verbal and physical abuse rises with the number of states enacting such measures. Additionally, our estimates suggest that deportees are more likely to respond that they have risked their lives to cross into the United States as a result of enhanced border enforcement. PMID:25361892

  5. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  6. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country’s economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  7. The adaptation of non-western and Muslim immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands: An immigrant paradox?

    PubMed

    Van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the possible existence of an immigrant paradox in a sample of immigrant adolescents attending vocational schools in the Netherlands. An immigrant paradox is the finding that first generation immigrants show a more positive pattern of adaptation than nationals despite poorer economic conditions. Second generation immigrants regress to the nationals in terms of adaptation. A sample of 152 first generation immigrant adolescents, 285 second generation immigrant adolescents and 406 national adolescents completed self-reports about socio-economic status, psychological problems, behavioral problems and self-esteem. The results supported the existence of an immigrant paradox in this sample. This indicates that further assimilation among immigrant adolescents does not necessarily lead to increased well being. PMID:20602739

  8. Unsettling drug patent settlements: a framework for presumptive illegality.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    A tidal wave of high drug prices has recently crashed across the U.S. economy. One of the primary culprits has been the increase in agreements by which brand-name drug manufacturers and generic firms have settled patent litigation. The framework for such agreements has been the Hatch-Waxman Act, which Congress enacted in 1984. One of the Act's goals was to provide incentives for generics to challenge brand-name patents. But brand firms have recently paid generics millions of dollars to drop their lawsuits and refrain from entering the market. These reverse-payment settlements threaten significant harm. Courts nonetheless have recently blessed them, explaining that the agreements reduce costs, increase innovation, and are reasonable based on the presumption of validity accorded to patents. Although scholars and the Federal Trade Commission have voiced strong arguments against courts' leniency, these have fallen on judicial deaf ears. In this Article, I apply the framework that the Supreme Court articulated in Verizon Communications v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP, which underscored the importance in antitrust analysis of a regulatory regime addressing the challenged activity. In particular, the Hatch-Waxman Act provides Congress's views on innovation and competition in the drug industry, freeing courts from the thorny task of reconciling the patent and antitrust laws. Unfortunately, mechanisms that Congress employed to encourage patent challenges--such as an exclusivity period for the first generic to challenge validity--have been twisted into barriers preventing competition. Antitrust can play a central role in resuscitating the drafters' intentions and promoting competition. Given the Act's clear purpose to promote patent challenges, as well as the parties' aligned incentives and the severe anticompetitive potential of reverse payments, courts should treat such settlements as presumptively illegal. If the parties can demonstrate that the payments represent

  9. [Thoughts on "defensive" medicine].

    PubMed

    Csiba, László

    2007-03-25

    "Defensive" medicine is called medical behaviour characterized by deformation of diagnostic and therapeutic activities due to fears endangering existence and work, thus some interventions are omitted or, on the contrary, superfluous examinations are proposed on account of internal uncertainty, the patient's distrust or hostile social environment. Trust relation between patient and physician is the most gravely damaged because of aggravation and distortion of some conscienceless physicians' abuses by the media; patient-physician relations may not be degraded to contractual legal relations. Young physicians must get acquainted with the joy of success in diagnostics that enriches the personality. They shall have healthy self-esteem and be ready to take diagnostic and therapeutic challenges on themselves. All of us have to fight against social atmosphere hostile to physicians, against causes inducing and augmenting practice of defensive medicine. PMID:17444017

  10. Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Wilhite, E.L.; Stieve, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    The information contained in this report is intended to supplement the original Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Since the original EIS in 1982, alterations have been made to he conceptual process that reduce the impact to the groundwater. This reduced impact is documented in this report along with an update of the understanding of seismology and geology of the Savannah River Site. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  12. Canadian Immigrant Women in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittebrood, Gerda; Robertson, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Examines the experiences of Canadian immigrant women as they move from one culture to another. Explores the barriers they encounter adapting to their new homeland and the coping strategies they use to deal with these barriers. Also examines the usefulness of different forms of support systems and the role of the counselor as part of the adaptation…

  13. Immigrant Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old immigrants by nativity status, gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, country of origin, year of arrival, marital status, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1994-2006. These numbers are based on Current Population Survey data. An appendix presents: 2006 At a…

  14. Immigration Facts on Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. policymakers have put forth various immigration reform proposals to improve retention of foreign students obtaining advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from American universities. These students are considered particularly desirable because they, like their American counterparts, offer the types of…

  15. Students Sound Off on Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean; Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of students nationwide marched in the streets or rallied in public parks, at state capitols, and in other locations in response to the legislation pending in Congress that would significantly tighten enforcement of immigration laws. Some of the largest demonstrations were in California and Texas, but students have also rallied in…

  16. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  17. Challenging Preservice Teacher Perspectives: Immigration, Equitable Opportunity, and Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article, I use five questions that were posed in 1936 about immigration and the education of immigrant children as a lens to examine contemporary perspectives on immigration and the education of immigrant children. Dispelling myths about immigrant students and English learners has been a consistent concern in our country. These…

  18. Dialogue on Immigration: Should the Golden Door be Closed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, David, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Papers presented by panelists at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Conference for the Social Studies are reprinted. Titles are: "Why the Focus on Immigration,""The Historical Process of Immigration,""Major Areas of Immigration Concern,""Human Implications of Immigration Law and Policies,""Refugee vs. Immigrant," and "How Educational Agencies Serve…

  19. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  20. The Politics of U.S. Immigration Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Alan K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current "Simpson-Mazzoli" Immigration Reform and Control Act, previous immigration legislation, current counter-proposals for U.S. immigration policy, and the political realities of immigration reform. Also addresses the pressures for outmigration in the Third World, American public opinion on immigration reform, and increases in…

  1. 22 CFR 42.32 - Employment-based preference immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment-based preference immigrants. 42.32 Section 42.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.32 Employment-based preference immigrants....

  2. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  3. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  4. Are Latino Immigrants a Burden to Safety Net Services in Nontraditional Immigrant States? Lessons From Oregon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The significant growth of the Latino population in the midst of an economic recession has invigorated anti-Latino, anti-immigrant sentiments in many US states. One common misconception is that Latino immigrants are a burden to safety net services. This may be particularly true in nontraditional immigrant states that have not historically served Latino immigrants. Oregon data suggest that despite a higher prevalence of poverty, use of safety net services among Latino immigrants in Oregon is lower than that among non-Latino Whites. Immigration status, costs, lack of insurance coverage, and discrimination are among the reasons for this group’s limited use of services. Nevertheless, policies designed to strengthen community and institutional support for Latino immigrant families should be considered in the context of current health care and immigration reform efforts. PMID:24625168

  5. Immigrant and Native Ethnic Enterprises in Mexican American Neighborhoods: Differing Perceptions of Mexican Immigrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Niles; Cardenas, Gilberto

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes original data from a survey of 936 businesses located in barrios in Texas and California. Discusses differences in the responses of native ethnic, immigrant ethnic, and nonethnic employers to Mexican immigrants as workers and consumers. (FMW)

  6. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  7. Illegal import of bushmeat and other meat products into Switzerland on commercial passenger flights.

    PubMed

    Falk, H; Dürr, S; Hauser, R; Wood, K; Tenger, B; Lörtscher, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2013-12-01

    Illegal imports of meat can present substantial risks to public and animal health. Several European countries have reported considerable quantities of meat imported on commercial passenger flights. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity of meat illegally imported into Switzerland, with a separate estimation for bushmeat. Data were obtained by participation in intervention exercises at Swiss international airports and by analysing data on seizures during the four-year period 2008 to 2011. The study revealed that a wide array of animal species was imported into Switzerland. From the database, the average annual weight of meat seized during the period analysed was 5.5 tonnes, of which 1.4% was bushmeat. However, in a stochastic model the total annual inflow of illegal meat imports was estimated at 1,013 tonnes (95% CI 226 to 4,192) for meat and 8.6 tonnes (95% CI 0.8 to 68.8) for bushmeat. Thus, even for a small European country such as Switzerland the quantities of illegally imported meat and meat products are substantial and the consequences for public and animal health could be high. To reduce the risk, it is essential that surveillance at European airports is harmonised and that passenger information campaigns clarify the consequences of the illegal import of meat, particularly bushmeat. PMID:24761726

  8. Longitudinal change mechanisms for substance use and illegal activity for adolescents in treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Brooke D; Godley, Susan H; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Roozen, Hendrik G

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated: (a) the relationships of exposure to the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) with reductions in substance use, illegal activity, and juvenile justice system involvement in adolescents diagnosed with a substance use disorder, and (b) the pathways by which reductions in the target behaviors were achieved. This study is a secondary data analysis of longitudinal data from a large-scale implementation effort for A-CRA. The sample consisted of 1,467 adolescents who presented to substance use treatment and reported past-year engagement in illegal activity. Participants had an average age of 15.8 years (SD = 1.3) and were 25% female, 14% African American, 29% Hispanic, 35% Caucasian, 16% mixed ethnicity, and 6% other ethnicity. Path analyses provided support that participation in A-CRA had a significant, direct association with reduced substance use; a significant, indirect association with reduced illegal activity through reductions in substance use; and a significant indirect association with reduced juvenile justice system involvement through reductions in both substance use and illegal activity. In addition, post hoc analyses using a bootstrapping strategy provided evidence that reductions in substance use partially mediated the relationship between A-CRA and illegal activity. PMID:24128291

  9. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    PubMed

    Sonricker Hansen, Amy L; Li, Annie; Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide. PMID:23236444

  10. Early sexual experience and later onset of illegal drug use among African American students on HBCU campuses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Storr, Carla; Browne, Dorothy C; Wagner, Fernando A

    2011-01-01

    Few studies examine whether early sexual experience is associated with subsequent illegal drug use among adolescents. A sample of 7,372 African American students who had not used illegal drugs before the age of 14 were identified in the dataset of the 2001 Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Substance Use Survey. Using self-reported ages of onset, discrete-time survival models estimated the hazard of illegal drug use onset after age 13 subsequent to first sexual intercourse. Early sex was modestly associated with subsequent illegal drug initiation, particularly among females. Drug use prevention services should be provided to youth engaged in early sexual activity. PMID:20735190

  11. Access to HAART in HIV-infected immigrants: a retrospective multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Saracino, A; El-Hamad, I; Prato, R; Cibelli, D C; Tartaglia, A; Palumbo, E; Pezzoli, M C; Angarano, G; Scotto, G

    2005-09-01

    Since 1996, AIDS has declined in the Italian population, but cases in foreign patients, including both recent immigrants and long-term residents, have increased from 3.9% in 1995-1996 to 15.4% in 2001-2002. This increase can only be partly explained by a higher migratory flow and might reflect a delayed access to health facilities and to antiretroviral therapy in migrants. We performed a survey for the year 2003 of HIV-infected immigrants to Italy from countries outside the European Union to verify which factors might influence a lack of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Italian centers of infectious diseases were requested to send sociodemographic and clinical data of HIV-infected immigrant patients. A total of 553 HIV-infected immigrants (49.9% women) were evaluated, representing 6.5% of all HIV-infected patients from these centers. The mean duration of residency in Italy was 6.6 +/- 5.0 years. The country of origin was Africa (64.5%), North and South America (24.2%), Eastern Europe (7.0%), and Asia (3.8%). A total of 407 of 553 patients (73.6%) were taking antiretroviral drugs at the time of screening. Females presented a younger age (p = 0.001), a lower frequency of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) stage B/C (p = 0.008) and a more frequent heterosexual exposure to HIV (p < 0.001), while no differences were observed for time of first positive serology (p = 0.7). CD4 cell count (p = 0.9) and log plasma HIV-RNA (p = 0.1). Characteristics of HAART patients were compared to those of nontreated patients, despite a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/mm(3). No significant difference was found for gender, country of origin, risk factor, and years of Italian residence, while legal immigrants (p = 0.018) and registered in the National Health Service (p = 0.014) were significantly more likely to receive HAART compared to illegal immigrants. PMID:16164386

  12. Immigrants as Active Citizens: Exploring the Volunteering Experience of Chinese Immigrants in Vancouver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation, immigrants themselves are often criticised as passive citizens. This study attempts to deconstruct this myth by investigating the volunteering experiences of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The…

  13. 78 FR 31398 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Part 42 RIN 1400-AD39 Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as.... Section 203(e)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) requires the Department of State to... of the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C., Chapter 35. List of Subjects in 22 CFR Part 42...

  14. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  15. Assimilation Attitudes Predict Lower Immigration-Related Self-Efficacy among Israeli Immigrant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Ben-Uri, Ina; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on self-efficacy among teachers working in culturally diverse educational contexts. We put forward the notion of immigration-related self-efficacy and provide initial support for its relationship with the acculturation attitudes held by immigrant teachers. One hundred thirty-three teachers who immigrated to Israel from the…

  16. Immigration and the Interplay among Citizenship, Identity and Career: The Case of Ethiopian Immigration to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flum, Hanoch; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2011-01-01

    Migration is a common phenomenon of the globalization era. In this article we explore the interplay of three foundational concepts in the migration experiences of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel: citizenship, identity and career. Through our analysis we examine the multiple layers of being an immigrant citizen. Following immigration, as…

  17. Immigrants, Your Community, and U.S. Immigration Policy. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Study Circles Resource Center, Pomfret, CT.

    The discussion guide explores the policy debate over immigration to the United States with regard to economic and quality of life concerns, environmental issues, and ethical considerations. The first article discusses the growing sentiments against immigration while using an historical account of U.S. immigration history and laws. While a…

  18. The Effect of Immigrant Concentration in Schools on Native and Immigrant Children's Reading and Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Wurtz

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark, we show that the immigrant concentration in the school influences reading and math skills for both immigrant children and native children. Overall, children in schools with a high immigrant concentration score lower on reading and math test scores. The negative effects associated with…

  19. Returns to Pre-Immigration Education for Non-Western Immigrants: Why so Low?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardoy, Inés; Schøne, Pål

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the return to pre-immigration education for non-western immigrants, and explain why it is so low. Returns to one extra year of education is three times higher for ethnic Norwegians than for non-western immigrants. Using the method "Over-Required-Under" (ORU) education approach, we reveal that…

  20. Health Insurance Disparities among Immigrants: Are Some Legal Immigrants More Vulnerable than Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri

    2010-01-01

    This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003. This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents…

  1. Immigration and the Family: Research and Policy on U.S. Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    In 1994, the U.S. population included an estimated 22.6 million immigrants, over one fourth of whom were from Mexico. Family networks play a crucial role in immigration. Based on a national symposium, this book includes 15 chapters that examine the role of the family in international immigration and the impact of migration on families and…

  2. [Immigration and tuberculosis. Five year experience].

    PubMed

    Rifes, Graça; Villar, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Immigrants are a tuberculosis risk group. In Portugal, in 2000, they had an incidence rate 3.6 times higher than the global incidence, and were native, predominantly, from Angola and Cabo Verde. Being the Chest Disease Center of Venda Nova located in a residential area with a great number of immigrants, most of them living in slums, we decided to evaluate the tuberculosis cases in this group, between 1996/2000, comparing the data obtained with some data of the tuberculosis cases in the non-immigrants. Immigrants with tuberculosis corresponded to 24.5% of all cases, 71.4% male, 93.9% black and mostly native from Cabo Verde and Angola. 73% lived in Portugal for more than 5 years, 86.7% were new cases and 13.3% relapses. 174 were pulmonary forms, 70.7% of which were D+ and 81% confirmed (against 75% in the non-immigrants). Of the 91 drug susceptibility tests done in the pulmonary forms, 9.9% revealed multidrug resistance, against 5% in the non-immigrants. Twenty six point six percent had AIDS against 18% in the non-immigrants. Some conclusions: important percentage of immigrants with tuberculosis in the Chest Disease Center of Venda Nova; immigrants have a higher confirmation rate of pulmonary tuberculosis, more multidrug resistance and AIDS cases. PMID:14685630

  3. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  4. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  5. Brain tumour mortality in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Neutel, C I; Quinn, A; Brancker, A

    1989-03-01

    All Canadian deaths due to malignant brain tumour for the years 1970-73 were identified and analysed for country of birth. The years 1970-73 were chosen since in later years country of birth was no longer available for each death. The brain tumour population consisted of 1551 male and 1058 female deaths and matched controls were chosen from deaths due to other causes. Americans who died of brain tumour in Canada had a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.0 compared to their fellow Americans in the USA. Italian, German, Dutch and British immigrants had SMR between 1.5 and 2.6 compared to rates in their home countries and between 1.24 and 2.09 when compared to Canadian rates. A series of graphs shows the increased risk for male immigrants quite dramatically, and indicates that for females the increases were less pronounced. Further analysis showed that the excess risk is confined to those who were born in Western Europe while their Canadian-born children experienced the same rates as all Canadians. Based on the limited information available, occupation could not be shown to play a role in establishing risk. An attempt was made to pinpoint the years of immigration which showed the greatest risk. It is concluded that the determination of risk of brain tumour has a strong environmental component. The possibilities for identification of this component are discussed. PMID:2722385

  6. The biomedicalisation of illegal abortion: the double life of misoprostol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zordo, Silvia De

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the double life of misoprostol in Brazil, where it is illegally used by women as an abortifacient and legally used in obstetric hospital wards. Based on my doctoral and post-doctoral anthropological research on contraception and abortion in Salvador, Bahia, this paper initially traces the "conversion" of misoprostol from a drug to treat ulcers to a self-administered abortifacient in Latin America, and its later conversion to aneclectic global obstetric tool. It then shows how, while reducing maternal mortality, its use as an illegal abortifacient has reinforced the double reproductive citizenship regime existing in countries with restrictive abortion laws and poor post-abortion care services, where poor women using it illegally are stigmatised, discriminated against and exposed to potentially severe health risks. PMID:27008072

  7. [Application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy to explosive and illegal drug].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Ge, Min; Wang, Wen-Feng

    2008-05-01

    Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many explosives and illicit drugs show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons, explosives and illegal drugs, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. Moreover, THz can penetrate many barrier materials, such as clothing and common packaging materials. THz technique has a great potential and advantage in antiterrorism and security inspection of explosives and illegal drugs due to the ability of high-sensitivity, nondestructive and stand-off inspection of many substances. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to explosives and illegal drugs. Studies on RDX are discussed in details and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced. PMID:18720779

  8. Light regulation of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Ballaré, Carlos L

    2014-01-01

    Precise allocation of limited resources between growth and defense is critical for plant survival. In shade-intolerant species, perception of competition signals by informational photoreceptors activates shade-avoidance responses and reduces the expression of defenses against pathogens and insects. The main mechanism underlying defense suppression is the simultaneous downregulation of jasmonate and salicylic acid signaling by low ratios of red:far-red radiation. Inactivation of phytochrome B by low red:far-red ratios appears to suppress jasmonate responses by altering the balance between DELLA and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins in favor of the latter. Solar UVB radiation is a positive modulator of plant defense, signaling through jasmonate-dependent and jasmonate-independent pathways. Light, perceived by phytochrome B and presumably other photoreceptors, helps plants concentrate their defensive arsenals in photosynthetically valuable leaves. The discovery of connections between photoreceptors and defense signaling is revealing novel mechanisms that control key resource allocation decisions in plant canopies. PMID:24471835

  9. Pre- to Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Trajectories among Recent Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario; Blackson, Timothy C.; Sastre, Francisco; Rojas, Patria; Li, Tan; Dillon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The escalation of alcohol use among some Latino immigrant groups as their time in the United States increases has been well-documented. Yet, little is known about the alcohol use behaviors of Latino immigrants prior to immigration. This prospective longitudinal study examines pre- to post-immigration alcohol use trajectories among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants. Retrospective pre-immigration data were collected at baseline from a sample of 455 Cuban, South American and Central American Latinos ages 18–34 who immigrated to the U.S. less than one year prior. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on their post-immigration alcohol use in the past 90 days. We hypothesized (a) overall declines in pre- to post-immigration alcohol among recent Latino immigrants and (b) gender/documentation specific effects, with higher rates of alcohol use among males and undocumented participants compared to their female and documented counterparts. Growth curve analyses revealed males had higher levels of pre-immigration alcohol use with steeper declines in post-immigration alcohol use compared to females. Declines in alcohol use frequency were observed for documented, but not undocumented males. No changes in pre- to post-immigration alcohol use were found for documented or undocumented females. This study contributes to the limited knowledge of pre- to post-immigration alcohol use patterns among Latinos in the United States. Future research is needed to identify social determinants associated with the alcohol use trajectories of recent Latino immigrants, as it may inform prediction, prevention, and treatment of problem-drinking behaviors among the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. PMID:25243834

  10. Dissecting the Illegal Ivory Trade: An Analysis of Ivory Seizures Data

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Fiona M.; Burn, Robert W.; Milliken, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions – Transactions Index – and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions – Weights Index – at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants. PMID:24250744

  11. Dissecting the illegal ivory trade: an analysis of ivory seizures data.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Milliken, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions--Transactions Index--and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions--Weights Index--at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants. PMID:24250744

  12. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this. PMID:24841434

  13. Geo-Spatial Aspects of Acceptance of Illegal Hunting of Large Carnivores in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Gangaas, Kristin E.; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P.; Andreassen, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human – wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7–15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3–4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  14. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  15. Illegal alcohol sales and use of alcohol control policies at community festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Patrek, William; Fletcher, Linda A.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to assess the propensity for alcohol sales to underage customers and obviously intoxicated customers at community festivals, and to assess the prevalence of alcohol control policies at these events. A secondary goal was to identify server and festival characteristics and festival policies related to the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. METHODS: We conducted pseudo-underage purchase attempts at 43 festivals and pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at 50 festivals to assess the likelihood of illegal sales. Research staff made observations at festivals and contacted festival planners by telephone following each event to assess which alcohol policies were implemented. We conducted backwards stepwise multivariate analyses for each purchase attempt outcome to identify policies and characteristics related to likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. RESULTS: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers purchased beer in 89% of 95 attempts (standard deviation [SD]=0.31) and pseudo-underage buyers were able to purchase beer in 50% of 82 attempts (SD=0.50). All festival planners reported having at least two of the 10 alcohol policies we assessed, but no festival had implemented all 10 policies. Server characteristics were not related to either purchase attempt outcome. In the multivariate analyses, having more alcohol control policies was related to a greater likelihood of illegal sales to intoxicated customers; however, having more alcohol control policies was associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. Restricting the number of servings per person was also associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. CONCLUSIONS: Propensity for illegal alcohol sales at festivals is very high. Research is needed to identify interventions to prevent illegal alcohol sales at these events. PMID:15842118

  16. Income Generation in Recovering Heroin Users: A Comparative Analysis of Legal and Illegal Earnings

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Sarah; LoSasso, Anthony; Olson, Bradley; Beasley, Christopher; Nisle, Stephanie; Campagna, Kristina; Jason, Leonard A.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown employment to be a central mediator to sustained recovery and community reentry for substance abusers; however, heroin users have lower employment rates and report lower mean incomes than other drug users. The authors of the present study assessed income generating behaviors of substance users recruited from substance abuse treatment facilities (N=247). Heroin users had higher mean incomes from illegal sources. Further, logistic regression analysis found heroin use to increase the likelihood of engagement in illegal income generating behaviors. As these results increase the likelihood of involvement in the criminal justice system, the implications for heroin specific treatment and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:26279611

  17. To see and not be seen: Latin American illegal foreign workers in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Roer-strier, D; Olshtain-mann, O

    1999-01-01

    "This article describes the formation and characteristics of the new evolving community of illegal Latin American foreign workers in Jerusalem while adopting the ecological perspective, which examines human development and behaviour in various contexts of their social and cultural environments. We have looked specifically at illegal Latin American foreign workers' reasons for and process of migration, their accommodation and living conditions, allocation of employment, daily cultural and social conditions, education and health issues concerning children and families, perceptions of relations with host culture and perceptions of well-being and future expectations." (EXCERPT) PMID:12290422

  18. Public spending for illegal drug and alcohol treatment in hospitals: an EU cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Methods Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Results Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Conclusions Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per

  19. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  20. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The "escape-and-radiate" hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  1. The Relationship Between Immigrant School Composition, Classmate Support and Involvement in Physical Fighting and Bullying among Adolescent Immigrants and Non-immigrants in 11 Countries.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sophie D; De Clercq, Bart; Molcho, Michal; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Davison, Colleen M; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Stevens, Gonneke W J M

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Contradictory findings regarding the relationship between immigrant school composition (the percentage of immigrant versus non-immigrant students in a school) and adolescent peer violence necessitate further consideration. The current study examined the relationship between immigrant school composition and peer violence, considering classmate support as a potential moderator among 51,636 adolescents (50.1% female) from 11 countries. The findings showed that a higher percentage of immigrant adolescents in a school was related to higher levels of physical fighting and bullying perpetration for both immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents and lower levels of victimization for immigrants. In environments of low classmate support, the positive relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting was stronger for non-immigrants than in environments with high classmate support. In environments of low classmate support, the negative relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting and bullying victimization was stronger for immigrant adolescents than in environments with high classmate support. In general, the contribution of immigrant school composition was modest in comparison to the contribution of classmate support. The findings emphasize that it is not just the number of immigrants in a class per se, but rather the environment in the classroom which influences levels of peer violence. The results highlight a need for school intervention programs encouraging positive relations in schools with immigrant populations. PMID:26502194

  2. Alcohol Use among Recent Latino Immigrants Before and After Immigration to the United States

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa, Mario; Dillon, Frank R.; Sastre, Francisco; Babino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Background US-born Latinos have higher rates of alcohol use than Latinos who have immigrated to the United States. However, little is known about the pre-immigration drinking patterns of Latino immigrants or about the changes in their drinking behaviors in the 2 years post-immigration. Objectives This article reports findings of a longitudinal study that compared rates of regular, binge, and heavy drinking among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants, ages 18–34, prior to immigration to the United States and in the 2 years post-immigration. Methods Baseline data were collected on the drinking patterns of 405 Latino immigrants living in the United States for 12 months or less. A follow-up assessment occurred during their second year in the United States. Results Findings indicate that number of days of drinking declined significantly post-immigration. Binge alcohol use (five or more drinks on the same occasion during the past 90 days) significantly declined during the post-immigration period. Heavy alcohol use (five or more drinks on the same occasion on five or more days during the past 90 days) also significantly decreased. Conclusions Results suggest a need for continued exploration of pre-immigration drinking patterns and research to uncover underlying factors associated with declines in rates of problematic alcohol use among recent Latino immigrants. Scientific Significance The results of this study can aid in furthering our understanding of the alcohol use of Latino immigrants ages 18–34 prior to and post immigration to the United States to guide future research and the development of culturally tailored clinical interventions. (Am J Addict 2013;22:162–168) PMID:23414503

  3. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers...

  4. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers...

  5. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers...

  6. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers...

  7. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers...

  8. School Violence, Substance Use, and Availability of Illegal Drugs on School Property among U.S. High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Richard; Cohen, Lisa R.; Modzeleski, William; Kann, Laura; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether school violence among high school students related to substance use and availability of illegal drugs at school, examining the associations of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana and availability of illegal drugs with five school violence indicators. Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that school violence…

  9. Academic Trajectories of Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytan, Francisco X.; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve…

  10. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  11. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  12. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  13. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  14. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  15. Higher Education and Children in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges…

  16. The Living Arrangements of Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Thomas, Kevin J. A.; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children of immigrants are a rapidly growing part of the U.S. child population. Their health, development, educational attainment, and social and economic integration into the nation's life will play a defining role in the nation's future. Nancy Landale, Kevin Thomas, and Jennifer Van Hook explore the challenges facing immigrant families as they…

  17. Second-Language Literacy, Immigration, and Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto Huerta, M. E.; Pérez, B.

    2015-01-01

    Second language literacy development is a significant factor influencing immigrants' opportunities to integrate with the host society. To examine the opportunities that different immigrant groups have had for obtaining both, we selected four published studies that had been originally analyzed through a sociocultural perspective, a prominent…

  18. Building the Civic Potential of Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Callahan, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies emerged at the core of the American common school in the mid-nineteenth century amid the rise of the urban immigrant receiving center. These two forces together resulted in the heightened importance of schools in transforming immigrant students into American citizens. Today, U.S. schools often serve as a social and educational nexus…

  19. Children of Immigrants: Imperatives for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Children of immigrants are the fastest-growing segment of the nation's children population. According to the U.S. Census (2007), approximately 16.4 million children, more than 1 in 5, are children of immigrants, most of whom are school-age population (aged 3-17 years). This large demographic shift is fundamentally changing the nation's schools and…

  20. Biliterate Immigrants in a Community Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacio-Lindin, Dino

    Every immigrant has a right to literacy in his native language, but native language literacy alone does not guarantee success. The objective of a program begun in the 1970s in New York City was to develop biliteracy in immigrants so they could start and manage small businesses in the community. Despite a lack of political protection for the…

  1. Prejudices against Immigrants in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etxeberria, Felix; Murua, Hilario; Arrieta, Elisabet; Garmendia, Joxe; Etxeberria, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of prejudice against immigrants in secondary schools in the Basque Country, in Spain. We carried out a review of the best-known questionnaires and catalogues on prejudices regarding immigration and we drew up a new questionnaire, with positive and negative scales of prejudices, in order to apply them to…

  2. Connecting the Immigrant Experience through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Eliza G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3rd-grade teacher used literature to help her immigrant students grapple with some of the larger issues related to immigration. Through the story of one Latino student, the teacher shares the literature that she used and how one student responded.

  3. Academic Achievements of Children in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing data on approximately 16,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort and a rich set of mediating factors on 16 immigrant groups, this paper examined the associations between children's immigrant generation status and their academic performance. The changes in academic achievements during kindergarten and…

  4. The Pilipino Immigrants: A Discussion Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Library Association, Salem.

    Filipinos are now the largest Asian group immigrating to the United States. Some of the reasons for the great influx of professionals who have immigrated include: (1) the false picture of the good life in the U.S., (2) the political and economic situation at home, (3) the oversupply of college graduates and professionally trained persons, and (4)…

  5. Immigrant Qualifications: Recognition and Relative Wage Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Bruce J.; Iredale, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    Uses a dataset compiled by the Australian government to examine the qualifications of ostensibly skilled immigrants. Around 39% of immigrants have chosen to subject their qualifications to local assessment, and about 42% of these have been recognized as equivalent to Australian counterparts. Wage considerations are discussed. (SLD)

  6. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using current population survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  7. Work without Justice: Low Wage Immigrant Laborers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.

    This report focuses on "at risk" immigrants in the United States. This third report in a series highlights the plight of low-income immigrant laborers in the United States. This series does not seek to advance specific policies or reforms. It intends merely to relate the stories of newcomers in the confidence that they will speak powerfully for…

  8. Immigrant Families: Strategies for School Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizalde-Utnick, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    As the immigrant population in the United States steadily increases, so does the need for schools to support immigrant students and their families. Providing support serves the dual purpose of assisting the families and fostering a collaborative home-school relationship that benefits everyone. Principals can work with their student support…

  9. The Nordic Council and Immigrant Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristi Planck

    Cooperation among Scandinavian nations (Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) is important in order to develop an effective policy regarding the education of immigrants and refugees. Each of the Scandinavian countries has a definitive education policy for refugees and immigrants. However, cooperative efforts among the nations through the Nordic…

  10. Immigration and Student Achievement: Evidence from Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether immigrant students in Switzerland perform poorly compared to their native counterparts and provides some explanations. Using a national sample of the 2000 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) database, we first analyze the impact of immigrant status on pupils' achievement. We find a…

  11. Sovereignty Discourse and Contemporary Immigration Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demo, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Developing literature on late twentieth century U.S. immigration rhetoric has failed to attend adequately to the character of sovereignty claims in contemporary immigration politics. This essay demonstrates the centrality of sovereignty discourse by examining texts created by the state, specifically public affairs videos produced and distributed…

  12. Creating Sanctuaries for Latino Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Katia Paz

    1998-01-01

    Explores schools' potential function as sanctuaries for immigrant families. Describes Grupo de Padres, a group formed by Latino immigrant families in an elementary school located in a low-income, migrational point-of-entry neighborhood. Interviews disclosed key physical and social components for a safe environment and the need for meaningful…

  13. Adult Education, Migration and Immigrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Cossio, Roger Diaz

    Mexico is experiencing major reform in adult education. At the same time, Mexico has been the largest producer of immigrants into the United States in the last 50 years. At the beginning of the century, non-English-speaking immigrants were only required to learn enough English to perform their jobs. As the Mexican-American community grew, it…

  14. Immigrant Women and Counseling the Invisible Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana; Chronister, Krista M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau reports that 10.4% of the U.S. population, or approximately 28 million individuals, are immigrants (Schmidley, 2001). The amount of information on recent immigrants in psychological literature is sparse (Hovey, 2000; Pernice, 1994; Yoshihama & Horrucks, 2002), however, and there is even less information about the impact of…

  15. Immigrant Success Stories in ESL Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliver, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Immigrant success stories found in English as a second language (ESL) textbooks used in government-funded language instruction in Canada imagine Canada as a redeemer of immigrant newcomers. Through a critical discourse analysis of ESL textbooks used in Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada classes in Ontario, I identify two primary…

  16. Immigrant and refugee children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Beiser, M; Dion, R; Gotowiec, A; Hyman, I; Vu, N

    1995-03-01

    In view of Canada's commitment to immigration, understanding the sources of successful adaptation by immigrant and refugee children is vital. This paper reviews the literature on the mental health of migrant children and suggests an agenda for future research. PMID:7788620

  17. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  18. Critical Quantitative Study of Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of critical quantitative research for studies of immigrant students, a large and growing group, whose higher education experience is crucial to the future of the United States. The author outlines some of the distinctions to be made among immigrant students and recommends areas of future inquiry.

  19. Immigrant Students and the Obstacles to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Tamiko; Pang, Valerie Ooka; Madueno, Marcelina; Park, Cynthia D.; Atlas, Miriam; Page, Cindy; Oliger, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article describes composites of actual students, but examples of hardworking immigrant students and their families can be found in every state. Many young immigrants are negotiating their place in society. They believe in the American Dream and struggle with issues of poverty, language, cultural assimilation, and the desire to further their…

  20. Self-Defense for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givler, Jill I.

    2005-01-01

    Resources for self-defense training programs have become more popular and available over the last few years. Introducing a self-defense unit as part of a school physical education program is a wonderful way to address a number of psychosocial issues that prevail among teenagers today. The physical skills learned in this type of program allow…

  1. Community unemployment and immigrants' health in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Forster, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise; Raynault, Marie-France; Douglas Willms, J

    2006-07-01

    This research examines the relationship between community unemployment and the physical and mental health of immigrants in comparison to non-immigrants in Montreal under the hypothesis that high unemployment in the community may generate more negative effects on the health of immigrants than on non-immigrants. Possible gender differences in these associations are also examined. Montreal residents were studied via multilevel analysis, using both individual survey data and neighbourhood data from 49 police districts. Individual-level data were excerpted from a 1998 health survey of Montreal residents, while neighbourhood data originated from survey data collected in the 49 Montreal police districts and the 1996 Canadian Census. The associations between community unemployment and self-rated health, psychological distress and obesity are examined, and hypotheses regarding the modifying mechanisms via which male and female immigrants may run a greater risk of poor health than non-immigrants when living in areas of high unemployment were tested. Between neighbourhoods, variations in the three health outcomes were slight, and differences in health were not associated with differences in community unemployment. The associations between community unemployment and health varied according to immigration status. At the individual level, immigrants do not differ from non-immigrants with respect to the three health indicators, except that second-generation males are slightly heavier. However, when living in areas of high unemployment, immigrants tend to report poor physical and mental health in comparison to non-immigrants. Among first-generation immigrants, community unemployment was associated with psychological distress. Among second-generation immigrants, the probability of obesity and poor self-rated health increased significantly for those living in areas with high unemployment, but these associations reached statistical significance only for men. Findings among first

  2. K-12 educational outcomes of immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin

  3. Festival Foods in the Immigrant Diet

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Kristen M.J.; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the “Westernization” of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e. fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the U.S. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western “junk” food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  4. Immigration as a social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide; Holmes, Seth M; Madrigal, Daniel S; Young, Maria-Elena DeTrinidad; Beyeler, Naomi; Quesada, James

    2015-03-18

    Although immigration and immigrant populations have become increasingly important foci in public health research and practice, a social determinants of health approach has seldom been applied in this area. Global patterns of morbidity and mortality follow inequities rooted in societal, political, and economic conditions produced and reproduced by social structures, policies, and institutions. The lack of dialogue between these two profoundly related phenomena-social determinants of health and immigration-has resulted in missed opportunities for public health research, practice, and policy work. In this article, we discuss primary frameworks used in recent public health literature on the health of immigrant populations, note gaps in this literature, and argue for a broader examination of immigration as both socially determined and a social determinant of health. We discuss priorities for future research and policy to understand more fully and respond appropriately to the health of the populations affected by this global phenomenon. PMID:25494053

  5. The Contributions of Immigrants to American Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The standard account of American immigration focuses on the acculturation and assimilation of immigrants and their children to American society. This analysis typically ignores the significant contributions of immigrants to the creation of American culture through the performing arts, sciences, and other cultural pursuits. Immigrants and their children are not born with more creative talents than native-born citizens, but their selectivity and marginality may have pushed and pulled those with ability into high-risk career paths that reward creative work. The presence of large numbers of talented immigrants in Hollywood, academia, and the high-tech industries has pushed American institutions to be more meritocratic and open to innovation than they would be otherwise. PMID:24339451

  6. Ethnic Enclaves and the Earnings of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Gough, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A large literature in sociology concerns the implications of immigrants’ participation in ethnic enclaves for their economic and social well-being. The “enclave thesis” speculates that immigrants benefit from working in ethnic enclaves. Previous research concerning the effects of enclave participation on immigrants’ economic outcomes has come to mixed conclusions as to whether enclave effects are positive or negative. In this article, we seek to extend and improve upon past work by formulating testable hypotheses based on the enclave thesis and testing them with data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS), employing both residence-based and workplace-based measures of the ethnic enclave. We compare the economic outcomes of immigrants working in ethnic enclaves with those of immigrants working in the mainstream economy. Our research yields minimal support for the enclave thesis. Our results further indicate that for some immigrant groups, ethnic enclave participation actually has a negative effect on economic outcomes. PMID:21863367

  7. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities. PMID:21643725

  8. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  9. Festival foods in the immigrant diet.

    PubMed

    Azar, Kristen M J; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2013-10-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the "Westernization" of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e., fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the US. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western "junk" food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  10. The Contributions of Immigrants to American Culture.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The standard account of American immigration focuses on the acculturation and assimilation of immigrants and their children to American society. This analysis typically ignores the significant contributions of immigrants to the creation of American culture through the performing arts, sciences, and other cultural pursuits. Immigrants and their children are not born with more creative talents than native-born citizens, but their selectivity and marginality may have pushed and pulled those with ability into high-risk career paths that reward creative work. The presence of large numbers of talented immigrants in Hollywood, academia, and the high-tech industries has pushed American institutions to be more meritocratic and open to innovation than they would be otherwise. PMID:24339451

  11. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... student has been convicted of an offense under any Federal or State law involving the possession or...

  12. China's Rare Earth Supply Chain: Illegal Production, and Response to new Cerium Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-07-01

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China's supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructed a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the US market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007-2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China's rare earth supply, translating into 59-65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14-16% illegal light rare earths. There will be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Finally, we illustrate revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.

  13. China’s rare earth supply chain: Illegal production, and response to new cerium demand

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-03-29

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China’s supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructedmore » a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the U.S. market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007 to 2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China’s rare earth supply, translating into 59–65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14–16% illegal light rare earths. There would be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Lastly, we illustrated revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.« less

  14. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping

    PubMed Central

    Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G.

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps. PMID:27448048

  15. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  16. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps. PMID:27448048

  17. Catalog of Selected Federal Publications on Illegal Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    A concise collection of federal publications in the area of illegal drug and alcohol abuse, this catalog begins with a listing of seven federal clearinghouse, with information on services, user audience, and a contact provided for each. The main part of the document provides briefly annotated information on federal publications organized into the…

  18. Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ho-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic…

  19. Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change. PMID:22676567

  20. China's Rare Earth Supply Chain: Illegal Production, and Response to new Cerium Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-03-01

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China's supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructed a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the US market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007-2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China's rare earth supply, translating into 59-65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14-16% illegal light rare earths. There will be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Finally, we illustrate revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.