Science.gov

Sample records for illness farm practices

  1. Injury and Illness Costs in the Certified Safe Farm Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Kelley J.; Rautiainen, Risto H.; Lange, Jeffrey L.; Schneiders, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Context: The Certified Safe Farm (CSF) intervention program aims to reduce occupational injuries and illnesses, and promote wellness to reduce health care and related costs to farmers, insurers, and other stakeholders. Purpose: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of CSF. Methods: Farms (316) located in a 9-county area of northwestern Iowa were…

  2. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  3. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  4. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  5. Soil management practices under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  6. Managerial practices regarding workers working while ill.

    PubMed

    Norton, D M; Brown, L G; Frick, R; Carpenter, L R; Green, A L; Tobin-D'Angelo, M; Reimann, D W; Blade, H; Nicholas, D C; Egan, J S; Everstine, K

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance data indicate that handling of food by an ill worker is a cause of almost half of all restaurant-related outbreaks. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code contains recommendations for food service establishments, including restaurants, aimed at reducing the frequency with which food workers work while ill. However, few data exist on the extent to which restaurants have implemented FDA recommendations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study on the topic of ill food workers in restaurants. We interviewed restaurant managers (n = 426) in nine EHS-Net sites. We found that many restaurant policies concerning ill food workers do not follow FDA recommendations. For example, one-third of the restaurants' policies did not specifically address the circumstances under which ill food workers should be excluded from work (i.e., not be allowed to work). We also found that, in many restaurants, managers are not actively involved in decisions about whether ill food workers should work. Additionally, almost 70% of managers said they had worked while ill; 10% said they had worked while having nausea or "stomach flu," possible symptoms of foodborne illness. When asked why they had worked when ill, a third of the managers said they felt obligated to work or their strong work ethic compelled them to work. Other reasons cited were that the restaurant was understaffed or no one was available to replace them (26%), they felt that their symptoms were mild or not contagious (19%), they had special managerial responsibilities that no one else could fulfill (11%), there was non-food handling work they could do (7%), and they would not get paid if they did not work or the restaurant had no sick leave policy (5%). Data from this study can inform future research and help policy makers target interventions designed to reduce the frequency with which food workers work while ill. PMID:25581195

  7. Employee Training Practices on Large New York Dairy Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Thomas R.

    Fifty percent of 60 farm managers responded to a survey regarding training practices and their attitudes toward training on the farm. The 30 respondents were primarily managers of larger farms with freestall barns and milking parlors, managers of dairies with above average production and profitability, and dairy farm owner-operators. Participants…

  8. Whole-farm simulation to determine effective conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because management decisions are made at the farm level, effective conservation practices must be both efficient in controlling air- and water-borne farm emissions and feasible with regard to farm production and profit. The Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM) provides a process-based simulation of ...

  9. Calving management practices on Canadian dairy farms: Prevalence of practices.

    PubMed

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; de Passillé, A M; Pearl, D L; LeBlanc, S J; Godden, S M; Pellerin, D; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; Haley, D B

    2016-03-01

    Little information is available about current practices around calving in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to describe calving management practices in the Canadian dairy industry related to housing, calving protocols, monitoring of parturition, and calving assistance. Information was gathered by in-person interviews from 236 dairy farms from 3 Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, and Québec) with freestalls and an automatic milking system (n=24), freestalls with a parlor (n=112), and tiestalls (n=100). The most commonly used types of calving facilities were group calving pens (35%) followed by individual calving pens (30%). Tiestalls were used by 26% of all surveyed producers as their main type of calving area (49% of the tiestall, 7% of the freestall with parlor, and 13% of the automatic milking system farms). Written protocols related to calving were found on only 7% of the farms visited, and only 50% of those protocols were developed with a veterinarian. However, 90% of producers kept written records of calving difficulty. Monitoring of cows around calving occurred 5 times more often during the daytime (between morning and evening milking) compared with nighttime. Cameras were used to monitor cows around and during calvings on 18% of farms. Sixteen percent of producers vaginally palpated all animals during calving. Twenty-seven percent of producers interviewed assisted all calvings on their farms by pulling the calf, and 37% assisted all heifers at calving. According to the producers' reported perception, 93% of them had "a minor problem" or "no problem" with calving difficulties on their farms. This study provides basic data on current calving practices and identifies areas for improvement and potential targets for knowledge transfer efforts or research to clarify best management practices. PMID:26723128

  10. ON-FARM ANALYSIS OF PRECISION FARMING PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming technologies are becoming increasingly popular. However, few studies have addressed the whole farm and per acre expense of these technologies. A 33-acre farm example is used to establish baseline cost estimates of these technologies. Findings suggest that per acre expense is relati...

  11. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    PubMed

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers. PMID:23844787

  12. Farming practices influence wild pollinator populations on squash and pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Shuler, Rachel E; Roulston, Tai H; Farris, Grace E

    2005-06-01

    Recent declines in managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies have increased interest in the current and potential contribution of wild bee populations to the pollination of agricultural crops. Because wild bees often live in agricultural fields, their population density and contribution to crop pollination may be influenced by farming practices, especially those used to reduce the populations of other insects. We took a census of pollinators of squash and pumpkin at 25 farms in Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland to see whether pollinator abundance was related to farming practices. The main pollinators were Peponapis pruinosa Say; honey bees, and bumble bees (Bombus spp.). The squash bee was the most abundant pollinator on squash and pumpkin, occurring at 23 of 25 farms in population densities that were commonly several times higher than that of other pollinators. Squash bee density was related to tillage practices: no-tillage farms hosted three times as great a density of squash bees as tilled farms. Pollinator density was not related to pesticide use. Honey bee density on squash and pumpkin was not related to the presence of managed honey bee colonies on farms. Farms with colonies did not have more honey bees per flower than farms that did not keep honey bees, probably reflecting the lack of affinity of honey bees for these crops. Future research should examine the economic impacts of managing farms in ways that promote pollinators, particularly pollinators of crops that are not well served by managed honey bee colonies. PMID:16022307

  13. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... outside the scope of the statutory language. Area soil surveys and genetics research activities, results... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm... order to constitute “agriculture” within the secondary meaning of the term. No practice performed...

  14. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... outside the scope of the statutory language. Area soil surveys and genetics research activities, results... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm... order to constitute “agriculture” within the secondary meaning of the term. No practice performed...

  15. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... outside the scope of the statutory language. Area soil surveys and genetics research activities, results... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm... order to constitute “agriculture” within the secondary meaning of the term. No practice performed...

  16. Factors Related to the Adoption of Farm Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Orville E.; Brown, Emory J.

    Dairy farmers (N=387) in two Pennsylvania counties were studied concerning their adoption of practices used on nearby demonstration farms. A total of 37 variables (including 11 "dummy variables") were used to measure personal characteristics, economic structures of farms, communication sources, and formal and informal participation. Factor…

  17. Validation of good agricultural practices (GAP) on Minnesota vegetable farms.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Karin E; Umber, Jamie; Hultberg, Annalisa; Tong, Cindy; Schermann, Michele; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Bender, Jeff B

    2015-02-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture jointly published the "Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables," which is used as a basis for Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) audits. To understand barriers to incorporation of GAP by Minnesota vegetable farmers, a mail survey completed in 2008 was validated with visits to a subset of the farms. This was done to determine the extent to which actual practices matched perceived practices. Two hundred forty-six producers completed the mail survey, and 27 participated in the on-farm survey. Over 75% of the on-farm survey respondents produced vegetables on 10 acres or less and had 10 or fewer employees. Of 14 questions, excellent agreement between on-farm interviews and mail survey responses was observed on two questions, four questions had poor or slight agreement, and eight questions had no agreement. Ninety-two percent of respondents by mail said "they took measures to keep animals and pests out of packing and storage buildings." However, with the on-site visit only 45% met this requirement. Similarly, 81% of respondents by mail said "measures were taken to reduce the risk of wild and/or domestic animals entering into fruit and vegetable growing areas." With direct observation, 70% of farms actually had taken measures to keep animals out of the growing areas. Additional, on-farm assessments were done regarding employee hygiene, training, presence of animals, water sources, and composting practices. This validation study demonstrated the challenge of creating nonleading and concise questions that are not open to broad interpretation from the respondents. If mail surveys are used to assess GAP, they should include open-ended questions and ranking systems to better assess farm practices. To provide the most accurate survey data for educational purposes or GAP audits, on-farm visits are recommended. PMID:25564923

  18. 29 CFR 780.147 - Practices performed on farm products-special factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices performed on farm products-special factors... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.147 Practices performed on farm products—special... commodities is incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of a farmer or a farm, it is...

  19. 29 CFR 780.147 - Practices performed on farm products-special factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices performed on farm products-special factors... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.147 Practices performed on farm products—special... commodities is incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of a farmer or a farm, it is...

  20. ON-FARM IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides a technical discussion of irrigation and drainage design and water management practices associated with irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. Surface irrigation being the principal method used in most arid areas is discussed in detail with the various types being outlined and...

  1. Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne; Wichtel, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Cows on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) in developing countries such as Kenya typically produce volumes of milk that are well below their genetic potential. An epidemiological study was conducted to determine reasons for this low milk production, including limited use of best management practices, such as suboptimal nutritional management. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 111 SDF was performed in Nyeri County, Kenya in June of 2013 determining the effect of cow factors, farmer demographics and farm management practices on the volume of milk sold per cow per year (kg milk sold/cow). In particular, the effect of feeding high protein fodder trees and other nutritional management practices were examined. Results: Approximatly 38% of farmers fed fodder trees, but such feeding was not associated with volume of milk sold per cow, likely due to the low number of fodder trees per farm. Volume of milk sold per cow was positively associated with feeding dairy meal during the month prior to calving, feeding purchased hay during the past year, deworming cows every 4 or more months (as opposed to more regularly), and having dairy farming as the main source of family income. Volume of milk sold per cow was negatively associated with a household size of >5 people and feeding Napier grass at >2 meters in height during the dry season. An interaction between gender of the principal farmer and feed shortages was noted; volume of milk sold per cow was lower when female farmers experienced feed shortages whereas milk sold per cow was unaffected when male farmers experienced feed shortages. Conclusions: These demographic and management risk factors should be considered by smallholder dairy farmers and their advisors when developing strategies to improve income from milk sales and animal-source food availability for the farming families. PMID:27047003

  2. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  3. The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

  4. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  5. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  6. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  7. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  8. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  9. Education and Training: Impacts on Farm Management Practice. CRLRA Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    A study examined the relationship between education and training and changes to farm management practices that improve profitability. Data were drawn from a National Australian survey of 2,500 farms and from an interview survey of 65 Tasmanian farms, 45 of which had participated in recent training. Findings indicate that farms that participated in…

  10. Evaluation of external biosecurity practices on southern Ontario sow farms.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Deardon, Rob; Holtkamp, Derald; Friendship, Robert

    2013-04-01

    External biosecurity protocols, aimed at preventing the introduction of new pathogens to the farm environment, are becoming increasingly important in the swine industry. Although assessments at the individual farm level occur regularly, efforts to cluster swine herds into meaningful biosecurity groups and to summarize this information at the regional level are relatively infrequent. The objectives of this study were: (i) to summarize external biosecurity practices on sow farms in southern Ontario; (ii) to cluster these farms into discrete biosecurity groups and to describe their characteristics, the variables of importance in differentiating between these groups, and their geographic distribution; and (iii) to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. Data were collected using the Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program's Survey for the Breeding Herd. A subset of variables pertaining to external biosecurity practices was selected for two-step cluster analysis, which resulted in 3 discrete biosecurity groups. These groups were named by the authors as: (i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals, (ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals, and (iii) low biosecurity herds. Variables pertaining to trucking practices and the source of replacement animals were the most important in differentiating between these groups. Multinomial logistic regression provided insight into which demographic and neighborhood variables serve as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership (p<0.05). Variables in the final regression model include: herd density within a 4.8 km radius, number of sows on the premises, and site production type. The odds of belonging to the high biosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, increased 1.001 times for each additional sow (p=0.001). The odds of belonging to the high

  11. Factors Related to the Adoption of Farm Practices 1962-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Orville W.; And Others

    This paper analyzed factors related to adoption of new farm practices by dairy farmers in two Pennsylvania counties in 1962 and 1966. (Of 638 farmers interviewed in 1962, 387 were still operating their farms in 1966.) The dependent variable was an index of 19 recommended farm practices, of which about half were being used in 1962. Twenty-one…

  12. 29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137 Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a farmer... farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR...

  13. A review of health and safety leadership and managerial practices on modern dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Hagevoort, G Robert; Douphrate, David I; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    As modern dairy operations around the world expand, farmers are increasingly reliant on greater automation and larger numbers of hired labor to milk cows and perform other essential farm tasks. Dairy farming is among the most dangerous occupations, with high rates of injury, illness, and employee turnover. Lower education levels, illiteracy, and limited language proficiency increase the possibility of injury or death associated with higher risk occupations such as dairy. Sustaining a healthy, productive workforce is a critical component of risk management; however, many owners and managers have not received formal training in employee management or occupational health and safety. Optimal dairy farming management should address milk production that is sustainable and responsible from the animal welfare, social, economic, and environmental perspectives. Each of these aspects is interdependent with each other and with a sustainable, healthy, productive workforce. Very few studies address the effectiveness of risk management in the dairy industry. Studies suggest that labor management practices are a potential competitive advantage for dairy farms, but the connection with efficiency, productivity, and profitability has not been clearly demonstrated. Transformational leadership has been associated with improved safety climate and reduced incidence of injury, whereas passive leadership styles have opposite effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of safety-specific transformational leadership among dairy owners and managers. A systematic approach to risk management should address worker health and safety as an integral component of production, food safety, and animal welfare. A successful program must address the cultural and linguistic barriers associated with immigrant workers. PMID:23844793

  14. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  15. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  16. Potential risk factors associated with ill-thrift in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) raised at smallholder farms in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed A.; El-khodery, Sabry A.; El-said, Waleed E.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to grow (ill-thrift) in calves has a negative effect on animal production and health. The present study was carried out from November, 2009 to May, 2013 to investigate the risk factors of ill-thrift in buffalo calves. A total of 344 calves at 78 smallholder farms were selected randomly. A questionnaire was designed to include managemental, nutritional and disease risk factors. Serum selenium, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured. Data were subjected to logistic regression analysis and results were expressed as p value, odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). Fifty-five calves (15.9%) showed ill-thrift. On animal level, the final multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant association between ill-thrift and early weaning (p < 0.01; OR: 45.755; CI: 4.35–480.25), diarrhea (p < 0.05; OR: 41.315; CI: 1.710–998.0), indoor management (p < 0.05; OR: 63.56; CI: 2.701–14.96) and low serum phosphorus (p < 0.01; 292.0; CI: 5.256–16.23). On farm level, inadequate mineral supplementation (p < 0.001; OR: 18.62; CI: 3.89–88.9) and irregular use of anthelmintics (p < 0.05; OR: 7.95; CI: 1.53–41.23) were the potential factors. Clinically, ill-thrift calves were more likely to have alopecia (p < 0.01), recumbency (p < 0.01), emaciation (p < 0.001), hypothermia (p < 0.01), inappetance (p < 0.001), lacrimation (p < 0.001), hypomotile rumen (p < 0.001), and pale mucous membrane (p < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that ill-thrift in buffalo calves could occur as a result of interaction between management errors and disease factors. Identification of the risk factors associated with ill-thrift may provide useful information, which assist to construct the suitable preventive measures. PMID:26199751

  17. Potential risk factors associated with ill-thrift in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) raised at smallholder farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry A; El-Said, Waleed E

    2015-07-01

    Failure to grow (ill-thrift) in calves has a negative effect on animal production and health. The present study was carried out from November, 2009 to May, 2013 to investigate the risk factors of ill-thrift in buffalo calves. A total of 344 calves at 78 smallholder farms were selected randomly. A questionnaire was designed to include managemental, nutritional and disease risk factors. Serum selenium, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured. Data were subjected to logistic regression analysis and results were expressed as p value, odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). Fifty-five calves (15.9%) showed ill-thrift. On animal level, the final multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant association between ill-thrift and early weaning (p < 0.01; OR: 45.755; CI: 4.35-480.25), diarrhea (p < 0.05; OR: 41.315; CI: 1.710-998.0), indoor management (p < 0.05; OR: 63.56; CI: 2.701-14.96) and low serum phosphorus (p < 0.01; 292.0; CI: 5.256-16.23). On farm level, inadequate mineral supplementation (p < 0.001; OR: 18.62; CI: 3.89-88.9) and irregular use of anthelmintics (p < 0.05; OR: 7.95; CI: 1.53-41.23) were the potential factors. Clinically, ill-thrift calves were more likely to have alopecia (p < 0.01), recumbency (p < 0.01), emaciation (p < 0.001), hypothermia (p < 0.01), inappetance (p < 0.001), lacrimation (p < 0.001), hypomotile rumen (p < 0.001), and pale mucous membrane (p < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that ill-thrift in buffalo calves could occur as a result of interaction between management errors and disease factors. Identification of the risk factors associated with ill-thrift may provide useful information, which assist to construct the suitable preventive measures. PMID:26199751

  18. 29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137 Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

  19. 29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137 Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

  20. 29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137 Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

  1. 29 CFR 780.147 - Practices performed on farm products-special factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Performance of the Practice âas An Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.147 Practices performed on farm products—special factors considered. In determining whether a practice performed on agricultural or...

  2. Modern and Traditional Medical Practices of Vietnam. Vietnamese Concepts of Illness and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieu, Le Tai

    This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)

  3. Control of trichinellosis by inspection and farm management practices.

    PubMed

    van Knapen, F

    2000-12-01

    The prevention of human trichinellosis by proper meat inspection is a classic example of successful veterinary public health measures. The microscopic methods which have been used for more than a century to test pigs for trichinae were intended to prevent human disease. However, the value of these relatively insensitive direct detection methods, including trichinoscopy and pooled sample digestion, was debated as soon as more sensitive indirect (serological) methods became available. Two issues related to testing were discussed. First, should public health authorities endeavour to prevent all infections of humans rather than simply prevent the occurrence of disease, and second, would epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of the pig population on farms not provide a better control system to prevent human infection. This latter issue is of particular importance for those countries in the world where human trichinellosis acquired from farmed animals is absent and examination of pigs at the abattoir only results in negative findings. In countries where domestic pig infections are virtually non-existent, monitoring of Trichinella infection in wildlife could also contribute to understanding the infection pressure from nature to livestock. Trichinella-free pig farming is a feasible option for controlling this zoonosis, even in endemic areas. This approach provides an opportunity to combine good veterinary practice, in order to prevent animal diseases, with the prevention of Trichinella infection. All animals with access to the environment, or animals which are fed with potentially Trichinella-infected feed (swill, carcasses) will always constitute a public health threat, and must be inspected individually at slaughter (swine, horses, wild boars). Finally, it is important to recognize that trichinellosis is a world-wide problem that needs continuous public health attention. If no control system exists, for whatever reason, the public should be educated not to consume

  4. Impact of Organic versus Conventional Farming Practices on Soil Leachate Total Nitrogen Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collopy, A.; Schloss, J.; Hale, S. R.; Rock, B. N.

    2008-12-01

    Approximately 50 percent of US drinking water comes from groundwater sources. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has standards for organic certification designed to promote groundwater quality. In order to be USDA certified organic, a farmer must 1) never use conventional pesticides, 2) never use fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients, and 3) have been farming organically for over five years. We tested for differences between organic and conventional farming on nitrogen levels in water percolating through soils and hypothesized that organically farmed soil leachate would have lower nitrogen concentrations than conventionally farmed soil leachate. Soil samples collected from fields under organic farming practices did not show significantly lower total nitrate concentrations than samples collected from fields under conventional farming practices. Instead, it was determined that the type of crop being grown has greater influence on leachate total nitrate than the type of farming practice.

  5. Retaining vets in farm animal practice: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Baillie, S; Rushton, J

    2015-06-20

    Concerns have been raised about a potential shortage of farm animal vets in the UK. There is no apparent lack of new graduates willing to work with farm animals, but practices report difficulties in recruiting and retaining experienced farm animal vets. Retention of vets in farm animal practice has been identified as a key issue for the sustainability of veterinary businesses and livestock health. A cross-sectional study design was used to identify factors associated with vets remaining in farm animal practice. Data were collected via an online questionnaire covering employment, education, personal background and future plans. The target population was vets with experience of farm animal work in the UK. 380 responses were included in the analysis. Working in a practice where accommodation was provided and an increasing number of years since graduation were associated with significantly lower odds of remaining in farm animal practice, while working in a practice where staff appraisals were carried out; coming from a family with a commercial farm; spending more time on farm work and being on call with an experienced vet in the first job after graduation increased the odds of remaining in farm work. Gender was not significantly associated with retention. PMID:26002092

  6. A Multinational Study of Thromboprophylaxis Practice in Critically Ill Children*

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, Edward Vincent S.; Hanson, Sheila; Spinella, Philip C.; Tucci, Marisa; O'Brien, Sarah H.; Nunez, Antonio Rodriguez; Yung, Michael; Truemper, Edward; Qin, Li; Li, Simon; Marohn, Kimberly; Randolph, Adrienne G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although critically ill children are at increased risk for developing deep venous thrombosis, there are few pediatric studies establishing the prevalence of thrombosis or the efficacy of thromboprophylaxis. We tested the hypothesis that thromboprophylaxis is infrequently used in critically ill children even for those in whom it is indicated. Design Prospective multinational cross-sectional study over four study dates in 2012. Setting Fifty-nine PICUs in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. Patients All patients less than 18 years old in the PICU during the study dates and times were included in the study, unless the patients were 1) boarding in the unit waiting for a bed outside the PICU or 2) receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of 2,484 children in the study, 2,159 (86.9%) had greater than or equal to 1 risk factor for thrombosis. Only 308 children (12.4%) were receiving pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (e.g., aspirin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or unfractionated heparin). Of 430 children indicated to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis based on consensus recommendations, only 149 (34.7%) were receiving it. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in 156 of 655 children (23.8%) 8 years old or older, the youngest age for that device. Using nonlinear mixed effects model, presence of cyanotic congenital heart disease (odds ratio, 7.35; p < 0.001) and spinal cord injury (odds ratio, 8.85; p = 0.008) strongly predicted the use of pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis, respectively. Conclusions Thromboprophylaxis is infrequently used in critically ill children. This is true even for children at high risk of thrombosis where consensus guidelines recommend pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24351371

  7. Practice of strict glycemic control in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Marcus J; de Graaff, Mart J; Royakkers, Annic A N M; van Braam Houckgeest, Floris; van der Sluijs, Johannes P; Kieft, Hans; Spronk, Peter E

    2008-11-01

    Blood glucose control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as "strict glycemic control", decreases mortality and morbidity of critically ill patients. We searched the medical literature for export opinions, surveys, and clinical reports on blood glucose control in intensive care medicine. While strict glycemic control has been recommended standard of care for critically ill patients, the risk of severe hypoglycemia with strict glycemic control is frequently mentioned by experts. Some rationalize this risk, though others strongly point out the high incidence of hypoglycemia to be (one) reason not to perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete in intensive care units across the world. Frequently local guidelines accept higher blood glucose levels than those with strict glycemic control. Only a minority of retrieved manuscripts are on blood glucose regimens with the lower targets as with strict glycemic control. Hypoglycemia certainly is encountered with blood glucose control, in particular with strict glycemic control. Reports show intensive care-nurses can adequately and safely perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete, at least in part because of the feared risks of hypoglycemia. The preference for hyperglycemia over intermittent hypoglycemia is irrational, however, because there is causal evidence of harm for the former but only associative evidence of harm for the latter. For several reasons it is wise to have strict glycemic control being a nurse-based strategy. PMID:18971884

  8. Farm size, seining practices, and salt use: risk factors for Aeromonas hydrophila outbreaks in farm-raised catfish, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Bebak, Julie; Wagner, Bruce; Burnes, Brian; Hanson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    outbreaks (OR=0.2, CI=0.05-0.6, p-value=0.004). To achieve economies of scale, catfish farmers raise fish on large farms at higher stocking densities, but this practice may result in increased susceptibility to disease outbreaks. Producers should prioritize implementing biosecurity measures such as improved seining practices and other management practices to protect fish grown at high population densities. Further work will determine what the detailed seining protocols should include, and whether the use of salt, and at what concentrations, reduces the risk of A. hydrophila outbreaks. PMID:25466218

  9. Chronic illness and wellbeing: using nursing practice to foster resillence as resistance.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-leigh

    Chronic non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes are the biggest killers worldwide. Chronic conditions include heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and are often comorbid with mental illness. Over 60 years ago, the British Medical Journal reported an association between mental illness and poor physical health (Philips, 1934). Comorbid mental illness and physical illness incrementally worsens health compared with mental illness alone or any of the chronic non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes alone. This paper aims to open the dialogue related to optimising, through nursing intervention, a patient's self-righting and self-management factors in the context of comorbid chronic conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, with mental illness. Self-management and self-righting capabilities are now being considered integral to reducing the negative impact of chronic conditions such as mental illness. Personal characteristics associated with resilience comprise optimism, an active or adaptable coping style and the ability to elicit social support. Existing resilience factors can be assessed for by nurses and optimised through interventions when patients with chronic conditions are in care. Representing over 70% of the global health workforce, nurses are well positioned to enact such practice enhancements to facilitate better outcomes for patients. PMID:24261088

  10. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  11. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  12. Antibiotic Types and Handling Practices in Disease Management among Pig Farms in Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osei Sekyere, John

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is affected by the type of antibiotics used and how they are handled. The types of antibiotics used by 110 pig farms in the Ashanti region and the handling practices of the farmers during disease management were assessed. Injectable tetracycline, sulphadimidine, benzylpenicillin, and dihydrostreptomycin containing antibiotics were overly used by the farmers especially in the management of diarrhea, rashes, and coughs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices observed among the farms reflected the abysmal knowledge on appropriate use of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis and inadequate protection during antibiotic handling in the farms increased the risk of antibiotic resistance development and spread. The factors affecting antibiotic resistance development and spread are rife in pig farms in Ashanti region and appropriate education and veterinary interventions are needed to prevent resistant bacteria from becoming endemic in pork and pig farm communities. PMID:26464936

  13. Antibiotic Types and Handling Practices in Disease Management among Pig Farms in Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osei Sekyere, John

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is affected by the type of antibiotics used and how they are handled. The types of antibiotics used by 110 pig farms in the Ashanti region and the handling practices of the farmers during disease management were assessed. Injectable tetracycline, sulphadimidine, benzylpenicillin, and dihydrostreptomycin containing antibiotics were overly used by the farmers especially in the management of diarrhea, rashes, and coughs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices observed among the farms reflected the abysmal knowledge on appropriate use of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis and inadequate protection during antibiotic handling in the farms increased the risk of antibiotic resistance development and spread. The factors affecting antibiotic resistance development and spread are rife in pig farms in Ashanti region and appropriate education and veterinary interventions are needed to prevent resistant bacteria from becoming endemic in pork and pig farm communities. PMID:26464936

  14. Communication about serious illness care goals: a review and synthesis of best practices.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of patients' care goals in the context of a serious illness is an essential element of high-quality care, allowing clinicians to align the care provided with what is most important to the patient. Early discussions about goals of care are associated with better quality of life, reduced use of nonbeneficial medical care near death, enhanced goal-consistent care, positive family outcomes, and reduced costs. Existing evidence does not support the commonly held belief that communication about end-of-life issues increases patient distress. However, conversations about care goals are often conducted by physicians who do not know the patient, do not routinely address patients' nonmedical goals, and often fail to provide patients with sufficient information about prognosis to allow appropriate decisions; in addition, they tend to occur so late in the patient's illness that their impact on care processes is reduced. This article (1) reviews the evidence and describes best practices in conversations about serious illness care goals and (2) offers practical advice for clinicians and health care systems about developing a systematic approach to quality and timing of such communication to assure that each patient has a personalized serious illness care plan. Best practices in discussing goals of care include the following: sharing prognostic information, eliciting decision-making preferences, understanding fears and goals, exploring views on trade-offs and impaired function, and wishes for family involvement. Several interventions hold promise in systematizing conversations with patients about serious illness care goals: better education of physicians; systems to identify and trigger early discussions for appropriate patients; patient and family education; structured formats to guide discussions; dedicated, structured sections in the electronic health record for recording information; and continuous measurement. We conclude that communication about serious

  15. Herd health status and management practices on 16 Irish suckler beef farms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few studies published internationally which document herd health management practices in suckler beef herds and no published Irish studies. The study objective was to document herd health status and management practices on sixteen Irish suckler beef herds over a two year period (2009–2010). The farms used in the study were part of the Teagasc BETTER farm beef programme. The mean (s.d.) herd size, stocking rate and farm size was 68 cows (27.6), 2.0 LU/ha (0.3) and 64.3 (21.6) adjusted hectares, respectively. Two questionnaires were designed; 1) a farmer questionnaire to collect information on farm background and current herd health control practices and 2) a veterinary questionnaire to collect information on the extent of animal health advice given by veterinarians to their clients and identification of any on-farm herd health issues. Results Dystocia, calf pneumonia, and calf diarrhoea, in that order, were identified as the primary herd health issues in these Irish suckler beef herds. In addition, substantial deficiencies in biosecurity practices were also identified on these farms. Conclusions The findings of this study may serve as the focus for future research in animal health management practices in Irish suckler beef herds. PMID:24195997

  16. Prediction of bulk milk fatty acid composition based on farming practices collected through on-farm surveys.

    PubMed

    Coppa, M; Ferlay, A; Chassaing, C; Agabriel, C; Glasser, F; Chilliard, Y; Borreani, G; Barcarolo, R; Baars, T; Kusche, D; Harstad, O M; Verbič, J; Golecký, J; Martin, B

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of bulk milk using data describing farming practices collected via on-farm surveys. The FA composition of 1,248 bulk cow milk samples and the related farming practices were collected from 20 experiments led in 10 different European countries at 44°N to 60°N latitude and sea level to 2,000 m altitude. Farming practice-based FA predictions [coefficient of determination (R(2)) >0.50] were good for C16:0, C17:0, saturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and odd-chain FA, and very good (R(2) ≥0.60) for trans-11 C18:1, trans-10 + trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, total trans FA, C18:3n-3, n-6:n-3 ratio, and branched-chain FA. Fatty acids were predicted by cow diet composition and by the altitude at which milk was produced, whereas animal-related factors (i.e., lactation stage, breed, milk yield, and proportion of primiparous cows in the herd) were not significant in any of the models. Proportion of fresh herbage in the cow diet was the main predictor, with the highest effect in almost all FA models. However, models built solely on conserved forage-derived samples gave good predictions for odd-chain FA, branched-chain FA, trans-10 C18:1 and C18:3n-3 (R(2) ≥0.46, 0.54, 0.52, and 0.70, respectively). These prediction models could offer farmers a valuable tool to help improve the nutritional quality of the milk they produce. PMID:23664341

  17. Meeting the requirements of importing countries: practice and policy for on-farm approaches to food safety.

    PubMed

    Dagg, P J; Butler, R J; Murray, J G; Biddle, R R

    2006-08-01

    In light of the increasing consumer demand for safe, high-quality food and recent public health concerns about food-borne illness, governments and agricultural industries are under pressure to provide comprehensive food safety policies and programmes consistent with international best practice. Countries that export food commodities derived from livestock must meet both the requirements of the importing country and domestic standards. It is internationally accepted that end-product quality control, and similar methods aimed at ensuring food safety, cannot adequately ensure the safety of the final product. To achieve an acceptable level of food safety, governments and the agricultural industry must work collaboratively to provide quality assurance systems, based on sound risk management principles, throughout the food supply chain. Quality assurance systems on livestock farms, as in other parts of the food supply chain, should address food safety using hazard analysis critical control point principles. These systems should target areas including biosecurity, disease monitoring and reporting, feedstuff safety, the safe use of agricultural and veterinary chemicals, the control of potential food-borne pathogens and traceability. They should also be supported by accredited training programmes, which award certification on completion, and auditing programmes to ensure that both local and internationally recognised guidelines and standards continue to be met. This paper discusses the development of policies for on-farm food safety measures and their practical implementation in the context of quality assurance programmes, using the Australian beef industry as a case study. PMID:17094706

  18. Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

  19. A survey of decision making practices, educational experiences, and economic performance of two dairy farm populations in Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-10-01

    A survey was performed to characterize the dairy production, educational experiences, decision making practices, and income and expenses of dairy farms and to determine any differences of these practices among two dairy farm populations. Farm groups were identified as farms from the Muaklek dairy cooperative (Muaklek farms) and farms from other dairy cooperatives (Non-Muaklek farms). In April, 2006 questionnaires were distributed to 500 dairy farms located in Lopburi, Nakhon Ratchisima, and Saraburi provinces. A total of 85 farms completed and returned questionnaires. Means and frequencies were calculated for questions across categories and Chi-square tests were performed to determine differences among Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms. Results showed that most farms from both groups had a primary or high school educational level, used a combination confinement and pasture production system, gave a mineral supplement, raised their own replacement females, milked approximately 16 cows/day, used crossbred Holstein cows (75% Holstein or more), and mated purebred Holstein sires to their cows. More Non-Muaklek farms (P < 0.05; 80%) used a combination of genetic and phenotypic information when selecting sires than Muaklek farms (54%). Monthly profit per lactating cow, were 1,641 and 1,029 baht for Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms, respectively. Overall, information from the study should be useful for dairy cooperatives and other dairy organizations when training farmers in the future and furthering dairy production research in Thailand. PMID:18716903

  20. AN EVALUATION OF SELECTED TEACHING METHODS IN GETTING A NEW FARM PRACTICE ADOPTED IN ST. LANDRY PARISH, 1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERT, JAMES J.

    TO EVALUATE THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CIRCULAR LETTER, NEIGHBORHOOD MEETING, AND FARM VISIT IN GETTING A NEW FARM PRACTICE ADOPTED ON RICE FARMS IN ST. LANDRY PARISH, LOUISIANA, THREE SAMPLE GROUPS WERE SELECTED AT RANDOM FROM THE AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION SERVICE RICE GROWERS LIST AND EXPOSED TO ONE OF THE TEACHING…

  1. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. PMID:25405548

  2. Implicit and Explicit Stigma of Mental Illness: Attitudes in an Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Stull, Laura G.; McGrew, John H.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which explicit and implicit stigma are endorsed by mental health practitioners utilizing evidence-based practices is unknown. The purposes of the current study were to 1) examine implicit and explicit biases among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) staff and 2) explore the extent to which biases predicted the use of treatment control mechanisms. Participants were 154 ACT staff from nine states. Overall, participants exhibited positive explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness. When modeled using latent factors, greater implicit, but not explicit, bias significantly predicted greater endorsement of restrictive or controlling clinical interventions. Thus, despite overall positive attitudes toward those with mental illness for the sample as a whole, individual differences in provider stigma were related to clinical care. Mental health professionals, and specifically ACT clinicians, should be educated on types of bias and ways in which biases influence clinical interventions. PMID:24284643

  3. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  4. Electroencephalographic Monitoring in Critically Ill Children: Current Practice and Implications for Future Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sarah M; Arndt, Daniel H.; Carpenter, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kevin E; Cornett, Karen M.; Dlugos, Dennis J.; Gallentine, William B.; Giza, Christopher C; Goldstein, Joshua L; Hahn, Cecil D; Lerner, Jason T; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Matsumoto, Joyce H; McBain, Kristin; Nash, Kendall B; Payne, Eric; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Shults, Justine; Williams, Korwyn; Yang, Amy; Abend, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Survey data indicate that continuous EEG (CEEG) monitoring is used with increasing frequency to identify electrographic seizures in critically ill children, but studies of current CEEG practice have not been conducted. We aimed to describe the clinical utilization of CEEG in critically ill children at tertiary care hospitals with a particular focus on variables essential for designing feasible prospective multi-center studies evaluating the impact of electrographic seizures on outcome. Methods Eleven North American centers retrospectively enrolled 550 consecutive critically ill children who underwent CEEG. We collected data regarding subject characteristics, CEEG indications, and CEEG findings. Key Findings CEEG indications were encephalopathy with possible seizures in 67% of subjects, event characterization in 38% of subjects, and management of refractory status epilepticus in 11% of subjects. CEEG was initiated outside routine work hours in 47% of subjects. CEEG duration was <12 hours in 16%, 12-24 hours in 34%, and >24 hours in 48%. Substantial variability existed among sites in CEEG indications and neurologic diagnoses, yet within each acute neurologic diagnosis category a similar proportion of subjects at each site had electrographic seizures. Electrographic seizure characteristics including distribution and duration varied across sites and neurologic diagnoses. Significance These data provide a systematic assessment of recent CEEG use in critically ill children and indicate variability in practice. The results suggest that multi-center studies are feasible if CEEG monitoring pathways can be standardized. However, the data also indicate that electrographic seizure variability must be considered when designing studies addressing the impact of electrographic seizures on outcome. PMID:23848569

  5. Farm practices to control E. coli O157 in young cattle--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Iversen, Johanne; Smith, Richard P; Van Winden, Steven; Paiba, Giles A; Watson, Eamon; Snow, Lucy C; Cook, Alasdair J C

    2008-01-01

    A randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effect of three complex management intervention packages to reduce the burden of E. coli O157 in groups of young-stock on cattle farms in England and Wales. All intervention farms were assigned measures to avoid buying in new animals and having direct contact or sharing water sources with other cattle. Furthermore, package A (7 farms) aimed to keep a clean environment and closed groups of young-stock; package B (14 farms) aimed for improved water and feed hygiene, whilst package C was assigned both A and B. The control farms (26 farms) were asked not to alter their practices. Farms, which were assigned intervention package A, exhibited a 48% reduction in E. coli O157 burden over the 4.5 months (average) of observation, compared to 18% on the control farms. The effect of package A compared to the control farms in a crude intention-to-treat model was RR = 0.26 (p=0.122). When the risk ratio was adjusted for actual application of the different measures, the effect of intervention package A became stronger and statistically significant (RR = 0.14 p=0.032). Statistical evidence (p< 0.05) showed that dry bedding and maintaining animals in the same groups were the most important measures within the package and weak evidence (p< 0.1) showed that a closed herd policy and no contact with other cattle may also be of importance. Compliance with the other measures in package A had no influence on the effect of the package. No evidence of effect of the other two intervention packages was found. PMID:18073090

  6. Multiple sclerosis in a postgraduate student of anaesthesia: illness in doctors and fitness to practice.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Antonio Jose; Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Sharma, Sharda

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old previously healthy woman, a doctor, was diagnosed with remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis after fulfilling McDonald's criteria for the diagnosis of definite multiple sclerosis. Despite 22 months of immunomodulatory treatment, the feasibility of continuing to train in a stressful specialty of medicine became an ethical and practical dilemma. Fitness for practice and career advancement among doctors with illnesses or having cognitive and physical decline from disease and/or ageing is a global problem. The need for addressing this issue in a compassionate and comprehensive manner is discussed. Cognitive and physical fitness are required in doctors and other healthcare workers since medical errors/adverse events are commonplace in medical practice. The public welfare is equally important in this global problem. PMID:26823363

  7. Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC): A Practical Tool to Measure Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Amy E; Wagner, Edward H; Glasgow, Russell E; VonKorff, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Objective To describe initial testing of the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC), a practical quality-improvement tool to help organizations evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their delivery of care for chronic illness in six areas: community linkages, self-management support, decision support, delivery system design, information systems, and organization of care. Data Sources (1) Pre-post, self-report ACIC data from organizational teams enrolled in 13-month quality-improvement collaboratives focused on care for chronic illness; (2) independent faculty ratings of team progress at the end of collaborative. Study design Teams completed the ACIC at the beginning and end of the collaborative using a consensus format that produced average ratings of their system's approach to delivering care for the targeted chronic condition. Average ACIC subscale scores (ranging from 0 to 11, with 11 representing optimal care) for teams across all four collaboratives were obtained to indicate how teams rated their care for chronic illness before beginning improvement work. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ACIC to detect system improvements for teams in two (of four) collaboratives focused on care for diabetes and congestive heart failure (CHF). Pearson correlations between the ACIC subscale scores and a faculty rating of team performance were also obtained. Results Average baseline scores across all teams enrolled at the beginning of the collaboratives ranged from 4.36 (information systems) to 6.42 (organization of care), indicating basic to good care for chronic illness. All six ACIC subscale scores were responsive to system improvements diabetes and CHF teams made over the course of the collaboratives. The most substantial improvements were seen in decision support, delivery system design, and information systems. CHF teams had particularly high scores in self-management support at the completion of the collaborative. Pearson correlations

  8. 29 CFR 780.129 - Required relationship of practices to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required relationship of practices to farming operations. 780.129 Section 780.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  9. Farm-system modeling to evaluate environmental losses, profitability, and best management practice cost-effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To meet Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load requirements for agricultural pollution, conservation districts and farmers are tasked with implementing best management practices (BMPs) that reduce farm losses of nutrients and sediment. The importance of the agricultural industry to the regional eco...

  10. Farmers' Preferences for Methods of Receiving Information on New or Innovative Farming Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Gor, Christopher Obel

    1989-01-01

    Survey of 386 Idaho farmers (response rate 58 percent) identified preferred methods of receiving information on new or innovative farming practices. Analysis revealed preference for interpersonal methods (demonstrations, tours, and field trips) over mass media such as computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and home study, although younger farmers,…

  11. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section 780.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  12. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section 780.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  13. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section 780.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  14. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section 780.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  15. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section 780.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  16. Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Cirrhotic Patients: Practices of Prophylaxis and Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Tamim, Hani M.; Aldawood, Abdulaziz S.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis practices and incidence in critically ill cirrhotic versus noncirrhotic patients and evaluated cirrhosis as a VTE risk factor. Methods. A cohort of 798 critically ill patients followed for the development of clinically detected VTE were categorized according to the diagnosis of cirrhosis. VTE prophylaxis practices and incidence were compared. Results. Seventy-five (9.4%) patients had cirrhosis with significantly higher INR (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 1.3 ± 0.6, P < 0.0001), lower platelet counts (115,000 ± 90,000 versus 258,000 ± 155,000/μL, P < 0.0001), and higher creatinine compared to noncirrhotic patients. Among cirrhotics, 31 patients received only mechanical prophylaxis, 24 received pharmacologic prophylaxis, and 20 did not have any prophylaxis. Cirrhotic patients were less likely to receive pharmacologic prophylaxis (odds ratio, 0.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04–0.14). VTE occurred in only two (2.7%) cirrhotic patients compared to 7.6% in noncirrhotic patients (P = 0.11). The incidence rate was 2.2 events per 1000 patient-ICU days for cirrhotic patients and 3.6 events per 1000 patient-ICU days for noncirrhotics (incidence rate ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.15–2.52). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, cirrhosis was not associated with VTE risk (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.10–1.67). Conclusions. In critically ill cirrhotic patients, VTE incidence did not statistically differ from that in noncirrhotic patients. PMID:24386564

  17. Knowledge, illness perceptions and stated clinical practice behaviour in management of gout: a mixed methods study in general practice.

    PubMed

    Spaetgens, Bart; Pustjens, Tobias; Scheepers, Lieke E J M; Janssens, Hein J E M; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to explore knowledge, illness perceptions and stated practice behaviour in relation to gout in primary care. This is a mixed methods study among 32 general practitioners (GPs). The quantitative assessment included the Gout Knowledge Questionnaire (GKQ; range 0-10; better) and Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ; nine items, range 0-10; stronger). Structured individual interviews obtained further qualitative insight into knowledge and perceptions, in the context of daily practice. Among 32 GPs, 18 (56.3 %) were male, mean age 44.4 years (SD 9.6) and mean working experience 17.1 years (SD 9.7). Median score [interquartile ranges (IQR)] on the GKQ was 7.8 [6.7-8.9] and 9.0 [8.0-10.0], when presented as open or multiple-choice questions, respectively. The BIPQ (median; [IQR]) revealed that gout was seen as a chronic disease (8.0; [7.0-9.0]), affecting life and emotions moderately (6.5; [5.0-7.0]), having many severe symptoms (8.0; [7.0-9.0]) and in which treatment could be very helpful (8.0; [7.0-9.0]). Further interviews revealed large variation in specific aspects of knowledge and about gaps concerning indications for uric acid-lowering therapy (UALT), duration of UALT, target serum uric acid (sUA) level or duration of prophylactic treatment. Finally, patients' adherence was not checked systematically. Specific knowledge gaps and discrepancies between perceptions and stated practice behaviour were identified, which might hamper effective management of this well-treatable disease. Improving evidence on the rationale and effectiveness of treatment targets and adherence interventions, tailoring guidelines to general practice and intensification of implementation of guidelines in primary health care seem to be needed. PMID:26898982

  18. Perceptions and practices regarding delirium, sedation and analgesia in critically ill patients: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Shinotsuka, Cassia Righy; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of landmark studies have been published in the last decade that increase the current knowledge on sedation for critically ill patients. Therefore, many practices that were considered standard of care are now outdated. Oversedation has been shown to be hazardous, and light sedation and no-sedation protocols are associated with better patient outcomes. Delirium is increasingly recognized as a major form of acute brain dysfunction that is associated with higher mortality, longer duration of mechanical ventilation and longer lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. Despite all the available evidence, translating research into bedside care is a daunting task. International surveys have shown that practices such as sedation interruption and titration are performed only in the minority of cases. Implementing best practices is a major challenge that must also be addressed in the new guidelines. In this review, we summarize the findings of sedation and delirium research over the last years. We also discuss the gap between evidence and clinical practice and highlight ways to implement best practices at the bedside. PMID:23917981

  19. Managing chronic illness: physician practices increased the use of care management and medical home processes.

    PubMed

    Wiley, James A; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Shortell, Stephen M; Casalino, Lawrence P; Ramsay, Patricia P; Bibi, Salma; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon R; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The effective management of patients with chronic illnesses is critical to bending the curve of health care spending in the United States and is a crucial test for health care reform. In this article we used data from three national surveys of physician practices between 2006 and 2013 to determine the extent to which practices of all sizes have increased their use of evidence-based care management processes associated with patient-centered medical homes for patients with asthma, congestive heart failure, depression, and diabetes. We found relatively large increases over time in the overall use of these processes for small and medium-size practices as well as for large practices. However, the large practices used fewer than half of the recommended processes, on average. We also identified the individual processes whose use increased the most and show that greater use of care management processes is positively associated with public reporting of patient experience and clinical quality and with pay-for-performance. PMID:25561647

  20. Difficult-to-manage HIV/AIDS clients with psychiatric illness and substance abuse problems: a collaborative practice with psychiatric advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Betty D; Rossi, Anne P

    2007-01-01

    Complex clients with comorbid HIV disease, other medical illness, psychiatric illness, and substance abuse problems present tremendous challenges to providers. Medication adherence and case management become vital issues in providing comprehensive care to this population. This report describes the practice of two advanced practice psychiatric registered nurses who worked collaboratively with each other and with nurse practitioners to provide care to such complex clients. Description of collaborative practices and the model of collaboration used by the two practitioners are highlighted through three case studies. Conclusions about the practice and its use with complex clients are provided. PMID:17991601

  1. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-score<-2 of WHO 2006 CGS), respectively. Sugar-water was given to 72·3 % of the children on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (P<0·01). Using the NCHS/WHO 1983 growth reference (<75 % of the median), the prevalence of underweight was 25·0 %, similar to that reported in 1987/1988 (26·4 %). In conclusion, the underweight prevalence was found to be at the same level in 2010 as was recorded in 1987/1988. Current child-feeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status. PMID:26435007

  2. Modeling the impacts of farming practices on water quality in the Little Miami River Basin.

    PubMed

    Tong, Susanna T Y; Naramngam, Sarawuth

    2007-06-01

    Since intensive farming practices are essential to produce enough food for the increasing population, farmers have been using more inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Agricultural lands are currently one of the major sources of non-point source pollution. However, by changing farming practices in terms of tillage and crop rotation, the levels of contamination can be reduced and the quality of soil and water resources can be improved. Thus, there is a need to investigate the amalgamated hydrologic effects when various tillage and crop rotation practices are operated in tandem. In this study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was utilized to evaluate the individual and combined impacts of various farming practices on flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads in the Little Miami River basin. The model was calibrated and validated using the 1990-1994 and 1980-1984 data sets, respectively. The simulated results revealed that the SWAT model provided a good simulation performance. For those tested farming scenarios, no-tillage (NT) offered more environmental benefits than moldboard plowing (MP). Flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus under NT were lower than those under MP. In terms of crop rotation, continuous soybean and corn-soybean rotation were able to reduce sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads. When the combined effects of tillage and crop rotation were examined, it was found that NT with continuous soybean or corn-soybean rotation could greatly restrain the loss of sediments and nutrients to receiving waters. Since corn-soybean rotation provides higher economic revenue, a combination of NT and corn-soybean rotation can be a viable system for successful farming. PMID:17453272

  3. Modeling the Impacts of Farming Practices on Water Quality in the Little Miami River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Susanna T. Y.; Naramngam, Sarawuth

    2007-06-01

    Since intensive farming practices are essential to produce enough food for the increasing population, farmers have been using more inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Agricultural lands are currently one of the major sources of non-point source pollution. However, by changing farming practices in terms of tillage and crop rotation, the levels of contamination can be reduced and the quality of soil and water resources can be improved. Thus, there is a need to investigate the amalgamated hydrologic effects when various tillage and crop rotation practices are operated in tandem. In this study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was utilized to evaluate the individual and combined impacts of various farming practices on flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads in the Little Miami River basin. The model was calibrated and validated using the 1990-1994 and 1980-1984 data sets, respectively. The simulated results revealed that the SWAT model provided a good simulation performance. For those tested farming scenarios, no-tillage (NT) offered more environmental benefits than moldboard plowing (MP). Flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus under NT were lower than those under MP. In terms of crop rotation, continuous soybean and corn-soybean rotation were able to reduce sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads. When the combined effects of tillage and crop rotation were examined, it was found that NT with continuous soybean or corn-soybean rotation could greatly restrain the loss of sediments and nutrients to receiving waters. Since corn-soybean rotation provides higher economic revenue, a combination of NT and corn-soybean rotation can be a viable system for successful farming.

  4. Clinical review: practical approach to hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Overgaard-Steensen, Christian; Ring, Troels

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances in sodium concentration are common in the critically ill patient and associated with increased mortality. The key principle in treatment and prevention is that plasma [Na+] (P-[Na+]) is determined by external water and cation balances. P-[Na+] determines plasma tonicity. An important exception is hyperglycaemia, where P-[Na+] may be reduced despite plasma hypertonicity. The patient is first treated to secure airway, breathing and circulation to diminish secondary organ damage. Symptoms are critical when handling a patient with hyponatraemia. Severe symptoms are treated with 2 ml/kg 3% NaCl bolus infusions irrespective of the supposed duration of hyponatraemia. The goal is to reduce cerebral symptoms. The bolus therapy ensures an immediate and controllable rise in P-[Na+]. A maximum of three boluses are given (increases P-[Na+] about 6 mmol/l). In all patients with hyponatraemia, correction above 10 mmol/l/day must be avoided to reduce the risk of osmotic demyelination. Practical measures for handling a rapid rise in P-[Na+] are discussed. The risk of overcorrection is associated with the mechanisms that cause hyponatraemia. Traditional classifications according to volume status are notoriously difficult to handle in clinical practice. Moreover, multiple combined mechanisms are common. More than one mechanism must therefore be considered for safe and lasting correction. Hypernatraemia is less common than hyponatraemia, but implies that the patient is more ill and has a worse prognosis. A practical approach includes treatment of the underlying diseases and restoration of the distorted water and salt balances. Multiple combined mechanisms are common and must be searched for. Importantly, hypernatraemia is not only a matter of water deficit, and treatment of the critically ill patient with an accumulated fluid balance of 20 litres and corresponding weight gain should not comprise more water, but measures to invoke a negative cation balance. Reduction of

  5. Clinical review: Practical approach to hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances in sodium concentration are common in the critically ill patient and associated with increased mortality. The key principle in treatment and prevention is that plasma [Na+] (P-[Na+]) is determined by external water and cation balances. P-[Na+] determines plasma tonicity. An important exception is hyperglycaemia, where P-[Na+] may be reduced despite plasma hypertonicity. The patient is first treated to secure airway, breathing and circulation to diminish secondary organ damage. Symptoms are critical when handling a patient with hyponatraemia. Severe symptoms are treated with 2 ml/kg 3% NaCl bolus infusions irrespective of the supposed duration of hyponatraemia. The goal is to reduce cerebral symptoms. The bolus therapy ensures an immediate and controllable rise in P-[Na+]. A maximum of three boluses are given (increases P-[Na+] about 6 mmol/l). In all patients with hyponatraemia, correction above 10 mmol/l/day must be avoided to reduce the risk of osmotic demyelination. Practical measures for handling a rapid rise in P-[Na+] are discussed. The risk of overcorrection is associated with the mechanisms that cause hyponatraemia. Traditional classifications according to volume status are notoriously difficult to handle in clinical practice. Moreover, multiple combined mechanisms are common. More than one mechanism must therefore be considered for safe and lasting correction. Hypernatraemia is less common than hyponatraemia, but implies that the patient is more ill and has a worse prognosis. A practical approach includes treatment of the underlying diseases and restoration of the distorted water and salt balances. Multiple combined mechanisms are common and must be searched for. Importantly, hypernatraemia is not only a matter of water deficit, and treatment of the critically ill patient with an accumulated fluid balance of 20 litres and corresponding weight gain should not comprise more water, but measures to invoke a negative cation balance. Reduction of

  6. Limitations and barriers for adopting sustainable management practices in different farm types across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Pedrera, Ana; Jesús Gaitán, Antonio; Ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Although apparently the conservation of natural resources such as water and soil does not represent important concerns for our society, the evolution of the world population and the degradation of these resources pose a challenge to improving agricultural food production capacity and conserving, and in some cases restoring, the environmental quality. Unfortunately, the history contains numerous examples of abandonment of these resources (McNeill 1992, Montgomery 2007). Although most of the agronomic conservation practices have been known for millennia, their implementation has often been hindered by non-agricultural motives (Davis et al. 2012). The European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) started last year with the aim of evaluating sustainable soil management practices and exploring the difficulties for their adoption, both at farm and institutional level, to overcome them in the near future. As a first step with that purpose, a selection of best management practices (BMPs) based on interviews with advisors and scientific knowledge were proposed for each of the considered farm typologies: arable crops, permanent crops and pasture. These farm types are representative of the Mediterranean area in terms of agroecological properties, extension, economical importance and soil degradation problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out by addressing different profiles of farmers to identify in a qualitative way the main limitations for adopting these BMPs on their farms. Different questionnaires were prepared based on the farmers' responses and launched at a larger scale, with the aim of achieving approximately 100 responses per each farm typology. Finally, responses from the questionnaires will be analyzed to explore the causes that hinder or impede the adoption of BMPs in different farm typologies. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. McNeill, J.R. 1992. The mountains of the Mediterranean world. Cambridge

  7. Computerized general practice based networks yield comparable performance with sentinel data in monitoring epidemiological time-course of influenza-like illness and acute respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computerized morbidity registration networks might serve as early warning systems in a time where natural epidemics such as the H1N1 flu can easily spread from one region to another. Methods In this contribution we examine whether general practice based broad-spectrum computerized morbidity registration networks have the potential to act as a valid surveillance instrument of frequently occurring diseases. We compare general practice based computerized data assessing the frequency of influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) with data from a well established case-specific sentinel network, the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS). The overall frequency and trends of weekly ILI and ARI data are compared using both networks. Results Detection of influenza-like illness and acute respiratory illness occurs equally fast in EISS and the computerized network. The overall frequency data for ARI are the same for both networks, the overall trends are similar, but the increases and decreases in frequency do not occur in exactly the same weeks. For ILI, the overall rate was slightly higher for the computerized network population, especially before the increase of ILI, the overall trend was almost identical and the increases and decreases occur in the same weeks for both networks. Conclusions Computerized morbidity registration networks are a valid tool for monitoring frequent occurring respiratory diseases and the detection of sudden outbreaks. PMID:20307266

  8. Meaning and Practice of Palliative Care for Hospitalized Older Adults with Life Limiting Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Bethel Ann; Norton, Sally A.; Schmitt, Madeline H.; Quill, Timothy E.; Metzger, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To illustrate distinctions and intersections of palliative care (PC) and end-of-life (EOL) services through examples from case-centered data of older adults cared for during a four-year ethnographic study of an acute care hospital palliative care consultation service. Methods. Qualitative narrative and thematic analysis. Results. Description of four practice paradigms (EOL transitions, prognostic uncertainty, discharge planning, and patient/family values and preferences) and identification of the underlying structure and communication patterns of PC consultation services common to them. Conclusions. Consistent with reports by other researchers, study data support the need to move beyond equating PC with hospice or EOL care and the notion that EOL is a well-demarcated period of time before death. If professional health care providers assume that PC services are limited to assisting with and helping patients and families prepare for dying, they miss opportunities to provide care considered important to older individuals confronting life-limiting illnesses. PMID:21584232

  9. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-06-01

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three farming systems [large-scale closed greenhouses (LSGH), large-scale open farms (LSOF), and small-scale irrigated farms (SSIF)]. Main observations were that 85% of workers did not attain any pesticide-related training, 81% were not aware of modern alternatives for chemical pesticides, 10% used a full set of personal protective equipment, and 62% did not usually bath or shower after work. Among applicators pesticide training attendance was highest in LSGH (35%) and was lowest in SSIF (4%). None of the female re-entry farm workers had received pesticide-related training. Personal protective equipment use was twice as high among pesticide applicators as among re-entry workers (13 versus 7%), while none of the small-scale farm workers used personal protection equipment. Stockpiling and burial of empty pesticide containers and discarding empty pesticide containers in farming fields were reported in both LSOF and by 75% of the farm workers in SSIF. Considerable increment in chemical pesticide usage intensity, illegitimate usages of DDT and Endosulfan on food crops and direct import of pesticides without the formal Ethiopian registration process were also indicated. These results point out a general lack of training and knowledge regarding the safe use of pesticides in all farming systems but especially among small-scale farmers. This in combination with the increase in chemical pesticide usage in the past decade likely results in occupational and environmental health risks. Improved KAP that account for institutional difference among various farming systems and enforcement of regulatory measures including the available occupational and environmental proclamations in Ethiopia are

  10. Decadal monitoring of rice farming practices from MODIS data in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Son, Nguyen; Farn Chen, Chi; Chen, Cheng Ru

    2015-04-01

    Rice agriculture was the most important sector in Myanmar's economy because it provided employments and livelihoods for at least 75% of the country's population, accounting for more than 48% of the national gross domestic product. Prior to the World War II, this country was the largest rice-producing nation in the world. However, it is currently a relatively minor rice exporter, ranking seventh after Thailand and Vietnam. The country's rice export potential remains high due to abundant land and water resources along with recent indications of progressive policy reforms to improve rice productivity. This study aimed at investigating decadal changes in rice farming practices in Myanmar during 2001 to 2014 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We processed the data though three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct the smooth time-series MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data, (2) mapping rice farming practices using phenological information of crop phenology, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results, with the overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients generally higher than 90% and 0.8, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by comparisons between MODIS-derived rice area and the government's rice area statistics, with a close correlation between the two datasets (R2 > 0.8) and the relative error in area smaller than 15%. From 2001 to 2014, rice farming practices in Myanmar had remarkably changed from single-cropped rice to double-cropped rice, especially in Ayeyarwady river basin. This study demonstrates the validity of the phenology-based approach for national-wide monitoring of decadal changes in rice farming practices in Myanmar. Such a quantitative information might be useful for agronomic managers to devise better plans for long-term rice crop management of in the country.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira; Arruda, Sabrina Santos; Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini; Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha; Santos, Edizio; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2010-06-24

    Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n=10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics. PMID:20356679

  12. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L.; Campbell, Con A.; Zentner, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the world’s most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging −256 kg CO2 eq ha−1 per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027–0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. PMID:25405548

  13. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L.; Campbell, Con A.; Zentner, Robert P.

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is one of the world’s most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha-1 per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  14. Comparative Impact of Two Training Packages on Awareness and Practices of First Aid for Injuries and Common Illnesses among High School Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sonu; Singh, Amarjeet

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about various illnesses and their management is not satisfactory among high school students especially in rural areas in India. Various incorrect practices and myths associated with illnesses and injuries still exit. Training and education about correct management of injuries and illnesses for students is a sound and logical investment.…

  15. Illness of the Mind or Illness of the Spirit? Mental Health-Related Conceptualization and Practices of Older Iranian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shadi Sahami

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore whether the way mental health is conceptualized by older Iranian immigrants can influence their mental health-related practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Iranians who had immigrated to the United States after the age of 50. The findings from this study revealed…

  16. Yield Responses of Wheat to Mulching Practices in Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-fang; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Improving farming practices of soil and water conservation has profound effects on the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in dryland farming regions of the Loess Plateau in China. Mulching has proven to be an effective practice to increase crop yield, and possibly contribute to replenishing groundwater. This evaluation study collected and analyzed the data of 1849 observations published in 38 papers using meta-analysis to investigate effects of the mulching practices on wheat yield in terms of different rainfall and regions in comparison with conventional tillage. The main results of the study follow. The effects of the mulching practices were ranked in the order of RFM (ridge–furrow mulching) > MTMC (mulching with two materials combined) > MOM (mulching with other materials) > WSM (wheat straw mulching) > FM (flat mulching). The effects of the mulching practices at the different levels of rainfall during the wheat growing season were in the order: (< 150 mm) > (> 250 mm) > (150–250 mm). The effects of the mulching practices in the different regions were in the order of Henan > Shanxi > Shaanxi > Gansu. WSM, MTMC and FM performed better in improving wheat yield for rainfall of < 150, 150–250 and > 250 mm during the growing season, respectively. The wheat yield with FM, MTMC, MOM and MOM was higher than those with the other mulching practices in Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan and Shanxi. The wheat yield with RFM was 27.4% higher than that with FM, indicating that RFM was the most effective practice to improve wheat yield among all the practices. These findings have important implications for choosing appropriate crop field management to improve wheat yield. PMID:26020965

  17. Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety: A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture. PMID:26488540

  18. Evaluation of 'best practice' (SCOPS) guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Learmount, Jane; Gettinby, George; Boughtflower, Valerie; Stephens, Nathalie; Hartley, Kayleigh; Allanson, Peter; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Perez, David; Taylor, Mike

    2015-01-30

    Parasitic diseases are a major constraint to optimum livestock production and are the major cause of economic loss in UK sheep flocks, with farmers remaining dependant on anthelmintics for control. In the UK, research and evidence based, "best practice" guidelines for sustainable control of parasites in sheep (SCOPS) were first produced in 2004 and have been regularly updated since. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of these best practice guidelines for worm control on lamb production and infection levels, compared with more traditional management. Sixteen farms were selected based on a 2 cube factorial design with 3 factors known to affect worm epidemiology: control regimen; farm type; and climatic region. A formalised plan for worm control using 7 potential resistance-delaying practices was prepared for each of the 8 best practice (SCOPS) farms, in conjunction with the farms veterinarians. The 8 farms in the traditional management group (CONTROL farms) were selected based on ongoing evidence of them using worm control strategies deemed to be "higher-risk". A cohort of 40-50 study lambs at each farm was monitored from birth to finishing, allowing evaluation of lamb productivity, worm infection levels and for comparison of numbers of anthelmintic treatments. Birth and mid-season weights were used to calculate daily live-weight gain. Birth and finish dates were used to calculate time to finish and finish weights were also compared. Faecal egg counts, larval culture and species differentiation were undertaken throughout the year to assess the impact of the control strategies on worm burdens. There was no significant difference in results for any of the 3 production responses when comparing predicted means accounting for the differences in birth weight. In fact SCOPS farms had, on average, a higher daily weight gain and finish weight than CONTROL farms when comparing observed means. Statistical analysis of infection levels clearly showed no significant

  19. Study on the practices of silage production and utilization on Brazilian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, T F; do Rêgo, A C

    2014-03-01

    Dairy farmers across Brazil were invited to participate in a study on silage production and utilization practices. Two hundred sixty farmers filled out a questionnaire, which was made available on a website. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions, including information about the characteristics of the herd (n=3), the crop(s) used in the ensiling process, the use of additives, the harvest (n=3), the type of silo (n=1), aspects related to sealing (n=2), and management practices applied during feed-out (n=3). Farmers were also asked a final question about the main barriers they faced when producing and using silage. The main dairy-producing regions of Brazil had a strong influence on the number of participants. The profiles of farmers were heterogeneous and divided into 5 groups, which was considered a positive attribute of the study, allowing better analysis and assessment of current circumstances. Corn was the most widely grown crop for silage. Sorghum, tropical grasses, and sugarcane were the other species most cited. Additives were used by a small number of farmers (27.7%). Approximately 40% of farmers still depended on loaned equipment or outsourced services. The pull-type forage harvester was the main piece of equipment used on dairy farms (90.4%). Only 54.6% of respondents answered that they sharpen their harvester knives daily. Horizontal silos (bunker and stack) were the structures most commonly used to store silage. Most farmers sealed silos with double-sided plastic film (black-on-white) and with soil. However, almost one-fifth of all farmers still use black plastic. Manual removal of silage from the silos was practiced at most farms (i.e., the lack of equipment was also reflected in the stage of silage utilization). Disposal of spoiled silage before inclusion in the livestock feed was not a common practice on the farms. The main barriers encountered on the farms were lack of equipment, lack of manpower, and climatic variations. The results of this

  20. Estimating occupational illness, injury, and mortality in food production in the United States: A farm-to-table analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Juan S.; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study provides a novel model and more comprehensive estimates of the burden of occupational morbidity and mortality in food-related industries, using a farm-to-table approach. Methods The authors analyzed 2008–2010 US Bureau of Labor Statistics data for private industries in the different stages of the farm-to-table model (production; processing; distribution and storage; retail and preparation). Results The morbidity rate for food system industries were significantly higher than the morbidity rate for non-food system industries (Rate Ratio (RR)=1.62, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.30–2.01). Furthermore, the occupational mortality rate for food system industries was significantly higher than the national non-food occupational mortality rate (RR=9.51, 95% CI: 2.47–36.58). Conclusions This is the first use of the farm-to-table model to assess occupational morbidity and mortality, and these findings highlighting specific workplace hazards across food system industries. PMID:25970031

  1. Three-year evaluation of best practice guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Learmount, Jane; Stephens, Nathalie; Boughtflower, Valerie; Barrecheguren, Alba; Rickell, Kayleigh; Massei, Giovanna; Taylor, Mike

    2016-08-15

    Anthelmintics are commonly used on the majority of UK commercial sheep farms to reduce major economic losses associated with parasitic diseases. With increasing anthelmintic resistance worldwide, several countries have produced evidence-based, best practice guidelines with an example being the UK's Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative. In 2012, a pilot study demonstrated that SCOPS-managed farms used fewer anthelmintic treatments than traditionally managed farms, with no impact on lamb productivity and worm burden. Building on these results, we collected data for three consecutive years (2012-2014) with the following aims: (1) To compare the effects of traditional and SCOPS-based parasite management on lamb productivity and worm burden; (2) To evaluate the effect of region and farm type on lamb productivity and worm burden; (3) To compare the frequency and patterns of use of anthelmintic treatment on traditional and SCOPS-managed farms. The study was carried out on 16 farms located in the North east and the South west of England and Wales. Lamb productivity was assessed by quantifying birth, mid-season and finish weights and calculating daily live-weight gains and time to finish in a cohort of 40-50 lambs on each farm. Five annual faecal egg counts were carried out on each farm to assess worm burden. No differences in lamb productivity and worm burdens were found between farms that adopted SCOPS guidelines and traditional farms across the three years. However, mean infection levels increased for both the SCOPS and the traditional groups. Lamb production was not significantly different for farm type and region but the effect of region on infection was significant. For both ewes and lambs, SCOPS farms carried out significantly fewer anthelmintic treatments per year, and used fewer anthelmintic doses/animal than traditional farms. The data suggest a trend to increasing use of anthelmintics in ewes on traditional but not on the SCOPS farms and a

  2. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  3. 29 CFR 780.136 - Employment in practices on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... farming operations on the particular farm, as discussed in §§ 780.141 through 780.147; that is, whether... solely to farming operations on that farm. The fact that a minor and incidental part of the work of such....)). “Such Farming Operation”—of the Farmer...

  4. Do workplace and home protective practices protect farm workers? Findings from the For Healthy Kids Study

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Holte, Sarah E.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Griffith, William C; Barr, Dana B.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Thompson, Beti

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations of protective workplace and home practices to pesticide exposure levels. Methods Using data from orchard workers in the Yakima Valley, Washington, we examined associations of workplace and home protective practices to (1) urinary metabolite concentrations of dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) in adults and children aged 2–6; and (2) azinphos-methyl levels in house and vehicle dust. Results Data were from 95 orchard workers and 94 children. Contrary to expectation, adult farm workers who wore boots or washed hands using hand sanitizer had higher concentrations of DMTP than those who did not. Children who attended daycare had higher DMTP concentrations than children who did not. Conclusions Few workplace or home practices were associated with pesticide exposure levels; workers who used hand sanitizer had higher concentrations of DMTP, as did children who attended daycare. PMID:22772953

  5. [The Bengmark tube in surgical practice and in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Mangiante, G; Marini, P; Fratucello, G B; Casaril, A; Ciola, M; Facci, E; Colucci, G; Carluccio, S; Marchiori, L; Nicoli, N

    2000-01-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is increasingly used to minimize the rate of septic complications related to bacterial translocation, due to its effectiveness and low cost. Bengmark's self-propelling auto-positioning feeding tube (SPT) absorbs and uses gut motility for rapid transport to the upper small intestine, thereby allowing uninterrupted EN both in surgical and critically ill patients. We report on our experience with 175 SPTs applied over the period from December 1996 to February 2000, and analyse the safety, compliance, and indications of SPT in surgical and ICU practice. Open study: feasibility of insertion, time and rate of placement, compliance and complications related to the tube or to EN were studied. SPTs were successfully placed in 40 patients before liver resection, in 32 patients before extensive maxillo-facial surgery MFS and prior to colon resections in 10 cases. SPTs were also applied in 56 patients with acute vascular neurological diseases, 22 in pancreatic diseases and in another 15 critically ill patients. 92.5% of SPT's crossed the pylorus, while only 7.5% stopped in the stomach and 3.4% in the duodenum; 89.14% reached the first jejunal loop. The tip of the tube reached its final position within a mean period of 5.2 hours, 8% instantly and all within 24 hours. Enteral nutrition was started immediately after introduction of the tube into the stomach. The compliance was excellent, even in maxillo-facial surgery patients: only 2/76 patients (2.6%) showed poor compliance. There were no cases of aspiration pneumonia or other complications related to SPT. Polymeric nutrition was usually supplied at a starting flow rate of 45 ml/hour and rapidly increasing over the following 48 h. Eleven patients experienced diarrhoea and 6 abdominal distension, leading to a temporary reduction of the EN flow rate. Clogging of the SPT occurred in 13 patients: 7/13 were cleansed with pancreatic enzymes, but 6 had to be replaced. SPT is ideal for intensive EN and is

  6. Community Knowledge and Attitudes and Health Workers' Practices regarding Non-malaria Febrile Illnesses in Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Mayumana, Iddy; Amuri, Mbaraka; Makungu, Christina; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although malaria has been the leading cause of fever for many years, with improved control regimes malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality have decreased. Recent studies have increasingly demonstrated the importance of non-malaria fevers, which have significantly improved our understanding of etiologies of febrile illnesses. A number of non-malaria febrile illnesses including Rift Valley Fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya virus infection, leptospirosis, tick-borne relapsing fever and Q-fever have been reported in Tanzania. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of communities and practices of health workers on non-malaria febrile illnesses. Methods Twelve focus group discussions with members of communities and 14 in-depth interviews with health workers were conducted in Kilosa district, Tanzania. Transcripts were coded into different groups using MaxQDA software and analyzed through thematic content analysis. Results The study revealed that the awareness of the study participants on non-malaria febrile illnesses was low and many community members believed that most instances of fever are due to malaria. In addition, the majority had inappropriate beliefs about the possible causes of fever. In most cases, non-malaria febrile illnesses were considered following a negative Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) result or persistent fevers after completion of anti-malaria dosage. Therefore, in the absence of mRDTs, there is over diagnosis of malaria and under diagnosis of non-malaria illnesses. Shortages of diagnostic facilities for febrile illnesses including mRDTs were repeatedly reported as a major barrier to proper diagnosis and treatment of febrile patients. Conclusion Our results emphasize the need for creating community awareness on other causes of fever apart from malaria. Based on our study, appropriate treatment of febrile patients will require inputs geared towards strengthening of diagnostic facilities, drugs availability and optimal

  7. The influence of theory and practice on perceptions about caring for ill older people - A literature review.

    PubMed

    Millns Sizer, Stephanie; Burton, Robert L; Harris, Ann

    2016-07-01

    The increasing longevity of the world's population implies the requirement for a nursing workforce who are appropriately equipped to care for older people when they are ill. Although attitudes toward this field of nursing appear to be positive amongst nursing students, fewer students choose the care of ill older people as a career upon qualification; the need to assure the future nursing workforce in this field has been acknowledged globally. In view of the ageing of the world population, there is a need to encourage the care of ill older people as a positive career choice (Koh, 2012). Factors both within the practical learning environment and the environment where students receive theoretical instruction, may potentially impact upon nursing students' attitudes towards caring for ill older people and their career intentions. It is against this background that this review was conducted, in order to identify reasons for this prevailing negativity. It is intended that the review will shed light on strategies to improve these perceptions, showing a career in caring for ill older people in a more positive light. PMID:27428691

  8. A farm-scale framework for assessing vineyard soil fertility and restoration practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Leclercq, Léa

    2015-04-01

    The design of sustainable vineyard management is needed at varied scales and particularly at farm-scale. More and more winegrowers wish to adopt environmental-friendly practices while better controlling harvest composition. This leads to question complex issues with regard to sustainability of winegrowing agroecosystem and the adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. This study aims at elaborating a multivariate approach framework for vineyard soil fertility assessment over a 6 ha-farm planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at the regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey comprising ~20 soil pits, physico-chemical analyses for all soil profile horizons, and a series of additional soil surface samples analyzed for several parameters including soil organic carbon, calcium carbonate, copper and the major mineral nutrients, is here carried out. Along with soil parameters and soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing are collected. Very high resolution multispectral satellite data and resistivity EMI data are acquired and processed in order to characterize spatial variations in both physiological responses, soil surface conditions, soil depth and/or the presence of coarse elements. Multi-temporal historical aerial photographs are used in order to complement farmer's surveys regarding past management practices. The farm is characterized by a diversity of soils including Red Mediterranean soils (chromic luvisols), colluvic calcisols, arenosols, fluvisols, and regosols, which develop from top to slope then bottom of a Neogene molassic and conglomeratic plateau. Soil management past practices are marked by the absence of chemical/organic manuring

  9. The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006) of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile), moderate (50th to <90th percentile), low (10th to <50th percentile), and very low (<10th percentile) precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%), peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96). Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November) increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44) while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August) increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71). Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter

  10. Effects of farm management practices and environmental factors on bulk tank milk antibodies against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy farms across Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been used as a diagnostic tool to quantify levels of gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle by measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk. Higher levels of O. ostertagi antibodies measured by ELISA methods, referred to as optical density ratios (ODRs), are associated with decreased milk production in dairy cattle. On-farm management practices (e.g. pasturing techniques and anthelmintic usage) can influence the exposure of cattle to nematode infections and the magnitude of acquired worm burdens. Additionally, environmental and climatic factors, such as land elevation and precipitation, may also influence the levels of gastrointestinal parasitism. This repeated cross-sectional study investigated the effect of farm management practices and surrounding environmental factors on bulk tank (BT) ODRs in herds from provinces across Canada, and further examined the potential effects of various anthelmintic treatment protocols on BT ODRs. A total of 195 herds contributed an average of 3.5 BT samples between December 2003 and April 2005. The farm management practices were recorded from a questionnaire asking producers about their pasturing methods (confined, pastured, etc.), pasture sharing practices (e.g. mixing heifers with milking cows) and anthelmintic treatments. Environmental data were downloaded online from various governmental databases (e.g. Natural Resources Canada, Statistics Canada, Environment Canada, etc.). Statistical models, accounting for repeated measures (multiple BT ODRs for each farm) and for clustering of farms within a region (province or ecoregion), were used to analyze environmental and farm management data. Overall, the greater the exposure that heifers and milking cows had to pasture, the higher the levels of anti-parasite antibodies detected in BT samples. Treating the entire herd or treating milking cows at calving reduced BT ODR values. Farms in areas with higher number of rainy days

  11. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  12. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Cécile M.; Thorburn, Peter J.; Biggs, Jody S.; Meier, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil–climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model’s outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat–chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and

  13. Practice Parameter for the Psychiatric Assessment and Management of Physically Ill Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An introduction for any medical health clinician on the knowledge and skills that are needed for the psychiatric assessment and management of physically ill children and adolescents is presented. These parameters are presented to assist clinicians in psychiatric decision making.

  14. 29 CFR 780.136 - Employment in practices on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged in inspecting and culling flocks of poultry, and pilots and flagmen engaged in the aerial dusting... farming operations on the particular farm, as discussed in §§ 780.141 through 780.147; that is, whether... solely to farming operations on that farm. The fact that a minor and incidental part of the work of...

  15. 29 CFR 780.136 - Employment in practices on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engaged in inspecting and culling flocks of poultry, and pilots and flagmen engaged in the aerial dusting... farming operations on the particular farm, as discussed in §§ 780.141 through 780.147; that is, whether... solely to farming operations on that farm. The fact that a minor and incidental part of the work of...

  16. 29 CFR 780.136 - Employment in practices on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged in inspecting and culling flocks of poultry, and pilots and flagmen engaged in the aerial dusting... farming operations on the particular farm, as discussed in §§ 780.141 through 780.147; that is, whether... solely to farming operations on that farm. The fact that a minor and incidental part of the work of...

  17. 29 CFR 780.136 - Employment in practices on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engaged in inspecting and culling flocks of poultry, and pilots and flagmen engaged in the aerial dusting... farming operations on the particular farm, as discussed in §§ 780.141 through 780.147; that is, whether... solely to farming operations on that farm. The fact that a minor and incidental part of the work of...

  18. Adaptation of farming practices could buffer effects of climate change on northern prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Gilmanov, T.; Millett, B.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation of farming practices to mitigate adverse impacts of climate change on wetland water levels is a potential watershed management option. We chose a modeling approach (WETSIM 3.2) to examine the effects of changes in climate and watershed cover on the water levels of a semi-permanent wetland in eastern South Dakota. Land-use practices simulated were unmanaged grassland, grassland managed with moderately heavy grazing, and cultivated crops. Climate scenarios were developed by adjusting the historical climate in combinations of 2??C and 4??C air temperature and ??10% precipitation. For these climate change scenarios, simulations of land use that produced water levels equal to or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate were judged to have mitigative potential against a drier climate. Water levels in wetlands surrounded by managed grasslands were significantly greater than those surrounded by unmanaged grassland. Management reduced both the proportion of years the wetland went dry and the frequency of dry periods, producing the most dynamic vegetation cycle for this modeled wetland. Both cultivated crops and managed grassland achieved water levels that were equal or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate for the 2??C rise in air temperature, and the 2??C rise plus 10% increase in precipitation scenarios. Managed grassland also produced water levels that were equal or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate for the 4??C rise plus 10% increase in precipitation scenario. Although these modeling results stand as hypotheses, they indicate that amelioration potential exists for a change in climate up to an increase of 2??C or 4??C with a concomitant 10% increase in precipitation. Few empirical data exist to verify the results of such land-use simulations; however, adaptation of farming practices is one possible mitigation

  19. Cancer diagnosis in people with severe mental illness: practical and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Howard, Louise M; Barley, Elizabeth A; Davies, Elizabeth; Rigg, Anne; Lempp, Heidi; Rose, Diana; Taylor, David; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-08-01

    There has been increasing recognition of the high physical morbidity in patients with severe mental illness, but little has been written about cancer in these patients. Therefore, we review the published work on risk of cancer in patients with severe mental illness, treatment challenges, and ethical issues. Severe mental illness is associated with behaviours that predispose an individual to an increased risk of some cancers, including lung and breast cancer, although lower rates of other cancers are reported in this population. Severe mental illness is also associated with disparities in screening for cancer and with higher case-fatality rates. This higher rate is partly due to the specific challenges of treating these patients, including medical comorbidity, drug interactions, lack of capacity, and difficulties in coping with the treatment regimen as a result of psychiatric symptoms. To ensure that patients with severe mental illness receive effective treatment, inequalities in care need to be addressed by all health-care professionals involved, including those from mental health services and the surgical and oncology teams. PMID:20599423

  20. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akogun, Oladele B; John, Kauna K

    2005-01-01

    Background A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Results Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days) and female (fever that goes away within three days) and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. Conclusion The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology. PMID:15723706

  1. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios. PMID:23870329

  2. Knowledge and practices of pesticide use among farm workers in the West Bank, Palestine: safety implications

    PubMed Central

    Sawalha, Ansam F.; Sweileh, Waleed M.; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Khalil, Suleiman I.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Bsharat, Nihaia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge and practices associated with pesticide use in an agricultural community in Palestine, and to determine the prevalence of self-reported health symptoms related to pesticide exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, agricultural farm workers in Nablus district, Palestine, were interviewed on their knowledge and practices of pesticide use. Comparisons of knowledge and practices of pesticide use between various groups were performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test or the Kruskal–Wallis rank test of variance. The program of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was used for data analysis. Results The questionnaire was completed by 381 farm workers. The mean age ± SD of the participants was 38.8 ± 11.8 years. The majority (97.9%) of the participants were male. The mean participant scores for knowledge and safety procedures were 2.8 ± 3.2 out of 8 and 9.8 ± 2.4 out of 15, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323; P < 0.001) between the knowledge and safety procedure scores. Unsafe behaviors were identified as the storage of pesticide products at home, the preparation of pesticides in the kitchen, inadequate disposal of empty pesticide containers, eating and drinking during pesticide application, and using inadequate protective clothing. The most frequent self-reported toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use were skin rash (37.5%), headache (37%), excessive sweating (24.9%), and diarrhea (21.3%). There was a strong significant negative correlation (r = −0.83; P < 0.001) between self-reported toxicity symptoms and scores for protective measures. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that most farm workers in this district need more educational programs regarding the safety and use of pesticides. Legislation promoting the use of safer pesticides is also needed. PMID:21432553

  3. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  4. Supporting Tertiary Students with a Disability or Mental Illness. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    Having a disability or ongoing ill health (including mental health conditions) can significantly disrupt an individual's educational attainment and employment prospects, potentially creating lifelong social and economic disadvantage. These students may need additional support to help them successfully complete their studies. In addition, education…

  5. Case Designs for Ill-Structured Problems: Analysis and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Blijd, Cecily Williams

    2009-01-01

    This study is a third in a series of studies that examined students' information seeking and problem solving behaviors while interacting with one of two types of web-based representations of an ill-structured instructional design case: hierarchical (tree-like) and heterarchical (network-like). A Java program was used to track students' hypermedia…

  6. Questionnaire study on parasite control practices on Thoroughbred and Standardbred breeding farms in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bolwell, Charlotte F; Rosanowski, Sarah M; Scott, Ian; Sells, Patrick D; Rogers, Chris W

    2015-04-15

    Against a global background of increasing anthelmintic resistance in parasites, little is known about the current parasite control strategies adopted within the equine industry in New Zealand. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the current parasite management and control practices used on Thoroughbred and Standardbred stud farms in New Zealand. An online questionnaire was used to collect data on the demographics of respondents, parasite control methods, grazing management, and use of faecal egg counts. Questions regarding parasite control strategy, how often horses were dewormed, number of treatments per year and stocking density were stratified by horse type: young stock (foals/weanlings/yearlings), wet mares (nursing a foal) or dry mares, and industry (Thoroughbred and Standardbred). Questions on grazing management were stratified by horse type and the breeding and non-breeding season. In total, 136 respondents completed the survey, of which most (66%; 90/136) were involved in the Thoroughbred breeding industry. Most (98%; 134/136) respondents used anthelmintic products to treat the horses on their property, and regardless of industry type most respondents were using interval drenching for young stock (86/129; 53%), dry mares (51/124; 41%) or wet mares (50/126; 40%). Of those respondents treating on regular interval, 55% (68/123), 42% (50/119) and 38% (46/122) were treating young stock, wet mares and dry mares every 6-8 weeks. The median number of treatments per year for young stock, dry mares and wet mares was 6 (IQR 4-8), 4 (IQR 3-6) and 4 (IQR 3-6), respectively; there was no difference in frequency of treatments by industry type. In the last 12 months respondents used a median of 2 (IQR 2-4) and 3 (IQR 2-4) different anthelmintic products to treat horses on Thoroughbred and Standardbred breeding farms, respectively. Of the respondents reporting the anthelmintic products used in the last 12 months, 95% used at least one product containing

  7. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices. PMID:20172227

  8. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. PMID:25251466

  9. Costs of existing and recommended manure management practices for house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, W F; Rutz, D A; Miller, R W; Brown, D A

    1989-08-01

    Costs of fly control practices were estimated for 26 New York and Maryland dairy farms. Objectives were to characterize existing practices, compare them with the cost of more frequent and complete manure removal to reduce fly breeding, and to compare costs of manure removal and insecticide application. Information was collected in scouting visits and personal interviews of farm operators. Equipment, labor, and bedding costs were included for manure removal. Insecticide application costs included chemicals and labor for application. A typical farm with a stanchion barn had manure removal costs of $0.348 per cow per day. Recommended changes would increase costs by $0.016-0.033 per cow per day. Insecticide costs averaged $0.021 per cow per day. It may be possible to eliminate many of the insecticide applications on the farms by using the recommended 7-d manure removal practice. Even if insecticides are not eliminated entirely, increased manure removal costs would be offset by some reduction in insecticide cost. This also would have the additional benefit of greatly slowing the development of insecticide resistance by the flies. PMID:2768644

  10. Spatial dynamics of farming practices in the Seine basin: methods for agronomic approaches on a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Mignolet, C; Schott, C; Benoît, M

    2007-04-01

    A research procedure is proposed which aims to analyse the agricultural spatial dynamics during the last thirty years using two levels of organisation of farming activity: the agricultural production system and the cropping system. Based on methods of statistical mapping and data mining, this procedure involves modelling the diversity of production systems and cropping systems (crop successions and sequences of cultural practices for each crop) in the form of classes independently of their localisation within the basin. It identifies homogeneous regions made up of groups of contiguous agricultural districts which exhibit similar combinations of production systems, crop successions or cultural practices during a given period of time. The results show a major increase in arable farms since 1970 at the expense of dairy farms and mixed cropping/livestock. This trend however appeared to be greatly spatially differentiated according to the agricultural districts, since livestock remained important on the edges of the basin, whereas it practically disappeared in its centre. The crop successions practiced in the basin and the cultural practices used on them also appear to be spatially differentiated, although the link to the production systems is not always clear. Thus it appears pertinent to combine the analysis of the two levels of organisation of the agriculture (methods of land use described by the concept of cropping system, and also the production systems into which the cropping systems fit) in the context of an environmental problem. PMID:17316763

  11. Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of

  12. Ethics of physiotherapy practice in terminally ill patients in a developing country, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chigbo, N N; Ezeome, E R; Onyeka, T C; Amah, C C

    2015-12-01

    Physiotherapy has been widely defined as a healthcare profession that assesses, diagnoses, treats, and works to prevent disease and disability through physical means. The World Confederation for Physical Therapy describes physiotherapy as providing services to people and populations to develop, maintain, and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. Physiotherapists working with terminally ill patients face a myriad of ethical issues which have not been substantially discussed in bioethics especially in the African perspective. In the face of resource limitation in developing countries, physiotherapy seems to be a cost-effective means of alleviating pain and distressing symptoms at the end-of-life, ensuring a more dignified passage from life to death, yet referrals to physiotherapy are not timely. Following extensive literature search using appropriate keywords, six core ethical themes related to physiotherapy in terminally ill patients were identified and using the four principles of bioethics (patient's autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice), an ethical analysis of these themes was done to highlight the ethical challenges of physiotherapists working in a typical African setting such as Nigeria. PMID:26620621

  13. Association of bedding types with management practices and indicators of milk quality on larger Wisconsin dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify associations of bedding type and selected management practices with bulk milk quality and productivity of larger Wisconsin dairy farms. Dairy herds (n=325) producing ≥11,340 kg of milk daily were surveyed during a single farm visit. Monthly bulk milk SCC and total bacteria counts were obtained from milk buyers for 255 farms for a 2-yr period. Of farms with the same type of bedding in all pens during the study period, most used inorganic bedding (IB), followed by organic nonmanure bedding (OB) and manure products (MB). Almost all bulk milk total bacterial counts were <10,000 cfu/mL and total bacterial count was not associated with bedding type. Bulk milk somatic cell score (BMSCS) was least for farms using IB, varied seasonally, and was greatest in the summer. The BMSCS was reduced when new bedding was added to stalls at intervals greater than 1 wk and when teats were dried before attaching the milking unit. The BMSCS for farms using OB was reduced when bedding in the backs of stalls was removed and replaced regularly and when fewer cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were present. The BMSCS for farms using MB was reduced when the proportion of cows with milk discarded was less. The rolling herd average (RHA) of herds using IB was 761 and 1,153 kg greater than the RHA of herds using OB and MB, respectively. The RHA was 353 kg greater on farms where farmers understood subclinical mastitis and 965 kg greater on farms milking 3 times daily. Each 1% increase of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters was associated with a decrease of 57 kg of RHA. The BMSCS, proportions of cows with milk discarded and proportion of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were least for herds using IB and were associated with increased productivity. Large Wisconsin dairy farms that used inorganic bedding had greater productivity and better milk quality compared with herds using other bedding types. PMID:26298761

  14. Farm, household, and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Ugoretz, Sarah Janes; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Wattiaux, Michel André

    2015-02-01

    This study explored whether technology adoption and changes in management practices were associated with farm structure, household, and farmer characteristics and to identify processes that may foster productivity and sustainability of small-scale dairy farming in the central highlands of Mexico. Factor analysis of survey data from 44 smallholders identified three factors-related to farm size, farmer's engagement, and household structure-that explained 70 % of cumulative variance. The subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 included the most senior farmers with fewest years of education but greatest years of experience. Cluster 2 included farmers who reported access to extension, cooperative services, and more management changes. Cluster 2 obtained 25 and 35 % more milk than farmers in clusters 1 and 3, respectively. Cluster 3 included the youngest farmers, with most years of education and greatest availability of family labor. Access to a network and membership in a community of peers appeared as important contributors to success. Smallholders gravitated towards easy to implement technologies that have immediate benefits. Nonusers of high investment technologies found them unaffordable because of cost, insufficient farm size, and lack of knowledge or reliable electricity. Multivariate analysis may be a useful tool in planning extension activities and organizing channels of communication to effectively target farmers with varying needs, constraints, and motivations for change and in identifying farmers who may exemplify models of change for others who manage farms that are structurally similar but performing at a lower level. PMID:25404038

  15. Viewing Violence, Mental Illness and Addiction through a Wise Practices Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley-Esquimaux, Cynthia C.; Snowball, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The progressive approaches First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities use to address health and wellness concerns are rarely written about or acknowledged in a positive manner. This paper speaks to a concept introduced through the Canadian Aboriginal Aids Network (CAAN) entitled "wise practices". CAAN saw a "wise practices" model as more useful…

  16. Lower Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci on U.S. Conventional Poultry Farms that Transitioned to Organic Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hulet, R. Michael; Zhang, Guangyu; McDermott, Patrick; Kinney, Erinna L.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Joseph, Sam W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In U.S. conventional poultry production, antimicrobials are used for therapeutic, prophylactic, and nontherapeutic purposes. Researchers have shown that this can select for antibiotic-resistant commensal and pathogenic bacteria on poultry farms and in poultry-derived products. However, no U.S. studies have investigated on-farm changes in resistance as conventional poultry farms transition to organic practices and cease using antibiotics. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus on U.S. conventional poultry farms that transitioned to organic practices. Methods: Poultry litter, feed, and water samples were collected from 10 conventional and 10 newly organic poultry houses in 2008 and tested for Enterococcus. Enterococcus (n = 259) was identified using the Vitek® 2 Compact System and tested for susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials using the Sensititre™ microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed using SAS software (version 9.2), and statistical associations were derived based on generalized linear mixed models. Results: Litter, feed, and water samples were Enterococcus positive. The percentages of resistant Enterococcus faecalis and resistant Enterococcus faecium were significantly lower (p < 0.05) among isolates from newly organic versus conventional poultry houses for two (erythromycin and tylosin) and five (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, and tetracycline) antimicrobials, respectively. Forty-two percent of E. faecalis isolates from conventional poultry houses were multidrug resistant (MDR; resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes), compared with 10% of isolates from newly organic poultry houses (p = 0.02); 84% of E. faecium isolates from conventional poultry houses were MDR, compared with 17% of isolates from newly organic poultry houses (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the voluntary removal of antibiotics from large-scale U.S. poultry farms that transition to

  17. Report on audit of Department of Energy contractor occupational injury and illness reporting practices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-07

    The Department and its contractors are responsible for ensuring that a safe and healthy work environment is provided to Department and contractor employees at its operating facilities. Contractors are responsible for establishing a comprehensive occupational safety and health program, which includes reporting of significant work-related employee injuries. The Department is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the contractor`s programs. Two performance indicators used by the Department to measure a contractor`s safety performance are the number and severity of work-related employee injuries and of lost workdays rates. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Department of Energy contractors accurately reported occupational injuries and illnesses in accordance with Departmental requirements.

  18. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based ‘best practices’. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate ‘best practices’ are used by sprout growers. PMID

  19. A pilot study of qigong practice and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peggy A; Innes, Kim E; Alton, John; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Owens, Justine E

    2011-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are a common complaint in competitive swimmers and can adversely affect performance. No intervention has yet been shown to reduce URI incidence in intensively trained athletes. The University of Virginia varsity swim team received three weeks of training in qigong for the purpose of reducing stress and improving health. Our primary objective was to assess the relationship between qigong practice and symptoms of URI during a time when swimmers would be at high URI risk. Secondary objectives were to assess degree of compliance with a qigong practice regimen, to evaluate differences between qigong practitioners and non-practitioners, and to determine the response-rate and reliability of a newly developed internet-based, self-report survey. The design was observational, cross-sectional, and prospective. Weekly data on cold and flu symptoms, concurrent health problems and medication use, and qigong practice were gathered for seven weeks. Retrospective information on health and qigong training response was also collected. Participants were 27 of the 55 members of the University of Virginia Swim Team in the Virginia Athletic Department. Main outcomes were measures of aggregated cold/flu symptoms and Qigong practice. Survey completion was 100%, with no missing data, and reliability of the instrument was acceptable. Cold and flu symptoms showed a significant non-linear association with frequency of qigong practice (R(2) = 0.33, p < 0.01), with a strong, inverse relationship between practice frequency and symptom scores in swimmers who practised qigong at least once per week (R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.01). Qigong practitioners did not differ from non-practitioners in demographic or lifestyle characteristics, medical history, supplement or medication use, or belief in qigong. These preliminary findings suggest that qigong practice may be protective against URIs among elite swimmers who practice at least once per week. PMID:21598415

  20. Decompression illness secondary to occupational diving: recommended management based current legistation and practice in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rozali, A; Khairuddin, H; Sherina, M S; Zin, B Mohd; Sulaiman, A

    2008-06-01

    Occupational divers are exposed to hazards which contribute to the risk of developing decompression illnesses (DCI). DCI consists of Type I decompression sickness (DCS), Type II DCS and arterial gas embolism (AGE), developed from formation of bubbles in the tissues or circulation as a result of inadequate elimination of inert gas (nitrogen) after a dive. In Malaysia, DCI is one of the significant contributions to mortality and permanent residual morbidity in diving accidents. This is a case of a diver who suffered from Type II DCS with neurological complications due to an occupational diving activity. This article mentions the clinical management of the case and makes several recommendations based on current legislations and practise implemented in Malaysia in order to educate medical and health practitioners on the current management of DCI from the occupational perspective. By following these recommendations, hopefully diving accidents mainly DCI and its sequalae among occupational divers can be minimized and prevented, while divers who become injured receive the proper compensation for their disabilities. PMID:18942312

  1. Teaching dual-process diagnostic reasoning to doctor of nursing practice students: problem-based learning and the illness script.

    PubMed

    Durham, Catherine O; Fowler, Terri; Kennedy, Sally

    2014-11-01

    Accelerating the development of diagnostic reasoning skills for nurse practitioner students is high on the wish list of many faculty. The purpose of this article is to describe how the teaching strategy of problem-based learning (PBL) that drills the hypothetico-deductive or analytic reasoning process when combined with an assignment that fosters pattern recognition (a nonanalytic process) teaches and reinforces the dual process of diagnostic reasoning. In an online Doctor of Nursing Practice program, four PBL cases that start with the same symptom unfold over 2 weeks. These four cases follow different paths as they unfold leading to different diagnoses. Culminating each PBL case, a unique assignment called an illness script was developed to foster the development of pattern recognition. When combined with hypothetico-deductive reasoning drilled during the PBL case, students experience the dual process approach to diagnostic reasoning used by clinicians. PMID:25350904

  2. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  3. Recovery from mental illness as an emergent concept and practice in Australia and the UK.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Shulamit; Healy, Bill; Renouf, Noel

    2007-03-01

    The language of recovery is now widely used in mental health policy, services, and research. Yet the term has disparate antecedents, and is used in a variety of ways. Some of the history of the use of the term recovery is surveyed, with particular attention to the new meaning of the term, especially as identified by service users, supported and taken up to various degrees by research and in the professional literature. Policy and practice in two countries--Australia and the United Kingdom--are examined to determine the manner and extent to which the concept of recovery is evident. In its new meaning, the concept of recovery has the potential to bring about profound and needed changes in mental health theory and practice. It is being taken up differently in different settings. It is clear that--at least in Australia and the United Kingdom--there are promising new recovery models and practices that support recovery, but the widespread use of recovery language is not enough to ensure that the core principles of the recovery model are implemented. PMID:17472085

  4. A comparison of management practices, farmer-perceived disease incidence and winter housing on organic and non-organic dairy farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Langford, Fritha M; Rutherford, Kenneth Md; Jack, Mhairi C; Sherwood, Lorna; Lawrence, Alistair B; Haskell, Marie J

    2009-02-01

    There have been increases in the number of organic dairy farms in the UK in recent years. However, there is little information on the impact of organic regulations on cow welfare. As part of a larger study, we aimed to investigate differences between organic and non-organic farms in management practices and winter housing quality. Forty organic and 40 non-organic farms throughout the UK were visited. Organic and non-organic farms were paired for housing type, and as far as possible for herd size, genetic merit and location. A detailed questionnaire covering key aspects of dairy management was carried out with each farmer. On a subset of twenty pairs, an assessment of the quality of the winter housing for both lactating and dry cows was undertaken, covering the parlour, bedding, loafing and feeding areas. Management practices and building conditions varied greatly within farm types and there was considerable overlap between organic and non-organic farms. Milk yield, level and composition of concentrate feed, management of heifers and calving, and use of 'alternative treatments' to prevent and treat mastitis differed between organic and non-organic farms. In all other respects there were no differences between farm types. Building dimensions per cow did not differ, even though organic recommendations advise greater space per cow than recommended for non-organic farms. The similarity between organic and non-organic farms in most respects indicates that cow housing and health, based on both the described management regimes and the farmers' perceptions of disease incidence, on organic dairy farms is neither compromised by the regulations, nor considerably better than on non-organic farms. PMID:18922194

  5. Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

    2003-05-15

    Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm

  6. Person-centered osteopathic practice: patients’ personality (body, mind, and soul) and health (ill-being and well-being)

    PubMed Central

    Nima, Ali A.; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Osteopathic philosophy and practice are congruent with the biopsychosocial model, a patient-centered approach when treating disease, and the view of the person as a unity (i.e., body, mind, and soul). Nevertheless, a unity of being should involve a systematic person-centered understanding of the patient’s personality as a biopsychosociospiritual construct that influences health (i.e., well-being and ill-being). We suggest Cloninger’s personality model, comprising temperament (i.e., body) and character (i.e., mind and soul), as a genuine paradigm for implementation in osteopathic practice. As a first step, we investigated (1) the relationships between personality and health among osteopathic patients, (2) differences in personality between patients and a control group, and (3) differences in health within patients depending on the presenting problem and gender. Method. 524 osteopathic patients in Sweden (age mean = 46.17, SD = 12.54, 388 females and 136 males) responded to an online survey comprising the Temperament and Character Inventory and measures of health (well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, harmony in life, energy, and resilience; ill-being: negative affect, anxiety, depression, stress, and dysfunction and suffering associated to the presenting problem). We conducted two structural equation models to investigate the association personality-health; graphically compared the patients’ personality T-scores to those of the control group and compared the mean raw scores using t-tests; and conducted two multivariate analyses of variance, using age as covariate, to compare patients’ health in relation to their presenting problem and gender. Results. The patients’ personality explained the variance of all of the well-being (R2 between .19 and .54) and four of the ill-being (R2 between .05 and .43) measures. Importantly, self-transcendence, the spiritual aspect of personality, was associated to high levels of positive emotions and

  7. Person-centered osteopathic practice: patients' personality (body, mind, and soul) and health (ill-being and well-being).

    PubMed

    Fahlgren, Elin; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Osteopathic philosophy and practice are congruent with the biopsychosocial model, a patient-centered approach when treating disease, and the view of the person as a unity (i.e., body, mind, and soul). Nevertheless, a unity of being should involve a systematic person-centered understanding of the patient's personality as a biopsychosociospiritual construct that influences health (i.e., well-being and ill-being). We suggest Cloninger's personality model, comprising temperament (i.e., body) and character (i.e., mind and soul), as a genuine paradigm for implementation in osteopathic practice. As a first step, we investigated (1) the relationships between personality and health among osteopathic patients, (2) differences in personality between patients and a control group, and (3) differences in health within patients depending on the presenting problem and gender. Method. 524 osteopathic patients in Sweden (age mean = 46.17, SD = 12.54, 388 females and 136 males) responded to an online survey comprising the Temperament and Character Inventory and measures of health (well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, harmony in life, energy, and resilience; ill-being: negative affect, anxiety, depression, stress, and dysfunction and suffering associated to the presenting problem). We conducted two structural equation models to investigate the association personality-health; graphically compared the patients' personality T-scores to those of the control group and compared the mean raw scores using t-tests; and conducted two multivariate analyses of variance, using age as covariate, to compare patients' health in relation to their presenting problem and gender. Results. The patients' personality explained the variance of all of the well-being (R (2) between .19 and .54) and four of the ill-being (R (2) between .05 and .43) measures. Importantly, self-transcendence, the spiritual aspect of personality, was associated to high levels of positive emotions and

  8. Informing social work practice through research with parent caregivers of a child with a life-limiting illness.

    PubMed

    Cadell, Susan; Kennedy, Kimberly; Hemsworth, David

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric palliative care is an evolving field of practice in social work. As such, research plays a critical role in informing best social work practices in this area. For parents, caring for a child with a life-limiting illness (LLI) is a stressful experience that compounds the usual challenges of parenting. The negative aspects of caring for a child with an LLI are well documented. In the face of such adversity, parent caregivers can also experience positive changes caring for children with even the most serious conditions. This article presents results from a research study of posttraumatic growth in parents who are caring for a child with a LLI. Using mixed methods, two overarching themes were prominent in both the quantitative and qualitative data. The first describes stress related to financial burden associated with caregiving. The second theme concerns the posttraumatic growth experienced by the parent caregivers. The quantitative and qualitative data have been woven together to underscore issues and parental perspectives related to these two themes. This provides a unique and important platform for parent caregivers' experiences that can inform the work of social workers and other pediatric palliative care professionals. PMID:23194170

  9. Status report of Area 15 experimental dairy farm: dairy husbandry January 1977-June 1979, agronomic practices January 1978-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final status report on the operation of the experimental dairy herd and farm in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site. Operation of the farm was transferred from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas to a contractor in September of 1979. The dairy herd portion of the report covers the period from January 1977 to June 1979. Improvement and addition to the facilities, production and reproduction statistics for individual cows and the herd, the veterinary medicine practices employed, and summaries of the metabolism studies that involved the dairy herd are discussed. The agronomic portion of the report covers the period January 1978 to June 1979. Topics include irrigation, fertilization, weed and insect control, and forage production.

  10. Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients

  11. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  12. The Usefulness of Clinical-Practice-Based Laboratory Data in Facilitating the Diagnosis of Dengue Illness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jien-Wei; Lee, Ing-Kit; Wang, Lin; Chen, Rong-Fu; Yang, Kuender D.

    2013-01-01

    Alertness to dengue and making a timely diagnosis is extremely important in the treatment of dengue and containment of dengue epidemics. We evaluated the complementary role of clinical-practice-based laboratory data in facilitating suspicion/diagnosis of dengue. One hundred overall dengue (57 dengue fever [DF] and 43 dengue hemorrhagic fever [DHF]) cases and another 100 nondengue cases (78 viral infections other than dengue, 6 bacterial sepsis, and 16 miscellaneous diseases) were analyzed. We separately compared individual laboratory variables (platelet count [PC] , prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and varied combined variables of DF and/or DHF cases with the corresponding ones of nondengue cases. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) in the diagnosis of DF and/or DHF were measured based on these laboratory variables. While trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, and/or suboptimal PPV/NPV was found at measurements using these variables, prolonged APTT + normal PT + PC < 100 × 109 cells/L had a favorable sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in diagnosis of DF and/or DHF. In conclusion, these data suggested that prolonged APTT + normal PT + PC < 100 × 109 cells/L is useful in evaluating the likelihood of DF and/or DHF. PMID:24455678

  13. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  14. An ecoregion-specific ammonia emissions inventory of Ontario dairy farming: Mitigation potential of diet and manure management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; MacDonald, Douglas; Bittman, Shabtai; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Janzen, H. Henry; McGinn, Sean M.; Vanderzaag, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian ammonia (NH3) emissions model and a survey of dairy farm practices were used to quantify effects of management on emissions from dairy farms in Ontario Canada. Total NH3 emissions from dairy farming were 21 Gg NH3-N yr-1 for the four ecoregions of the province. Annual emission rates ranged from 12.8 (for calves in ecoregions of Manitoulin-Lake Simcoe-Frontenac) to 50 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1 (for lactating cows in ecoregions of St. Lawrence Lowlands) (mean of 27 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1). The St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion had the highest emission rate because more dairy manure was managed as solid manure in that ecoregion. Total dairy cattle N intake (diet-N) was 81 Gg N yr-1, 23% of which was retained in animal products (e.g., milk, meat, and fetus), 47% was returned to the land, and 30% was emitted as gas (i.e., NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N) and nitrate-N leaching/runoff. Ammonia volatilization constituted the largest loss of diet-N (26%), as well as manure-N (34%). Reducing the fraction of solid manure by 50% has the potential to mitigate NH3 emissions by 18% in Ontario ecoregions.

  15. Radiating low back pain in general practice: Incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, and long-term clinical course of illness

    PubMed Central

    Groenhof, Feikje; Winters, Jan C.; van Wijhe, Marten; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence and prevalence of radiating low back pain, to explore the long-term clinical course of radiating low back pain including the influence of radiculopathy (in a subsample of the study population) and non-radiating low back pain thereon, and to describe general practitioners’ (GPs’) treatment strategies for radiating low back pain. Design. A historic prospective cohort study. Setting. Dutch general practice. Subjects. Patients over 18 years of age with a first episode of radiating low back pain, registered by the ICPC code L86. Main outcome measures. Incidence and prevalence, clinical course of illness, initial diagnoses established by the GPs, and treatment strategies. Results. Mean incidence was 9.4 and mean prevalence was 17.2 per 1000 person years. In total, 390 patients had 1193 contacts with their GPs; 50% had only one contact with their GP. Consultation rates were higher in patients with a history of non-radiating low back pain and in patients with a diagnosis of radiculopathy in the first five years. In this study's subsample of 103 patients, L86 episodes represented radiculopathy in 50% of cases. Medication was prescribed to 64% of patients, mostly NSAIDs. Some 53% of patients were referred, mainly to physiotherapists and neurologists; 9% of patients underwent surgery. Conclusion. Watchful waiting seems to be sufficient general practice care in most cases of radiating low back pain. Further research should be focused on clarifying the relationship between radicular radiating low back pain, non-radicular radiating low back pain, and non-radiating low back pain. PMID:25693788

  16. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  17. Mothers’ perspectives on their child’s mental illness as compared to other complex disorders in their family: Insights to inform genetic counseling practice

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Denise M.; Hiraki, Susan; Campion, MaryAnn W.; Austin, Jehannine C.

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate the development of a therapeutic alliance in genetic counseling, it is important that the counselor understands how families might perceive the condition that constitutes the reason for the referral. Through training and professional practice, genetic counselors develop a thorough understanding of families’ perceptions of the conditions that are common indications for genetic counseling. But, for referral indications that are less frequent, like serious mental illnesses, genetic counselors may feel less confident in their understanding of the family’s experience, or in their ability to provide psychosocial support when serious mental illness is reported in a family history. This may impede the establishment of a therapeutic alliance. As research shows that most referrals for genetic counseling related to serious mental illness are for female first-degree family members of affected individuals, we sought to explore how this group perceives serious mental illness. To provide a frame of reference with which genetic counselors may be more familiar, we explored how women perceived serious mental illness compared to other common complex disorders in their family. We conducted semi-structured interviews with women who had a child with a serious mental illness (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder) and a first-degree relative with another common complex disorder (diabetes, heart disease, cancer). Interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Saturation was reached when nine women had participated. Serious mental illness was perceived as being more severe and as having a greater impact on the family than diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Themes identified included guilt, stigma, and loss. Some of the most important issues that contribute to mothers’ perceptions that serious mental illness is more severe than other common complex disorders could be effectively addressed in genetic counseling. Developing a

  18. "Hell no, they'll think you're mad as a hatter": Illness discourses and their implications for patients in mental health practice.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Agnes; Holen, Mari

    2016-03-01

    This article examines how discourses on mental illness are negotiated in mental health practice and their implications for the subjective experiences of psychiatric patients. Based on a Foucauldian analysis of ethnographic data from two mental health institutions in Denmark--an outpatient clinic and an inpatient ward--this article identifies three discourses in the institutions: the instability discourse, the discourse of "really ill," and the lack of insight discourse. This article indicates that patients were required to develop a finely tuned and precise sense of the discourses and ways to appear in front of professionals if they wished to have a say in their treatment. We suggest that the extent to which an individual patient was positioned as ill seemed to rely more on his or her ability to navigate the discourses and the psychiatric setting than on any objective diagnostic criteria. Thus, we argue that illness discourses in mental health practice are not just materialized as static biomedical understandings, but are complex and diverse--and have implications for patients' possibilities to understand themselves and become understandable to professionals. PMID:25759335

  19. Development and validation of a bilingual questionnaire for measuring udder health related management practices on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Simon; Barkema, Herman W; DesCôteaux, Luc; DeVries, Trevor J; Dohoo, Ian R; Reyher, Kristen; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Scholl, Daniel T

    2010-06-01

    Questionnaires are frequently used instruments to collect data in epidemiological studies. In countries where more than one language is spoken, the development of a questionnaire in more than one language is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and test the repeatability and validity of English and French versions of a personal interview-format questionnaire designed to capture udder health related management practices used on dairy farms. A standardized protocol was used to develop and translate the research instrument. Equivalence of the English and French questionnaires was assessed using a cross-over study design with 24 bilingual dairy producers completing both versions on three different occasions in a randomly assigned sequence. Repeatability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the test-retest method with the same questions being asked on two different occasions to 88 dairy producers participating in the National Cohort of Dairy Farms of the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Validity of the questions related to milking procedures and general housing was assessed using on-farm observations as a gold standard. Measures of agreement were calculated using kappa, quadratic-weighted Kappa and concordance correlation coefficients for categorical, ordinal and continuous variables, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity estimates were computed for the validity analysis. The overall equivalence of the English and French versions of the questionnaire was adequate; agreement measures when administered twice in the same language were not significantly higher than when administered in each language. Similarly, questionnaire overall repeatability was good. When accounting for prevalence bias, Kappa and CCC estimates ranged from 0.40 to 0.92 for 27 of the 29 items evaluated in the questionnaire, with 18 items yielding agreement estimates greater than 0.60. Finally, milking procedures and general housing questions validity was excellent with

  20. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  1. Illness representations and cultural practices play a role in patient-centered care in childhood asthma: experiences of Mexican mothers

    PubMed Central

    Arcoleo, Kimberly; Zayas, Luis E.; Hawthorne, April; Begay, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients’ cultural health beliefs and behaviors may conflict with biomedical healthcare values and practices potentially leading to non-adherence with asthma treatment regimens. To optimize shared decision-making, healthcare providers should understand and be sensitive to these cultural beliefs and behaviors and negotiate an asthma management plan acceptable to parents. The purpose of this study was to obtain the perspective of Mexican mothers regarding (1) their experiences of living with a child with asthma, (2) their understanding of the nature of asthma, and (3) how their cultural beliefs influence asthma management. Methods A qualitative, phenomenological study design was employed to assess mothers’ lived experiences with and perceptions of their child’s asthma. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 20 Mexican mothers of children ages 5-17 years with asthma. An inductive, theory-driven, phenomenological analysis approach was used to elicit thematic findings. Results Mothers expressed a symptomatic perception of asthma and limited understanding of the disease. Most believe the disease is present only when their child is symptomatic. Many are surprised and puzzled by the unpredictability of their child’s asthma attacks, which they report as sometimes “silent”. The inconsistency of triggers also leads to frustration and worry, which may reflect their concerns around daily controller medication use and preference for alternative illness management strategies. Conclusions Our clinical encounters should be refocused to better understand the context of these families’ lives and the cultural lens through which they view their child’s asthma. PMID:25539396

  2. A survey of antimicrobial usage on dairy farms and waste milk feeding practices in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Brunton, L A; Duncan, D; Coldham, N G; Snow, L C; Jones, J R

    2012-09-22

    The cause for the high prevalence of cefotaximase-producing Escherichia coli reported in dairy calves is unknown but may be partly due to the selective pressure of antimicrobial residues in waste milk (milk unfit for human consumption) fed to the calves. Antimicrobial use and waste milk feeding practices were investigated in 557 dairy farms in 2010/2011 that responded to a randomised stratified postal survey. The mean number of cases of mastitis per herd in the previous year was 47, and 93 per cent of respondents used antibiotic intra-mammary tubes to treat mastitis. The most frequently used lactating cow antibiotic tubes contained dihydrostreptomycin, neomycin, novobiocin, and procaine penicillin (37 per cent), and cefquinome (29 per cent). Ninety-six per cent of respondents used antibiotic tubes at the cessation of lactation ('drying off'). The most frequently used dry cow antibiotic tube (43 per cent) contained cefalonium. Frequently used injectable antibiotics included tylosin (27 per cent), dihydrostreptomycin and procaine penicillin (20 per cent) and ceftiofur (13 per cent). Eighty-three per cent of respondents (413) fed waste milk to calves. Of these 413, 87 per cent fed waste milk from cows with mastitis, and only one-third discarded the first milk after antibiotic treatment. This survey has shown that on more than 90 per cent of the farms that feed waste milk to calves, waste milk can contain milk from cows undergoing antibiotic treatment. On some farms, this includes treatment with third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Further work is underway to investigate the presence of these antimicrobials in waste milk. PMID:22903925

  3. A cost-effective management practice to decrease phosphorus loss from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    McDowell, R W; Cosgrove, G P; Orchiston, T; Chrystal, J

    2014-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss from land can impair surface water quality. A paired-catchment study was conducted on a grazed dairy farm that tested the hypothesis that cultivating and sowing a low-P-requiring grass in near stream areas and high-P-requiring clover ( L.) elsewhere lost less P to water and was potentially more profitable than a mixed grass-clover pasture managed for the cover component. Two catchments were treated the same for 2 yr, after which 40% of the treatment catchment was cultivated around the stream, sown in ryegrass ( L.) and fertilized with 150 kg nitrogen (N) ha yr and 10 kg P ha yr. White clover was established in the remainder of the catchment and received no N but 30 kg P ha yr. The control catchment received 150 kg N ha yr and 30 kg P ha yr. After the monocultures were installed, filterable reactive P and total P concentrations decreased by 44 and 26% respectively, while the better-quality forage suggested a possible improvement in profitability. We concluded that with some caveats (e.g., a 2% increase in modeled N loss), using grass-clover monocultures strategically across a dairy farm may decrease P loss to surface water and improve profitability compared with a mixed pasture. PMID:25602221

  4. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km(2) along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. PMID:26826229

  5. Parasite control practices on pasture-based dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona

    2014-08-29

    Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control. PMID:24924698

  6. Changes in Storm Flow as a Result of Direct Seed Farming Practices on the Columbia Plateau Semiarid Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Mass cultivation of the prairie and shrubland-steppe on the Columbia Plateau began in the 1880's. This region is characterized by very fertile, highly erodible silt-loam soils, developed on steep slopes over Miocene basalts. Early farming practices led to excessive soil loss; lower cropland productivity, fouled in-stream habitat for andronomous and non-andronomous salmonids and eels, and deposition of sediment in first, second, and third order channels that continues to migrate down stream during storm runoff events. Sixty years of soil and water conservation efforts have slowed soil loss from fields. Presently much of the sediment moved during stormflow originates from stream bank erosion, although the annual development of rills in many fields is still observed. To quantify the continuing contribution of sediment to streams, and to evaluate the effectiveness of direct seed farming practices to soil and water conservation, four first order drainages, and one hillslope were instrumented with flumes, weirs, and storm sediment samplers. The area of instrumented drainages and hillslope were, respectfully, 25.0, 18.1, 10.0, and 6.1 ha, and a 25 percent hillslope of 1.6 ha. The 6.1 ha drainage was managed using fallow and inversion tillage practices. In October 2002, the crop stubble was fall burned and the soil was inverted using a moldboard plow; the following spring and summer the drainage was field cultivated and rod-weeded three times to control weeds and prepare the seed bed for winter wheat in October 2003. All other drainages, and the hillslope site, were farmed using direct seed technology consisting of one pass using a direct seed drill to seed and fertilize the crop, one pass to harvest the crop, one pass to break-up crop stubble, and multiple passes to spray herbicides for weed control. Total crop year precipitation for 2002-03 and 2003-04 was 10 percent lower and 15 percent higher, respectively, than the long-term average, representing typical winter

  7. [Practices and interventions related to the work integration of people with a severe mental illness: work outcomes and avenues of research].

    PubMed

    Pachoud, B; Corbière, M

    2014-06-01

    literature and are recognized as an evidence-based practice across the world to help people get competitive employment. Social firms is an another alternative model for facilitating the work integration of people with severe mental illness but has to date scarcely been studied empirically. Other hybrid vocational programs implemented in Québec (Canada) and France and inspired by supported employment programs and social firms' principles, are also described. The second part of this special issue is related to the presentation of two adjunct clinical interventions for helping people with a severe mental illness in their work integration, and more particularly for increasing job tenure: cognitive remediation and group cognitive behavioral therapy. Cognitive remediation was developed to reduce the impact of cognitive deficits, such as memory or attention, in people with a severe mental illness whereas group cognitive behavioral therapy was developed to change the dysfunctional beliefs and behaviours that might hinder job tenure in people receiving supported employment services. Finally, the third part of this special issue presents two papers on the influence of the workplace, of stakeholders from the organization (e.g., employers, supervisors) and of the work environment on the work integration of people with severe mental illness. The first paper discusses disclosure of the mental illness in the workplace and its positive and negative consequences such as receiving work accommodations and experiencing stigma, respectively. In the last paper, psychological processes during the hiring process are presented to better understand the elements related to discrimination and stigma during the work integration of people with severe mental illness. PMID:24929973

  8. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  9. Influenza and influenza-like illness in general practice: drawing lessons for surveillance from a pilot study in Paris, France.

    PubMed Central

    Carrat, F; Tachet, A; Housset, B; Valleron, A J; Rouzioux, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are two types of inflenza surveillance techniques: qualitative laboratory-based surveillance and quantitative medical practice-based surveillance. The former is of great importance in isolating new strains of the virus, which helps in the decision-making process concerning the composition of the vaccine, and the latter provides estimates of morbidity, mortality or economic impact as a result of infection from the influenza virus. Rapid methods such as immunoflourescence (IF) or immunocapture assays (ICA) are now available for diagnosis of influenza infections. However, little is known about the use of these methods for influenza surveillance purposes. AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of a rapid influenza diagnosis in ambulatory conditions, and to investigate the therapeutical outcomes of patients suffering from influenza-like illness (ILI) in relation to the virological diagnoses. METHOD: During the 1994-1995 influenza season, 130 patients presenting with ILI symptoms (< 36 hours) to 33 general practitioners (GPs) were included in a prospective study. Two nasal swabs and one throat swab per patient were collected and sent to the laboratory within 12 hours. Information concerning therapeutical outcomes was recorded during examination. Specimens were analysed using the immunofluorescence (IF) method and antigen immunocapture assay (ICA). RESULTS: Sixteen influenza A (12%) and 19 influenza B (15%) infections were diagnosed. The overall rate of influenza positive specimens was 17% in the pre-epidemic period and 31% during the epidemic (P = 0.1). The rates of usable specimens for IF assay, nasal ICA and throat ICA were 46%, 100% and 99% respectively. The combination of these three collections ensured a highly sensitive influenza virological diagnosis. There were no differences in therapeutical outcomes between the influenza positive and negative cases. The GPs prescribed antibiotics in 60% of the cases for a mean duration of 7 days (+/- 1.2). The mean

  10. Optimal Management of the Critically Ill: Anaesthesia, Monitoring, Data Capture, and Point-of-Care Technological Practices in Ovine Models of Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Kiran; Tung, John-Paul; Dunster, Kimble R.; Platts, David; Watts, Ryan P.; Gregory, Shaun D.; Simonova, Gabriela; McDonald, Charles; Hayes, Rylan; Bellpart, Judith; Timms, Daniel; Fung, Yoke L.; Toon, Michael; Maybauer, Marc O.; Fraser, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of critical illness are vital in biomedical research. They provide possibilities for the investigation of pathophysiological processes that may not otherwise be possible in humans. In order to be clinically applicable, the model should simulate the critical care situation realistically, including anaesthesia, monitoring, sampling, utilising appropriate personnel skill mix, and therapeutic interventions. There are limited data documenting the constitution of ideal technologically advanced large animal critical care practices and all the processes of the animal model. In this paper, we describe the procedure of animal preparation, anaesthesia induction and maintenance, physiologic monitoring, data capture, point-of-care technology, and animal aftercare that has been successfully used to study several novel ovine models of critical illness. The relevant investigations are on respiratory failure due to smoke inhalation, transfusion related acute lung injury, endotoxin-induced proteogenomic alterations, haemorrhagic shock, septic shock, brain death, cerebral microcirculation, and artificial heart studies. We have demonstrated the functionality of monitoring practices during anaesthesia required to provide a platform for undertaking systematic investigations in complex ovine models of critical illness. PMID:24783206

  11. Suicide Risk in Adolescents with Chronic Illness: Implications for Primary Care and Specialty Pediatric Practice--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greydanus, Donald; Patel, Dilip; Pratt, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is a global tragedy. Research-identified correlates of suicide in youth include depression, academic failure, loss of friends, social isolation, and substance abuse, among others. This review focuses on the potential link between chronic illness in adolescents and increased suicide risk. Research suggests that chronic…

  12. Care for chronic illness in Australian general practice – focus groups of chronic disease self-help groups over 10 years: implications for chronic care systems reforms

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carmel M; Peterson, Chris; Robinson, Rowena; Sturmberg, Joachim P

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. Aim The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare incentives for longer consultations and structured health assessments in general practice. Methods Self-help groups around the conditions of diabetes, epilepsy, asthma and cancer identified key informants to participate in 4 disease specific focus groups. Audio taped transcripts of the focus groups were coded using grounded theory methodology. Key themes and lesser themes identified using a process of saturation until the study questions on needs and experiences of care were addressed. Thematic comparisons were made across the 2002/3 and 1992/3 focus groups. Findings At times of chronic illness, there was need to find and then ensure access to 'the right GP'. The 'right GP or specialist' committed to an in-depth relationship of trust, personal rapport and understanding together with clinical and therapeutic competence. The 'right GP', the main specialist, the community nurse and the pharmacist were key providers, whose success depended on interprofessional communication. The need to trust and rely on care providers was balanced by the need for self-efficacy 'to be in control of disease and treatment' and 'to be your own case manager'. Changes in Medicare appeared to have little penetration into everyday perceptions of chronic illness burden or time and quality of GP care. Inequity of health system support for different disease groupings emerged. Diabetes, asthma and certain cancers, like breast cancer, had greater support, despite common experiences of disease burden, and a need for research and support programs. Conclusion Core themes around chronic illness

  13. A simple tool for implementation of US Farm Bill Programs: Can a practice-based index predict soil function in organic and conventional farming systems?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationally, the focus on soil quality and soil ecosystem function as a foundation for natural resource conservation is rising in importance. The 2002 Farm Bill’s Conservation Security Program (CSP) considers soil quality a key component for good land stewardship. Similarly, the draft Senate and Hous...

  14. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  15. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  16. Standards of practice for the adult mental health workforce: meeting the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Melinda; Hill, Terri-Lee; Allchin, Becca; McCormick, Francis; Hine, Rochelle; Cuff, Rose; O'Hanlon, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    This article outlines the development of practice standards for the adult mental health workforce for addressing the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness (FaPMI). The practice standards recommended here were formulated using a modified cooperative inquiry process with a group of senior clinical leaders in adult mental health services in Australia, following consultation with the available literature and policy documents. The aim of the project was to generate, align, and operationalize family-inclusive practice standards within the core activities of the adult mental health workforce and integrate into the continuum of care and recovery for service users who are parents of dependent children. As part of a modified Delphi method, the standards were also ranked by the senior clinical leaders to determine what they believe to be essential and recommended practices for the adult mental health workforce they manage. We argue that developing practice standards that provide practical and realistic expectations of the adult mental health service workforce enable services and workers to better adapt practice to respond to FaPMI. PMID:25619407

  17. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of California Almond Orchards Using Advanced Farming Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Schellenberg, Daniel; Saa Silva, Sebastian; Muhammad, Saiful; Sanden, Blake; Brown, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Mobilization of reactive nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, NOx, N2O, NO2- and NO3-) is perceived as one of the foremost challenges for modern agricultural production systems. Yet information to address the question of how advanced nitrogen (N) management alters reactive N mobilization is lacking. During 2009 to 2012 we monitored spatially constrained N2O emissions and potential leachable NO3-, along with yield-N content to examine their contribution to nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, fruit-N exported/fertilizer-N applied) for a modern, high yielding almond production system. This modern production system schedules irrigation to match evapotranspiration (ETc) estimated from the Penman-Montieth calculation of a reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times a seasonal crop coefficient (Kc) which was verified using eddy covariance and surface renewal latent heat flux estimates. Split N-fertilizer applications were targeted to tree-N demand and root proliferation. These production systems demand upwards of 300 kg N ha-1. NUE was found to be nearly 80% at an N application level allowing for economic sustainability of the system (308 kg N ha-1). When mobilization of N2O and NO3- were included in the NUE assessment, these systems were still highly sustainable in terms of N applied. We also monitored production and consumption of the greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). These systems had relatively low levels of N2O emissions with emissions of N2O as a fraction of N-fertilizer applied being consistently less than IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors, and lower than the average estimated for most continental US farming systems. The system also demonstrated a capacity for net CH4 oxidation over the course of a season that occurred mainly in the driveways between tree rows that are kept dry over the course of the season in this arid environment. Our study indicated that tight management of water resources and targeted applications of N-fertilizer resulted in net positive

  18. The Recovery-Oriented Care Collaborative: A Practice-Based Research Network to Improve Care for People With Serious Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Kiger, Holly; Gaba, Rebecca; Pancake, Laura; Pilon, David; Murch, Lezlie; Knox, Lyndee; Meyer, Mathew; Brekke, John S

    2015-11-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) create continuous collaborations among academic researchers and practitioners. Most PBRNs have operated in primary care, and less than 5% of federally registered PBRNs include mental health practitioners. In 2012 the first PBRN in the nation focused on individuals with serious mental illnesses-the Recovery-Oriented Care Collaborative-was established in Los Angeles. This column describes the development of this innovative PBRN through four phases: building an infrastructure, developing a research study, executing the study, and consolidating the PBRN. Key lessons learned are also described, such as the importance of actively engaging direct service providers and clients. PMID:26130004

  19. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  20. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…

  1. Effect of implementation of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness programme on treatment seeking practices for morbidities in infants: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Sarmila; Taneja, Sunita; Bahl, Rajiv; Mohan, Pavitra; Strand, Tor A; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Kirkwood, Betty R; Goyal, Nidhi; Van Den Hombergh, Henri; Martines, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of implementation of the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy on treatment seeking practices and on neonatal and infant morbidity. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting Haryana, India. Participants 29 667 births in nine intervention clusters and 30 813 births in nine control clusters. Main outcome measures The pre-specified outcome was the effect on treatment seeking practices. Post hoc exploratory analyses assessed morbidity, hospital admission, post-neonatal infant care, and nutritional status outcomes. Interventions The Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness intervention included home visits by community health workers, improved case management of sick children, and strengthening of health systems. Outcomes were ascertained through interviews with randomly selected caregivers: 6204, 3073, and 2045 in intervention clusters and 6163, 3048, and 2017 in control clusters at ages 29 days, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. Results In the intervention cluster, treatment was sought more often from an appropriate provider for severe neonatal illness (risk ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.24), for local neonatal infection (4.86, 3.80 to 6.21), and for diarrhoea at 6 months (1.96, 1.38 to 2.79) and 12 months (1.22, 1.06 to 1.42) and pneumonia at 6 months (2.09, 1.31 to 3.33) and 12 months (1.44, 1.00 to 2.08). Intervention mothers reported fewer episodes of severe neonatal illness (risk ratio 0.82, 0.67 to 0.99) and lower prevalence of diarrhoea (0.71, 0.60 to 0.83) and pneumonia (0.73, 0.52 to 1.04) in the two weeks preceding the 6 month interview and of diarrhoea (0.63, 0.49 to 0.80) and pneumonia (0.60, 0.46 to 0.78) in the two weeks preceding the 12 month interview. Infants in the intervention clusters were more likely to still be exclusively breast fed in the sixth month of life (risk ratio 3.19, 2.67 to 3.81). Conclusion Implementation of the Integrated Management

  2. Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices – how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data from an observational cohort study involving 158 general practitioners (GP) and 3189 multimorbid patients. Standardized questionnaires were employed to collect data, and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire used to assess the quality of care received. Multilevel hierarchical modeling was used to identify any existing association between the dependent variable, PACIC, and independent variables at the patient level (socio-economic factors, weighted count of chronic conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, graded chronic pain, no. of contacts with GP, existence of a disease management program (DMP) disease, self-efficacy, and social support) and the practice level (age and sex of GP, years in current practice, size and type of practice). Results The overall mean PACIC score was 2.4 (SD 0.8), with the mean subscale scores ranging from 2.0 (SD 1.0, subscale goal setting/tailoring) to 3.5 (SD 0.7, delivery system design). At the patient level, higher PACIC scores were associated with a DMP disease, more frequent GP contacts, higher social support, and higher autonomy of past occupation. At the practice level, solo practices were associated with higher PACIC values than other types of practice. Conclusions This study shows that from the perspective of multimorbid patients receiving care in German

  3. Evidence that rodent control strategies ought to be improved to enhance food security and reduce the risk of rodent-borne illnesses within subsistence farming villages in the plague-endemic West Nile region, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Enscore, Russell E.; Atiku, Linda A.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Mpanga, Joseph T.; Kajik, Ezekiel; Andama, Vincent; Mungujakisa, Cyrus; Tibo, Emmanuel; MacMillan, Katherine; Borchert, Jeff N.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    Rodents pose serious threats to human health and economics, particularly in developing countries where the animals play a dual role as pests: they are reservoirs of human pathogens, and they inflict damage levels to stored products sufficient to cause food shortages. To assess the magnitude of the damage caused by rodents to crops, their level of contact with humans, and to better understand current food storage and rodent control practices, we conducted a survey of 37 households from 17 subsistence farming villages within the West Nile region of Uganda. Our survey revealed that rodents cause both pre- and post-harvest damage to crops. Evidence of rodent access to stored foods was reported in conjunction with each of the reported storage practices. Approximately half of the respondents reported that at least one family member had been bitten by a rat within the previous three months. Approximately two-thirds of respondents practiced some form of rodent control in their homes. The abundance of rodents was similar within homes that practiced or did not practice rodent control. Together, our results show that current efforts are inadequate for effectively reducing rodent abundance in homes. PMID:26500395

  4. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full. PMID:25932349

  5. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full. PMID:25932349

  6. Characteristics of commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Idrissa; Kamissoko, Badian; Diakité, Adama; Sidibé, Maimouna Sanogo; Sissoko, Kadiatou Diarra; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-10-01

    We aimed at characterizing commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali, with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Surveys were conducted in 2009-2011 in a study area covering approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population. Among the 282 commercial farms investigated, of which 64 had not been known by the government authorities, 83% were located within a 50km radius from the capitals of the country and regions and 54% had low biosecurity standard. Among the 152 randomly selected village household flocks investigated, characteristics were overall similar to those in other African countries but some differences were notable including a large flock size (median 44 poultry), a low presence of ducks and geese (11% and 1.1% of flocks, respectively), vaccination against Newcastle disease being common (49% of flocks), a low proportion of households selling sick and dead birds (0.7% and 0%, respectively) and limited cohabitation between poultry and humans at night. Our recommendations to limit the risk of disease transmission include (1) for commercial farms, to introduce compulsory farm registration and accreditation, to increase technical proficiency and access to credit for farms with low biosecurity, and to support poultry producer associations; (2) for village poultry, to promote better quarantine and management of sick and dead birds. Such detailed knowledge of country-specific characteristics of poultry production systems is essential to be able to develop more efficient disease risk management policies. PMID:26113175

  7. Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of ovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Carloni, Elisa; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio; Caverni, Francesco; Mangili, Piermario; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-04-01

    A survey on ovine dairy farms directly transforming own-produced milk, in the Italian Marche region, was carried out to assess flock and milking practices that may influence milk hygienic-sanitary conditions. A census survey established that 24 dairy farms were located in this region. Bulk milk samples were collected throughout the milking period in each dairy farm in 2013. Analyzed variables were: (i) chemical parameters such as fat, protein and lactose content, dry matter and pH; and (ii) total bacterial (TBC) and somatic cell counts (SCC). Chemical parameter values were in agreement with published data while, geometric mean (GM) log10 SCC was 5.91 and TBC GM was 57 978 colony forming units/mL, in compliance with Eropean Union criteria. A positive correlation was found between SCC and TBC when GMs of all farm data were considered (Spearman's rho = 0.7925; P = 0.0001). Statistical analysis did not show significant correlation between SCC or TBC GM and dairy farm principal characteristics. Although SCC levels detected in the present study should suggest the need to implement mastitis control programs, Marche's dairy sheep flocks revealed a good hygienic condition level. This is an important aspect in implementing safety for end users of the final product. PMID:26304708

  8. The Impact of Organizational Factors and Government Policy on Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice With Parents Who Have Mental Illness, Their Dependent Children, and Families in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Grant, Anne; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Government policy and organizational factors influence family-focused practice (FFP) in adult mental health services. However, how these aspects shape psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their dependent children, and families is less well understood. Drawing on the findings of a qualitative study, this article explores the way in which Irish policy and organizational factors might influence psychiatric nurses' FFP, and whether (and how) FFP might be further promoted. A purposive sample of 14 psychiatric nurses from eight mental health services completed semi-structured interviews. The analysis was inductive and presented as thematic networks. Both groups described how policies and organizational culture enabled and/or hindered FFP, with differences between community and acute participants seen. This study indicates a need for policies and organizational supports, including child and family skills training, to promote a whole family approach in adult mental health services. PMID:27090512

  9. Soil response to biodynamic farming practices in estevia -Stevia Rebaudiana- (Extremadura, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, Juana; Colmenares, Ricardo; Sánchez, Eduardo; Creus, Juan; García, Nieves; Blázquez, Jaime; Moreno, Marta M.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of the evolution of an organic-biodynamic cultivation of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) in Extremadura (Spain) are shown here. The organic-biodynamic approach permits experimentally for a more holistic view of the crop development process what means the understanding and quantification of its evolution at different scales. The research methodology applied includes not only quantitative individual parameters of the crop development but also global parameters which make a contribution of very relevant information concerning unbalances between growth and differentiation processes, as well as other aspects linked to the product intrinsic quality. The crop cultivation has been done over a plot of 2.5 has, on acid soils (pH 5.18) and very poor organic matter content (0.5 %). On this first year of cultivation two cuts were given to the plant with an average total yield of 4,500 kg/ha without any supply of solid organic matter, only with the application of the biodynamic preparations. So far results regarding soil improvement and crop productivity, taking into consideration the practices used, let us introduce this pioneer crop in Extremadura, not only as an alternative crop to the current tobacco crop in this area, but also as a development resource for the rural environment of this region. Key words: Agroecology, Organic Biodynamic Agriculture, Stevia Rebaudiana

  10. Personal Protective Equipment Use and Safety Behaviors among Farm Adolescents: Gender Differences and Predictors of Work Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah B.; Browning, Steven R.; Westneat, Susan C.; Kidd, Pamela S.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Children on farms perform work that places them at risk for acute and chronic negative health outcomes. Despite strategies for preventing and reducing the risk of disease and injury, children's use of personal protective equipment and safety equipped farm machinery has generally remained unreported. Purpose: This paper reports the use of…

  11. Survey of retail milk composition as affected by label claims regarding farm-management practices.

    PubMed

    Vicini, John; Etherton, Terry; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Ballam, Joan; Denham, Steven; Staub, Robin; Goldstein, Daniel; Cady, Roger; McGrath, Michael; Lucy, Matthew

    2008-07-01

    A trend in food labeling is to make claims related to agricultural management, and this is occurring with dairy labels. A survey study was conducted to compare retail milk for quality (antibiotics and bacterial counts), nutritional value (fat, protein, and solids-not-fat), and hormonal composition (somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], estradiol, and progesterone) as affected by three label claims related to dairy-cow management: conventional, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)-free (processor-certified not from cows supplemented with rbST), or organic (follows US Department of Agriculture organic practices). Retail milk samples (n=334) from 48 states were collected. Based on a statistical analysis that reflected the sampling schema and distributions appropriate to the various response variables, minor differences were observed for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk labels. Conventionally labeled milk had the lowest (P<0.05) bacterial counts compared to either milk labeled rbST-free or organic; however, these differences were not biologically meaningful. In addition, conventionally labeled milk had significantly less (P<0.05) estradiol and progesterone than organic milk (4.97 vs 6.40 pg/mL and 12.0 vs 13.9 ng/mL, respectively). Milk labeled rbST-free had similar concentrations of progesterone vs conventional milk and similar concentrations of estradiol vs organic milk. Concentrations of IGF-1 in milk were similar between conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free. Organic milk had less (P<0.05) IGF-1 than either conventional or rbST-free milk (2.73 ng/mL vs 3.12 and 3.04 ng/mL, respectively). The macronutrient profiles of the different milks were similar, except for a slight increase in protein in organic milk (about 0.1% greater for organic compared to other milks). Label claims were not related to any meaningful differences in the milk compositional variables measured. It is important for food and nutrition professionals to know that

  12. Theoretical and practical issues related to the management of severe and refractory psychotic illness complicated by pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Chandele, Payal H.; Cholera, Rashmin; Kale, Sanjiv; Ramakrishnan, Aparna; Ross, Cecil R.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition. We describe the educative case of a young adult male, with a longstanding history of schizophrenia, who was receiving anticoagulant treatment because of repeated episodes of PE in the past. He presented with severe exacerbation of psychosis and did not respond to oral and parenteral antipsychotic medication during inpatient treatment. He was taken up for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and received a single ECT uneventfully. The ECT course had to be interrupted because of the unexpected development of a 4-day febrile illness, after which he experienced sudden onset breathlessness, which was diagnosed as acute-on-chronic PE. After the crisis resolved with 4 days of intensive care, he was managed with clozapine. We discuss concerns associated with the psychiatric management of patients with PE; special issues include the use of restraints, parenteral antipsychotic medications, anticoagulants, and ECT. PMID:26816433

  13. Theoretical and practical issues related to the management of severe and refractory psychotic illness complicated by pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Chandele, Payal H; Cholera, Rashmin; Kale, Sanjiv; Ramakrishnan, Aparna; Ross, Cecil R; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition. We describe the educative case of a young adult male, with a longstanding history of schizophrenia, who was receiving anticoagulant treatment because of repeated episodes of PE in the past. He presented with severe exacerbation of psychosis and did not respond to oral and parenteral antipsychotic medication during inpatient treatment. He was taken up for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and received a single ECT uneventfully. The ECT course had to be interrupted because of the unexpected development of a 4-day febrile illness, after which he experienced sudden onset breathlessness, which was diagnosed as acute-on-chronic PE. After the crisis resolved with 4 days of intensive care, he was managed with clozapine. We discuss concerns associated with the psychiatric management of patients with PE; special issues include the use of restraints, parenteral antipsychotic medications, anticoagulants, and ECT. PMID:26816433

  14. Reference levels for corticosterone and immune function in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings using current Code of Practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Thomson, Peter C; Adams, Amanda L; Benedict, Suresh; Moran, Christopher; Isberg, Sally R

    2015-02-01

    To determine reference levels for on-farm stressors on immune responsiveness and growth rate, 253 hatchling crocodiles from 11 known breeding pairs were repeatedly measured and blood sampled during their first year. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was used to quantify baseline stress levels in captive animals and were found to be lower (mean 1.83±SE 0.16 ng/mL) than previously reported in saltwater crocodile hatchlings. Two tests of immune function were also conducted. Innate constitutive immunity was assessed using bacterial killing assays (BKA) against two bacterial species: Escherichia coli and Providencia rettgeri, whereby the latter causes considerable economic loss to industry from septicaemic mortalities. Although the bactericidal capabilities were different at approximately 4 months old (32±3% for E. coli and 16±4% for P. rettgeri), the differences had disappeared by approximately 9 months old (58±2% and 68±6%, respectively). To assess immune responsiveness to a novel antigen, the inflammatory swelling response caused by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection was assessed but was only significantly different between Samplings 1 and 3 (5% LSD). There were no significant clutch effects for CORT or PHA but there were for both BKA traits. CORT was not significantly associated with growth (head length) or the immune parameters except for P. rettgeri BKA where higher CORT levels were associated with better bactericidal capability. As such, these results suggest that the crocodiles in this study are not stressed, therefore endorsing the management strategies adopted within the Australian industry Code of Practice. PMID:25644211

  15. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    PubMed

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation. PMID:25798221

  16. Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... people in the U.S. get sick from contaminated food. Common culprits include bacteria, parasites and viruses. Symptoms ... are the most common cause of foodborne illness. Foods may have some bacteria on them when you ...

  17. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... high humidity, sweating just isn't enough. Your body temperature can rise to dangerous levels and you can ... include Heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may rise above 106° F in minutes; symptoms ...

  18. Foodborne Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans. Some harmful bacteria may ...

  19. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... humidity, sweating just isn't enough. Your body temperature can rise to dangerous levels and you can ... Heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may rise above 106° F in minutes; symptoms ...

  20. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Roshni; Myles, Puja R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52–0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55–0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  1. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Roshni; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52-0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55-0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  2. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  3. Sustainable farming practices of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) around Hongze Lake, lower Yangtze River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qidong; Liu, Jiashou; Zhang, Shengyu; Lian, Yuxi; Ding, Huaiyu; Du, Xue; Li, Zhongjie; De Silva, Sena S

    2016-04-01

    Results of a survey of 156 Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) grow-out farms around Hongze Lake (118.48-118.72°E; 33.36-33.38°N) are reported. Area farmed has remained relatively unchanged but production (59 932 t in 2012) increased steadily over the last 7 years, indicative of the viability and sustainability of the farming system that has gradually replaced intensive Chinese major carp polyculture around Hongze Lake. Results showed that production range was 135-2400 kg ha(-1) cycle(-1) (mean 1144 ± 34). Crab yields correlated linearly to stocking density and conformed to a normal distribution curve, with 66.7 % of farms yielding 900 kg ha(-1) cycle(-1) or more. Yield was negatively correlated to pond size and capture size (p < 0.01), and farms with macrophyte coverage rate lower than 30 % of water surface were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those exceeding 30 %. PMID:26508174

  4. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B

    2013-12-01

    Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy

  5. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice. PMID:26914090

  6. The Rapid Adjustment Farm Program's Influence on Other Farms in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeral, Kenneth D.

    The study investigated the diffusion of innovative farming practices from Rapid Adjustment Farms (RAF) to other farms in southeast Ohio. The RAF program, begun in 1968, introduced new technology and management practices to its participant farmers. After reviewing literature of farming programs' information diffusion, a descriptive survey was made…

  7. Real-Time Epidemic Monitoring and Forecasting of H1N1-2009 Using Influenza-Like Illness from General Practice and Family Doctor Clinics in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jimmy Boon Som; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Cook, Alex R.; Lee, Huey Chyi; Lee, Vernon J.; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin; Tambyah, Paul Ananth; Goh, Lee Gan

    2010-01-01

    Background Reporting of influenza-like illness (ILI) from general practice/family doctor (GPFD) clinics is an accurate indicator of real-time epidemic activity and requires little effort to set up, making it suitable for developing countries currently experiencing the influenza A (H1N1 -2009) pandemic or preparing for subsequent epidemic waves. Methodology/Principal Findings We established a network of GPFDs in Singapore. Participating GPFDs submitted returns via facsimile or e-mail on their work days using a simple, standard data collection format, capturing: gender; year of birth; “ethnicity”; residential status; body temperature (°C); and treatment (antiviral or not); for all cases with a clinical diagnosis of an acute respiratory illness (ARI). The operational definition of ILI in this study was an ARI with fever of 37.8°C or more. The data were processed daily by the study co-ordinator and fed into a stochastic model of disease dynamics, which was refitted daily using particle filtering, with data and forecasts uploaded to a website which could be publicly accessed. Twenty-three GPFD clinics agreed to participate. Data collection started on 2009-06-26 and lasted for the duration of the epidemic. The epidemic appeared to have peaked around 2009-08-03 and the ILI rates had returned to baseline levels by the time of writing. Conclusions/Significance This real-time surveillance system is able to show the progress of an epidemic and indicates when the peak is reached. The resulting information can be used to form forecasts, including how soon the epidemic wave will end and when a second wave will appear if at all. PMID:20418945

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw goat milk and effect of farming practices on the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tormo, Hélène; Ali Haimoud Lekhal, Djamila; Roques, C

    2015-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis, play a decisive role in the cheese making process and more particularly in lactic cheeses which are primarily produced on goat dairy farms. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the main lactic acid bacteria found in raw goats' milk from three different regions in France and evaluate if certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of lactic acid bacteria in the various milk samples. Identification at genus or species level was carried out using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including repetitive element REP-PCR, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution of the main bacterial species in the milk samples varied depending on farms and their characteristics. Out of the 146 strains identified, L. lactis was the dominant species (60% of strains), followed by Enterococcus (38%) of which Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Within the species L. lactis, L. lactis subsp lactis was detected more frequently than L. lactis subsp cremoris (74% vs. 26%). The predominance of L. lactis subsp cremoris was linked to geographical area studied. It appears that the animals' environment plays a role in the balance between the dominance of L. lactis and enterococci in raw goats' milk. The separation between the milking parlor and the goat shed (vs no separation) and only straw in the bedding (vs straw and hay) seems to promote L. lactis in the milk (vs enterococci). PMID:26082325

  9. Sexuality and chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E

    2013-11-01

    Sexual function is often affected in individuals living with chronic illness and their partners, and multiple comorbidities increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction. This review focuses on the areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer, all areas for which there are practical, evidence-based strategies to guide sexual counseling. Although nurses have been reluctant to address the topic of sexuality in practice, a growing number of studies suggest that patients want nurses to address their concerns and provide resources to them. Thus, nurses must be proactive in initiating conversations on sexual issues to fill this gap in practice. PMID:24066783

  10. Identification of wind turbine testing practices and investigation of the performance benefits of closely-spaced lateral wind farm configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTavish, Sean

    blockage. The experimental results were compared to a freestream computational simulation of the same turbine using the vortex particle method code GENUVP. The magnitude of the wake expansion in the freestream computation was similar to the experimental wake expansion observed with 6.3% and 9.9% blockage. Following the identification of testing practices related to blockage, the effect of the Reynolds number on the development of the initial wake expansion was investigated using two different rotors. The wake expansion downstream of a 25 cm diameter, three-bladed MAAE wind turbine became less sensitive to the Reynolds number above a Reynolds number of 20,000. This behaviour may be related to the laminar-to-turbulent transition behaviour of the E387 airfoil on the rotor blades. The wake downstream of the geometrically-scaled rotor was found to be 40% to 60% narrower than the initial wake expansion downstream of the corresponding medium-scale rotor. The work identified the need to develop a wind turbine design for a particular Reynolds number regime as opposed to merely geometrically-scaling a turbine. The performance of scaled wind farm configurations was then evaluated using 20 cm diameter MAAE wind turbines installed in the 1.68 m x 1.12 m atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at Carleton University. A scaled boundary layer was generated using triangular boundary layer spires and roughness elements installed along the upstream fetch of the tunnel. Each wind turbine was outfitted with a DC generator and the power output generated by the scaled turbines was used to characterise their performance. A single-normal hot-wire probe was used to determine the mean speed profiles in the fiowfield. Two laterally-aligned wind turbines were separated by a gap and it was observed that when the gap was less than 3 diameters (D), the speed of the flow between the rotors was increased from the rotor plane to approximately 2.5D downstream. This behaviour was identified as an in

  11. Loan Stars: ILL Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the changes in interlibrary loan (ILL) practices, and points the way to an ideal future. Discusses patron-initiated document request systems; library-mediated ordering systems; document delivery suppliers; accessing electronic resources; ILL management software; paying ILL invoices; new electronic delivery options; and results of a…

  12. Soil-air greenhouse gas fluxes influenced by farming practices in reservoir drawdown area: A case at the Three Gorges Reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Lin, Chuxue; Chen, Yongbo; Wen, Anbang; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has large water level variations, creating about 393 km(2) of drawdown area seasonally. Farming practices in drawdown area during the low water level period is common in the TGR. Field experiments on soil-air greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in fallow grassland, peanut field and corn field in reservoir drawdown area at Lijiaba Bay of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in the TGR were carried out from March through September 2011. Experimental fields in drawdown area had the same land use history. They were adjacent to each other horizontally at a narrow range of elevation i.e. 167-169 m, which assured that they had the same duration of reservoir inundation. Unflooded grassland with the same land-use history was selected as control for study. Results showed that mean value of soil CO2 emissions in drawdown area was 10.38 ± 0.97 mmol m(-2) h(-1). The corresponding CH4 fluxes and N2O fluxes were -8.61 ± 2.15 μmol m(-2) h(-1) and 3.42 ± 0.80 μmol m(-2) h(-1). Significant differences and monthly variations among land uses in treatments of drawdown area and unflooded grassland were evident. These were impacted by the change in soil physiochemical properties which were alerted by reservoir operation and farming. Particularly, N-fertilization in corn field stimulated N2O emissions from March to May. In terms of global warming potentials (GWP), corn field in drawdown area had the maximum GWP mainly due to N-fertilization. Gross GWP in peanut field in drawdown area was about 7% lower than that in fallow grassland. Compared to unflooded grassland, reservoir operation created positive net effect on GHG emissions and GWPs in drawdown area. However, selection of crop species, e.g. peanut, and best practices in farming, e.g. prohibiting N-fertilization, could potentially mitigate GWPs in drawdown area. In the net GHG emissions evaluation in the TGR, farming practices in the drawdown area shall be taken

  13. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. PMID:26995127

  14. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (P<0.01) to use pooled colostrum supplies, while smaller herds were more likely (P<0.05) to allow the calf to suckle the dam. The majority (86%) of respondents had stored supplies of colostrum; average-sized herds had the greatest likelihood of storing colostrum (P<0.05), compared to other herd sizes; larger sized herds had a lesser likelihood (P<0.05) of storing colostrum in a freezer, compared to other herd sizes. Although freezing colostrum was the most common method used to store colostrum (54% of respondents), 17% of respondents stored colostrum at room temperature, 29% of which stored it at room temperature for greater than 4 days. The results from the

  15. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies. PMID:26518317

  16. Primary care practice-based care management for chronically ill patients (PraCMan): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN56104508

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Care management programmes are an effective approach to care for high risk patients with complex care needs resulting from multiple co-occurring medical and non-medical conditions. These patients are likely to be hospitalized for a potentially "avoidable" cause. Nurse-led care management programmes for high risk elderly patients showed promising results. Care management programmes based on health care assistants (HCAs) targeting adult patients with a high risk of hospitalisation may be an innovative approach to deliver cost-efficient intensified care to patients most in need. Methods/Design PraCMan is a cluster randomized controlled trial with primary care practices as unit of randomisation. The study evaluates a complex primary care practice-based care management of patients at high risk for future hospitalizations. Eligible patients either suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure or any combination. Patients with a high likelihood of hospitalization within the following 12 months (based on insurance data) will be included in the trial. During 12 months of intervention patients of the care management group receive comprehensive assessment of medical and non-medical needs and resources as well as regular structured monitoring of symptoms. Assessment and monitoring will be performed by trained HCAs from the participating practices. Additionally, patients will receive written information, symptom diaries, action plans and a medication plan to improve self-management capabilities. This intervention is addition to usual care. Patients from the control group receive usual care. Primary outcome is the number of all-cause hospitalizations at 12 months follow-up, assessed by insurance claims data. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life (SF12, EQ5D), quality of chronic illness care (PACIC), health care utilisation and costs, medication adherence (MARS), depression status and severity (PHQ-9

  17. Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: effect of farm characteristics and practices.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, D J; Donnelly, C W

    2010-01-01

    This study 1) evaluated the overall milk quality and prevalence of 4 target pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7) in raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheesemaking and 2) examined specific farm characteristics and practices and their effect on bacterial and somatic cell counts (SCC). Raw milk samples were collected weekly from 21 artisan cheese operations (6 organic) in the state of Vermont that manufactured raw-milk cheese from cow (12), goat (5), or sheep (4) milk during the summer of 2008. Individual samples were examined for standard plate counts (SPC), coliform counts (CC), and SCC. Samples were also screened for target pathogens both quantitatively and qualitatively by direct plating and PCR. Overall, 86% of samples had SPC <10,000 cfu/mL, with 42% <1,000 cfu/mL. Additionally, 68% of samples tested were within pasteurized milk standards for coliform bacteria under the United States' Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance at <10 cfu/mL. Log(10) SPC and CC did not differ significantly among species. Similarly, method of sample delivery (shipped or picked up), farm type (organic or conventional), and duration of milking (year-round or seasonal) did not have significant effects on farm aggregated mean log(10) SPC, CC, or SCC. Strong positive correlations were observed between herd size and mean log(10) SPC and between log(10) SPC and CC as well as SCC when data from all animal species were combined. Although SCC for cow milk were significantly lower than those for goat and sheep milk, 98, 71, and 92% of cow, sheep, and goat milk samples, respectively, were within the compliance limits of the United States' Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for SCC. Fourteen of the 21 farms (67%) were positive for Staph. aureus, detected in 38% of samples at an average level of 20 cfu/mL. Neither L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, or Salmonella spp. were detected or recovered from any of the 101 samples tested

  18. Farm Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoux, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities using ants. Ant hunting, a list of books on the topic, information, and ant farming are included. The procedures for assembling and maintenance of an ant farm are presented. (KR)

  19. Decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Vann, Richard D; Butler, Frank K; Mitchell, Simon J; Moon, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Decompression illness is caused by intravascular or extravascular bubbles that are formed as a result of reduction in environmental pressure (decompression). The term covers both arterial gas embolism, in which alveolar gas or venous gas emboli (via cardiac shunts or via pulmonary vessels) are introduced into the arterial circulation, and decompression sickness, which is caused by in-situ bubble formation from dissolved inert gas. Both syndromes can occur in divers, compressed air workers, aviators, and astronauts, but arterial gas embolism also arises from iatrogenic causes unrelated to decompression. Risk of decompression illness is affected by immersion, exercise, and heat or cold. Manifestations range from itching and minor pain to neurological symptoms, cardiac collapse, and death. First-aid treatment is 100% oxygen and definitive treatment is recompression to increased pressure, breathing 100% oxygen. Adjunctive treatment, including fluid administration and prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in paralysed patients, is also recommended. Treatment is, in most cases, effective although residual deficits can remain in serious cases, even after several recompressions. PMID:21215883

  20. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  1. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level economic impacts of no-till farming as compared to conventional tillage and the current mix of tillage practices. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulatio...

  2. A new highly effective ovulating agent for fish reproduction. Practical application of LH-RH analogue for the induction of spawning of farm fishes.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The synthetic analogue of the nonapeptide LH-RH has been found to be highly effective in the induction of spawning of farm fishes (the grass carp, the silver carp, the spotted silver carp, and the black carp.) Its biological activity is many times higher than that of the synthetic decapeptide or natural releasing hormone. Out of a total number of 500 mature fishes treated with the nonapeptide alone and/or combined with a minimum amount of fish pituitary, 396 of them spawned--with an over-all spawning rate of 78%. As far as we know, this is probably the most effective ovulating agent or hormone now available for fishes. This finding is of paramount importance in pisciculture for large-scale production of fry. The recommended dosages for the following farm fishes are: the grass carp--1-10 microgram/kg b.w.; the silver carp--3 microgram or more/kg b.w. in divided doses; the spotted silver carp--1.4 microgram or more/kg b.w.; and the black carp--10 microgram/kg b.w. For the latter species, the efficacy of the peptide could be improved by a concurrent administration of 0.5-2 mg of the pituitary gland. The significance of this work in piscicultural practice and the mechanism of hormonal action are briefly discussed. PMID:335507

  3. Modelling Conditions and Health Care Processes in Electronic Health Records: An Application to Severe Mental Illness with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Olier, Ivan; Springate, David A.; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Doran, Tim; Reeves, David; Planner, Claire; Reilly, Siobhan; Kontopantelis, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Electronic Health Records databases for medical research has become mainstream. In the UK, increasing use of Primary Care Databases is largely driven by almost complete computerisation and uniform standards within the National Health Service. Electronic Health Records research often begins with the development of a list of clinical codes with which to identify cases with a specific condition. We present a methodology and accompanying Stata and R commands (pcdsearch/Rpcdsearch) to help researchers in this task. We present severe mental illness as an example. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK Primary Care Database in which clinical information is largely organised using Read codes, a hierarchical clinical coding system. Pcdsearch is used to identify potentially relevant clinical codes and/or product codes from word-stubs and code-stubs suggested by clinicians. The returned code-lists are reviewed and codes relevant to the condition of interest are selected. The final code-list is then used to identify patients. Results We identified 270 Read codes linked to SMI and used them to identify cases in the database. We observed that our approach identified cases that would have been missed with a simpler approach using SMI registers defined within the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework. Conclusion We described a framework for researchers of Electronic Health Records databases, for identifying patients with a particular condition or matching certain clinical criteria. The method is invariant to coding system or database and can be used with SNOMED CT, ICD or other medical classification code-lists. PMID:26918439

  4. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  5. Speckle tracking echocardiography in the critically ill: enticing research with minimal clinical practicality or the answer to non-invasive cardiac assessment?

    PubMed

    S, Orde; Sj, Huang; As, Mclean

    2016-09-01

    Echocardiography is developing rapidly. Speckle tracking echocardiography is the latest semi-automatic tool that has potential to quantitatively describe cardiac dysfunction that may be unrecognised by conventional echocardiography. It is a non-Doppler, angle-independent, feasible and reproducible method to evaluate myocardial function in both non-critically ill and critically ill populations. Increasingly it has become a standard measure of both left and right ventricle function in specific patient groups, e.g. chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy or pulmonary hypertension. To date there are few studies in the critically ill, predominantly in sepsis, yet all describe dysfunction beyond standard measures. Other areas of interest include heart-lung interactions, right ventricle function and twist and torsion of the heart. A word of caution is required, however, in that speckle tracking echocardiography is far from perfect and is more challenging, particularly in the critically ill, than implied by many published studies. It takes time to learn and perform and most values are not validated, particularly in the critically ill. We should be cautious in accepting that the latest software used in cardiology cohorts will automatically be the answer in the critically ill. Even with these limitations the technology is enticing and results fascinating. We are uncovering previously undescribed dysfunction and although it currently is essentially a research-based activity, there is great promise as a clinical tool as echocardiography analysis becomes more automated, and potentially speckle tracking echocardiography could help describe cardiac function in critical illness more accurately than is possible with current techniques. PMID:27608336

  6. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  7. Farm accidents and injuries among farm families and workers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cummings, P H

    1991-09-01

    Farm accident facts traditionally have been difficult to collect because of the wide array of farm family and non-family involvement in farming practices. Areas commonly involved in farm related accidents include farm machinery, tractor overturns, farm animals, farm trucks, hand and power tools, household items, chemicals, and garden equipment. Two purposes of this descriptive study were to examine, over a 1 year period, the demographic features and types, severity, and mechanisms of injury among farm families and their workers in a representative county in South Carolina, and to develop a two part mail-out questionnaire for data collection relative to farm work related accidents. The researcher concluded that farm accidents are sparsely researched; that traditional data collection methods are difficult, expensive, and time consuming; and that mail-out questionnaires are not a very effective method of collecting data relative to farm accidents, since farmers proved very reluctant to report accidents. PMID:1888396

  8. A practice-based information system for multi-disciplinary care of chronically ill patients: what information do we need? The Community Care Coordination Network Database Group.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, W. P.; Messick, C.; Guerette, P.; Anderson, R.; Bradham, D.; Wofford, J. L.; Velez, R.

    1994-01-01

    Primary care physicians provide longitudinal care for chronically ill individuals in concert with many other community-based disciplines. The care management of these individuals requires data not traditionally collected during the care of well, or acutely ill individuals. These data not only concern the patient, in the form of patient functional status, mental status and affect, but also pertain to the caregiver, home environment, and the formal community health and social service system. The goal of the Community Care Coordination Network is to build a primary care-based information system to share patient data and communicate patient related information among the community-based multi-disciplinary teams. One objective of the Community Care Coordination Network is to create a Community Care Database for chronically ill individuals by identifying those data elements necessary for efficient multi-disciplinary care. PMID:7949995

  9. H.R. 2339: A Bill to amend the Agricultural Act of 1949 to permit producers to adopt integrated, site-specific farm management plans that provide for resource-conserving crop rotation, special conservation practices, rotational grazing, and biomass production operations and practices. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 2339, A Bill to amend the Agricultural Act of 1949 to permit producers to adopt integrated, site-specific farm management plans that provide for resource-conserving crop rotation, special conservation practices, rotational grazing, and biomass production operations and practices. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, September 14, 1995.

  10. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers’ practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  11. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers' practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  12. Relationships between stable fly infestation with some physical facility characteristics and sanitation practices in several dairy farms in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Ramos-Parra, M; Vitela-Mendoza, I; García-Vázquez, Z; Quintero-Martínez, M T

    2007-11-10

    The possible relationships between stable fly infestation with dairy farm facilities and sanitation practices were studied using path analysis. Twelve dairies located in four counties of Aguascalientes dairy region were selected. The dairies were monitored from May to November 2003. In each occasion, fly infestation, individual physical facility characteristics, and sanitation practices were recorded. In all, 11 independent variables were involved in the study and related variables were grouped together and analyzed in two blocks by path analysis for each one of five population events (begin of fly season, first peak, fluctuation, second peak and decrease). There were significant regression coefficients only in the second peak for two variables, the distance to the silos and the distance to the dung heap (r(2)=0.96 for the full model). Among the 11 variables examined in the study, none had a statistical significant indirect contribution to fly infestation; direct contribution was observed for distance to the silos and for distance to the dung heap variables. However, only the distance to the silos variable was significantly related to stable fly Infestation. PMID:17900810

  13. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  14. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  15. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  16. [Care for the mentally ill in the Norwegian counties Troms and Finnmark 1891-1940].

    PubMed

    Fause, Ashild

    2008-12-18

    The article discusses care for the mentally ill, as it emerged and developed in Troms and Finnmark counties in 1891 - 1940. The main objective was to document how publicly supported private care functioned with respect to the well-being of the mentally ill and their situation. How mental illness was defined and perceived by close relatives, care providers, medical practitioners and public authorities was also assessed. Medical records written by district physicians have been central sources; other sources were records from the county council proceedings and public statistics on poverty and health. The private care arrangement was the dominant type of care for the mentally ill in the region throughout the period. This arrangement was subject to public supervision, but its functioning depended on periodic support from somatic institutions and even prisons. The study shows that private care was a well-functioning arrangement in many cases. The mentally ill were often included in the household work and daily-life practices on the farm. The private care system however displayed wide variations, as its quality depended on the care providers, district physicians and last but not least economic support from the local community. PMID:19092966

  17. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  18. Farming practices and genetic characterization of Nicobari pig, an indigenous pig germplasm of Nicobar group of islands, India.

    PubMed

    De, Arun Kumar; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, Madhu Sudan; Kundu, Anandamoy; Sunder, Jai; Ramachandran, M

    2014-04-01

    The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. PMID:24595559

  19. [From veterinary companionship to veterinary consultation about dairy farms (by way of changing strategies in cattle practice)].

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, R J; Noordhuizen, J P; van der Wal, H

    2001-07-01

    Dairy herd health and production management programmes are used by veterinary practices as a daily routine. However, the potential of this increasingly important source of income is probably not realized completely. The activities of dairy herd health and production management programmes were assessed by both veterinarians and dairy farmers. Subsequently, plans were developed to make herd health and production management programmes beneficial to both parties. For this purpose it is necessary to change the former dairy herd health and production management programme into a more professionally oriented veterinary consultancy. This article describes how this change can be made. Defining the consultancy programme and working in a structured way are essential to gain profit from veterinary consultancy. PMID:11458749

  20. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    PubMed

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms. PMID:25267522

  1. Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

  2. The Association of Types of Training and Practice Settings with Doctors’ Empathy and Patient Enablement among Patients with Chronic Illness in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Kenny; Fung, Colman S. C.; Wong, Carmen K. M.; Lam, Augustine T.; Mercer, Stewart W.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) is becoming a global health problem and there is an increasing need for primary care doctors to look after these patients although whether family doctors are adequately trained and prepared is unknown. Objective This study aimed to determine if doctors with family medicine (FM) training are associated with enhanced empathy in consultation and enablement for patients with chronic illness as compared to doctors with internal medicine training or without any postgraduate training in different clinic settings. Methods This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey using the validated Chinese version of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) Measure as well as Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) for evaluation of quality and outcome of care. 14 doctors from hospital specialist clinics (7 with family medicine training, and 7 with internal medicine training) and 13 doctors from primary care clinics (7 with family medicine training, and 6 without specialist training) were recruited. In total, they consulted 823 patients with chronic illness. The CARE Measure and PEI scores were compared amongst doctors in these clinics with different training background: family medicine training, internal medicine training and those without specialist training. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) was used to account for cluster effects of patients nested with doctors. Results Within similar clinic settings, FM trained doctors had higher CARE score than doctors with no FM training. In hospital clinics, the difference of the mean CARE score for doctors who had family medicine training (39.2, SD = 7.04) and internal medicine training (35.5, SD = 8.92) was statistically significant after adjusting for consultation time and gender of the patient. In the community care clinics, the mean CARE score for doctors with family medicine training and those without specialist training were 32.1 (SD = 7.95) and 29.2 (SD = 7

  3. Monitoring physical functioning as the sixth vital sign: evaluating patient and practice engagement in chronic illness care in a primary care setting--a quasi-experimental design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, one in three adults or almost 9 million people report having a chronic condition. Over two thirds of total deaths result from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and respiratory illness and 77% of persons ≥65 years have at least one chronic condition. Persons with chronic disease are at risk for functional decline; as a result, there is an increased awareness of the significance of functional status as an important health outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients who receive a multi-component rehabilitation intervention, including online monitoring of function with feedback and self-management workshops, showed less functional decline than case matched controls who did not receive this intervention. In addition, we wanted to determine whether capacity building initiatives within the Family Health Team promote a collaborative approach to Chronic Disease Management. Methods A population-based multi-component rehabilitation intervention delivered to persons with chronic illnesses (≥ 44 yrs) (n = 60) was compared to a group of age and sex matched controls (n = 60) with chronic illnesses receiving usual care within a primary healthcare setting. The population-based intervention consisted of four main components: (1) function-based individual assessment and action planning, (2) rehabilitation self-management workshops, (3) on-line self-assessment of function and (4) organizational capacity building. T-tests and chi-square tests were used for continuous and categorical variables respectively in baseline comparison between groups. Results Two MANOVA showed significant between group differences in patient reported physical functioning (Λ = 0.88, F = (2.86) = 5.97. p = 0.004) and for the physical performance measures collectively as the dependent variable (Λ = 0.80, F = (6.93) = 3.68. p = 0.0025). There were no within group differences for the capacity measures. Conclusion It is feasible to monitor physical

  4. Illness beliefs in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Setzu, Erika; Lobban, Fiona; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Beliefs about health and illness shape emotional responses to illness, health-related behaviour and relationships with health-care providers in physical illness. Researchers are beginning to study the illness beliefs of people with psychosis, primarily using models developed in relation to physical illness. It is likely that modifications to these models will be necessary if they are to apply to mental disorders, and it is probable that some of the assumptions underlying the models will be inappropriate. In particular, different dimensions of understanding may be present in mental illness in comparison to those identified in physical illness. The present study examines the beliefs of 20 patients in the UK diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 10 currently psychotic inpatients and 10 outpatients in remission, about their experiences, using qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Patients currently experiencing psychosis did not identify their experiences as separable 'illnesses' and did not have 'illness beliefs'. Patients currently in a period of remission appraised their experiences as distinct from their own normal behaviour, but used conceptual frameworks of understanding that deviated significantly from conventional 'health belief' models. Patients' ways of understanding mental illness did not parallel those described in physical illnesses. Methods for assessing beliefs about mental illness should therefore not be transferred directly from studies of beliefs about physical illness, but should be tailored to the nature of patients' beliefs about mental illness. PMID:16777306

  5. Indicators of the quality of general practice care of patients with chronic illness: a step towards the real involvement of patients in the assessment of the quality of care.

    PubMed Central

    Wensing, M; Grol, R; van Montfort, P; Smits, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To develop a list of indicators of the general practice care of people with chronic illnesses considered important by both patients and practitioners and to identify the indicators that are considered relevant for patient assessment of health care quality. DESIGN--Qualitative study with focus group interviews and a written consensus procedure. SETTING--General practice in the Netherlands in 1993. SUBJECTS--34 patients with chronic illness, mostly members of patient organisations, and 19 general practitioners with expertise in either chronic disease management or experience with patient surveys. MAIN MEASURES--Aspects of general practice care considered important for the delivery of good quality care that emerged from focus group interviews; the relevance of evaluations of 41 aspects of care for patients explored through the written consensus procedure. Those aspects of general practice care agreed to be both important and relevant by patients and general practitioners were considered to be suitable indicators for patient assessment of the quality of care. RESULTS--Patients and general practitioners differed to some extent in their assessment of the aspects of care that they considered important for quality. They agreed that most indicators of care that related to the ¿doctor-patient relation¿ and to ¿information and support¿ were relevant and therefore suitable as indicators for patient assessment of health care quality. There was less agreement about the relevance of indicators of ¿medical and technical care,¿ ¿availability and accessibility,¿ and ¿organisation of services.¿ CONCLUSIONS--Several indicators of the quality of general practice care of patients with chronic illness were thought to be suitable for the patient assessment of healthcare quality, but other indicators were not, mainly because of reservations by general practitioners. IMPLICATIONS-- Qualitative methods can contribute to the selection of indicators for assessment of the

  6. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices.

    PubMed

    Coll, Anna; Nadal, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Capellades, Gemma; Kubista, Mikael; Messeguer, Joaquima; Pla, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in many countries follows strict regulations to ensure that only safety-tested products are marketed. Over the last few years, targeted approaches have been complemented by profiling methods to assess possible unintended effects of transformation. Here we used a commercial (Affymertix) microarray platform (i.e. allowing assessing the expression of approximately 1/3 of the genes of maize) to evaluate transcriptional differences between commercial MON810 GM maize and non-transgenic crops in real agricultural conditions, in a region where about 70% of the maize grown was MON810. To consider natural variation in gene expression in relation to biotech plants we took two common MON810/non-GM variety pairs as examples, and two farming practices (conventional and low-nitrogen fertilization). MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties grown in the field have very low numbers of sequences with differential expression, and their identity differs among varieties. Furthermore, we show that the differences between a given MON810 variety and the non-GM counterpart do not appear to depend to any major extent on the assayed cultural conditions, even though these differences may slightly vary between the conditions. In our study, natural variation explained most of the variability in gene expression among the samples. Up to 37.4% was dependent upon the variety (obtained by conventional breeding) and 31.9% a result of the fertilization treatment. In contrast, the MON810 GM character had a very minor effect (9.7%) on gene expression in the analyzed varieties and conditions, even though similar cryIA(b) expression levels were detected in the two MON810 varieties and nitrogen treatments. This indicates that transcriptional differences of conventionally-bred varieties and under different environmental conditions should be taken into account in safety assessment studies of GM plants. PMID:20349115

  7. ESL for Farm Safety. Student Workbook [and] Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silc, Kathleen Flannery; Outterson, Beth

    The instructional materials, intended for limited-English-proficient farm workers, provide information on the safe use of pesticides and on pesticide-related illness on the job. The seven lessons are designed to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners vocabulary and communication skills related to themselves, their farm occupations, the…

  8. A survey of drying-off practices on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany and a comparison to science-based recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bertulat, Sandra; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    While dry cow management is important for health, milk production and fertility information on drying-off procedures implemented on commercial dairy farms is lacking. Current drying-off management procedures on commercial dairy farms were evaluated using a questionnaire and results compared with recommendations given in the current literature. Ninety-one participants from a farmer education event completed the survey. On average, cows were dried off seven weeks before calving. Only 9.9 per cent of the farms had a dry period length of five weeks or less. A continuous milking regime without dry period was not established on any farm participating in the survey. Most farmers performed an abrupt drying-off (73.0 per cent). Only 11.8 and 15.0 per cent attempted to lower milk yield prior to drying-off by reducing milking frequencies and adjusting feed rations, respectively. While a blanket antibiotic dry cow treatment was carried out on 79.6 per cent of the farms, selective dry cow treatment was not mentioned by any farmer. Although 77.4 per cent preponed the drying-off date in low-yielding cows, an altered drying-off procedure in high-yielding dairy cows was rare (9.7 per cent). This survey provides an insight into drying-off procedures currently applied on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany. PMID:26392891

  9. Studying Physically Ill Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rosalie F.; Kahana, Eva

    Research with older persons suffering from physical illness presents numerous challenges to gerontologists. Issues of conceptualization pertaining to the definition of illness, its location in the research paradigm, and the context in which illness occurs must be addressed prior to dealing with methodological problems. Access to physically ill…

  10. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    PubMed

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness. PMID:23528064

  11. BoBB, software to assess soil erosion risk - introduction of the tool and its use to evaluate appropriate crops and farming practices on endangered field plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devátý, Jan; Dostál, Tomáš; Hösl, Rosemarie; Strauss, Peter; Novotný, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    BoBB (Bodenerosion, Beratung, Berechnung) is simple software to support instant assessment of soil erosion hazard on agricultural fields. The program is profile-oriented, implementing the RUSLE model with slight changes allowing it to assess and compare different farming practices especially the soil-conservation field management. The input parameters datasets are supplied with necessary data for territory and natural conditions of Upper Austria but are generally usable for Central Europe. The software was developed on Federal Agency for Water Management, Petzenkirchen, Austria in 2011 - 2012. BAW and CTU in Prague are recently cooperating on validation and practical applicability approval of the model. Basic validation was done by comparing the outputs of the BoBB software with outputs of the original RUSLE model calculated by the RUSLE1 (USDA, 1998) and RUSLE2 (USDA, 2005) softwares. Further evaluation was performed to test the possibilities of BoBB to reveal field plots endangered by soil erosion. First, testing areas were selected out of a map of soil erosion risk, which had been calculated for the whole territory of the Czech Republic using a combination of the USLE approach and a GIS approach referring to the best available data set. This map in 10x10 meters resolution is used as basic source for assessment of soil erosion hazard and for necessity of GAEC requirements (Good agricultural practices assessment for agricultural subsidy policy) and is therefore accepted as standard at state level. Characteristic profiles were selected within defined testing areas and soil erosion hazard, determined by the USLE approach and BoBB have then been compared. Second, a comparison of BoBB outputs and database of soil erosion events (http://me.vumop.cz) was carried out. The database is created and maintained by the Czech Institute of Soil Conservation as a unique tool for soil erosion mapping and documentation. It was launched in 2010 and recently contains approximately

  12. Farm Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  13. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease. PMID:14650573

  14. Sociological dimensions of illness behavior.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1995-11-01

    The almost exclusive dependence on the diagnostic disease model limits addressing the burden of illness and disability typically seen in primary medical care. With aging of populations and increasing prevalence of chronic disease and disability and behavioral disorders, new approaches to patient assessment and intervention are needed to extend traditional models. Using illness behavior as a point of departure, I examine the disability process and the types of considerations relevant to promoting function and maintaining patients' quality of life. At the individual level, alternatives include modifying impairments, increasing patient motivation and encouraging helpful attitudes, teaching coping strategies, identifying helpful assistive devices, educating family members and employers and providing support. A broader view also makes clear that varying aspects of the disability process are appropriate issues for social policy and environmental remediation. In examining various examples of the disability process, the paper focuses on self-appraisal and illness behavior and the way social movements help to define and redefine conceptions of illness and disability. Recognizing that the kinds of changes discussed will not come easily, the paper concludes with a discussion of trends encouraging broader practice orientations and the types of interventions that can be helpful in encouraging and reinforcing such developments. PMID:8545675

  15. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. A Framework for Addressing Multimorbidity in Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Disease, Critical Illness, and Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin C; Gould, Michael K; Krishnan, Jerry A; Boyd, Cynthia M; Brozek, Jan L; Cooke, Colin R; Douglas, Ivor S; Goodman, Richard A; Joo, Min J; Lareau, Suzanne; Mularski, Richard A; Patel, Minal R; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shanawani, Hasan; Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna; Sufian, Beth; Thomson, Carey C; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2016-03-01

    Coexistence of multiple chronic conditions (i.e., multimorbidity) is the most common chronic health problem in adults. However, clinical practice guidelines have primarily focused on patients with a single disease, resulting in uncertainty about the care of patients with multimorbidity. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop with the goal of establishing a strategy to address multimorbidity within clinical practice guidelines. In this Workshop Report, we describe a framework that addresses multimorbidity in each of the key steps of guideline development: topic selection, panel composition, identifying clinical questions, searching for and synthesizing evidence, rating the quality of that evidence, summarizing benefits and harms, formulating recommendations, and rating the strength of the recommendations. For the consideration of multimorbidity in guidelines to be successful and sustainable, the process must be both feasible and pragmatic. It is likely that this will be achieved best by the step-wise addition and refinement of the various components of the framework. PMID:26963362

  16. Five dramas of illness.

    PubMed

    Frank, Arthur W

    2007-01-01

    First-person narratives of illness experience are dramatic: the narrator, who is also the sufferer, is caught in conflicts of forces that permit understanding more than control. Among the dramas of illness, five occur frequently in autobiographical accounts of illness. These dramas overlap and have varying emphases in different people's stories. They are the drama of genesis (what instigated the illness); the drama of emotion work (what emotional displays are required or prohibited); the drama of fear and loss; the drama of meaning; and finally, the drama of self. This five-drama framework can focus critical and clinical attention on which conflicting forces the ill person is working to reconcile, what makes that work difficult, and how conceiving of one's illness as a drama can be a source of meaning and value. PMID:17660632

  17. Heat-related illnesses.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Guntupalli, K K

    1999-04-01

    The majority of clinicians will encounter patients with heat-related illness in one form or the other. Early recognition and management are important to prevent morbidity and mortality. In children and elderly, the clinical signs may be subtle and in such situations a sound knowledge of heat-related illnesses is crucial. Besides diagnosing and treating heat-related illnesses, it is equally important to know how to prevent them as they are easily preventable. PMID:10331127

  18. Bringing the Classroom to the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Robert R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to determine if extension agents could expand their audience through a series of statewide on-farm meetings. The study also sought to determine if the on-farm approach would result in adoption of recommended mastitis control practices. Results are presented and discussed. (CT)

  19. Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Charles L; Truog, Robert D; Curtis, J Randall; Joynt, Gavin M; Baras, Mario; Michalsen, Andrej; Briegel, Josef; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Efferen, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Bulpa, Pierre; Metnitz, Philipp; Patil, Namrata; Hawryluck, Laura; Manthous, Constantine; Moreno, Rui; Leonard, Sara; Hill, Nicholas S; Wennberg, Elisabet; McDermid, Robert C; Mikstacki, Adam; Mularski, Richard A; Hartog, Christiane S; Avidan, Alexander

    2014-10-15

    Great differences in end-of-life practices in treating the critically ill around the world warrant agreement regarding the major ethical principles. This analysis determines the extent of worldwide consensus for end-of-life practices, delineates where there is and is not consensus, and analyzes reasons for lack of consensus. Critical care societies worldwide were invited to participate. Country coordinators were identified and draft statements were developed for major end-of-life issues and translated into six languages. Multidisciplinary responses using a web-based survey assessed agreement or disagreement with definitions and statements linked to anonymous demographic information. Consensus was prospectively defined as >80% agreement. Definitions and statements not obtaining consensus were revised based on comments of respondents, and then translated and redistributed. Of the initial 1,283 responses from 32 countries, consensus was found for 66 (81%) of the 81 definitions and statements; 26 (32%) had >90% agreement. With 83 additional responses to the original questionnaire (1,366 total) and 604 responses to the revised statements, consensus could be obtained for another 11 of the 15 statements. Consensus was obtained for informed consent, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, legal requirements, intensive care unit therapies, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shared decision making, medical and nursing consensus, brain death, and palliative care. Consensus was obtained for 77 of 81 (95%) statements. Worldwide consensus could be developed for the majority of definitions and statements about end-of-life practices. Statements achieving consensus provide standards of practice for end-of-life care; statements without consensus identify important areas for future research. PMID:25162767

  20. Whole farm assessment of alternative cropping and feeding strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A change in cropping and feeding practices can affect the performance, economics and environmental impacts of a dairy farm. A whole farm assessment of all major effects can only be done through process level simulation of the production system. The Integrated Farm System Model provides a research an...

  1. 76 FR 58711 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-24445 Filed 9-20-11; 11:15 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8716 of September 16, 2011 National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2011 By the... to embrace safe farming practices and to participate in farm safety and health programs....

  2. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gisladottir, Margret; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun

    2016-08-01

    Illness beliefs affect how individuals and families deal with illness. A valid and reliable instrument has not yet been developed to measure "illness beliefs" in family nursing research and clinical practice. This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and the potential clinical and research applications of a new instrument, the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ). The ICE-FIBQ is a short, self-report measure of an individual's beliefs about illness. Drawing from an advanced nursing practice model called the Illness Beliefs Model, the instrument was developed to measure illness beliefs about (a) cause of illness, that is, etiology; (b) control of illness on family and control of family on illness; (c) effect of illness on the individual and family; (d) illness suffering; and (e) support received from health care professionals during illness. The instrument was tested on 139 family caregivers of adolescents/youth with an illness or a disorder. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the original questionnaire from eight to seven items with a one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .780). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .789). Further research is needed to determine concurrent validity with other illness belief/illness perception scales and if the instrument is sensitive to capture change in illness beliefs following family nursing intervention. PMID:27496811

  3. The Invisible Worker: Highlights of the Ohio Migrant Farm Worker Safety Needs Assessment. Working Paper Series WP-024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas L.; Isaacs, Linda K.

    The Ohio Migrant Farm Worker Safety Needs Assessment was conducted to obtain baseline data on why migrant farm workers are at high risk of injury and illness in Ohio. First, 106 migrant farm workers were interviewed at clinics, labor camps, and job sites. Information concerning demographics, safety training, and incidence of occupational injury…

  4. Practice.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  5. Effects of cell surface characteristics and manure-application practices on Escherichia coli populations in the subsurface: A three-farm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, A. E.; Elton, M.; Siler, J. D.; Zhang, W.; Richards, B. K.; Geohring, L. D.; Warnick, L. D.; Hay, A. G.; Steenhuis, T.

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of microbial pathogens into the environment from untreated manure represents a threat to water quality and human health. Thus, understanding the effect of manure management strategies is imperative to effectively mitigate the inadvertent release of pathogens, particularly in subsurface environments where they can be transported through macropores to the groundwater or through agricultural tile line to open water bodies. The production of cell-surface biomolecules is also suspected to play an important role in the environmental survival and transport of enterobacterial pathogens. This study collected Escherichia coli samples from three dairy farms with artificial tile drainage systems and active manure spreading in the Central New York region over a three-month period. Sampling targeted four potential source locations on each farm: (i) cow housing, (ii) manure storage facilities, (iii) field soil, and (iv) subsurface drainage effluent. Over 2800 E. coli isolates were recovered and consequently analyzed for the cell surface components, cellulose and curli, traits associated with increased environmental survival, altered transport and pathogenicity. The E. coli isolates from locations i-iii displayed highly variable curli and cellulose-producing communities, while isolates collected from subsurface runoff on each farm had stable curli and cellulose production communities over all sampling dates. Furthermore, the method of manure application to the fields influenced the population characteristics found in drainage effluent isolates. Incorporation of manure into the soil was correlated to isolate populations largely deficient of curli and cellulose; whereas farms that only surface-applied manure were correlated to isolate populations of high curli and cellulose production. The production of curli and cellulose has previously been shown to be a response to environmental stress on the cell. Therefore, incorporation of manure directly into the soil appears

  6. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Print this Page Air Pollution ...

  7. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... been exposed to something harmful. An outbreak of mass psychogenic illness is a time of anxiety and worry. During an outbreak, a lot of media coverage and the presence of ambulances or emergency ...

  8. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  9. High-Altitude Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... altitude illness: Acute mountain sickness High-altitude pulmonary edema (also called HAPE), which affects the lungs High-altitude cerebral edema (also called HACE), which affects the brain These ...

  10. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) , ehrlichiosis , and tularemia can result ... or neurologic symptoms. The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to ...

  11. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Somatic symptom disorder; Somatic symptom and related disorders; Hypochondriasis ... Illness anxiety disorder is different from somatic symptom disorder. With somatic symptom disorder, the person has physical pain or other ...

  12. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  13. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level management practices for no-till and conventional tillage. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulation model, was used to determine impacts of alternative tilla...

  14. PARENTAL ALLERGY TO FARM ALLERGENS NAD ALLERGIC ILLNESSES IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent literature has reported low asthma and/or atopy prevalence or associated symptoms in rural/agricultural populations. We found relatively high rates of childhood asthma (16%), atopy (36%), and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) (45%) in a completely rural cohort. The high...

  15. Occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B

    1992-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related health problems include accidents, pesticide-related illnesses, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue disorders, dermatitis, noninfectious respiratory conditions, reproductive health problems, health problems of children of farm workers, climate-caused illnesses, communicable diseases, bladder and kidney disorders, and eye and ear problems. Few epidemiologic studies exist of these occupational health problems. No comprehensive epidemiologic studies have assessed the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers and their dependents. Although the migratory nature of this population makes long-term studies difficult, the development of standardized data collection instruments for health consequences and scientific assessment of farm work exposures and working conditions are vital to characterize and reduce the occupational health risks in farm workers. PMID:1413786

  16. Remote Intimations: Performance Art and Environmental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Stephen; Laffin, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article explores and documents the work of leading Midwestern performance artist Julie Laffin, in the years since she developed a serious form of environmental illness (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity). This condition has effectively rendered her housebound and unable to appear in public, so that her previous live performance practice--which…

  17. Among farm variation in heifer BW gains.

    PubMed

    Bond, G B; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Chapinal, N; Pajor, E A; Weary, D M

    2015-11-01

    BW of replacement heifers is rarely measured on commercial farms, making it difficult to evaluate the success of management practices related to calf growth. Our aims were to describe variability among commercial farms in Holstein heifer BW, determine how BW differences varied with management and propose a method of estimating calf growth based upon single measurement. Heart girth circumference was used to estimate BW of 576 heifers 48 to 70 weeks of age on 33 different farms (on average 11 ± 6 heifers/farm) in British Columbia, Canada. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship of BW with age (BW (kg)=116+5 × age (weeks)). Residuals from this regression were averaged across heifers within each farm to identify farms where heifers were heavier or lighter than would be predicted on the basis of their age; farm average residuals ranged from -54 to 72 kg. Farms with heifers showing the highest residual BW also had the highest rates of gain for pre-weaned calves. These results indicate that farms able to rear faster growing calves before weaning were also rearing faster growing heifers at breeding, and suggest that management of milk-fed calves is a particularly important component of replacement heifer management. PMID:26477529

  18. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum on commercial swine farms in the Czech Republic and its associations with age and husbandry practices.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kernerová, Naděžda; Rost, Michael; Cama, Vitaliano A; Kváč, Martin

    2013-03-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was investigated on 22 farms in the Czech Republic. A total of 1,620 individual faecal samples of pigs of all age categories (pre-weaned, starters, pre-growers, growers, and sows) were evaluated for presence of Cryptosporidium spp. by standard microscopy and molecular tools. Genotyping was done through PCR amplification and characterization of the SSU rRNA (species-specific protocols) and GP60 loci. Cryptosporidium spp. was found on 16 of 22 farms with a range 0.9-71.4 %. Overall, 194 (12 %) specimens were positive by microscopy and 353 (21.8 %) by PCR. While RFLP and direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products showed presence of Cryptosporidium suis (142), Cryptosporidium scrofarum (195), Cryptosporidium muris (3) and 13 samples had mixed infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum, species-specific molecular tools identified C. suis (224), C. scrofarum (208), Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIa A16G1R1b (1), and C. muris (3). In addition, a total of 82 pigs had concurrent infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum. The analysis by age showed that C. suis was primarily detected among pre-weaned, whereas C. scrofarum was mostly detected among starters, especially those weaned at a younger age. Moreover, C. scrofarum never has been detected in animals younger than 6 weeks of age. Also, piglets weaned at 3 weeks of age were twice more likely to be infected with C. scrofarum than piglets weaned at an older age. Pigs raised on straw bedding were more likely to have Cryptosporidium than pigs raised on slats/slurry systems. The infections with different species were not associated with loose faeces or intensity of oocyst shedding, even when comparing different age groups. PMID:23271566

  20. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum on commercial swine farms in the Czech Republic and its associations with age and husbandry practices

    PubMed Central

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kernerová, Naděžda; Rost, Michael; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Kváč, Martin

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was investigated on 22 farms in the Czech Republic. A total of 1,620 individual faecal samples of pigs of all age categories (pre-weaned, starters, pre-growers, growers, and sows) were evaluated for presence of Cryptosporidium spp. by standard microscopy and molecular tools. Genotyping was done through PCR amplification and characterization of the SSU rRNA (species-specific protocols) and GP60 loci. Cryptosporidium spp. was found on 16 of 22 farms with a range 0.9–71.4 %. Overall, 194 (12 %) specimens were positive by microscopy and 353 (21.8 %) by PCR. While RFLP and direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products showed presence of Cryptosporidium suis (142), Cryptosporidium scrofarum (195), Cryptosporidium muris (3) and 13 samples had mixed infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum, species-specific molecular tools identified C. suis (224), C. scrofarum (208), Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIa A16G1R1b (1), and C. muris (3). In addition, a total of 82 pigs had concurrent infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum. The analysis by age showed that C. suis was primarily detected among pre-weaned, whereas C. scrofarum was mostly detected among starters, especially those weaned at a younger age. Moreover, C. scrofarum never has been detected in animals younger than 6 weeks of age. Also, piglets weaned at 3 weeks of age were twice more likely to be infected with C. scrofarum than piglets weaned at an older age. Pigs raised on straw bedding were more likely to have Cryptosporidium than pigs raised on slats/slurry systems. The infections with different species were not associated with loose faeces or intensity of oocyst shedding, even when comparing different age groups. PMID:23271566

  1. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  2. Chronic illness: the process of integration

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Robin; Dixon, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore how adults with a chronic illness integrate the illness experience into their life context. Background Adults with chronic illnesses are challenged to learn self-management strategies to prevent complications and achieve an acceptable quality of life. Integration represents the process undertaken by an individual to achieve a sense of balance in self-managing a chronic illness and living a personally meaningful life. Design A mixed-method descriptive design was employed to recruit English-speaking adults with a chronic illness. A semi-structured interview was completed, transcribed verbatim and content analysed. Descriptive data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity and depressive symptoms. The research was undertaken in Connecticut, USA. Results The sample (n = 26) was diverse with respect to age (25–80 years), education (8–24 years), duration of illness (1–39 years), gender (63% female) and ethnicity (63% white). Participants reported a mean of four chronic illnesses and 31% of the sample had increased depressive symptoms. The process of integration was complex and multifactorial. Themes of integration included: shifting sands, staying afloat, weathering the storms, rescuing oneself and navigating life. Numerous factors including treatment side effects, a progressive or uncertain illness trajectory, co-morbidity, bad days, financial hardships and interpersonal/environmental challenges contributed to a disruption or difficulty in the integration process. Conclusion All participants made considerable effort to integrate the illness into their life context and participate in a personally meaningful life. However, it was easy to be consumed with ‘living an illness’ as the daily tasks, the changing symptoms and the fluctuating emotions could be overwhelming. There was a complex co-existence between ‘living a life’ and ‘living an illness’. Relevance to clinical practice There were numerous challenges to

  3. Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg illness.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Armond S; Schmalstieg, Frank C

    2007-05-01

    When Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, he was weak and dizzy; his face had a ghastly colour. That evening on the train to Washington, DC, he was febrile and weak, and suffered severe headaches. The symptoms continued; back pains developed. On the fourth day of the illness, a widespread scarlet rash appeared that soon became vesicular. By the tenth day, the lesions itched and peeled. The illness lasted three weeks. The final diagnosis, a touch of varioloid, was an old name for smallpox that was later used in the 20th century to denote mild smallpox in a partially immune individual. It was unclear whether Lincoln had been immunized against smallpox. Indeed, this review suggests that Lincoln had unmodified smallpox and that Lincoln's physicians tried to reassure the public that Lincoln was not seriously ill. Indeed, the successful conclusion of the Civil War and reunification of the country were dependent upon Lincoln's presidency. PMID:17551612

  4. Beethoven's creative illness.

    PubMed

    Bower, H

    1989-03-01

    One phase of Beethoven's life, between his 45th and 50th year, characterized by very low creativity and overwhelming stress situations, is subjected to a psychiatric interpretation. The historical background is briefly sketched and 5 precipitating stress factors are outlined. The symptoms of his illness are described, using Beethoven's letters as source material. A brief discussion of Beethoven's musical style prior to and after his illness is based on quotations from three eminent musical scholars. A resume of Beethoven's physical and psychological disorders during his life are given and the conclusion is reached that between 1815 and 1820, Beethoven experienced a creative illness which was psychotic in type, ended in recovery and radically changed his musical creativity. PMID:2649058

  5. Effects of an exercise programme for chronically ill and mobility-restricted elderly with structured support by the general practitioner's practice (HOMEfit) - study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exercise programmes can be administered successfully as therapeutic agents to patients with a number of chronic diseases and help to improve physical functioning in older adults. Usually, such programmes target either healthy and mobile community-dwelling seniors or elderly individuals living in nursing institutions or special residences. Chronically ill or mobility-restricted individuals, however, are difficult to reach when they live in their own homes. A pilot study has shown good feasibility of a home-based exercise programme that is delivered to this target group through cooperation between general practitioners and exercise therapists. A logical next step involves evaluation of the effects of the programme. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 210 patients (≥ 70 years) in about 15 general practices. The experimental intervention (duration 12 weeks)-a multidimensional home-based exercise programme-is delivered to the participant by an exercise therapist in counselling sessions at the general practitioner's practice and on the telephone. It is based on methods and strategies for facilitating behaviour change according to the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). The control intervention-baseline physical activities-differs from the experimental intervention with regard to content of the counselling sessions as well as to content and frequency of the promoted activities. Primary outcome is functional lower body strength measured by the "chair-rise" test. Secondary outcomes are: physical function (battery of motor tests), physical activity (step count), health-related quality of life (SF-8), fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I), and exercise self-efficacy (SSA-Scale). The hypothesis that there will be differences between the two groups (experimental/control) with respect to post-interventional chair-rise time will be tested using an ANCOVA with chair-rise time at baseline, treatment group, and study

  6. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    PubMed Central

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. PMID:20493559

  7. An unexplained illness in West Otago.

    PubMed

    Poore, M; Snow, P; Paul, C

    1984-06-13

    An apparent epidemic of undiagnosed illness in a rural general practice was investigated. The aims were to describe the illness, the characteristics of the people affected, and to look for possible causes. The patients were questioned about their symptoms, and both patients and controls matched for age and sex, were questioned about possible aetiological factors. Twenty-eight cases were identified; all but three were less than 45 years of age; there were equal numbers of females and males. The most commonly experienced symptoms were tiredness, mood and sleep disturbances, headache, and joint or muscle pains. Results of the case-control study suggested that pollution of the water supply, zoonotic infections, contact with agricultural chemicals, and self-dosing with selenium were unlikely to be causes of this illness. An unidentified virus was regarded as the most likely cause. PMID:6589518

  8. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  9. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  10. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  11. Children's understanding of illness: students' assessments.

    PubMed

    Vacik, H W; Nagy, M C; Jessee, P O

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of graduate students in the fields of nursing, social work, child life, and counseling education regarding children's understanding of illness concepts. Students were assessed as to their knowledge of children's perceptions of illness as described from a Piagetian developmental viewpoint. Eighty-five graduate students from a southern university in the fields of nursing, social work, child development/child life, and counseling categorized statements made by children regarding their understanding of illness concepts. A data-gathering instrument, developed by Perrin & Perrin (1983), was used to assess the graduate students' ability to assign a developmental age to children's responses to illness-concept questions. Additionally, the students were evaluated on their knowledge of how children perceive illness identification, causality, prevention, treatment, and use of medication. The students correctly categorized by age, children's statements regarding illness concepts only 38% of the time and correctly identified knowledge statements 50% of the time. No remarkable differences were found among the areas of specialization. Without a knowledge base of developmental theories that can be applied directly to clinical practice, nurses are at a disadvantage when working with children and their families. A better understanding of children's communication needs can ultimately lead to improved coping abilities on the part of the child and appropriate interventions on the part of the nurse. The relatively low number of correct responses suggests a need for additional training opportunities that would incorporate cognitive developmental theory into clinical practice for nurses and other health care professionals who plan to work with children. PMID:11740790

  12. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  13. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheels or blind spots. Because adults who are operating machinery may be unable to see or hear ... a tractor and farm vehicle safety course before operating farm vehicles. Finally, teach older kids how to ...

  14. Family and Hired Labor Used on U.S. Farms in 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Walter E., Jr.

    Based on data in the 1966 Pesticide and General Farm Survey, a comparison of labor-use practices of different types and sizes of farms showed that family workers were still the major source of farm manpower in 1966. Over half the farms with sales under $2,500 used only family labor, yet only 6 percent of the large-scale farms operated with just…

  15. Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

  16. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents. PMID:27135252

  17. Physical Illness, Psychiatric Illness, and the Acceptability of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deluty, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed whether attitudes toward suicide vary as function of type of illness that precipitates suicide. College students (N=455) responded to scenarios of suicide victim. Evaluations of suicide were most favorable when it occurred in response to terminal physical illness; less favorable in response to chronic, non-terminal physical illness; and…

  18. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190

  19. Prevention of Ill Health

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D. C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and possibilities of prevention in the workplace are described. A problem solving approach begins by identifying physical, chemical or organizational factors in the work environment and personal health factors in the individual worker. Consulting experts may be required to assist in the process. Methodical assessment of the value of collecting data or of intervention policies will be required as increasing emphasis is placed on the development of truly effective preventive health policies. Major success so far must be credited to engineering and industrial hygiene endeavors. However, the occupational health professional is the only member of the team with knowledge of individual workers' health and who can thus render appropriate advice. With the employment of handicapped, disabled or recently ill workers, the physician's role will become increasingly important in the prevention of ill health at work. PMID:21289686

  20. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  1. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  2. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  3. Images of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    The images we as physicians retain of our patients have a bearing on the evolution of our clinical behaviour and attributes. These images can enhance our diagnostic and therapeutic skills, increase our capacity to care for people with incurable diseases, and offer insights into our own emotional response. A recollection of five people with Parkinson's disease offers a college of images to give us further insights into the meaning of illness-for the patient and the physician. PMID:20469529

  4. Explanatory style and illness.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C; Seligman, M E

    1987-06-01

    Explanatory style is an individual difference that influences people's response to bad events. The present article discusses the possibility that a pessimistic explanatory style makes illness more likely. Several studies suggest that people who offer internal, stable, and global explanations for bad events are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. We tentatively conclude that passivity, pessimism, and low morale foreshadow disease and death, although the process by which this occurs is unclear. PMID:3612470

  5. Effects of waste-disposal practices on ground-water quality at five poultry (broiler) farms in north-central Florida, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatzell, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    Waste-disposal areas such as chicken-house floors, litter stockpiles, fields that receive applications of litter, and dead-chicken pits are potential sources of nitrates and other chemical constituents in downward-percolating recharge water. Broiler- farms in north-central Florida are concentrated in a region where the Upper Floridan aquifer is unconfined and susceptible to contamination. Eighteen monitoring wells installed at five sites were sampled quarterly from March 1992 through January 1993. Increases in median concentrations of constituents relative to an upgradient well were used to determine the source of the nitrate at two sites. At these sites, increases in the median concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in ground water in the vicinity of waste-disposal areas at these sites were: 5.4 mg/L for one chicken house; 9.0 mg/L for a second chicken house; 2.0 mg/L for a fallow field that received an application of litter; and, 2.0 mg/L for a dead-chicken pit. At the three remaining sites where the direction of local ground-water flow could not be ascertained, the sources of concentrations of nitrate and other constituents could not be determined. However, median nitrate concentrations in the vicinity of waste-disposal areas at these sites were: 45.5 mg/L for a set of two chicken houses; 3.0 mg/L for a stockpile area; and 2.1 mg/L for a hayfield that received an application of litter. The nitrate concentration in ground water in the vicinity of a field that had previously received heavy applications of litter increased from 3.0 mg/L to 105 mg/L approximately 4 months after receiving an application of commercial fertilizer. Increases in concentrations of organic nitrogen in ground water in the vicinity of waste-disposal areas may be related to the decomposition of litter and subsequent movement with downward percolating recharge water.(USGS)

  6. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  7. Suicide in the Medically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Douglas; Kleespies, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between medical illness and suicide seems to be multi-faceted. While medical illness is not the sole determinant of suicide, certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and brain cancers, do appear to elevate the risk of suicide. Possible effective prevention efforts include education of primary care providers, and improved medication…

  8. Comparing Characteristics of Sporadic and Outbreak-Associated Foodborne Illnesses, United States, 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Eric D.; Cole, Dana; Travis, Curtis C.; Klontz, Karl C.; Golden, Neal J.; Hoekstra, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreak data have been used to estimate the proportion of illnesses attributable to different foods. Applying outbreak-based attribution estimates to nonoutbreak foodborne illnesses requires an assumption of similar exposure pathways for outbreak and sporadic illnesses. This assumption cannot be tested, but other comparisons can assess its veracity. Our study compares demographic, clinical, temporal, and geographic characteristics of outbreak and sporadic illnesses from Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria, and Salmonella bacteria ascertained by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Differences among FoodNet sites in outbreak and sporadic illnesses might reflect differences in surveillance practices. For Campylobacter, Listeria, and Escherichia coli O157, outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar for severity, sex, and age. For Salmonella, outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar for severity and sex. Nevertheless, the percentage of outbreak illnesses in the youngest age category was lower. Therefore, we do not reject the assumption that outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar. PMID:27314510

  9. Comparing Characteristics of Sporadic and Outbreak-Associated Foodborne Illnesses, United States, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Eric D; Williams, Michael S; Cole, Dana; Travis, Curtis C; Klontz, Karl C; Golden, Neal J; Hoekstra, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    Outbreak data have been used to estimate the proportion of illnesses attributable to different foods. Applying outbreak-based attribution estimates to nonoutbreak foodborne illnesses requires an assumption of similar exposure pathways for outbreak and sporadic illnesses. This assumption cannot be tested, but other comparisons can assess its veracity. Our study compares demographic, clinical, temporal, and geographic characteristics of outbreak and sporadic illnesses from Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria, and Salmonella bacteria ascertained by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Differences among FoodNet sites in outbreak and sporadic illnesses might reflect differences in surveillance practices. For Campylobacter, Listeria, and Escherichia coli O157, outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar for severity, sex, and age. For Salmonella, outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar for severity and sex. Nevertheless, the percentage of outbreak illnesses in the youngest age category was lower. Therefore, we do not reject the assumption that outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar. PMID:27314510

  10. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  11. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  12. EVALUATION OF THE FARM MANAGEMENT PHASE OF THE FARM AND HOME MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN NEW YORK STATE. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.; LONGEST, JAMES W.

    THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THIS 1956-60 LONGITUDINAL STUDY WAS TO COMPARE CHANGES IN FARM PRACTICES AND RELATED KNOWLEDGE AND IN INCOME AND RELATED BUSINESS FACTORS AMONG 87 PARTICIPANTS (DAIRYMEN) IN THE FARM MANAGEMENT PHASE OF THE NEW YORK STATE FARM AHD HOME MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, WITH THOSE OF A CONTROL GROUP OF 87 WHO DID NOT PARTICIPATE. IN 1956, THE…

  13. Whole farm quantification of GHG emissions within smallholder farms in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seebauer, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    The IPCC has compiled the best available scientific methods into published guidelines for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission removals from the land-use sector. In order to evaluate existing GHG quantification tools to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions and removals in smallholder conditions, farm scale quantification was tested with farm data from Western Kenya. After conducting a cluster analysis to identify different farm typologies GHG quantification was exercised using the VCS SALM methodology complemented with IPCC livestock emission factors and the cool farm tool. The emission profiles of four farm clusters representing the baseline conditions in the year 2009 are compared with 2011 where farmers adopted sustainable land management practices (SALM). The results demonstrate the variation in both the magnitude of the estimated GHG emissions per ha between different smallholder farm typologies and the emissions estimated by applying two different accounting tools. The farm scale quantification further shows that the adoption of SALM has a significant impact on emission reduction and removals and the mitigation benefits range between 4 and 6.5 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1 with significantly different mitigation benefits depending on typologies of the crop-livestock systems, their different agricultural practices, as well as adoption rates of improved practices. However, the inherent uncertainty related to the emission factors applied by accounting tools has substantial implications for reported agricultural emissions. With regard to uncertainty related to activity data, the assessment confirms the high variability within different farm types as well as between different parameters surveyed to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions within smallholder farms.

  14. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination. PMID:26279315

  15. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals. PMID:26444362

  16. Transitional care for seriously mentally ill persons: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda E; Gerson, Linda; Carbo, Cynthia

    2007-12-01

    This article reports the results of a pilot study of a nurse-based in-home transitional care intervention for seriously mentally ill persons. The goals of the intervention were to address the lack of continuity of care in existing programs and to meet the immediate postdischarge needs of severely mentally ill persons. This article focuses primarily on the applicability and feasibility of the intervention for this population, given the challenges of engaging seriously mentally ill patients in a community-based protocol and the complexity of their illnesses. Factors that are important to community adjustment postdischarge were identified: caregiver concerns and health status impeding illness management, lack of structure/involvement in daily activities, structural and functional factors affecting adherence, and presence of symptoms after discharge. Use of an advanced practice nurse to provide transitional care can offer an alternative to patients who might otherwise be left poorly treated or untreated in the community setting. PMID:18037440

  17. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    PubMed

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers. PMID:27108371

  18. Metabolism and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Sestan-Pesa, Matija; Horvath, Tamas L

    2016-02-01

    Over the past century, overwhelming evidence has emerged pointing to the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as a crucial regulator of systemic control of metabolism, including appetite and feeding behavior. Appetite (or hunger) is a fundamental driver of survival, involving complex behaviors governed by various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. Here, we provide an overview of basic metabolic principles affecting the CNS and discuss their relevance to physiological and pathological conditions of higher brain functions. These novel perspectives may well provide new insights into future research strategies to facilitate the development of novel therapies for treating mental illness. PMID:26776095

  19. Farm level and geographic predictors of antibiotic use in Sri Lankan shrimp farms.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Nalaka; Stephen, Craig; Robertson, Colin; Abeynayake, Preeni

    2012-03-01

    Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon farming is important for Sri Lanka's rural development plans. Consumer confidence is critical for the development and maintenance of export and domestic shrimp markets. Public concern about the use of antimicrobial drugs and chemicals on shrimp farms, however, could threaten market access. We sought to identify high-risk areas and farm-level risk factors for antimicrobial use to inform the core messages and strategic placement of extension programs to help farmers develop best management practices for antimicrobial use. We undertook a survey of 603 operating farms within the Puttalam district over 42 weeks. Lower stocking density and early harvest were associated with a lower risk of antimicrobial use, whereas standard management practices, including water treatment, feed supplements, probiotic use, pond fertilizing, disinfectant use, and pesticide use, were associated with increased risk. Spatial cluster detection found three significant clusters of antimicrobial-using farms. Antimicrobials were more likely to be used in areas with lower farm density. Some of our counterintuitive findings are discussed from a socioecological perspective. A comprehensive understanding of why antimicrobials are used on shrimp farms requires an evaluation of the physical, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors. PMID:22779210

  20. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains. PMID:24065036

  1. Determining whole-farm conservation solutions for small farms in northeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal water quality pollution control comes from locating critical nonpoint source pollution areas within a watershed and applying site-specific conservation practices. However, management decisions are implemented at the farm-level. While site-specific conservation practices are crucial for envir...

  2. Locating legacy in illness.

    PubMed

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  3. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures. PMID:21661715

  4. Ecologically sustainable development in dairy farms II: Nutrient cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Mexico, there is not a specific regulation dealing with manure and wastewater in confined livestock farms. In the case of dairy farms that have agricultural areas for the production of forage crops, there are some "Good Management Practices", focused on the use of manure as a source of nitrogen a...

  5. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  6. Self care for chronic illness: older African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M; Musa, D; Kirsch, B; Siminoff, L A

    1999-06-01

    In-person interviews with two hundred and twenty-one older African Americans and whites in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania on their use of self care activities in the care of one of four chronic illnesses (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis, addressed which types of self care they used for each of these illnesses) the similarities and differences between African Americans and whites in their use of self care and how self care is initiated, modified and integrated into a context that includes help from others. The most common response in each of the illnesses was the use of medications or medical treatments by both African Americans and whites. However, there were some differences in the self care practices used by these two groups by illness type. Whites reported monitoring their illness significantly more than African Americans for diabetes and using assistive devices in the management of COPD significantly more than African Americans. While both African Americans and whites practice self care similarly in the management of heart disease, African Americans reported greater use of exercise in their management of arthritis. The amount of assistance provided by others in support of self care varied by illness and by African American and white. The differences in self care usage may be attributed to many factors, among them, differences in cultural experiences with the illness, health beliefs regarding its efficacy and the amount of assistance received from informal supports. PMID:14617891

  7. Liver fluke control on sheep farms in Northern Ireland: A survey of changing management practices in relation to disease prevalence and perceived triclabendazole resistance.

    PubMed

    McMahon, C; Edgar, H W J; Hanna, R E B; Ellison, S E; Flanagan, A M; McCoy, M; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A W; Irwin, D; Barley, J E; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2016-01-30

    Reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) among fluke populations have increased in recent years. Allied to this, there has been a rise in the prevalence of the disease, which has been linked to climate change. Results from questionnaire surveys conducted in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2005 (covering the years 1999-2004) and 2011 (covering the years 2008-2011) have provided an opportunity to examine the extent to which fluke control practices have changed over a prolonged time-frame, in light of these changes. A number of differences were highlighted. There was a significant shift away from the use of TCBZ over time, with it being replaced largely by closantel. The timing of treatments had moved earlier in the year, perhaps in response to climate change (and an altered pattern of disease). In relation to the frequency of drug treatments, there were no major changes in the overall pattern of drug treatments between the two survey points, although on both occasions approximately one-third of flock owners gave more than 3 treatments per year to ewes. In lowland areas in 2011, flock owners were rotating drug classes more often (each year and at each treatment) than in 2005, whereas in upland areas, flock owners were rotating less often and more were not rotating at all. Between 2005 and 2011, the percentage of flock owners giving quarantine treatments to bought-in stock had halved, to a very low level (approximately 10%). Using data from a complementary TCBZ resistance survey (Hanna et al., 2015), it has been shown that the way in which data are selected and which efficacy formula is applied can influence the calculation of drug efficiency and impact on diagnosis of resistance. PMID:26801598

  8. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  9. SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings from left to right are: granary, garage, Gould house, and barn. The Olympic Mountains are visible in the distance.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  10. The microbiome and critical illness.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    The central role of the microbiome in critical illness is supported by a half century of experimental and clinical study. The physiological effects of critical illness and the clinical interventions of intensive care substantially alter the microbiome. In turn, the microbiome predicts patients' susceptibility to disease, and manipulation of the microbiome has prevented or modulated critical illness in animal models and clinical trials. This Review surveys the microbial ecology of critically ill patients, presents the facts and unanswered questions surrounding gut-derived sepsis, and explores the radically altered ecosystem of the injured alveolus. The revolution in culture-independent microbiology has provided the tools needed to target the microbiome rationally for the prevention and treatment of critical illness, holding great promise to improve the acute and chronic outcomes of the critically ill. PMID:26700442

  11. Evaluation of soil sustainability along the Rio Grande in West Texas: changes in salt loading and organic nutrients due to farming practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, C. L.; Ganjegunte, G.; Borrok, D. M.; Lougheed, V.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    thus have higher salt loading, and that Cotton has a higher clay content. The EC values continuously increase from irrigation water to soil waters, suggesting that as water travels through the soil profile it increases in salinity. Consistent with this observation, cation concentrations in soil waters increased with depth. Therefore, the salts within the soils are mobilized during irrigation. 5TE sensors at all three depths in the field showed spikes in EC, and soil moisture during each period of flood irrigation. Data also suggests a lower bulk EC between irrigation periods which might result from a lower soil moisture content which doesn't solublize the salts. The carbonate- and gypsum- rich soils and surface water in the Rio Grande Basin change with intensity and amount of irrigation, addition of fertilizers, and other agricultural practices. Results from this project contribute to our understanding of salt loading and nutrient cycling in the vulnerable area of the Rio Grande Valley in West Texas.

  12. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  13. Managing Machinery in the Biological Farm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From the time agricultural machinery came into common use on farms in the middle of the past century, Agricultural Engineers have been developing more efficient practices for using that equipment. In our profession, this has become known as agricultural machinery management. The key issue in machine...

  14. Remote sensing applications to precision farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional mechanized agriculture treats large fields with uniform agronomic practices. Precision agriculture/precision farming brings a new concept to manage in-field variability with variable rate application of fertilizers and pesticides, site-specific water management, as well as planting, etc....

  15. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Hilary Ea; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns. PMID:26175564

  16. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Hilary EA; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns. PMID:26175564

  17. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  18. Farming for Net Profit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors can influence farm management decisions. One important factor is economic returns. Staying in farming requires dealing with a wide range of changing conditions. Given these changing conditions, it is particularly important to “get the big decisions right”. This requires evaluating impac...

  19. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  20. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  1. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  2. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  3. Farm Labor Contractors in California. California Agricultural Studies, 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.; And Others

    Farm labor contractors (FLCs) have become increasingly important in California agriculture. This report examines FLC background characteristics, business practices, and relationships with employers and farm workers, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers. Over 300 FLCs, farm workers, and growers were interviewed in five California regions.…

  4. Online Investment Education: Listening to Learners to Develop an Effective Financial Literacy Program for Farm Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara; Porter, Nancy M.; Pankow, Debra; Schuchardt, Jane; Johnson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A needs assessment was conducted for the adaptation of an existing online Cooperative Extension investment course for use by farm households. The theoretical model was Social Marketing Theory. Data about financial attitudes, practices, and learning preferences of farm households were collected through a telephone survey of 300 farm households and…

  5. U.S. Rice Farms. A Regional Comparison. Staff Report No. AGES880119.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismukes, Robert

    U.S. farms growing rice varied considerably among seven rice-growing regions, according to the 1984 Farm Costs and Returns Survey. This report (which includes 28 data tables) summarizes and compares the production practices and costs of production of United States rice farms. Costs per acre of rice were greatest in California and on the Lower…

  6. 29 CFR 780.202 - Subordination to farming operations is necessary for exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agricultural if the person performing the practice did any farming, no matter how little, or resorted to... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subordination to farming operations is necessary for... Operations § 780.202 Subordination to farming operations is necessary for exemption. While section...

  7. Simulating forage crop production in a northern climate with the Integrated Farm System Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-farm simulation models are useful tools for evaluating the effect of management practices and climate variability on the agro-environmental and economic performance of farms. A few process-based farm-scale models have been developed, but none have been evaluated in a northern region with a sho...

  8. Infrared applications in farming: vision of things to come

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2003-04-01

    Infrared technology has seen little use at the level of the family farm, mostly due to the prohibitive high cost relative to the typically modest profit margins. Where farming exists as a hobby or secondary activity, an individual with access to the technology can uncover some of the many applications waiting to be discovered in this field. As technology improves, and the price of cameras decreases, the viability of infrared as a farming tool improves. This paper outlines a number of examples where an individual with access to infrared technology has utilized it in a family farm setting to highlight some of the potential uses which may someday become normal farming practice. These examples are augmented by research of work being done at land-grant universities and larger agricultural businesses that further show the viability of the technology in farming.

  9. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... addition, the eggs may remain viable in the environment for many months. These diseases are more prevalent in underdeveloped countries where sanitation practices may be substandard and in areas where ...

  10. Responding to Students' Chronic Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Stern, Melissa; Sferdenschi, Corina; McCabe, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are long-term or permanent medical conditions that have recurring effects on everyday life. Large and growing number of students have chronic illnesses that affect their emotional development, physical development, academic performance, and family interactions. The primary error in educating those students is assuming that the…

  11. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  12. Nicole: Suicide and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Judith M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents case summary of 58-year-old woman, terminally ill with cancer, who is contemplating suicide. Includes comments from Kjell Rudestam from the Fielding Institute and from Margaret Battin from the University of Utah who debate appropriate responses to people who contemplate suicide because of terminal illness. (NB)

  13. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  14. Investigation of mastitis problems on farms.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Pamela L

    2003-03-01

    The production of high-quality milk is a high-priority issue for dairy farmers and milk processors. The investigation of mastitis problems on dairy farms is an area of increasing demand and is an ideal way for veterinary practitioners to increase involvement in production medicine programs. Goals for the amount of clinical and subclinical mastitis should be predefined on dairy farms, and a herd investigation initiated when needed. The use of a structured approach to mastitis problems can identify risk factors for infection, result in rapid resolution of mastitis problems, and hasten the application of appropriate preventive practices. PMID:12682935

  15. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  16. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  17. Cultural Expressions of Bodily Awareness Among Chronically Ill Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Gay

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe Filipino Americans’ cultural traditions surrounding bodily awareness, especially how the principle of balance informs their views, and the link to self-management of chronic illness. METHODS This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with 85 Filipino Americans between the ages of 46 and 97 years. Volunteers were recruited from numerous health care sites in 1 geographic location in the United States. Respondents had 1 or more chronic illnesses. Taped and transcribed interviews were coded and evaluated for themes. RESULTS The concept of balance was central to Filipino Americans’ portrayal of bodily awareness of signs and symptoms related to chronic illnesses, as well as to actions they took to manage their chronic illnesses. Efforts were made to control chronic illnesses through a variety of self-care practices. Diet posed a particular challenge because of the symbolic importance of food in Filipino culture and its use in the maintenance of social relationships. CONCLUSIONS The ways in which Filipino Americans combine attention to the body, values of balance and harmony, and emphasis on social well-being result in heightened attention to bodily processes. Filipino Americans’ emphasis on bodily awareness suggests that this particular cultural strength can be used to enhance chronic illness management. Awareness of the cultural traditions of Filipino Americans can facilitate patient education about how to manage chronic illnesses. PMID:15040441

  18. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  19. Pathogen risk associated with farming practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 associated with the consumption of leafy greens has focused attention on routes of contamination of these commodities with bacterial foodborne pathogens. A summary of research activities at the Environmental Micorbial and Food Safety Laboratory have evaluated mechanism...

  20. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  1. Monitoring of the respiratory muscles in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Jonne; van Hees, Hieronymus W H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Heunks, Leo M A

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that respiratory muscle dysfunction develops in critically ill patients and contributes to prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. Accordingly, it seems highly appropriate to monitor the respiratory muscles in these patients. Today, we are only at the beginning of routinely monitoring respiratory muscle function. Indeed, most clinicians do not evaluate respiratory muscle function in critically ill patients at all. In our opinion, however, practical issues and the absence of sound scientific data for clinical benefit should not discourage clinicians from having a closer look at respiratory muscle function in critically ill patients. This perspective discusses the latest developments in the field of respiratory muscle monitoring and possible implications of monitoring respiratory muscle function in critically ill patients. PMID:23103733

  2. Teaching strategies for atypical presentation of illness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gray-Miceli, Deanna; Aselage, Melissa; Mezey, Mathy

    2010-07-01

    Atypical presentation of illness is a phenomenon where "seeing is believing." Expert geriatric nurses and clinicians know all too well the early signs and symptoms of this phenomenon, which frequently masquerades bacterial infections, pain, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or other serious medical ailments in older adults. Students, however, as novices to clinical practice, require interactive learning approaches to reflect on the patient's illness presentations, help with developing the necessary skills to analyze and synthesize clinically relevant data, and witness resolution of an atypical presentation when found and treated. Use of a case study as an educational tool can facilitate critical thinking about a clinical problem, such as atypical presentation of illness, for students within a problem-based learning format. Furthermore, we highlight strategies for teaching students atypical presentation of illness with consideration of student learning preferences, which include visual, auditory, reading, and kinesthetic modes of learning. PMID:20608591

  3. Medical illness in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Goldman, L S

    1999-01-01

    Research into the relationship between physical illness and schizophrenia has revealed that patients with schizophrenia may be at decreased risk for certain disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and allergies, but at increased risk for others, including substance abuse and polydipsia. Although such knowledge may ultimately help determine the underlying causes of schizophrenia, the principal concern of practicing clinicians should be to diagnose and treat medical comorbidity in individual patients. Nearly 50% of patients with schizophrenia have a comorbid medical condition, but many of these illnesses are misdiagnosed or undiagnosed. A fragmented health care system, lack of access to care, patient inability to clearly appreciate or describe a medical problem, and patient reluctance to discuss such problems all contribute to the lack of attention to medical problems in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatrists and primary care practitioners who treat patients with schizophrenia should make an effort to uncover medical illnesses by using a structured interview or routine physical examination whenever a patient is seen for care. PMID:10548136

  4. Early Psychological Therapy in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V; Philbrick, Kemuel L; Parker, Ann M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-02-01

    Survivors of critical illness often experience long-lasting impairments in mental, cognitive, and physical functioning. Acute stress reactions and delusional memories appear to play an important role in psychological morbidity following critical illness, and few interventions exist to address these symptoms. This review elucidates acute psychological stressors experienced by the critically ill. The effects of psychological stress and state of mind on disease are discussed using examples from the non-intensive care unit (ICU) literature, including a review of placebo and nocebo effects. After reviewing the effect of the mind on both psychological and physiological outcomes, we then focus on the role of memories-including their malleable nature and the consequences of false memories. Memory may play a role in the genesis of subsequent psychological trauma. Traumatic memories may begin forming even before the patient arrives in the ICU and during their state of unconsciousness in the ICU. Hence, practical interventions for redirecting patients' thoughts, such as positive suggestion techniques and actively involving patients in the treatment process as early as possible, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:26820280

  5. Management of Infections in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hranjec, Tjasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Critically ill patients have an increased risk of developing infections and infectious complications, sometimes followed by death. Despite a substantial investment of resources in outcomes improvement, optimum treatment for such patients remains unclear for practicing intensivists. Methods: We conducted a review that highlights the most recent developments in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of infection and the evaluation of its outcomes. The review examines the prevention of infection, such as through daily bathing with chlorhexidine and the addition of probiotics to treatment regimens, and questions the previous standards of care, including the monitoring of gastric residuals and treatment of severely ill patients with drotrecogin alfa (activated). It also discusses novel approaches to the treatment of severely ill infected patients with extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation and the earlier normalization of body temperature. Results: The development of new antibiotics continues at a slow pace, with the likelihood that alternative approaches to the management of infection, including changes in the quality of patient care, are producing needed improvements. Conclusions: Clinical outcomes of infection are improving slowly as medical teams strive for better patient care. Lack of reimbursement is unnecessary as a punitive approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24841214

  6. Illness through the eyes of the child: the development of children's understanding of the causes of illness.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Hendrik M; Baars, Rolanda M; Chaplin, John; Zwinderman, Koos H

    2004-12-01

    In this study 158 children, 80 children with diabetes mellitus and 78 healthy classmates, were interviewed about their concept of different types of illness (a cold, diabetes, infection, the most and least serious disease) and illness-related concepts (pain, becoming ill and going to the doctor or hospital). Special attention was given to the relationship between development of thinking and the variables anxiety, locus of control and family- and school functioning. The results show that the ideas of the children about the causes of illness follow a sequence of developmental stages, described as 'Through the Eyes of the Child' (TEC) model. Perception seems to be the child's central auto regulative system of cognitive development. The findings suggest that thinking about illness develops relatively independently of other influences. The practical relevance of knowing how children's thinking about illness develops is elaborated in terms of their implications for health education. Immature thoughts of children about illness can be detected and accepted and not dismissed as irrational. With the help of this model, health education of the child can be facilitated. PMID:15582342

  7. Treatment of suspected heat illness.

    PubMed

    Eichner, E R

    1998-06-01

    1. Despite advances in the art and science of fluid balance, exertional heat illness -- even life-threatening heat stroke -- remains a threat for some athletes today. 2. Risk factors for heat illness include: being unacclimatized, unfit, or hypohydrated; certain illnesses or drugs; not drinking in long events; and a fast finishing pace. 3. Heat cramps typically occur in conditioned athletes who compete for hours in the sun. They can be prevented by increasing dietary salt and staying hydrated. 4. Early diagnosis of heat exhaustion can be vital. Early warning signs include: flushed face, hyperventilation, headache, dizziness, nausea, tingling arms, piloerection, chilliness, incoordination, and confusion. 5. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of heat illness include: confusion preventing self-diagnosis; the lack of trained spotters; rectal temperature not taken promptly; the problem of "seek not, find not;" and the mimicry of heat illness. 6. Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Mainstays of therapy include: emergency on-site cooling; intravenous fluids; treating hypoglycemia as needed; intravenous diazepam for seizures or severe cramping or shivering; and hospitalizing if response is slow or atypical. 7. The best treatment is prevention. Tips to avoiding heat illness include: rely not on thirst; drink on schedule; favor sports drinks; monitor weight; watch urine; shun caffeine and alcohol; key on meals for fluids and salt; stay cool when you can; and know the early warning signs of heat illness. PMID:9694424

  8. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  9. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, tools and ... inspection and maintenance can help prevent accidents. Using safety gloves, goggles and other protective equipment can also ...

  10. National Farm Medicine Center

    MedlinePlus

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical Trials Services CM&R Research Lab Research Compliance Research Integrity & ...

  11. Recognising and managing decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Caton-Richards, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Seen primarily in scuba divers who have breathed compressed air, decompression illness is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Prompt recognition and treatment of the illness, and urgent referral of patients to hyperbaric chambers, can mean the difference between full recovery and paralysis or death. This article describes decompression illness and how to recognise it, and discusses the treatment that patients require for the best chance of recovery with no adverse effects. It also includes a case study of a patient who developed this condition after a dive. PMID:24219686

  12. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  13. 454-Pyrosequencing Reveals Variable Fungal Diversity Across Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazeeroni, Elham A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming (SOF) system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a SOF system which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR) growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF). In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop. PMID:27014331

  14. 454-Pyrosequencing Reveals Variable Fungal Diversity Across Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Kazeeroni, Elham A; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming (SOF) system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a SOF system which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR) growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF). In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop. PMID:27014331

  15. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  16. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  17. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Change Direction initiative is working to change the culture of mental health in America. It encourages people ... signs of emotional suffering and to change the culture around mental health and mental illness. Learn more ...

  18. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  19. Personal perception of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Dean, P R

    1999-04-01

    Nurses caring for patients in the home must see them as a complex collection of many parts that require a holistic approach. With the plethora of therapies blending the relationship between mind and body, patients are seeking to be treated as a whole person rather than a physical illness. A diagnosis of cancer or other serious illness affects the physical, psychologic, spiritual, and economic aspects of the person's life, and patients with these diagnoses know the illness and its treatment will decrease many of their normal activities and limit their effectiveness. Because of this disruption, chronic illness causes stress and anxiety in both patient and the family. Therefore nurses must be ready to assess, intervene, and monitor the ongoing progress of both patient and family. PMID:10418394

  20. Febrile Illness in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Natalie A.; Diehl, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Acute febrile illnesses are common in athletes over the course of training and competition seasons. Complete recovery and rapid yet safe return to participation are critical for competitive athletes. Alterations in thermoregulation, metabolism, fluid homeostasis, muscle strength, and endurance, as well as potential complications for the athlete and others, must be considered. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched (1970-2013) for all English-language articles related to febrile illness in sport, using the keywords fever, febrile, body temperature, thermoregulation, infection, illness, disease, exercise, athlete, sport, performance, return to play, metabolism, hydration, and dehydration. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Limited data confirm that febrile illness is correlated with alterations in the body’s thermoregulatory system, with increases in metabolic rate, and with effects in fluid homeostasis. Human and animal studies demonstrate a decrease in muscle strength and endurance secondary to muscle catabolism in febrile illness. However, indirect evidence suggests that regular exercise enhances the immune response. No strong clinical research has been published on return to play during or following acute febrile illness, excluding mononucleosis and myocarditis. Conclusion: Fever is correlated with an increase in insensible fluid losses, dehydration, metabolic demands, and dysregulation of body temperature. Fever can have detrimental effects on the musculoskeletal system, including decreasing strength and endurance, generalized muscle catabolism, and increase in perceived fatigue. Participating in strenuous exercise during febrile illness can worsen the illness and has demonstrated increased lethality in animal models. No consensus recommendations support return to activity before resolution of fever, and training should be resumed gradually once fever and dehydration have resolved. PMID:24790692

  1. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  2. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program. PMID:20503809

  3. Tank farms criticality safety manual

    SciTech Connect

    FORT, L.A.

    2003-03-27

    This document defines the Tank Farms Contractor (TFC) criticality safety program, as required by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Subpart 830.204(b)(6), ''Documented Safety Analysis'' (10 CFR 830.204 (b)(6)), and US Department of Energy (DOE) 0 420.1A, Facility Safety, Section 4.3, ''Criticality Safety.'' In addition, this document contains certain best management practices, adopted by TFC management based on successful Hanford Site facility practices. Requirements in this manual are based on the contractor requirements document (CRD) found in Attachment 2 of DOE 0 420.1A, Section 4.3, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety,'' and the cited revisions of applicable standards published jointly by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Nuclear Society (ANS) as listed in Appendix A. As an informational device, requirements directly imposed by the CRD or ANSI/ANS Standards are shown in boldface. Requirements developed as best management practices through experience and maintained consistent with Hanford Site practice are shown in italics. Recommendations and explanatory material are provided in plain type.

  4. Content of general practice.

    PubMed

    Lim, T O

    1991-06-01

    Eight general practitioners participated in a survey of content of general practice. This is useful as an indicator or morbidity in the community as well as of workload of general practice. A total of 3164 consultations were recorded, of which 2764 (87%) were because of an illness and the rest (13%) for other reasons like medical examinations, antenatal check, family planning advice, pregnancy tests, pap smear and vaccination. The old and the young have high consultation rates for an illness, men consulted as often as women. The most common illness seen was upper respiratory tract infections, accounting for 37% of all illnesses. Other common minor illnesses were skin infections (6%), genito-urinary infections (5%), minor musculoskeletal (6%) and gastrointestinal (6%) complaints as well as minor injuries and cuts (4%). Major disorders form an unusually low proportion (18%) of all illnesses seen, in comparison with figures from United Kingdom. The common major disorders seen were hypertension, asthma, chronic rheumatic disorders and diabetes. Circulatory disorders were remarkably rare, accounting for only 1% of illnesses. Psychological disorders, both major and minor, were also rarely seen, accounting for only 1% of illnesses which is in marked contrast with figures from the United Kingdom. Factors contributing to these notable findings are discussed. PMID:1839420

  5. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  6. Communicating with Terminally Ill Cancer Patients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorleifsdottir, Elisabet; Carter, Diana E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 12 fourth-year student nurses in Scotland indicated that they found communicating with terminally ill and dying patients and their families difficult. Although lectures on death and dying were helpful, support and guidance for dealing with these issues in clinical practice were needed. (SK)

  7. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    PubMed

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  8. Factors associated with introduction of infectious laryngotracheitis virus on broiler farms during a localized outbreak.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Victoriya; Thornton, Danny; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Cummings, Tim; Luna, Lynne; Watson, Jim; Wills, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed factors involved in the introduction of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus (ILTV) onto broiler farms during a localized outbreak in an immunologically naive broiler population. The outbreak occurred in the state of Mississippi, United States in 2002-2003. From the responses to a retrospective survey questionnaire administered via personal interviews, 181 farm-level risk factors were defined and analyzed for their association with ILTV introduction using logistic regression. There were 27 case farms (93% of all the infected broiler farms) and two sets of controls: farms matched to the cases by location and those randomly selected among the broiler farms in Mississippi. We found that farm suppliers such as gas company representatives, who are likely to visit other farms, and farm-workers who visit other chicken farms, are likely vehicles of ILTV introduction onto broiler farms. These risks can be greatly reduced by following biosecurity procedures, in particular if farm workers bathe and change footwear prior to entering broiler houses on their own farm. Footbaths for farm visitors can provide a false sense of security during an ILT outbreak when, indeed, other practices such as plastic boots or changing boots are more effective in preventing ILTV transmission. Sharing of equipment used for removal of caked broiler litter between subsequent flocks may also serve as an important vehicle of ILTV transmission. During the 2002-2003 outbreak, shared litter removal equipment was associated with ILTV transmission despite a requirement being put in place for litter decontamination. We also found that tunnel-ventilated broiler houses with inlets toward a neighboring poultry farm are more likely to get infected with ILTV. In addition to this analysis, the data collected provide a good overview of the actual practices and deficiencies of biosecurity undertaken on broiler farms in this part of the United States. PMID:23050469

  9. Does the Milk Income Loss Contract program improve the technical efficiency of US dairy farms?

    PubMed

    Chang, H-H; Mishra, A K

    2011-06-01

    Due to volatility in the income of dairy farmers, the 2002 farm bill introduced the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) payments that were extended in the 2008 farm bill. It has been argued that MILC payments would help large dairy farms and squeeze out small dairy operations. This paper contributes to this policy issue by empirically assessing the effect of MILC payments on the technical efficiency of US dairy farms. Using a large-scale dairy farm survey containing information from 2005, we apply a data envelopment analysis method to estimate technical efficiency of the dairy farms. A Tobit regression model was estimated to examine the roles of human capital of the farm operator, different farming practices, farm sizes, and MILC payments on technical efficiency of the dairy farms. Results indicate that the effects of the MILC payments were heterogeneous among farms of different sizes. Significant effects of MILC payments were only evident among large farms. In contrast, no significant effects were found for medium and small farms. PMID:21605764

  10. The Challenge of Caring for Mildly Ill Children: A Canadian National Childcare Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyzoi, E.; Babb, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    This Canadian study of the care of mildly ill children in licensed childcare facilities compares director and parent preferences for eight models of care, exclusionary practices for ill children by directors, and preferred backup care options of parents. It also investigates anticipated usage and willingness of parents to pay for emergency…

  11. Illness Perception and Information Behaviour of Patients with Rare Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katavic, Snježana Stanarevic; Tanackovic, Sanjica Faletar; Badurina, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined possible correlations between health information behaviour and illness perception among patients with rare chronic diseases. Illness perception is related to coping strategies used by patients, and some health information behaviour practices may be associated with better coping and more positive perception of…

  12. Attitudes toward Mental Illness: The Construction of the Libertarian Mental Health Ideology Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Morrison, James

    1980-01-01

    The study was an attempt to construct an attitude scale to measure the radical psychosocial or libertarian position about "mental illness" and mental health practices. The factor analysis defined four scale factors: mental illness mythology, antimedical model, social deviance control, and anti-coercive treatment. (Author)

  13. Preparation for Counseling Adults with Terminal Illness: Personal and Professional Parallels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manis, Amie A.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on counseling adults with terminal illness, particularly the literature on the nature of preparation that counselors and other professionals who attend to the needs of adults with a terminal illness require. The authors review information and findings from philosophical, psychological, practical,…

  14. How Safe Are We? A Review of Injury and Illness in Outdoor Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreg, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Data from five outdoor education programs in the United States and Australia indicate relatively low injury and illness rates and suggest a need to focus on hygiene practices and the prevention of athletic injuries. Documenting and analyzing injuries, illnesses, and "near misses" can enhance the safety of outdoor education programs. Contains 21…

  15. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  16. Cognitions and Procedures in Response to Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Michael A.; And Others

    Recent research in illness has stressed the importance of constructive processes as determinants for coping and appraisal with illnesses. The goal of this study was to construct a lexicon of cognitive and behavioral responses people employ to cope with illness. Undergraduate college students (N=105) were given two illness scenarios describing the…

  17. Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    PubMed

    Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (≥ 55 μg N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (≥ 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (≤ 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands. PMID:24862486

  18. To measure attributed mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, J C; Litchford, G B; Yaffe, P E; DiCiurcio, T L

    1980-09-01

    This work follows from the assumption that person perception processes allow people to categorize others, and, thereupon, to predict the perceived person's behaviors. A scale, the Mental Illness Behaviors Prediction Scale (MIBPS) was developed for use in studies of ascribed mental illness. The MIBPS is comprised of fifteen items, each of which describes a situation and four alternative behaviors scaled for "mental illness level." The alternatives were clearly scaleable. High item-to-total-score correlations were found. When subjects rated a "very poorly adjusted person" and a "very well-adjusted person," the item scores, as assigned to these two persons, were clearly differentiating. In other studies the overall "mental illness level" of perceived persons was found to vary with selected independent variables. The utility of the scale supports the conclusion that people have developed and do use a person-perceiving dimension labeled mentally ill/mentally healthy, and the use of this dimension promotes the expectation of specific kinds of behavior from the target person. PMID:7411374

  19. Students’ perception about mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Mahto, R. K.; Verma, P. K.; Verma, A. N.; Singh, A. R.; Chaudhury, S.; Shantna, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students’ opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female) from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84%) were males and 38 (68%) were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., ‘The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness’, both male (46%) and female (56%) students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness. PMID:21180484

  20. Illness in the Returned International Traveler.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Fung, Claire

    2016-03-01

    Familiarity with the distribution, mode of transmission, and risk factors for acquisition of illnesses commonly transmitted to travelers to low-income nations can help guide clinicians in their work-up of an ill returned traveler. The 3 most common categories of illness in returned international travelers are gastrointestinal illness, fever, and dermatoses. Diarrhea is the most common illness reported in returned international travelers. Fever is a marker of a potentially significant illness; work-up of the ill febrile returned traveler should be conducted promptly. PMID:26900121

  1. Causal pathways linking Farm to School to childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anupama; Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs are rapidly gaining attention as a potential strategy for preventing childhood obesity; however, the causal linkages between Farm to School activities and health outcomes are not well documented. To capitalize on the increased interest in and momentum for Farm to School, researchers and practitioners need to move from developing and implementing evidence informed programs and policies to ones that are evidence-based. The purpose of this article is to outline a framework for facilitating an evidence base for Farm to School programs and policies through a systematic and coordinated approach. Employing the concepts of causal pathways, the authors introduce a proposed framework for organizing and systematically testing out multiple hypotheses (or potential causal links) for how, why, and under what conditions Farm to School Inputs and Activities may result in what Outputs, Effects, and Impacts. Using the causal pathways framework may help develop and test competing hypotheses, identify multicausality, strength, and interactions of causes, and discern the difference between catalysts and causes. In this article, we introduce causal pathways, present menus of potential independent and dependent variables from which to create and test causal pathways linking Farm to School interventions and their role in preventing childhood obesity, discuss their applicability to Farm to School research and practice, and outline proposed next steps for developing a coordinated research framework for Farm to School programs. PMID:22867068

  2. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  3. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  4. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  5. Simple solutions for reduced fish farm hazards.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture poses emerging challenges for agricultural safety and health. Fish farming has many of the same hazards as other types of farming, but it also poses additional hazards associated with water impoundments and night-time work. In a multidisciplinary approach, researchers from four universities are identifying occupational hazards in fish farming and identifying no-cost or low-cost "simple solutions" to reduce or eliminate them. Simple solutions are discovered through farm visits so as to understand the countermeasures that individual stakeholders have taken to protect their workforce, and these countermeasures are documented and photographed to inform other farmers of these solutions. Equipping tractors with rollover protective structures is a standard practice to protect operators from serious injury in the event of an overturn. Other solutions identified include eliminating the need to climb feed bins to open and close the hatch for feed delivery by using a pull-cable at ground level. This simple technology eliminates the exposure to falling from an elevation, a risk that accounts for at least one reported death of a worker on a fish farm. Another solution is to replace metal paddles on a hatchery trough with plastic paddles that if and when entangled in a worker's hair or clothing slip on the rotating drive shaft and thus reduce laceration and entanglement injuries. Another simple solution to prevent entanglements in large pond aerators, used to mechanically dissolve oxygen into the water, that are operated by farm tractor power take-off shafts is to use electrically powered aerators. Bubble-type aerators are safer than electrically powered paddle aerators because workers are shielded from moving parts. Many additional simple solutions have been identified for a range of tasks in this environment. PMID:19437271

  6. Influence of farm management upon arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Good farming practices are conducted for a variety of reasons. Farmers now include management practices such as over wintering cover crops, reduced tillage, and crop rotation with the goals of reducing soil erosion, managing nutrient availability, building soil organic matter, controlling weeds, an...

  7. On-farm study of human contact networks to document potential pathways for avian influenza transmission between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burns, T E; Guerin, M T; Kelton, D; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2011-12-01

    Human movements associated with poultry farming create contact networks that might facilitate transmission of avian influenza (AI) between farms during outbreaks. In Canada, no information is available about how these networks connect poultry farms. The purpose of this study was to document human contacts between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada, to learn how AI might be transmitted during outbreaks. We used face-to-face interviews with people entering the farm biosecurity perimeter on four layer, one turkey and three broiler breeder poultry farms in Ontario to collect information on between-farm contacts and biosecurity practices. Over a four-day study period on each farm, a median of 10.5 people entered the farm biosecurity perimeter (range 2-31). Ninety-six per cent (111/118) of people consented to be interviewed. Of these, fifty-three per cent (59/111) had contact with one or more (median 2, degree range 1-14) other poultry farms within 72 h. A median of 25 (range 7-65) human contacts linked study farms to other poultry farms. The mean distance of between-farm contacts was 53 km. Eighty-six per cent of people who answered the biosecurity questions (94/109) reported using one or more biosecurity practices. However, on 7/8 farms, at least one person reported that they did not use any biosecurity practices. Fifty per cent of social visitors used biosecurity, whereas 96% of all other people used biosecurity. Ninety-two per cent of people that entered the poultry barns (46/50) used one or more biosecurity practices, whereas 81% of people (48/59) that did not enter the poultry barns used one or more biosecurity practices. Because our study documented farm visitors who did not use any biosecurity practices and moved between commercial poultry farms, we suggest that rapid trace-out of human movements is as important as containment zoning to limiting disease spread during an outbreak of highly pathogenic AI in Ontario. PMID:21624106

  8. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  9. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  10. Who Becomes Established in Farming!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T.; Martinson, Virgil O.

    1971-01-01

    Reports a study of the similarities and differences between individuals presently farming and those who have left farming in Wisconsin. Study is based on Virgil Martinson's 1970 Ph.D. dissertation. (SB)

  11. The recognition of psychiatric illness by non-psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D

    1984-06-01

    Psychiatric illness occurs commonly during the course of medical and surgical illnesses, and commonly presents to non-psychiatric physicians inextricably mixed with physical symptoms. Non-psychiatrists vary widely between themselves in their ability to detect such disorders, so that such disorders are often missed. Reasons for failure to detect such disorders include the diagnostic practices taught in medical schools, the inadequacy of psychiatric taxonomy of neurosis, and the fact that most doctors have not been taught how to interview their patients. PMID:6593042

  12. Human factors in the management of the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Bion, J F; Abrusci, T; Hibbert, P

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable delivery of best practice care is a major component of medical error. Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to error and unreliable care. Human factors analysis, widely used in industry, provides insights into how interactions between organizations, tasks, and the individual worker impact on human behaviour and affect systems reliability. We adopt a human factors approach to examine determinants of clinical reliability in the management of critically ill patients. We conducted a narrative review based on a Medline search (1950-March 2010) combining intensive/critical care (units) with medical errors, patient safety, or delivery of healthcare; keyword and Internet search 'human factors' or 'ergonomics'. Critical illness represents a high-risk, complex system spanning speciality and geographical boundaries. Substantial opportunities exist for improving the safety and reliability of care of critically ill patients at the level of the task, the individual healthcare provider, and the organization or system. Task standardization (best practice guidelines) and simplification (bundling or checklists) should be implemented where scientific evidence is strong, or adopted subject to further research ('dynamic standardization'). Technical interventions should be embedded in everyday practice by the adjunctive use of non-technical (behavioural) interventions. These include executive 'adoption' of clinical areas, systematic methods for identifying hazards and reflective learning from error, and a range of techniques for improving teamworking and communication. Human factors analysis provides a useful framework for understanding and rectifying the causes of error and unreliability, particularly in complex systems such as critical care. PMID:20511333

  13. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  14. Down on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Describes how a farm program might assist any camp to offer experiential educational opportunities, improve attitudes toward food/nutrition, expand interpersonal relationships, develop work values and responsibility, teach history of food production/hunger. Details program goals, seasonal agricultural work, staffing, tools/equipment, daily…

  15. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  16. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  17. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  18. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  19. Assessing factors that may predispose Minnesota farms to wolf predation on cattle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Harper, E.K.; Meier, T.J.; Paul, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock cause considerable conflict and expense in Minnesota. Furthermore, claims are made that such depredations are fostered by the type of animal husbandry practiced. Thus, we tried to detect factors that might predispose farms in Minnesota to wolf depredations. We compared results of interviews with 41 cattle farmers experiencing chronic cattle losses to wolves (chronic farms) with results from 41 nearby matched farms with no wolf losses to determine farm characteristics or husbandry practices that differed and that therefore might have affected wolf depredations. We also used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to detect any habitat differences between the 2 types of farms. We found no differences between chronic and matched farms in the 11 farm characteristics and management practices that we surveyed, except that farms with chronic losses were larger, had more cattle, and had herds farther from human dwellings. Habitat types were the same around farms with and without losses. The role of proper carcass disposal as a possible factor predisposing farms to wolf depredations remains unclear

  20. Teaching Medical Students about Communicating with Patients with Major Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ramanan, Radhika A; Lee, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Persons with major mental illness often have chronic diseases and poor physical health. Therefore, all practicing physicians should learn about communicating effectively with these patients. Few efforts to teach medical students communication skills have specifically targeted patients with major mental illness. Indeed, most of the limited literature on this topic is decades old, predating significant scientific advances in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatric therapeutics and changes in social policies regarding major mental illness. To gather preliminary insight into training needs, we interviewed 13 final-year students from 2 Boston medical schools. Students' observations coalesced around 4 themes: fears and anxieties about interacting with persons with major mental illness; residents “protecting” students from patients with major mental illness; lack of clinical maturity; and barriers to learning during psychiatry rotations. Educational researchers must explore ways to better prepare young physicians to communicate effectively with patients with major mental illness. PMID:16970561

  1. Carbon farming economics: What have we learned?

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Kragt, Marit E; Hailu, Atakelty; Ma, Chunbo

    2016-05-01

    This study reviewed 62 economic analyses published between 1995 and 2014 on the economic impacts of policies that incentivise agricultural greenhouse (GHG) mitigation. Typically, biophysical models are used to evaluate the changes in GHG mitigation that result from landholders changing their farm and land management practices. The estimated results of biophysical models are then integrated with economic models to simulate the costs of different policy scenarios to production systems. The cost estimates vary between $3 and $130/t CO2 equivalent in 2012 US dollars, depending on the mitigation strategies, spatial locations, and policy scenarios considered. Most studies assessed the consequences of a single, rather than multiple, mitigation strategies, and few considered the co-benefits of carbon farming. These omissions could challenge the reality and robustness of the studies' results. One of the biggest challenges facing agricultural economists is to assess the full extent of the trade-offs involved in carbon farming. We need to improve our biophysical knowledge about carbon farming co-benefits, predict the economic impacts of employing multiple strategies and policy incentives, and develop the associated integrated models, to estimate the full costs and benefits of agricultural GHG mitigation to farmers and the rest of society. PMID:26921565

  2. 29 CFR 780.140 - Place of performing the practice as a factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performing the practice as a factor. So long as the farming operations to which a farmer's practice pertains... practice is performed with respect to products of farming operations, the controlling consideration is whether the products were produced by the farming operations of the farmer who performs the...

  3. Phosphorus losses from monitored fields with conservation practices in the Lake Erie Basin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices are placed on farm fields in the USA through Farm Bill programs; however, there has been very little verification that these practices provide environmental benefits. This study was conducted to assess the impact of placing Farm Bill eligible conservation practices on soluble ...

  4. South African Hindu psychologists' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya

    2014-04-01

    Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists. PMID:23054478

  5. Strategies to deal with comorbid physical illness in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Docherty, M; Stubbs, B; Gaughran, F

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with serious mental illnesses such as psychosis still experience higher mortality rates than the general population, decades after data have linked the gap to increased rates of physical illness, delayed diagnosis, low treatment rates and worse outcomes from treatment received. The nature of the relationship between psychosis and comorbid physical illness is complex. Multiple strategies directed at different levels of disease process, health care systems and stakeholder culture are likely required to make sustained progress in reducing the mortality gap. Evidence for strategies that effectively reduce the burden of physical co-morbidity and lead to improved health outcomes are still in their infancy but growing at a reassuringly fast rate. This editorial considers the existing evidence base and makes suggestions for the development and future direction of this urgent research agenda and how this knowledge can be implemented in clinical practice. PMID:26888363

  6. Discontinuing treatment in children with chronic, critical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Mahon, M M; Deatrick, J A; McKnight, H J; Mohr, W K

    2000-03-01

    Decisions about optimal treatment for critically ill children are qualitatively different from those related to adults. Technological advances over the past several decades have resulted in myriad treatment options that leave many children chronically, critically ill. These children are often technology dependent. With new technologies and new patient populations comes the responsibility to understand how, when, and why these technologies are applied and when technology should not be used or should be withdrawn. Much has been written about ethical decision making in the care of chronically, critically ill adults and newborns. In this article, relevant factors about the care of children older than neonates are described: standards, decision makers, age of the child, and pain management. A case study is used as a mechanism to explore these issues. Dimensions of futility, discontinuing aggressive treatment, and a consideration of benefits and burdens are integrated throughout the discussion to inform nurse practitioner practice. PMID:11219897

  7. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  8. Program for the Chronically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

    The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

  9. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  10. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  11. Multiculturalism, chronic illness, and disability.

    PubMed

    Groce, N E; Zola, I K

    1993-05-01

    To gain at least an initial understanding of the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a cross-cultural situation, we believe that the three key points discussed in this paper should prove a significant point of departure: 1. Traditional beliefs about the cause of chronic illness or disability will play a significant role in determining family and community attitudes toward individuals with a disability and will influence when, how, and why medical input is sought. 2. The expectation of survival on the part of parents and community will have an effect on the amount of time, energy, and cooperation shown by family and community for the individual who has an impairment. 3. The expectations by family and community for the social role(s) and individual with a chronic illness or disability will hold will affect a broad range of issues, including education, social integration, and independence. Furthermore, although chronic illness and disability are often considered as issues distinct from the full range of problems encountered in society for immigrant and minority groups, in fact, these issues could not be more closely tied. The frequently discussed concerns within the ethnic and minority community about the role of the family, integration and acculturation, social articulation with the greater American society, stress, cross-cultural misunderstanding, and outright prejudice can all compound the problems encountered for the chronically ill or disabled individual in a multicultural society. PMID:8479830

  12. The critically ill immunosuppressed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. )

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.

  13. Psychiatric illness and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Segraves, R T

    1998-05-01

    Impaired sexual function has been noted to occur in various psychiatric illnesses. In affective disorders, disturbances of libido, erection and orgasm have been reported. Disordered sexual behavior has also been noted in patients with schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa. Clinical speculation suggests that anxiety disorders may also be associated with a higher prevalence of sexual problems. PMID:9647976

  14. Tibetan 'wind' and 'wind' illnesses: towards a multicultural approach to health and illness.

    PubMed

    Yoeli-Tlalim, Ronit

    2010-12-01

    This article discusses the Tibetan notion of rlung, usually translated as: 'wind', but perhaps better understood as a close equivalent of pneuma in the Greek tradition, or qi in the Chinese tradition. The article focuses on the way rlung provides a useful prism through which concepts of health, illness and disease may be observed in a cross-cultural perspective. An analysis of syndromes linked with rlung in a Tibetan cultural context illuminates some of the ways in which culture determines particular syndromes. The article raises a number of questions which are relevant for a more general multicultural approach to concepts of health, illness and disease. The article argues that notions of rlung/pneuma/wind/ qi constitute a particularly interesting area for an exploration of culture-bound syndromes, as they reside in the meeting point between material and non-material, physical and mental, as well as the psychological, spiritual and religious. They are hence fundamental for a more cross-cultural approach to the mind-body problem. The article also deals with the significance of history of medicine, particularly histories of medicine, which attempt to widen the scope of the traditional Eurocentric narrative of the history of medicine, in dealing with questions such as concepts of health and illness. Allowing alternative narratives-whether narratives of patients, other cultures or historical ones-can enhance our understanding of what health, illness and disease are. Discussing perceptions of the body as culturally defined is not only important from a philosophical or historical point of view, but also has important practical ramifications, which are particularly crucial in our global age. PMID:21112005

  15. Life Event, Stress and Illness

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Mohd. Razali

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and suppressor T cells levels, which suppress the immune system. This suppression, in turn raises the risk of viral infection. Stress also leads to the release of histamine, which can trigger severe broncho-constriction in asthmatics. Stress increases the risk for diabetes mellitus, especially in overweight individuals, since psychological stress alters insulin needs. Stress also alters the acid concentration in the stomach, which can lead to peptic ulcers, stress ulcers or ulcerative colitis. Chronic stress can also lead to plaque buildup in the arteries (atherosclerosis), especially if combined with a high-fat diet and sedentary living. The correlation between stressful life events and psychiatric illness is stronger than the correlation with medical or physical illness. The relationship of stress with psychiatric illness is strongest in neuroses, which is followed by depression and schizophrenia. There is no scientific evidence of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the immune system changes and the development of cancer. However, recent studies found a link between stress, tumour development and suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, which is actively involved in preventing metastasis and destroying small metastases. PMID:22589633

  16. Illness representations of cancer among healthy residents of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Lala Tanmoy; Wagner, Christina D; Bigatti, Silvia M

    2015-01-01

    Cancer illness representations and screening history among residents of Kolkata, India, were investigated along with socio-demographic characteristics in an effort to understand possible motivations for health behavior. A total of 106 participants were recruited from community locations in Kolkata, India and completed surveys including demographics, the illness perception questionnaire-revised (IPQ-R), and previous experience with cancer and screening practices. Participants were 51.5% college educated, 57% female, 51.5% full-time employed with average age of 32.7 years (R: 18-60 years). Descriptive statistics were generated for the subscales of the IPQ-R, cancer-screening practices and cancer experience. Correlation analyses were conducted to investigate associations between cancer representations and socio-demographic variables. Univariate ANOVAs were calculated to determine gender differences in IPQ-R subscales and differences between participants who knew someone diagnosed with cancer versus those who did not. While 76% of participants knew someone with cancer, only 5% of the sample engaged in cancer screening. Participants perceived cancer as a serious illness with negative emotional valence. Younger age (r(100)=-.36, p<0.001) and male gender (F(1, 98)=5.22, p=0.01, η2=0.05) were associated with better illness coherence. Males also reported greater personal control (F(1, 98)=5.34, p=0.02, η2=0.05) were associated with better illness coherence. Low screening rates precluded analyses of the relationship between illness representations and cancer screening. Cancer was viewed as a threatening and uncontrollable disease among this sample of educated, middle class Kolkata residents. This view may act as a barrier to seeking cancer screening. Public awareness campaigns aimed at improving understanding of the causes, symptoms and consequences of cancer might reduce misunderstandings and fear, especially among women and older populations, who report less

  17. My illness, myself: on the secrecy of shame.

    PubMed

    Baider, Lea

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that the experience of being diagnosed with cancer has a negative psychosocial impact on patients and their families, often resulting in distress, and numerous practical and relationship challenges. Men with prostate cancer and their partners face special challenges. A range of symptoms that result from monitoring patients and side effects of treatment may reverse the quality of life and intimate relations between patient and partner. However, patients often are reluctant to bring up their distress about the symptoms, leading to an underestimation and reduction in optimal symptom control. As a result of their illness, chronically-ill male patients often experience elevated levels of stress, daily activities are often limited, they are frustrated about the unpredictable course of the illness and its symptoms, and are immersed in fears about their present and future social identity. Most of them avoid disclosure about their illness--when and where possible--and place great importance on sustaining a normal life. Factors related to limiting disclosure include men's low perceived need for support, fear of stigmatization, the need to minimize the threat of illness to aid coping, practical necessities in the workplace, and the desire to avoid burdening others. This paper contributes to an understanding of the complex issues of disclosure related to prostate cancer patients and raises issues about how best to be helpful, within their cultural and social framework. It also deals with feelings of shame, guilt and inadequacy as the cause--or consequence--of concealing the illness. The oral presentation will use a clinical example of secrecy and the subsequent conflicts and quandaries of a religious person diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Dilemmas of shame, disclosure and guilt will be the focus of the discussion. PMID:20590351

  18. Evaluating illness representations in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Janelle, Caroline; O'Connor, Kieron; Dupuis, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to see whether qualitative analysis improved quantitative measurement of illness perception after heart transplant. Two methods of evaluating illness representations were compared: one quantitative (administration of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) and one qualitative (phenomenological reduction). The qualitative analysis provided greater insight into the idiosyncratic and dynamic nature of the concept of illness representations. Adjustments to the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised are suggested to improve the evaluation of illness perception in terms of dispersion of scores, emotional impact, coping strategies and treatment, and social support, and ultimately to enhance interventions designed to promote treatment compliance. PMID:25626700

  19. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  20. Mental Illness Sexual Stigma: Implications for Health and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Milton L.; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M.; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Among people in psychiatric care worldwide, the majority is sexually active, and sharply elevated rates of HIV infection compared to the general population have been shown. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Method 641 sexually active adults attending eight public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Results Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on Individual Discrimination and Structural Stigma mechanisms than those with non-severe mental illness diagnoses, while there was no difference on the Social Psychological Processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examining the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. PMID:27030909

  1. Early Mobilization and Rehabilitation of Patients Who Are Critically Ill.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed D; Parker, Ann M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-09-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are increasingly recognized as a cause of both short- and long-term physical morbidity in survivors of critical illness. This recognition has given rise to research aimed at better understanding the risk factors and mechanisms associated with neuromuscular dysfunction and physical impairment associated with critical illness, as well as possible interventions to prevent or treat these issues. Among potential risk factors, bed rest is an important modifiable risk factor. Early mobilization and rehabilitation of patients who are critically ill may help prevent or mitigate the sequelae of bed rest and improve patient outcomes. Research studies and quality improvement projects have demonstrated that early mobilization and rehabilitation are safe and feasible in patients who are critically ill, with potential benefits including improved physical functioning and decreased duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care, and hospital stay. Despite these findings, early mobilization and rehabilitation are still uncommon in routine clinical practice, with many perceived barriers. This review summarizes potential risk factors for neuromuscular dysfunction and physical impairment associated with critical illness, highlights the potential role of early mobilization and rehabilitation in improving patient outcomes, and discusses some of the commonly perceived barriers to early mobilization and strategies for overcoming them. PMID:26997241

  2. The use of mixed methods in studying a chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Reed, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores mixed methods approaches with an illness called Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Qualitative and Quantitative data were used to investigate the epidemiology of this illness, as well as explore attributions based on the name of the illness, and finally treatment approaches. In each of the domains within the ME and CFS research reviewed, our analyses were richer and our findings ultimately more impactful when we integrated qualitative and quantitative research methods. The use of a multiphase mixed methods research program provided our team unique vantage points for better understanding social and community issues involving this controversial chronic illness. Further, this approach allowed us to implement the insights gained through an advocacy lens to change policy, recommend and evaluate treatments, and amplify voices within the patient population. In this way, we believe that the practice of methodological pluralism is especially applicable and effective to the study of chronic illness, and believe other investigators will benefit from the use of these approaches with similar disenfranchised and unfairly treated populations. PMID:27088060

  3. Stories of illness and trauma survival: liberation or repression?

    PubMed

    Crossley, M L

    1999-06-01

    This paper aims to expand upon recent research addressing the relationship between power and cultural stories of illness. It does this by exploring the stories of 'healing' and 'survival' produced by people who have undergone traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual abuse and a HIV positive diagnosis. The liberating and/or repressive potential of cultural stories of illness are defined in accordance with their capacity to produce 'minimal' or more 'reflective' selves, as characterised by Lasch [Lasch, C., 1985. The Minimal Self. Picador, London.] and Giddens [Giddens, A., 1991. Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Later Modern Age. Polity Press, Cambridge.], respectively. Two predominant stories of survival are identified in this paper: the 'healing' story and the 'normalising' story. Each of these are explored in an attempt to address the question: How do we distinguish between 'liberating' and 'repressing' technologies of the self with regard to the telling of illness stories? [Frank, A., 1998. Stories of illness as care of the self: a Foucauldian dialogue. Health 2(3), 329-348, forthcoming.]. Through an examination of survivors' attempts to overcome their traumatic experiences via the appropriation of various illness stories, it is concluded that this question can only be answered in the practical and social context of each individual's life. PMID:10400266

  4. Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

    2011-05-01

    In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

  5. On-Farm Use of Ultrasonography for Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Ollivett, Theresa L; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in young cattle has recently gained momentum as an accurate and practical tool for identifying the lung lesions associated with bovine respiratory disease. As cattle producers increasingly seek input from their veterinarians on respiratory health issues, bovine practitioners should consider adding TUS to their practice models. This article discusses the relevant literature regarding TUS in young cattle, current acceptable techniques, and practical on-farm applications. PMID:26922110

  6. Farm Work-Related Asthma Among US Primary Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; White, Gretchen E.; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%–68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%–45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention. PMID:25635741

  7. Health within illness: experiences of chronically ill/disabled people.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, E

    1996-09-01

    The concept of health within illness is beginning to gain recognition in nursing. However, there has been little research to explore and describe this phenomenon. The results of a recent study investigating the meaning of the experience of feeling healthy for people living with a chronic illness and/or disability are presented. An interpretive phenomenological study was undertaken with eight participants living with a variety of different chronic conditions. The results provide a rich mosaic of themes describing the participants' health experiences. These themes include: (a) honouring the self; (b) seeking and connecting with others; (c) creating opportunities; (d) celebrating life; (e) transcending the self; and (f) acquiring a state of grace. The significance of these results is that they provide for a reconceptualization of health and illness. Such a reconceptualization calls for a transformation in nursing care, from a problem focus and a deficit perspective, to one which focuses on the client's capacity and the promotion of health and healing. PMID:8876405

  8. Transgenic Farm Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  9. Energy integrated swine farm system in Nebraska: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, W.E.; Schulte, D.D.

    1987-05-01

    One of the guidelines used to establish the Energy-Integrated Farm System (EIFS) was that it be representative of Midwest agriculture. Sales of irrigated crops and hogs in Nebraska generate over 50% of the state's revenue. Thus, an irrigated crop and wine farm was chosen for demonstration. The concept of this project involved the use of ''state-of-the-art'' technology in an attempt to achieve zero flow of direct and indirect petroleum input into the farming operation. Specific objectives were: utilization of energy-saving irrigation scheduling and low-pressure center-pivot and gated-pipe irrigation systems; use of 190 proof ethanol produced from sweet sorghum as a replacement for fuel in farm engines; reduced tillage and fertilizer usage for energy, soil and water conservation; development of solar energy and methane gas usage in an integrated fashion for electricity production and for hot-water and space heating in a swine-production facility; use of mini- and micro-computer technology for on-farm energy conservation and management; recovery of waste heat and carbon dioxide from alcohol fermentation and swine production for greenhouse production of vegetables; demonstration of natural air grain drying, use of windbreaks, and other energy conservation practices; and determination of the economic feasibility of energy integrated farming for swine and irrigated crop production. A new farm was constructed to achieve these objectives. This report describes the system, its components and gives an economic analysis.

  10. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  11. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  12. 29 CFR 780.135 - Meaning of “farm.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meaning of âfarm.â 780.135 Section 780.135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... of Agriculture Practices Performed âon A Farmâ § 780.135 Meaning of “farm.” A “farm” is a tract...

  13. 29 CFR 780.135 - Meaning of “farm.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of âfarm.â 780.135 Section 780.135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... of Agriculture Practices Performed âon A Farmâ § 780.135 Meaning of “farm.” A “farm” is a tract...

  14. 29 CFR 780.135 - Meaning of “farm.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meaning of âfarm.â 780.135 Section 780.135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... of Agriculture Practices Performed âon A Farmâ § 780.135 Meaning of “farm.” A “farm” is a tract...

  15. 29 CFR 780.135 - Meaning of “farm.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meaning of âfarm.â 780.135 Section 780.135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... of Agriculture Practices Performed âon A Farmâ § 780.135 Meaning of “farm.” A “farm” is a tract...

  16. 29 CFR 780.135 - Meaning of “farm.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Meaning of âfarm.â 780.135 Section 780.135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... of Agriculture Practices Performed âon A Farmâ § 780.135 Meaning of “farm.” A “farm” is a tract...

  17. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  18. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  19. Transgenic farm animals: present and future.

    PubMed

    Niemann, H; Kues, W; Carnwath, J W

    2005-04-01

    Until recently, pronuclear microinjection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the standard method for producing transgenic animals. This technique is now being replaced by more efficient protocols based on somatic nucleartransferthat also permit targeted genetic modifications. Lentiviral vectors and small interfering ribonucleic acid technology are also becoming important tools for transgenesis. Transgenic farm animals are important in human medicine as sources of biologically active proteins, as donors in xenotransplantation, and for research in cell and gene therapy. Typical agricultural applications include improved carcass composition, lactational performance and wool production, as well as enhanced disease resistance and reduced environmental impact. Product safety can be ensured by standardisation of procedures and monitored by polymerase chain reaction and array technology. As sequence information and genomic maps of farm animals are refined, it becomes increasingly practical to remove or modify individual genes. This approach to animal breeding will be instrumental in meeting global challenges in agricultural production in the future. PMID:16110896

  20. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  1. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  2. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  3. Farm-specific carbon footprinting to the farm gate for agricultural co-products using the OVERSEER® model.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D M; Ledgard, S F; Boyes, M

    2013-06-01

    The user inputs to OVERSEER® Nutrient Budgets (Overseer) allow farm-specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be estimated. Since the development of the original model, life cycle assessment standards (e.g. PAS 2050) have been proposed and adopted for determining GHG or carbon footprints, which are usually reported as emissions per unit of product, for example, per kg milk, meat or wool. New Zealand pastoral farms frequently generate a range of products with different management practices. A robust system is required to allocate the individual sources of GHGs (e.g. methane, nitrous oxide, direct carbon dioxide and embodied carbon dioxide emissions for inputs used on the farm) to each product from a farm. This paper describes a method for allocating emissions to co-products from New Zealand farms. The method requires allocating the emissions, first, to an animal enterprise, separating the emissions between breeding and trading animals, and then allocating to a specific product to give product (e.g. milk, meat, wool, velvet) footprints from the 'cradle-to-farm-gate'. The meat product was based on live-weight gain. Procedures were adopted so that emissions associated with rearing of young stock used in live-weight gain systems, both as a by-product or a primary product could be estimated. This allows the possibility of total emissions for a meat product to be built up from contributing farms along the production chain. PMID:23739485

  4. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  5. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  6. Nutritional interventions in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2007-02-01

    The metabolism of critical illness is characterised by a combination of starvation and stress. There is increased production of cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon and growth hormone and increased insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Phagocytic, epithelial and endothelial cells elaborate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, and antioxidant depletion ensues. There is hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlactataemia, increased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen production. Insulin resistance, particularly in relation to the liver, is marked. The purpose of nutritional support is primarily to save life and secondarily to speed recovery by reducing neuropathy and maintaining muscle mass and function. There is debate about the optimal timing of nutritional support for the patient in the intensive care unit. It is generally agreed that the enteral route is preferable if possible, but the dangers of the parenteral route, a route of feeding that remains important in the context of critical illness, may have been over-emphasised. Control of hyperglycaemia is beneficial, and avoidance of overfeeding is emphasised. Growth hormone is harmful. The refeeding syndrome needs to be considered, although it has been little studied in the context of critical illness. Achieving energy balance may not be necessary in the early stages of critical illness, particularly in patients who are overweight or obese. Protein turnover is increased and N balance is often negative in the face of normal nutrient intake; optimal N intakes are the subject of some debate. Supplementation of particular amino acids able to support or regulate the immune response, such as glutamine, may have a role not only for their potential metabolic effect but also for their potential antioxidant role. Doubt remains in relation to arginine supplementation. High-dose mineral and vitamin antioxidant therapy may have a place. PMID:17343768

  7. Chronic illness and smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, David; Larson, Celia; Wang, Hong; Brown, Anne; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is among the leading causes of premature mortality and preventable death in the United States. Although smoking contributes to the probability of developing chronic illness, little is known about the relationship between quitting smoking and the presence of chronic illness. The present study investigated the association between diagnoses of one or more chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol) and smoking status (former or current smoker). Methods The data analyzed were a subset of questions from a 155-item telephone-administered community survey that assessed smoking status, demographic characteristics, and presence of chronic disease. The study sample consisted of 3,802 randomly selected participants. Results Participants with diabetes were more likely to report being former smokers, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, whereas having hypertension or high cholesterol was not associated significantly with smoking status. The likelihood of being a former smoker did not increase as number of diagnosed chronic diseases increased. Participants who were women, older (aged 65+), or single were significantly less likely to be former smokers. Participants with at least a college degree, those with incomes of US$50,000+, and those who were underweight or obese were more likely to be former smokers. Discussion These findings were inconsistent with research that has suggested that having a chronic illness or experiencing a serious medical event increases the odds of smoking cessation. Supporting prior research, we found that being male, having a higher income, and being obese were associated with greater likelihood of being a former smoker. PMID:19516050

  8. Epigenetic Basis of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J; Peña, Catherine J; Kundakovic, Marija; Mitchell, Amanda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26450593

  9. Explanatory models for psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2008-06-01

    How can we best develop explanatory models for psychiatric disorders? Because causal factors have an impact on psychiatric illness both at micro levels and macro levels, both within and outside of the individual, and involving processes best understood from biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives, traditional models of science that strive for single broadly applicable explanatory laws are ill suited for our field. Such models are based on the incorrect assumption that psychiatric illnesses can be understood from a single perspective. A more appropriate scientific model for psychiatry emphasizes the understanding of mechanisms, an approach that fits naturally with a multicausal framework and provides a realistic paradigm for scientific progress, that is, understanding mechanisms through decomposition and reassembly. Simple subunits of complicated mechanisms can be usefully studied in isolation. Reassembling these constituent parts into a functioning whole, which is straightforward for simple additive mechanisms, will be far more challenging in psychiatry where causal networks contain multiple nonlinear interactions and causal loops. Our field has long struggled with the interrelationship between biological and psychological explanatory perspectives. Building from the seminal work of the neuronal modeler and philosopher David Marr, the author suggests that biology will implement but not replace psychology within our explanatory systems. The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes. PMID:18483135

  10. Occupational stress and illness incidence.

    PubMed

    Hoiberg, A

    1982-06-01

    This study examined hospitalization rates for 10 stress-related illnesses among Navy occupational groups during four phases of a 30-year career and identified possible reasons for differences in health risks among occupations and career phases. Results of this longitudinal study, which covered 11 years and included an initial population of 184,122 male Navy enlisted Caucasians, showed that men assigned to Hospital Corpsman and Mess Management Specialist (culinary work) categories had the highest health risks for stress-related illness during nearly all phases or decades of a Navy career. Other groups with elevated hospitalization rates included Construction/Manufacturing, Deck, Ordnance, and Engineering/Hull, whereas the lowest rates were observed for Miscellaneous/Technical, Electronics, and Administrative/Clerical. The highest hospitalization rates for stress-related diseases were evidenced during the third decade. Job stress scores were computed from ratings of environmental characteristics, occupational stressors and career considerations; high scores on these dimensions tended to be associated with increased illness. Implications of these results for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:7097375

  11. Boy or Girl: Does Gender Matter When Learning to Farm Safely?.

    PubMed

    Dukeshire, S R; Sanderson, L L; Garbes, R; Wang, X

    2015-10-01

    Based on a survey and face-to-face interview with 24 students who lived most of their lives on farms, this study extends the findings of previously reported research by examining similarities and differences between males' and females' beliefs, attitudes, and adoption of farm health and safety practices. The survey and interview asked participants to recall their experiences growing up on a farm and in particular how they learned to farm safely. Data were analyzed qualitatively, focusing on two potentially gendered farm chores: tractor operation and livestock handling. Particular emphasis was placed on identifying similarities and differences between boys' and girls' childhood farm experiences and transfer of farm health and safety knowledge. Main findings indicated that although there may be some differences between how boys and girls perceive the operational aspects of the farm (particularly parental roles), there seems to be little difference between genders in terms of tasks they were permitted to do and in their health and safety practices. The current study adds to a small but growing literature suggesting that gender differences play a relatively small role in farm health and safety practices among individuals strongly committed to and engaged in agriculture. PMID:26710582

  12. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  13. Providing care for critically ill surgical patients: challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tisherman, Samuel A; Kaplan, Lewis; Gracias, Vicente H; Beilman, Gregory J; Toevs, Christine; Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Providing optimal care for critically ill and injured surgical patients will become more challenging with staff shortages for surgeons and intensivists. This white paper addresses the historical issues behind the present situation, the need for all intensivists to engage in dedicated critical care per the intensivist model, and the recognition that intensivists from all specialties can provide optimal care for the critically ill surgical patient, particularly with continuing involvement by the surgeon of record. The new acute care surgery training paradigm (including trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery) has been developed to increase interest in trauma and surgical critical care, but the number of interested trainees remains too few. Recommendations are made for broadening the multidisciplinary training and practice opportunities in surgical critical care for intensivists from all base specialties and for maintaining the intensivist model within acute care surgery practice. Support from academic and administrative leadership, as well as national organizations, will be needed. PMID:23754675

  14. Maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Sood, A K; Gaur, D R

    1990-06-01

    Maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illnesses--diarrhea, fever, measles, cough and marasmus were determined in 143 rural mothers by using the interview technique. Some foods were preferred while others were restricted during episode of each illness, depending upon their 'hot' and 'cold', 'light' and 'heavy' and other characteristics, as determined by locally prevalent traditional dietary beliefs. 'Cold' foods like curd, butter milk were restricted during an episode of cough while 'hot' foods like tea, ginger with honey, were preferred. During diarrhea, 'light' foods like khichri, diluted milk and 'easy to digest' were preferred while 'heavy' foods like undiluted milk, roti and 'difficult to digest' were restricted. The study revealed that for a successful health education, it is important to identify local cultural practices and beliefs. The useful practices should be encouraged and reinforced while the harmful ones should be discouraged. PMID:2253996

  15. Involvement of Wives in Farm Tasks as Related to Characteristics of the Farm, the Family and Work Off the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, Eugene A.; Ahrens, Nancy

    In an attempt to determine the basis of the farm wife's involvement in farm tasks, hypotheses regarding farm size and type, family cycle and wife's age, off-farm work of husband or wife, and family educational levels were tested in a 1978 random questionnaire survey of 532 Wisconsin farm families. As expected, wives were more involved with farm…

  16. Economic and phosphorus-related effects of precision feeding and forage management at a farm scale.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, L T; Cerosaletti, P E; Veith, T L; Rotz, C A; Hamlett, J M; Gburek, W J

    2007-08-01

    Structural best management practices were implemented throughout the Cannonsville Reservoir Watershed (CRW) in an effort to reduce P losses to the reservoir. Yet long-term water quality control efforts within CRW are hindered by continuous P build-up in the soils resulting from dairy farm P imports exceeding exports. Addressing the P imbalance problems and maintaining economic viability of the farms requires a system-level redesign of farm management. One possible innovative strategy, precision feed management (PFM), reduces soil-P build-up by limiting feed and fertilizer purchases, and increasing high-quality homegrown forage production. This study applied the integrated farm system model (IFSM) to 2 CRW dairy farms to quantify the benefits of a PFM farm planning strategy in controlling P imbalance problems, and maintaining farm profit-ability and reducing off-farm P losses. The IFSM accurately simulated the 2 farms based on farm data supplied by farm planners; these scenarios were used as the baseline conditions. The IFSM simulations of more accurate feeding of P (based on P required in animal diets) integrated with increased productivity of grass-forage and increased proportion of forage in the diet reduced the P imbalance of 1 farm from 5.3 to 0.5 kg/ ha and from 9.6 to 0.0 kg/ha for the second farm. For both farms, soluble P lost to the environment was reduced by 18%. Feed supplement purchases declined by 7.5 kg/cow per year for dietary mineral P, and by 1.04 and 1.29 t/cow per year for protein concentrates through adoption of the PFM system. Moreover, when a land management practice of converting corn to grass was coupled with the precision feeding of P and improved forage management, IFSM predicted reductions of 5.8 and 9.3 kg/ha of converted land sediment-bound P in erosion loss each year. The model predicted slight purchase increases in corn grain to offset reductions in corn silage production and feeding rates, but no appreciable change in the farm P

  17. 29 CFR 780.144 - “As an incident to or in conjunction with” the farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... definition. Generally, a practice performed in connection with farming operations is within the statutory... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âAs an incident to or in conjunction withâ the farming... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Performance of the Practice âas An Incident to...

  18. Determining the profitability of improving water quality on farms in the southeastern Piedmont region of Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southeastern Piedmont (SEP) region of Georgia is a high nutrient status area for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Previous research indicates certain farm practices utilize more P and N from the soil and/or decrease P and N runoff. With the objective to improve water quality, six farm fields in...

  19. An Evaluation of UV-Monitoring Enhanced Skin Cancer Prevention among Farm Youth in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Ohanehi, Donatus C.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health districts in southwest Virginia have one of the highest ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and sunburn rate. Due to higher levels of UV exposure, rural farm youth are at higher risk for skin cancer than non-farm youth. Few studies have been published that explore best practices for decreasing UV exposure among this population.…

  20. Farm Education and the Value of Learning in an Authentic Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa

    2015-01-01

    Farm education is a newly emerging field of research that utilises authentic learning environments, environments that combine a subject of academic study with its real-world surroundings, actors, and activities--in this case, the practical context of a farm. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various learning environments…

  1. Reconsidering Conceptualisations of Farm Conservation Activity: The Case of Conserving Hay Meadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Changes to agri-environmental policy, with an emphasis on encouraging more environmentally friendly farming practices, have been paralleled in the last two decades by a body of research into agri-environment scheme adoption. To date much of this research has considered conservation behaviour as a static issue across whole farms, and viewed…

  2. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming practices can have a large impact on the soil carbon cycle and the resulting net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO**2), methane and nitrous oxide. Primary sources of CO**2 emission on dairy farms are soil, plant, and animal respiration with smaller contributions from ...

  3. ASSESSING MANURE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES THROUGH SMALL-PLOT RESEARCH AND WHOLE-FARM MODELING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-farm models, such as the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM) are valuable in assessing environmental impacts and economic risks of management practice changes. However, due to the numerous sources of variation within the natural system, controlled research to quantify environmental effectiven...

  4. 76 FR 75542 - Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest Independent Transmission, System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC (Rail Splitter or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Ameren Services...

  5. Pyrosequencing assessment of soil microbial communities in organic and conventional potato farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming is a growing field of agriculture that is benign on the environment but there are contradictory reports about the impact of these practices on the soil microbial community, i.e. some studies showed higher microbial diversity in organic farms but others showed no differences in divers...

  6. SIMULATION OF NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming practices can have a large impact on the net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide (N**2O). The primary sources of N**2O from dairy farms are nitrification and denitrification processes in soil, with smaller contributions from manure storage and ba...

  7. Costs of occupational injury and illness across states.

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha; Leigh, J Paul; Cassady, Diana; Miller, Ted R

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate occupational injury and illness costs per worker across states. Analysis was conducted on injury data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and costs data from workers' compensation records. The following states were at the top of the list for average cost (cost per worker): West Virginia, Alaska, Wyoming, Kentucky, and Mississippi. The following states were at the bottom: South Carolina, Delaware, Minnesota, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. The following variables (and signs on regression coefficients comparing this industry with manufacturing) were important in explaining the variation across states: employment in farming (+), agricultural service, forestry, fishing (+), mining (+), transportation and public utilities (+), wholesale trade (-), and finance, insurance, real estate (-). Southern and especially Western states were disproportionately represented in the high cost per worker list. A significant amount of the variation in cost per worker across states was explained by the composition of industries. PMID:15602183

  8. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  9. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  10. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-06-26

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements.

  11. The Food Safety Modernization Act: Implications for U.S. Small Scale Farms.

    PubMed

    Boys, Kathryn A; Ollinger, Michael; Geyer, Leon L

    2015-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) reforms law governing the safety of human and animal foods produced for consumption in the United States. Recognizing the challenges that the proposed regulations would impose on small farms, Congress included an amendment to exempt small farms from the full scope of FSMA requirements. This special treatment and other issues left unaddressed by FSMA, however, present challenges for buyers of small farm products and is inducing a private sector response to these regulatory gaps. This Article reviews the current treatment of small farms under FSMA and explores some key impacts and implications of FSMA on these organizations. Particular consideration is given to the unintended consequences of the Tester-Hagan Amendment and the unaddressed issue of liability for foodborne illness. PMID:26591825

  12. Study on Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Mostoophi, A; Shemshadi, B

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, an increase in the number of cases of food-borne illnesses linked to fresh vegetables has been reported. One of the causative agents of these infections is Cryptosporidium and it appears that one route of transmission to humans is food-borne, so fruits and vegetables have important roles. The goal of this study was to determine the level of Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran, Iran. A total of 496 samples from 115 vegetable farms in different regions around Tehran (Capital city of Iran) were collected and different types of vegetables were investigated for the parasite in June and July, 2012. A sediment concentration method followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen's acid-fast staining was used to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Our findings revealed that 6.6% of studied samples were contaminated with Cryptosporidium species. The highest rate of contamination was reported in Bagher Abad (South of Tehran) (11.1%), and green onions were more commonly contaminated (14.8%) than any other vegetables tested. Furthermore, when waste water was used to irrigate vegetable farms, the contamination rate was (33.3%). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and studied risk factors including: different regions around Tehran, type of vegetables, and type of water used for farm irrigation. Therefore, vegetables may provide a route by which Cryptosporidium can be transmitted to humans, and control strategies should be considered. PMID:23959484

  13. Heat-related illness among Oregon farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Harger, Renee

    2014-09-01

    Farmworkers are particularly vulnerable to climate-sensitive health outcomes such as heat-related illness (HRI) given their tasks involve heavy exertion in an outdoor setting. The objectives of the study were to: (1) describe symptoms of HRI experienced by farmworkers and (2) explore factors associated with heat knowledge, level of concern regarding HRI, and comfort level taking breaks at work. Bilingual research staff conducted personal interviews of 100 farmworkers during July and August 2013. Data collected included demographics, work history and current work practices, trainings received, HRI symptoms experienced, health status, and health behaviors. Nearly 30% of participants reported experiencing ≥ 2 HRI symptoms during the previous work. Few participants had high level of heat knowledge (21.0%) and 15.6% of participants reported being "very concerned" about the health effects of working in hot conditions. Participants who were paid by the piece were more likely to have a high heat knowledge score and be "very concerned" about HRI but less likely to be "very comfortable" taking a break compared to workers paid by the hour than those who had not received HRI training. Results suggest several areas in which employers and agencies conducting outreach and education to the workers about HRI can change their practices including providing cooling measures and HRI training about risk factors for HRI. PMID:25198688

  14. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one’s attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness. PMID:24311820

  15. Farm-Size Structure and Off-Farm Income and Employment Generation in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    The relationship between size of farm and the welfare of farm and nonfarm society was examined in terms of total income in the farm sector, the number and size of farms, income per farm, secondary income generation, and consumer food costs using four alternative farm structures: large farm (gross farm sales of at least $40,000); medium farm (gross…

  16. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…

  17. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  18. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  19. In Uzbekistan, Is It Farm Management or FARM "Management?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James S.; Luery, Andrea

    A broad spectrum of stakeholders in Uzbekistan were interviewed to identify areas in which Winrock International's Farmer-to-Farmer program volunteers could be targeted to help Uzbeks complete the transition to privatized farms. The interviews revealed that Uzbeks have a much broader conception of the "farm" than do people in Western countries and…

  20. Causal Attribution and Illness Perception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Patients with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628