Science.gov

Sample records for image cloud patterns

  1. Cloud pattern prediction from geostationary meteorological satellite images for solar energy forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, S.; Sébastien, N.; Liandrat, O.; Schmutz, N.

    2014-10-01

    Surface solar radiation forecasting permits to predict photovoltaic plant production for a massive and safe integration of solar energy into the electric network. For short-term forecasts (intra-day), methods using images from meteorological geostationary satellites are more suitable than numerical weather prediction models. Forecast schemes consist in assessing cloud motion vectors and in extrapolating cloud patterns from a given satellite image in order to predict cloud cover state above a PV plant. Atmospheric motion vectors retrieval techniques have been studied for several decades in order to improve weather forecasts. However, solar energy forecasting requires the extraction of cloud motion vectors on a finer spatial- and time-resolution than those provided for weather forecast applications. Even if motion vector retrieval is a wide research field in image processing related topics, only block-matching techniques are operationally used for solar energy forecasts via satellite images. In this paper, we propose two motion vectors extraction methods originating from video compression techniques (correlation phase and optical flow methods). We implemented them on a 6-day dataset of Meteosat-10 satellite diurnal images. We proceeded to cloud pattern extrapolation and compared predicted cloud maps against actual ones at different time horizons from 15 minutes to 4 hours ahead. Forecast scores were compared to the state-of-the-art (block matching) method. Correlation phase methods do not outperform block-matching but their computation time is about 25 times shorter. Optical flow based method outperforms all the methods with a satisfactory time computing.

  2. Global patterns in cloud forms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. G.; Gierasch, P. J.; Popp, B. D.; Yerdon, R. J.

    1981-02-01

    Mariner 9 images and all Viking orbiter images through July 1979 were searched for cloud forms. A computer-accessible catalog was assembled, consisting of a classification of cloud type (lee wave, for example) and properties (directionality, wavelength, for example). Lee wave directionality shows a pattern and seasonal variation at high latitudes which is consistent with predictions of theoretical modeling. Fog and haze occurrence shows no obvious correlation with water abundance or any other simple causal factor. Lee waves are rare at equatorial latitudes. Plumes (probably dust) occur preferentially at locations where strong boundary layer convection is expected.

  3. 4-D display of satellite cloud images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to display GOES satellite cloud images in perspective over a topographical map. Cloud heights are estimated using temperatures from an infrared (IR) satellite image, surface temperature observations, and a climatological model of vertical temperature profiles. Cloud levels are discriminated from each other and from the ground using a pattern recognition algorithm based on the brightness variance technique of Coakley and Bretherton. The cloud regions found by the pattern recognizer are rendered in three-dimensional perspective over a topographical map by an efficient remap of the visible image. The visible shades are mixed with an artificial shade based on the geometry of the cloud-top surface, in order to enhance the texture of the cloud top.

  4. Detailed Cloud Patterns in Martian Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cold and cloudy mornings; cool, hazy afternoons. High winds aloft and weather fronts moving slowly to the east. It is winter in the Martian northern hemisphere. One of the many reasons to study Mars is that, at times, its weather is very 'Earth-like.' At this time of the Martian year, clouds are abundant, especially in the morning and especially in the high northern latitudes. Clouds and fogs are also observed in low-lying areas farther to the south, in some lowlands they are as far south as the equator.

    The above color composite images, obtained by Mars Global Surveyor's camera on June 4, 1998, illustrate this Martian 'weather report.' Most of the thick, white clouds seen here occur north of latitude 35oN (roughly equivalent to Albuquerque NM, Memphis TN, and Charlotte, NC). Fog (seen as bright orange because it is lighter than the ground but some of the ground is still visible) occupies the lowest portions of the Kasei Valles outflow channel around 30oN and at 25oN.

    Several different types of cloud features are seen. The repetitious, wash-board pattern of parallel lines are 'gravity wave clouds'. These commonly form, in the lee--downwind side-- of topographic features such as mountain ranges (on Earth) or crater rims (on Mars), under very specific atmospheric conditions (low temperatures, high humidity, and high wind speeds). In this area, the wave clouds are lower in the atmosphere than some of the other clouds. These other clouds show attributes reflecting more the regional weather pattern, occasionally showing the characteristic 'slash' shape (southwest to northeast) of a weather front. These clouds probably contain mostly crystals of water ice but, depending on the temperature at high altitude (and more likely closer to the pole), some could also contain frozen carbon dioxide ('dry ice').

    MOC images 34501 (the red wide angle image) and 34502 (the blue wide angle image) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 345th orbit about the planet. The pictures were taken around 5: 34 p.m. PDT on June 4, 1998. Winter in the northern hemisphere began in mid-February, 1998, and continues to mid-July, 1998.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  5. Cloud computing in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kagadis, George C; Kloukinas, Christos; Moore, Kevin; Philbin, Jim; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Alexakos, Christos; Nagy, Paul G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hendee, William R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past century technology has played a decisive role in defining, driving, and reinventing procedures, devices, and pharmaceuticals in healthcare. Cloud computing has been introduced only recently but is already one of the major topics of discussion in research and clinical settings. The provision of extensive, easily accessible, and reconfigurable resources such as virtual systems, platforms, and applications with low service cost has caught the attention of many researchers and clinicians. Healthcare researchers are moving their efforts to the cloud, because they need adequate resources to process, store, exchange, and use large quantities of medical data. This Vision 20/20 paper addresses major questions related to the applicability of advanced cloud computing in medical imaging. The paper also considers security and ethical issues that accompany cloud computing. PMID:23822402

  6. High S/N Keck and Gemini AO imaging of Uranus during 2012-2014: New cloud patterns, increasing activity, and improved wind measurements

    E-print Network

    Sromovsky, L A; Fry, P M; Hammel, H B; Marcus, P

    2015-01-01

    We imaged Uranus in the near infrared from 2012 into 2014, using the Keck/NIRC2 camera and Gemini/NIRI camera, both with adaptive optics. We obtained exceptional signal to noise ratios by averaging 8-16 individual exposures in a planet-fixed coordinate system. noise-reduced images revealed many low-contrast discrete features and large scale cloud patterns not seen before, including scalloped waveforms just south of the equator. In all three years numerous small (600-700 km wide) and mainly bright discrete features were seen within the north polar region (north of about 55\\deg N). Over 850 wind measurements were made, the vast majority of which were in the northern hemisphere. These revealed an extended region of solid body rotation between 62\\deg N and at least 83\\deg N, at a rate of 4.08$\\pm0.015$\\deg/h westward relative to the planet's interior (radio) rotation of 20.88\\deg/h westward. Near-equatorial speeds measured with high accuracy give different results for waves and small discrete features, with eastw...

  7. SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF COLOR SPACES AND COMPONENTS FOR THE SEGMENTATION OF SKY/CLOUD IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Stefan

    ) is a cost-effective means to understanding cloud cover and weather patterns. The accurate segmentationSYSTEMATIC STUDY OF COLOR SPACES AND COMPONENTS FOR THE SEGMENTATION OF SKY/CLOUD IMAGES at Urbana-Champaign Singapore 138632 ABSTRACT Sky/cloud imaging using ground-based Whole Sky Imagers (WSI

  8. High S/N Keck and Gemini AO imaging of Uranus during 2012-2014: New cloud patterns, increasing activity, and improved wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; de Pater, I.; Fry, P. M.; Hammel, H. B.; Marcus, P.

    2015-09-01

    We imaged Uranus in the near infrared from 2012 into 2014, using the Keck/NIRC2 camera and Gemini/NIRI camera, both with adaptive optics. We obtained exceptional signal to noise ratios by averaging 8-16 individual exposures in a planet-fixed coordinate system. These noise-reduced images revealed many low-contrast discrete features and large scale cloud patterns not seen before, including scalloped waveforms just south of the equator, and an associated transverse ribbon wave near 6°S. In all three years numerous small (600-700 km wide) and mainly bright discrete features were seen within the north polar region (north of about 55°N). Two small dark spots with bright companions were seen at middle latitudes. Over 850 wind measurements were made, the vast majority of which were in the northern hemisphere. Winds at high latitudes were measured with great precision, revealing an extended region of solid body rotation between 62°N and at least 83°N, at a rate of 4.08 ± 0.015°/h westward relative to the planet's interior (radio) rotation of 20.88°/h westward. Near-equatorial speeds measured with high accuracy give different results for waves and small discrete features, with eastward drift rates of 0.4°/h and 0.1°/h respectively. The region of polar solid body rotation is a close match to the region of small-scale polar cloud features, suggesting a dynamical relationship. The winds from prior years and those from 2012-2014 are consistent with a mainly symmetric wind profile up to middle latitudes, with a small asymmetric component of ?0.09°/h peaking near ±30°, and about 60% greater amplitude if only prior years are included, suggesting a declining mid-latitude asymmetry. While winds at high southern latitudes (50-90°S) are unconstrained by groundbased observations, a recent reanalysis of 1986 Voyager 2 observations by Karkoschka (Karkoschka [2015]. Icarus 250, 294-307) has revealed an extremely large north-south asymmetry in this region, which might be seasonal. Greatly increased activity was seen in 2014, including the brightest ever feature seen in K? images (de Pater et al. [2015]. Icarus 252, 121-128), as well as other significant features, some of which had long lives. Over the 2012-2014 period we identified six persistent discrete features. Three were tracked for more than 2 years, two more for more than 1 year, and one for at least 5 months and continuing. Several drifted in latitude towards the equator, and others appeared to exhibit latitudinal oscillations with long periods. We found two pairs of long-lived features that survived multiple passages within their own diameters of each other. Zonally averaged cloud patterns were found to persist over 2012-2014. When averaged over longitude, there is a brightness variation with latitude from 55°N to the pole that is similar to effective methane mixing ratio variations with latitude derived from 2012 STIS observations (Sromovsky et al. [2014]. Icarus 238, 137-155).

  9. Cloud patterns as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Remarkable cloud patterns as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 34th revolution of the earth. Note break in two adjacent decks of strato-cumulus cloud formations. Sea can be seen through holes in clouds.

  10. Jupiter's Great Red Spot: Fine-scale matches of model vorticity patterns to prevailing cloud patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Dowling, Timothy E.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a set of six new matches between fine-scale features in the vorticity field of a three-dimensional (3D), primitive-equation, finite-difference model of Jupiter's Great Red Spot that includes no clouds or cloud physics, and quasi-permanent structures in reflected visible-band images of the clouds. These add to similar success by Cho et al. (Cho, J., de la Torre Juárez, M., Ingersoll, A.P., Dritschel, D.G. [2001]. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5099-5106), who earlier captured four characteristic features of the GRS, also reproduced here, using a 3D quasi-geostrophic, cloud-free contour-dynamics model. In that study and this, the key enabling model attribute is sufficient horizontal resolution, rather than the moist-convective and cloud-microphysics processes often required to match the patterns of clouds in terrestrial hurricanes. The only significant feature that these dry models do not capture is the episodic moist-convective plumes seen in the northwest quadrant adjacent to the GRS. We initialize with Jupiter's averaged zonal winds plus an approximately balanced, smooth 3D ellipsoidal anticyclone. The threshold horizontal grid-resolution to obtain the fine-scale matches is approximately ?y/Ld ? 0.15, where ?y ? 300 km is the meridional grid spacing and Ld ˜ 2000 km the Rossby deformation length. For models with this or finer horizontal resolution, the best correspondence with observations is reached after about six vortex turnaround times from initialization (˜30 Earth days), but good facsimiles of nearly all the studied features appear after only 1.5 turnaround times (˜7-8 days). We conclude that in images of Jupiter, it is not accurate to associate clouds with upward motion, since these dry models reproduce the observed cloud patterns without this association, and indeed the synoptic-scale vertical motions in the model, as well as those deduced from observations, do not at all correspond to the observed cloud patterns. Instead, Jupiter's cloud-top patterns indicate the effects of local shear in the manner of passive-tracer fields. As a corollary, the water clouds on Jupiter, which lie unseen below its visible clouds, are the only ones on the planet likely to correlate with upwelling in the manner that clouds do on Earth. The next step is to extend studies such as this past the reflected visible band, for example to include the GRS's 5-?m emission bright collar, which may require the inclusion of cloud physics to enable the successful simulation of large voids.

  11. Comparison of IR and Visible Cloud Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, W.; McLaughlin, T.; Bygren, S.; Randell, C.

    This paper presents a comparison between the Infrared Cloud Imager (IRCI) used at Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) sites and the Visible Cloud Imager (VCI) developed using a COTS all-sky camera. The cloud imagers are used to create exclusion maps for GEODSS observations based on detected cloud locations. Excluding observation attempts in obscured areas of the sky is done to improve the allocation of sensor resources. Estimates are made for atmospheric extinction across the entire sky by comparing known star brightness to measured brightness. Data for the comparison were collected at the GEODSS test site located in Yoder, Colorado for a variety of cloud conditions.

  12. Pattern recognition of satellite cloud imagery for improved weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, Catherine; Somerville, Richard C. J.; Volfson, Leonid B.

    1986-01-01

    The major accomplishment was the successful development of a method for extracting time derivative information from geostationary meteorological satellite imagery. This research is a proof-of-concept study which demonstrates the feasibility of using pattern recognition techniques and a statistical cloud classification method to estimate time rate of change of large-scale meteorological fields from remote sensing data. The cloud classification methodology is based on typical shape function analysis of parameter sets characterizing the cloud fields. The three specific technical objectives, all of which were successfully achieved, are as follows: develop and test a cloud classification technique based on pattern recognition methods, suitable for the analysis of visible and infrared geostationary satellite VISSR imagery; develop and test a methodology for intercomparing successive images using the cloud classification technique, so as to obtain estimates of the time rate of change of meteorological fields; and implement this technique in a testbed system incorporating an interactive graphics terminal to determine the feasibility of extracting time derivative information suitable for comparison with numerical weather prediction products.

  13. Patterns of Diurnal Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Fraction Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2015-04-01

    The spatial patterns of subtropical marine stratocumulus cloud fraction variability on diurnal time scales are examined using high temporal resolution cloud masks based on 30-min 4 km x 4 km geosynchronous IR data for the period 2003-2010. This data set permits comparison of low cloud fraction variability characteristics among the three marine stratocumulus regions in the southeast Pacific, southeast Atlantic and northeast Pacific. In all three regions, the largest diurnal cycles and earliest time of cloud break up occur on the edges of the cloud field where cloud fractions are in general lower. During the peak season of cloudiness in the southeast Pacific and southeast Atlantic the amplitude of the diurnal cycle on the edges of the cloud deck was greater than 40%, more than double the value found in the center of each cloud deck. The rate at which the cloud breaks up during the day is closely tied to starting cloud fraction at dawn and the shortwave radiative flux. The maximum rate of cloud breakup occurs near 1200 LT. Cloud fraction begins to increase at 1600 LT (before the sun sets) and reaches its maximum value just before dawn. The diurnal cycle characteristics of the southeast Pacific and southeast Atlantic marine stratocumulus cloud decks are more similar to each other than to those in the northeast Pacific. The northeast Pacific cloud deck has weaker diurnal variation, slower rates of cloud breakup during the day for a given cloud fraction at dawn, and higher probabilities for cloud break up overnight.

  14. Usage Patterns to Provision for Scientific Experimentation in Clouds

    E-print Network

    Plale, Beth

    Usage Patterns to Provision for Scientific Experimentation in Clouds Eran Chinthaka Withana are turning to commercial and research test-bed Cloud computing resources to run their scientific experiments. Job scheduling on cloud computing resources, unlike earlier plat- forms, is a balance between

  15. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  16. CEDIMS: cloud ethical DICOM image Mojette storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédon, Jeanpierre; Evenou, Pierre; Tervé, Pierre; David, Sylvain; Béranger, Jérome

    2012-02-01

    Dicom images of patients will necessarily been stored in Clouds. However, ethical constraints must apply. In this paper, a method which provides the two following conditions is presented: 1) the medical information is not readable by the cloud owner since it is distributed along several clouds 2) the medical information can be retrieved from any sufficient subset of clouds In order to obtain this result in a real time processing, the Mojette transform is used. This paper reviews the interesting features of the Mojette transform in terms of information theory. Since only portions of the original Dicom files are stored into each cloud, their contents are not reachable. For instance, we use 4 different public clouds to save 4 different projections of each file, with the additional condition that any 3 over 4 projections are enough to reconstruct the original file. Thus, even if a cloud is unavailable when the user wants to load a Dicom file, the other 3 are giving enough information for real time reconstruction. The paper presents an implementation on 3 actual clouds. For ethical reasons, we use a Dicom image spreaded over 3 public clouds to show the obtained confidentiality and possible real time recovery.

  17. Image Mining: Detecting Deforestation Patterns

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    54 Chapter IV Image Mining: Detecting Deforestation Patterns Through Satellites Marcelino Pereira to analyze satellite images and extract knowledge from this kind of data. The Amazonia deforestation problem of change on deforested areas of Amazonia. The purpose of the authors is to present relevant technologies

  18. Oblique view of cloud patterns over Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An oblique view of unique cloud patterns over the Pacific Ocean caused by aircraft contrail shadows altering cumulus clouds and forming straight line clouds, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. This area is southwest of Los Angeles, California. This photograph was taken at an altitude of 177 kilometers (110 statute miles).

  19. Infrared Image of Low Clouds on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This false-color image is a near-infrared map of lower-level clouds on the night side of Venus, obtained by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard the Galileo spacecraft as it approached the planet's night side on February 10, 1990. Bright slivers of sunlit high clouds are visible above and below the dark, glowing hemisphere. The spacecraft is about 100,000 kilometers (60,000 miles) above the planet. An infrared wavelength of 2.3 microns (about three times the longest wavelength visible to the human eye) was used. The map shows the turbulent, cloudy middle atmosphere some 50-55 kilometers (30- 33 miles) above the surface, 10-16 kilometers or 6-10 miles below the visible cloudtops. The red color represents the radiant heat from the lower atmosphere (about 400 degrees Fahrenheit) shining through the sulfuric acid clouds, which appear as much as 10 times darker than the bright gaps between clouds. This cloud layer is at about -30 degrees Fahrenheit, at a pressure about 1/2 Earth's surface atmospheric pressure. Near the equator, the clouds appear fluffy and blocky; farther north, they are stretched out into East-West filaments by winds estimated at more than 150 mph, while the poles are capped by thick clouds at this altitude.

  20. Optimized absorption imaging of mesoscopic atomic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muessel, Wolfgang; Strobel, Helmut; Joos, Maxime; Nicklas, Eike; Stroescu, Ion; Tomkovi?, Ji?í; Hume, David B.; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the optimization of high-intensity absorption imaging for small Bose-Einstein condensates. The imaging calibration exploits the linear scaling of the quantum projection noise with the mean number of atoms for a coherent spin state. After optimization for atomic clouds containing up to 300 atoms, we find an atom number resolution of atoms, mainly limited by photon shot noise and radiation pressure.

  1. A Light-Weight Solution to Preservation of Access Pattern Privacy in Un-trusted Clouds

    E-print Network

    Qiao, Daji

    A Light-Weight Solution to Preservation of Access Pattern Privacy in Un-trusted Clouds Ka Yang sensitive user data are stored in the cloud. The privacy of users' access pattern to the data should such as focused attacks against selected data items. Cloud server may also infer a cloud user's activity pattern

  2. CloudSat Image of Tropical Thunderstorms Over Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    CloudSat image of a horizontal cross-section of tropical clouds and thunderstorms over east Africa. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water (rain) or ice crystals, which the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudS at Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The brown line below the image indicates the relative elevation of the land surface. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) visible image taken at nearly the same time.

  3. An efficient framework for modeling clouds from Landsat8 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chunqiang; Guo, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Cloud plays an important role in creating realistic outdoor scenes for video game and flight simulation applications. Classic methods have been proposed for cumulus cloud modeling. However, these methods are not flexible for modeling large cloud scenes with hundreds of clouds in that the user must repeatedly model each cloud and adjust its various properties. This paper presents a meteorologically based method to reconstruct cumulus clouds from high resolution Landsat8 satellite images. From these input satellite images, the clouds are first segmented from the background. Then, the cloud top surface is estimated from the temperature of the infrared image. After that, under a mild assumption of flat base for cumulus cloud, the base height of each cloud is computed by averaging the top height for pixels on the cloud edge. Then, the extinction is generated from the visible image. Finally, we enrich the initial shapes of clouds using a fractal method and represent the recovered clouds as a particle system. The experimental results demonstrate our method can yield realistic cloud scenes resembling those in the satellite images.

  4. Recognition methods on cloud amount, movement of clouds, and rain clouds for rainfall prediction using whole sky images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinuma, Kazuma; Arai, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    The final target of our research is to develop a system for forecasting local concentrated heavy rain, such as guerrilla rainstorms, by using whole sky images taken on the ground. To construct this system, this paper proposes the following recognition methods: cloud amount, movement of clouds, and rain clouds. The experimental results show that red/blue (R/B) values are efficient for measuring the cloud amount. However, using the gravity of images and the difference among time-sequenced images is insufficient to recognize the movement of clouds and does not correlate well with the R/B values and rain.

  5. A cloud-based medical image repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Anthony J.; Planitz, Birgit M.; El Rifai, Diaa

    2012-02-01

    Many widely used digital medical image collections have been established but these are generally used as raw data sources without related image analysis toolsets. Providing associated functionality to allow specific types of operations to be performed on these images has proved beneficial in some cases (e.g. brain image registration and atlases). However, toolset development to provide generic image analysis functions on medical images has tended to be ad hoc, with Open Source options proliferating (e.g. ITK). Our Automated Medical Image Collection Annotation (AMICA) system is both an image repository, to which the research community can contribute image datasets, and a search/retrieval system that uses automated image annotation. AMICA was designed for the Windows Azure platform to leverage the flexibility and scalability of the cloud. It is intended that AMICA will expand beyond its initial pilot implementation (for brain CT, MR images) to accommodate a wide range of modalities and anatomical regions. This initiative aims to contribute to advances in clinical research by permitting a broader use and reuse of medical image data than is currently attainable. For example, cohort studies for cases with particular physiological or phenotypical profiles will be able to source and include enough cases to provide high statistical power, allowing more individualised risk factors to be assessed and thus allowing screening and staging processes to be optimised. Also, education, training and credentialing of clinicians in image interpretation, will be more effective because it will be possible to select instances of images with specific visual aspects, or correspond to types of cases where reading performance improvement is desirable.

  6. MISR Stereo Imaging Distinguishes Smoke from Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These views of western Alaska were acquired by MISR on June 25, 2000 during Terra orbit 2775. The images cover an area of about 150 kilometers x 225 kilometers, and have been oriented with north to the left. The left image is from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, whereas the right image is a stereo 'anaglyph' that combines data from the forward-viewing 45-degree and 60-degree cameras. This image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red/blue glasses with the red filter over the left eye. It may help to darken the room lights when viewing the image on a computer screen.

    The Yukon River is seen wending its way from upper left to lower right. A forest fire in the Kaiyuh Mountains produced the long smoke plume that originates below and to the right of image center. In the nadir view, the high cirrus clouds at the top of the image and the smoke plume are similar in appearance, and the lack of vertical information makes them hard to differentiate. Viewing the righthand image with stereo glasses, on the other hand, demonstrates that the scene consists of several vertically-stratified layers, including the surface terrain, the smoke, some scattered cumulus clouds, and streaks of high, thin cirrus. This added dimensionality is one of the ways MISR data helps scientists identify and classify various components of terrestrial scenes.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Patterns of Diurnal Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Fraction Variability* CASEY D. BURLEYSON

    E-print Network

    Yuter, Sandra

    Patterns of Diurnal Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Fraction Variability* CASEY D. BURLEYSON North July 2014, in final form 15 January 2015) ABSTRACT The spatial patterns of subtropical marine stratocumulus cloud fraction variability on diurnal time scales are examined using high

  8. Global patterns of solar influence on high cloud cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Mihai; Voiculescu, Mirela

    2015-10-01

    One of the main sources of uncertainty in climate projections is represented by clouds, which have a profound influence on the Earth's radiation budget through the feedbacks in which they are involved. The improvement of clouds representation in General Circulation Models relies largely on constraints derived from observations and on correct identification of processes that influence cloud formation or lifetime. Here we identify solar forced high cloud cover (HCC) patterns in reanalysis and observed data extending over the 1871-2009 period, based on their associations with known fingerprints of the same forcing on surface air temperature, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure fields. The solar influence on HCC has maximum amplitudes over the Pacific basin, where HCC anomalies are distributed in bands of alternating polarities. The colocation of the HCC and SST anomalies bands indicates a thermal influence on high clouds through convection and an amplification of the HCC anomalies by a positive feedback of long-wave fluxes, which increases the solar signal. Consistent with numerical simulations, the solar forced HCC pattern appears to be generated through a constructive interference between the so-called "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms of solar influence on climate and is amplified by ocean-atmosphere positive feedbacks.

  9. Cloud Imagers Offer New Details on Earth's Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A stunning red sunset or purple sunrise is an aesthetic treat with a scientific explanation: The colors are a direct result of the absorption or reflectance of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols, minute particles (either solid or liquid) in the Earth s atmosphere that occur both naturally and because of human activity. At the beginning or end of the day, the Sun s rays travel farther through the atmosphere to reach an observer s eyes and more green and yellow light is scattered, making the Sun appear red. Sunset and sunrise are especially colorful when the concentration of atmospheric particles is high. This ability of aerosols to absorb and reflect sunlight is not just pretty; it also determines the amount of radiation and heat that reaches the Earth s surface, and can profoundly affect climate. In the atmosphere, aerosols are also important as nuclei for the condensation of water droplets and ice crystals. Clouds with fewer aerosols cannot form as many water droplets (called cloud particles), and consequently, do not scatter light well. In this case, more sunlight reaches the Earth s surface. When aerosol levels in clouds are high, however, more nucleation points can form small liquid water droplets. These smaller cloud particles can reflect up to 90 percent of visible radiation to space, keeping the heat from ever reaching Earth s surface. The tendency for these particles to absorb or reflect the Sun s energy - called extinction by astronomers - depends on a number of factors, including chemical composition and the humidity and temperature in the surrounding air; because cloud particles are so small, they are affected quickly by minute changes in the atmosphere. Because of this sensitivity, atmospheric scientists study cloud particles to anticipate patterns and shifts in climate. Until recently, NASA s study of atmospheric aerosols and cloud particles has been focused primarily on satellite images, which, while granting large-scale atmospheric analysis, limited scientists ability to acquire detailed information about individual particles. Now, experiments with specialized equipment can be flown on standard jets, making it possible for researchers to monitor and more accurately anticipate changes in Earth s atmosphere and weather patterns.

  10. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework. PMID:24110214

  11. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  12. Skeleton/Pattern Programming with an Adder Operator for Grid and Cloud Platforms

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Barry

    Skeleton/Pattern Programming with an Adder Operator for Grid and Cloud Platforms J. Villalobos, B of possi- ble patterns and skeletons. The abstraction helps manage non-functional concerns on the Grid/Cloud developed. Keywords: Skeletons, patterns, grid, cloud, operators 1. Introduction The advent of Grid

  13. A new thin cloud removal algorithm in single airborne image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Fang, Junyong; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Dong; Xiao, Qing

    2014-11-01

    The application of high-resolution airborne images becomes more and more extensive. However because of the complexity of atmospheric environment, airborne remote sensing imaging process is easily affected by cloud and mist, which results in airborne image blurred or loss of information. So it is a necessary task to remove effects of cloud to get clearer images before the next application such as image registration. This paper proposes a new method of removing thin cloud cover from single airborne image. This method applies scale space transform to get scale space sequence images. Then we use difference between different levels to extract cloud area. Next, we use gray classification which represents cloud effect degree in the highest level of cloud area. Finally, we use the original image filtered by Laplacian to subtract the last step result. Compared with other thin cloud cover removal methods which include the homomorphic filtering method, wavelet transform method and mathematical morphology by visual evaluation and statistical analysis, the method proposed by this paper proves to be the most efficient way in the processing of thin cloud cover of airborne image.

  14. The characterization of particle clouds using optical imaging techniques

    E-print Network

    Bruce, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Jane), 1972-

    1998-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques can be used to provide a better understanding of the physical properties of particle clouds. The purpose of this thesis is to design, perform and evaluate a set of experiments using optical imaging ...

  15. Cloud level winds from the Venus Express Monitoring Camera imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, I. V.; Patsaeva, M. V.; Titov, D. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Turin, A. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Almeida, M.; Roatsch, Th.; Moissl, R.

    2013-09-01

    Six years of continuous monitoring of Venus by European Space Agency’s Venus Express orbiter provides an opportunity to study dynamics of the atmosphere our neighbor planet. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on-board the orbiter has acquired the longest and the most complete so far set of ultra violet images of Venus. These images enable a study the cloud level circulation by tracking motion of the cloud features. The highly elliptical polar orbit of Venus Express provides optimal conditions for observations of the Southern hemisphere at varying spatial resolution. Out of the 2300 orbits of Venus Express over which the images used in the study cover about 10 Venus years. Out of these, we tracked cloud features in images obtained in 127 orbits by a manual cloud tracking technique and by a digital correlation method in 576 orbits. Total number of wind vectors derived in this work is 45,600 for the manual tracking and 391,600 for the digital method. This allowed us to determine the mean circulation, its long-term and diurnal trends, orbit-to-orbit variations and periodicities. We also present the first results of tracking features in the VMC near-IR images. In low latitudes the mean zonal wind at cloud tops (67 ± 2 km following: Rossow, W.B., Del Genio, A.T., Eichler, T. [1990]. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2053-2084) is about 90 m/s with a maximum of about 100 m/s at 40-50°S. Poleward of 50°S the average zonal wind speed decreases with latitude. The corresponding atmospheric rotation period at cloud tops has a maximum of about 5 days at equator, decreases to approximately 3 days in middle latitudes and stays almost constant poleward from 50°S. The mean poleward meridional wind slowly increases from zero value at the equator to about 10 m/s at 50°S and then decreases to zero at the pole. The error of an individual measurement is 7.5-30 m/s. Wind speeds of 70-80 m/s were derived from near-IR images at low latitudes. The VMC observations indicate a long term trend for the zonal wind speed at low latitudes to increase from 85 m/s in the beginning of the mission to 110 m/s by the middle of 2012. VMC UV observations also showed significant short term variations of the mean flow. The velocity difference between consecutive orbits in the region of mid-latitude jet could reach 30 m/s that likely indicates vacillation of the mean flow between jet-like regime and quasi-solid body rotation at mid-latitudes. Fourier analysis revealed periodicities in the zonal circulation at low latitudes. Within the equatorial region, up to 35°S, the zonal wind show an oscillation with a period of 4.1-5 days (4.83 days on average) that is close to the super-rotation period at the equator. The wave amplitude is 4-17 m/s and decreases with latitude, a feature of the Kelvin wave. The VMC observations showed a clear diurnal signature. A minimum in the zonal speed was found close to the noon (11-14 h) and maxima in the morning (8-9 h) and in the evening (16-17 h). The meridional component peaks in the early afternoon (13-15 h) at around 50°S latitude. The minimum of the meridional component is located at low latitudes in the morning (8-11 h). The horizontal divergence of the mean cloud motions associated with the diurnal pattern suggests upwelling motions in the morning at low latitudes and downwelling flow in the afternoon in the cold collar region.

  16. Horizontal winds derived from the polar mesospheric cloud images as observed by the CIPS instrument on the AIM satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, P. P.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M.; Lumpe, J. D.; Gong, J.; Wu, D. L.; Randall, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    A cloud pattern matching technique is applied to polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) images taken by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument (CIPS) to infer the wind velocities in the mesopause region. CIPS measurements are analyzed to detect patterns that repeat from one orbit to the next but are displaced in location; the displacement provides a measure of the wind velocity. Pattern matching is achieved by resampling the CIPS data to longitude and latitude grids with the grid-box size forced at ~5 km in both directions. The correlated patterns are searched within a geographic region referred to as a "frame" of ~500 km in longitude × 400 km in latitude. The histograms of the derived velocities indicate that easterly winds prevail, with a mean zonal wind of -20 to -15 m/s. Mean meridional winds are overall small, but in late summer the histogram indicated a poleward wind of ~20-30 m/s. The variability of CIPS cloud albedo on consecutive orbits is also examined at fixed geolocations. The statistical results suggest that ~86% of pairs underwent mean cloud albedo variation of < 50% on consecutive orbits, suggesting a moderate change. It is also found that the correlation of the cloud structures between two consecutive orbits at a fixed location is generally poor. These findings suggest that cloud patterns are subject to wind advection, but the cloud patches are more extended in size than the movement that occurs. Cloud voids are found to be more likely to remain at the same geolocations.

  17. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds. PMID:19498585

  18. Impact of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask interpretation on cloud amount estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotarba, Andrzej Z.

    2015-09-01

    Cloud masks serve as a basis for estimates of cloud amount, which is an essential parameter for studying the Earth's radiation budget. The most commonly used cloud mask is a simple thematic classification, which includes qualitative information on the presence of clouds in the satellite's instantaneous field of view (IFOV). Cloud mask classes have to be "translated" into a quantitative measure, in order to be used for cloud amount calculations. The assignment of cloud fractions to cloud mask classes is a subjective process and increases uncertainty in cloud amount estimates. We evaluated this degree of uncertainty using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask product. Together with the operational MODIS cloud mask interpretation, we investigated two extreme alternatives: "rigorous" (only "confident cloudy" IFOVs were 100% cloudy) and "tolerant" (only "confident clear" IFOVs were 0% cloudy). Results showed that the range of uncertainty was 14.3% in Europe and controlled by the frequency of small convective clouds. Comparison with surface-based observations suggests that the rigorous interpretation of the cloud mask is more accurate than that used operationally for MODIS level 3 product generation. The rigorous approach resulted in the smallest bias (-0.7%), the smallest root-mean-square error (4.6%), the small standard deviation (6%), and the strongest correlation (0.935). These results suggest that for climatological applications the rigorous scenario should be considered as a more accurate "best guess" over land.

  19. Cloud Detection Method Based on Feature Extraction in Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changhui, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Minjing, M.; Menglu, Z.

    2013-05-01

    In remote sensing images, the existence of the clouds has a great impact on the image quality and subsequent image processing, as the images covered with clouds contain little useful information. Therefore, the detection and recognition of clouds is one of the major problems in the application of remote sensing images. Present there are two categories of method to cloud detection. One is setting spectrum thresholds based on the characteristics of the clouds to distinguish them. However, the instability and uncertainty of the practical clouds makes this kind of method complexity and weak adaptability. The other method adopts the features in the images to identify the clouds. Since there will be significant overlaps in some features of the clouds and grounds, the detection result is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the features. This paper presented a cloud detection method based on feature extraction for remote sensing images. At first, find out effective features through training pattern, the features are selected from gray, frequency and texture domains. The different features in the three domains of the training samples are calculated. Through the result of statistical analysis of all the features, the useful features are picked up to form a feature set. In concrete, the set includes three feature vectors, respectively, the gray feature vector constituted of average gray, variance, first-order difference, entropy and histogram, the frequency feature vector constituted of DCT high frequency coefficient and wavelet high frequency coefficient, and the texture feature vector constituted of the hybrid entropy and difference of the gray-gradient co-occurrence matrix and the image fractal dimension. Secondly, a thumbnail will be obtained by down sampling the original image and its features of gray, frequency and texture are computed. Last but not least, the cloud region will be judged by the comparison between the actual feature values and the thresholds determined by the sample training process. Experimental results show that the clouds and ground objects can be separated efficiently, and our method can implement rapid clouds detection and cloudiness calculation.

  20. A Time-series Pattern based Noise Generation Strategy for Privacy Protection in Cloud Computing

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yun

    A Time-series Pattern based Noise Generation Strategy for Privacy Protection in Cloud Computing-series pattern I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing is positioning itself as a new and promising platform of Technology, Sydney Broadway, NSW, Australia 2007 Jinjun.Chen@uts.edu.au Abstract--Cloud computing promises

  1. Time-Series Pattern Based Effective Noise Generation for Privacy Protection on Cloud

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yun

    Time-Series Pattern Based Effective Noise Generation for Privacy Protection on Cloud Gaofeng Zhang obfuscation, noise generation, time-series pattern, cluster Ç 1 INTRODUCTION CLOUD computing is positioning, Xiao Liu, and Yun Yang Abstract--Cloud computing is proposed as an open and promising computing

  2. Data and image fusion for geometrical cloud characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, L.R.; Buch, K.A.; Sun, Chen-Hui; Diegert, C.

    1997-04-01

    Clouds have a strong influence on the Earth`s climate and therefore on climate change. An important step in improving the accuracy of models that predict global climate change, general circulation models, is improving the parameterization of clouds and cloud-radiation interactions. Improvements in the next generation models will likely include the effect of cloud geometry on the cloud-radiation parameterizations. We have developed and report here methods for characterizing the geometrical features and three-dimensional properties of clouds that could be of significant value in developing these new parameterizations. We developed and report here a means of generating and imaging synthetic clouds which we used to test our characterization algorithms; a method for using Taylor`s hypotheses to infer spatial averages from temporal averages of cloud properties; a computer method for automatically classifying cloud types in an image; and a method for producing numerical three-dimensional renderings of cloud fields based on the fusion of ground-based and satellite images together with meteorological data.

  3. Cloud morphology and motions from Pioneer Venus images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W. B.; Del Genio, A. D.; Limaye, S. S.; Travis, L. D.; Stone, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical cloud structures, atmospheric waves, and wind velocities at the cloud top level were determined by the Pioneer Venus photopolarimeter images in the UV from January through March 1979. The images indicate long-term evolution of cloud characteristics, the atmospheric dynamics, and rapid small changes in cloud morphology. The clouds show a globally coordinated oscillation relative to latitude circles; retrograde zonal winds of 100 m/s near the equator are determined from the tracking of small-scale cloud properties, but two hemispheres show important variations. The zonal wind velocity in the southern hemisphere is reduced toward the poles at a rate similar to solid body rotation; the midlatitude jet stream noted by Mariner 10 is not observed.

  4. Cloud Cover Measurement from All-Sky Nighttime Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jia; Yao, Yongqiang; Liu, Liyong; Qian, Xuan; Wang, Hongshuai

    2015-04-01

    The site quality of astronomical observatory critically depends on cloud coverage, and the measurement of cloudiness is particularly important for site survey. A method to deal with all-sky images in no-moon nights is described. By identifying the positions of bright reference stars and making photometry for a set of all-sky images in clear nights, we can set up a reference image with median smoothing differential magnitude values. The standard image can be taken as the threshold for clear nights, and the detectivity of stars on other images can be utilize to reveal cloud coverage. Four types of all-sky images, clear night, icy lens, part of cloud, and full of cloud, are selected to check up the method. For the moonlight image, the formula of the CIE (Commission International de l'Eclairage ) standard general sky model are used to fit the luminance distribution of the image, then to estimate the cloud cover of the image from the difference between the fitting image and the real image.

  5. Morphology of the Venus clouds from the imaging by Venus Monitoring Camera onboard Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D. V.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Moissl, R.; Ignatiev, N.; Limaye, S.; Khatuntsev, I.; Roatsch, Th.; Almeida, M.

    2008-09-01

    For more than 2 years Venus Monitoring Camera onboard ESA's Venus Express collects images of Venus from global views with resolution of ~50 km to close-up snapshots resolving features of about few hundreds meters. The UV filter is centered at a characteristic wavelength of the unknown UV absorber (365 nm) and allows one to study morphology of the cloud tops that bears the information about dynamical process and distribution of the UV absorber. Low latitudes (< 40 deg) are dominated by relatively dark clouds that have mottled and fragmented appearance clearly indicating convective activity in the sub-solar region. At ~50 degrees latitude this pattern gives way to streaky clouds suggesting that horizontal flow prevails here. Poleward from ~60 degrees the planet is covered by almost featureless bright polar hood sometimes crossed by dark thin (~300 km) spiral or circular structures. This global cloud pattern changes on time scales of few days resulting in so called "brightening events" when the bright haze can extend far into low latitudes. Cloud pattern shows remarkable diurnal variability. Afternoon sector of the planet has strongly developed traces of turbulence in contrast to the atmosphere in the morning. Also the bright hood extends further to low latitudes in the morning than in the evening. We will present latitudinal, diurnal, and temporal variations based on two years of VMC observations. Imaging of streaky clouds in the middle and high latitudes provides a tool to study the wind pattern. We will also present preliminary results on the cloud streaks orientation derived from the VMC images.

  6. Mesopause Horizontal wind estimates based on AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud pattern matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, P.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M.; Gong, J.; Wu, D. L.; Randall, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    A cloud pattern matching approach is used to estimate horizontal winds in the mesopause region using Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) albedo data measured by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the AIM satellite. Measurements for all 15 orbits per day throughout July 2007 are used to achieve statistical significance. For each orbit, eighteen out of the twenty-seven scenes are used for the pattern matching operation. Some scenes at the lower latitudes are not included because there is barely any cloud coverage for these scenes. The frame-size chosen is about 12 degrees in longitude and 3 degrees in latitude. There is no strict criterion in choosing the frame size since PMCs are widespread in the polar region and most local patterns do not have a clearly defined boundary. The frame moves at a step of 1/6th of the frame size in both the longitudinal and latitudinal directions to achieve as many 'snap-shots' as possible. A 70% correlation is used as a criterion to define an acceptable match between two patterns at two time frames; in this case the time difference is about 3.6 minutes that spans every 5 'bowtie' scenes. A 70% criterion appears weak if the chosen pattern is expected to act like a tracer. It is known that PMC brightness varies rapidly with a changing temperature and water vapor environment or changing nucleation conditions, especially on smaller spatial scales; therefore PMC patterns are not ideal tracers. Nevertheless, within a short time span such as 3.6 minutes a 70% correlation is sufficient to identify two cloud patterns that come from the same source region, although the two patterns may exhibit a significant difference in the actual brightness. Analysis of a large number of matched cloud patterns indicates that over the 3.6-minute time span about 70% of the patterns remain in the same locations. Given the 25-km2 horizontal resolution of CIPS data, this suggests that the overall magnitude of horizontal wind at PMC altitudes (~80-87 km) in the polar summer cannot exceed 25 m/s. In other words, the wind detection resolution is no better than 25 m/s. There are about 10% of cases in which it appears that an easterly prevails, with a peak value at about 80-100m/s. In another 5% of cases a westerly appears to prevail. The remaining 15% cases are related to either invalid cloud features with poor background correction or the situation in which the matching occurs at the corners of the bowties. The AIM CIPS cloud pattern matching results overall suggest that higher wind speed (25-200 m/s) can be reached occasionally, while in a majority of cases the wind advection caused albedo change is much smaller than the in-situ albedo change. However, we must note that this analysis was a feasibility study and the short period analyzed may not be representative of the winds over a seasonal time scale or the multiple-year average.

  7. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. II. Wave-front segmentation and imaging.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Barbara T; Matson, Charles L

    2002-12-20

    A hybrid technique to simulate the imaging of space-based objects through cirrus clouds is presented. The method makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation beyond the cloud boundary and a novel vector trace approach within the cloud. At the top of the cloud, the wave front is divided into an array of input gradient vectors, which are in turn transmitted through the cloud model by use of the Coherent Illumination Ray Trace and Imaging Software for Cirrus. At the bottom of the cloud, the output vector distribution is used to reconstruct a wave front that continues propagating to the ground receiver. Images of the object as seen through cirrus clouds with different optical depths are compared with a diffraction-limited image. Turbulence effects from the atmospheric propagation are not included. PMID:12510928

  8. Algorithms for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud-free image compositing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Hai-bing; Liu, Jin-song; Cao, Chun-xiang; Xu, Min

    2013-01-01

    The presence of clouds is the biggest obstacle in the investigation of land cover, and many techniques have been developed to detect clouds. However, few indicators have been proposed for the detection of cloud-free conditions. To address this, we propose two indicators for use in compositing 8-day cloud-free images: the B ratio is the ratio of the band 1 reflectance to the band 7 reflectance of Terra surface reflectance images (MOD09GA), and saturation refers to the color saturation of these images. Here, we describe the principles underlying these two indicators and analyze their characteristics for vegetation, water, urban, and nonvegetation pixels under cloud-free, cloud shadow, and cloudy conditions using MOD09GA from October 16 to 23, 2007, in North China (sample A) and using data published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We found that the B ratio and saturation are suitable for extracting cloud-free pixels over land and water, respectively; therefore, we combined these two indicators to develop a single-unified model. In particular, our results demonstrate that the pixels exhibiting the lowest B ratios should be adopted as cloud-free pixels over land when the value of B for land surfaces is between 0 and 1, and the surface reflectance of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer band 1 is less than 0.3. Otherwise, the pixels exhibiting the greatest saturation values should be adopted. We used our model to composite cloud-free images for two additional regions in China: the Tarim basin (sample B) from October 2 to 9, 2012, and the coastal areas of southeastern China (sample C) from April 15 to 23, 2013. We compared the cloud-free images of these regions with the 8-day surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) with respect to clouds, cloud shadow, and cirrus clouds, and we found that our proposed cloud-free image compositing approach can accurately eliminate both clouds and cirrus clouds. Specifically, the percentage of residual cloud pixels in sample C was found to be less than that in MOD09A1. Moreover, in the cloud-free images obtained using our newly developed method, cloud-free pixels are typically associated with greater sensor zenith angles and smaller scatter angles than those in MOD09A1. However, our method retains some limitations. In particular, 9.68, 33.22, and 33.00% of cloud-shadow pixels remain in the cloud-free images for samples A, B, and C, respectively.

  9. Multidimensional Cloud Images Retrieval From Dual-Frequency Millimeter-Wave Radar

    E-print Network

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    use radar scans of cloud reflectivity at 33 GHz and 95 GHz to produce multi-dimensional cloud images such as the General Circulation Models (GCMs)[9]. The cloud reflectivity was measured with the Cloud Profiling RadarMultidimensional Cloud Images Retrieval From Dual- Frequency Millimeter-Wave Radar Sandra L. Cruz

  10. Automatic cloud coverage assessment of Formosat-2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsien

    2011-11-01

    Formosat-2 satellite equips with the high-spatial-resolution (2m ground sampling distance) remote sensing instrument. It has been being operated on the daily-revisiting mission orbit by National Space organization (NSPO) of Taiwan since May 21 2004. NSPO has also serving as one of the ground receiving stations for daily processing the received Formosat- 2 images. The current cloud coverage assessment of Formosat-2 image for NSPO Image Processing System generally consists of two major steps. Firstly, an un-supervised K-means method is used for automatically estimating the cloud statistic of Formosat-2 image. Secondly, manual estimation of cloud coverage from Formosat-2 image is processed by manual examination. Apparently, a more accurate Automatic Cloud Coverage Assessment (ACCA) method certainly increases the efficiency of processing step 2 with a good prediction of cloud statistic. In this paper, mainly based on the research results from Chang et al, Irish, and Gotoh, we propose a modified Formosat-2 ACCA method which considered pre-processing and post-processing analysis. For pre-processing analysis, cloud statistic is determined by using un-supervised K-means classification, Sobel's method, Otsu's method, non-cloudy pixels reexamination, and cross-band filter method. Box-Counting fractal method is considered as a post-processing tool to double check the results of pre-processing analysis for increasing the efficiency of manual examination.

  11. BUILD UP OF ELECTRON CLOUD WITH DIFFERENT BUNCH PATTERN IN THE PRESENCE OF SOLENOID FIELD

    E-print Network

    Furman, Miguel

    BUILD UP OF ELECTRON CLOUD WITH DIFFERENT BUNCH PATTERN IN THE PRESENCE OF SOLENOID FIELD Yunhai of electron cloud due to electron multipacting in the PEP-II positron ring. We find that the distribution the wall of the vac- uum chamber and therefore reduces the cloud density near the positron beam. All

  12. A holistic image segmentation framework for cloud detection and extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dan; Xu, Haotian; Blasch, Erik; Horvath, Gregory; Pham, Khanh; Zheng, Yufeng; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric clouds are commonly encountered phenomena affecting visual tracking from air-borne or space-borne sensors. Generally clouds are difficult to detect and extract because they are complex in shape and interact with sunlight in a complex fashion. In this paper, we propose a clustering game theoretic image segmentation based approach to identify, extract, and patch clouds. In our framework, the first step is to decompose a given image containing clouds. The problem of image segmentation is considered as a "clustering game". Within this context, the notion of a cluster is equivalent to a classical equilibrium concept from game theory, as the game equilibrium reflects both the internal and external (e.g., two-player) cluster conditions. To obtain the evolutionary stable strategies, we explore three evolutionary dynamics: fictitious play, replicator dynamics, and infection and immunization dynamics (InImDyn). Secondly, we use the boundary and shape features to refine the cloud segments. This step can lower the false alarm rate. In the third step, we remove the detected clouds and patch the empty spots by performing background recovery. We demonstrate our cloud detection framework on a video clip provides supportive results.

  13. An enhanced neighborhood similar pixel interpolator approach for removing thick clouds in landsat images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thick cloud contaminations in Landsat images limit their regular usage for land applications. A few methods have been developed to remove thick clouds using additional cloud-free images. Unfortunately, the cloud-free composition image produced by existing methods commonly lacks from the desired spat...

  14. The Mars Imager for Cloud and Aerosol (MICA) instrument concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, V.; Drummond, J.; Hackett, J.; Besla, G.

    2004-05-01

    Cloud and dust play an important role in the Mars polar atmosphere. Of particular interest is the evolution of cap-edge dust storms observed during the Mars Global Surveyor mission, and the development of the polar hood and aphelion cloud band. This poster describes the Mars Imager for Cloud and Aerosol (MICA), a four-band visible camera designed to characterize Mars cloud and dust by imaging the limb at sunrise and sunset. MICA will be capable of producing profiles of Mars aerosol optical properties from 0-75km altitude with a vertical resolution better than 600m. The MICA design uses multiple bands and a new occulting disk technique to provide enhanced dust characterization capabilities. The full dynamic range of the camera is optimized for atmospheric scattered light. A pinhole in the occulting disk attenuates direct sunlight, reducing its intensity to levels produced by the atmospheric scattering. The resulting composite image contains both a detailed image of the sun and a sensitive wide-angle image of the distribution of thin cloud and aerosol layers. Absolute calibration is possible through viewing the sun at high angles above the atmosphere. The calibrated solar image produces particle extinction measurements directly, while the wide-angle part of the image can be used to fit the scattering phase function in the case of horizontally homoge-neous layers. These measurements will provide new constraints on Mars aerosol particle size distribution and optical properties. The addition of a flip mirror gives MICA the capability also to observe the surface. MICA was conceived as part of the MARVEL Scout proposal. It is intended that it will follow on from Mars Express and MRO cloud and aerosol vertical profile mapping, providing new information, higher vertical resolution and adding to the Mars cloud and dust climatology.

  15. Jupiter's Cloud Distribution Between the Voyager 1 and 2 Encounters: Results from 5-Micrometer Imaging.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P

    1979-11-23

    As part of a continuing effort of ground-based support for Voyager target selection, infrared images in the 5-micrometer wavelength region were acquired in preparation for the Voyager 2 flyby of Jupiter. Observations were made during May 1979 from the Palomar 5-meter telescope and the new 3-meter NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea and are compared to previous observations. Variations seen in the 5-micrometer flux distribution suggest global patterns of clouding over of some Jovian belts and clearing ofothers. These data were used to predict the Jovian cloud distribution at the time of the Voyager 2 encounter in order to target the imaging and infrared experiments to areas free of high obscuring clouds. PMID:17733922

  16. Climatic shift in patterns of shallow clouds over the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, F. J. F.; Bras, R. L.; Wang, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Amazon rain forest has experienced dramatic changes in the past 50 years due to active deforestation. As of 2001, 15% of the 4,000,000 km2 Brazilian Amazon has been deforested [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), 2003]; each year, agricultural exploitation claims an estimated 13,000 km2 of tropical forest [Achard et al., 2002]. In this paper we investigate the climatic effects caused by the observed change of the physical characteristics of the land surface (i.e., increased surface albedo, decreased root-zone depth, decreased surface roughness and decreased leaf-area index). More precisely, we examine the spatial correspondence of shallow cumulus clouds with deforestation. Through the creation of an 8-year record of thrice daily shallow cumulus cloud cover at 1 km resolution from multi-spectral satellite imagery, we quantitatively show the existence of a significant climatic shift in shallow cloudiness patterns associated with deforestation. This shift manifests itself as an enhancement of shallow cumuli over deforested patches, and has potentially important climatic, hydrologic and ecological implications.

  17. Global patterns of cloud optical thickness variation with temperature and the implications for climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Tselioudis, G.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis presents a correlative analysis of cloud optical thickness and cloud temperature in large space and time scales. The analysis is designed to document and explain the patterns of cloud optical thickness variation with temperature, and to produce an understanding of cloud optical property feedbacks on climate change. The results of the global correlations between cloud optical thickness and temperature are presented. The analysis focuses on low clouds to limit variations in cloud vertical extent, particle size and water phase. Coherent patterns of change are observed on several time and space scales. On the planetary and the seasonal scales, clouds in the colder latitudes and seasons are optically thicker than clouds in the warmer latitudes and seasons. The seasonal, latitudinal, and day-to-day variations of this relation show that in cold continental clouds optical thickness increases with temperature consistent with the temperature variation of the adiabatic cloud water content, but in warm continental and in most maritime clouds optical thickness decreases with temperature. Case studies are presented to identify the cloud parameters responsible for the optical thickness changes and to resolve the atmospheric processes that produce those changes. The temperature variation of low cloud optical thickness primarily reflect changes in the liquid water content of the clouds, and changes in cloud particle size and vertical extent play a secondary role. It is proposed that an increase in the efficiency of formation of warm rain at higher temperatures relative to condensation, raises the probability of occurrence of optically thin clouds at warmer temperatures and produces the observed negative optical thickness slopes. A two dimensional radiative convective model is used to estimate the magnitude and sign of the feedback that the observed cloud optical thickness changes would produce in a climate warming scenario.

  18. Multiscale image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Castleman, Kenneth R.

    1996-10-01

    Visual examination of chromosome banding patterns is an important means of chromosome analysis. Cytogeneticists compare their patient's chromosome image against the prototype normal/abnormal human chromosome banding patterns. Automated chromosome analysis instruments facilitate this by digitally enhancing the chromosome images. Currently available systems employing traditional highpass/bandpass filtering and/or histogram equalization are approximately equivalent to photomicroscopy in their ability to support the detection of band pattern alterations. Improvements in chromosome image display quality, particularly in the detail of the banding pattern, would significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of these systems. In this paper we present our work on the use of multiscale transform and derivative filtering for image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns. A steerable pyramid representation of the chromosome image is generated by a multiscale transform. The derivative filters are designed to detect the bands of a chromosome, and the steerable pyramid transform is chosen based on its desirable properties of shift and rotation invariance. By processing the transform coefficients that correspond to the bands of the chromosome in the pyramid representation, contrast enhancement of the chromosome bands can be achieved with designed flexibility in scale, orientation and location. Compared with existing chromosome image enhancement techniques, this new approach offers the advantage of selective chromosome banding pattern enhancement that allows designated detail analysis. Experimental results indicate improved enhancement capabilities and promise more effective visual aid to comparison of chromosomes to the prototypes and to each other. This will increase the ability of automated chromosome analysis instruments to assist the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities in clinical samples.

  19. Speckle Patterns in Coherence Domain Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ping

    2006-03-01

    We have shown previously that coherence domain biomedical imaging can be used for optically sectioning small tumors such as rat osteogenic sarcoma (bone tumors). Speckle patterns of such small tumors provided quantitative measures of the health, necrotic, and poisoned tissues. However, the origins of these speckle patterns are not clear. Although the nuclei, mitochondria and other organelles inside cells are responsible for the speckle under the illumination of low coherence light source, these patterns at the imaging plane are related to the photon pathways both inside and outside the tissue. We report systematic experiments and simulation of the speckle patterns from coherence domain imaging of small tumors. The image frames are acquired at different depths inside the tumor tissue and analyzed by using a turbid medium model. The results reveal that the speckle patterns are dominated by the scattering properties of the tissue, which is characterized by the mean free path of the photons, and the collection geometry of the backscattered light photons. This work was supported by a University of Missouri Research Board grant URB-04-072 and NIH grant P50-CA-103130.

  20. Secure public cloud platform for medical images sharing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Bouslimi, Dalel; Prigent, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing promises medical imaging services offering large storage and computing capabilities for limited costs. In this data outsourcing framework, one of the greatest issues to deal with is data security. To do so, we propose to secure a public cloud platform devoted to medical image sharing by defining and deploying a security policy so as to control various security mechanisms. This policy stands on a risk assessment we conducted so as to identify security objectives with a special interest for digital content protection. These objectives are addressed by means of different security mechanisms like access and usage control policy, partial-encryption and watermarking. PMID:25991144

  1. Images from Galileo of the Venus cloud deck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Gierasch, P.J.; Smith, M.D.; Helfenstein, P.; Schinder, P.J.; Pollack, James B.; Rages, K.A.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Klaasen, K.P.; Veverka, J.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W., III; Morrison, D.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    Images of Venus taken at 418 (violet) and 986 [near-infrared (NIR)] nanometers show that the morphology and motions of large-scale features change with depth in the cloud deck. Poleward meridional velocities, seen in both spectral regions, are much reduced in the NIR. In the south polar region the markings in the two wavelength bands are strongly anticorrelated. The images follow the changing state of the upper cloud layer downwind of the subsolar point, and the zonal flow field shows a longitudinal periodicity that may be coupled to the formation of large-scale planetary waves. No optical lightning was detected.

  2. Images from Galileo of the Venus cloud deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Smith, Michael D.; Helfenstein, Paul; Schinder, Paul J.; Pollack, James B.; Rages, Kathy A.; Morrison, David; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Pilcher, Carl B.

    1991-01-01

    Images of Venus taken at 418 and 986 nm show that the morphology and motions of large-scale features change with depth in the cloud deck. Poleward meridional velocities, seen in both spectral regions, are much reduced in the NIR. In the south polar region the markings in the two wavelength bands are strongly anticorrelated. The images follow the changing state of the upper cloud layer downwind of the subsolar point, and the zonal flowfield shows a longitudinal periodicity that may be coupled to the formation of large-scale planetary waves. No optical lightning was detected.

  3. Designing SCIT Architecture Pattern in a Cloud-based Environment

    E-print Network

    Sood, Arun K.

    C-SCIT (Cloud- based Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerant) scheme that can provide enhanced intrusion. The main contribution of this paper is to design a Cloud- based Self-Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance (C

  4. Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, B. A.; Simpson, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Clouds are removed from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data using channel 5. Instrumentation problems require pre-processing of channel 5 before an intelligent cloud-screening algorithm can be used. For example, at intervals of about 16 lines, the sensor records anomalously low radiances. Moreover, the calibration equation yields negative radiances when the sensor records zero counts, and pixels corrupted by electronic overshoot must also be excluded. The remaining pixels may then be used in conjunction with the procedure of Simpson and Humphrey to determine the CZCS cloud mask. These results plus in situ observations of phytoplankton pigment concentration show that pre-processing and proper cloud-screening of CZCS data are necessary for accurate satellite-derived pigment concentrations. This is especially true in the coastal margins, where pigment content is high and image distortion associated with electronic overshoot is also present. The pre-processing algorithm is critical to obtaining accurate global estimates of pigment from spacecraft data.

  5. Design patterns in medical imaging information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Ching, Wan

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and important conceptual framework of software design for the medical imaging community using design patterns. Use cases are created to summarize operational scenarios of clinicians using the system to complete certain tasks such as image segmentation. During design the Unified Modeling Language is used to translate the use cases into modeling diagrams that describe how the system functions. Next, design patterns are applied to build models that describe how software components interoperate to deliver that functionality. The software components are implemented using the Java language, CORBA architecture, and other web technologies. The biomedical image information system is used in epilepsy neurosurgical planning and diagnosis. This article proposes the use of proven software design models for solving medical imaging informatics design problems. Design patterns provide an excellent vehicle to leverage design solutions that have worked in the past to solve the problems we face in building user-friendly, reliable, and efficient information systems. This work introduces this new technology for building increasing complex medical image information systems. The rigorous application of software design techniques is essential in building information systems that are easy to use, rich in functionality, maintainable, reliable, and updatable.

  6. Feeding People's Curiosity: Leveraging the Cloud for Automatic Dissemination of Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, David; Powell, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones and tablets have made wireless computing ubiquitous, and users expect instant, on-demand access to information. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) operations software suite, MSL InterfaCE (MSLICE), employs a different back-end image processing architecture compared to that of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) in order to better satisfy modern consumer-driven usage patterns and to offer greater server-side flexibility. Cloud services are a centerpiece of the server-side architecture that allows new image data to be delivered automatically to both scientists using MSLICE and the general public through the MSL website (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/).

  7. New Cloud Detection Algorithm for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Images: Application to

    E-print Network

    Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    New Cloud Detection Algorithm for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Images: Application to ENVISAT that faces the problem of accurate identification of location and abundance of clouds in multispectral images inevitable that many of these images present cloud covers. The objective of this work is to develop

  8. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments.

    PubMed

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers. PMID:26090324

  9. Cloud patterns lee of Hawaii Island: A synthesis of satellite observations and numerical simulation

    E-print Network

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Cloud patterns lee of Hawaii Island: A synthesis of satellite observations and numerical simulation; accepted 29 April 2008; published 15 August 2008. [1] Standing well above the trade wind inversion, Hawaii. To illustrate the circulation effect, lee cloud formation is compared between tall Hawaii and short Kauai

  10. Patterns of shallow clouds and rainfall over the Amazon : climatic impacts of deforestation

    E-print Network

    Chagnon, Frédéric J. F. (Frédéric Jacques F.), 1975-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) and, to a lesser extent, cold cloud patterns over the Amazon. Through complex interactions, the results reported in this thesis may have important implications for the local ecosystem dynamics of the Amazon, for ...

  11. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    E-print Network

    Zhu, W W; Madsen, E C; Tan, M; Stairs, I H; Brazier, A; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Scholz, P; Stovall, K; Random, S M; Banaszak, S; Biwer, C M; Cohen, S; Dartez, L P; Flanigan, J; Lunsford, G; Matinez, J G; Mata, A; Rohr, M; Walker, A; Allen, B; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Desvignes, G; Ferdman, R D; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kaplan, D; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Lee, K J; van Leeuwen, J; Lyne, A G; McLaughlin, M A; Spitler, L G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surv eys using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets---the PICS(Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interferences by looking for patterns from candidate. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of up to thousands pixel of image data. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its $\\sim$9000 neurons. Different from other pulsar selection programs which use pre-designed patterns, the PICS AI teaches itself the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability in recognizing various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated wi...

  12. The algorithm to generate color point-cloud with the registration between panoramic image and laser point-cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanyang; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-03-01

    Laser point cloud contains only intensity information and it is necessary for visual interpretation to obtain color information from other sensor. Cameras can provide texture, color, and other information of the corresponding object. Points with color information of corresponding pixels in digital images can be used to generate color point-cloud and is conducive to the visualization, classification and modeling of point-cloud. Different types of digital cameras are used in different Mobile Measurement Systems (MMS).the principles and processes for generating color point-cloud in different systems are not the same. The most prominent feature of the panoramic images is the field of 360 degrees view angle in the horizontal direction, to obtain the image information around the camera as much as possible. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate color point-cloud with panoramic image and laser point-cloud, and deduce the equation of the correspondence between points in panoramic images and laser point-clouds. The fusion of panoramic image and laser point-cloud is according to the collinear principle of three points (the center of the omnidirectional multi-camera system, the image point on the sphere, the object point). The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm and formulae in this paper are correct.

  13. Leveraging the Cloud for Robust and Efficient Lunar Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, George; Malhotra, Shan; Wolgast, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) is tasked to aggregate lunar data, from the Apollo era to the latest instruments on the LRO spacecraft, into a central repository accessible by scientists and the general public. A critical function of this task is to provide users with the best solution for browsing the vast amounts of imagery available. The image files LMMP manages range from a few gigabytes to hundreds of gigabytes in size with new data arriving every day. Despite this ever-increasing amount of data, LMMP must make the data readily available in a timely manner for users to view and analyze. This is accomplished by tiling large images into smaller images using Hadoop, a distributed computing software platform implementation of the MapReduce framework, running on a small cluster of machines locally. Additionally, the software is implemented to use Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) facility. We also developed a hybrid solution to serve images to users by leveraging cloud storage using Amazon's Simple Storage Service (S3) for public data while keeping private information on our own data servers. By using Cloud Computing, we improve upon our local solution by reducing the need to manage our own hardware and computing infrastructure, thereby reducing costs. Further, by using a hybrid of local and cloud storage, we are able to provide data to our users more efficiently and securely. 12 This paper examines the use of a distributed approach with Hadoop to tile images, an approach that provides significant improvements in image processing time, from hours to minutes. This paper describes the constraints imposed on the solution and the resulting techniques developed for the hybrid solution of a customized Hadoop infrastructure over local and cloud resources in managing this ever-growing data set. It examines the performance trade-offs of using the more plentiful resources of the cloud, such as those provided by S3, against the bandwidth limitations such use encounters with remote resources. As part of this discussion this paper will outline some of the technologies employed, the reasons for their selection, the resulting performance metrics and the direction the project is headed based upon the demonstrated capabilities thus far.

  14. Influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on local cloud and solar variability in Bergen, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parding, Kajsa; Olseth, Jan Asle; Liepert, Beate G.; Dagestad, Knut-Frode

    2015-06-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that long-term cloud and solar observations (1965-2013) in Bergen, Norway (60.39°N, 5.33°E) are compatible with a largely cloud dominated radiative climate. Here, we explicitly address the relationship between the large scale circulation over Europe and local conditions in Bergen, identifying specific circulation shifts that have contributed to the observed cloud and solar variations. As a measure of synoptic weather patterns, we use the Grosswetterlagen (GWL), a daily classification of European weather for 1881-2013. Empirical models of cloud cover, cloud base, relative sunshine duration, and normalised global irradiance are constructed based on the GWL frequencies, extending the observational time series by more than 70 years. The GWL models successfully reproduce the observed increase in cloud cover and decrease in solar irradiance during the 1970s and 1980s. This cloud-induced dimming is traced to an increasing frequency of cyclonic and decreasing frequency of anticyclonic weather patterns over northern Europe. The changing circulation patterns in winter can be understood as a shift from the negative to the positive phase of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation. A recent period of increasing solar irradiance is observed but not reproduce by the GWL models, suggesting this brightening is associated with factors other than large scale atmospheric circulation, possibly decreasing aerosol loads and local cloud shifts.

  15. Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth- space optical communication Paul W. Nugent,1 Joseph A to the communication platform, so there is a need to measure spatial and temporal statistics of clouds at potential to provide continuous day-night cloud detection and classification according to the cloud optical depth

  16. Radiometric normalization and cloud detection of optical satellite images using invariant pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Lin, Bo-Yi; Lee, Kuan-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2015-08-01

    Clouds in optical satellite images can be a source of information for water measurement or viewed as contaminations that obstruct landscape observations. Thus, the use of a cloud detection method that discriminates cloud and clear-sky pixels in images is necessary in remote sensing applications. With the aid of radiometric correction/normalization, previous methods utilized temporal and spectral information as well as cloud-free reference images to develop threshold-based cloud detection filters. Although this strategy can effectively identify cloud pixels, the detection accuracy mainly relies on the successful radiometric correction/normalization and reference image quality. Relative radiometric normalization generally suffers from cloud covers, while multi-temporal cloud detection is sensitive to the radiometric normalization quality. Thus, the current study proposes a method based on weighted invariant pixels for both processes. A set of invariant pixels is extracted from a time series of cloud-contaminated images by using the proposed weighted principle component analysis, after which multi-temporal images are normalized with the selected invariant pixels. In addition, a reference image is generated for each cloud-contaminated image using invariant pixels with a weighting scheme. In the experiments, image sequences acquired by the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that F-measures of cloud detections are improved by 1.1-6.9% using the generated reference images.

  17. Feature Extraction for Image Pattern Matching with Cellular Automata

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    Feature Extraction for Image Pattern Matching with Cellular Automata Lynette van Zijl and Leendert@sun.ac.za,lbotha@cs.sun.ac.za Abstract. It is shown that cellular automata can be used for feature extraction of images in image pattern of the semantic definition of a LEGO brick from a given image (the so-called feature extraction phase

  18. Voyager imaging of Triton's clouds and hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rages, Kathy; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a detailed analysis of Voyager images of Triton obtained at the highest solar phase angles; these have been fit to Mie scattering models in order to obtain the mean particle sizes, number densities, and the vertical extent of the two different scattering components of the Triton atmosphere. The 0.001-0.01 optical depths of about 0.17 micron particles are vertically distributed with scale heights of about 10 km throughout Triton. A number of properties of the haze particles in question suggest that they are composed of photochemically produced gases which have condensed in the cold lower atmosphere of Triton.

  19. Image pattern recognition supporting interactive analysis and graphical visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggins, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Image Pattern Recognition attempts to infer properties of the world from image data. Such capabilities are crucial for making measurements from satellite or telescope images related to Earth and space science problems. Such measurements can be the required product itself, or the measurements can be used as input to a computer graphics system for visualization purposes. At present, the field of image pattern recognition lacks a unified scientific structure for developing and evaluating image pattern recognition applications. The overall goal of this project is to begin developing such a structure. This report summarizes results of a 3-year research effort in image pattern recognition addressing the following three principal aims: (1) to create a software foundation for the research and identify image pattern recognition problems in Earth and space science; (2) to develop image measurement operations based on Artificial Visual Systems; and (3) to develop multiscale image descriptions for use in interactive image analysis.

  20. CloudSat First Image of a Warm Front Storm Over the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    CloudSat's first image, of a warm front storm over the Norwegian Sea, was obtained on May 20, 2006. In this horizontal cross-section of clouds, warm air is seen rising over colder air as the satellite travels from right to left. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water droplets (or rain) or larger ice crystals (or snow), while the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The blue line below the Cloud Profiling Radar image indicates that the data were taken over water. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared image taken at nearly the same time.

  1. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms for autofluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulas, Zbigniew; Bere?-Pawlik, El?bieta; Wierzbicki, Jaros?aw

    2009-02-01

    In cancer diagnostics the most important problems are the early identification and estimation of the tumor growth and spread in order to determine the area to be operated. The aim of the work was to design of statistical algorithms helping doctors to objectively estimate pathologically changed areas and to assess the disease advancement. In the research, algorithms for classifying endoscopic autofluorescence images of larynx and intestine were used. The results show that the statistical pattern recognition offers new possibilities for endoscopic diagnostics and can be of a tremendous help in assessing the area of the pathological changes.

  2. Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Barta, Andras; Gál, József; Suhai, Bence; Haiman, Ottó

    2002-01-20

    For elimination of the shortcomings of imaging polarimeters that take the necessary three pictures sequentially through linear-polarization filters, a three-lens, three-camera, full-sky imaging polarimeter was designed that takes the required pictures simultaneously. With this polarimeter, celestial polarization patterns can be measured even if rapid temporal changes occur in the sky: under cloudy sky conditions, or immediately after sunrise or prior to sunset. One of the possible applications of our polarimeter is the ground-based detection of clouds. With use of the additional information of the degree and the angle of polarization patterns of cloudy skies measured in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) spectral ranges, improved algorithms of radiometric cloud detection can be offered. We present a combined radiometric and polarimetric algorithm that performs the detection of clouds more efficiently and reliably as compared with an exclusively radiometric cloud-detection algorithm. The advantages and the limits of three-lens, three-camera, full-sky imaging polarimeters as well as the possibilities of improving our polarimetric cloud detection method are discussed briefly. PMID:11905581

  3. High Quality Typhoon Cloud Image Restoration by Combining Genetic Algorithm with Contourlet Transform

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Changjiang; Wang Xiaodong

    2008-11-06

    An efficient typhoon cloud image restoration algorithm is proposed. Having implemented contourlet transform to a typhoon cloud image, noise is reduced in the high sub-bands. Weight median value filter is used to reduce the noise in the contourlet domain. Inverse contourlet transform is done to obtain the de-noising image. In order to enhance the global contrast of the typhoon cloud image, in-complete Beta transform (IBT) is used to determine non-linear gray transform curve so as to enhance global contrast for the de-noising typhoon cloud image. Genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal gray transform curve. Information entropy is used as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is able to well enhance the global for the typhoon cloud image while well reducing the noises in the typhoon cloud image.

  4. Characterization of SEM speckle pattern marking and imaging distortion by Digital Image Correlation

    E-print Network

    Characterization of SEM speckle pattern marking and imaging distortion by Digital Image Correlation-beam lithography patterning, Digital Image Correlation #12;Characterization of SEM speckle pattern marking [13]. Investigations have been conducted on the development of random patterns [14] while speckles

  5. Reflections on current and future applications of multiangle imaging to aerosol and cloud remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, David

    2010-05-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global Earth data from NASA's Terra satellite since February 2000. With its 9 along-track view angles, 4 spectral bands, intrinsic spatial resolution of 275 m, and stable radiometric and geometric calibration, no instrument that combines MISR's attributes has previously flown in space, nor is there is a similar capability currently available on any other satellite platform. Multiangle imaging offers several tools for remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties, including bidirectional reflectance and scattering measurements, stereoscopic pattern matching, time lapse sequencing, and potentially, optical tomography. Current data products from MISR employ several of these techniques. Observations of the intensity of scattered light as a function of view angle and wavelength provide accurate measures of aerosol optical depths (AOD) over land, including bright desert and urban source regions. Partitioning of AOD according to retrieved particle classification and incorporation of height information improves the relationship between AOD and surface PM2.5 (fine particulate matter, a regulated air pollutant), constituting an important step toward a satellite-based particulate pollution monitoring system. Stereoscopic cloud-top heights provide a unique metric for detecting interannual variability of clouds and exceptionally high quality and sensitivity for detection and height retrieval for low-level clouds. Using the several-minute time interval between camera views, MISR has enabled a pole-to-pole, height-resolved atmospheric wind measurement system. Stereo imagery also makes possible global measurement of the injection heights and advection speeds of smoke plumes, volcanic plumes, and dust clouds, for which a large database is now available. To build upon what has been learned during the first decade of MISR observations, we are evaluating algorithm updates that not only refine retrieval accuracies but also include enhancements (e.g., finer spatial resolution) that would have been computationally prohibitive just ten years ago. In addition, we are developing technological building blocks for future sensors that enable broader spectral coverage, wider swath, and incorporation of high-accuracy polarimetric imaging. Prototype cameras incorporating photoelastic modulators have been constructed. To fully capitalize on the rich information content of the current and next-generation of multiangle imagers, several algorithmic paradigms currently employed need to be re-examined, e.g., the use of aerosol look-up tables, neglect of 3-D effects, and binary partitioning of the atmosphere into "cloudy" or "clear" designations. Examples of progress in algorithm and technology developments geared toward advanced application of multiangle imaging to remote sensing of aerosols and clouds will be presented.

  6. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pulver, Stefan R; Bayley, Timothy G; Taylor, Adam L; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-11-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators. The Ca(2+) signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca(2+) signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ?10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca(2+) signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca(2+) waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  7. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, Timothy G.; Taylor, Adam L.; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. The Ca2+ signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca2+ signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ?10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca2+ signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca2+ waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  8. Analysis of interstellar cloud structure based on IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalo, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop new tools for the analysis of the structure of densely sampled maps of interstellar star-forming regions. A particular emphasis was on the recognition and characterization of nested hierarchical structure and fractal irregularity, and their relation to the level of star formation activity. The panoramic IRAS images provided data with the required range in spatial scale, greater than a factor of 100, and in column density, greater than a factor of 50. In order to construct densely sampled column density maps of star-forming clouds, column density images of four nearby cloud complexes were constructed from IRAS data. The regions have various degrees of star formation activity, and most of them have probably not been affected much by the disruptive effects of young massive stars. The largest region, the Scorpius-Ophiuchus cloud complex, covers about 1000 square degrees (it was subdivided into a few smaller regions for analysis). Much of the work during the early part of the project focused on an 80 square degree region in the core of the Taurus complex, a well-studied region of low-mass star formation.

  9. Ghost imaging with non-negative exponential speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Er-Feng; Liu, Wei-Tao; Chen, Ping-Xing

    2015-08-01

    The speckle patterns with non-negative exponential statistics are generated through introducing an iterative algorithm: the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm. Furthermore, ghost imaging (GI) with the non-negative exponential speckle patterns is investigated, and the effect of the non-negative exponential speckle patterns on the image quality is analyzed.

  10. The Earth Clouds and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) Mission: Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Imager algorithms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, David; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Wandinger, Ulla; Hünerbein, Anjah; Fischer, Jurgen; von Bismarck, Jonas; Eisinger, Michael; Lajas, Dulce; Wehr, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    The value of multi-sensor remote sensing applied to clouds and aerosol has become clear in recent years. For example, combinations of instruments including passive radiometers, lidars and cloud radars have proved invaluable for their ability to retrieve profiles of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties. This is amply illustrated by various results from the US-DoE ARM (and similar) surface sites as well as results from data collected by sensors aboard the A-train satellites CloudSat, CALIPSO, and Terra. The Earth Clouds Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is a combined ESA/JAXA mission to be launched in 2018 which has been designed with sensor-synergy playing a key role. The mission consists of a cloud-profiling radar (CPR), a high-spectral resolution cloud/aerosol lidar (ATLID), a cloud/aerosol multi-spectral imager (MSI), and a three-view broad-band radiometer (BBR). The mission will deliver cloud, aerosol and radiation products focusing on horizontal scales ranging from 1 km to 10 km. EarthCARE data will be used in multiple ways ranging from model evaluation studies, to GCM-orientated cloud microphysical property parameterization development, to data assimilation activities. Recently a number of activities, funded by ESA, have kicked-off which will ultimately deliver operational algorithms for EarthCARE. One of these activities is the "Atmospheric Products from Imager and Lidar" (APRIL) project which focuses on the development of lidar, imager and combined lidar-imager cloud and aerosol algorithms. In this presentation an overview of the APRIL algorithms within the wider context of the planned EarthCARE processing chain will be given.

  11. A Routing Mechanism for Cloud Outsourcing of Medical Imaging Repositories.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Tiago Marques; Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Bastiao Silva, Luis A; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Web-based technologies have been increasingly used in picture archive and communication systems (PACS), in services related to storage, distribution, and visualization of medical images. Nowadays, many healthcare institutions are outsourcing their repositories to the cloud. However, managing communications between multiple geo-distributed locations is still challenging due to the complexity of dealing with huge volumes of data and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, standard methodologies still do not take full advantage of outsourced archives, namely because their integration with other in-house solutions is troublesome. In order to improve the performance of distributed medical imaging networks, a smart routing mechanism was developed. This includes an innovative cache system based on splitting and dynamic management of digital imaging and communications in medicine objects. The proposed solution was successfully deployed in a regional PACS archive. The results obtained proved that it is better than conventional approaches, as it reduces remote access latency and also the required cache storage space. PMID:25343773

  12. Global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud detection and height evaluation using CALIOP

    E-print Network

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud detection and height evaluation with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for both cloud. Frey, S. Dutcher, R. E. Kuehn, M. A. Vaughan, and B. Baum (2008), Global Moderate Resolution Imaging

  13. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M. E-mail: berndsen@phas.ubc.ca; and others

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ?9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The performance of this system can be improved over time as more training data are accumulated. This AI system has been integrated into the PALFA survey pipeline and has discovered six new pulsars to date.

  14. Searching for Pulsars Using Image Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Flanigan, J.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Rohr, M.; Walker, A.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Venkataraman, A.

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ~9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The performance of this system can be improved over time as more training data are accumulated. This AI system has been integrated into the PALFA survey pipeline and has discovered six new pulsars to date.

  15. Development of a cloud detection method from whole-sky color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Masanori; Shiobara, Masataka; Nishinaka, Kimiko; Kuji, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    A method is proposed for detecting clouds from whole-sky color images obtained with an all-sky camera (ASC) system. In polar regions, cloud detection using whole-sky images usually suffers from large uncertainties in fractional cloud cover retrievals because of large solar zenith angles (SZAs) and high surface albedo, which cause "whitening" in the images. These problems are addressed by using differences between real images and virtual clear-sky images for a particular observation time with the same SZA. The method is applied to ASC images obtained at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in May of 2005-2007, and the results are compared with Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) measurements. When no clouds were detected by MPL, the false cloud detection rate from ASC classification was 2.1% in total hours. Conversely, when clouds were detected by MPL, the ASC classification underestimated the clouds by 11.6%. In most cases, this occurred when MPL detected very optically thin clouds. Furthermore, the variability of cloud fractions estimated by MPL and ASC was roughly constant regardless of the SZA. Thus, it is confirmed that the method developed in this study is valid for cloud detection from whole-sky color images.

  16. Separation of Radiances from a Cirrus Layer and Broken Cumulus Clouds in Multispectral Images

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    1 Separation of Radiances from a Cirrus Layer and Broken Cumulus Clouds in Multispectral Images to separate strongly stratified and optically thin upper (cirrus) clouds from optically thick lower convective (cumulus) clouds in atmospheric imagery approximated as additive contributions to the observed signal

  17. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. I. Ray trace analysis and wave-front reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Landesman, B T; Kindilien, P J; Matson, C L; Caudill, T R

    2000-10-20

    A new technique for modeling image transfer through cirrus clouds is presented. The technique uses a ray trace to model beam propagation through a three-dimensional volume of polydisperse, hexagonal ice crystals. Beyond the cloud, the technique makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation methods. At the air-cloud interface, each wave front is resolved into a ray distribution for input to the ray trace software. Similarly, a wave front is reconstructed from the output ray distribution at the cloud-air interface. Simulation output from the ray trace program is presented and the modulation transfer function for stars imaged through cirrus clouds of varying depths is discussed. PMID:18354542

  18. Ice Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from CRISM Multispectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, David R.

    2014-11-01

    One set of data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the multispectral survey that measured the visible-through-near-infrared reflectance of the entire planet of Mars at specific wavelengths. The spectral data from several sols were be combined to create multi-spectral maps of Mars. In addition, these maps can be zonally averaged to create a latitude vs season image cube of Mars. All of these image cubes can be fit using a full radiative transfer modeling in order to retrieve ice cloud optical depth—as a map for one of the particular dates, or as a latitude vs season record.To compare the data radiative transfer models, a measure of the actual surface reflectance is needed. There are several possible ways to model this, such as using a nearby region that is "close enough" or by looking at the same region at different times and assuming one of those is the actual surface reflectance. Neither of these is ideal for trying to process an entire map of data because aerosol clouds can be fairly extensive both spatially and temporally.Another technique is to assume that the surface can be modeled as a linear combination of a limited set of intrinsic spectral endmembers. A combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Target Transformation (TT) has been used to recover just such a set of spectral endmember shapes. The coefficients in the linear combination then become additional fitting parameters in the radiative transfer modeling of each map point—all parameters are adjusted until the RMS error between the model and the data is minimized. Based on previous work, the PCA of martian spectral image cubes is relatively consistent regardless of season, implying the underlying, large-scale, intrinsic traits that dominate the data variance are relatively constant. These overall PCA results can then be used to create a single set of spectral endmembers that can be used for any of the data cubes.Presented here are the results of this PCA/TT work to find the singular set of spectral endmembers and their use in recovering ice cloud optical depth from the MRO-CRISM multispectral image cubes.

  19. Jovian Ammonia Cloud Identification and Color Analyses from Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, N.; Voelz, D.; Simon-Miller, A.

    2008-09-01

    Narrowband visible and near-infrared images of Jupiter were acquired at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope from 26-27 June and 04 July 2007 with the New Mexico State University Acousto-optic Imaging Camera (NAIC) to study atmospheric spectral characteristics. Over 3000 images were collected and map-projected, yielding spectral image cubes that span 480-900 nm with 2 nm resolution (1 nm resolution after deconvolution) and spatially cover 85% of jovian longitudes. We report the detection of spectrally identifiable ammonia clouds (SIACs) through the ammonia absorption features centered at 647 nm and 790 nm, which may be the first identification of SIACs using narrowband visible imaging. The observed SIACs predominately reside in the range of 1° to 4° N latitude (planetographic) and are also found in the turbulent wake region northwest of the Great Red Spot (GRS), which is in agreement with the analysis of Galileo NIMS observations by Baines et al. (2002, Icarus 159, 74-94). SIAC size and spatial distributions and temporal evolution are discussed. Additionally, color analyses were conducted for a jovian chromophore investigation using principle component analysis and nonnegative matrix factorization. Results are compared to a color analysis of HST observations from May-July 2008 of the passage of the GRS and Oval BA (Simon-Miller, this meeting). This work is funded by NSF award AST0628919.

  20. Microwave Imager Measures Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired over Tropical Atlantic and U.S. East Coast regions on Aug. 22 - Sept. 23, 1998. Cloud data were collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data were collected aboard the NASA/NASDA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite by The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). TMI is the first satellite microwave sensor capable of accurately measuring sea surface temperature through clouds, as shown in this scene. For years scientists have known there is a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. In this scene, clouds have been made translucent to allow an unobstructed view of the surface. Notice Hurricane Bonnie approaching the Carolina Coast (upper left) and Hurricane Danielle following roughly in its path (lower right). The ocean surface has been falsely colored to show a map of water temperature--dark blues are around 75oF, light blues are about 80oF, greens are about 85oF, and yellows are roughly 90oF. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found at tropical latitudes. In this image we see Hurricane Bonnie cross the Atlantic, leaving a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle followed in Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm dropped markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm dropped off. But when Danielle left Bonnie's wake, wind speeds increased due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. As a hurricane churns up the ocean, it's central vortex draws surface heat and water into the storm. That suction at the surface causes an upwelling of deep water. At depth, tropical ocean waters are significantly colder than water found near the surface. As they're pulled up to meet the storm, those colder waters essentially leave a footprint in the storm's wake which might last as long as two weeks. Forecasters can quantify the difference in surface temperatures between this footprint and the surrounding temperatures and use that information to better predict storm intensity. If another storm intersects with this cold water trail, it is likely to lose significant strength due to the fact that the colder water does not contain as much potential energy as warm water. TRMM Fact Sheet Predicting Hurricane Intensity Far from Land Remote Sensing Systems Image courtesy TRMM Project, Remote Sensing Systems, and Scientific Visualization Studio, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  1. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of cloud-containing coastal zone color scanner images of northeastern North American coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslinger, David L.; O'Brien, James J.; Iverson, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Empirical-orthogonal-function (EOF) analyses were carried out on 36 images of the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine, obtained by the CZCS aboard Nimbus 7 for the time period from February 28 through July 9, 1979, with the purpose of determining pigment concentrations in coastal waters. The EOF procedure was modified so as to include images with significant portions of data missing due to cloud obstruction, making it possible to estimate pigment values in areas beneath clouds. The results of image analyses explained observed variances in pigment concentrations and showed a south-to-north pattern corresponding to an April Mid-Atlantic Bight bloom and a June bloom over Nantucket Shoals and Platts Bank.

  2. Analysis of Point Cloud Generation from UAS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, S.; Jó?ków, G.; Toth, C.; Vander Jagt, B.

    2014-11-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) allow for the collection of low altitude aerial images, along with other geospatial information from a variety of companion sensors. The images can then be processed using sophisticated algorithms from the Computer Vision (CV) field, guided by the traditional and established procedures from photogrammetry. Based on highly overlapped images, new software packages which were specifically developed for UAS technology can easily create ground models, such as Point Clouds (PC), Digital Surface Model (DSM), orthoimages, etc. The goal of this study is to compare the performance of three different software packages, focusing on the accuracy of the 3D products they produce. Using a Nikon D800 camera installed on an ocotocopter UAS platform, images were collected during subsequent field tests conducted over the Olentangy River, north from the Ohio State University campus. Two areas around bike bridges on the Olentangy River Trail were selected because of the challenge the packages would have in creating accurate products; matching pixels over the river and dense canopy on the shore presents difficult scenarios to model. Ground Control Points (GCP) were gathered at each site to tie the models to a local coordinate system and help assess the absolute accuracy for each package. In addition, the models were also relatively compared to each other using their PCs.

  3. Cloud-based Identity and Access Control for Diagnostic Imaging Systems

    E-print Network

    Sartipi, Kamran

    of diagnostic imaging (DI) systems. Migrating DI systems to cloud platform is cost-effective and improves, cloud computing is becoming a preferred solution for image sharing over the Internet using external services, OpenID Connect does not define a method of enforcing fine-grained system access control polices

  4. An automated cloud detection method based on the green channel of total-sky visible images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Min, Q.; Lu, W.; Yao, W.; Ma, Y.; Du, J.; Lu, T.; Liu, G.

    2015-11-01

    Obtaining an accurate cloud-cover state is a challenging task. In the past, traditional two-dimensional red-to-blue band methods have been widely used for cloud detection in total-sky images. By analyzing the imaging principle of cameras, the green channel has been selected to replace the 2-D red-to-blue band for detecting cloud pixels from partly cloudy total-sky images in this study. The brightness distribution in a total-sky image is usually nonuniform, because of forward scattering and Mie scattering of aerosols, which results in increased detection errors in the circumsolar and near-horizon regions. This paper proposes an automatic cloud detection algorithm, "green channel background subtraction adaptive threshold" (GBSAT), which incorporates channel selection, background simulation, computation of solar mask and cloud mask, subtraction, an adaptive threshold, and binarization. Five experimental cases show that the GBSAT algorithm produces more accurate retrieval results for all these test total-sky images.

  5. How consistent are precipitation patterns predicted by GCMs in the absence of cloud radiative effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popke, Dagmar; Bony, Sandrine; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with state-of-the-art general circulation models reveal a strong disagreement concerning the simulated regional precipitation patterns and their changes with warming. The deviating precipitation response even persists when reducing the model experiment complexity to aquaplanet simulation with forced sea surface temperatures (Stevens and Bony, 2013). To assess feedbacks between clouds and radiation on precipitation responses we analyze data from 5 models performing the aquaplanet simulations of the Clouds On Off Klima Intercomparison Experiment (COOKIE), where the interaction of clouds and radiation is inhibited. Although cloud radiative effects are then disabled, the precipitation patterns among models are as diverse as with cloud radiative effects switched on. Disentangling differing model responses in such simplified experiments thus appears to be key to better understanding the simulated regional precipitation in more standard configurations. By analyzing the local moisture and moist static energy budgets in the COOKIE experiments we investigate likely causes for the disagreement among models. References Stevens, B. & S. Bony: What Are Climate Models Missing?, Science, 2013, 340, 1053-1054

  6. Differently patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haiyi; Liang, Hong; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Wei, Yingxia; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-11-01

    Airflow induced by femtosecond laser (800 nm/1 kHz/25 fs) filamentation with different lengths was investigated in a laboratory cloud chamber. Various filament lengths were generated by adjusting laser energy and lens focal length. It was found that airflow patterns are closely related to filament intensity and length. Intense and long filaments are beneficial in updraft generation with large vortices above the filament, while intense and short filaments tend to promote the formation of well-contacted vortices below the filament. Differently patterned airflows induced elliptical snow piles with different masses. We simulated airflow in a cloud chamber numerically taking laser filaments as heat sources. The mechanisms of differently patterned airflow and snow formation induced by filaments were discussed.

  7. Differently patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haiyi; Liang, Hong; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Wei, Yingxia; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-09-01

    Airflow induced by femtosecond laser (800 nm/1 kHz/25 fs) filamentation with different lengths was investigated in a laboratory cloud chamber. Various filament lengths were generated by adjusting laser energy and lens focal length. It was found that airflow patterns are closely related to filament intensity and length. Intense and long filaments are beneficial in updraft generation with large vortices above the filament, while intense and short filaments tend to promote the formation of well-contacted vortices below the filament. Differently patterned airflows induced elliptical snow piles with different masses. We simulated airflow in a cloud chamber numerically taking laser filaments as heat sources. The mechanisms of differently patterned airflow and snow formation induced by filaments were discussed.

  8. A Cloud-Tracking Tool For Planetary Orbiter Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, R.; Luz, D.; Berry, D.; Roos-Serote, M.

    2005-08-01

    During their operations phase, planetary missions continuously produce a wealth of data that tend to overwhelm research teams. Spectral imagers, in particular, produce data cubes in which the wavelength dimension adds to the two spatial dimensions. Tracking of atmospheric features in order to derive winds and the construction of global maps from such large data volumes becomes particularly time-consuming if done manually. This highlights the importance of automated procedures capable of analysing sequences of data cubes with minimal user interaction. A tool for cloud tracking for such a purpose is currently under development in our group. In its present state it is based on synthetic images and uses a simple method of multiple matrix comparison to derive wind components. Deriving winds from data from the Venus Express - Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument will be a possible application. We shall present an overview of the method, its benchmarking and the current status and future development of the project. [R. Gil is currently supported by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, Portugal, project PDCTU/FNU/49822/2003. D. Luz acknowledges support from FCT, grant SFRH-BPD-3630-2000.

  9. The analysis of polar clouds from AVHRR satellite data using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Ebert, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The cloud cover in a set of summertime and wintertime AVHRR data from the Arctic and Antarctic regions was analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm. The data were collected by the NOAA-7 satellite on 6 to 13 Jan. and 1 to 7 Jul. 1984 between 60 deg and 90 deg north and south latitude in 5 spectral channels, at the Global Area Coverage (GAC) resolution of approximately 4 km. This data embodied a Polar Cloud Pilot Data Set which was analyzed by a number of research groups as part of a polar cloud algorithm intercomparison study. This study was intended to determine whether the additional information contained in the AVHRR channels (beyond the standard visible and infrared bands on geostationary satellites) could be effectively utilized in cloud algorithms to resolve some of the cloud detection problems caused by low visible and thermal contrasts in the polar regions. The analysis described makes use of a pattern recognition algorithm which estimates the surface and cloud classification, cloud fraction, and surface and cloudy visible (channel 1) albedo and infrared (channel 4) brightness temperatures on a 2.5 x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude grid. In each grid box several spectral and textural features were computed from the calibrated pixel values in the multispectral imagery, then used to classify the region into one of eighteen surface and/or cloud types using the maximum likelihood decision rule. A slightly different version of the algorithm was used for each season and hemisphere because of differences in categories and because of the lack of visible imagery during winter. The classification of the scene is used to specify the optimal AVHRR channel for separating clear and cloudy pixels using a hybrid histogram-spatial coherence method. This method estimates values for cloud fraction, clear and cloudy albedos and brightness temperatures in each grid box. The choice of a class-dependent AVHRR channel allows for better separation of clear and cloudy pixels than does a global choice of a visible and/or infrared threshold. The classification also prevents erroneous estimates of large fractional cloudiness in areas of cloudfree snow and sea ice. The hybrid histogram-spatial coherence technique and the advantages of first classifying a scene in the polar regions are detailed. The complete Polar Cloud Pilot Data Set was analyzed and the results are presented and discussed.

  10. Pattern recognition in hyperspectral persistent imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton; Romano, Joao; Borel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    We give updates on a persistent imaging experiment dataset, being considered for public release in a foreseeable future, and present additional observations analyzing a subset of the dataset. The experiment is a long-term collaborative effort among the Army Research Laboratory, Army Armament RDEC, and Air Force Institute of Technology that focuses on the collection and exploitation of longwave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagery. We emphasize the inherent challenges associated with using remotely sensed LWIR hyperspectral imagery for material recognition, and show that this data type violates key data assumptions conventionally used in the scientific community to develop detection/ID algorithms, i.e., normality, independence, identical distribution. We treat LWIR hyperspectral imagery as Longitudinal Data and aim at proposing a more realistic framework for material recognition as a function of spectral evolution through time, and discuss limitations. The defining characteristic of a longitudinal study is that objects are measured repeatedly through time and, as a result, data are dependent. This is in contrast to cross-sectional studies in which the outcomes of a specific event are observed by randomly sampling from a large population of relevant objects in which data are assumed independent. Researchers in the remote sensing community generally assume the problem of object recognition to be cross-sectional. But through a longitudinal analysis of a fixed site with multiple material types, we quantify and argue that, as data evolve through a full diurnal cycle, pattern recognition problems are longitudinal in nature and that by applying this knowledge may lead to better algorithms.

  11. Fingerprint pattern restoration by digital image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Wen, Che-Yen; Yu, Chiu-Chung

    2003-09-01

    Fingerprint evidence plays an important role in solving criminal problems. However, defective (lacking information needed for completeness) or contaminated (undesirable information included) fingerprint patterns make identifying and recognizing processes difficult. Unfortunately. this is the usual case. In the recognizing process (enhancement of patterns, or elimination of "false alarms" so that a fingerprint pattern can be searched in the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)), chemical and physical techniques have been proposed to improve pattern legibility. In the identifying process, a fingerprint examiner can enhance contaminated (but not defective) fingerprint patterns under guidelines provided by the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST), the Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology (SWGIT), and an AFIS working group within the National Institute of Justice. Recently, the image processing techniques have been successfully applied in forensic science. For example, we have applied image enhancement methods to improve the legibility of digital images such as fingerprints and vehicle plate numbers. In this paper, we propose a novel digital image restoration technique based on the AM (amplitude modulation)-FM (frequency modulation) reaction-diffusion method to restore defective or contaminated fingerprint patterns. This method shows its potential application to fingerprint pattern enhancement in the recognizing process (but not for the identifying process). Synthetic and real images are used to show the capability of the proposed method. The results of enhancing fingerprint patterns by the manual process and our method are evaluated and compared. PMID:14535661

  12. Cloud top structure of Venus revealed by Subaru/COMICS mid-infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T. M.; Sagawa, H.; Kouyama, T.; Mitsuyama, K.; Satoh, T.; Ohtsuki, S.; Ueno, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the cloud top structure of Venus by analyzing ground-based images taken at the mid-infrared wavelengths of 8.66 ?m and 11.34 ?m. Venus at a solar phase angle of ?90°, with the morning terminator in view, was observed by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS), mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope, during the period October 25-29, 2007. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures for the observation period are ?230 K and ?238 K at 8.66 ?m and 11.34 ?m, respectively. The obtained images with good signal-to-noise ratio and with high spatial resolution (?200 km at the sub-observer point) provide several important findings. First, we present observational evidence, for the first time, of the possibility that the westward rotation of the polar features (the hot polar spots and the surrounding cold collars) is synchronized between the northern and southern hemispheres. Second, after high-pass filtering, the images reveal that streaks and mottled and patchy patterns are distributed over the entire disk, with typical amplitudes of ?0.5 K, and vary from day to day. The detected features, some of which are similar to those seen in past UV images, result from inhomogeneities of both the temperature and the cloud top altitude. Third, the equatorial center-to-limb variations of brightness temperatures have a systematic day-night asymmetry, except those on October 25, that the dayside brightness temperatures are higher than the nightside brightness temperatures by 0-4 K under the same viewing geometry. Such asymmetry would be caused by the propagation of the migrating semidiurnal tide. Finally, by applying the lapse rates deduced from previous studies, we demonstrate that the equatorial center-to-limb curves in the two spectral channels give access to two parameters: the cloud scale height H and the cloud top altitude zc. The acceptable models for data on October 25 are obtained at H = 2.4-4.3 km and zc = 66-69 km; this supports previous results determined from spacecraft observations.

  13. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  14. Testing a polarimetric cloud imager aboard research vessel Polarstern: comparison of color-based and polarimetric cloud detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Horváth, Ákos; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, Pál; Bumke, Karl; Macke, Andreas

    2015-02-10

    Cloud cover estimation is an important part of routine meteorological observations. Cloudiness measurements are used in climate model evaluation, nowcasting solar radiation, parameterizing the fluctuations of sea surface insolation, and building energy transfer models of the atmosphere. Currently, the most widespread ground-based method to measure cloudiness is based on analyzing the unpolarized intensity and color distribution of the sky obtained by digital cameras. As a new approach, we propose that cloud detection can be aided by the additional use of skylight polarization measured by 180° field-of-view imaging polarimetry. In the fall of 2010, we tested such a novel polarimetric cloud detector aboard the research vessel Polarstern during expedition ANT-XXVII/1. One of our goals was to test the durability of the measurement hardware under the extreme conditions of a trans-Atlantic cruise. Here, we describe the instrument and compare the results of several different cloud detection algorithms, some conventional and some newly developed. We also discuss the weaknesses of our design and its possible improvements. The comparison with cloud detection algorithms developed for traditional nonpolarimetric full-sky imagers allowed us to evaluate the added value of polarimetric quantities. We found that (1) neural-network-based algorithms perform the best among the investigated schemes and (2) global information (the mean and variance of intensity), nonoptical information (e.g., sun-view geometry), and polarimetric information (e.g., the degree of polarization) improve the accuracy of cloud detection, albeit slightly. PMID:25968023

  15. Watershed identification of polygonal patterns in noisy SAR images.

    PubMed

    Moreels, Pierre; Smrekar, Suzanne E

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to pattern recognition in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. A visual analysis of the images provided by NASA's Magellan mission to Venus has revealed a number of zones showing polygonal-shaped faults on the surface of the planet. The goal of the paper is to provide a method to automate the identification of such zones. The high level of noise in SAR images and its multiplicative nature make automated image analysis difficult and conventional edge detectors, like those based on gradient images, inefficient. We present a scheme based on an improved watershed algorithm and a two-scale analysis. The method extracts potential edges in the SAR image, analyzes the patterns obtained, and decides whether or not the image contains a "polygon area". This scheme can also be applied to other SAR or visual images, for instance in observation of Mars and Jupiter's satellite Europa. PMID:18237949

  16. Time evolution of surface chlorophyll patterns from cross-spectrum analysis of satellite color images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1988-01-01

    The rate of decorrelation of surface chlorophyll patterns as a function of the time separation between pairs of images was determined from two sequences of CZCS images of the Pacific Ocean area adjacent to Vancouver Island, Canada; cloud-free subareas were selected that were common to several images separated in time by 1-17 days. Image pairs were subjected to two-dimensional autospectrum and cross-spectrum analysis in an array processor, and squared coherence estimates found for several wave bands were plotted against time separation, in analogy with a time-lagged cross correlation function. It was found that, for wavelengths of 50-150 km, significant coherence was lost after 7-10 days, while for wavelengths of 25-50 km, significant coherence was lost after only 5-7 days. In both cases, offshore regions maintained coherence longer than coastal regions.

  17. Biometric Authentication Using Infrared Imaging of Hand Vein Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Shrotri, A.; Rethrekar, S. C.; Patil, M. H.; Alisherov, Farkhod A.; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Hand vein patterns are unique and universal. Vein pattern is used as biometric feature in recent years. But, it is not very much popular biometric system as compared to other systems like fingerprint, iris etc, because of the higher cost. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. There are two approaches for vein authentication, these are hand dorsa and hand ventral. Currently we are working on hand dorsa vein patterns. Here we are putting forward the new approach for low cost hand dorsa vein pattern acquisition using low cost device and proposing a algorithm to extract features from these low quality images.

  18. 3D Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Interaction Observed in Collocated MODIS and ASTER Images of Cumulus Cloud Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    3D aerosol-cloud interaction is examined by analyzing two images containing cumulus clouds in biomass burning regions in Brazil. The research consists of two parts. The first part focuses on identifying 3D clo ud impacts on the reflectance of pixel selected for the MODIS aerosol retrieval based purely on observations. The second part of the resea rch combines the observations with radiative transfer computations to identify key parameters in 3D aerosol-cloud interaction. We found that 3D cloud-induced enhancement depends on optical properties of nearb y clouds as well as wavelength. The enhancement is too large to be ig nored. Associated biased error in 1D aerosol optical thickness retrie val ranges from 50% to 140% depending on wavelength and optical prope rties of nearby clouds as well as aerosol optical thickness. We caution the community to be prudent when applying 1D approximations in comp uting solar radiation in dear regions adjacent to clouds or when usin g traditional retrieved aerosol optical thickness in aerosol indirect effect research.

  19. OpenID connect as a security service in Cloud-based diagnostic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weina; Sartipi, Kamran; Sharghi, Hassan; Koff, David; Bak, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of cloud computing is driving the next generation of diagnostic imaging (DI) systems. Cloud-based DI systems are able to deliver better services to patients without constraining to their own physical facilities. However, privacy and security concerns have been consistently regarded as the major obstacle for adoption of cloud computing by healthcare domains. Furthermore, traditional computing models and interfaces employed by DI systems are not ready for accessing diagnostic images through mobile devices. RESTful is an ideal technology for provisioning both mobile services and cloud computing. OpenID Connect, combining OpenID and OAuth together, is an emerging REST-based federated identity solution. It is one of the most perspective open standards to potentially become the de-facto standard for securing cloud computing and mobile applications, which has ever been regarded as "Kerberos of Cloud". We introduce OpenID Connect as an identity and authentication service in cloud-based DI systems and propose enhancements that allow for incorporating this technology within distributed enterprise environment. The objective of this study is to offer solutions for secure radiology image sharing among DI-r (Diagnostic Imaging Repository) and heterogeneous PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) as well as mobile clients in the cloud ecosystem. Through using OpenID Connect as an open-source identity and authentication service, deploying DI-r and PACS to private or community clouds should obtain equivalent security level to traditional computing model.

  20. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore »larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  1. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  2. Geographical correlation of TV and IR images obtained from weather satellites. [cloud cover photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziman, Y. L.; Nepoklonov, B. N.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements on the accuracy of geographical correlation of TV and IR cloud cover images are determined by the objective of the analysis of the weather information contained in these images. In the operational analysis case, the correlation accuracy need not be high. Errors of several tens of kilometers in determining the location of the cloud formation contours are considered acceptable in this case. Such correlation must be provided in real image reception time. Scientific studies require accurate correlation of the cloud formation contours. The errors in determining their position should be commensurate with the imaging system resolution. The geometric aspects of developing methods and equipment for geographical correlation of television and infrared images of cloud cover taken from Meteor satellites are discussed.

  3. Global Images of Polar Mesospheric Clouds From the SNOE Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, A. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Bailey, S. M.; Barth, C. A.

    2001-05-01

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) have been observed from several spacecraft over the last three decades. These experiments have shown the seasonal behavior of PMCs and have provided some morphological information. The Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) has been observing PMCs since 1998 and has successfully measured six PMC seasons. SNOE is a spinning satellite in a sun-synchronous near-polar orbit at 10:30 am/pm local time. SNOE has a significant advantage over its predecessors in that it is able to observe PMCs globally each day. In the summer seasons, the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) limb measurements include detections of PMCs around 83 km. Because SNOE orbits the earth 15 times a day, it obtains global coverage of the mesosphere. By combining the 15 orbits, we can produce daily global images of PMC observation frequency and UV scattering ratio. The SNOE measurements show that PMCs start to form at high latitudes (75 degrees and higher) in the beginning of the PMC season, three weeks before summer solstice. By the middle of the season, PMCs form globally down to 50 degrees in latitude and then recede back to higher latitudes in the latter part of the season. The daily images, shown in a movie format, show the day-to-day variability in latitude and longitude of the PMC occurrences. The images suggest the influence of dynamics on the creation and destruction of PMCs. Case studies of several 5-10 day periods show a westward movement of PMC formation with the suggestion of wave structure.

  4. Images of Hurricane Katrina (2005) below the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Walter, B. A.; Perrie, W.; Long, D. G.; Zhang, J.; Black, P. G.; Rogers, R.

    2006-12-01

    A remarkable coincidence of two independent satellite images from Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and SeaWinds/QuikSCAT scatterometer, depicting the state of the sea surface, and HRD/NOAA aircraft reconnaissance including a Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), occurred in Hurricane Katrina near the time of its maximum intensity on August 28th, 2005. The satellite images were acquired within 6 seconds of each other near 2345 UTC. The eye, primary and secondary eyewalls, and outer rainbands were traversed by the aircraft during the time of image acquisition, and all of these features are visible on the images, both of which captured most of the storm area. Comparison of SAR and scatterometer images indicates good agreement in the level of backscatter pixel-by-pixel when SAR pixels (~50 m) are averaged to match scatterometer pixels (~2.5 km). Comparison with airborne SFMR also indicates good agreement when the aircraft data are rotated slightly in azimuth to account for advection by the tangential surface winds over a period of 0-6 minutes. Seven independent measurements of horizontal wind are available in this unique situation: one from each satellite image, the airborne radiometer, in situ flight-level data, dropsondes, fuselage radar (for feature tracking of precipitation features) and tail Doppler radar (a 3D wind field synthesized over ~1 hour). Comparison of surface and flight level data in the primary eyewall indicates an outward tilt of the axis of maximum winds with height similar to that seen in the Doppler composite structure obtained around this time. Surface winds appear stronger than flight-level winds in the primary eyewall but not in a secondary eyewall farther out.. Tangential wind maxima are associated with both eyewalls -- each a ring of enhanced precipitation -- and both are superposed on a radial profile of rather strong winds, suggesting that significant microwave backscatter should be expected throughout the inner core, as observed. Nevertheless, the imprint of eye and eyewalls on the sea surface is clearly visible in the satellite backscatter images and in surface winds derived from their respective retrieval algorithms. Our coincidence of independent wind measurements provides an unprecedented opportunity for algorithm validation in an extreme wind/rainfall environment and to assess the impacts, if any, of cloud liquid water and raindrops on beam attenuation in the C and Ku bands used, respectively, by the SAR and scatterometer. A few suspiciously dark features in an outer rainband are detected in both satellite images, and an attempt is made to collocate with spots of maximum precipitation in a sequence of fuselage radar images in order to address this issue. Similar features are sometimes seen in SAR images of other hurricanes, suggesting small pockets or "seams" of relative calm. Comments are made on the utility of SAR imagery for ocean swell and sea spray in the hurricane inner-core environment, and for depiction of convective downdrafts in the outer bands.

  5. Weekly Cycle of Lightning and Associated Patterns of Rainfall, Cloud, and Aerosols over Korea and Adjacent Oceans during Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Ji-In; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the weekly cycle of lightning over Korea and adjacent oceans and associated variations of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and atmospheric circulations, using aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the NASA Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), cloud properties from MODIS, precipitation and storm height from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and lightning data from the Korean Lightning Detection Network (KLDN) during 9-year from 2002 to 2010. Lightning data was divided into three approximately equal areas, land area of Korea, and two adjacent oceans, Yellow Sea and South Sea. Preliminary results show that the number of lightning increases during the middle of the week over Yellow Sea. AOD data also shows moderately significant midweek increase at about the same time as lightning peaks. These results are consistent with the recent studies showing the invigoration of storms with more ice hydrometeors by aerosols, and subsequently wash out of aerosols by rainfall. Frequency of lightning strokes tend to peak at weekend in land area and over South Sea, indicating local weekly anomalous circulation between land and adjacent ocean. On the other hand, lightning frequency over Yellow Sea appears to have very strong weekly cycle with midweek peak on around Wednesday. It is speculated that the midweek peak of lightning over Yellow Sea was related with aerosol transport from adjacent land area. AOD data also suggests midweek peak over Yellow Sea, however, the weekly cycle of AOD was not statistically significant. Changes in weekly cycle of lightning from pre-monsoon to monsoon season, as well as associated clouds and circulation patterns are also discussed.

  6. A Medical Image Backup Architecture Based on a NoSQL Database and Cloud Computing Services.

    PubMed

    Santos Simões de Almeida, Luan Henrique; Costa Oliveira, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital systems for storing medical images generates a huge volume of data. Digital images are commonly stored and managed on a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), under the DICOM standard. However, PACS is limited because it is strongly dependent on the server's physical space. Alternatively, Cloud Computing arises as an extensive, low cost, and reconfigurable resource. However, medical images contain patient information that can not be made available in a public cloud. Therefore, a mechanism to anonymize these images is needed. This poster presents a solution for this issue by taking digital images from PACS, converting the information contained in each image file to a NoSQL database, and using cloud computing to store digital images. PMID:26262231

  7. EFFICIENT REPRESENTATION OF LIGHTING PATTERNS FOR IMAGE-BASED RELIGHTING

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    EFFICIENT REPRESENTATION OF LIGHTING PATTERNS FOR IMAGE-BASED RELIGHTING Hyunjung Shim Tsuhan Chen), and show that the most efficient lighting patterns should be the eigenvec- tors of the covariance matrix of a scene under different lighting conditions without prior knowledge of the object geometry and surface

  8. Accuracy assessment of building point clouds automatically generated from iphone images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirmacek, B.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2014-06-01

    Low-cost sensor generated 3D models can be useful for quick 3D urban model updating, yet the quality of the models is questionable. In this article, we evaluate the reliability of an automatic point cloud generation method using multi-view iPhone images or an iPhone video file as an input. We register such automatically generated point cloud on a TLS point cloud of the same object to discuss accuracy, advantages and limitations of the iPhone generated point clouds. For the chosen example showcase, we have classified 1.23% of the iPhone point cloud points as outliers, and calculated the mean of the point to point distances to the TLS point cloud as 0.11 m. Since a TLS point cloud might also include measurement errors and noise, we computed local noise values for the point clouds from both sources. Mean (?) and standard deviation (?) of roughness histograms are calculated as (?1 = 0.44 m., ?1 = 0.071 m.) and (?2 = 0.025 m., ?2 = 0.037 m.) for the iPhone and TLS point clouds respectively. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the proposed automatic 3D model generation framework for 3D urban map updating, fusion and detail enhancing, quick and real-time change detection purposes. However, further insights should be obtained first on the circumstances that are needed to guarantee a successful point cloud generation from smartphone images.

  9. Optical Imaging of Flow Pattern and Phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galland, Pierre A.; Liang, X.; Wang, L.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.; Breisacher, K.

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved optical imaging technique has been used to image the spatial distribution of small droplets and jet sprays in a highly scattering environment. The snake and ballistic components of the transmitted pulse are less scattered, and contain direct information about the sample to facilitate image formation as opposed to the diffusive components which are due to multiple collisions as a light pulse propagates through a scattering medium. In a time-gated imaging scheme, these early-arriving, image-bearing components of the incident pulse are selected by opening a gate for an ultrashort period of time and a shadowgram image is detected. Using a single shot cooled CCD camera system, the formation of water droplets is monitored as a function of time. Picosecond time-gated image of drop in scattering cells, spray droplets as a function of let speed and gas pressure, and model calcification samples consisted of calcium carbonate particles of irregular shapes ranging in size from 0. 1 to 1.5 mm affixed to a microscope slide have been measured. Formation produced by an impinging jet will be further monitored using a CCD with 1 kHz framing illuminated with pulsed light. The desired image resolution of the fuel droplets is on the 20 pm scale using early light through a highly scattering medium. A 10(exp -6)m displacement from a jet spray with a flow speed of 100 m/sec introduced by the ns grating pulse used in the imaging is negligible. Early ballistic/snake light imaging offers nondestructive and noninvasive method to observe the spatial distribution of hidden objects inside a highly scattering environment for space, biomedical, and materials applications. In this paper, the techniques we will present are time-resolved K-F transillumination imaging and time-gated scattered light imaging. With a large dynamic range and high resolution, time-gated early light imaging has the potential for improving rocket/aircraft design by determining jets shape and particle sizes. Refinements to these techniques may enable drop size measurements in the highly scattering, optically dense region of multi-element rocket injectors. These types of measurements should greatly enhance the design of stable, and higher performing rocket engines.

  10. Robust Message-Privacy Preserving Image Copy Detection for Cloud-based Systems

    E-print Network

    Robust Message-Privacy Preserving Image Copy Detection for Cloud-based Systems M. Diephuis, S--In this paper we propose an architecture for message-privacy preserving copy detection and content identi the Internet, known in popular language as `the cloud'. Example services include Microsoft Azure, Apple i

  11. Advanced infrared sounder subpixel cloud detection with imagers and its impact

    E-print Network

    Li, Jun

    sounder data for clear pixel detection or clear channel detection (e.g., by comparing observationsAdvanced infrared sounder subpixel cloud detection with imagers and its impact on radiance detection is very important for infrared (IR) radiance assimilation; improved cloud detection could reduce

  12. Clouds 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Uncertainties associated with the microphysical and radiative properties of ice clouds remain an active research area because of the importance these clouds have in atmospheric radiative transfer problems and the energy balance of the Earth...

  13. High-resolution imaging of compact high-velocity clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Heij, V.; Braun, R.; Burton, W. B.

    2002-08-01

    We have imaged five compact high-velocity clouds in H I with arcmin angular resolution and km s-1 spectral resolution using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. These CHVCs have a characteristic morphology, consisting of one or more quiescent, low-dispersion compact cores embedded in a diffuse warm halo. The compact cores can be unambiguously identified with the cool neutral medium of condensed atomic hydrogen, since their linewidths are significantly narrower than the thermal linewidth of the warm neutral medium. Because of the limited sensitivity to diffuse emission inherent to interferometric data, the warm medium is not directly detected in the WSRT observations. Supplementary total-power data, which is fully sensitive to both the cool and warm components of H I, is available for comparison for all the sources, albeit with angular resolutions that vary from 3' to 36'. The fractional H I flux in compact CNM components varies from 4% to 16% in our sample. All objects have at least one local peak in the CNM column density which exceeds about 1019;cm-2 when observed with arcmin resolution. It is plausible that a peak column density of 1-2 x 1019;cm-2 is a prerequisite for the long-term survival of these sources. One object in our sample, CHVC 120-20-443 (Davies' cloud), lies in close projected proximity to the disk of M 31. This object is characterized by exceptionally broad linewidths in its CNM concentrations, more than 5 times greater than the median value found in the 13 CHVCs studied to date at comparable resolution. These CNM concentrations lie in an arc on the edge of the source facing the M 31 disk. The diffuse H I component of this source, seen in total-power data from the NRAO 140-foot telescope, has a positional offset in the direction of the M 31 disk. All of these attributes suggest that CHVC 120-20-443 is in a different evolutionary state than most of the other CHVCs which have been studied. Similarly broad CNM linewidths have only been detected in one other cloud, CHVC 110.6-07.0-466 (Wakker & Schwarz \\cite{wakker91b}) which also lies in the Local Group barycenter direction and has the most extreme radial velocity known. A distinct possibility for Davies' cloud seems to be physical interaction of some type with M 31. The most likely form of this interaction might be the ram-pressure or tidal-stripping by either one of M 31's visible dwarf companions, M 32 or NGC 205, or else by a dark companion with an associated H I condensation. The compact objects located in the direction of the Local Group barycenter have an important role to play in constraining the Local Group hypothesis for the deployment of CHVCs.

  14. Cloud frequency climatology at the Andes/Amazon transition: 1. Seasonal and diurnal cycles

    E-print Network

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    Cloud frequency climatology at the Andes/Amazon transition: 1. Seasonal and diurnal cycles Kate-scale cloud patterns. We examine the cloud climatology of a tropical Andean montane region in the context Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) DX cloud product (1983­2008), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging

  15. Deep infrared images of the Small Magellanic Cloud and comparison with the distribution of ultraviolet emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okumura, K.; Viallefond, F.; Viton, M.; Rice, W.

    1992-01-01

    Deep infrared images of the Small Magellanic Cloud have been produced and compared to an ultraviolet image at an angular resolution of 8 min. There is a strong correlation between the far infrared and the ultraviolet emission but the dispersion in this correlation is unrelated to infrared colors. Comparing with the results for the nearby spiral M33 at different radial distances, it is suggested that the population of dust grains in the Small Magellanic Cloud has very different properties.

  16. Advanced infrared sounder subpixel cloud detection with imagers and its impact on radiance assimilation in NWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Jun; Li, Jinlong; Li, Zhenglong; Schmit, Timothy J.; Bai, Wenguang

    2014-03-01

    Accurate cloud detection is very important for infrared (IR) radiance assimilation; improved cloud detection could reduce cloud contamination and hence improve the assimilation. Although operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers are using IR sounder radiance data for cloud detection, collocated high spatial resolution imager data could help sounder subpixel cloud detection and characterization. IR sounder radiances with improved cloud detection using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were assimilated for Hurricane Sandy (2012). Forecast experiments were run with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) as the forecast model and the Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR)-based Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) as the analysis system. Results indicate that forecasts of both hurricane track and intensity are substantially improved when the collocated high spatial resolution MODIS cloud mask is used for AIRS subpixel cloud detection for assimilating radiances. This methodology can be applied to process Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CRIS)/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the Metop series for improved radiance assimilation in NWP.

  17. A novel approach for the extraction of cloud motion vectors using airglow imager measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.; Narayana Rao, T.; Taori, A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper explores the possibility of implementing an advanced photogrammetric technique, generally employed for satellite measurements, on airglow imager, a ground-based remote sensing instrument primarily used for upper atmospheric studies, measurements of clouds for the extraction of cloud motion vectors (CMVs). The major steps involved in the algorithm remain the same, including image processing for better visualization of target elements and noise removal, identification of target cloud, setting a proper search window for target cloud tracking, estimation of cloud height, and employing 2-D cross-correlation to estimate the CMVs. Nevertheless, the implementation strategy at each step differs from that of satellite, mainly to suit airglow imager measurements. For instance, climatology of horizontal winds at the measured site has been used to fix the search window for target cloud tracking. The cloud height is estimated very accurately, as required by the algorithm, using simultaneous collocated lidar measurements. High-resolution, both in space and time (4 min), cloud imageries are employed to minimize the errors in retrieved CMVs. The derived winds are evaluated against MST radar-derived winds by considering it as a reference. A very good correspondence is seen between these two wind measurements, both showing similar wind variation. The agreement is also found to be good in both the zonal and meridional wind velocities with RMSEs < 2.4 m s-1. Finally, the strengths and limitations of the algorithm are discussed, with possible solutions, wherever required.

  18. The identification of cloud types in LANDSAT MSS images. [Great Britain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, E. C. (principal investigator); Grant, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five general families of clouds were identified: cumulonimbiform, cumuliform, stratiform, stratocumuliform, and cirriform. Four members of this five-fold primary division of clouds were further divided into a number of subgroups. The MSS observed and recorded earth radiation in four different wavebands. Two of these bands (4 and 5) image in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, while the others (6 and 7) image the short wave portion, or just into the infrared. The main differences between the appearances of clouds in the four wavebands are related to the background brightness of land and sea surfaces.

  19. Satellite retrieval of convective cloud base temperature based on the NPP/VIIRS Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yannian; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yu, Xing; Liu, Guihua; Dai, Jin; Xu, Xiaohong

    2014-02-01

    The advent of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite provided a quantum jump in the satellite capabilities of retrieving cloud properties, because it nearly tripled the resolution in the thermal channels (375 m). This allowed us to develop a methodology for retrieving convective cloud base temperature (Tb) and validate it over the Atmospheric System Research Southern Great Plains site for the satellite early afternoon overpass time. The standard error of the Tb retrieval was only 1.1°C. The knowledge of Tb allows the calculation of cloud base height and the depth of the boundary layer, as well as the boundary layer water vapor mixing ratio with an accuracy of about 10%. The feasibility of retrieving cloud base temperature and height is an essential component that is required for retrieving cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from satellites by using convective clouds as natural CCN chambers.

  20. Identification of damage in buildings based on gaps in 3D point clouds from very high resolution oblique airborne images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrivel, Anand; Gerke, Markus; Kerle, Norman; Vosselman, George

    2015-07-01

    Point clouds generated from airborne oblique images have become a suitable source for detailed building damage assessment after a disaster event, since they provide the essential geometric and radiometric features of both roof and façades of the building. However, they often contain gaps that result either from physical damage or from a range of image artefacts or data acquisition conditions. A clear understanding of those reasons, and accurate classification of gap-type, are critical for 3D geometry-based damage assessment. In this study, a methodology was developed to delineate buildings from a point cloud and classify the present gaps. The building delineation process was carried out by identifying and merging the roof segments of single buildings from the pre-segmented 3D point cloud. This approach detected 96% of the buildings from a point cloud generated using airborne oblique images. The gap detection and classification methods were tested using two other data sets obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images with a ground resolution of around 1-2 cm. The methods detected all significant gaps and correctly identified the gaps due to damage. The gaps due to damage were identified based on the surrounding damage pattern, applying Gabor wavelets and a histogram of gradient orientation features. Two learning algorithms - SVM and Random Forests were tested for mapping the damaged regions based on radiometric descriptors. The learning model based on Gabor features with Random Forests performed best, identifying 95% of the damaged regions. The generalization performance of the supervised model, however, was less successful: quality measures decreased by around 15-30%.

  1. Planar Constraints for AN Improved Uav-Image Dense Point Cloud Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Habib, A.; Al-Rawabdeh, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new refinement procedure for the semi-global dense image matching. In order to remove outliers and improve the disparity image derived from the semi-global algorithm, both the local smoothness constraint and point cloud segments are utilized. Compared with current refinement technique, which usually assumes the correspondences between planar surfaces and 2D image segments, our proposed approach can effectively deal with object with both planar and curved surfaces. Meanwhile, since 3D point clouds contain more precise geometric information regarding to the reconstructed objects, the planar surfaces identified in our approach can be more accurate. In order to illustrate the feasibility of our approach, several experimental tests are conducted on both Middlebury test and real UAV-image datasets. The results demonstrate that our approach has a good performance on improving the quality of the derived dense image-based point cloud.

  2. Optical Processing of Speckle Images with Bacteriorhodopsin for Pattern Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Logarithmic processing of images with multiplicative noise characteristics can be utilized to transform the image into one with an additive noise distribution. This simplifies subsequent image processing steps for applications such as image restoration or correlation for pattern recognition. One particularly common form of multiplicative noise is speckle, for which the logarithmic operation not only produces additive noise, but also makes it of constant variance (signal-independent). We examine the optical transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin films here and find them well suited to implement such a pointwise logarithmic transformation optically in a parallel fashion. We present experimental results of the optical conversion of speckle images into transformed images with additive, signal-independent noise statistics using the real-time photochromic properties of bacteriorhodopsin. We provide an example of improved correlation performance in terms of correlation peak signal-to-noise for such a transformed speckle image.

  3. Radionuclide cerebral perfusion imaging: Normal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Stritzke, P.; Losonczy, M.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Holan, V.; DaCosta, M.; Muzinic, M.

    1991-12-31

    Regional cerebral perfusion imaging using a new class of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I labeled compounds which traverse the blood brain barrier and SPECT imaging technology provides an opportunity to assess this physiologic phenomenon during normal cerebral function and as a manifestation of disease in the central nervous system disease. These applications pose a challenge to the nuclear medicine physician for several reasons: (a) the complex and somewhat unfamiliar functional anatomy, (b) the marked regional differences in regional cerebral perfusion at rest, (c) the lack of understanding of the effect of variations in ambient conditions on regional cerebral perfusion. The difficulties in interpretation are augmented by the display itself. There is frequently no difficulty in differentiating between gray and white matter. However, the frequently used {open_quotes}hot body{close_quotes} color maps, introduce a good deal of contrast, producing displays with apparent interruption in regional cortical perfusion whereas black and white displays provide minimal contrast in the regional cortical activity. The authors sought to define how much variation in regional cerebral perfusion is {open_quotes}allowed{close_quotes} under controlled conditions, to establish a basis to interpret if changes in the environment, psychological interventions, or disease states are accompanied by a measurable change. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J.; Levine, G.F.

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  5. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. ); Levine, G.F. . Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  6. Image Description with Local Patterns: An Application to Face Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Ahrary, Alireza; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for presenting the local features of digital image using 1D Local Patterns by Multi-Scans (1DLPMS). We also consider the extentions and simplifications of the proposed approach into facial images analysis. The proposed approach consists of three steps. At the first step, the gray values of pixels in image are represented as a vector giving the local neighborhood intensity distrubutions of the pixels. Then, multi-scans are applied to capture different spatial information on the image with advantage of less computation than other traditional ways, such as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The second step is encoding the local features based on different encoding rules using 1D local patterns. This transformation is expected to be less sensitive to illumination variations besides preserving the appearance of images embedded in the original gray scale. At the final step, Grouped 1D Local Patterns by Multi-Scans (G1DLPMS) is applied to make the proposed approach computationally simpler and easy to extend. Next, we further formulate boosted algorithm to extract the most discriminant local features. The evaluated results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional approaches in terms of accuracy in applications of face recognition, gender estimation and facial expression.

  7. Cloud Remote Sensing with Sideways-Looks : Theory and First Results Using Multispectral Thermal Imager Data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    In operational remote sensing, the implicit model for cloud geometry is a homogeneous plane-parallel slab of infinite horizontal extent. Each pixel is indeed processed as if it exchanged no radiant energy whatsoever with its neighbors. The shortcomings of this conceptual model have been well documented in the specialized literature but rarely mitigated. The worst-case scenario is probably high-resolution imagery where dense isolated clouds are visible, often both bright (reflective) and dark (transmissive) sides being apparent from the same satellite viewing angle: the low transmitted radiance could conceivably be interpreted in plane-parallel theory as no cloud at all. An alternative to the plane-parallel cloud model is introduced here that has the same appeal of being analytically tractable, at least in the diffusion limit: the spherical cloud. This new geometrical paradigm is applied to radiances from cumulus clouds captured by DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI). Estimates of isolated cloud opacities are a necessary first step in correcting radiances from surface targets that are visible in the midst of a broken-cloud field. This type of advanced atmospheric correction is badly needed in remote sensing applications such as nonproliferation detection were waiting for a cloud-free look in the indefinite future is not a viable option.

  8. Venous pattern of polymicrogyria detected by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franca; Weisstanner, Christian; Strozzi, Susi; Lang, Matthias F

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy presenting with spastic-dystonic movement disorder of the right arm. MRI showed vast unilateral left-sided polymicrogyria (PMG) with perisylvian, temporal, frontal, and parietal location. Corresponding to the distinctly reduced gyration, the focal pattern of cortical veins in susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) was absent due to missing sulcal depth. In contrast, adjacent regions with sufficient sulcal depth revealed a pattern with numerically increased and finer cortical veins. Therefore, with its atypical venous pattern SWI indicates an abnormal parenchymal anatomy and might be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing PMG. PMID:26668757

  9. Cassini imaging of Titan's high-latitude lakes, clouds, and south-polar surface changes

    E-print Network

    Cassini imaging of Titan's high-latitude lakes, clouds, and south-polar surface changes E. P 2009. [1] Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) has been observing Titan since April 2004, suggesting the presence of hydrocarbon lakes similar to those later detected at Titan's North Pole

  10. A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF EMBEDDED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE OPHIUCHI CLOUD CORE

    E-print Network

    Barsony, Mary

    A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF EMBEDDED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE OPHIUCHI CLOUD CORE Mary 2005 April 18 ABSTRACT Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects

  11. Image analysis of dye stained patterns in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Christina; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Quality of surface water and groundwater is directly affected by flow processes in the unsaturated zone. In general, it is difficult to measure or model water flow. Indeed, parametrization of hydrological models is problematic and often no unique solution exists. To visualise flow patterns in soils directly dye tracer studies can be done. These experiments provide images of stained soil profiles and their evaluation demands knowledge in hydrology as well as in image analysis and statistics. First, these photographs are converted to binary images classifying the pixels in dye stained and non-stained ones. Then, some feature extraction is necessary to discern relevant hydrological information. In our study we propose to use several index functions to extract different (ideally complementary) features. We associate each image row with a feature vector (i.e. a certain number of image function values) and use these features to cluster the image rows to identify similar image areas. Because images of stained profiles might have different reasonable clusterings, we calculate multiple consensus clusterings. An expert can explore these different solutions and base his/her interpretation of predominant flow mechanisms on quantitative (objective) criteria. The complete workflow from reading-in binary images to final clusterings has been implemented in the free R system, a language and environment for statistical computing. The calculation of image indices is part of our own package Indigo, manipulation of binary images, clustering and visualization of results are done using either build-in facilities in R, additional R packages or the LATEX system.

  12. Investigation into Cloud Computing for More Robust Automated Bulk Image Geoprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard B.; Smoot, James C.; Underwood, Lauren; Armstrong, C. Duane

    2012-01-01

    Geospatial resource assessments frequently require timely geospatial data processing that involves large multivariate remote sensing data sets. In particular, for disasters, response requires rapid access to large data volumes, substantial storage space and high performance processing capability. The processing and distribution of this data into usable information products requires a processing pipeline that can efficiently manage the required storage, computing utilities, and data handling requirements. In recent years, with the availability of cloud computing technology, cloud processing platforms have made available a powerful new computing infrastructure resource that can meet this need. To assess the utility of this resource, this project investigates cloud computing platforms for bulk, automated geoprocessing capabilities with respect to data handling and application development requirements. This presentation is of work being conducted by Applied Sciences Program Office at NASA-Stennis Space Center. A prototypical set of image manipulation and transformation processes that incorporate sample Unmanned Airborne System data were developed to create value-added products and tested for implementation on the "cloud". This project outlines the steps involved in creating and testing of open source software developed process code on a local prototype platform, and then transitioning this code with associated environment requirements into an analogous, but memory and processor enhanced cloud platform. A data processing cloud was used to store both standard digital camera panchromatic and multi-band image data, which were subsequently subjected to standard image processing functions such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDMI (Normalized Difference Moisture Index), band stacking, reprojection, and other similar type data processes. Cloud infrastructure service providers were evaluated by taking these locally tested processing functions, and then applying them to a given cloud-enabled infrastructure to assesses and compare environment setup options and enabled technologies. This project reviews findings that were observed when cloud platforms were evaluated for bulk geoprocessing capabilities based on data handling and application development requirements.

  13. Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging

    E-print Network

    Novotny, Lukas

    in the objective's back focal plane (or the back-aperture plane for an infinity- corrected system). We by direct imaging of the emission patterns in the back focal plane of a high-numerical-aperture objective scanned through the inhomogeneous field distribution in a strongly focused beam8,9 or near a near

  14. Low-complexity image coding technique using visual patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-10-01

    A visual pattern-based image compression technique is presented, in which 4 X 4 image blocks are classified in perceptually significant `shade' and `edge' classes. The proposed technique attempts to make use of neighboring blocks to encode a shade or an edge block by exploiting the Human Visual System characteristics. To reduce correlation present in the shade regions of an image, the mean intensity of a shade block is predicted from the neighboring shade blocks, and the error mean is computed. The error mean of a block is then encoded by choosing an appropriate quantizer based on its predicted mean. The quantizer has been designed after a careful study of the distribution of the error mean of shade blocks in test images, based on Weber's law, to maximize the compression ratio without introducing any visible error. Higher dimension shade blocks (8 X 8 and 16 X 16) are also formed, by merging adjacent shade blocks which further reduces the inter-block correlation. An edge block is assumed to contain two uniform intensity regions (low and high intensity) separated by a transition region. Hence, an edge block can be encoded by coding its edge pattern, low or high intensity and gradient. In order to reduce the inter-block correlation, the edge pattern and mean intensity (low or high) are predicted. The mean intensity of error is encoded by using an appropriate quantizer. Therefore, this technique achieves higher compression ratios, as compared to other visual pattern- based techniques, at very low computational complexity.

  15. Typhoon center location algorithm based on fractal feature and gradient of infrared satellite cloud image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changjiang; Chen, Yuan; Lu, Juan

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm for typhoon center location is proposed using fractal feature and gradient of infrared satellite cloud image. The centers are generally located in this region for a typhoon except the latter disappearing typhoon. The characteristics of dense cloud region are smoother texture and higher gray values than those of marginal clouds. So the window analysis method is used to select an appropriate cloud region. The window whose difference value between the sum of the gray-gradient co-occurrence matrix and fractal dimension is the biggest is chosen as the dense cloud region. The temperature gradient of the region, which is near typhoon center except typhoon eye, is small. Thus the gradient information is strengthened and is calculated by canny operator. Then we use a window to traverse the dense cloud region. If there is a closed curve, the region of curve is considered as the typhoon center region. Otherwise, the region in which there is the most texture intersection and the biggest density is considered as the typhoon center region. Finally, the geometric center of the center region is determined as the typhoon center location. The effectiveness is test by Chinese FY-2C stationary satellite cloud image. And the result is compared with the typhoon center location in the "tropical cyclone yearbook" which was compiled by Shanghai typhoon institute of China meteorological administration. Experimental results show that the high location accuracy can be obtained.

  16. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Feedback-Driven Training and Image Recognition.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Mani; von Cavallar, Stefan; Chakravorty, Rajib; Davis, Matthew; Garnavi, Rahil

    2015-01-01

    Advanced techniques in machine learning combined with scalable "cloud" computing infrastructure are driving the creation of new and innovative health diagnostic applications. We describe a service and application for performing image training and recognition, tailored to dermatology and melanoma identification. The system implements new machine learning approaches to provide a feedback-driven training loop. This training sequence enhances classification performance by incrementally retraining the classifier model from expert responses. To easily provide this application and associated web service to clinical practices, we also describe a scalable cloud infrastructure, deployable in public cloud infrastructure and private, on-premise systems. PMID:26262140

  17. A method to transfer speckle patterns for digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenning; Quan, Chenggen; Zhu, Feipeng; He, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-01

    A simple and repeatable speckle creation method based on water transfer printing (WTP) is proposed to reduce artificial measurement error for digital image correlation (DIC). This technique requires water, brush, and a piece of transfer paper that is made of prefabricated decal paper, a protected sheet, and printed speckle patterns. The speckle patterns are generated and optimized via computer simulations, and then printed on the decal paper. During the experiments, operators can moisten the basement with water and the brush, so that digital patterns can be simply transferred to the carriers’ surfaces. Tensile experiments with an extended three-dimensional (3D) DIC system are performed to test and verify the validity of WTP patterns. It is shown that by comparing with a strain gage, the strain error is less than 50?? in a uniform tensile test. From five carbon steel tensile experiments, Lüders bands in both WTP patterns and spray paint patterns are demonstrated to propagate symmetrically. In the necking part where the strain is up to 66%, WTP patterns are proved to adhere to the specimens well. Hence, WTP patterns are capable of maintaining coherence and adherence to the specimen surface. The transfer paper, working as the role of strain gage in the electrometric method, will contribute to speckle creation.

  18. Holographic atom imaging from experimental photoelectron angular distribution patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Terminello, L.J.; Lapiano-Smith, D.A.; Barton, J.J.; Petersen, B.L.; Shirley, D.A.

    1993-11-01

    One of the most challenging areas of materials research is the imaging of technologically relevant materials with microscopic and atomic-scale resolution. As part of the development of these methods, near-surface atoms in single crystals were imaged using core-level photoelectron holograms. The angle-dependent electron diffraction patterns that constitute an electron hologram were two-dimensionally transformed to create a three dimensional, real-space image of the neighboring scattering atoms. They have made use of a multiple-wavenumber, phased-summing method to improve the atom imaging capabilities of experimental photoelectron holography using the Cu(001) and Pt(111) prototype systems. These studies are performed to evaluate the potential of holographic atom imaging methods as structural probes of unknown materials.

  19. Cloud Coverage Based on All-Sky Imaging and Its Impact on Surface Solar Irradiance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, G.; McKenzie, R. L.; Liley, J. B.; Thomas, A.; Forgan, B. W.; Long, C. N.

    2003-10-01

    In Lauder, Central Otago, New Zealand, two all-sky imaging systems have been in operation for more than 1 yr, measuring the total, opaque, and thin cloud fraction, as well as indicating whether the sun is obscured by clouds. The data provide a basis for investigating the impact of clouds on the surface radiation field. The all-sky cloud parameters were combined with measurements of global, direct, and diffuse surface solar irradiance over the spectral interval from 0.3 to 3 ?m. Here, the results of ongoing analysis of this dataset are described. As a reference for the magnitude of the cloud influence, clear-sky irradiance values are estimated as a simple function of solar zenith angle and the earth-sun distance. The function is derived from a least squares fit to measurements taken when available cloud images show clear-sky situations. Averaged over a longer time period, such as 1 month, cloud fraction and surface irradiance are clearly negatively correlated. Monthly means in the ratio of the measured surface irradiance to the clear-sky value had a correlation coefficient of about -0.9 with means of cloud fraction for the months from July 2000 to June 2001. In the present work reductions in the surface irradiance and situations in which clouds cause radiation values to exceed the expected clear-sky amount are analyzed. Over 1 yr of observations, 1-min-averaged radiation measurements exceeding the expected clear-sky value by more than 10% were observed with a frequency of 5%. In contrast, a reduction of more than 10% below estimated clear-sky values occurred in 66% of the cases, while clear-sky irradiances (measured irradiance within ±10% of estimated clear-sky value) were observed 29% of the time. Low cloud fractions frequently lead to moderate enhancement, because the sun is often unobscured and the clouds are brighter than the sky that they hide. As cloud fraction increases the sun is likely to be obscured, causing irradiance values to fall well below clear-sky values. However, in the case of unobscured sun, there is a tendency for strongest enhancements when cloud fractions are highest. Enhancements, especially at high solar zenith angle, are also often observed in association with thin clouds.

  20. Vacuum Ultraviolet Images of the Large Magellanic Cloud: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Robert S.

    1990-06-01

    In the paper "Vacuum Ultraviolet Images of the Large Magellanic Cloud" by Andrew M. Smith, Robert H. Cornett, and Robert S. Hill (Ap. J., 320, 609 [1987]), an error was made in the dereddening formulae for vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) magnitudes on page 613. For 30 Dor dereddening, the formulae should be m_0(1500)_ = m_1500_ - 10.47 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.05 x E(B - V)_Gal_, and m_0(1900)_ = m_1900_ - 8.87 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.28 x E(B - V)_Gal_. For non-30 Dor dereddening, the formulae should be m_0(1500)_ = m_1500_ -8.72 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.05 x E(B - V)_Gal_, and m_0(1900) = m_1900_ - 8.21 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.28 x E(B - V)_Gal_. The ramifications of this error spread through several results. However, it must be noted that the overall effect is to make our original estimates of intrinsic VUV flux too low. As a result, our primary argument on energetics actually becomes stronger: there is ample energy flux in the southwestern Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to sustain into the next generation of stars the star-formation front visible in our VUV images. The three tables of observational results are replaced by the results given here in Table 1, in which intrinsic VUV fluxes are corrected (other quantities remain as they were). The discussion of Table 2 needs to be amended. This table compares ionizing fluxes computed by different methods for VUV sources (OB associations) that can be identified with 6 cm radio sources (H II regions). The aggregate ionizing fluxes for this set of objects derived from the two wavelength regimes are no longer so nearly equal as they were. However, as we pointed out, any such equality would be fortuitous, since the two derivations yield results differing by typically a factor of 2 for any given individual association. The discussion of Table 3 also needs to be amended. This table combines ionizing fluxes from OB associations (derived from VU photometry) with ionizing fluxes from 6 cm sources that do not coincide with any OB association. In this way, a total ionizing flux for the whole LMC is computed, as is a sub-total for the southwestern area where we find a large- scale star-formation front. The LMC total is now nearly identical to the "corrected" result of R. C. Kennicutt and P. W. Hodge (Ap. J., 306, 130 [1987]), so as to support their estimate of 1 mag of internal reddening for each H II region. On page 618, the total ionizing flux for VUV sources along and within the computed star-formation front should be 9 x 10^51^ photons s^-1^. The stellar winds have developed a total kinetic energy of ~ 4.6 x 10^53^ ergs over a period of 7.5 Myr. On page 613, the linear relations fitted to the plots in Figure 3 should be m_0(1900)_ = 0.85 x m_0(1500)_ + 1.1, and m_0(1500)_ = 2.9 x [m_0(1500)_-m_0(1900)_] +7.2, with a standard error of 1.5 in the ordinate of the second relation. The plots in Figure 3 would change only slightly, and so are no shown again here. Finally, on page 616 and in the legend to Figure 5, the elapsed time between plotted wave fronts should be 3 x 10^7^ yr. To summarize, our main inferences remain unchanged, as do our basic calibrated photometry results. The purpose of this erratum is to correct certain derived photometry results that may be useful to other investigators.

  1. Diurnal, Seasonal, and Interannual Variations of Cloud Properties Derived for CERES From Imager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chen, Yan; Brown, Richard R.; Gibson, Sharon; Heck, Patrick W.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of the radiation and cloud fields on a global basis is a key component in the effort to understand and model the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. The NASA Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project, begun in 1998, is meeting this need. Broadband shortwave (SW) and longwave radiance measurements taken by the CERES scanners at resolutions between 10 and 20 km on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Terra, and Aqua satellites are matched to simultaneous retrievals of cloud height, phase, particle size, water path, and optical depth OD from the TRMM Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Besides aiding the interpretation of the broadband radiances, the CERES cloud properties are valuable for understanding cloud variations at a variety of scales. In this paper, the resulting CERES cloud data taken to date are averaged at several temporal scales to examine the temporal and spatial variability of the cloud properties on a global scale at a 1 resolution.

  2. D Point Cloud Model Colorization by Dense Registration of Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombez, N.; Caron, G.; Mouaddib, E.

    2015-02-01

    Architectural heritage is a historic and artistic property which has to be protected, preserved, restored and must be shown to the public. Modern tools like 3D laser scanners are more and more used in heritage documentation. Most of the time, the 3D laser scanner is completed by a digital camera which is used to enrich the accurate geometric informations with the scanned objects colors. However, the photometric quality of the acquired point clouds is generally rather low because of several problems presented below. We propose an accurate method for registering digital images acquired from any viewpoints on point clouds which is a crucial step for a good colorization by colors projection. We express this image-to-geometry registration as a pose estimation problem. The camera pose is computed using the entire images intensities under a photometric visual and virtual servoing (VVS) framework. The camera extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are automatically estimated. Because we estimates the intrinsic parameters we do not need any informations about the camera which took the used digital image. Finally, when the point cloud model and the digital image are correctly registered, we project the 3D model in the digital image frame and assign new colors to the visible points. The performance of the approach is proven in simulation and real experiments on indoor and outdoor datasets of the cathedral of Amiens, which highlight the success of our method, leading to point clouds with better photometric quality and resolution.

  3. An automated cloud detection method based on green channel of total sky visible images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Min, Q.; Lu, W.; Yao, W.; Ma, Y.; Du, J.; Lu, T.

    2015-05-01

    Getting an accurate cloud cover state is a challenging task. In the past, traditional two-dimensional red-to-blue band methods have been widely used for cloud detection in total sky images. By analyzing the imaging principle of cameras, green channel has been selected to replace the 2-D red-to-blue band for total sky cloud detection. The brightness distribution in a total sky image is usually non-uniform, because of forward scattering and Mie scattering of aerosols, which results in increased detection errors in the circumsolar and near-horizon regions. This paper proposes an automatic cloud detection algorithm, "green channel background subtraction adaptive threshold" (GBSAT), which incorporates channel selection, background simulation, computation of solar mask and cloud mask, subtraction, adaptive threshold, and binarization. Several experimental cases show that the GBSAT algorithm is robust for all types of test total sky images and has more complete and accurate retrievals of visual effects than those found through traditional methods.

  4. Evaluating EUV mask pattern imaging with two EUV microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Takase, Kei; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Han, Hakseung; Barty, Anton; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Hamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2008-02-26

    Aerial image measurement plays a key role in the development of patterned reticles for each generation of lithography. Studying the field transmitted (reflected) from EUV masks provides detailed information about potential disruptions caused by mask defects, and the performance of defect repair strategies, without the complications of photoresist imaging. Furthermore, by measuring the continuously varying intensity distribution instead of a thresholded, binary resist image, aerial image measurement can be used as feedback to improve mask and lithography system modeling methods. Interest in EUV, at-wavelength, aerial image measurement lead to the creation of several research tools worldwide. These tools are used in advanced mask development work, and in the evaluation of the need for commercial at-wavelength inspection tools. They describe performance measurements of two such tools, inspecting the same EUV mask in a series of benchmarking tests that includes brightfield and darkfield patterns. One tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) operating on a bending magnet beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. The AIT features an EUV Fresnel zoneplate microscope that emulates the numerical aperture of a 0.25-NA stepper, and projects the aerial image directly onto a CCD camera, with 700x magnification. The second tool is an EUV microscope (EUVM) operating at the NewSUBARU synchrotron in Hyogo, Japan. The NewSUBARU tool projects the aerial image using a reflective, 30x Schwarzschild objective lens, followed by a 10-200x x-ray zooming tube. The illumination conditions and the imaging etendue are different for the two tools. The benchmarking measurements were used to determine many imaging and performance properties of the tools, including resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), aberration magnitude, aberration field-dependence (including focal-plane tilt), illumination uniformity, line-edge roughness, and flare. These measurements reveal the current state of the art in at-wavelength inspection performance, and will be a useful reference as performance improves over time.

  5. Cloud Base Height Measurements at Manila Observatory: Initial Results from Constructed Paired Sky Imaging Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrosas, N.; Tan, F.; Antioquia, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Fabricated all sky imagers are efficient and cost effective instruments for cloud detection and classification. Continuous operation of this instrument can result in the determination of cloud occurrence and cloud base heights for the paired system. In this study, a fabricated paired sky imaging system - consisting two commercial digital cameras (Canon Powershot A2300) enclosed in weatherproof containers - is developed in Manila Observatory for the purpose of determining cloud base heights at the Manila Observatory area. One of the cameras is placed on the rooftop of Manila Observatory and the other is placed on the rooftop of the university dormitory, 489m from the first camera. The cameras are programmed to simultaneously gather pictures every 5 min. Continuous operation of these cameras were implemented since the end of May of 2014 but data collection started end of October 2013. The data were processed following the algorithm proposed by Kassianov et al (2005). The processing involves the calculation of the merit function that determines the area of overlap of the two pictures. When two pictures are overlapped, the minimum of the merit function corresponds to the pixel column positions where the pictures have the best overlap. In this study, pictures of overcast sky prove to be difficult to process for cloud base height and were excluded from processing. The figure below shows the initial results of the hourly average of cloud base heights from data collected from November 2013 to July 2014. Measured cloud base heights ranged from 250m to 1.5km. These are the heights of cumulus and nimbus clouds that are dominant in this part of the world. Cloud base heights are low in the early hours of the day indicating low convection process during these times. However, the increase in the convection process in the atmosphere can be deduced from higher cloud base heights in the afternoon. The decrease of cloud base heights after 15:00 follows the trend of decreasing solar energy in the atmosphere after this time. The results show the potential of these instruments to determine cloud base heights on prolonged time intervals. The continuous operation of these instruments is implemented to gather seasonal variation of cloud base heights in this part of the world and to add to the much-needed dataset for future climate studies in Manila Observatory.

  6. A one year Landsat 8 conterminous United States study of spatial and temporal patterns of cirrus and non-cirrus clouds and implications for the long term Landsat archive.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The successful February 2013 launch of the Landsat 8 satellite is continuing the 40+ year legacy of the Landsat mission. The payload includes the Operational Land Imager (OLI) that has a new 1370 mm band designed to monitor cirrus clouds and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) that together provide 30m low, medium and high confidence cloud detections and 30m low and high confidence cirrus cloud detections. A year of Landsat 8 data over the Conterminous United States (CONUS), composed of 11,296 acquisitions, was analyzed comparing the spatial and temporal incidence of these cloud and cirrus states. This revealed (i) 36.5% of observations were detected with high confidence cloud with spatio-temporal patterns similar to those observed by previous Landsat 7 cloud analyses, (ii) 29.2% were high confidence cirrus, (iii) 20.9% were both high confidence cloud and high confidence cirrus, (iv) 8.3% were detected as high confidence cirrus but not as high confidence cloud. The results illustrate the value of the cirrus band for improved Landsat 8 terrestrial monitoring but imply that the historical CONUS Landsat archive has a similar 8% of undetected cirrus contaminated pixels. The implications for long term Landsat time series records, including the global Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) product record, are discussed.

  7. Comparison of eye imaging pattern recognition using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, W. M.; Syed A., M.; Nasir, M. N. M.; Sulaima, M. F.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    The beauty of eye recognition system that it is used in automatic identifying and verifies a human weather from digital images or video source. There are various behaviors of the eye such as the color of the iris, size of pupil and shape of the eye. This study represents the analysis, design and implementation of a system for recognition of eye imaging. All the eye images that had been captured from the webcam in RGB format must through several techniques before it can be input for the pattern and recognition processes. The result shows that the final value of weight and bias after complete training 6 eye images for one subject is memorized by the neural network system and be the reference value of the weight and bias for the testing part. The target classifies to 5 different types for 5 subjects. The eye images can recognize the subject based on the target that had been set earlier during the training process. When the values between new eye image and the eye image in the database are almost equal, it is considered the eye image is matched.

  8. Mitigating illumination gradients in a SAR image based on the image data and antenna beam pattern

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2013-04-30

    Illumination gradients in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of a target can be mitigated by determining a correction for pixel values associated with the SAR image. This correction is determined based on information indicative of a beam pattern used by a SAR antenna apparatus to illuminate the target, and also based on the pixel values associated with the SAR image. The correction is applied to the pixel values associated with the SAR image to produce corrected pixel values that define a corrected SAR image.

  9. Improvements in Near-Terminator and Nocturnal Cloud Masks using Satellite Imager Data over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Trepte, Q.Z.; Minnis, P.; Heck, P.W.; Palikonda, R.

    2005-03-18

    Cloud detection using satellite measurements presents a big challenge near the terminator where the visible (VIS; 0.65 {micro}m) channel becomes less reliable and the reflected solar component of the solar infrared 3.9-{micro}m channel reaches very low signal-to-noise ratio levels. As a result, clouds are underestimated near the terminator and at night over land and ocean in previous Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program cloud retrievals using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data. Cloud detection near the terminator has always been a challenge. For example, comparisons between the CLAVR-x (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR]) cloud coverage and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) measurements north of 60{sup o}N indicate significant amounts of missing clouds from AVHRR because this part of the world was near the day/night terminator viewed by AVHRR. Comparisons between MODIS cloud products and GLAS at the same regions also shows the same difficulty in the MODIS cloud retrieval (Pavolonis and Heidinger 2005). Consistent detection of clouds at all times of day is needed to provide reliable cloud and radiation products for ARM and other research efforts involving the modeling of clouds and their interaction with the radiation budget. To minimize inconsistencies between daytime and nighttime retrievals, this paper develops an improved twilight and nighttime cloud mask using GOES-9, 10, and 12 imager data over the ARM sites and the continental United States (CONUS).

  10. Improvements in Near-Terminator and Nocturnal Cloud Masks using Satellite Image Data over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trepte, Q. Z.; Minnis, P.; Heck, R. W.; Palikonda, R.

    2005-01-01

    Cloud detection using satellite measurements presents a big challenge near the terminator where the visible (VIS; 0.65 (micro)m) channel becomes less reliable and the reflected solar component of the solar infrared 3.9-(micro)m channel reaches very low signal-to-noise ratio levels. As a result, clouds are underestimated near the terminator and at night over land and ocean in previous Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program cloud retrievals using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data. Cloud detection near the terminator has always been a challenge. For example, comparisons between the CLAVR-x (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) cloud coverage and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) measurements north of 60 degrees N indicate significant amounts of missing clouds from AVHRR because this part of the world was near the day/night terminator viewed by AVHRR. Comparisons between MODIS cloud products and GLAS at the same regions also shows the same difficulty in the MODIS cloud retrieval (Pavolonis and Heidinger 2005). Consistent detection of clouds at all times of day is needed to provide reliable cloud and radiation products for ARM and other research efforts involving the modeling of clouds and their interaction with the radiation budget. To minimize inconsistencies between daytime and nighttime retrievals, this paper develops an improved twilight and nighttime cloud mask using GOES-9, 10, and 12 imager data over the ARM sites and the continental United States (CONUS).

  11. Pattern recognition of magnetic resonance images with application to atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides excellent soft tissue contrast enabling the non-invasive visualization of soft tissue diseases. The quantification of tissues visible in MR images would significantly increase the diagnostic information available. While tissue selection methods exist for CT images, those same methods do not work with MR images. This dissertation focuses on the application of image processing and pattern recognition techniques to MR images for the identification and quantification of soft tissues, atherosclerosis in particular. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of human arteries responsible for significant mortality and medical expense. Current diagnostic methods are invasive and carry significant risk. Supervised pattern recognition methods were investigated for tissue identification in MR images. The classifiers were trained A Fisher linear classifier successfully identified the tissues of interest from MR images of excised arteries, performing better than a minimum distance to the means classifier. Quantitative measures of the disease state were computed from the results and 3-D displays were generated of the diseased anatomy. For tissue in vivo, adequate histology can be difficult to collect, increasing the difficulty of training the classifiers and making the results less accurate. Cluster analysis was used in this dissertation to generate the training information. A new cluster analysis method was developed. ISODATA was modified to use hierarchical stopping rules. The new method was tested in a Monte Carlo study and with real world data sets. Comparisons were made with published methods using the same data. An information theoretic criterion, the CAIC, was found to be an excellent criteria for hierarchical stopping rules.

  12. Component pattern analysis of chemicals using multispectral THz imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuki

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz (THz) imaging, which allows detection and identification of chemicals by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the chemicals were obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra previously measured with a widely tunable THz-wave parametric oscillator. Further we have applied this technique to the detection and identification of illicit drugs concealed in envelopes. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

  13. Etiology of the obstructive pattern in hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.S.; Marrangoni, A.G.; Turbiner, E.

    1984-04-01

    The records of all patients undergoing hepatobiliary imaging with technetion radioisotopes at our hospital from January 1980 to March 1983 were reviewed and 29 scans met the criteria for a pattern consistent with complete biliary tract obstruction. Biliary tract obstruction (due to choledocholithiasis, primary or secondary carcinoma involving the common bile duct, and pancreatitis) was documented in 24 of these patients. However, the remaining five patients had a patent common bile duct, and the etiologic factor was intrahepatic cholestasis secondary to sepsis in four and peritonitis in one. A classification of altered biliary dynamics in hepatobiliary imaging, which is based on the classification of jaundice, is proposed.

  14. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Fractals embody important ideas of self-similarity, in which the spatial behavior or appearance of a system is largely independent of scale. Self-similarity is defined as a property of curves or surfaces where each part is indistinguishable from the whole, or where the form of the curve or surface is invariant with respect to scale. An ideal fractal (or monofractal) curve or surface has a constant dimension over all scales, although it may not be an integer value. This is in contrast to Euclidean or topological dimensions, where discrete one, two, and three dimensions describe curves, planes, and volumes. Theoretically, if the digital numbers of a remotely sensed image resemble an ideal fractal surface, then due to the self-similarity property, the fractal dimension of the image will not vary with scale and resolution. However, most geographical phenomena are not strictly self-similar at all scales, but they can often be modeled by a stochastic fractal in which the scaling and self-similarity properties of the fractal have inexact patterns that can be described by statistics. Stochastic fractal sets relax the monofractal self-similarity assumption and measure many scales and resolutions in order to represent the varying form of a phenomenon as a function of local variables across space. In image interpretation, pattern is defined as the overall spatial form of related features, and the repetition of certain forms is a characteristic pattern found in many cultural objects and some natural features. Texture is the visual impression of coarseness or smoothness caused by the variability or uniformity of image tone or color. A potential use of fractals concerns the analysis of image texture. In these situations it is commonly observed that the degree of roughness or inexactness in an image or surface is a function of scale and not of experimental technique. The fractal dimension of remote sensing data could yield quantitative insight on the spatial complexity and information content contained within these data. A software package known as the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) was used to explore how fractal dimension is related to surface texture and pattern. The ICAMS software was verified using simulated images of ideal fractal surfaces with specified dimensions. The fractal dimension for areas of homogeneous land cover in the vicinity of Huntsville, Alabama was measured to investigate the relationship between texture and resolution for different land covers.

  15. Characterization of aerosol-containing chemical simulant clouds using a sensitive, thermal infrared imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey L.; D'Amico, Francis M.; Kolodzey, Steven J.; Qian, Jun; Polak, Mark L.; Westerberg, Karl; Chang, Clement S.

    2011-05-01

    A sensitive, ground-based thermal imaging spectrometer was deployed at the Army's Dugway Proving Ground to remotely monitor explosively released chemical-warfare-agent-simulant clouds from stand-off ranges of a few kilometers. The sensor has 128 spectral bands covering the 7.6 to 13.5 micron region. The measured cloud spectra clearly showed scattering of high-elevation-angle sky radiance by liquid aerosols or dust in the clouds: we present arguments that show why the scattering is most likely due to dust. This observation has significant implications for early detection of dust-laden chemical clouds. On one hand, detection algorithms must properly account for the scattered radiation component, which would include out-of-scene radiation components as well as a dust signature; on the other hand, this scattering gives rise to an enhanced "delta-T" for detection by a ground-based sensor.

  16. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium on Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (principal investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Several papers addressing image analysis and pattern recognition techniques for satellite imagery are presented. Texture classification, image rectification and registration, spatial parameter estimation, and surface fitting are discussed.

  17. Pattern recognition of transillumination images for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joanna; Boerner, Ewa; Podbielska, Halina; Suchwalko, Artur

    2005-09-01

    In this work the statistical pattern recognition methods were applied for evaluation of transillumination images of interphalangeal joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Special portable apparatus was constructed for performing the transillumination examination. It consisted of He-Ne laser with optics for collimated illumination, special holder for placing the finger (perpendicular to optical axis, dorsal site towards camera), and CCD camera with memory stick. 20 ill patients and 20 healthy volunteers were examined. The captured images with 1152x864 resolution were converted into the gray level pictures and analyzed by means of statistical pattern recognition method. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis by use of 1-NN method (1 Nearest Neighbour) were applied for classification. The recognition system was able to differentiate correctly between healthy and ill subjects with 72.35% accuracy in case the data base composed of 40 persons.

  18. Machine learning patterns for neuroimaging-genetic studies in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Da Mota, Benoit; Tudoran, Radu; Costan, Alexandru; Varoquaux, Gaël; Brasche, Goetz; Conrod, Patricia; Lemaitre, Herve; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Antoniu, Gabriel; Thirion, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging is a natural intermediate phenotype to understand the link between genetic information and behavior or brain pathologies risk factors. Massive efforts have been made in the last few years to acquire high-dimensional neuroimaging and genetic data on large cohorts of subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is carried out with increasingly sophisticated techniques and represents a great computational challenge. Fortunately, increasing computational power in distributed architectures can be harnessed, if new neuroinformatics infrastructures are designed and training to use these new tools is provided. Combining a MapReduce framework (TomusBLOB) with machine learning algorithms (Scikit-learn library), we design a scalable analysis tool that can deal with non-parametric statistics on high-dimensional data. End-users describe the statistical procedure to perform and can then test the model on their own computers before running the very same code in the cloud at a larger scale. We illustrate the potential of our approach on real data with an experiment showing how the functional signal in subcortical brain regions can be significantly fit with genome-wide genotypes. This experiment demonstrates the scalability and the reliability of our framework in the cloud with a 2 weeks deployment on hundreds of virtual machines. PMID:24782753

  19. Robust Texture Image Representation by Scale Selective Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenhua; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhou, Jie; You, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Local binary pattern (LBP) has successfully been used in computer vision and pattern recognition applications, such as texture recognition. It could effectively address grayscale and rotation variation. However, it failed to get desirable performance for texture classification with scale transformation. In this paper, a new method based on dominant LBP in scale space is proposed to address scale variation for texture classification. First, a scale space of a texture image is derived by a Gaussian filter. Then, a histogram of pre-learned dominant LBPs is built for each image in the scale space. Finally, for each pattern, the maximal frequency among different scales is considered as the scale invariant feature. Extensive experiments on five public texture databases (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Columbia Utrecht Database, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan-Textures under varying Illumination, Pose and Scale, University of Maryland, and Amsterdam Library of Textures) validate the efficiency of the proposed feature extraction scheme. Coupled with the nearest subspace classifier, the proposed method could yield competitive results, which are 99.36%, 99.51%, 99.39%, 99.46%, and 99.71% for UIUC, CUReT, KTH-TIPS, UMD, and ALOT, respectively. Meanwhile, the proposed method inherits simple and efficient merits of LBP, for example, it could extract scale-robust feature for a 200×200 image within 0.24 s, which is applicable for many real-time applications. PMID:26685235

  20. Physics principles in radiometric infrared imaging of clouds in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Nugent, Paul W.

    2013-11-01

    Imaging the atmosphere with a thermal infrared camera can yield a rich variety of information, ranging from the water-vapour content to the spatial distribution of clouds. Such remote sensing measurements are being used to study climate and to characterize ground-station sites for Earth-space optical communications. The key to turning interesting but qualitative images into the highly accurate quantitative images required for this type of research is careful radiometric calibration. This is especially true when using uncooled microbolometer cameras, which are becoming widely available at relatively low cost. When such cameras are calibrated properly, their images illustrate a variety of important basic principles of optics and atmospheric physics related to thermal emission and absorption by atmospheric gases and clouds.

  1. Deep Infrared Imaging of the R Coronae Australis Cloud Core Bruce A. Wilking

    E-print Network

    Wilking, Bruce A.

    Deep Infrared Imaging of the R Coronae Australis Cloud Core Bruce A. Wilking Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri­St. Louis 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 brucew and Astronomy, University of Missouri­St. Louis 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 giblin

  2. Cloud top structure of Venus revealed by Subaru/COMICS mid-infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T. M.; Sagawa, H.; Kouyama, T.; Mitsuyama, K.; Satoh, T.; Ohtsuki, S.; Ueno, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated the cloud top structure of Venus by analyzing ground-based images obtained by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS), mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope. In this presentation, we will overview the observational results and discuss their interpretations.

  3. Augmenting Reality via Client/Cloud Video and Image Processing Lab

    E-print Network

    Zakhor, Avideh

    11 Augmenting Reality via Client/Cloud Platforms Video and Image Processing Lab University. - Jimmy Wang, John Ristevski 2 #12;Outline What is Augmented Reality (AR)? Why now? Current examples;What is Augmented Reality? Enhance or augment real/actual world to create a more satisfying user

  4. Satellite retrieval of convective cloud base temperature based on the NPP/VIIRS Imager

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Satellite retrieval of convective cloud base temperature based on the NPP/VIIRS Imager Yannian Zhu1 the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite provided a quantum jump in the satellite) and validate it over the Atmospheric System Research Southern Great Plains site for the satellite early

  5. Security authentication using the reflective glass pattern imaging effect.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji Cheng; Shen, Su; Wu, Jian Hong

    2015-11-01

    The reflective glass pattern imaging effect is investigated experimentally for the utility in forming a synthetic 3D image as a security authentication device in this Letter. An array of homogeneously randomly distributed reflective elements and a corresponding micropattern array are integrated onto a thin layer of polyester film aiming to create a vivid image floating over a substrate surface, which can be clearly visible to the naked eye. By using the reflective-type configuration, the micro-optic system can be realized on a thinner substrate and is immune to external stain due to its flat working plane. A novel gravure-like doctor blading technique can realize a resolution up to 12,000 dpi and a stringent 2D alignment requirement should be imposed. Such devices can find applications in document security and banknotes or other valuable items to protect them against forgery. PMID:26512494

  6. Micro-patterned quantum dots excitation for cellular microarray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhave, Gauri; Ng, Elaine; Lee, Youngkyu; Zhang, John X.

    2015-03-01

    We present a compact light source designed for arrayed lab-on-chip cell imaging with the motivation of creating a microchip based system for detection of tumor cells. We aim at creating a multicolor light source that can be integrated for on-chip imaging. Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) were used as the emission layer due to their unique capabilities like multicolor emission, multiple available methods of electrical and photo excitation and compatibility with silicon fabrication were achieved. Micropatterning of QDs was used to create both electrically and photo excited light sources. We study the photo activated source as a robust, high intensity light source which can be easily integrated with lab-onchip systems while requiring additional filters and excitation systems and compare it with an electrically excited source with the capability of individually addressable, multicolor sources on a single substrate eliminating the need for additional optical components. To demonstrate the efficacy of our design, we performed ex vivo transmission mode microscopy to evaluate the nucleus-cytoplasm ratios of cancer cells. We showed the capability of imaging of inner cell structures using multiple wavelengths to perform high contrast imaging and observation. We performed immunofluorescence excitation of MDA-MB 231 cancer cells, cultured in a microwell array. Our method provides patterned multicolor light sources and low cost which are suitable for high-throughput microarray cellular imaging.

  7. Automatic analysis of stereoscopic satellite image pairs for determination of cloud-top height and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Strong, J.; Woodward, R. H.; Pierce, H.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on an automatic stereo analysis of cloud-top heights from nearly simultaneous satellite image pairs from the GOES and NOAA satellites, using a massively parallel processor computer. Comparisons of computer-derived height fields and manually analyzed fields show that the automatic analysis technique shows promise for performing routine stereo analysis in a real-time environment, providing a useful forecasting tool by augmenting observational data sets of severe thunderstorms and hurricanes. Simulations using synthetic stereo data show that it is possible to automatically resolve small-scale features such as 4000-m-diam clouds to about 1500 m in the vertical.

  8. Novel MTF measurement method for medical image viewers using a bar pattern image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Hiroshi; Sawada, Takeshi

    2003-05-01

    A novel MTF(modulation transfer function) measurement method using a bar pattern image for medical image viewers such as DICOM viewer was developed. A bar-pattern image produced by a personal computer was displayed on a cathode-ray-tube (CRT) display and was imaged with a high resolution single-lens reflex digital camera equipped with a close-up lens. The discrete burred square-waveform data acquired from the imaged bar patterns were interpolated using the waveform reproduction technique with Fourier analysis in order to obtain interpolated wave curves. All of the measured pixel values in this process were converted into luminance data. The MTF was calculated from the amplitude values of the extracted basic frequency components in the square-waveform, in which an aliasing error was excluded. Actual measurements were performed with two models of medical image viewer equipped with monochrome displays. Horizontal and vertical MTFs at the central position of display area were measured up to Nyquist frequency. Resultant MTFs clearly indicated the difference in resolution for two viewers, as well as visual evaluation did. The standard deviations of MTF values of 5 measurements at Nyquist frequency were 0.004 and 0.01 for horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Employment of a commercial single-lens reflex digital camera enabled easy and correct focusing and simple data handling. In conclusion, our method may be useful in the medical field due to good reproducibility and easy operativity.

  9. Extracting Mobile Objects in Images Using a Velodyne LIDAR Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, B.; Xiao, W.; Brédif, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a full pipeline to extract mobile objects in images based on a simultaneous laser acquisition with a Velodyne scanner. The point cloud is first analysed to extract mobile objects in 3D. This is done using Dempster-Shafer theory and it results in weights telling for each points if it corresponds to a mobile object, a fixed object or if no decision can be made based on the data (unknown). These weights are projected in an image acquired simultaneously and used to segment the image between the mobile and the static part of the scene.

  10. Effects of clouds on the Earth radiation budget; Seasonal and inter-annual patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variations of clouds and their effects on the climatological parameters were studied. The climatological parameters surface temperature, solar insulation, short-wave absorbed, long wave emitted, and net radiation were considered. The data of climatological parameters consisted of about 20 parameters of Earth radiation budget and clouds of 2070 target areas which covered the globe. It consisted of daily and monthly averages of each parameter for each target area for the period, Jun. 1979 - May 1980. Cloud forcing and black body temperature at the top of the atmosphere were calculated. Interactions of clouds, cloud forcing, black body temperature, and the climatological parameters were investigated and analyzed.

  11. Quantification of air flow patterns by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Brecht, Andres; Janssens, Koen; Berckmans, D.; Vranken, E.

    1999-09-01

    In a ventilated space, the incoming air jet and the resulting air flow pattern play key roles in the removal or supply of heat, moisture, and harmful gases from or to living organisms (man, animal, plant). In this research, two low cost image processing methods (boundary peeling and optical flow) were developed to quantify the 2-D trajectory and the deflection angle of an air jet in a ventilated room. The image processing algorithms were applied to a wide range of air jets in a laboratory test room. Based on the deflection angle of the air jet trajectory from the initial path, a distinction could be made between falling, instable or horizontal air jets.

  12. High-resolution imaging of the galactic cloud Monoceros R2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonatas, Constantine P.; Palmer, Patrick; Novak, G.

    1992-01-01

    We present high-resolution images (9.8 arcsec x 8.5 arcsec beam size) of HCO(+) J = 1-0 emission from the Galactic cloud Mon R2 obtained using the Hat Creek millimeter interferometer and the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m antenna. The HCO(+) emission comes from small optically thick clumps as well as from an extended component. We discuss the relationship between the H II region, as traced by the continuum emission, molecular outflows, as traced by CO emission, and the dense molecular cloud, as traced by the HCO(+) emission. The abundance of HCO(+) in the most massive part of the cloud is consistent with values derived from recent molecular line surveys, but it is relatively enhanced in the less massive regions.

  13. An imager-based multispectral retrieval of above-cloud absorbing aerosol optical depth and the optical and microphysical properties of underlying marine stratocumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S. E.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds, aerosols, and their interactions are widely considered to be key uncertainty components in our current understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and radiation budget. The work presented here is focused on the quasi-permanent marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, which underlie a near-persistent smoke layer produced from extensive biomass burning throughout the southern African savanna during austral winter. The absorption of the above-cloud smoke layer, which increases with decreasing wavelength, can introduce biases into imager-based cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals of the underlying MBL clouds. This effect is more pronounced for cloud optical thickness retrievals, which are typically derived from the visible or near-IR wavelength channels (effective particle size retrievals are derived from short and mid-wave IR channels that are less affected by aerosol absorption). Here, a new method is introduced to simultaneously retrieve the above-cloud smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the unbiased cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (CER) using multiple spectral channels in the visible and near- and shortwave-IR. The technique has been applied to MODIS, and retrieval results and statistics, as well as comparisons with other A-Train sensors, are shown.

  14. Segmentation of interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Jatindra K.; Madhavi, Vaddepalli; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kumar, Prafulla

    2015-03-01

    Automated segmentation of pathological bearing region is the first step towards the development of lung CAD. Most of the work reported in the literature related to automated analysis of lung tissue aims towards classification of fixed sized block into one of the classes. This block level classification of lung tissues in the image never results in accurate or smooth boundaries between different regions. In this work, effort is taken to investigate the performance of three automated image segmentation algorithms those results in smooth boundaries among lung tissue patterns commonly encountered in HRCT images of the thorax. A public database that consists of HRCT images taken from patients affected with Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) is used for the evaluation. The algorithms considered are Markov Random Field (MRF), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Mean Shift (MS). 2-fold cross validation approach is followed for the selection of the best parameter value for individual algorithm as well as to evaluate the performance of all the algorithms. Mean shift algorithm is observed as the best performer in terms of Jaccard Index, Modified Hausdorff Distance, accuracy, Dice Similarity Coefficient and execution speed.

  15. Diurnal cloud-to-ground lightning patterns in Arizona during the southwest monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.I.; Lopez, R.E.; Holle, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning shows great variability across Arizona from one year to the next as well as from one day to the next. Availability of moisture, location of the subtropical ridge axis, transitory troughs in both the westerlies and easterlies, and low-level moisture surges from the Gulf of California can affect thunderstorm occurrence, which, in turn, will affect lightning production. Diurnal CG lightning patterns in Arizona are also determined by daily heating cycles and topography. Six years of Bureau of Land Management CG flash data are used in this investigation. In Arizona, lightning usually starts first, on a daily basis, in the plateau region and extends in an arc from the White Mountains of eastern Arizona westward across the Mogollon Rim and then northward onto the Kaibab Plateau of northern Arizona. Flash activity moves in a more or less continuous fashion off the plateau, south and westward down the topography gradient, and enters the lower desert by early evening. At the same time, flash activity develops in the highlands of southeast Arizona and moves west-northwestward, reaching the lower desert by late afternoon. Precipitation and lightning are well correlated, except that precipitation seems to linger longer than lightning, probably due to the occasional development of mesoscale convective systems, which produce light stratiform precipitation during their dissipation stage.

  16. Retrieval of Cloud Phase and Crystal Habit from Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Data

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2005-07-22

    A method of retrieving cloud phase and the dominant ice crystal habit from radiances measured by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been developed. The retrieval method takes advantage of the differences in the phase function of various particle shapes as a function of scattering angle. Three case studies are presented which illustrate the retrieval method. A comparison with semi-coincident in situ observations for one case study indicates that the retrieved crystal habits are consistent with the observations.

  17. Data integration: Combined imaging and electrophysiology data in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Kini, Lohith G; Davis, Kathryn A; Wagenaar, Joost B

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing effort to correlate electrophysiology data with imaging in patients with refractory epilepsy over recent years. IEEG.org provides a free-access, rapidly growing archive of imaging data combined with electrophysiology data and patient metadata. It currently contains over 1200 human and animal datasets, with multiple data modalities associated with each dataset (neuroimaging, EEG, EKG, de-identified clinical and experimental data, etc.). The platform is developed around the concept that scientific data sharing requires a flexible platform that allows sharing of data from multiple file formats. IEEG.org provides high- and low-level access to the data in addition to providing an environment in which domain experts can find, visualize, and analyze data in an intuitive manner. Here, we present a summary of the current infrastructure of the platform, available datasets and goals for the near future. PMID:26044858

  18. Near-Infrared Polarization Images of The Orion Molecular Cloud 1 South Region

    E-print Network

    Jun Hashimoto; Motohide Tamura; Ryo Kandori; Nobuhiko Kusakabe; Yasushi Nakajima; Shuji Sato; Chie Nagashima; Mikio Kurita; Tetsuya Nagata; Takahiro Nagayama; Jim Hough

    2006-12-18

    We present the polarization images in the $J$, $H$, & $Ks$ bands of the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 South region. The polarization images clearly show at least six infrared reflection nebulae (IRNe) which are barely seen or invisible in the intensity images. Our polarization vector images also identify the illuminating sources of the nebulae: IRN 1 & 2, IRN 3, 4, & 5, and IRN 6 are illuminated by three IR sources, Source 144-351, Source 145-356, and Source 136-355, respectively. Moreover, our polarization images suggest the candidate driving sources of the optical Herbig-Haro objects for the first time; HH529, a pair of HH202 and HH528 or HH 203/204, HH 530 and HH269 are originated from Source 144-351, Source 145-356, and Source 136-355, respectively.

  19. Estimating errors in cloud amount and cloud optical thickness due to limited spatial sampling using a satellite imager as a proxy for nadir-view sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yinghui

    2015-07-01

    Cloud climatologies from space-based active sensors have been used in climate and other studies without their uncertainties specified. This study quantifies the errors in monthly mean cloud amount and optical thickness due to the limited spatial sampling of space-based active sensors. Nadir-view observations from a satellite imager, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), serve as a proxy for those active sensors and observations within 10° of the sensor's nadir view serve as truth for data from 2003 to 2013 in the Arctic. June-July monthly mean cloud amount and liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness from MODIS for both observations are calculated and compared. Results show that errors increase with decreasing sample numbers for monthly means in cloud amount and cloud optical thickness. The root-mean-square error of monthly mean cloud amount from nadir-view observations increases with lower latitudes, with 0.7% (1.4%) at 80°N and 4.2% (11.2%) at 60°N using data from 2003 to 2013 (from 2012). For a 100 km resolution Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) cell of 1000 sample numbers, the absolute differences in these two monthly mean cloud amounts are less than 6.5% (9.0%, 11.5%) with an 80 (90, 95)%chance; such differences decrease to 4.0% (5.0%, 6.5%) with 5000 sample numbers. For a 100 km resolution EASE-Grid of 1000 sample numbers, the absolute differences in these two monthly mean cloud optical thicknesses are less than 2.7 (3.8) with a 90% chance for liquid water cloud (ice cloud); such differences decrease to 1.3 (1.0) for 5000 sample numbers. The uncertainties in monthly mean cloud amount and optical thickness estimated in this study may provide useful information for applying cloud climatologies from active sensors in climate studies and suggest the need for future spaceborne active sensors with a wide swath.

  20. Beyond the partial light intensity imager: Eliminating Moiré patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuanhe; Liu, Qingsong; Wu, Yong; Yu, Yang; Yang, Xusan; Gao, Haiyang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2015-11-01

    A partial light intensity imager (PLII) was proposed in our previous research for enhancing the dynamic range to 2.2×105 lx in strong light. Moiré patterns may occur, however, since the PLII employs both a liquid crystal display (LCD) and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as its key devices, which can be regarded as two gratings. This research calculates the fringe widths and spectra for both the LCD and the CCD, and analyzes the relationship between the fringe width and the applied voltage on each pixel of the LCD. According to the theoretical results, we find that changing the rotational angle of the liquid crystal (LC) molecule by regulating the applied voltage is an effective method to eliminate the Moiré patterns in the PLII. Based on this principle, an experiment has been designed, and the Moiré patterns fringe width is alleviated from 20 pixels to10 pixels distance before and after, and the results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis.

  1. BOREAS AFM-6 NOAA/ETL 35 GHz Cloud/Turbulence Radar GIF Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martner, Brooks E.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 35-GHz cloud-sensing radar in the Northern Study Area (NSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 16 Jul 1994 to 08 Aug 1994. This data set contains a time series of GIF images that show the structure of the lower atmosphere. The NOAA/ETL 35-GHz cloud/turbulence radar GIF images are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. Imaging Dot Patterns for Measuring Gossamer Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, A. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Jones, T. W.; Pappa, R. S.; Connell, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    A paper describes a photogrammetric method for measuring the changing shape of a gossamer (membrane) structure deployed in outer space. Such a structure is typified by a solar sail comprising a transparent polymeric membrane aluminized on its Sun-facing side and coated black on the opposite side. Unlike some prior photogrammetric methods, this method does not require an artificial light source or the attachment of retroreflectors to the gossamer structure. In a basic version of the method, the membrane contains a fluorescent dye, and the front and back coats are removed in matching patterns of dots. The dye in the dots absorbs some sunlight and fluoresces at a longer wavelength in all directions, thereby enabling acquisition of high-contrast images from almost any viewing angle. The fluorescent dots are observed by one or more electronic camera(s) on the Sun side, the shade side, or both sides. Filters that pass the fluorescent light and suppress most of the solar spectrum are placed in front of the camera(s) to increase the contrast of the dots against the background. The dot image(s) in the camera(s) are digitized, then processed by use of commercially available photogrammetric software.

  3. Cloud Ozone Dust Imager (CODI). Volume 1; Investigation and Technical Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Dusenbery, Paul; Wolff, Michael; James, Phil; Allen, Mark; Goguen, Jay; Kahn, Ralph; Gladstone, Rany; Murphy, Jim

    1995-01-01

    The Cloud Ozone Dust Imager (CODI) is proposed to investigate the current climatic balance of the Mars atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the important but poorly understood roles which dust and water ice aerosols play in this balance. The large atmospheric heating (20-50 K) resulting from global dust storms around Mars perihelion is well recognized. However, groundbased observations of Mars atmospheric temperatures, water vapor, and clouds since the Viking missions have identified a much colder, cloudier atmosphere around Mars aphelion that may prove as important as global dust storms in determining the interannual and long-term behavior of the Mars climate. The key climate issues CODI is designed to investigate are: 1) the degree to which non-linear interactions between atmospheric dust heating, water vapor saturation, and cloud nucleation influence the seasonal and interannual variability of the Mars atmosphere, and 2) whether the strong orbital forcing of atmospheric dust loading, temperatures and water vapor saturation determines the long-term balance of Mars water, as reflected in the north-south hemispheric asymmetries of atmospheric water vapor and polar water ice abundances. The CODI experiment will measure the daily, seasonal and (potentially) interannual variability of atmospheric dust and cloud opacities, and the key physical properties of these aerosols which determine their role in the climate cycles of Mars. CODI is a small (1.2 kg), fixed pointing camera, in which four wide-angle (+/- 70 deg) lenses illuminate fixed filters and CCD arrays. Simultaneous sky/surface imaging of Mars is obtained at an angular resolution of 0.28 deg/pixel for wavelengths of 255, 336, 502, and 673 nm (similar to Hubble Space Telescope filters). These wavelengths serve to measure atmospheric ozone (255 and 336 nm), discriminate ice and dust aerosols (336 and 673 nm), and construct color images (336, 502, and 673 nm). The CODI images are detected on four 512 x 512 pixel arrays, as partitioned on two 1024 x 1024 CCD's operated in frame transfer mode. The center of the CODI field-of-view is canted 40 deg from the zenith direction to obtain sky brightness measurements and a 20 deg surface field-of-view. Daily image observations will be conducted when the Sun is greater than or equal to 5 deg outside the edge of the CODI field-of-view, and twilight and nighttime imaging will obtained on a weekly basis. The 673 nm channel includes a polarizer wheel to obtain sky/surface polarimetry. A dust cover protects the entire lens assemblies of all four CODI channels. This opaque dust cover, which is normally opened for CODI imaging, includes a small fixed mirror and transparent window positioned above the 673 nm lens, to redirect the 673 nm field-of-view to the surface for descent imaging. Fixed pointing, internal data buffering, low operating power (2-4 W for less than or equal to 30 seconds), selective data transmission, and simple operational characteristics of the CODI experiment place minimum resource and operational demands on the Mars Surveyor 1998 lander. The CODI science goals are optimized for, but not restricted to, a low-latitude landing site (20 deg S-30 deg N). The primary CODI measurement objectives are the opacities, wave forms, particle properties (size, shape, and alignment), and heights of clouds; the opacities, particle properties, and vertical distribution of dust; and the opacity and vertical distribution of ozone. The variability of cloud, ozone, and dust opacities will be determined on diurnal, daily, and seasonal timescales. Wind velocities will be determined from cloud motions and wave characteristics; and the temporal variability of atmospheric water vapor, with limited altitude information, will be inferred from the CODI ozone observations. Secondary measurement objectives include limited descent imaging capability, surface uv-visible photometry and polarimetry, photochemistry, and meteorite infall rates.

  4. Image Reconstruction, Recognition, Using Image Processing, Pattern Recognition and the Hough Transform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    In this dissertation research, we have demonstrated the need for integration of various imaging methodologies, such as image reconstruction from projections, image processing, pattern and feature recognition using chain codes and the Hough transform. Further an integration of these image processing techniques have been brought about for medical imaging systems. An example of this is, classification and identification of brain scans, into normal, haemorrhaged, and lacunar infarcted brain scans. Low level processing was performed using LOG and a variation of LOG. Intermediate level processing used contour completion and chain encoding. Hough transform was used to detect any analytic shapes in the edge images. All these information were used by the data abstraction routine which also extracted information from the user, in the form of a general query. These were input into a backpropagation, which is a very popular supervised neural network. During learning process an output vector was supplied by the expert to the neural network. While performing the neural network compared the input and with the help of the weight matrix computed the output. This output was compared with the expert's opinion and a percentage deviation was calculated. In the case of brain scans this value was about 95%, when the test input vector did not vary, by more than two pixels with the training or learning input vector. A good classification of the brain scans were performed using the integrated imaging system. Identification of various organs in the abdominal region was also successful, within 90% recognition rate, depending on the noise in the image.

  5. Reconstruction of Indoor Models Using Point Clouds Generated from Single-Lens Reflex Cameras and Depth Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F.; Wu, T.-S.; Lee, I.-C.; Chang, H.; Su, A. Y. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a data acquisition system consisting of multiple RGB-D sensors and digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. A systematic data processing procedure for integrating these two kinds of devices to generate three-dimensional point clouds of indoor environments is also developed and described. In the developed system, DSLR cameras are used to bridge the Kinects and provide a more accurate ray intersection condition, which takes advantage of the higher resolution and image quality of the DSLR cameras. Structure from Motion (SFM) reconstruction is used to link and merge multiple Kinect point clouds and dense point clouds (from DSLR color images) to generate initial integrated point clouds. Then, bundle adjustment is used to resolve the exterior orientation (EO) of all images. Those exterior orientations are used as the initial values to combine these point clouds at each frame into the same coordinate system using Helmert (seven-parameter) transformation. Experimental results demonstrate that the design of the data acquisition system and the data processing procedure can generate dense and fully colored point clouds of indoor environments successfully even in featureless areas. The accuracy of the generated point clouds were evaluated by comparing the widths and heights of identified objects as well as coordinates of pre-set independent check points against in situ measurements. Based on the generated point clouds, complete and accurate three-dimensional models of indoor environments can be constructed effectively.

  6. Natural aerosols explain seasonal and spatial patterns of Southern Ocean cloud albedo.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Daniel T; Burrows, Susannah M; Wood, Robert; Grosvenor, Daniel P; Elliott, Scott M; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Phillip J; Hartmann, Dennis L

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, suspended solid and liquid particles, act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties-ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path, and areal extent that determine the reflectivity (albedo) of clouds. The concentration N d of droplets in clouds that influences planetary albedo is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles on which the droplets form. Natural aerosol concentrations affect not only cloud properties themselves but also modulate the sensitivity of clouds to changes in anthropogenic aerosols. It is shown that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed N d. Enhanced N d is spatially correlated with regions of high chlorophyll a, and the spatiotemporal variability in N d is found to be driven primarily by high concentrations of sulfate aerosol at lower Southern Ocean latitudes (35(o) to 45(o)S) and by organic matter in sea spray aerosol at higher latitudes (45(o) to 55(o)S). Biogenic sources are estimated to increase the summertime mean reflected solar radiation in excess of 10 W m(-2) over parts of the Southern Ocean, which is comparable to the annual mean increases expected from anthropogenic aerosols over heavily polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:26601216

  7. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Daniel; Burrows, Susannah M.; Wood, R.; Grosvenor, Daniel P.; Elliott, Scott; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    2015-07-17

    Small particles called aerosols act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties – ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path and areal extent that determine the reflectivity (albedo) of clouds. The concentration Nd of droplets in clouds that influences planetary albedo is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles on which the droplets form. Natural aerosol concentrations not only affect cloud properties themselves, but also modulate the sensitivity of clouds to changes in anthropogenic aerosols. Here, it is shown that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed Nd. Enhanced Nd over regions of high biological activity is found to be driven primarily by high concentrations of sulfate aerosol at lower Southern Ocean latitudes (35-45°S) and by organic matter in sea spray aerosol at higher latitudes (45-55°S). Biogenic sources are estimated to increase the summertime mean reflected solar radiation in excess of 10 W m-2 over parts of the Southern Ocean, which is comparable to the annual mean increases expected from anthropogenic aerosols over heavily polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

  8. Natural aerosols explain seasonal and spatial patterns of Southern Ocean cloud albedo

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Daniel T.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Wood, Robert; Grosvenor, Daniel P.; Elliott, Scott M.; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Phillip J.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, suspended solid and liquid particles, act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties—ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path, and areal extent that determine the reflectivity (albedo) of clouds. The concentration Nd of droplets in clouds that influences planetary albedo is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles on which the droplets form. Natural aerosol concentrations affect not only cloud properties themselves but also modulate the sensitivity of clouds to changes in anthropogenic aerosols. It is shown that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed Nd. Enhanced Nd is spatially correlated with regions of high chlorophyll a, and the spatiotemporal variability in Nd is found to be driven primarily by high concentrations of sulfate aerosol at lower Southern Ocean latitudes (35o to 45oS) and by organic matter in sea spray aerosol at higher latitudes (45o to 55oS). Biogenic sources are estimated to increase the summertime mean reflected solar radiation in excess of 10 W m–2 over parts of the Southern Ocean, which is comparable to the annual mean increases expected from anthropogenic aerosols over heavily polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:26601216

  9. Retrieval of Cloud Phase Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, P.; Shupe, M.; Uttal, T.; Poellot, M.

    2005-03-18

    Improving climate model predictions over Earth's polar regions requires a comprehensive knowledge of polar cloud microphysics. Over the Arctic, there is minimal contrast between the clouds and background snow surface, making it difficult to detect clouds and retrieve their phase from space. Snow and ice cover, temperature inversions, and the predominance of mixed-phase clouds make it even more difficult to determine cloud phase. Also, since determining cloud phase is the first step toward analyzing cloud optical depth, particle size, and water content, it is vital that the phase be correct in order to obtain accurate microphysical and bulk properties. Changes in these cloud properties will, in turn, affect the Arctic climate since clouds are expected to play a critical role in the sea ice albedo feedback. In this paper, the IR trispectral technique (IRTST) is used as a starting point for a WV and 11-{micro}m brightness temperature (T11) parameterization (WVT11P) of cloud phase using MODIS data. In addition to its ability to detect mixed-phase clouds, the WVT11P also has the capability to identify thin cirrus clouds overlying mixed or liquid phase clouds (multiphase ice). Results from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MODIS phase model (AMPHM) are compared to the surface-based cloud phase retrievals over the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site and to in-situ data taken from University of North Dakota Citation (CIT) aircraft which flew during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE). It will be shown that the IRTST and WVT11P combined to form the AMPHM can achieve a relative high accuracy of phase discrimination compared to the surface-based retrievals. Since it only uses MODIS WV and IR channels, the AMPHM is robust in the sense that it can be applied to daytime, twilight, and nighttime scenes with no discontinuities in the output phase.

  10. Hubble space telescope imaging of decoupled dust clouds in the ram pressure stripped Virgo spirals NGC 4402 and NGC 4522

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Anne; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu

    2014-03-01

    We present the highest-resolution study to date of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies undergoing ram pressure stripping, using Hubble Space Telescope BVI imaging of NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, Virgo Cluster spirals that are well known to be experiencing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure. We find that throughout most of both galaxies, the main dust lane has a fairly well-defined edge, with a population of giant molecular cloud (GMC) sized (tens- to hundreds-of-pc scale), isolated, highly extincting dust clouds located up to ?1.5 kpc radially beyond it. Outside of these dense clouds, the area has little or no diffuse dust extinction, indicating that the clouds have decoupled from the lower-density ISM material that has already been stripped. Several of the dust clouds have elongated morphologies that indicate active ram pressure, including two large (kpc scale) filaments in NGC 4402 that are elongated in the projected ICM wind direction. We calculate a lower limit on the H I + H{sub 2} masses of these clouds based on their dust extinctions and find that a correction factor of ?10 gives cloud masses consistent with those measured in CO for clouds of similar diameters, probably due to the complicating factors of foreground light, cloud substructure, and resolution limitations. Assuming that the clouds' actual masses are consistent with those of GMCs of similar diameters (?10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ?}), we estimate that only a small fraction (?1%-10%) of the original H I + H{sub 2} remains in the parts of the disks with decoupled clouds. Based on H? images, a similar fraction of star formation persists in these regions, 2%-3% of the estimated pre-stripping star formation rate. We find that the decoupled cloud lifetimes may be up to 150-200 Myr.

  11. CIMIDx: Prototype for a Cloud-Based System to Support Intelligent Medical Image Diagnosis With Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet has greatly enhanced health care, helping patients stay up-to-date on medical issues and general knowledge. Many cancer patients use the Internet for cancer diagnosis and related information. Recently, cloud computing has emerged as a new way of delivering health services but currently, there is no generic and fully automated cloud-based self-management intervention for breast cancer patients, as practical guidelines are lacking. Objective We investigated the prevalence and predictors of cloud use for medical diagnosis among women with breast cancer to gain insight into meaningful usage parameters to evaluate the use of generic, fully automated cloud-based self-intervention, by assessing how breast cancer survivors use a generic self-management model. The goal of this study was implemented and evaluated with a new prototype called “CIMIDx”, based on representative association rules that support the diagnosis of medical images (mammograms). Methods The proposed Cloud-Based System Support Intelligent Medical Image Diagnosis (CIMIDx) prototype includes two modules. The first is the design and development of the CIMIDx training and test cloud services. Deployed in the cloud, the prototype can be used for diagnosis and screening mammography by assessing the cancers detected, tumor sizes, histology, and stage of classification accuracy. To analyze the prototype’s classification accuracy, we conducted an experiment with data provided by clients. Second, by monitoring cloud server requests, the CIMIDx usage statistics were recorded for the cloud-based self-intervention groups. We conducted an evaluation of the CIMIDx cloud service usage, in which browsing functionalities were evaluated from the end-user’s perspective. Results We performed several experiments to validate the CIMIDx prototype for breast health issues. The first set of experiments evaluated the diagnostic performance of the CIMIDx framework. We collected medical information from 150 breast cancer survivors from hospitals and health centers. The CIMIDx prototype achieved high sensitivity of up to 99.29%, and accuracy of up to 98%. The second set of experiments evaluated CIMIDx use for breast health issues, using t tests and Pearson chi-square tests to assess differences, and binary logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for the predictors’ use of CIMIDx. For the prototype usage statistics for the same 150 breast cancer survivors, we interviewed 114 (76.0%), through self-report questionnaires from CIMIDx blogs. The frequency of log-ins/person ranged from 0 to 30, total duration/person from 0 to 1500 minutes (25 hours). The 114 participants continued logging in to all phases, resulting in an intervention adherence rate of 44.3% (95% CI 33.2-55.9). The overall performance of the prototype for the good category, reported usefulness of the prototype (P=.77), overall satisfaction of the prototype (P=.31), ease of navigation (P=.89), user friendliness evaluation (P=.31), and overall satisfaction (P=.31). Positive evaluations given by 100 participants via a Web-based questionnaire supported our hypothesis. Conclusions The present study shows that women felt favorably about the use of a generic fully automated cloud-based self- management prototype. The study also demonstrated that the CIMIDx prototype resulted in the detection of more cancers in screening and diagnosing patients, with an increased accuracy rate. PMID:25830608

  12. Automatic Detection of Building Points from LIDAR and Dense Image Matching Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltezos, E.; Ioannidis, C.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to detect automatically building points: (a) from LIDAR point cloud using simple techniques of filtering that enhance the geometric properties of each point, and (b) from a point cloud which is extracted applying dense image matching at high resolution colour-infrared (CIR) digital aerial imagery using the stereo method semi-global matching (SGM). At first step, the removal of the vegetation is carried out. At the LIDAR point cloud, two different methods are implemented and evaluated using initially the normals and the roughness values afterwards: (1) the proposed scan line smooth filtering and a thresholding process, and (2) a bilateral filtering and a thresholding process. For the case of the CIR point cloud, a variation of the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) is computed for the same purpose. Afterwards, the bare-earth is extracted using a morphological operator and removed from the rest scene so as to maintain the buildings points. The results of the extracted buildings applying each approach at an urban area in northern Greece are evaluated using an existing orthoimage as reference; also, the results are compared with the corresponding classified buildings extracted from two commercial software. Finally, in order to verify the utility and functionality of the extracted buildings points that achieved the best accuracy, the 3D models in terms of Level of Detail 1 (LoD 1) and a 3D building change detection process are indicatively performed on a sub-region of the overall scene.

  13. Design and characterization of specMACS, a multipurpose hyperspectral cloud and sky imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, F.; Kölling, T.; Baumgartner, A.; Zinner, T.; Mayer, B.

    2015-09-01

    The new spectrometer of the Munich Aerosol Cloud Scanner (specMACS) is a multipurpose hyperspectral cloud and sky imager designated, but not limited to investigations of cloud-aerosol interactions in Earth's atmosphere. Equipped with a high spectral and spatial resolution, the instrument is designed to measure solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared region that is reflected from, or transmitted through clouds and aerosol layers. It is based on two hyperspectral line cameras that measure in the solar spectral range between 400-2500 nm with a spectral bandwidth between 2.5-12.0 nm. The instrument was already operated in ground-based campaigns as well as aboard the German High Altitude LOng Range (HALO) research aircraft, e.g. during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign in Brazil during summer 2014. This paper describes the specMACS instrument hardware and software design and characterizes the instrument performance. During the laboratory characterization of the instrument the radiometric response as well as the spatial and spectral performance was assessed. Since the instrument is primarily intended for retrievals of atmospheric quantities by inversion of radiative models using measured radiances, a focus is placed on the determination of its radiometric response. Radiometric characterization was possible for both spectrometers with an absolute accuracy of 3 % at their respective central wavelength regions. First measurements are presented which demonstrate the application possibilities and show that the key demands on radiometric and spectral accuracy as posed by the intended remote sensing techniques are fulfilled.

  14. Ice Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties from the CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Dubuisson, P.; Yang, P.; Vaughan, M.; Avery, M. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    We will present cirrus cloud optical and microphysical properties as retrieved from the operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data in synergy with the CALIOP lidar co-located observations collected in the framework of the CALIPSO mission. The IIR data provides nighttime and daytime independent retrievals of optical depth and effective diameter, from which the cloud layer ice water path is inferred. The technique takes advantage of the vertical information provided by CALIOP to select suitable scenes and compute effective emissivity and optical depth. Effective diameters are retrieved through microphysical indices defined as the ratio of the effective infrared optical depths in the two pairs of channels 10.6-12.05 ?m and 8.65-12.05 ?m, and are related to the ice crystal effective diameter and shape through pre-computed Look-Up Tables. Sources of uncertainty are discussed and possible biases are assessed through internal consistency checks. Comparisons of IIR and CALIOP cirrus optical depths show the very good sensitivity of the IIR retrievals, down to 0.05 visible optical depth. It is shown that particle effective diameter and cloud layer ice water path of single-layered cirrus clouds can be retrieved over ocean, land, as well as over low opaque clouds, for thin to dense clouds of visible optical depth ranging between 0.1 and 6 and of ice water path found typically between 1 and 150 g.m-2. Taking advantage of the cloud boundaries simultaneously derived by CALIOP, IIR power law relationships between mean ice water content (IWC, in g.m-3) and mean extinction coefficient (?, in m-1) are established for cloud temperatures between 190 and 233 K. An average global power law relationship IWC = 75. ?1.23 is obtained, which compares well with parameterizations derived from in-situ observations at mid-latitude and in the tropics. However, the IWCs reported in our study are lower by about 40% than those derived from the power law relationship used in the CALIOP Version 3 algorithm. The IIR and CALIOP Level 2 operational products (currently Version 3) are publicly available at NASA Langley ASDC and ICARE data center.

  15. Superresolution imaging with optical fluctuation using speckle patterns illumination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, MinKwan; Park, ChungHyun; Rodriguez, Christophe; Park, YongKeun; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy possesses an important role for the study of processes in biological cells with subdiffraction resolution. Recently, superresolution methods employing the emission properties of fluorophores have rapidly evolved due to their technical simplicity and direct applicability to existing microscopes. However, the application of these methods has been limited to samples labeled with fluorophores that can exhibit intrinsic emission properties at a restricted timescale, especially stochastic blinking. Here, we present a superresolution method that can be performed using general fluorophores, regardless of this intrinsic property. Utilizing speckle patterns illumination, temporal emission fluctuation of fluorophores is induced and controlled, from which a superresolution image can be obtained exploiting its statistical property. Using this method, we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, the capability to produce subdiffraction resolution images. A spatial resolution of 500?nm, 300?nm and 140?nm with 0.4, 0.5 and 1.4 NA objective lenses respectively was achieved in various samples with an enhancement factor of 1.6 compared to conventional fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26572283

  16. Superresolution imaging with optical fluctuation using speckle patterns illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minkwan; Park, Chunghyun; Rodriguez, Christophe; Park, Yongkeun; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2015-11-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy possesses an important role for the study of processes in biological cells with subdiffraction resolution. Recently, superresolution methods employing the emission properties of fluorophores have rapidly evolved due to their technical simplicity and direct applicability to existing microscopes. However, the application of these methods has been limited to samples labeled with fluorophores that can exhibit intrinsic emission properties at a restricted timescale, especially stochastic blinking. Here, we present a superresolution method that can be performed using general fluorophores, regardless of this intrinsic property. Utilizing speckle patterns illumination, temporal emission fluctuation of fluorophores is induced and controlled, from which a superresolution image can be obtained exploiting its statistical property. Using this method, we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, the capability to produce subdiffraction resolution images. A spatial resolution of 500?nm, 300?nm and 140?nm with 0.4, 0.5 and 1.4 NA objective lenses respectively was achieved in various samples with an enhancement factor of 1.6 compared to conventional fluorescence microscopy.

  17. Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview.

    PubMed

    Shields, Janet E; Karr, Monette E; Johnson, Richard W; Burden, Art R

    2013-03-10

    A family of fully automated digital whole sky imagers (WSIs) has been developed at the Marine Physical Laboratory over many years, for a variety of research and military applications. The most advanced of these, the day/night whole sky imagers (D/N WSIs), acquire digital imagery of the full sky down to the horizon under all conditions from full sunlight to starlight. Cloud algorithms process the imagery to automatically detect the locations of cloud for both day and night. The instruments can provide absolute radiance distribution over the full radiance range from starlight through daylight. The WSIs were fielded in 1984, followed by the D/N WSIs in 1992. These many years of experience and development have resulted in very capable instruments and algorithms that remain unique. This article discusses the history of the development of the D/N WSIs, system design, algorithms, and data products. The paper cites many reports with more detailed technical documentation. Further details of calibration, day and night algorithms, and cloud free line-of-sight results will be discussed in future articles. PMID:23478763

  18. Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) for remote sensing cloud studies

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.; Grotbeck, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    A Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) has been developed as are relatively inexpensive ({approximately}$IM/copy), well-calibrated,imaging radiometer for aircraft studies of cloud properties. The instrument is designed to fly on an Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) platform at altitudes from the surface up to 20 km. MPIR is being developed to support the Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle portion of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program (ARM/UAV). Radiation-cloud interactions are the dominant uncertainty in the current General Circulation Models used for atmospheric climate studies. Reduction of this uncertainty is a top scientific priority of the US Global Change Research Program and the ARM program. While the DOE`s ARM program measures a num-ber of parameters from the ground-based Clouds and Radiation Testbed sites, it was recognized from the outset that other key parameters are best measured by sustained airborne data taking. These measurements are critical in our understanding of global change issues as well as for improved atmospheric and near space weather forecasting applications.

  19. Two Methods for Retrieving UV Index for All Cloud Conditions from Sky Imager Products or Total SW Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Badosa, Jordi; Calbo, J.; McKenzie, R. L.; Liley, Ben; Gonzalez, J. A.; Forgan, B. W.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the cloud effects on UV Index (UVI) and total solar radiation (TR) as a function of cloud cover estimations and sunny conditions (from sky imaging products) as well as of solar zenith angle (SZA). These analyses are undertaken for a southern-hemisphere mid-latitude site where a 10-years dataset is available. It is confirmed that clouds reduce TR more than UV, in particular for obscured Sun conditions, low cloud fraction (< 60%) and large SZA (> 60º). Similarly, clouds enhance TR more than UV, mainly for visible Sun conditions, large cloud fraction and large SZA. Two methods to estimate UVI are developed: 1) from sky imaging cloud cover and sunny conditions, and 2) from TR measurements. Both methods may be used in practical operational applications, although Method 2 shows overall the best performance, since TR allows accounting for cloud optical properties. The mean absolute differences of Method 2 estimations with respect to measured values are 0.17 UVI units (for 1-minute data) and 0.79 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) units (for daily integrations). Method 1 shows less accurate results but it is still suitable to estimate UVI: mean absolute differences are 0.37 UVI units and 1.6 SED.

  20. InSAR imaging of volcanic deformation over cloud-prone areas - Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-tosubcentimeter precision and spatial resolution of tens-of meters over a relatively large region. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, INSAR is an important technique for measuring ground-surface deformation of volcanoes over cloud-prone and rainy regions such as the Aleutian Islands, where only less than 5 percent of optical imagery is usable due to inclement weather conditions. The spatial distribution of surface deformation data, derived from INSAR images, enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper reviews the basics of INSAR for volcanic deformation mapping and the INSAR studies of ten Aleutian volcanoes associated with both eruptive and noneruptive activity. These studies demonstrate that all-weather INSAR imaging can improve our understanding of how the Aleutian volcanoes work and enhance our capability to predict future eruptions and associated hazards.

  1. Optical imaging of cloud-to-stratosphere/mesosphere lightning over the Amazon Basin (CS/LAB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, Davis D.; Wescott, Eugene M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the CS/LAB project was to obtain images of cloud to stratosphere lightning discharges from aboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory while flying in the vicinity of thunderstorms over the Amazon Basin. We devised a low light level imaging package as an add-on experiment to an airborne Laboratory deployment to South America during May-June, 1993. We were not successful in obtaining the desired images during the South American deployment. However, in a follow up flight over the American Midwest during the night of July 8-9, 1993 we recorded nineteen examples of the events over intense thunderstorms. From the observations were estimated absolute brightness, terminal altitudes, flash duration, horizontal extents, emission volumes, and frequencies relative to negative and positive ground strokes.

  2. Segmentation of UAV-based images incorporating 3D point cloud information A.Vetrivel*, M.Gerke, N.Kerle, G.Vosselman

    E-print Network

    Segmentation of UAV-based images incorporating 3D point cloud information A.Vetrivel*, M.Gerke, N, Building detection, UAV images, 3D point cloud, Texture, Region growing ABSTRACT: Numerous applications characteristics jointly. 3D points generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images are used for inferring

  3. Horizontal structure of planetary-scale waves at the cloud top of Venus deduced from Galileo SSI images with an improved cloud-tracking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyama, Toru; Imamura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masato; Satoh, Takehiko; Futaana, Yoshihumi

    2012-01-01

    An improved cloud tracking method for deriving wind velocities from successive planetary images was developed. The new method incorporates into the traditional cross-correlation method an algorithm that corrects for erroneous cloud motion vectors by re-determining the most plausible correlation peak among all of the local maxima on the correlation surface by comparing each vector with its neighboring vectors. The newly developed method was applied to the Venusian violet images obtained by the Solid State Imaging system (SSI) onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its Venus flyby. Although the results may be biased by the choice of spatial scale of atmospheric features, the cloud tracking is the most practical mean of estimating the wind velocities with extensive spatial and temporal coverage. The two-dimensional distribution of the horizontal wind vector field over 5 days was obtained. It was found from these wind maps that the solar-fixed component in 1990 was similar to that in 1982 obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter. The deviation of the instantaneous zonal wind field from the solar-fixed component shows a distinct wavenumber-1 structure in the equatorial region. On the assumption that this structure is a manifestation of an equatorial Kelvin wave, the phase relationship between the zonal wind and the cloud brightness suggests a short photochemical lifetime of the violet absorber. The momentum deposition by this Kelvin wave, which is subject to radiative damping, would induce a westward mean-wind acceleration of ?0.3 m s-1 per Earth day.

  4. Spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns based on the cloud model across the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Hou, Beibei; Chang, Jianxia; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong

    2015-04-01

    It is of significant importance to investigate the spatial-temporal change in precipitation patterns due to its great effects on droughts, floods, soil erosion and water resource management. A complete investigation of precipitation structure and its distribution pattern based on daily precipitation covering 1960-2005 at 21 meteorological stations in the Wei River Basin has been performed. In order to comprehensively and objectively describe the changing pattern of precipitation, the cloud model is employed to quantitatively analyse the average, uniformity and stability of precipitation. Results indicate the following: (1) the occurrence of different precipitation durations exhibits a positive exponential curve with the decrease in precipitation durations, and 1-3-day events are the predominant precipitation events which have an increasing trend; (2) precipitation and its non-uniformity is increasingly reducing, while its stability increases initially then decreases; (3) mean precipitation reduces from southeast to northwest, and the precipitation of the Guanzhong Plain has a low uniformity and stability due to its location and increasingly intensifying human activities. The cloud model provides a new idea and quantitative measure for the evaluation of the uniformity and stability of precipitation.

  5. Characterizing growth patterns in longitudinal MRI using image contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardhan, Avantika; Prastawa, Marcel; Vachet, Clement; Piven, Joseph; Gerig, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the growth patterns of the early brain is crucial to the study of neuro-development. In the early stages of brain growth, a rapid sequence of biophysical and chemical processes take place. A crucial component of these processes, known as myelination, consists of the formation of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber, enabling the effective transmission of neural impulses. As the brain undergoes myelination, there is a subsequent change in the contrast between gray matter and white matter as observed in MR scans. In this work, gray-white matter contrast is proposed as an effective measure of appearance which is relatively invariant to location, scanner type, and scanning conditions. To validate this, contrast is computed over various cortical regions for an adult human phantom. MR (Magnetic Resonance) images of the phantom were repeatedly generated using different scanners, and at different locations. Contrast displays less variability over changing conditions of scan compared to intensity-based measures, demonstrating that it is less dependent than intensity on external factors. Additionally, contrast is used to analyze longitudinal MR scans of the early brain, belonging to healthy controls and Down's Syndrome (DS) patients. Kernel regression is used to model subject-specific trajectories of contrast changing with time. Trajectories of contrast changing with time, as well as time-based biomarkers extracted from contrast modeling, show large differences between groups. The preliminary applications of contrast based analysis indicate its future potential to reveal new information not covered by conventional volumetric or deformation-based analysis, particularly for distinguishing between normal and abnormal growth patterns.

  6. Thermal neutron image intensifier tube provides brightly visible radiographic pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, H.; Kraska, I.; Niklas, W.; Schmidt, A.

    1967-01-01

    Vacuum-type neutron image intensifier tube improves image detection in thermal neutron radiographic inspection. This system converts images to an electron image, and with electron acceleration and demagnification between the input target and output screen, produces a bright image viewed through a closed circuit television system.

  7. A 128128 Floating Gate Imager with Self-Adapting Fixed Pattern Noise Reduction

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    A 128×128 Floating Gate Imager with Self-Adapting Fixed Pattern Noise Reduction Yanyi Liu Wong-mode imager that uses nonvolatile floating gate charge storage in the pixel for automatic cancellation of fixed-pattern noise (FPN). We demonstrate the ability to reduce the variance of the initial FPN over

  8. Workshop on Standards for Image Pattern Recognition. Computer Seience & Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John M. , Ed.; And Others

    Automatic image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully applied to improving productivity and quality in both manufacturing and service applications. Automatic Image Pattern Recognition Algorithms are often developed and tested using unique data bases for each specific application. Quantitative comparison of different approaches and…

  9. A QR Code Based Zero-Watermarking Scheme for Authentication of Medical Images in Teleradiology Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Seenivasagam, V.; Velumani, R.

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare institutions adapt cloud based archiving of medical images and patient records to share them efficiently. Controlled access to these records and authentication of images must be enforced to mitigate fraudulent activities and medical errors. This paper presents a zero-watermarking scheme implemented in the composite Contourlet Transform (CT)—Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain for unambiguous authentication of medical images. Further, a framework is proposed for accessing patient records based on the watermarking scheme. The patient identification details and a link to patient data encoded into a Quick Response (QR) code serves as the watermark. In the proposed scheme, the medical image is not subjected to degradations due to watermarking. Patient authentication and authorized access to patient data are realized on combining a Secret Share with the Master Share constructed from invariant features of the medical image. The Hu's invariant image moments are exploited in creating the Master Share. The proposed system is evaluated with Checkmark software and is found to be robust to both geometric and non geometric attacks. PMID:23970943

  10. Visualisation of Complex 3d City Models on Mobile Webbrowsers Using Cloud-Based Image Provisioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, M.; Nebiker, S.

    2015-08-01

    Rendering large city models with high polygon count and a vast amount of textures at interactive frame rates is a rather difficult to impossible task as it highly depends on the client hardware, which is often insufficient, even if out-of-core rendering techniques and level of detail approaches are used. Rendering complex city models on mobile devices is even more challenging. An approach of rendering and caching very large city models in the cloud using ray-tracing based image provisioning is introduced. This allows rendering large scenes efficiently, including on mobile devices. With this approach, it is possible to render cities with nearly unlimited number of polygons and textures.

  11. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  12. Stratospheric Imaging of Polar Mesospheric Clouds: A New Window on Small-Scale Atmospheric Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Miller, A D; Chapman, D; Jones, G; Limon, M; Araujo, D; Didier, J; Hillbrand, S; Kjellstrand, C B; Korotkov, A; Tucker, G; Vinokurov, Y; Wan, K; Wang, L

    2015-01-01

    Instabilities and turbulence extending to the smallest dynamical scales play important roles in the deposition of energy and momentum by gravity waves throughout the atmosphere. However, these dynamics and their effects have been impossible to quantify to date due to lack of observational guidance. Serendipitous optical images of polar mesospheric clouds at ~82 km obtained by star cameras aboard a cosmology experiment deployed on a stratospheric balloon provide a new observational tool, revealing instability and turbulence structures extending to spatial scales < 20 m. At 82 km, this resolution provides sensitivity extending to the smallest turbulence scale not strongly influenced by viscosity: the "inner scale" of turbulence, $l_0\\sim$10($\

  13. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean     View Larger Image ... a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica. The image at left was ...

  14. Equivalence of digital image correlation criteria for pattern matching.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bing; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Zhaoyang

    2010-10-01

    In digital image correlation (DIC), to obtain the displacements of each point of interest, a correlation criterion must be predefined to evaluate the similarity between the reference subset and the target subset. The correlation criterion is of fundamental importance in DIC, and various correlation criteria have been designed and used in literature. However, little research has been carried out to investigate their relations. In this paper, we first provide a comprehensive overview of various correlation criteria used in DIC. Then we focus on three robust and most widely used correlation criteria, i.e., a zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC) criterion, a zero-mean normalized sum of squared difference (ZNSSD) criterion, and a parametric sum of squared difference (PSSD(ab)) criterion with two additional unknown parameters, since they are insensitive to the scale and offset changes of the target subset intensity and have been highly recommended for practical use in literature. The three correlation criteria are analyzed to establish their transversal relationships, and the theoretical analyses clearly indicate that the three correlation criteria are actually equivalent, which elegantly unifies these correlation criteria for pattern matching. Finally, the equivalence of these correlation criteria is further validated by numerical simulation and actual experiment. PMID:20885489

  15. Color Filter Array Patterns Designed to Mitigate Crosstalk Effects in Small Pixel Image Sensors

    E-print Network

    Fossum, Eric R.

    Color Filter Array Patterns Designed to Mitigate Crosstalk Effects in Small Pixel Image Sensors Leo and CMY) are used. We present the design and analysis of new color filter array patterns for improving The design of CFA patterns is often discussed with regards to specifications such as spatial resolution

  16. Integration of Point Clouds Originated from Laser Scaner and Photogrammetric Images for Visualization of Complex Details of Historical Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, C.

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of historical buildings are created for documentation and virtual realization of them. Laser scanning and photogrammetry are extensively used to perform for these aims. The selection of the method that will be used in threedimensional modelling study depends on the scale and shape of the object, and also applicability of the method. Laser scanners are high cost instruments. However, the cameras are low cost instruments. The off-the-shelf cameras are used for taking the photogrammetric images. The camera is imaging the object details by carrying on hand while the laser scanner makes ground based measurement. Laser scanner collect high density spatial data in a short time from the measurement area. On the other hand, image based 3D (IB3D) measurement uses images to create 3D point cloud data. The image matching and the creation of the point cloud can be done automatically. Historical buildings include more complex details. Thus, all details cannot be measured by terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) due to the blocking the details with each others. Especially, the artefacts which have complex shapes cannot be measured in full details. They cause occlusion on the point cloud model. However it is possible to record photogrammetric images and creation IB3D point cloud for these areas. Thus the occlusion free 3D model is created by the integration of point clouds originated from the TLS and photogrammetric images. In this study, usability of laser scanning in conjunction with image based modelling for creation occlusion free three-dimensional point cloud model of historical building was evaluated. The IB3D point cloud was created in the areas that could not been measured by TLS. Then laser scanning and IB3D point clouds were integrated in the common coordinate system. The registration point clouds were performed with the iterative closest point (ICP) and georeferencing methods. Accuracy of the registration was evaluated by convergency and its standard deviations for the ICP and residuals on the control points for the georeferencing method.

  17. Particle image pattern mutual information and uncertainty estimation for particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhenyu; Charonko, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we introduce a new measure for particle image velocimetry (PIV) cross-correlation quality and establish analytically its connection to the basic PIV theory. This metric, which we term ‘mutual information’ (MI), can be used to estimate the number of correlated particles and connect to the PIV measurement uncertainty quantification. In PIV the number of particles in common between two consecutive frames forms the basis of the cross-correlation operation that yields the velocity measurement. Since the particle image pattern intensity distribution within each image represents the available signal, the inherent number of common particle pairs between the cross-correlated images, which can be thought of as the amount of mutual information, governs the potential accuracy of the PIV measurement. The number of common particle pairs between the images can be expressed by the product of the image density NI, and the fraction of particles that leave the frame due to in-plane and out-of-plane motion FI and FO, respectively. It has previously been shown that this parameter, NIFIFO, directly relates to the validity of a PIV measurement. However, in real experiments, NIFIFO is unknown and difficult to calculate. Here we propose to overcome this limitation by introducing a new metric (MI), which directly computes the apparent amount of common information contained in the particle patterns of two consecutive images without prior knowledge of the particle field. Both theoretical derivation and experimental results are provided to show that MI and NIFIFO represent the same characteristics of a PIV measurement. Subsequently, MI is used to develop a model for PIV uncertainty estimation. This metric and the corresponding uncertainty model presented herein are applied to both standard and a filtered phase-only (robust phase correlation) correlation methods. These advancements lead to robust uncertainty estimation models, which are tested against both synthetic benchmark data as well as real experimental measurements. For all cases considered here, {{U}68.5} and {{U}95} uncertainties demonstrated coverage factors approximately equal to the theoretically expected values of 68.5% and 95%, which reflect 1? and 2? levels in a normal distribution model respectively.

  18. Calibration and Laboratory Test of the Department of Energy Cloud Particle Imager

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, GM; Um, J

    2012-02-17

    Calibration parameters from the Connolly et al. (2007) algorithm cannot be applied to the Department of Energy's (DOE) CPI because the DOE CPI is version 2.0. Thus, Dr. Junshik Um and Prof. Greg McFarquhar brought the DOE CPI to the University of Manchester, UK, where facilities for calibrating it were available. In addition, two other versions of CPIs (1.0 and 1.5) were available on-site at the University of Manchester so that an intercomparison of three different versions of the CPI was possible. The three CPIs (versions 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) were calibrated by moving glass calibration beads and ice analogues of known size parallel to the object plane. The distance between the object plane and a particle, the particle's focus, its apparent maximum dimension, and a background image were measured in order to derive calibration parameters for each CPI version. The calibration parameters are used in two empirical equations that are applied to in situ CPI data to determine particle size and depth of field, and hence particle size distributions (PSDs). After the tests with the glass calibration beads to derive the calibration parameters, the three CPIs were installed at the base of the Manchester Ice Cloud Chamber and connected to air pumps that drew cloud through the sample volume. Warm liquid clouds at a temperature of 1-2 C and ice clouds at a temperature of -5 C were generated, and the resulting PSDs for each of the CPIs were determined by applying the results of each calibration.

  19. Multi-Focus Raw Bayer Pattern Image Fusion for Single-Chip Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Chen, Jibin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient patch-based image fusion approach for raw images of single-chip imaging devices incorporated with the Bayer CFA pattern is presented. The multi-source raw Bayer pattern images are firstly parted into half overlapped patches. Then, the patches with maximum clarity measurement defined for raw Bayer pattern image are selected as the fused patches. Next, all the fused local patches are merged with weighted average method in order to reduce the blockness effect of fused raw Bayer pattern image. Finally, the real color fused image is obtained by gradient based demosaicing technology. The multi-source raw Bayer pattern data is fused before demosaicing, so that the multi-sensor system will be more efficient and the artifacts introduced in demosaicing processing do not accumulate in image fusion processing. For comparison, the raw images are also interpolated firstly, and then various image fusion methods are used to get the fused color images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is valid and very effective.

  20. Pattern matching and adaptive image segmentation applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    This paper shows the results obtained in a system vision applied to plant reproduction by tissue culture using adaptive image segmentation and pattern matching algorithms, this analysis improves the number of tissue obtained and minimize errors, the image features of tissue are considered join to statistical analysis to determine the best match and results. Tests make on potato plants are used to present comparative results with original images processed with adaptive segmentation algorithm and non adaptive algorithms and pattern matching.

  1. Mesospheric circulation at the cloud top level of Venus according to Venus Monitoring Camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, Igor; Patsaeva, Marina; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Titov, Dmitri; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Turin, Alexander

    We present results of wind speed measurements at the cloud top level of Venus derived from manual cloud tracking in the UV (365 nm) and IR (965 nm) channels of the Venus Monitoring Camera Experiment (VMC) [1] on board the Venus Express mission. Cloud details have a maximal contrast in the UV range. More then 90 orbits have been processed. 30000 manual vectors were obtained. The period of the observations covers more than 4 venusian year. Zonal wind speed demonstrates the local solar time dependence. Possible diurnal and semidiurnal components are observed [2]. According to averaged latitude profile of winds at level of the upper clouds: -The zonal speed is slightly increasing by absolute values from 90 on the equator to 105 m/s at latitudes —47 degrees; -The period of zonal rotation has the maximum at the equator (5 earth days). It has the minimum (3 days) at altitudes —50 degrees. After minimum periods are slightly increasing toward the South pole; -The meridional speed has a value 0 on the equator, and then it is linear increasing up to 10 m/s (by absolute value) at 50 degrees latitude. "-" denotes movement from the equator to the pole. -From 50 to 80 degrees the meridional speed is again decreasing by absolute value up to 0. IR (965+10 nm) day side images can be used for wind tracking. The obtained speed of the zonal wind in the low and middle latitudes are systematically less than the wind speed derived from the UV images. The average zonal speed obtained from IR day side images in the low and average latitudes is about 65-70 m/s. The given fact can be interpreted as observation of deeper layers of mesosphere in the IR range in comparison with UV. References [1] Markiewicz W. J. et al. (2007) Planet. Space Set V55(12). P.1701-1711. [2] Moissl R., et al. (2008) J. Geophys. Res. 2008. doi:10.1029/2008JE003117. V.113.

  2. Atmospheric winds on the cloud top level of Venus according to Venus Monitoring Camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, Igor; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Patsaeva, Marina; Titov, Dmitri; Markiewicz, Wojciech

    2010-05-01

    We present results of wind speed measurements at the cloud top level of Venus derived from manual and automated cloud tracking in the UV (365 nm) and IR (965 nm) channels of the Venus Monitoring Camera Experiment (VMC) [1] on board the Venus Express mission. Cloud details have a maximal contrast in the UV range. More then 80 orbits have been processed. More then 27500 manual vectors were obtained. The period of the observations covers more than 4 venusian year. Zonal wind speed demonstrates the local solar time dependence. Possible diurnal and semidiurnal components are observed [2]. According to averaged latitude profile of winds at level of the upper clouds: - The zonal speed is slightly increasing by absolute values from 90 on the equator to 105 m/s at latitudes —47 degrees; - The period of zonal rotation has the maximum at the equator (˜5 earth days). It has the minimum (˜3 days) at altitudes —50 degrees. After minimum periods are slightly increasing toward the South pole; - The meridional speed has a value ˜0 on the equator, and then it is linear increasing up to ˜ 10 m/s (by absolute value) at 50 degrees latitude. "-" denotes movement from the equator to the pole. From 50 to 80 degrees the meridional speed is again decreasing by absolute value up to 0. IR (965+10 nm) day side images can be used for wind tracking. The obtained speed of the zonal wind in the low and middle latitudes are systematically less than the wind speed derived from the UV images. The average zonal speed obtained from IR day side images in the low and average latitudes is about 65-70 m/s. The given fact can be interpreted as observation of deeper layers of mesosphere in the IR range in comparison with UV. References [1] Markiewicz W. J. et al. (2007) Planet. Space Set V55(12). P.1701-1711. [2] Moissl R., et al. (2008) J. Geophys. Res. 2008. doi:10.1029/2008JE003117. V.113.

  3. Contours Based Approach for Thermal Image and Terrestrial Point Cloud Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.; Bombardier, V.; Thiriet, P.; Brie, D.

    2013-07-01

    Building energetic performances strongly depend on the thermal insulation. However the performance of the insulation materials tends to decrease over time which necessitates the continuous monitoring of the building in order to detect and repair the anomalous zones. In this paper, it is proposed to couple 2D infrared images representing the surface temperature of the building with 3D point clouds acquired with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) resulting in a semi-automatic approach allowing the texturation of TLS data with infrared image of buildings. A contour-based algorithm is proposed whose main features are : 1) the extraction of high level primitive is not required 2) the use of projective transform allows to handle perspective effects 3) a point matching refinement procedure allows to cope with approximate control point selection. The procedure is applied to test modules aiming at investigating the thermal properties of material.

  4. Uranus' Persistent Patterns and Features from High-SNR Imaging in 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; de Pater, Imke; Hammel, Heidi B.; Marcus, Phillip

    2015-11-01

    Since 2012, Uranus has been the subject of an observing campaign utilizing high signal-to-noise imaging techniques at Keck Observatory (Fry et al. 2012, Astron. J. 143, 150-161). High quality observing conditions on four observing runs of consecutive nights allowed longitudinally-complete coverage of the atmosphere over a period of two years (Sromovsky et al. 2015, Icarus 258, 192-223). Global mosaic maps made from images acquired on successive nights in August 2012, November 2012, August 2013, and August 2014, show persistent patterns, and six easily distinguished long-lived cloud features, which we were able to track for long periods that ranged from 5 months to over two years. Two at similar latitudes are associated with dark spots, and move with the atmospheric zonal flow close to the location of their associated dark spot instead of following the flow at the latitude of the bright features. These features retained their morphologies and drift rates in spite of several close interactions. A second pair of features at similar latitudes also survived several close approaches. Several of the long-lived features also exhibited equatorward drifts and latitudinal oscillations. Also persistent are a remarkable near-equatorial wave feature and global zonal band structure. We will present imagery, maps, and analyses of these phenomena.PMF and LAS acknowledge support from NASA Planetary Astronomy Program; PMF and LAS acknowledge funding and technical support from W. M. Keck Observatory. We thank those of Hawaiian ancestry on whose sacred mountain we are privileged to be guests. Without their generous hospitality none of our groundbased observations would have been possible.

  5. Global ice cloud observations: radiative properties and statistics from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer measurements 

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Kerry Glynne

    2009-05-15

    Ice clouds occur quite frequently, yet so much about these clouds is unknown. In recent years, numerous investigations and field campaigns have been focused on the study of ice clouds, all with the ultimate goal of gaining a better understanding...

  6. Italic Font Recognition Using Stroke Pattern Analysis on Wavelet Decomposed Word Images

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    images with a few italic words. These techniques are based on feature analysis on each individual that directly extracts individual word features from document images without the use of OCR[7], font recognitionItalic Font Recognition Using Stroke Pattern Analysis on Wavelet Decomposed Word Images Li Zhang

  7. Astronomy in the Cloud: Using MapReduce for Image Co-Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Gardner, J.; Krughoff, S.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    In the coming decade, astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. The study of these sources will involve computation challenges such as anomaly detection and classification and moving-object tracking. Since such studies benefit from the highest-quality data, methods such as image co-addition, i.e., astrometric registration followed by per-pixel summation, will be a critical preprocessing step prior to scientific investigation. With a requirement that these images be analyzed on a nightly basis to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. Given the quantity of data involved, the computational load of these problems can only be addressed by distributing the workload over a large number of nodes. However, the high data throughput demanded by these applications may present scalability challenges for certain storage architectures. One scalable data-processing method that has emerged in recent years is MapReduce, and in this article we focus on its popular open-source implementation called Hadoop. In the Hadoop framework, the data are partitioned among storage attached directly to worker nodes, and the processing workload is scheduled in parallel on the nodes that contain the required input data. A further motivation for using Hadoop is that it allows us to exploit cloud computing resources: i.e., platforms where Hadoop is offered as a service. We report on our experience of implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS imaging database using Hadoop. This multiterabyte imaging data set provides a good testbed for algorithm development, since its scope and structure approximate future surveys. First, we describe MapReduce and how we adapted image co-addition to the MapReduce framework. Then we describe a number of optimizations to our basic approach and report experimental results comparing their performance.

  8. Multi-provider architecture for cloud outsourcing of medical imaging repositories.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Tiago Marques; Bastião Silva, Luís A; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, the extended usage of medical imaging procedures has raised the medical community attention towards the optimization of their workflows. More recently, the federation of multiple institutions into a seamless distribution network has brought hope of increased quality healthcare services along with more efficient resource management. As a result, medical institutions are constantly looking for the best infrastructure to deploy their imaging archives. In this scenario, public cloud infrastructures arise as major candidates, as they offer elastic storage space, optimal data availability without great requirements of maintenance costs or IT personnel, in a pay-as-you-go model. However, standard methodologies still do not take full advantage of outsourced archives, namely because their integration with other in-house solutions is troublesome. This document proposes a multi-provider architecture for integration of outsourced archives with in-house PACS resources, taking advantage of foreign providers to store medical imaging studies, without disregarding security. It enables the retrieval of images from multiple archives simultaneously, improving performance, data availability and avoiding the vendor-locking problem. Moreover it enables load balancing and cache techniques. PMID:25160163

  9. Study of active millimeter-wave image speckle reduction by Hadamard phase pattern illumination.

    PubMed

    Koers, Gaetan; Ocket, Ilja; Feng, Qi; Tavakol, Vahid; Jäger, Irina; Nauwelaers, Bart; Stiens, Johan

    2008-02-01

    Active millimeter-wave images typically exhibit characteristic speckle noise, due to the coherence of artificial millimeter-wave sources. We study the Hadamard speckle contrast reduction (SCR) technique, which has been successfully used in laser projection systems, in the context of millimeter-wave imaging. We show the impact of Hadamard pattern order and size and of image and pattern resolution on speckle reduction efficiency. Practical limitations of Hadamard pattern implementations and their effect on speckle reduction efficiency are also discussed. PMID:18246164

  10. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of the fractal dimension of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed (10 to 80 meters). A similar analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images of the East Humboldt Range in Nevada taken four months apart show a more complex relation between pixel size and fractal dimension. The major visible difference between the spring and late summer NDVI images is the absence of high elevation snow cover in the summer image. This change significantly alters the relation between fractal dimension and pixel size. The slope of the fractal dimension-resolution relation provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor spatial resolution.

  11. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of the fractal dimension of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed (10 to 80 meters). A similar analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images of the East Humboldt Range in Nevada taken four months apart show a more complex relation between pixel size and fractal dimension. The major visible difference between the spring and late summer NDVI images of the absence of high elevation snow cover in the summer image. This change significantly alters the relation between fractal dimension and pixel size. The slope of the fractal dimensional-resolution relation provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor spatial resolution.

  12. Compressive spectral polarization imaging by a pixelized polarizer and colored patterned detector.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chen; Arguello, Henry; Sadler, Brian M; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-11-01

    A compressive spectral and polarization imager based on a pixelized polarizer and colored patterned detector is presented. The proposed imager captures several dispersed compressive projections with spectral and polarization coding. Stokes parameter images at several wavelengths are reconstructed directly from 2D projections. Employing a pixelized polarizer and colored patterned detector enables compressive sensing over spatial, spectral, and polarization domains, reducing the total number of measurements. Compressive sensing codes are specially designed to enhance the peak signal-to-noise ratio in the reconstructed images. Experiments validate the architecture and reconstruction algorithms. PMID:26560932

  13. Point cloud generation from aerial image data acquired by a quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle and a digital still camera.

    PubMed

    Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems' SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft(®)'s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation. PMID:22368479

  14. Point Cloud Generation from Aerial Image Data Acquired by a Quadrocopter Type Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Digital Still Camera

    PubMed Central

    Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems’ SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft®’s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation. PMID:22368479

  15. An Investigation of the Detectability of Cloud-to-Ground Strokes by the Lightning Imaging Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, V.; Bitzer, P. M.; Christian, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is compared with several ground based sensing networks in order to determine the percentage of cloud-to-ground lightning strokes detected from space. Diverging from previous research, stroke level data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is compared to LIS groups. A LIS group is considered a match if it lies within 10 ms and 50 km of the NLDN stroke. In addition, VLF/LF sources detected by the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) and VHF sources detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) are used to differentiate between lightning events detected or not detected by LIS. The electric field change measurements from HAMMA allow for the analysis of individual electric field waveforms of both intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning. We investigate if and how properties such as the peak current, height, and stroke type determine whether or not an event is detected by LIS. Additionally, examining the timing and location differences between the ground based sensors and LIS provides a better understanding of which component of the discharge is detected by each.

  16. NEAR-IR IMAGING POLARIMETRY TOWARD A BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUD: MAGNETIC FIELD IN SFO 74

    SciTech Connect

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Tamura, Motohide; Kwon, Jungmi; Sato, Yaeko; Watanabe, Makoto; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sato, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We have made near-infrared (JHK {sub s}) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim) and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ?90 ?G, is stronger than that far inside, ?30 ?G. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV-radiation-induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip and thus increases the strength of the magnetic field. The magnetic pressure seems to be comparable to the turbulent one just inside the tip rim, implying a significant contribution of the magnetic field to the total internal pressure. The mass-to-flux ratio was estimated to be close to the critical value just inside the tip rim. We speculate that the flat-topped bright rim of SFO 74 could be formed by the magnetic field effect.

  17. Near-IR Imaging Polarimetry toward a Bright-rimmed Cloud: Magnetic Field in SFO 74

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Tamura, Motohide; Sato, Yaeko; Kwon, Jungmi; Watanabe, Makoto; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sato, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We have made near-infrared (JHK s) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim) and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ~90 ?G, is stronger than that far inside, ~30 ?G. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV-radiation-induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip and thus increases the strength of the magnetic field. The magnetic pressure seems to be comparable to the turbulent one just inside the tip rim, implying a significant contribution of the magnetic field to the total internal pressure. The mass-to-flux ratio was estimated to be close to the critical value just inside the tip rim. We speculate that the flat-topped bright rim of SFO 74 could be formed by the magnetic field effect.

  18. Basic research planning in mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Guseman, L. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Fundamental problems encountered while attempting to develop automated techniques for applications of remote sensing are discussed under the following categories: (1) geometric and radiometric preprocessing; (2) spatial, spectral, temporal, syntactic, and ancillary digital image representation; (3) image partitioning, proportion estimation, and error models in object scene interference; (4) parallel processing and image data structures; and (5) continuing studies in polarization; computer architectures and parallel processing; and the applicability of "expert systems" to interactive analysis.

  19. Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The application of mathematical and statistical analyses techniques to imagery obtained by remote sensors is described by Principal Investigators. Scene-to-map registration, geometric rectification, and image matching are among the pattern recognition aspects discussed.

  20. Polarization of Directly Imaged Young Giant Planets as a Probe of Mass, Rotation, and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Sengupta, Sujan

    2012-01-01

    Young, hot gas giant planets at large separations from their primaries have been directly imaged around several nearby stars. More such planets will likely be detected by ongoing and new imaging surveys with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Efforts continue to model the spectra of these planets in order to constrain their masses, effective temperatures, composition, and cloud structure. One potential tool for analyzing these objects, which has received relatively less attention, is polarization. Linear polarization of gas giant exoplanets can arise from the combined influences of light scattering by atmospheric dust and a rotationally distorted shape. The oblateness of gas giant planet increases of course with rotation rate and for fixed rotation also rises with decreasing gravity. Thus young, lower mass gas giant planets with youthful inflated radii could easily have oblateness greater than that of Saturn s 10%. We find that polarizations of over 1% may easily be produced in the near-infrared in such cases. This magnitude of polarization may be measurable by GPI and other instruments. Thus if detected, polarization of a young Jupiter places constraints on the combination of its gravity, rotation rate, and degree of cloudiness. We will present results of our multiple scattering analysis coupled with a self-consistent dusty atmospheric models to demonstrate the range of polarizations that might be expected from resolved exoplanets and the range of parameter space that such observations may inform.

  1. Stratospheric imaging of polar mesospheric clouds: A new window on small-scale atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Chapman, D.; Jones, G.; Limon, M.; Araujo, D.; Didier, J.; Hillbrand, S.; Kjellstrand, C. B.; Korotkov, A.; Tucker, G.; Vinokurov, Y.; Wan, K.; Wang, L.

    2015-07-01

    Instabilities and turbulence extending to the smallest dynamical scales play important roles in the deposition of energy and momentum by gravity waves throughout the atmosphere. However, these dynamics and their effects have been impossible to quantify to date due to lack of observational guidance. Serendipitous optical images of polar mesospheric clouds at ˜82 km obtained by star cameras aboard a cosmology experiment deployed on a stratospheric balloon provide a new observational tool, revealing instability and turbulence structures extending to spatial scales < 20 m. At 82 km, this resolution provides sensitivity extending to the smallest turbulence scale not strongly influenced by viscosity: the "inner scale" of turbulence, l0˜10(?3/?)1/4. Such images represent a new window into small-scale dynamics that occur throughout the atmosphere but are impossible to observe in such detail at any other altitude. We present a sample of images revealing a range of dynamics features and employ numerical simulations that resolve these dynamics to guide our interpretation of several observed events.

  2. Fast Occlusion and Shadow Detection for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Combined with LIDAR Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Li, X.

    2012-08-01

    The orthophoto is an important component of GIS database and has been applied in many fields. But occlusion and shadow causes the loss of feature information which has a great effect on the quality of images. One of the critical steps in true orthophoto generation is the detection of occlusion and shadow. Nowadays LiDAR can obtain the digital surface model (DSM) directly. Combined with this technology, image occlusion and shadow can be detected automatically. In this paper, the Z-Buffer is applied for occlusion detection. The shadow detection can be regarded as a same problem with occlusion detection considering the angle between the sun and the camera. However, the Z-Buffer algorithm is computationally expensive. And the volume of scanned data and remote sensing images is very large. Efficient algorithm is another challenge. Modern graphics processing unit (GPU) is much more powerful than central processing unit (CPU). We introduce this technology to speed up the Z-Buffer algorithm and get 7 times increase in speed compared with CPU. The results of experiments demonstrate that Z-Buffer algorithm plays well in occlusion and shadow detection combined with high density of point cloud and GPU can speed up the computation significantly.

  3. a Semi-Automatic Procedure for Texturing of Laser Scanning Point Clouds with Google Streetview Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenauer, J. F.; Sirmacek, B.

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a method to texture 3D urban models with photographs that even works for Google Streetview images and can be done with currently available free software. This allows realistic texturing, even when it is not possible or cost-effective to (re)visit a scanned site to take textured scans or photographs. Mapping a photograph onto a 3D model requires knowledge of the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. The common way to obtain intrinsic parameters of a camera is by taking several photographs of a calibration object with a priori known structure. The extra challenge of using images from a database such as Google Streetview, rather than your own photographs, is that it does not allow for any controlled calibration. To overcome this limitation, we propose to calibrate the panoramic viewer of Google Streetview using Structure from Motion (SfM) on any structure of which Google Streetview offers views from multiple angles. After this, the extrinsic parameters for any other view can be calculated from 3 or more tie points between the image from Google Streetview and a 3D model of the scene. These point correspondences can either be obtained automatically or selected by manual annotation. We demonstrate how this procedure provides realistic 3D urban models in an easy and effective way, by using it to texture a publicly available point cloud from a terrestrial laser scan made in Bremen, Germany, with a screenshot from Google Streetview, after estimating the focal length from views from Paris, France.

  4. Application of Cloude's target decomposition theorem to polarimetric imaging radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we applied Cloude's decomposition to imaging radar polarimetry. We show in detail how the decomposition results can guide the interpretation of scattering from vegetated areas. For multifrequency polarimetric radar measurements of a clear-cut area, the decomposition leads us to conclude that the vegetation is probably thin compared to even the C-band radar wavelength of 6 cm. For a frosted area, we notice an increased amount of even number of reflection scattering at P-band and L-band, probably the result of penetration through the coniferous canopy resulting in trunk-ground double reflection scattering. However, the scattering for the forested area is still dominated by scattering from randomly oriented cylinders. It is found that these cylinders are thicker than in the case of clear-cut areas, leading us to conclude that scattering from the branches probably dominates in this case.

  5. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol and water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth-viewing sensor being developed as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) to be launched in the late 1990s. MODIS consists of two separate instruments that scan a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. Of primary interest for studies of atmospheric physics is the MODIS-N (nadir) instrument which will provide images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resoulutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean and atmosperhic processes. The intent of this lecture is to describe the current status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning radiometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micrometers, and to describe the physical principles behind the development of MODIS for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties. Primary emphasis will be placed on the main atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles form spectral-reflection and thermal-emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be utilized for the determination of the total precipitable water vapor over land and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described herein.

  6. Color filter array patterns for small-pixel image sensors with substantial cross talk

    E-print Network

    Fossum, Eric R.

    the design and analysis of new color filter array patterns for improving the color error and SNRColor filter array patterns for small-pixel image sensors with substantial cross talk Leo Anzagira sensor outputs usually must be transformed to suit the human visual system. This color correction

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 063817 (2012) Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 063817 (2012) Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns Petros detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, "blurred") speckle patterns of the incident speckle field rather than other noise sources. In our experimental study, we show that the quality

  8. Genetic Algorithm-Based Relevance Feedback for Image Retrieval Using Local Similarity Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stejic, Zoran; Takama, Yasufumi; Hirota, Kaoru

    2003-01-01

    Proposes local similarity pattern (LSP) as a new method for computing digital image similarity. Topics include optimizing similarity computation based on genetic algorithm; relevance feedback; and an evaluation of LSP on five databases that showed an increase in retrieval precision over other methods for computing image similarity. (Author/LRW)

  9. STATISTICAL MODEL AND GENETIC OPTIMIZATION: APPLICATION TO PATTERN DETECTION IN SONAR IMAGES

    E-print Network

    STATISTICAL MODEL AND GENETIC OPTIMIZATION: APPLICATION TO PATTERN DETECTION IN SONAR IMAGES M by a high resolution sonar. A prior knowledge of the manufactured object shadow shape is described allows to determine the presence of the desired ob- ject in the sonar image. This method has been

  10. STATISTICAL MODEL AND GENETIC OPTIMIZATION: APPLICATION TO PATTERN DETECTION IN SONAR IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Mignotte, Max

    STATISTICAL MODEL AND GENETIC OPTIMIZATION: APPLICATION TO PATTERN DETECTION IN SONAR IMAGES M by a high resolution sonar. A prior knowledge of the manufactured object shadow shape is described allows to determine the presence of the desired ob­ ject in the sonar image. This method has been

  11. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1997-01-01

    Fractals embody important ideas of self-similarity, in which the spatial behavior or appearance of a system is largely scale-independent. Self-similarity is a property of curves or surfaces where each part is indistinguishable from the whole. The fractal dimension D of remote sensing data yields quantitative insight on the spatial complexity and information content contained within these data. Analyses of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed(l0 to 80 meters). The forested scene behaves as one would expect-larger pixel sizes decrease the complexity of the image as individual clumps of trees are averaged into larger blocks. The increased complexity of the agricultural image with increasing pixel size results from the loss of homogeneous groups of pixels in the large fields to mixed pixels composed of varying combinations of NDVI values that correspond to roads and vegetation. The same process occur's in the urban image to some extent, but the lack of large, homogeneous areas in the high resolution NDVI image means the initially high D value is maintained as pixel size increases. The slope of the fractal dimension-resolution relationship provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor resolution.

  12. Moiré image patterns on double-walled carbon nanotubes observed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Nobuyuki; Suwa, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiromichi; Sugai, Toshiki; Heike, Seiji; Fujimori, Masaaki; Terada, Yasuhiko; Hashizume, Tomihiro; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2009-03-01

    Long-range quasiperiodic patterns are found in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) on top of the atomic images of six-membered carbon rings of the outer tubes. By comparing the results of first-principles calculations on model DWNTs, we conclude that they are moiré patterns showing local modulations of electronic states due to the interlayer interactions between the outer and inner tubes. We also demonstrate that these moiré patterns can be used to assign the chiral vector of the inner tube of a DWNT which is usually inaccessible by STM.

  13. Arctic Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... a stereo anaglyph enables observation of multiple cloud layers. The images are centered at about 75 degrees north latitude, near ... cold, stable air causes the clouds to persist in stratified layers, and this layering is evident in the stereo view. Near the top center, a ...

  14. The Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise Using Edge Pattern Analysis in Nonlinear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Woodells, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  15. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  16. Development of microscale pattern for digital image correlation up to 1400 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yali; Kakisawa, Hideki; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2015-05-01

    Speckle patterns to be used for digital image correlation (DIC) at the micrometer level up to 1400 °C were fabricated by several methods. The quality of the patterns before and after heating was evaluated in terms of the mean intensity gradient (MIG) and the speckle size distribution. The displacement accuracy in simulative translation of images showed that the MIG alone was not enough to evaluate the pattern properties; a large MIG, an even speckle size distribution, and a wide speckle size range pattern were required for a good DIC. The reaction between the patterning material and substrate, the cracking of speckles, and the plastic flow of patterning material may cause changes in the pattern morphology at high temperature. Two patterning methods, spraying a mixture of ceramics powder and binder by a fine-nozzle air brush and abrading a polished surface, yielded a small pattern with high MIG values and even size distributions that was stable at 1400 °C. The potential of the fabricated patterns was shown by measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion of polycrystalline Al2O3 from 800 °C to 1400 °C.

  17. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging lab.: A cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    PubMed

    Neves Tafula, Sergio M; Moreira da Silva, Nadia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, Joao Paulo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability. PMID:25570014

  18. Design of an in-line, digital holographic imaging system for airborne measurement of clouds.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Fugal, Jacob

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the design and performance of an airborne (underwing) in-line digital holographic imaging system developed for characterizing atmospheric cloud water droplets and ice particles in situ. The airborne environment constrained the design space to the simple optical layout that in-line non-beam-splitting holography affords. The desired measurement required the largest possible sample volume in which the smallest desired particle size (?5 ?m) could still be resolved, and consequently the magnification requirement was driven by the pixel size of the camera and this particle size. The resulting design was a seven-element, double-telecentric, high-precision optical imaging system used to relay and magnify a hologram onto a CCD surface. The system was designed to preserve performance and high resolution over a wide temperature range. Details of the optical design and construction are given. Experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of recording holograms that can be reconstructed with resolution of better than 6.5 ?m within a 15 cm(3) sample volume. PMID:21460907

  19. ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.

    2012-12-01

    The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

  20. The Seasonal and Diurnal Patterns of net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange in a Subtropical Montane Cloud Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, H.; Lai, C.; Wu, C.; Hsia, Y.

    2008-12-01

    CO2 fluxes were measured by an open/closed path eddy covariance system at a natural regenerated 50-years-old yellow cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana) forest at Chi-Lan Mountain site (CLM site, 24°35'N, 121°25'E, 1650 m elevation), north-eastern Taiwan. CLM site is located at a relative uniform south-eastern-facing valley slope (15°) characterized with year round fog occurrence and diurnal mountain-valley wind and can be classified as subtropical montane cloud forest. Based on measurement from July 2007 to June 2008, seasonal and diurnal patterns of CO2 fluxes were described and patterns under different cloudiness and foggy conditions were presented. Comparing with other cypress forests in temperate region, there is only a weak seasonal pattern of the CO2 fluxes at CLM site. Throughout the year, average incident photosynthetically active radiation in summer was almost the double of that in winter, whereas the difference of mean daytime CO2 fluxes among seasons was much less than the seasonal light difference. During summer when light intensity was higher, mean daytime CO2 fluxes reached -7.5 ?mol/m2/s in July and -8.8 ?mol/m2/s in August. As heavy fog accounted for 64% and 67% of the time in November and February, mean daytime CO2 fluxes dropped to -6.9 and -6.1 ?mol/m2/s respectively. With comparable higher incident radiation intensity (>1000 ?mol/m2/s), the CO2 fluxes were higher in overcast days than in clear days. In July 2007, clear days accounted for 30% of the month, light intensity reached its peak at midday, and however, CO2 fluxes didn't reach its highest value in the meanwhile. Canopy conductance calculated from the Penman-Monteith equation and measured latent heat fluxes both showed a midday depression at clear days, which indicated the regulation of transpiration by plant physiological mechanism. With comparable lower incident radiation intensity (<1000 ?mol/m2/s), the CO2 fluxes were higher in overcast days than in foggy days. The difference suggested that water droplets deposited on leaves might partially block the pathway of the gas exchange through stomata as canopy immersed in the very humid air. However, CO2 fluxes did not cease during foggy periods, as also supported by sap flow and leaf chamber measurements, the morphological characteristics of leaf or/and canopy structure might contribute to the well adaptability of this subtropical montane cloud forest to the humid environment.

  1. Evaluation of a cloud-based local-read paradigm for imaging evaluations in oncology clinical trials for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bonnard, Eric; Charbonnier, Colette; Yamamichi, Junta; Mizobe, Hideaki; Kimura, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Background Although tumor response evaluated with radiological imaging is frequently used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials, it is difficult to obtain precise results because of inter- and intra-observer differences. Purpose To evaluate usefulness of a cloud-based local-read paradigm implementing software solutions that standardize imaging evaluations among international investigator sites for clinical trials of lung cancer. Material and Methods Two studies were performed: KUMO I and KUMO I Extension. KUMO I was a pilot study aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of cloud implementation and identifying issues regarding variability of evaluations among sites. Chest CT scans at three time-points from baseline to progression, from 10 patients with lung cancer who were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were evaluated independently by two oncologists (Japan) and one radiologist (France), through a cloud-based software solution. The KUMO I Extension was performed based on the results of KUMO I. Results KUMO I showed discordance rates of 40% for target lesion selection, 70% for overall response at the first time-point, and 60% for overall response at the second time-point. Since the main reason for the discordance was differences in the selection of target lesions, KUMO I Extension added a cloud-based quality control service to achieve a consensus on the selection of target lesions, resulting in an improved rate of agreement of response evaluations. Conclusion The study shows the feasibility of imaging evaluations at investigator sites, based on cloud services for clinical studies involving multiple international sites. This system offers a step forward in standardizing evaluations of images among widely dispersed sites. PMID:26668754

  2. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2015-11-01

    Coherent diffraction imaging is a high-resolution imaging technique whose potential can be greatly enhanced by applying the extrapolation method presented here. We demonstrate the enhancement in resolution of a non-periodical object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction record which contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. A diffraction pattern is extrapolated beyond the detector area and as a result, the object is reconstructed at an enhanced resolution and better agreement with experimental amplitudes is achieved. The optimal parameters for the iterative routine and the limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.

  3. Two Levels Fusion Decision for Multispectral Image Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmannai, H.; Loghmari, M. A.; Naceur, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Major goal of multispectral data analysis is land cover classification and related applications. The dimension drawback leads to a small ratio of the remote sensing training data compared to the number of features. Therefore robust methods should be associated to overcome the dimensionality curse. The presented work proposed a pattern recognition approach. Source separation, feature extraction and decisional fusion are the main stages to establish an automatic pattern recognizer. The first stage is pre-processing and is based on non linear source separation. The mixing process is considered non linear with gaussians distributions. The second stage performs feature extraction for Gabor, Wavelet and Curvelet transform. Feature information presentation provides an efficient information description for machine vision projects. The third stage is a decisional fusion performed in two steps. The first step assign the best feature to each source/pattern using the accuracy matrix obtained from the learning data set. The second step is a source majority vote. Classification is performed by Support Vector Machine. Experimentation results show that the proposed fusion method enhances the classification accuracy and provide powerful tool for pattern recognition.

  4. Patterns of Hepatosplenic Brucella Abscesses on Cross-Sectional Imaging: A Review of Clinical and Imaging Features.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tom; Bélard, Sabine; Wallrauch, Claudia; Carretto, Edoardo; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Filice, Carlo; Brunetti, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    While diffuse involvement of liver and spleen is frequently seen in brucellosis, suppurative abscesses caused by Brucella are less common but well described. With the increased availability of cross-sectional imaging techniques, reports have become more frequent. Four patients with hepatosplenic abscesses caused by Brucella spp. are described and included in a review of 115 previously published cases. Clinical characteristics and patterns on ultrasound (US) and computed tomography imaging were analyzed. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with brucellosis affected by suppurative hepatosplenic lesions was estimated. Hepatosplenic abscesses were seen in 1.2% of patients with brucellosis and were mostly caused by Brucella melitensis. Imaging analysis revealed two main distinct patterns. Solitary abscesses involving liver more frequently than spleen, and showing characteristic central calcifications, characterize the first pattern. Multiple smaller abscesses, frequent spleen involvement, and absence of calcifications characterize the second pattern. Blood and aspirate cultures were frequently negative, however, the positivity rate increased over the past years. Indirect Coombs test was positive in 96%. Half of the patients were cured by antibiotic treatment; case fatality in this series was 1.9%. Hepatosplenic abscesses due to Brucella infections have characteristic imaging findings. Clinicians should be aware of these and the proactive use of cross-sectional imaging, particularly US, should be encouraged in endemic regions. PMID:26283749

  5. Cross-linking patterns and their images in swollen and deformed gels

    E-print Network

    Sergey Panyukov; Yitzhak Rabin

    2015-07-10

    Using the theory of elasticity of polymer gels we show that large-scale cross-link density patterns written into the structure of the network in the melt state, can be revealed upon swelling by monitoring the monomer density patterns. We find that while isotropic deformations in good solvent yield magnified images of the original pattern, anisotropic deformations distort the image (both types of deformation yield affinely stretched images in $\\theta$ solvents). We show that in ordinary solids with spatially inhomogeneous profile of the shear modulus, isotropic stretching leads to distorted density image of this profile under isotropic deformation. Using simple physical arguments we demonstrate that the different response to isotropic stretching stems from fundamental differences between the theory of elasticity of solids and that of gels. Possible tests of our predictions and some potential applications are discussed.

  6. Integration of Color and Local Derivative Pattern Features for Content-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipparthi, Santosh Kumar; Nagar, Shyam Krishna

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents two new feature descriptors for content based image retrieval (CBIR) application. The proposed two descriptors are named as color local derivative patterns (CLDP) and inter color local derivative pattern (ICLDP). In order to reduce the computational complexity the uniform patterns are applied to both CLDP and ICLDP. Further, uniform CLDP (CLDPu2) and uniform ICLDP (ICLDPu2) are generated respectively. The proposed descriptors are able to exploit individual (R, G and B) spectral channel information and co-relating pair (RG, GB, BR, etc.) of spectral channel information. The retrieval performances of the proposed descriptors (CLDP and ICLDP) are tested by conducting two experiments on Corel-5000 and Corel-10000 benchmark databases. The results after investigation show a significant improvement in terms of precision, average retrieval precision (ARP), recall and average retrieval rate (ARR) as compared to local binary patterns (LBP), local derivative patterns (LDP) and other state-of-the-art techniques for image retrieval.

  7. Integration of Color and Local Derivative Pattern Features for Content-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipparthi, Santosh Kumar; Nagar, Shyam Krishna

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents two new feature descriptors for content based image retrieval (CBIR) application. The proposed two descriptors are named as color local derivative patterns (CLDP) and inter color local derivative pattern (ICLDP). In order to reduce the computational complexity the uniform patterns are applied to both CLDP and ICLDP. Further, uniform CLDP (CLDPu2) and uniform ICLDP (ICLDPu2) are generated respectively. The proposed descriptors are able to exploit individual (R, G and B) spectral channel information and co-relating pair (RG, GB, BR, etc.) of spectral channel information. The retrieval performances of the proposed descriptors (CLDP and ICLDP) are tested by conducting two experiments on Corel-5000 and Corel-10000 benchmark databases. The results after investigation show a significant improvement in terms of precision, average retrieval precision (ARP), recall and average retrieval rate (ARR) as compared to local binary patterns (LBP), local derivative patterns (LDP) and other state-of-the-art techniques for image retrieval.

  8. Photogrammetry and photo interpretation applied to analyses of cloud cover, cloud type, and cloud motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    A determination was made of the areal extent of terrain obscured by clouds and cloud shadows on a portion of an Apollo 9 photograph at the instant of exposure. This photogrammetrically determined area was then compared to the cloud coverage reported by surface weather observers at approximately the same time and location, as a check on result quality. Stereograms prepared from Apollo 9 vertical photographs, illustrating various percentages of cloud coverage, are presented to help provide a quantitative appreciation of the degradation of terrain photography by clouds and their attendant shadows. A scheme, developed for the U.S. Navy, utilizing pattern recognition techniques for determining cloud motion from sequences of satellite photographs, is summarized. Clouds, turbulence, haze, and solar altitude, four elements of our natural environment which affect aerial photographic missions, are each discussed in terms of their effects on imagery obtained by aerial photography. Data of a type useful to aerial photographic mission planners, expressing photographic ground coverage in terms of flying height above terrain and camera focal length, for a standard aerial photograph format, are provided. Two oblique orbital photographs taken during the Apollo 9 flight are shown, and photo-interpretations, discussing the cloud types imaged and certain visible geographical features, are provided.

  9. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival during dry periods. PMID:25716877

  10. A NOVEL APPROXIMATE INFERENCE APPROACH TO AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION OF PROTEIN SUBCELLULAR LOCATION PATTERNS IN MULTI-CELL IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Guestrin, Carlos

    of HeLa cell images containing ten distinct subcellular patterns, the systems have achieved PATTERNS IN MULTI-CELL IMAGES Shann-Ching Chen1 , Geoffrey J. Gordon3 , and Robert F. Murphy1. In recent years, automated systems have been developed so that the protein pattern in a single cell can

  11. Imaging of renal lymphoma: patterns of disease with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Sheila; Ali, Syed; Fishman, Elliot

    2006-01-01

    Extranodal spread of lymphoma often affects the genitourinary system, with the kidneys being the most commonly involved organs. Contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) remains the modality of choice for the detection, diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of renal lymphoma. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is particularly useful in patients in whom intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material is contraindicated. Ultrasonography (US), although very valuable for diagnosing lymphoma in the testis or epididymis, is less sensitive than CT and MR imaging for detecting renal lymphoma. Typical imaging findings of renal lymphoma include multiple poorly enhancing or hypoechoic masses, retroperitoneal tumors directly invading the kidneys, bilateral renal enlargement, and perirenal soft-tissue masses. Cystic lesions and tumors predominantly affecting the renal sinus and collecting system are uncommon. Unless the renal lesions manifest in the setting of widespread lymphoma, percutaneous biopsy is indicated to differentiate lymphoma from metastases, hypovascular renal cell carcinoma, uroepithelial carcinoma, or atypical infection, with US routinely being used to guide the procedure. Current immunohistochemical techniques allow accurate diagnosis and characterization of renal lymphoma. Radiologists should be familiar with both typical and atypical manifestations of renal lymphoma and should recommend imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy for diagnostic confirmation to avoid unnecessary nephrectomy. PMID:16844939

  12. Spatial uncertainty modeling of fuzzy information in images for pattern classification.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan D

    2014-01-01

    The modeling of the spatial distribution of image properties is important for many pattern recognition problems in science and engineering. Mathematical methods are needed to quantify the variability of this spatial distribution based on which a decision of classification can be made in an optimal sense. However, image properties are often subject to uncertainty due to both incomplete and imprecise information. This paper presents an integrated approach for estimating the spatial uncertainty of vagueness in images using the theory of geostatistics and the calculus of probability measures of fuzzy events. Such a model for the quantification of spatial uncertainty is utilized as a new image feature extraction method, based on which classifiers can be trained to perform the task of pattern recognition. Applications of the proposed algorithm to the classification of various types of image data suggest the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty modeling technique for texture feature extraction. PMID:25157744

  13. Coherent lidar imaging of dust clouds: waveform comparison with the poly-phase (P4) modulation waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youmans, Douglas G.

    2008-04-01

    A dust or aerosol cloud represents a convenient target to examine the capabilities of range-resolved Doppler and intensity (RRDI) or inverse synthetic aperture ladar (ISAR) imaging coherent laser radar, known as coherent "lidar" for optically thin targets. The poly-phase P4 ladar waveform and its RRDI images are described and compared with previous pulse-burst, linear-FM chirp pulse-compression, pseudo-random phase modulation waveforms, and several other waveforms which have not been utilized to date. A "dust cloud" has very many independently moving point scatterers with velocities that are approximately Gaussian randomly distributed in x,y,z with standard deviations of about 10% of the mean wind + aerosol velocity. This is contrary to a hard-target where the point scatterers are rigidly attached and moving together. The dust cloud produced speckle effects for the various ladar waveforms are compared. In addition, a reference set of four corner-cube retro-reflectors within the dust cloud further illustrates the differences in the various waveform capabilities and resolution.

  14. Measurements of cathode pattern drifts using high-speed imaging in SSPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Talamãs, C. A.; Bellan, P. M.

    2004-11-01

    A specially designed high-speed imaging system that can take up to two images for every plasma shot has been installed at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX). The imaging system has revealed the existence of bright patterns close to the electrodes during current sustainment and ramp-down. In particular, circular patterns are seen on the end face of the cylindrically shaped cathode. These patterns are azimuthally segmented, approximately concentric with the cathode axis, and appear at discrete radial positions. The anode, in contrast, has patterns near the divertor region that are not as well defined as those at the cathode. The patterns on both electrodes evolve in time. The cathode pattern morphology and position did not vary significantly in less than 0.1 ms. At times greater than 0.1 ms, the cathode patterns elongate toroidally in a constant direction. Reversal of the gun bias magnetic field reversed the elongation direction. This suggests the motion is due to E× B drifts near the cathode surface. Possible implications of these drifts on gun current distribution at the cathode surface will be presented.

  15. Cloud radiative properties and aerosol - cloud interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viviana Vladutescu, Daniela; Gross, Barry; Li, Clement; Han, Zaw

    2015-04-01

    The presented research discusses different techniques for improvement of cloud properties measurements and analysis. The need for these measurements and analysis arises from the high errors noticed in existing methods that are currently used in retrieving cloud properties and implicitly cloud radiative forcing. The properties investigated are cloud fraction (cf) and cloud optical thickness (COT) measured with a suite of collocated remote sensing instruments. The novel approach makes use of a ground based "poor man's camera" to detect cloud and sky radiation in red, green, and blue with a high spatial resolution of 30 mm at 1km. The surface-based high resolution photography provides a new and interesting view of clouds. As the cloud fraction cannot be uniquely defined or measured, it depends on threshold and resolution. However as resolution decreases, cloud fraction tends to increase if the threshold is below the mean, and vice versa. Additionally cloud fractal dimension also depends on threshold. Therefore these findings raise concerns over the ability to characterize clouds by cloud fraction or fractal dimension. Our analysis indicate that Principal Component analysis may lead to a robust means of quantifying cloud contribution to radiance. The cloud images are analyzed in conjunction with a collocated CIMEL sky radiometer, Microwave Radiometer and LIDAR to determine homogeneity and heterogeneity. Additionally, MFRSR measurements are used to determine the cloud radiative properties as a validation tool to the results obtained from the other instruments and methods. The cloud properties to be further studied are aerosol- cloud interaction, cloud particle radii, and vertical homogeneity.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis of splenic enlargement using wave pattern of spleen in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won; Cho, June-Sik; Noh, Seung-Moo; Park, Jong Won

    2006-03-01

    It is known that the spleen accompanied by liver cirrhosis is hypertrophied or enlarged. We have examined a wave pattern at the left boundary of spleen on the abdominal CT images having liver cirrhosis, and found that they are different from those on the images having a normal liver. It is noticed that the abdominal CT images of patient with liver cirrhosis shows strong bending in the wave pattern. In the case of normal liver, the images may also have a wave pattern, but its bends are not strong. Therefore, the total waving area of the spleen with liver cirrhosis is found to be greater than that of the spleen with a normal liver. Moreover, we found that the waves of the spleen from the image with liver cirrhosis have the higher degree of circularity compared to the normal liver case. Based on the two observations above, we propose an automatic method to diagnose splenic enlargement by using the wave pattern of the spleen in abdominal CT images. The proposed automatic method improves the diagnostic performance compared with the conventional process based on the size of spleen.

  17. BIOCAT: a pattern recognition platform for customizable biological image classification and annotation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pattern recognition algorithms are useful in bioimage informatics applications such as quantifying cellular and subcellular objects, annotating gene expressions, and classifying phenotypes. To provide effective and efficient image classification and annotation for the ever-increasing microscopic images, it is desirable to have tools that can combine and compare various algorithms, and build customizable solution for different biological problems. However, current tools often offer a limited solution in generating user-friendly and extensible tools for annotating higher dimensional images that correspond to multiple complicated categories. Results We develop the BIOimage Classification and Annotation Tool (BIOCAT). It is able to apply pattern recognition algorithms to two- and three-dimensional biological image sets as well as regions of interest (ROIs) in individual images for automatic classification and annotation. We also propose a 3D anisotropic wavelet feature extractor for extracting textural features from 3D images with xy-z resolution disparity. The extractor is one of the about 20 built-in algorithms of feature extractors, selectors and classifiers in BIOCAT. The algorithms are modularized so that they can be “chained” in a customizable way to form adaptive solution for various problems, and the plugin-based extensibility gives the tool an open architecture to incorporate future algorithms. We have applied BIOCAT to classification and annotation of images and ROIs of different properties with applications in cell biology and neuroscience. Conclusions BIOCAT provides a user-friendly, portable platform for pattern recognition based biological image classification of two- and three- dimensional images and ROIs. We show, via diverse case studies, that different algorithms and their combinations have different suitability for various problems. The customizability of BIOCAT is thus expected to be useful for providing effective and efficient solutions for a variety of biological problems involving image classification and annotation. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D anisotropic wavelet in classifying both 3D image sets and ROIs. PMID:24090164

  18. Assessing geoaccuracy of structure from motion point clouds from long-range image collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilosek, David; Walvoord, Derek J.; Salvaggio, Carl

    2014-11-01

    Automatically extracted and accurate scene structure generated from airborne platforms is a goal of many applications in the photogrammetry, remote sensing, and computer vision fields. This structure has traditionally been extracted automatically through the structure-from-motion (SfM) workflows. Although this process is very powerful, the analysis of error in accuracy can prove difficult. Our work presents a method of analyzing the georegistration error from SfM derived point clouds that have been transformed to a fixed Earth-based coordinate system. The error analysis is performed using synthetic airborne imagery which provides absolute truth for the ray-surface intersection of every pixel in every image. Three methods of georegistration are assessed; (1) using global positioning system (GPS) camera centers, (2) using pose information directly from on-board navigational instrumentation, and (3) using a recently developed method that utilizes the forward projection function and SfM-derived camera pose estimates. It was found that the georegistration derived from GPS camera centers and the direct use of pose information from on-board navigational instruments is very sensitive to noise from both the SfM process and instrumentation. The georegistration transform computed using the forward projection function and the derived pose estimates prove to be far more robust to these errors.

  19. Improving Cloud Detection in Satellite Images of Coral Reef Environments Using Space Shuttle Photographs and High-Definition Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrefeouet, Serge; Robinson, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are suffering from severe and rapid degradation (Bryant et A, 1998; Hoegh-Guldberg, 1999). Quick, consistent, large-scale assessment is required to assess and monitor their status (e.g., USDOC/NOAA NESDIS et al., 1999). On-going systematic collection of high resolution digital satellite data will exhaustively complement the relatively small number of SPOT, Landsat 4-5, and IRS scenes acquired for coral reefs the last 20 years. The workhorse for current image acquisition is the Landsat 7 ETM+ Long Term Acquisition Plan (Gasch et al. 2000). Coral reefs are encountered in tropical areas and cloud contamination in satellite images is frequently a problem (Benner and Curry 1998), despite new automated techniques of cloud cover avoidance (Gasch and Campana 2000). Fusion of multidate acquisitions is a classical solution to solve the cloud problems. Though elegant, this solution is costly since multiple images must be purchased for one location; the cost may be prohibitive for institutions in developing countries. There are other difficulties associated with fusing multidate images as well. For example, water quality or surface state can significantly change through time in coral reef areas making the bathymetric processing of a mosaiced image strenuous. Therefore, another strategy must be selected to detect clouds and improve coral reefs mapping. Other supplemental data could be helpful and cost-effective for distinguishing clouds and generating the best possible reef maps in the shortest amount of time. Photographs taken from the 1960s to the present from the Space Shuttle and other human-occupied spacecraft are one under-used source of alternative multitemporal data (Lulla et al. 1996). Nearly 400,000 photographs have been acquired during this period, an estimated 28,000 of these taken to date are of potential value for reef remote sensing (Robinson et al. 2000a). The photographic images can be digitized into three bands (red, green and blue) and processed for various applications (e.g., Benner and Curry 1998, Nedeltchev 1999, Glasser and Lulla 2000, Robinson et al. 2000c, Webb et al, in press).

  20. Using aberration test patterns to optimize the performance of EUV aerial imaging microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Miyakawa, Ryan; Naulleau, Patrick; Han, Hak-Seung; Huh, Sungmin

    2009-06-16

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a prototype EUV-wavelength zoneplate microscope that provides high quality aerial image measurements of EUV reticles. To simplify and improve the alignment procedure we have created and tested arrays of aberration-sensitive patterns on EUV reticles and we have compared their images collected with the AIT to the expected shapes obtained by simulating the theoretical wavefront of the system. We obtained a consistent measure of coma and astigmatism in the center of the field of view using two different patterns, revealing a misalignment condition in the optics.

  1. Research on the face pattern space division in images based on their different views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhixiang; Ding, Xiaoqing; Fang, Chi; Wang, Yanwei

    2014-03-01

    Different face views project different face topology in 2D images. The unified processing of face images with less topology different related to smaller range of face view angles is more convenient, and vice versa. Thus many researches divided the entire face pattern space form multiview face images into many subspaces with small range of view angles. However, large number of subspaces is computationally demanding, and different face processing algorithms take different strategies to handle the view changing. Therefore, the research of proper division of face pattern space is needed to ensure good performance. Different from other researches, this paper proposes an optimal view angle range criterion of face pattern space division in theory by careful analysis on the structure differences of multiview faces and on the influence to face processing algorithms. Then a face pattern space division method is proposed. Finally, this paper uses the proposed criterion and method to divide the face pattern space for face detection and compares with other division results. The final results show the proposed criterion and method can satisfy the processing performance with minimum number of subspace. The study in this paper can also help other researches which need to divide pattern space of other objects based on their different views.

  2. High-Contrast Color-Stripe Pattern for Rapid Structured-Light Range Imaging

    E-print Network

    Je, Changsoo; Park, Rae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    For structured-light range imaging, color stripes can be used for increasing the number of distinguishable light patterns compared to binary BW stripes. Therefore, an appropriate use of color patterns can reduce the number of light projections and range imaging is achievable in single video frame or in "one shot". On the other hand, the reliability and range resolution attainable from color stripes is generally lower than those from multiply projected binary BW patterns since color contrast is affected by object color reflectance and ambient light. This paper presents new methods for selecting stripe colors and designing multiple-stripe patterns for "one-shot" and "two-shot" imaging. We show that maximizing color contrast between the stripes in one-shot imaging reduces the ambiguities resulting from colored object surfaces and limitations in sensor/projector resolution. Two-shot imaging adds an extra video frame and maximizes the color contrast between the first and second video frames to diminish the ambigui...

  3. Speckle pattern of the images of objects exposed to monochromatic coherent terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokurov, Nikolai A; Knyazev, Boris A; Kulipanov, Gennadii N; Dem'yanenko, M A; Esaev, D G; Chashchina, O I; Cherkasskii, Valerii S

    2009-05-31

    By using a free electron laser and a microbolometer array, real-time images are recorded for the first time in the terahertz range at the rate of up to 90 frames per second. In the case of diffusive illumination of objects by coherent monochromatic radiation, the images consist of speckles. The study of the statistical properties of speckle patterns shows that they are quite accurately described by the theory developed for speckles in the visible range. By averaging a set of images with the help of a rotating scatterer during the exposure time of a frame (20 ms) and by summing statistically independent speckle patterns of many frames, images of the acceptable quality are obtained. The possibilities of terahertz speckle photography and speckle interferometry are discussed. (terahertz radiation)

  4. The airborne volcanic object imaging detector (AVOID): A new tool for airborne atmospheric remote sensing of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, F.; Durant, A.; Kylling, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new dual thermal imaging infrared camera system has been developed for aircraft in order to investigate water and volcanic clouds ahead. The system, AVOID, uses interference filters to discriminate clouds of water and ice from volcanic substances (silicates) by utilising the spectral features of these substances at wavelengths between 8-12 µm. Tests of the system were recently conducted in Sicily, in the vicinity of Mt Etna volcano and at Stromboli volcano, during emission of ash and SO2. The data were acquired from altitudes up to 12,000 ft, sampling from two cameras at frequencies down to 1 Hz. Corrections for the aircraft attitude were made using a very fast sampling attitude sensor, collocated with the imaging system. About 30 hours of data were acquired - over 90% of these measurements were of meteorological clouds of water droplets and ice. Using a radiative transfer model and information on the spectral refractive indices of water, ice and silicate ash, a retrieval scheme has been devised to determine the mass loading and effective particle radius of these substances and some preliminary results are presented. We have also developed a sophisticated simulation tool that allows us to model the 3D structure of clouds based on Monte Carlo radiative transfer. By utilising a narrow bandpass filter centred on 8.6 µm, AVOID can also detect SO2 gas and some illustrative examples are shown. During March 2012 the AVOID system will be mounted onto an AIRBUS A340 and flown at altitudes up to 38,000 ft. These tests will include measurements of clouds, as well as drifting volcanic ash and SO2 gas. We intend to present some of these initial results.

  5. Milliarcsecond imaging of clumpy dust clouds in the red giant L2 Pup with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, K.; Schertl, D.; Hofmann, K. H.; Weigelt, G.

    2014-04-01

    Despite its importance in mass loss, the dust formation in AGB stars is not yet understood well. There is growing evidence that the dust envelopes of AGB stars are much more complex--clumpy and/or bipolar--than spherically expanding shells. The non-spherical structures emerging in AGB stars may be the seed of asymmetry in planetary nebulae. However, direct observations of the clumpy dust cloud formation close to the star is difficult, because we need milliarcsecond spatial resolution. We present milliarcsecond resolution near-IR imaging of the bright, nearby M giant L2 Pup. The 2.2 micron image taken with VLT/NACO at a spatial resolution of 54 mas shows an asymmetric circumstellar envelope with 300 x 200 mas (12 x 8 stellar radii), elongated in East-West direction. Furthermore, we succeeded in aperture-synthesis imaging of L2 Pup by combining these single-dish VLT/NACO data with near-IR interferometric data taken with the AMBER instrument at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. The reconstructed image with a spatial resolution of 12 mas shows two clumps at 20--30 mas away from the star, as well as another clump over the stellar. This is the first imaging of clumpy dust clouds toward L2 Pup, whose presence was only inferred from polarimetric and photometric observations. Our observations reveal the clumpy dust formation close to the star, at 1.5--2.5 stellar radii.

  6. Spot Matching of 2-DE Images Using Distance, Intensity, and Pattern Information.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hua-Mei; Zhu, Yuemin

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of a large number of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) images requires developing automatic methods. In such analyses, spot matching plays a fundamental role, in particular for the identification of proteins. We describe a simple and accurate method which allows to automatically and accurately match spots in 2-DE images. The method consists of simultaneously exploiting the distance between the spots, their intensity, and the pattern formed by their spatial configuration. PMID:26611412

  7. Model-Driven Integration for a Service Placement Optimizer in a Sustainable Cloud of Clouds

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Jun

    integration models using Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIPs) and Cloud Computing Patterns (CCPs) and (2, federated clouds, model-driven system integration and sustainable clouds I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing and network bandwidth) [1], [2]. A cloud computing environment (or simply cloud) is an application deployment

  8. Model-Driven Integration for a Service Placement Optimizer in a Sustainable Cloud of Clouds

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Jun

    integration models using Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIPs) and Cloud Computing Patterns (CCPs) and (2, federated clouds, model-driven system integration and sustainable clouds I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing and network bandwidth) [1]­[6]. A cloud computing environment (or simply cloud) is an application deployment

  9. Fabrication and optimization of micro-scale speckle patterns for digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianguo; Yan, Gaoshen; He, Guanglong; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigations are performed on the fabrication and optimization of micro-scale speckle patterns formed by spinning an epoxy resin and powder for digital image correlation measurements. New factors influencing the fabrication process, including the ambient temperature, centrifugal velocity, and solidifying time, are carefully analyzed and are evaluated in terms of the average gray gradient and particle agglomeration, and the optimal micro-scale speckle pattern is obtained with the proposed parameters in the fabrication process. Additionally, the micro-scale speckle pattern is experimentally verified by performing prescribed rigid-body translation tests, and the relative errors are approximately 1.5%. Finally, the micro-scale speckle patterns are transferred to tensile specimens of aluminum and a polymer material with a V notch. The measurement results are consistent with the theoretical predictions, and this agreement demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of the micro-scale speckle patterns.

  10. UV contrasts and microphysical properties of the upper clouds of Venus from the UV and NIR VMC/VEx images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Shalygina, Oksana S.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.

    2015-11-01

    The nature of UV contrasts observed on the upper cloud deck of Venus is still not known. To constrain better the properties of particles that may cause the UV contrasts, the phase dependences of brightness of the venusian clouds measured by the ultraviolet and near-infrared channels of the Venus Express Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) in the UV dark and bright regions are jointly analyzed. The range of small phase angles, where the glory phenomenon is observed, is of key importance, since the properties of cloud particles can be reliably estimated from the shape and position of glory. However, from more than 2500 orbits of the mission, only in ten orbits the images were taken simultaneously in UV and near-IR channels at small phase angles. Their analysis have yielded the following results. In the UV dark and bright clouds of the equatorial region near the local noon, the derived radii of cloud particles turned out to be the same and rather large, 1.3-1.6 ?m. No unambiguous connection between the UV contrasts and the brightness in the near-IR channel was found. In some cases, the regions that appear contrasting in UV show no difference in the near-IR brightness. This means that the properties of 1-?m mode particles are the same in these regions and only the contribution of small submicron particles differs, because the near-IR channel is weakly sensitive to the presence of particles smaller than ?0.3 ?m in radius. The difference in the composition of 10% of the number of submicron particles (if sulfur and sulfuric acid compositions are considered as probable for the submicron mode) is enough to produce the observed UV contrasts. In the other cases, the UV contrasts are accompanied by the differences in near-IR brightness. This suggests that the cloud particles of the 1-?m mode contribute to these contrasts as well. However, the modeling showed that exactly the variations in the composition of submicron particles in the clouds produce a key effect on the UV contrasts observed. Moreover, a portion of submicron particles with a high refractive index, when incorporated into the sulfuric acid aerosols during the condensation process, may provide the higher refractive index (relative to that of sulfuric acid) of the 1-?m mode derived from modeling. The glory phenomenon was also observed at latitudes 30-60°S, in the transition region from the mottled clouds in dark tropics to streaky cloud morphology at higher latitudes. This allowed the sizes of cloud particles near the frequently seen UV-bright bands to be estimated. It was found that the radii of particles in the upper cloud layer decrease from 1.05-1.2 to 0.8-0.9 ?m with increasing latitude from ?35°S to ?62°S. Our present modeling also clearly showed that the high brightness in the UV-bright band is caused by an additional amount of non-absorbing (in UV) particles with Reff ? 0.9 ?m at the cloud top and/or by the decrease of a portion of absorbing particles inside the clouds below this layer. No variations of the effect with the local solar time for the interval from 10 to 13 h available in the data were detected.

  11. Saturn’s Zonal Winds at Cloud Level between 2004-2013 from Cassini ISS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.; Ingersoll , Andrew P.

    2014-11-01

    We examine images of Saturn returned by Cassini orbiter’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) camera between 2004 to 2013 to analyze the temporal evolution of the zonal mean wind speed as a function of latitude. Our study primarily examines the images captured in the 752-nm continuum band using the CB2 filter. Images captured using the CB2 filter sense the upper troposphere of Saturn between 350 mbar and 500 mbar (Pérez-Hoyos and Sánchez-Lavega, 2006; Sánchez-Lavega et al, 2006; García-Melendo et al, 2009). We measure the wind speed using a two-dimensional Correlation Imaging Velocimetry (CIV) technique. The wind vectors are computed using pairs of images separated in time by up to two planetary rotations, and binned in latitude to determine the zonal mean wind profile, which typically covers a limited range of latitude. To achieve pole-to-pole coverage, we systematically merge all the wind measurements during each of the calendar years in order to compile a yearly, near-global record of Saturn's zonal wind structure. Using our wind measurements, we analyze the temporal evolution of the zonal wind. We specifically focus on changes in the wind profile after the 2009 equinox; we predict that changes in the insolation pattern caused by the shifting ring shadows affect the horizontal temperature gradient, and change the zonal mean wind through the thermal wind relationship. Furthermore, we also extend the zonal wind analysis by Sayanagi et al (2013), who detected changes in the zonal wind related to the Great Storm of 2010-2011, to study the subsequent evolution of the region affected by the storm. We compare our results with previously published zonal wind profiles obtained from Voyager 1 and 2 (Sánchez-Lavega et al, 2000) and Cassini (García-Melendo et al, 2011). Out study is supported by the Cassini Project, and our investigation is funded by NASA Outer Planets Research Program grant NNX12AR38G and NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics grant 1212216 to KMS.

  12. Coupling sky images with three-dimensional radiative transfer models: a new method to estimate cloud optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, F. A.; Kurtz, B.; Murray, K.; Hinkelman, L. M.; Sengupta, M.; Xie, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2015-10-01

    A method for retrieving cloud optical depth (?c) using a ground-based sky imager (USI) is presented. The Radiance Red-Blue Ratio (RRBR) method is motivated from the analysis of simulated images of various ?c produced by a 3-D Radiative Transfer Model (3DRTM). From these images the basic parameters affecting the radiance and RBR of a pixel are identified as the solar zenith angle (?0), ?c, solar pixel angle/scattering angle (ϑs), and pixel zenith angle/view angle (ϑz). The effects of these parameters are described and the functions for radiance, I?(?c, ?0, ϑs, ϑz) and the red-blue ratio, RBR(?c, ?0, ϑs, ϑz) are retrieved from the 3DRTM results. RBR, which is commonly used for cloud detection in sky images, provides non-unique solutions for ?c, where RBR increases with ?c up to about ?c = 1 (depending on other parameters) and then decreases. Therefore, the RRBR algorithm uses the measured I?meas(ϑs, ϑz), in addition to RBRmeas(ϑs, ϑz) to obtain a unique solution for ?c. The RRBR method is applied to images taken by a USI at the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) site over the course of 220 days and validated against measurements from a microwave radiometer (MWR); output from the Min method for overcast skies, and ?c retrieved by Beer's law from direct normal irradiance (DNI) measurements. A ?c RMSE of 5.6 between the Min method and the USI are observed. The MWR and USI have an RMSE of 2.3 which is well within the uncertainty of the MWR. An RMSE of 0.95 between the USI and DNI retrieved ?c is observed. The procedure developed here provides a foundation to test and develop other cloud detection algorithms.

  13. A practical approach to optimizing the preparation of speckle patterns for digital-image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Giacomo; Cristofolini, Luca

    2014-10-01

    The quality of strain measurements by digital image correlation (DIC) strongly depends on the quality of the pattern on the specimen’s surface. An ideal pattern should be highly contrasted, stochastic, and isotropic. In addition, the speckle pattern should have an average size that exceeds the image pixel size by a factor of 3-5. (Smaller speckles cause poor contrast, and larger speckles cause poor spatial resolution.) Finally, the ideal pattern should have a limited scatter in terms of speckle sizes. The aims of this study were: (i) to define the ideal speckle size in relation to the specimen size and acquisition system; (ii) provide practical guidelines to identify the optimal settings of an airbrush gun, in order to produce a pattern that is as close as possible to the desired one while minimizing the scatter of speckle sizes. Patterns of different sizes were produced using two different airbrush guns with different settings of the four most influential factors (dilution, airflow setting, spraying distance, and air pressure). A full-factorial DOE strategy was implemented to explore the four factors at two levels each: 36 specimens were analyzed for each of the 16 combinations. The images were acquired using the digital cameras of a DIC system. The distribution of speckle sizes was analyzed to calculate the average speckle size and the standard deviation of the corresponding truncated Gaussian distribution. A mathematical model was built to enable prediction of the average speckle size in relation to the airbrush gun settings. We showed that it is possible to obtain a pattern with a highly controlled average and a limited scatter of speckle sizes, so as to match the ideal distribution of speckle sizes for DIC. Although the settings identified here apply only to the specific equipment being used, this method can be adapted to any airbrush to produce a desired speckle pattern.

  14. Spatiotemporal Mining of Time-Series Remote Sensing Images Based on Sequential Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. C.; He, G. J.; Zhang, X. M.; Jiang, W.; Ling, S. G.

    2015-07-01

    With the continuous development of satellite techniques, it is now possible to acquire a regular series of images concerning a given geographical zone with both high accuracy and low cost. Research on how best to effectively process huge volumes of observational data obtained on different dates for a specific geographical zone, and to exploit the valuable information regarding land cover contained in these images has received increasing interest from the remote sensing community. In contrast to traditional land cover change measures using pair-wise comparisons that emphasize the compositional or configurational changes between dates, this research focuses on the analysis of the temporal sequence of land cover dynamics, which refers to the succession of land cover types for a given area over more than two observational periods. Using a time series of classified Landsat images, ranging from 2006 to 2011, a sequential pattern mining method was extended to this spatiotemporal context to extract sets of connected pixels sharing similar temporal evolutions. The resultant sequential patterns could be selected (or not) based on the range of support values. These selected patterns were used to explore the spatial compositions and temporal evolutions of land cover change within the study region. Experimental results showed that continuous patterns that represent consistent land cover over time appeared as quite homogeneous zones, which agreed with our domain knowledge. Discontinuous patterns that represent land cover change trajectories were dominated by the transition from vegetation to bare land, especially during 2009-2010. This approach quantified land cover changes in terms of the percentage area affected and mapped the spatial distribution of these changes. Sequential pattern mining has been used for string mining or itemset mining in transactions analysis. The expected novel significance of this study is the generalization of the application of the sequential pattern mining method for capturing the spatial variability of landscape patterns, and their trajectories of change, to reveal information regarding process regularities with satellite imagery.

  15. Cloud screening and quality control algorithm for star photometer data: assessment with lidar measurements and with all-sky-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-02-01

    This paper present the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. This kind of algorithms is necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, ?Ae(?), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at night-time. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of ?Ae(?) and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable ?Ae(?) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16° N, 3.60° W, 680 m a.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  16. Cloud screening and quality control algorithm for star photometer data: assessment with lidar measurements and with all-sky images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, ?Ae(?), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of ?Ae(?) and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable ?Ae(?) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16° N, 3.60° W, 680 m a.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  17. Cloud Screening and Quality Control Algorithm for Star Photometer Data: Assessment with Lidar Measurements and with All-sky Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, delta Ae(lambda), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of delta Ae() and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable Ae(lambda) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  18. Focussing on the future: survey results on the image capture of patterned cutaneous injuries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Baylis, Sonya; Carabott, Romina; Jones, Michael; Lawson, Zoe; Marsh, Nick; Payne-James, Jason; Ramadani, Jona; Vanezis, Peter; Kemp, Alison

    2014-05-01

    An investigator who is involved in assessing the likelihood of physical abuse must make a decision as to whether the injury seen matches the explanation given. In some instances the pattern of these injuries can give the investigator a possible link to the cause of the injury. Photographic imaging is used to record the patterned cutaneous injuries (PCI) and to facilitate forensic interpretation. The current method of capturing PCI often results in some form of distortion that causes a change to the shape of the patterned injury. The Dermatological Patterned Injury Capture and Analysis (DePICA) research group was formed to assess current image capture methods and practices. An online survey was set up to assess the value of localised imaging protocols and training specific to imaging PCI and was made available to law enforcement professionals, forensic investigators and hospital staff. 80 participants responded to the survey. The majority of the survey participants have had training in medical or forensic photography, however 66 (83%) have not had specific training in how to photograph PCI. 41 (51%) of the participants responded that they always use a rigid scale and 34 (43%) position the camera so that it is perpendicular to the scale and injury. Comments made about the quality of images obtained and produced raises concerns about how much knowledge those initiating such images have about image relevance in criminal cases. It is evident that a clear and comprehensive guide to photographing PCIs is required to improve the quality of the photographic evidence that is collected. PMID:24794842

  19. An overview of research activities of Image and Pattern Analysis group of MTA SZTAKI1)

    E-print Network

    Chetverikov, Dmitry

    Velocimetry; 5. corner detection in 2D curves. 1 Introduction Image and Pattern Analysis (IPAN) group contributed to the research discussed below: Judit Verest´oy (shape defect detection and feature tracking-baseline ste- reo [10] · Finding defects in texture [7]. Figure 1 demonstrates a result of automatic detection

  20. Wide-Area Imaging of Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Fields by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    E-print Network

    Mast, T. Douglas

    Wide-Area Imaging of Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Fields by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry Grant.O. Box 30, State College, PA 16804 ABSTRACT Ultrasonic elastic waves have traditionally been examined out-of-plane ultrasonic displacement data over wide areas. The method employs two-dimensional surface

  1. Localization of Fiducial Skin Markers in MR Images using Correlation Pattern

    E-print Network

    Localization of Fiducial Skin Markers in MR Images using Correlation Pattern Recognition for PET, as is the case with MRI and PET imagery. The process of automating the detection of these markers needs more of pathologies will present advantages over single-modality studies. The benefits stemming from acquisition

  2. Towards Efficient Automated Characterization of Irregular Histology Images via Transformation to Frieze-Like Patterns

    E-print Network

    Towards Efficient Automated Characterization of Irregular Histology Images via Transformation to Frieze-Like Patterns ABSTRACT Histology is used in both clinical and research contexts as a highly equipment has enabled high-throughput digitization of high-resolution histology slides, the manual scoring

  3. Feature Reduction for Improved Recognition of Subcellular Location Patterns in Fluorescence Microscope Images

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    classification accuracy for all major subcellular patterns in HeLa cells. Keywords: proteomics, subcellular The central goal of proteomics is to clarify the mechanism by which each protein in a given cell type carries probe or an antibody, is introduced into a cell and fluorescence microscope images are taken

  4. Gender Classification from Iris Images using Fusion of Uniform Local Binary Patterns

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    Gender Classification from Iris Images using Fusion of Uniform Local Binary Patterns Juan E. Tapia1, this paper is concerned with predicting the gender of a per- son based on analysis of features of the iris texture. Previous researchers have explored various approaches for predicting the gender of a person based

  5. ASAR IMAGES A DIVERSE SET OF DEFORMATION PATTERNS AT KLAUEA VOLCANO, HAWAI`I

    E-print Network

    ASAR IMAGES A DIVERSE SET OF DEFORMATION PATTERNS AT KLAUEA VOLCANO, HAWAI`I Michael P. Poland(1) (1) U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, 51 Crater Rim Road, Hawai`i National Park. On Klauea volcano, a transition from minor to broad-scale summit inflation was observed by interferograms

  6. Multispectral cloud-clearing using IASI sounding and collocated AVHRR imager measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddy, E. S.; King, T. S.; Sun, H.; Wolf, W.; Barnet, C.; Heidinger, A. K.; Cheng, Z.; Gambacorta, A.

    2010-12-01

    E. S. Maddy2, T. S. King2, H. Sun2, W. W. Wolf1, C. D. Barnet1, A. Heidinger1,Z. Cheng2, and A. Gambacorta2 1NOAA/NESDIS/Center for Satellite Applications and Research, Camp Springs, Maryland, USA 2Dell, Fairfax, Virginia, USA There are several approaches for handling the effect of clouds in the IR, the most common of which include: avoiding the clouds by screening for clear-sky footprints; directly modeling the radiative effect of the clouds using sophisticated radiative transfer and cloud microphysical models; and, estimating the clear-sky portion of an IR scene by using a number of adjacent and variably cloudy footprints coupled with an estimate of the clear-sky radiance from a forecast model or collocated satellite instrument less likely to be affected by clouds. The last approach, termed cloud-clearing, is currently used at NOAA/NESDIS for operational IASI processing. NOAA currently operationally processes 100% of IASI data from calibrated and apodized L1C spectral measurements to geophysical L2 products and distributes these products to the NOAA/Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) (available at http://class.ngdc.noaa.gov). The current algorithm used to produce the L2 products from IASI is largely based on the AIRS science team (AST) algorithm including the fast Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA), fast eigenvector regression, as well as cloud-clearing and physical retrieval methodologies which rely on microwave measurements from collocated AMSU to handle the effects of clouds in the IR. We will describe future upgrades to the operational cloud-clearing algorithm being used for IASI processing within NOAA/NESDIS. Specifically, our new cloud-clearing algorithm leverages off of the MetOp-A AVHRR Clouds from AVHRR (CLAVR-x) cloud mask to provide high quality, high spatial resolution InfraRed (IR) window clear-sky scene radiance estimates required for cloud-clearing inputs and quality assurance. The direct use of AVHRR clear-sky measurements decreases limitations of the current algorithm to provide high quality clear-sky radiance estimates throughout the atmospheric column, and especially near the surface to a high degree of accuracy. In turn, this enables the IASI sounder to provide high quality and high vertical and spatial resolution soundings temperature and trace gases for the study of weather and climate processes.

  7. A comparison of performance of automatic cloud coverage assessment algorithm for Formosat-2 image using clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsien

    2012-11-01

    Formosat-2 image is a kind of high-spatial-resolution (2 meters GSD) remote sensing satellite data, which includes one panchromatic band and four multispectral bands (Blue, Green, Red, near-infrared). An essential sector in the daily processing of received Formosat-2 image is to estimate the cloud statistic of image using Automatic Cloud Coverage Assessment (ACCA) algorithm. The information of cloud statistic of image is subsequently recorded as an important metadata for image product catalog. In this paper, we propose an ACCA method with two consecutive stages: preprocessing and post-processing analysis. For pre-processing analysis, the un-supervised K-means classification, Sobel's method, thresholding method, non-cloudy pixels reexamination, and cross-band filter method are implemented in sequence for cloud statistic determination. For post-processing analysis, Box-Counting fractal method is implemented. In other words, the cloud statistic is firstly determined via pre-processing analysis, the correctness of cloud statistic of image of different spectral band is eventually cross-examined qualitatively and quantitatively via post-processing analysis. The selection of an appropriate thresholding method is very critical to the result of ACCA method. Therefore, in this work, We firstly conduct a series of experiments of the clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods that include Otsu's, Local Entropy(LE), Joint Entropy(JE), Global Entropy(GE), and Global Relative Entropy(GRE) method, for performance comparison. The result shows that Otsu's and GE methods both perform better than others for Formosat-2 image. Additionally, our proposed ACCA method by selecting Otsu's method as the threshoding method has successfully extracted the cloudy pixels of Formosat-2 image for accurate cloud statistic estimation.

  8. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz?owski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  9. Characterising the dynamics of expirated bloodstain pattern formation using high-speed digital video imaging.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Andrea E; Walker, Nicole K; Lamont, Iain L; Cordiner, Stephen J; Taylor, Michael C

    2011-11-01

    During forensic investigations, it is often important to be able to distinguish between impact spatter patterns (blood from gunshots, explosives, blunt force trauma and/or machinery accidents) and bloodstain patterns generated by expiration (blood from the mouth, nose or lungs). These patterns can be difficult to distinguish on the basis of the size of the bloodstains. In this study, high-speed digital video imaging has been used to investigate the formation of expirated bloodstain patterns generated by breathing, spitting and coughing mechanisms. Bloodstain patterns from all three expiration mechanisms were dominated by the presence of stains less than 0.5 mm in diameter. Video analysis showed that in the process of coughing blood, high-velocity, very small blood droplets were ejected first. These were followed by lower velocity, larger droplets, strands and plumes of liquid held together in part by saliva. The video images showed the formation of bubble rings and beaded stains, traditional markers for classifying expirated patterns. However, the expulsion mechanism, the distance travelled by the blood droplets, and the type of surface the blood was deposited on were all factors determining whether beaded stains were generated. PMID:20668870

  10. Luminance and image quality analysis of an organic electroluminescent panel with a patterned microlens array attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hoang Yan; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Fang, Jheng-Hao; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Lin, Jia-Rong; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Wei, Mao-Kuo

    2010-08-01

    Luminance and image quality observed from the normal direction of a commercial 2.0 inch panel based on organic electroluminescence (OEL) technology attached to regular and patterned microlens array films (MAFs) were studied and analyzed. When applying the regularly arranged MAF on the panel, a luminance enhancement of 23% was observed, accompanied by a reduction of the image quality index as low as 74%. By removing the microlenses on the emitting areas, the patterned MAF enhances the luminance efficiency of the OEL by 52% keeping the image quality index of the display as high as 94%, due to the effective light extraction in the glass substrate being less than the critical angle. 3D simulation based on a ray-tracing model was also established to investigate the spatial distribution of light rays radiated from an OEL pixel with different microstructures which showed consistent results with the experimental results.

  11. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C.; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician’s time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a “texton histogram” of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different “textons” representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  12. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-11-20

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  13. Attempt of UAV oblique images and MLS point clouds for 4D modelling of roadside pole-like objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2014-11-01

    The state-of-the-art remote sensing technologies, namely Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based oblique imaging and Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) show great potential for spatial information acquisition. This study investigated the combination of the two data sources for 4D modelling of roadside pole-like objects. The data for the analysis were collected by the Microdrone md4-200 UAV imaging system and the Sensei MLS system developed by the Finnish Geodetic Institute. Pole extraction, 3D structural parameter derivation and texture segmentation were deployed on the oblique images and point clouds, and their results were fused to yield the 4D models for one example of pole-like objects, namely lighting poles. The combination techniques proved promising.

  14. Day/Night Whole Sky Imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview

    E-print Network

    Shields, Janet Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended pathsAutomated visibility and cloud cover measurements with ameasurements of optical atmospheric properties in Southern Illinois,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility

  15. MULTI-LEVEL SEMANTIC LABELING OF SKY/CLOUD IMAGES Soumyabrata Dev, Yee Hui Lee

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Stefan

    , weather prediction, solar energy generation, or air-to-ground commu- nications [1,2]. Nowadays, cloud statistic that considers the change in entropy of the dataset. Yang et al. [9] calculated the gap value per

  16. CATEGORIZATION OF CLOUD IMAGE PATCHES USING AN IMPROVED TEXTON-BASED APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Stefan

    prediction, solar energy production, satellite communication, and others [1, 2]. The manual classification. Finally, we release the SWIMCAT dataset that was created for the task of cloud categorization. Index Terms

  17. Decomposition of brain diffusion imaging data uncovers latent schizophrenias with distinct patterns of white matter anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Arnedo, Javier; Mamah, Daniel; Baranger, David A; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M; Svrakic, Dragan M; de Erausquin, Gabriel A; Cloninger, C Robert; Zwir, Igor

    2015-10-15

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) analysis of diffusion tensor-images (DTI) has yielded inconsistent abnormalities in schizophrenia (SZ). Inconsistencies may arise from averaging heterogeneous groups of patients. Here we investigate whether SZ is a heterogeneous group of disorders distinguished by distinct patterns of FA reductions. We developed a Generalized Factorization Method (GFM) to identify biclusters (i.e., subsets of subjects associated with a subset of particular characteristics, such as low FA in specific regions). GFM appropriately assembles a collection of unsupervised techniques with Non-negative Matrix Factorization to generate biclusters, rather than averaging across all subjects and all their characteristics. DTI tract-based spatial statistics images, which output is the locally maximal FA projected onto the group white matter skeleton, were analyzed in 47 SZ and 36 healthy subjects, identifying 8 biclusters. The mean FA of the voxels of each bicluster was significantly different from those of other SZ subjects or 36 healthy controls. The eight biclusters were organized into four more general patterns of low FA in specific regions: 1) genu of corpus callosum (GCC), 2) fornix (FX)+external capsule (EC), 3) splenium of CC (SCC)+retrolenticular limb (RLIC)+posterior limb (PLIC) of the internal capsule, and 4) anterior limb of the internal capsule. These patterns were significantly associated with particular clinical features: Pattern 1 (GCC) with bizarre behavior, pattern 2 (FX+EC) with prominent delusions, and pattern 3 (SCC+RLIC+PLIC) with negative symptoms including disorganized speech. The uncovered patterns suggest that SZ is a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be distinguished by different patterns of FA reductions associated with distinct clinical features. PMID:26151103

  18. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity. PMID:26159440

  19. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  20. Imaging polychromator for density measurements of polystyrene pellet cloud on the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Sharov, I A; Sergeev, V Yu; Miroshnikov, I V; Tamura, N; Kuteev, B V; Sudo, S

    2015-04-01

    Experimental data on spatial distributions of a pellet cloud electron density are necessary for the development of many applications of pellet injection, namely, plasma fuelling, discharge control, and plasma diagnostics. An improved approach of electron density measurements inside the cloud of a polystyrene pellet ablating in hot plasma of the large helical device is described. Density values of (1-30) × 10(16) cm(-3) depending on the background plasma parameters and distance from the solid pellet were measured. PMID:25933860

  1. Imaging polychromator for density measurements of polystyrene pellet cloud on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Sharov, I. A. Sergeev, V. Yu.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-04-15

    Experimental data on spatial distributions of a pellet cloud electron density are necessary for the development of many applications of pellet injection, namely, plasma fuelling, discharge control, and plasma diagnostics. An improved approach of electron density measurements inside the cloud of a polystyrene pellet ablating in hot plasma of the large helical device is described. Density values of (1-30) × 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3} depending on the background plasma parameters and distance from the solid pellet were measured.

  2. Stochastic simulation of patterns using ISOMAP for dimensionality reduction of training images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Du, Yi; Huang, Tao; Yang, Jiaqing; Li, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Most data in the real world are normally nonlinear or difficult to determine whether they are linear or not beforehand. Some linear dimensionality reduction algorithms, e.g., principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) are only suitable for linear dimensionality reduction of spatial data. The patterns extracted from training images (TIs) used in MPS simulation mostly are probably nonlinear, so for some MPS simulation methods based on dimensionality reduction, e.g., FILTERSIM using some filters created via the idea of PCA and DisPAT using MDS as a tool of dimensionality reduction, those linear methods for dimensionality reduction are not appropriate when realizing the dimensionality reduction of nonlinear data of patterns. Therefore, isometric mapping (ISOMAP) working as a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method used in manifold learning is introduced to map those patterns, regardless of being linear or nonlinear, into low-dimensional space. However, because the original ISOMAP has some disadvantages in computing speed and accuracy, landmark points of patterns are selected to improve the speed and neighborhoods of patterns are set to guarantee the quality of dimensionality reduction. Next, the sequential simulation similar to FILTERSIM is performed after low-dimensional data of patterns are classified by a density-based clustering algorithm. The comparisons with FILTERSIM and DisPAT show the improvement of pattern reproductivity and computing speed of our method for both continuous and categorical variables.

  3. Reconstructing perceived and retrieved face images from activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongmi; Cowen, Alan; Kuhl, Brice

    2015-09-01

    Recent findings suggest that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents information retrieved from long-term and short-term memory. However, the nature and quality of parietal memory representations remain largely unknown. Here, we tested whether exemplar-level details of perceived and remembered stimuli are represented in PPC, using a recently developed method that allows for individual face images to be reconstructed from fMRI activity patterns (Cowen, Chun, & Kuhl, 2014). The experiment consisted of two phases: perception and working memory. During the perception phase, participants viewed hundreds of faces while performing a continuous recognition task, where they judged whether each image was repeated within a block or not. For the working memory phase, we employed a retro-cue paradigm (Harrison & Tong, 2009) in which two faces were presented in rapid succession followed by a cue to maintain one of the two faces. We first tested whether individual faces can be reconstructed from PPC activity patterns elicited during perception. We estimated a regression model that mapped face components to multi-voxel activity patterns using a set of training faces. Reconstructions were then generated for a distinct set of test faces by taking linear combinations of the predicted component weights. Reconstructions created from PPC were more similar to the actually viewed face than other test faces, indicating that PPC distinguishes individual face images. We further explored whether we could reconstruct faces retrieved from working memory. We trained the model on the perception phase data and applied it to the patterns obtained during the working memory delay period. Reconstructions generated from the delay period activity in PPC exhibited above-chance similarity to the original face, suggesting that the contents of memory can be reconstructed from PPC activity patterns. Together, these findings indicate that PPC activity patterns reflect exemplar-level details of visual stimuli during perception and retrieval from memory. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325989

  4. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future. PMID:23599560

  5. Cloud Computing for radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, SS; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future. PMID:23599560

  6. Cloud fraction comparisons

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    for a `mean March' using data from the GRAPE project (1997-2000) and the operational cloud retrieval forward-view data from ATSR-2 The operational version of the GRAPE cloud retrieval scheme uses only nadir AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS IN CLOUD PROPERTIES IN THE ATSR-2 GRAPE DATASET C.ARNOLD1 , A. M. SAYER1, R. G. GRAINGER1

  7. Wide-Field Near-Infrared Imaging of the L1551 Dark Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2009-03-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared images of the densest part of the L1551 dark cloud taken with the narrow-band filters for [Fe II] ? 1.644 ?m and H2 v = 1-0 S(1) lines, together with the broadband H and K s filters. Numerous [Fe II] and H2 emission features were detected from the regions around HL/XZ Tau, HH 30, HH 262, L1551 NE, and L1551 IRS 5. Most of the [Fe II] features are compact or jet-like, suggesting that the emission arises from fast shocks occurring in the ejecta of jets. The H2 features are more diffuse and widely distributed in outflow lobes, with none of the H2 features showing the well-collimated emission associated with jets. This implies that the H2 emission originates from slower shocks where the ejecta interacts with ambient material. The outflow structure in the vicinity of the deeply embedded object L1551 NE is revealed, featuring a well-collimated, spatially continuous [Fe II] jet penetrating a fan-shaped infrared reflection nebula. The tangential velocities of knots in the L1551 NE jet are estimated to be 140-190 km s-1 from their proper motions, implying an inclination of 45°-60° for the jet axis. A counter-jet from L1551 IRS 5 is detected for the first time in [Fe II]; this probably corresponds to the northern-most of the two jets on the blueshifted side. The relative brightness of the counter-jet suggests a visual extinction of 20-30 mag. The [Fe II] emissions from collimated jets are relatively strong toward L1551 NE and L1551 IRS 5 compared to those toward HL Tau and HH 30. This implies that the jets from the former objects, which are more embedded, have a higher shock velocity and/or a larger gas density than the latter, more revealed objects. The results presented here show that the near-infrared [Fe II] emission is a useful probe of well-collimated jets from deeply embedded sources, in much the same way that optical [S II] emission is used for relatively revealed objects. Based on data collected using the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. Analysis of micro-contact printed protein patterns by SPR imaging with a LED light source.

    PubMed

    Wilkop, Thomas; Wang, Zhuangzhi; Cheng, Quan

    2004-12-01

    We demonstrate the characterization of mu-contact printed protein patterns and analysis of protein-protein interactions by two-dimensional (2-D) surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). Advancements in SPRi image quality from employing a light emitting diode (LED) as the light source are described. We show that a LED offers an ideal point source that can eliminate interference artifacts and speckles found when using a laser source. The attainable thickness resolution in fixed-angle imaging is comparable to that of a monochromatic source, providing a solid foundation for quantitative analysis with the system. The SPR imaging technique reported here affords sub-nanometer thickness sensitivity and micrometer lateral resolution, allowing for convenient studies of biomolecular interactions and surface morphologies of ultrathin films. Spatially well-defined protein patterns of bacterial toxins were obtained by microcontact printing using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp on a functionalized self-assembled monolayer on Au. The influence of protein concentration in the inking solution on transfer efficiency was investigated, and a nonlinear correlation was observed between the solution concentration and the amount of protein immobilized on the surface. Quantitative analysis of protein interaction was performed with toxin-specific antibody, showing a concentration-dependent relationship that verifies the retention of biological activity of the protein after printing. The study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of using LEDs as light sources in SPR imaging, opening doors for developing compact SPR instruments for direct, sensitive, and label-free detection of biohazardous molecules. PMID:15568869

  9. Influence of broken cloud fields on reflectance retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Robert; Richtsmeier, Steven; Adler-Golden, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Surface solar radiation forecasting permits to predict photovoltaic plant production for a massive and safe integration of solar energy into the electric network. For short-term forecasts (intra-day), methods using images from meteorological geostationary satellites are more suitable than numerical weather prediction models. Forecast schemes consist in assessing cloud motion vectors and in extrapolating cloud patterns from a given satellite image in order to predict cloud cover state above a PV plant. Atmospheric motion vectors retrieval techniques have been studied for several decades in order to improve weather forecasts. However, solar energy forecasting requires the extraction of cloud motion vectors on a finer spatial- and time-resolution than those provided for weather forecast applications. Even if motion vector retrieval is a wide research field in image processing related topics, only block-matching techniques are operationally used for solar energy forecasts via satellite images. In this paper, we propose two motion vectors extraction methods originating from video compression techniques (correlation phase and optical flow methods). We implemented them on a 6-day dataset of Meteosat-10 satellite diurnal images. We proceeded to cloud pattern extrapolation and compared predicted cloud maps against actual ones at different time horizons from 15 minutes to 4 hours ahead. Forecast scores were compared to the state-of-the-art (block matching) method. Correlation phase methods do not outperform block-matching but their computation time is about 25 times shorter. Optical flow based method outperforms all the methods with a satisfactory time computing.

  10. Synthesis Imaging of Dense Molecular Gas in the N113 HII Region of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-print Network

    Tony Wong; John B. Whiteoak; Juergen Ott; Yi-nan Chin; Maria R. Cunningham; )

    2006-04-08

    We present aperture synthesis imaging of dense molecular gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud, taken with the prototype millimeter receivers of the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our observations of the N113 HII region reveal a condensation with a size of ~6" (1.5 pc) FWHM, detected strongly in the 1-0 lines of HCO+, HCN and HNC, and weakly in C_2H. Comparison of the ATCA observations with single-dish maps from the Mopra Telescope and sensitive spectra from the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope indicates that the condensation is a massive clump of ~10^4 solar masses within a larger ~10^5 solar mass molecular cloud. The clump is centered adjacent to a compact, obscured HII region which is part of a linear structure of radio continuum sources extending across the molecular cloud. We suggest that the clump represents a possible site for triggered star formation. Examining the integrated line intensities as a function of interferometer baseline length, we find evidence for decreasing HCO+/HCN and HCN/HNC ratios on longer baselines. These trends are consistent with a significant component of the HCO+ emission arising in an extended clump envelope and a lower HCN/HNC abundance ratio in dense cores.

  11. Synthesis Imaging of Dense Molecular Gas in the N113 HII Region of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-print Network

    Wong, T; Ott, J; Chin, Y; Cunningham, M R; Wong, Tony; Whiteoak, John B.; Ott, Juergen; Chin, Yi-nan; Cunningham, Maria R.

    2006-01-01

    We present aperture synthesis imaging of dense molecular gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud, taken with the prototype millimeter receivers of the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our observations of the N113 HII region reveal a condensation with a size of ~6" (1.5 pc) FWHM, detected strongly in the 1-0 lines of HCO+, HCN and HNC, and weakly in C_2H. Comparison of the ATCA observations with single-dish maps from the Mopra Telescope and sensitive spectra from the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope indicates that the condensation is a massive clump of ~10^4 solar masses within a larger ~10^5 solar mass molecular cloud. The clump is centered adjacent to a compact, obscured HII region which is part of a linear structure of radio continuum sources extending across the molecular cloud. We suggest that the clump represents a possible site for triggered star formation. Examining the integrated line intensities as a function of interferometer baseline length, we find evidence for decreasing HCO+/HCN and HCN/HN...

  12. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  13. Investigation of mesoscale cloud features viewed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherr, P. E. (principal investigator); Feteris, P. J.; Lisa, A. S.; Bowley, C. J.; Fowler, M. G.; Barnes, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some 50 LANDSAT images displaying mesoscale cloud features were analyzed. This analysis was based on the Rayleigh-Kuettner model describing the formation of that type of mesoscale cloud feature. This model lends itself to computation of the average wind speed in northerly flow from the dimensions of the cloud band configurations measured from a LANDSAT image. In nearly every case, necessary conditions of a curved wind profile and orientation of the cloud streets within 20 degrees of the direction of the mean wind in the convective layer were met. Verification of the results by direct observation was hampered, however, by the incompatibility of the resolution of conventional rawinsonde observations with the scale of the banded cloud patterns measured from LANDSAT data. Comparison seems to be somewhat better in northerly flows than in southerly flows, with the largest discrepancies in wind speed being within 8m/sec, or a factor of two.

  14. The object image reconstruction from the speckle pattern of its field

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'dyugin, Igor M; Zubarev, I G; Mikhailov, S I

    2001-06-30

    It is shown that information on the speckle pattern allows one to form a kind of the resonator with a minimum-loss mode representing the required image. The image reconstruction process is simulated for a variety of objects. The outlook for the building of astronomical instruments, which are equivalent to modern telescopes and are based on the principle of detection and processing of information contained in the speckle field scattered by an object, are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for Laser Direct Imaging and other patterning applications

    E-print Network

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for Laser Direct Imaging and other patterning. This SLM is the core element of the Swedish company's new LDI 5sp series of Laser-Direct-Imaging systems of ultraviolet light needs to be combined with high throughput and high precision. Keywords: Laser Direct Imaging

  16. Improved evaluation of electronic speckle pattern interferograms by photogrammetric image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, Dieter; Gettkant, Jan; Bischoff, Guido; Kemper, Björn; Böröcz, Zoltán; von Bally, Gert

    2006-05-01

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is a well-established tool for non-destructive testing. It allows the quantitative determination of surface deformations and micro-movements with a sub-micrometer resolution. In the case of objects which are extended in depth, however, the evaluation and interpretation of the resulting correlation fringe patterns can be affected by perspective image distortions as well as by a varying image size. In this paper a method for combination of ESPI with a photogrammetric 3D coordinate measurement is presented. In this way, interferogram data are precisely allocated in 3D-space. Furthermore, it is possible to take into account a spatially varying sensitivity vector. The utilizability of the method is demonstrated by a deformation measurement on a stone sculpture.

  17. Magneto-optical imaging of magnetic domain pattern produced by intense femtosecond laser pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Jaivarhan; Mohan, Shyam; Banerjee, S. S.; Kahaly, S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2009-03-01

    An important and intriguing area of research is laser plasma generated giant magnetic field pulses. Interaction of ultrashort high intensity laser pulses with matter involves several mechanisms for generating ultrastrong magnetic fields. By irradiating a magnetic recordable tape constituting of ?-Fe2O3 particles with an intense p-polarized femtosecond laser pulses (˜ 10^16 W cm-2, 100fs), we have found complex magnetic field patterns stored in the tape. We image the local magnetic field distribution around the irradiated region [1] using the high sensitivity magneto-optical imaging technique. We understand the complex magnetic domains patterns recoded on the tape in terms of interesting instabilities [1] generated in the plasma produced during the irradiation of the tape with intense laser pulses. [0pt] [1] Jaivardhan Sinha, Shyam Mohan, S. S Banerjee, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, Phys. Rev. E 77, 046118(2008). *satyajit@iitk.ac.in

  18. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and soil moisture content that would not have been possible otherwise. Soil type (e.g. Anthropogenic, gravelly sandy loam soil or Natural, organic-rich soil), clay mineralogy (smectite) and soil moisture content were the greatest influencing factors in all the dragging soil transference tests (both naked eye and measured properties) to explain the eight categories of soil transference patterns recorded. This study was intended to develop a method for dragging soil transference laboratory experiments and create a baseline of preliminary soil type/property knowledge. Results confirm the need to better understand soil behaviour and properties of clothing fabrics by further testing of a wider range of soil types and clay mineral properties. PMID:26679633

  19. HOLOGondel: A novel in-situ cloud measurement platform on a cable car with a digital holographic imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Alexander; Henneberger, Jan; Kanji, Zamin; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Cloud particle properties observed in-situ are commonly conducted from airborne or ground-based measurements. When compared to airborne measurements, the advantages of ground-based measurements are a higher spatial resolution and much less costly to perform. However, ground-based observations allow only single-point measurements within a cloud. To overcome this disadvantage, a novel measurement platform with a digital holographic imager has been developed to allow in-situ cloud observations on the roof of a cable car cabin. With a traveling velocity of a cable car of a few m/s, such a measurement platform yields a spatial resolution comparable to those of ground-based measurements. In addition, it is possible to obtain vertical profiles of the microphysical properties within the cloud, because of the vertical distance covered by the cable car of approximately 800m. The major technical challenges for such a measurement platform are the lack of an external power supply and the additional weight constrain on a cable car cabin. To allow continuous operation for eight hours with a battery and to stay within the weight limit of 25kg at the same time, a compact design with carefully chosen material and components with a low power consumption was necessary. The new measurement platform HOLOGondel is equipped with a HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects (HOLIMO 3G). Digital in-line holography offers the advantages of measuring simultaneously an ensemble of cloud particles within a well-defined detection volume over a large range of particle size. The image captured, a hologram, yields information about the three-dimensional position, size and a shadow-graph of each particle within the detection volume. The HOLIMO 3G instrument is equipped with a 30MP camera and a 1.8 times magnifying, both-sided telecentric lens system. At a frame rate of six pictures per second a sample volume rate of about 100 cm3s-1 at a maximum resolution of 7 µm is achieved. This configuration allows to measure the vertical profiles of the number concentration and size distribution of liquid cloud droplets and ice crystals, the spatial scale of mixing between these two and the partitioning with respect to particle size. In addition, auxiliary measurements of the temperature, relative humidity and GPS position of the captured images are conducted. A first field campaign will be performed at the Eggishorn in the Bernese Alps from January until March 2015. With its short distance from the research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) there is a chance to measure the same air masses twice (concurrent measurement with the HOLIMO 3M instrument at JFJ). The comparison of these measurements will contribute to a better understanding of the spatial and temporal evolution of orographic MPCs.

  20. Sensitivity of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Properties to the Effective Variance of Cloud Droplet Size Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Arduini, R.F.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W.L.Jr.; Ayers, J.K.; Khaiyer, M.M.; Heck, P.

    2005-03-18

    Cloud reflectance models currently used in cloud property retrievals from satellites have been developed using size distributions defined by a set of fixed effective radii with a fixed effective variance. The satellite retrievals used for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program assume droplet size distributions with an effective variance value of 0.10 (Minnis et al. 1998); the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project uses 0.15 (Rossow and Schiffer 1999); and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) team uses 0.13 (Nakajima and King 1990). These distributions are not necessarily representative of the actual sizes present in the clouds being observed. Because the assumed distributions can affect the reflectance patterns and near-infrared absorption, even for the same droplet effective radius reff, it is desirable to use the optimal size distributions in satellite retrievals of cloud properties. Collocated observations of the same clouds from different geostationary satellites, at different viewing angles, indicate that the current models may not be optimal (Ayers et al. 2005). Similarly, hour-to-hour variations in effective radius and optical depth reveal an unexplained dependence on scattering angle. To explore this issue, this paper examines the sensitivity of the cloud reflectance at 0.65 and 3.90-{micro}m to changes in the effective variance, or the spectral dispersion, of the modeled size distributions. The effects on the scattering phase functions and on the cloud reflectances are presented, as well as some resultant effects on the retrieved cloud properties.

  1. Some cloud population statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, J. William

    1985-01-01

    Photographs of cloud scenes taken from the orbiting space shuttle are being used to assess the overestimation in the amount of cloud cover sensed by satellites at angles other than nadir. Also these photographs and Landsat images indicate that the frequency distributions of clear and of cloudy intervals, at least in simple tropical cloud scenes, may be approximated by common distribution functions.

  2. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shaoming; Li, Yongkai; Xu, Zhengquan; Chong, Yanwen

    2015-01-01

    Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10–15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance. PMID:26181628

  3. Pattern recognition applied to infrared images for early alerts in fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Vincent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Cord, Aurélien

    2014-09-01

    Fog conditions are the cause of severe car accidents in western countries because of the poor induced visibility. Its forecast and intensity are still very difficult to predict by weather services. Infrared cameras allow to detect and to identify objects in fog while visibility is too low for eye detection. Over the past years, the implementation of cost effective infrared cameras on some vehicles has enabled such detection. On the other hand pattern recognition algorithms based on Canny filters and Hough transformation are a common tool applied to images. Based on these facts, a joint research program between IFSTTAR and Cerema has been developed to study the benefit of infrared images obtained in a fog tunnel during its natural dissipation. Pattern recognition algorithms have been applied, specifically on road signs which shape is usually associated to a specific meaning (circular for a speed limit, triangle for an alert, …). It has been shown that road signs were detected early enough in images, with respect to images in the visible spectrum, to trigger useful alerts for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  4. Integration of Image Data for Refining Building Boundaries Derived from Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, S. N.; Hetti Arachchige, N.; Schneider, D.

    2014-08-01

    Geometrically and topologically correct 3D building models are required to satisfy with new demands such as 3D cadastre, map updating, and decision making. More attention on building reconstruction has been paid using Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud data. The planimetric accuracy of roof outlines, including step-edges is questionable in building models derived from only point clouds. This paper presents a new approach for the detection of accurate building boundaries by merging point clouds acquired by ALS and aerial photographs. It comprises two major parts: reconstruction of initial roof models from point clouds only, and refinement of their boundaries. A shortest closed circle (graph) analysis method is employed to generate building models in the first step. Having the advantages of high reliability, this method provides reconstruction without prior knowledge of primitive building types even when complex height jumps and various types of building roof are available. The accurate position of boundaries of the initial models is determined by the integration of the edges extracted from aerial photographs. In this process, scene constraints defined based on the initial roof models are introduced as the initial roof models are representing explicit unambiguous geometries about the scene. Experiments were conducted using the ISPRS benchmark test data. Based on test results, we show that the proposed approach can reconstruct 3D building models with higher geometrical (planimetry and vertical) and topological accuracy.

  5. Advantages of neutral barium cloud image to estimate CIV phenomenon yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhin, Yu. Y.; Leonov, N. A.; Ivchenko, Vasily N.

    1997-09-01

    During the summer of 1991, the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was used over Caribbean to perform five chemical release experiments in ionosphere. The purpose of the G11b experiment was to exclude photoionization to examine the CIV hypothesis by Alfven. For this reason the G11b release was made in shadow to exclude photoionization. In this report we present a possible new method to examine the high CIV interactions in small localized regions, where the anomalous fast barium ionization can produce a local leakage of neutral barium from a sphere shell cloud. It is shown that the optical neutral cloud measurements made in G11b experiment manifest a very simple signature to locate the interaction CIV region as the neutral barium cloud passes the solar terminator. It thus appears that all of main CIV activity for barium orbital injection occurs early in the most dense and energetic part of the cloud. It is suggested that future interactive experiment can use this observation (method) to precisely locate the CIV active region in real time and/or for later analysis of the CIV processes effectiveness.

  6. Individual camera identification using correlation of fixed pattern noise in image sensors.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Akiba, Norimitsu

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents results of experiments related to individual video camera identification using a correlation coefficient of fixed pattern noise (FPN) in image sensors. Five color charge-coupled device (CCD) modules of the same brand were examined. Images were captured using a 12-bit monochrome video capture board and stored in a personal computer. For each module, 100 frames were captured. They were integrated to obtain FPN. The results show that a specific CCD module was distinguished among the five modules by analyzing the normalized correlation coefficient. The temporal change of the correlation coefficient during several days had only a negligible effect on identifying the modules. Furthermore, a positive relation was found between the correlation coefficient of the same modules and the number of frames that were used for image integration. Consequently, precise individual camera identification is enhanced by acquisition of as many frames as possible. PMID:19302379

  7. Real-time heterodyne speckle pattern interferometry using the correlation image sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimachi, Akira

    2010-12-10

    A real-time method for heterodyne speckle pattern interferometry using the correlation image sensor (CIS) is proposed. The CIS demodulates the interference phase of heterodyned speckle wavefronts pixelwise at an ordinary video frame rate. The proposed method neither suffers loss of spatial resolution nor requires a high frame rate. Interferometers for out-of-plane and in-plane deformation are developed with a 200x200 pixel CIS camera. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method realizes real-time imaging of a rough-surfaced object under deformation. The average standard deviations of demodulated phase-difference images for the out-of-plane and in-plane interferometers are 0.33 and 0.13 rad, respectively.

  8. Analysis of speckle patterns in phase-contrast images of lung tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, M. J.; Paganin, D.; Lewis, R. A.; Yagi, N.; Uesugi, K.

    2005-08-01

    Propagation-based phase-contrast images of mice lungs have been obtained at the SPring-8 synchrotron research facility. Such images exhibit a speckled intensity pattern that bears a superficial resemblance to alveolar structures. This speckle results from focussing effects as projected air-filled alveoli form aberrated compound refractive lenses. An appropriate phase-retrieval algorithm has been utilized to reconstruct the approximate projected lung tissue thickness from single-phase-contrast mice chest radiographs. The results show projected density variations across the lung, highlighting regions of low density corresponding to air-filled regions. Potentially, this offers a better method than conventional radiography for detecting lung diseases such as fibrosis, emphysema and cancer, though this has yet to be demonstrated. As such, the approach can assist in continuing studies of lung function utilizing propagation-based phase-contrast imaging.

  9. Method for characterizing mask defects using image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns

    DOEpatents

    Hau-Riege, Stefan Peter (Fremont, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The invention applies techniques for image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns on the three-dimensional imaging of defects in EUVL multilayer films. The reconstructed image gives information about the out-of-plane position and the diffraction strength of the defect. The positional information can be used to select the correct defect repair technique. This invention enables the fabrication of defect-free (since repaired) X-ray Mo--Si multilayer mirrors. Repairing Mo--Si multilayer-film defects on mask blanks is a key for the commercial success of EUVL. It is known that particles are added to the Mo--Si multilayer film during the fabrication process. There is a large effort to reduce this contamination, but results are not sufficient, and defects continue to be a major mask yield limiter. All suggested repair strategies need to know the out-of-plane position of the defects in the multilayer.

  10. (90)Y Radioembolization: Multimodality Imaging Pattern Approach with Angiographic Correlation for Optimized Target Therapy Delivery.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Juan C; Moncayo, Valeria; Kokabi, Nima; Reavey, Hamilton E; Galt, James R; Yamada, Kei; Kies, Darren D; Williams, Roger S; Kim, Hyun S; Schuster, David M

    2015-01-01

    Primary and metastatic liver cancers are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality, and many patients are not curable at presentation. Therefore, new therapies such as radioembolization with yttrium 90 ((90)Y)-labeled microspheres are an alternative method to treat patients with unresectable primary or secondary liver tumors. Patient selection, treatment technique, and early recognition of potential complications are the keys for successful patient outcomes. The activity of administered (90)Y microspheres depends on multiple variables, including the tumor burden, the volume of the liver lobe to be treated, the type of (90)Y microspheres, and the hepatopulmonary shunt fraction. Preprocedural planning relies on the results of cross-sectional imaging to determine the extent of disease, tumoral and nontumoral liver volumes, patency of the portal vein, and the degree of extrahepatic disease. A multidisciplinary approach that combines expertise in cross-sectional imaging, nuclear medicine, and flow dynamics is critical to adequately target malignant tissue. Preprocedural multimodality imaging, particularly combined single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) imaging (SPECT/CT), may be used to identify nontarget imaging patterns that, if recognized, can potentially be corrected with either branch vessel embolization or catheter repositioning. Postprocedural multimodality imaging is also useful to confirm the appropriate delivery of (90)Y microspheres, enabling early identification of potential complications and the adequacy of microsphere distribution, thereby optimizing planning for subsequent therapies. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26230755

  11. Dark-field illuminated fiber bundle endoscopy with iterative l1-min image reconstruction for honeycomb pattern removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Lijun; Kirby, Mitchell; Raj, Divyaansh; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we developed a dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber-optic microscope (DRFM) along with an algorithm for l1-norm minimization of fiber bundle image to provide intrinsic endoscopic imaging with cellular resolution. To suppress specular reflection from fiber bundle facets, we adopted a dark-field configuration. To remove the honeycomb pattern of fiber bundle while preserve image resolution and contrast, we chose to minimize the image l1 norm using iterative shrinkage thresholding (IST) algorithm.

  12. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the object; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  13. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  14. Always Up-to-date Scalable Offline Patching of VM Images in a Compute Cloud

    E-print Network

    Ning, Peng

    the patching scripts. Nüwa also leverages the VM image manipulation technologies offered by the Mirage image compared to the online approach and by another 2­10 times when integrated with Mirage. Nüwa also

  15. Analysis of image versus position, scale and direction reveals pattern texture anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Weiss, Jerome; Dubrulle, Berengere; Amon, Axelle; Le Bouil, Antoine; Crassous, Jerome; Amitrano, David; Graner, Francois

    2014-12-01

    Pattern heterogeneities and anisotropies often carry significant physical information. We provide a toolbox which: (i) cumulates analysis in terms of position, direction and scale; (ii) is as general as possible; (iii) is simple and fast to understand, implement, execute and exploit. It consists in dividing the image into analysis boxes at a chosen scale; in each box an ellipse (the inertia tensor) is fitted to the signal and thus determines the direction in which the signal is more present. This tensor can be averaged in position and/or be used to study the dependence with scale. This choice is formally linked with Leray transforms and anisotropic wavelet analysis. Such protocol is intutively interpreted and consistent with what the eye detects: relevant scales, local variations in space, priviledged directions. It is fast and parallelizable. Its several variants are adaptable to the user's data and needs. It is useful to statistically characterize anisotropies of 2D or 3D patterns in which individual objects are not easily distinguished, with only minimal pre-processing of the raw image, and more generally applies to data in higher dimensions. It is less sensitive to edge effects, and thus better adapted for a multiscale analysis down to small scale boxes, than pair correlation function or Fourier transform. Easy to understand and implement, it complements more sophisticated methods such as Hough transform or diffusion tensor imaging. We use it on various fracture patterns (sea ice cover, thin sections of granite, granular materials), to pinpoint the maximal anisotropy scales. The results are robust to noise and to user choices. This toolbox could turn also useful for granular materials, hard condensed matter, geophysics, thin films, statistical mechanics, characterisation of networks, fluctuating amorphous systems, inhomogeneous and disordered systems, or medical imaging, among others.

  16. Cloud Arcs in the Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Small cumulus clouds in this natural-color view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer have formed a distinctive series of quasi-circular arcs. Clues regarding the formation of these arcs can be found by noting that larger clouds exist in the interior of each arc.

    The interior clouds are thicker and likely to be more convectively active than the other clouds, causing much of the air near the centers of the arcs to rise. This air spreads out horizontally in all directions as it rises and continues to spread out as it begins to sink back to the surface. This pushes any existing small cumulus clouds away from the central region of convection.

    As the air sinks, it also warms, preventing other small clouds from forming, so that the regions just inside the arcs are kept clear. At the arcs, the horizontal flow of sinking air is now quite weak and on meeting the undisturbed air it can rise again slightly -- possibly assisting in the formation of new small cumulus clouds. Although examples of the continuity of air, in which every rising air motion must be compensated by a sinking motion elsewhere, are very common, the degree of organization exhibited here is relatively rare, as the wind field at different altitudes usually disrupts such patterns. The degree of self organization of this cloud image, whereby three or four such circular events form a quasi-periodic pattern, probably also requires a relatively uncommon combination of wind, temperature and humidity conditions for it to occur.

    The image was acquired by MISR's nadir camera on March 11, 2002, and is centered west of the Marshall Islands. Enewetak Atoll is discernible through thin cloud as the turquoise band near the right-hand edge of the image.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 11863, and covers an area of about 380 kilometers x 345 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 80 to 82 within World Reference System-2 path 90.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. Evaluation of imaging plates as recording medium for images of negatively stained single particles and electron diffraction patterns of two-dimensional crystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongli; Hite, Richard K.; Cheng, Yifan; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated imaging plates (IPs) and the DITABIS Micron scanner for their use in recording images of negatively stained single-particle specimens and electron diffraction patterns of two-dimensional crystals. We first established the optimal imaging and read-out conditions for images of negatively stained single-particle specimens using the signal-to-noise ratio of the images as the evaluation criterion. We found that images were best recorded on IPs at a magnification of 67?000×, read out with a gain setting of 20?000 and a laser power setting of 30% with subsequent binning over 2 × 2 pixels. Our results show that for images of negatively stained specimens, for which the resolution is limited to ?20 Å, IPs are a good alternative to EM film. We also compared IPs with a 2K × 2K Gatan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for their use in recording electron diffraction patterns of sugar-embedded two-dimensional crystals. Diffraction patterns of aquaporin-0 recorded on IPs and with the CCD camera showed reflections beyond 3 Å and had similar RFriedel as well as Rmerge values. IPs can thus be used to collect diffraction patterns, but CCD cameras are more convenient and remain the best option for recording electron diffraction patterns. PMID:19643814

  18. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Tanre, Didier D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning spectrometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micron. They review the various methods being developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical, and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles from spectral reflection and thermal emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be used for determining the total precipitable water vapor and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products are described, together with an example of their application to aircraft and/or satellite measurements.

  19. Classifying Dementia Using Local Binary Patterns from Different Regions in Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Oppedal, Ketil; Eftestøl, Trygve; Beyer, Mona K.; Aarsland, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is an evolving challenge in society, and no disease-modifying treatment exists. Diagnosis can be demanding and MR imaging may aid as a noninvasive method to increase prediction accuracy. We explored the use of 2D local binary pattern (LBP) extracted from FLAIR and T1 MR images of the brain combined with a Random Forest classifier in an attempt to discern patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and normal controls (NC). Analysis was conducted in areas with white matter lesions (WML) and all of white matter (WM). Results from 10-fold nested cross validation are reported as mean accuracy, precision, and recall with standard deviation in brackets. The best result we achieved was in the two-class problem NC versus AD + LBD with total accuracy of 0.98 (0.04). In the three-class problem AD versus LBD versus NC and the two-class problem AD versus LBD, we achieved 0.87 (0.08) and 0.74 (0.16), respectively. The performance using 3DT1 images was notably better than when using FLAIR images. The results from the WM region gave similar results as in the WML region. Our study demonstrates that LBP texture analysis in brain MR images can be successfully used for computer based dementia diagnosis. PMID:25873943

  20. Using Polynomials to Simplify Fixed Pattern Noise and Photometric Correction of Logarithmic CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Mahmoodi, Alireza; Joseph, Dileepan

    2015-01-01

    An important class of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are those where pixel responses are monotonic nonlinear functions of light stimuli. This class includes various logarithmic architectures, which are easily capable of wide dynamic range imaging, at video rates, but which are vulnerable to image quality issues. To minimize fixed pattern noise (FPN) and maximize photometric accuracy, pixel responses must be calibrated and corrected due to mismatch and process variation during fabrication. Unlike literature approaches, which employ circuit-based models of varying complexity, this paper introduces a novel approach based on low-degree polynomials. Although each pixel may have a highly nonlinear response, an approximately-linear FPN calibration is possible by exploiting the monotonic nature of imaging. Moreover, FPN correction requires only arithmetic, and an optimal fixed-point implementation is readily derived, subject to a user-specified number of bits per pixel. Using a monotonic spline, involving cubic polynomials, photometric calibration is also possible without a circuit-based model, and fixed-point photometric correction requires only a look-up table. The approach is experimentally validated with a logarithmic CMOS image sensor and is compared to a leading approach from the literature. The novel approach proves effective and efficient. PMID:26501287

  1. Using Polynomials to Simplify Fixed Pattern Noise and Photometric Correction of Logarithmic CMOS Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mahmoodi, Alireza; Joseph, Dileepan

    2015-01-01

    An important class of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are those where pixel responses are monotonic nonlinear functions of light stimuli. This class includes various logarithmic architectures, which are easily capable of wide dynamic range imaging, at video rates, but which are vulnerable to image quality issues. To minimize fixed pattern noise (FPN) and maximize photometric accuracy, pixel responses must be calibrated and corrected due to mismatch and process variation during fabrication. Unlike literature approaches, which employ circuit-based models of varying complexity, this paper introduces a novel approach based on low-degree polynomials. Although each pixel may have a highly nonlinear response, an approximately-linear FPN calibration is possible by exploiting the monotonic nature of imaging. Moreover, FPN correction requires only arithmetic, and an optimal fixed-point implementation is readily derived, subject to a user-specified number of bits per pixel. Using a monotonic spline, involving cubic polynomials, photometric calibration is also possible without a circuit-based model, and fixed-point photometric correction requires only a look-up table. The approach is experimentally validated with a logarithmic CMOS image sensor and is compared to a leading approach from the literature. The novel approach proves effective and efficient. PMID:26501287

  2. Effect of Clouds on Optical Imaging of the Space Shuttle During the Ascent Phase: A Statistical Analysis Based on a 3D Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Lane, Robert E., Jr.; Winters, Katherine A.; Madura, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Clouds are highly effective in obscuring optical images of the Space Shuttle taken during its ascent by ground-based and airborne tracking cameras. Because the imagery is used for quick-look and post-flight engineering analysis, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) recommended the return-to-flight effort include an upgrade of the imaging system to enable it to obtain at least three useful views of the Shuttle from lift-off to at least solid rocket booster (SRB) separation (NASA 2003). The lifetimes of individual cloud elements capable of obscuring optical views of the Shuttle are typically 20 minutes or less. Therefore, accurately observing and forecasting cloud obscuration over an extended network of cameras poses an unprecedented challenge for the current state of observational and modeling techniques. In addition, even the best numerical simulations based on real observations will never reach "truth." In order to quantify the risk that clouds would obscure optical imagery of the Shuttle, a 3D model to calculate probabilistic risk was developed. The model was used to estimate the ability of a network of optical imaging cameras to obtain at least N simultaneous views of the Shuttle from lift-off to SRB separation in the presence of an idealized, randomized cloud field.

  3. Multi-line spectral imaging of dense cores in the Lupus molecular cloud

    E-print Network

    Benedettini, Milena; Burton, Micheal G; Viti, Serena; Molinari, Sergio; Caselli, Paola; Testi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The molecular clouds Lupus 1, 3 and 4 were mapped with the Mopra telescope at 3 and 12 mm. Emission lines from high density molecular tracers were detected, i.e. NH$_3$ (1,1), NH$_3$ (2,2), N$_2$H$^+$ (1-0), HC$_3$N (3-2), HC$_3$N (10-9), CS (2-1), CH$_3$OH (2$_0-1_0$)A$^+$ and CH$_3$OH (2$_{-1}-1_{-1}$)E. Velocity gradients of more than 1 km s$^{-1}$ are present in Lupus 1 and 3 and multiple gas components are present in these clouds along some lines of sight. Lupus 1 is the cloud richest in high density cores, 8 cores were detected in it, 5 cores were detected in Lupus 3 and only 2 in Lupus 4. The intensity of the three species HC$_3$N, NH$_3$ and N$_2$H$^+$ changes significantly in the various cores: cores that are brighter in HC$_3$N are fainter or undetected in NH$_3$ and N$_2$H$^+$ and vice versa. We found that the column density ratios HC$_3$N/N$_2$H$^+$ and HC$_3$N/NH$_3$ change by one order of magnitude between the cores, indicating that also the chemical abundance of these species is different. The ...

  4. EUV pattern defect detection sensitivity based on aerial image linewidth measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Naulleau, P.; Liang, T.; Yan, P.-Y.; Huh, S.

    2010-02-12

    As the quality of EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscopes improves over time, the image properties and intensity profiles of reflected light can be evaluated in ever-greater detail. The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is one such microscope, featuring mask resolution values that match or exceed those available through lithographic printing in current photoresists. In order to evaluate the defect detection sensitivity of the AIT for dense line patterns on typical masks, the authors study the line width roughness (LWR) on two masks, as measured in the EUV images. They report the through-focus and pitch dependence of contrast, image log slope, linewidth, and LWR. The AIT currently reaches LWR 3{sigma} values close to 9 nm for 175 nm half-pitch lines. This value is below 10% linewidth for nearly all lines routinely measured in the AIT. Evidence suggests that this lower level may arise from the mask's inherent pattern roughness. While the sensitivity limit of the AlT has not yet been established, it is clear that the AIT has the required sensitivity to detect defects that cause 10% linewidth changes in line sizes of 125 nm and larger.

  5. All sky imaging observations in visible and infrared waveband for validation of satellite cloud and aerosol products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Daren; Huo, Juan; Zhang, W.; Liu, J.

    A series of satellite sensors in visible and infrared wavelengths have been successfully operated on board a number of research satellites, e.g. NOAA/AVHRR, the MODIS onboard Terra and Aqua, etc. A number of cloud and aerosol products are produced and released in recent years. However, the validation of the product quality and accuracy are still a challenge to the atmospheric remote sensing community. In this paper, we suggest a ground based validation scheme for satellite-derived cloud and aerosol products by using combined visible and thermal infrared all sky imaging observations as well as surface meteorological observations. In the scheme, a visible digital camera with a fish-eye lens is used to continuously monitor the all sky with the view angle greater than 180 deg. The digital camera system is calibrated for both its geometry and radiance (broad blue, green, and red band) so as to a retrieval method can be used to detect the clear and cloudy sky spatial distribution and their temporal variations. A calibrated scanning thermal infrared thermometer is used to monitor the all sky brightness temperature distribution. An algorithm is developed to detect the clear and cloudy sky as well as cloud base height by using sky brightness distribution and surface temperature and humidity as input. Based on these composite retrieval of clear and cloudy sky distribution, it can be used to validate the satellite retrievals in the sense of real-simultaneous comparison and statistics, respectively. What will be presented in this talk include the results of the field observations and comparisons completed in Beijing (40 deg N, 116.5 deg E) in year 2003 and 2004. This work is supported by NSFC grant No. 4002700, and MOST grant No 2001CCA02200

  6. Blockwise Classification of Lung Patterns in Unsegmented CT Images Luiza D. Bagesteiro, Lucas F. Oliveira and Daniel Weingaertner

    E-print Network

    Blockwise Classification of Lung Patterns in Unsegmented CT Images Luiza D. Bagesteiro, Lucas F}@inf.ufpr.br Abstract--Diagnosis of lung diseases is usually accomplished by detecting abnormal characteristics-Resolution lung CTs using the Com- pleted Local Binary Pattern (CLBP) descriptor with a Support Vector Machine

  7. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  8. Pattern of Tumour Spread of Common Primary Tumours as Seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Ohlmann-Knafo, Susanne; Pickuth, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Although some reports with computed tomography and bone scintigraphy are available in the literature, the distinct epidemiologic description of skeletal metastatic pattern of various tumors is still lacking. This study uses a novel approach to identify skeletal metastases from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to describe metastatic pattern in common malignancies. A retrospective analysis of 130 cancer patients (42 lung, 56 breast, 11 prostate cancers; 21 multiple myeloma) with vertebral metastases and without disseminated disease, and whom underwent a whole body 3Tesla MRI investigation (Discovery MR750w), was carried out. Multiple myeloma had the most commonly disseminated metastatic disease (95 %) compared to lung (28 %), breast (44 %) and prostate (71 %) cancers. Lung cancer was related to more frequent pedicle involvement compared to breast or prostate cancer (29, 9 and 0 %, p?pattern (p?pattern among common malignancies were demonstrated with MRI. PMID:26319028

  9. Strain distribution in InP grown on patterned Si: Direct visualization by cathodoluminescence wavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, M.; Christen, J.; Heinrichsdorff, F.; Krost, A.; Bimberg, D.

    1994-02-01

    InP has been grown on patterned Si substrates using a low temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process which insures compatibility with integrated circuit technology. Two different patterns are investigated: wet chemically etched V-grooves and SiO2-masked dry etched grooves. Reduction of feature size leads to drastic defect reduction and quantum efficiencies up to those of homoepitaxially grown InP. Strain relaxation and quantum efficiency are directly visualized by cathololuminescence wavelength imaging. On (001)-and {111}-facets of V-grooves distinct relaxation of the tensile thermally induced strain are found. Surprisingly, in the bottom of V-grooves, close to or even at the InP/Si interface, a high quantum efficiency is found with a recombination time constant typical for thick InP layers of high crystallographic quality.

  10. IR sensor array using photo-patternable temperature sensitive paint for thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, T.; Wang, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports an infrared-to-visible transducer array made of temperature sensitive paint (TSP) for a low-cost thermal imaging application. A novel fabrication process using a photo-patternable temperature sensitive paint (PTSP) combined with an SU-8 transfer method was developed. A PTSP microstructure as small as 2??m was successfully patterned by the normal photolithography process, and sensitivity as high as??-0.5%/°C was obtained. The proposed method simplifies the fabrication process, and prevents the TSP from plasma-induced damage. A self-suspended structure as small as 70 ?m was successfully fabricated with a large-gap of 40??m from the substrate. The heated object at 250?°C was detectable with a spatial resolution of about 380??m.

  11. Voyager 1 imaging and IRIS observations of Jovian methane absorption and thermal emission: Implications for cloud structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Kupferman, P. N.; Hart, H.

    1984-01-01

    Images from three filters of the Voyager 1 wide angle camera are used to measure the continuum reflectivity and spectral gradient near 6000 A and the 6190 A band methane/continuum ratio for a variety of cloud features in Jupiter's atmosphere. The dark barge features in the North Equatorial Belt have anomalously strong positive continuum spectral gradients suggesting unique composition. Methane absorption is shown at unprecedented spatial scales for the Great Red Spot and its immediate environment, for a dark barge feature in the North Equatorial Belt, and for two hot spot and plume regions in the North Equatorial Belt. Methane absorption and five micrometer emission are correlated in the vicinity of the Great Red Spot but are anticorrelated in one of the plume hot spot regions. Methane absorption and simultaneous maps of five micrometer brightness temperature is quantitatively compared to realistic cloud structure models which include multiple scattering at five micrometer as well as in the visible. Variability in H2 quadrupole lines are also investigated.

  12. VENUS CLOUD TOPS VIEWED BY HUBBLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet-light image of the planet Venus, taken on January 24 1995, when Venus was at a distance of 70.6 million miles (113.6 million kilometers) from Earth. Venus is covered with clouds made of sulfuric acid, rather than the water-vapor clouds found on Earth. These clouds permanently shroud Venus' volcanic surface, which has been radar mapped by spacecraft and from Earth-based telescope. At ultraviolet wavelengths cloud patterns become distinctive. In particular, a horizontal 'Y'-shaped cloud feature is visible near the equator. Similar features were seen from Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus, and Galileo spacecrafts. This global feature might indicate atmospheric waves, analogous to high and low pressure cells on Earth. Bright clouds toward Venus' poles appear to follow latitude lines. The polar regions are bright, possibly showing a haze of small particles overlying the main clouds. The dark regions show the location of enhanced sulfur dioxide near the cloud tops. From previous missions, astronomers know that such features travel east to west along with the Venus' prevailing winds, to make a complete circuit around the planet in four days. Because Venus is closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet appears to go through phases, like the Moon. When Venus swings close to Earth the planet's disk appears to grow in size, but changes from a full disk to a crescent. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, in PC mode. False color has been used enhance cloud features. Credit: L. Esposito (University of Colorado, Boulder), and NASA

  13. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to afternoon deep convection. The coldest cloud tops (colder than 230 K) generally occur over Antarctica and the high clouds in the tropics (ITCZ and the deep convective clouds over the western tropical Pacific and Indian sub-continent).

  14. Imaging fluid flow and cilia beating pattern in Xenopus brain ventricles.

    PubMed

    Miskevich, Frank

    2010-05-30

    Brain development and health depends upon the efficient movement of the cerebrospinal fluid inside of brain ventricles. When disrupted either through mutation, disease, or physiological damage, brain function becomes significantly impaired. Here I present a simple method of following cerebrospinal fluid circulation in Xenopus tadpoles using fluorescent microspheres which can be applied to imaging fluid circulation in any transparent embryo. In particular, cilia may be labeled with these microspheres to study their dynamics and movement patterns in vivo while simultaneously measuring bulk fluid flow. This technique will facilitate the analysis of fluid dynamics in developing embryos and aid in understanding the regulation of cilia dependent fluid flow in vivo. PMID:20171984

  15. Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettich, Mike; Jacob, Karl; Ristow, Oliver; He, Chuan; Mayer, Jan; Schubert, Martin; Gusev, Vitalyi; Bruchhausen, Axel; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    A molecular layer of aminopropyltriethoxysilane is patterned with a focused ion beam and subsequently covered by a gold film. The gold-polymer-substrate structures are afterwards imaged by ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy in reflection geometry. We demonstrate that the lateral structure of the covered polymer layer can be detected via the damping time of the vibrational mode of the gold film. Furthermore, we utilize Brillouin oscillations originating from the silicon substrate to map the structures and to estimate the molecular layer thickness.

  16. A preliminary computer pattern analysis of satellite images of mature extratropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burfeind, Craig R.; Weinman, James A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1987-01-01

    This study has applied computerized pattern analysis techniques to the location and classification of features of several mature extratropical cyclones that were depicted in GOES satellite images. These features include the location of the center of the cyclone vortex core and the location of the associated occluded front. The cyclone type was classified in accord with the scheme of Troup and Streten. The present analysis was implemented on a personal computer; results were obtained within approximately one or two minutes without the intervention of an analyst.

  17. Differentiation of bacterial colonies and temporal growth patterns using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Buck, Gregory W.; Livingston, Daniel W.

    2014-09-01

    Detection and identification of bacteria are important for health and safety. Hyperspectral imaging offers the potential to capture unique spectral patterns and spatial information from bacteria which can then be used to detect and differentiate bacterial species. Here, hyperspectral imaging has been used to characterize different bacterial colonies and investigate their growth over time. Six bacterial species (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes) were grown on tryptic soy agar plates. Hyperspectral data were acquired immediately after, 24 hours after, and 96 hours after incubation. Spectral signatures from bacterial colonies demonstrated repeatable measurements for five out of six species. Spatial variations as well as changes in spectral signatures were observed across temporal measurements within and among species at multiple wavelengths due to strengthening or weakening reflectance signals from growing bacterial colonies based on their pigmentation. Between-class differences and within-class similarities were the most prominent in hyperspectral data collected 96 hours after incubation.

  18. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Status report of the mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heydorn, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (MPRIA) Project is concerned with basic research problems related to the study of the Earth from remotely sensed measurement of its surface characteristics. The program goal is to better understand how to analyze the digital image that represents the spatial, spectral, and temporal arrangement of these measurements for purposing of making selected inference about the Earth.

  19. Pattern and Chaos: New Images in the Semantics of Paradox Author(s): Gary Mar and Patrick Grim

    E-print Network

    Grim, Patrick

    Pattern and Chaos: New Images in the Semantics of Paradox Author(s): Gary Mar and Patrick Grim and Conditions #12;Patternand Chaos:New Images in the Semanticsof Paradox GARY MAR AND PATRICK GRIM Group and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support

  20. Dark Current Characterization of the CMOS APS Imagers with Test Patterns Fabricated Using a 0.18 CMOS Technology

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jong Duk

    are downscaled to deep sub micron eras, it becomes more difficult to fabricate the low dark current imagers-micron CMOS technology. To implement the low dark current CMOS APS with a deep sub-micron technology#12;Dark Current Characterization of the CMOS APS Imagers with Test Patterns Fabricated Using a 0

  1. Revealing the carbohydrate pattern on a cell surface by super-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junling; Gao, Jing; Wu, Jiazhen; Zhang, Min; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Tian, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hongda

    2015-02-01

    Carbohydrates are involved in various physiological and pathological activities including cell adhesion, signal transduction and tumor invasion. The distribution of carbohydrates is the molecular basis of their multiple functions, but remains poorly understood. Here, we employed direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to visualize the pattern of N-acetylglucosamine (N-GlcNAc) on Vero cell membranes at the nanometer level of resolution. We found that N-GlcNAcs exist in irregular clusters on the apical membrane with an average cluster area of about 0.37 ?m2. Most of these N-GlcNAc clusters are co-localized with lipid rafts by dual-color dSTORM imaging, suggesting that carbohydrates are closely associated with lipid rafts as the functional domains. Our results demonstrate that super-resolution imaging is capable of characterizing the distribution of carbohydrates on the cellular surface at the molecular level.Carbohydrates are involved in various physiological and pathological activities including cell adhesion, signal transduction and tumor invasion. The distribution of carbohydrates is the molecular basis of their multiple functions, but remains poorly understood. Here, we employed direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to visualize the pattern of N-acetylglucosamine (N-GlcNAc) on Vero cell membranes at the nanometer level of resolution. We found that N-GlcNAcs exist in irregular clusters on the apical membrane with an average cluster area of about 0.37 ?m2. Most of these N-GlcNAc clusters are co-localized with lipid rafts by dual-color dSTORM imaging, suggesting that carbohydrates are closely associated with lipid rafts as the functional domains. Our results demonstrate that super-resolution imaging is capable of characterizing the distribution of carbohydrates on the cellular surface at the molecular level. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05970k

  2. Cloud computing for geophysical applications (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M.; Kihn, E. A.; Mishin, D.; Medvedev, D.; Weigel, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    Cloud computing offers a scalable on-demand resource allocation model to evolving needs in data intensive geophysical applications, where computational needs in CPU and storage can vary over time depending on modeling or field campaign. Separate, sometimes incompatible cloud platforms and services are already available from major computing vendors (Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Apps Engine), government agencies (NASA Nebulae) and Open Source community (Eucalyptus). Multiple cloud platforms with layered virtualization patterns (hardware-platform- software-data-or-everything as a service) provide a feature-rich environment and encourage experimentation with distributed data modeling, processing and storage. However, application and especially database development in the Cloud is different from the desktop and the compute cluster. In this presentation we will review scientific cloud applications relevant to geophysical research and present our results in building software components and cloud services for a virtual geophysical data center. We will discuss in depth economy, scalability and reliability of the distributed array and image data stores, synchronous and asynchronous RESTful services to access and model georefernced data, virtual observatory services for metadata management, and data visualization for web applications in Cloud.

  3. Constraining mass-diameter relations from hydrometeor images and cloud radar reflectivities in tropical continental and oceanic convective anvils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, E.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Delanoë, J.; Wobrock, W.; Leroy, D.; Dupuy, R.; Gourbeyre, C.; Protat, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this study the density of ice hydrometeors in tropical clouds is derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2-D-array probes and associated reflectivities measured with a Doppler cloud radar on the same research aircraft. Usually, the mass-diameter m(D) relationship is formulated as a power law with two unknown coefficients (pre-factor, exponent) that need to be constrained from complementary information on hydrometeors, where absolute ice density measurement methods do not apply. Here, at first an extended theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3-D and arbitrarily projected on a 2-D plan allowed to constrain the exponent ?of the m(D) relationship from the exponent ? of the surface-diameterS(D)relationship, which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2-D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent can be calculated. After that, the pre-factor ? of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivities matching the measured reflectivities along the aircraft trajectory. The study was performed as part of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, where two types of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were investigated: (i) above the African continent and (ii) above the Indian Ocean. For the two data sets, two parameterizations are derived to calculate the vertical variability of m(D) coefficients ? and ? as a function of the temperature. Originally calculated (with T-matrix) and also subsequently parameterized m(D) relationships from this study are compared to other methods (from literature) of calculating m(D) in tropical convection. The significant benefit of using variable m(D) relations instead of a single m(D) relationship is demonstrated from the impact of all these m(D) relations on Z-CWC (Condensed Water Content) and Z-CWC-T-fitted parameterizations.

  4. Multi-scale marine biodiversity patterns inferred efficiently from habitat image processing.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Parrott, Lael; Andréfouët, Serge; Bradshaw, Corey J A; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian

    2012-04-01

    Cost-effective proxies of biodiversity and species abundance, applicable across a range of spatial scales, are needed for setting conservation priorities and planning action. We outline a rapid, efficient, and low-cost measure of spectral signal from digital habitat images that, being an effective proxy for habitat complexity, correlates with species diversity and requires little image processing or interpretation. We validated this method for coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, across a range of spatial scales (1 m to 10 km), using digital photographs of benthic communities at the transect scale and high-resolution Landsat satellite images at the reef scale. We calculated an index of image-derived spatial heterogeneity, the mean information gain (MIG), for each scale and related it to univariate (species richness and total abundance summed across species) and multivariate (species abundance matrix) measures of fish community structure, using two techniques that account for the hierarchical structure of the data: hierarchical (mixed-effect) linear models and distance-based partial redundancy analysis. Over the length and breadth of the GBR, MIG alone explained up to 29% of deviance in fish species richness, 33% in total fish abundance, and 25% in fish community structure at multiple scales, thus demonstrating the possibility of easily and rapidly exploiting spatial information contained in digital images to complement existing methods for inferring diversity and abundance patterns among fish communities. Thus, the spectral signal of unprocessed remotely sensed images provides an efficient and low-cost way to optimize the design of surveys used in conservation planning. In data-sparse situations, this simple approach also offers a viable method for rapid assessment of potential local biodiversity, particularly where there is little local capacity in terms of skills or resources for mounting in-depth biodiversity surveys. PMID:22645811

  5. Automatic classification of prostate stromal tissue in histological images using Haralick descriptors and Local Binary Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. L. L.; Nascimento, M. Z.; Neves, L. A.; Batista, V. R.; Godoy, M. F.; Jacomini, R. S.; Duarte, Y. A. S.; Arruda, P. F. F.; Neto, D. S.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we presente a classification system that uses a combination of texture features from stromal regions: Haralick features and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) in wavelet domain. The system has five steps for classification of the tissues. First, the stromal regions were detected and extracted using segmentation techniques based on thresholding and RGB colour space. Second, the Wavelet decomposition was applied in the extracted regions to obtain the Wavelet coefficients. Third, the Haralick and LBP features were extracted from the coefficients. Fourth, relevant features were selected using the ANOVA statistical method. The classication (fifth step) was performed with Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks. The system was tested in 105 prostate images, which were divided into three groups of 35 images: normal, hyperplastic and cancerous. The system performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve and resulted in 0.98 for normal versus cancer, 0.95 for hyperplasia versus cancer and 0.96 for normal versus hyperplasia. Our results suggest that texture features can be used as discriminators for stromal tissues prostate images. Furthermore, the system was effective to classify prostate images, specially the hyperplastic class which is the most difficult type in diagnosis and prognosis.

  6. Image correlation based method for the analysis of collagen fibers patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Ramon G. T.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The collagen fibers are one of the most important structural proteins in skin, being responsible for its strength and flexibility. It is known that their properties, like fibers density, ordination and mean diameter can be affected by several skin conditions, what makes these properties a good parameter to be used on the diagnosis and evaluation of skin aging, cancer, healing, among other conditions. There is, however, a need for methods capable of analyzing quantitatively the organization patterns of these fibers. To address this need, we developed a method based on the autocorrelation function of the images that allows the construction of vector field plots of the fibers directions and does not require any kind of curve fitting or optimization. The analyzed images were obtained through Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy. This paper presents a concise review on the autocorrelation function and some of its applications to image processing, details the developed method and the results obtained through the analysis of hystopathological slides of landrace porcine skin. The method has high accuracy on the determination of the fibers direction and presents high performance. We look forward to perform further studies keeping track of different skin conditions over time.

  7. Hohlraum Target Alignment from X-ray Detector Images using Starburst Design Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, R R; Conder, A; Edwards, O; Kroll, J; Kozioziemski, B; Mapoles, E; McGuigan, D; Wilhelmsen, K

    2010-12-14

    National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to initiate a fusion reaction. The target container, or hohlraum, must be accurately aligned to an x-ray imaging system to allow careful monitoring of the frozen fuel layer in the target. To achieve alignment, x-ray images are acquired through starburst-shaped windows cut into opposite sides of the hohlraum. When the hohlraum is in alignment, the starburst pattern pairs match nearly exactly and allow a clear view of the ice layer formation on the edge of the target capsule. During the alignment process, x-ray image analysis is applied to determine the direction and magnitude of adjustment required. X-ray detector and source are moved in concert during the alignment process. The automated pointing alignment system described here is both accurate and efficient. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing that enables automation of the starburst pointing alignment.

  8. Gaussian pre-filtering for uncertainty minimization in digital image correlation using numerically-designed speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Paolo; Matta, Fabio; Zappa, Emanuele; Sutton, Michael A.; Cigada, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the effect of pre-processing image blurring on the uncertainty of two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) measurements for the specific case of numerically-designed speckle patterns having particles with well-defined and consistent shape, size and spacing. Such patterns are more suitable for large measurement surfaces on large-scale specimens than traditional spray-painted random patterns without well-defined particles. The methodology consists of numerical simulations where Gaussian digital filters with varying standard deviation are applied to a reference speckle pattern. To simplify the pattern application process for large areas and increase contrast to reduce measurement uncertainty, the speckle shape, mean size and on-center spacing were selected to be representative of numerically-designed patterns that can be applied on large surfaces through different techniques (e.g., spray-painting through stencils). Such 'designer patterns' are characterized by well-defined regions of non-zero frequency content and non-zero peaks, and are fundamentally different from typical spray-painted patterns whose frequency content exhibits near-zero peaks. The effect of blurring filters is examined for constant, linear, quadratic and cubic displacement fields. Maximum strains between ±250 and ±20,000 ?? are simulated, thus covering a relevant range for structural materials subjected to service and ultimate stresses. The robustness of the simulation procedure is verified experimentally using a physical speckle pattern subjected to constant displacements. The stability of the relation between standard deviation of the Gaussian filter and measurement uncertainty is assessed for linear displacement fields at varying image noise levels, subset size, and frequency content of the speckle pattern. It is shown that bias error as well as measurement uncertainty are minimized through Gaussian pre-filtering. This finding does not apply to typical spray-painted patterns without well-defined particles, for which image blurring is only beneficial in reducing bias errors.

  9. How Bees Discriminate a Pattern of Two Colours from Its Mirror Image

    PubMed Central

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A century ago, in his study of colour vision in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), Karl von Frisch showed that bees distinguish between a disc that is half yellow, half blue, and a mirror image of the same. Although his inference of colour vision in this example has been accepted, some discrepancies have prompted a new investigation of the detection of polarity in coloured patterns. In new experiments, bees restricted to their blue and green receptors by exclusion of ultraviolet could learn patterns of this type if they displayed a difference in green contrast between the two colours. Patterns with no green contrast required an additional vertical black line as a landmark. Tests of the trained bees revealed that they had learned two inputs; a measure and the retinotopic position of blue with large field tonic detectors, and the measure and position of a vertical edge or line with small-field phasic green detectors. The angle between these two was measured. This simple combination was detected wherever it occurred in many patterns, fitting the definition of an algorithm, which is defined as a method of processing data. As long as they excited blue receptors, colours could be any colour to human eyes, even white. The blue area cue could be separated from the green receptor modulation by as much as 50°. When some blue content was not available, the bees learned two measures of the modulation of the green receptors at widely separated vertical edges, and the angle between them. There was no evidence that the bees reconstructed the lay-out of the pattern or detected a tonic input to the green receptors. PMID:25617892

  10. Detection and evaluation of droplet and bubble fringe patterns in images of planar interferometric measurement techniques using the wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Zarogoulidis, K.

    2014-08-01

    The acquired images of interferometric particle sizing techniques are characterized by intense fringe pattern overlapping in dense droplet and bubble areas, which hinders the image processing process and subsequent information extraction. Methods employed, such as thresholding and the Hough transform and template cross-correlation, exhibit weaknesses when processing such dense areas of interest. We investigate the viability of applying the wavelet transform (WT) for the detection of the fringe pattern centers and the evaluation of the particle size. We present the basics of the WT using the Mexican hat, which exhibits excellent localization properties and present two different alternatives routes in detecting the fringe patterns in the compressed and uncompressed fringe pattern cases. We found that in comparison to the most reported methods for image evaluation, such as intensity thresholding and plain cross-correlation, the WT is a very efficient tool for detecting the patterns, even in images with high-number fringe pattern areas. The usage of the WT for the sizing of the imaged droplets and bubbles is also examined, in comparison to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).

  11. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-08-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  12. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  13. Histopathologic Patterns of Nervous System Tumors Based on Computer Vision Methods and Whole Slide Imaging (WSI)

    PubMed Central

    Walkowski, Slawomir; Szymas, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Making an automatic diagnosis based on virtual slides and whole slide imaging or even determining whether a case belongs to a single class, representing a specific disease, is a big challenge. In this work we focus on WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. We try to design a method which allows to automatically distinguish virtual slides which contain histopathologic patterns characteristic of glioblastoma – pseudopalisading necrosis and discriminate cases with neurinoma (schwannoma), which contain similar structures – palisading (Verocay bodies). Methods: Our method is based on computer vision approaches like structural analysis and shape descriptors. We start with image segmentation in a virtual slide, find specific patterns and use a set of features which can describe pseudopalisading necrosis and distinguish it from palisades. Type of structures found in a slide decides about its classification. Results: Described method is tested on a set of 49 virtual slides, captured using robotic microscope. Results show that 82% of glioblastoma cases and 90% of neurinoma cases were correctly identified by the proposed algorithm. Conclusion: Our method is a promising approach to automatic detection of nervous system tumors using virtual slides. PMID:22063730

  14. Contrast enhancement of speckle patterns from blood in synchrotron X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guk Bae; Lee, Sang Joon

    2009-03-11

    Hemodynamics has been a very important factor in understanding and diagnosing various vascular diseases. Recently, the X-ray particle image velocimetry (X-ray PIV) method using speckle patterns of blood has been introduced as a new quantitative visualization method for blood flows without any seeding tracer or contrast agents. In this study, the peculiar optical characteristics of blood on the synchrotron X-ray imaging method, which were not presented in previous studies, were investigated in depth and systematically. The experimental conditions required for X-ray PIV application were found to be the distance between the sample and the scintillator ( approximately 40cm), the thickening of the blood sample (>0.3mm), and hematocrit (20.0-80.0%). In addition, we verified that the X-ray PIV method is reliable as an advanced flow velocimetry by comparing the flow rate evaluated from the X-ray PIV result and the input flow rate supplied from a syringe pump with an error of less than 1%. Through this study, based on the understanding of contrast enhancement mechanisms of speckle patterns from blood, we could establish a trustworthy flow visualization method that can be used effectively in hemodynamic studies. PMID:19181319

  15. Observing the invisible through imaging mass spectrometry, a window into the metabolic exchange patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, David J; Xu, Yuquan; Yang, Yu-Liang; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Liu, Wei-Ting; Edlund, Anna; Duong, Tram; Du, Liangcheng; Molnár, István; Gerwick, William H; Jensen, Paul R; Fischbach, Michael; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Straight, Paul; Nizet, Victor; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2012-08-30

    Many microbes can be cultured as single-species communities. Often, these colonies are controlled and maintained via the secretion of metabolites. Such metabolites have been an invaluable resource for the discovery of therapeutics (e.g. penicillin, taxol, rapamycin, epothilone). In this article, written for a special issue on imaging mass spectrometry, we show that MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry can be adapted to observe, in a spatial manner, the metabolic exchange patterns of a diverse array of microbes, including thermophilic and mesophilic fungi, cyanobacteria, marine and terrestrial actinobacteria, and pathogenic bacteria. Dependent on media conditions, on average and based on manual analysis, we observed 11.3 molecules associated with each microbial IMS experiment, which was split nearly 50:50 between secreted and colony-associated molecules. The spatial distributions of these metabolic exchange factors are related to the biological and ecological functions of the organisms. This work establishes that MALDI-based IMS can be used as a general tool to study a diverse array of microbes. Furthermore the article forwards the notion of the IMS platform as a window to discover previously unreported molecules by monitoring the metabolic exchange patterns of organisms when grown on agar substrates. PMID:22641157

  16. Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging for studying pattern recognition in cranial ontogeny of bats and marsupials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, H. S.; Lopes, R. T.; Pessôa, L. M.; Hönnicke, M. G.; Tirao, G.; Cusatis, C.; Mazzaro, I.; Giles, C.

    2005-08-01

    The key to understanding evolution lies in the elucidation of mechanisms responsible for the observed underlying patterns and in the observation of sequences that emerge from those evolutionary landmarks. The comparative development can be used to access the derivation of form and the homology versus the convergence of evolution features. Phylogenetic and biological homologies are necessary to discern the evolutionary origins of these features. This work examined the patterns of cranial formation in pre-born bat specimens as well as post-born opossum by means of microradiography and Diffraction-Enhanced Radiography (DER) techniques. A direct conversion CCD camera was used to provide micrometer spatial resolution in order to acquire highly detailed density images. This technique allows the observation of structures, in early stages of development, which were impossible to be observed with traditional techniques, such as clearing and staining. Some cranial features have been described for adults in the literature, but the detailed description of the appearance sequence of those features in these species is still unknown and obscure. Microradiography and diffraction-enhanced imaging can improve quality of morphological detail analysis and permit the identification of anatomical landmarks that are useful in comparative studies and are still unknown in both species. In this study, we access evolution features in cranial morphology of bats and marsupials using both X-ray techniques.

  17. Jupiter's High-Altitude Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) snapped this incredibly detailed picture of Jupiter's high-altitude clouds starting at 06:00 Universal Time on February 28, 2007, when the spacecraft was only 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from the solar system's largest planet. Features as small as 50 kilometers (30 miles) are visible. The image was taken through a narrow filter centered on a methane absorption band near 890 nanometers, a considerably redder wavelength than what the eye can see. Images taken through this filter preferentially pick out clouds that are relatively high in the sky of this gas giant planet because sunlight at the wavelengths transmitted by the filter is completely absorbed by the methane gas that permeates Jupiter's atmosphere before it can reach the lower clouds.

    The image reveals a range of diverse features. The south pole is capped with a haze of small particles probably created by the precipitation of charged particles into the polar regions during auroral activity. Just north of the cap is a well-formed anticyclonic vortex with rising white thunderheads at its core. Slightly north of the vortex are the tendrils of some rather disorganized storms and more pinpoint-like thunderheads. The dark 'measles' that appear a bit farther north are actually cloud-free regions where light is completely absorbed by the methane gas and essentially disappears from view. The wind action considerably picks up in the equatorial regions where giant plumes are stretched into a long wave pattern. Proceeding north of the equator, cirrus-like clouds are shredded by winds reaching speeds of up to 400 miles per hour, and more pinpoint-like thunderheads are visible. Although some of the famous belt and zone structure of Jupiter's atmosphere is washed out when viewed at this wavelength, the relatively thin North Temperate Belt shows up quite nicely, as does a series of waves just north of the belt. The north polar region of Jupiter in this image has a mottled appearance, and the scene is not as dynamic as the equatorial and south polar regions.

    The intricate structures revealed in this image are exciting, but they are only part of the story. The New Horizons instruments have taken images of Jupiter at approximately 260 different wavelengths, providing essentially a three-dimensional view of Jupiter's atmosphere, since images at different wavelengths probe different altitudes. New Horizons is providing a wealth of data on this fascinating planet during this last close-up view of Jupiter until the middle of the next decade.

  18. IMPROVING KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY FROM SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR IMAGES USING THE LINKED OPEN DATA CLOUD AND SEXTANT

    E-print Network

    Koubarakis, Manolis

    AND SEXTANT C. Nikolaou, K. Kyzirakos, K. Bereta, K. Dogani, S. Giannakopoulou, P. Smeros, G. Garbis, MSAR-X images can be improved using linked open data and Sextant, a tool for browsing and exploration of linked

  19. Thermo-mechanical toner transfer for high-quality digital image correlation speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Paolo; Zappa, Emanuele; Matta, Fabio; Sutton, Michael A.

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy and spatial resolution of full-field deformation measurements performed through digital image correlation are greatly affected by the frequency content of the speckle pattern, which can be effectively controlled using particles with well-defined and consistent shape, size and spacing. This paper introduces a novel toner-transfer technique to impress a well-defined and repeatable speckle pattern on plane and curved surfaces of metallic and cement composite specimens. The speckle pattern is numerically designed, printed on paper using a standard laser printer, and transferred onto the measurement surface via a thermo-mechanical process. The tuning procedure to compensate for the difference between designed and toner-transferred actual speckle size is presented. Based on this evidence, the applicability of the technique is discussed with respect to surface material, dimensions and geometry. Proof of concept of the proposed toner-transfer technique is then demonstrated for the case of a quenched and partitioned welded steel plate subjected to uniaxial tensile loading, and for an aluminum plate exposed to temperatures up to 70% of the melting point of aluminum and past the melting point of typical printer toner powder.

  20. Multiline spectral imaging of dense cores in the Lupus molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedettini, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Burton, M. G.; Viti, S.; Molinari, S.; Caselli, P.; Testi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular clouds Lupus 1, 3 and 4 were mapped with the Mopra Telescope at 3 and 12 mm. Emission lines from high-density molecular tracers were detected, i.e. NH3 (1,1), NH3 (2,2), N2H+ (1-0), HC3N (3-2), HC3N (10-9), CS (2-1), CH3OH (20-10)A+ and CH3OH (2-1-1-1)E. Velocity gradients of more than 1 km s-1 are present in Lupus 1 and 3, and multiple gas components are present in these clouds along some lines of sight. Lupus 1 is the cloud richest in high-density cores: eight cores were detected in it, five cores were detected in Lupus 3 and only two in Lupus 4. The intensity of the three species HC3N, NH3 and N2H+ changes significantly in the various cores: cores that are brighter in HC3N are fainter or undetected in NH3 and N2H+ and vice versa. We found that the column density ratios HC3N/N2H+ and HC3N/NH3 change by 1 order of magnitude between the cores, indicating that also the chemical abundance of these species is different. The time-dependent chemical code that we used to model our cores shows that the HC3N/N2H+ and HC3N/NH3 ratios decrease with time, therefore the observed column density of these species can be used as an indicator of the chemical evolution of dense cores. On this basis we classified five out of eight cores in Lupus 1 and one out of five cores in Lupus 3 as very young protostars or pre-stellar cores. Comparing the millimetre core population with the population of the more evolved young stellar objects identified in the Spitzer surveys, we conclude that in Lupus 3 the bulk of the star formation activity has already passed and only a moderate number of stars are still forming. In contrast, in Lupus 1 star formation is ongoing and several dense cores are still in the pre-/protostellar phase. Lupus 4 is at an intermediate stage, with a smaller number of individual objects.

  1. Imaging spectroscopy diagnosis of internal electron temperature and density distributions of plasma cloud surrounding hydrogen pellet in the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Motojima, G; Sakamoto, R; Goto, M; Matsuyama, A; Mishra, J S; Yamada, H

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the behavior of hydrogen pellet ablation, a novel method of high-speed imaging spectroscopy has been used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for identifying the internal distribution of the electron density and temperature of the plasma cloud surrounding the pellet. This spectroscopic system consists of a five-branch fiberscope and a fast camera, with each objective lens having a different narrow-band optical filter for the hydrogen Balmer lines and the background continuum radiation. The electron density and temperature in the plasma cloud are obtained, with a spatial resolution of about 6 mm and a temporal resolution of 5 × 10(-5) s, from the intensity ratio measured through these filters. To verify the imaging, the average electron density and temperature also have been measured from the total emission by using a photodiode, showing that both density and temperature increase with time during the pellet ablation. The electron density distribution ranging from 10(22) to 10(24) m(-3) and the temperature distribution around 1 eV have been observed via imaging. The electron density and temperature of a 0.1 m plasma cloud are distributed along the magnetic field lines and a significant electron pressure forms in the plasma cloud for typical experimental conditions of the LHD. PMID:23020375

  2. Imaging spectroscopy diagnosis of internal electron temperature and density distributions of plasma cloud surrounding hydrogen pellet in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Motojima, G.; Sakamoto, R.; Goto, M.; Matsuyama, A.; Yamada, H.; Mishra, J. S.

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the behavior of hydrogen pellet ablation, a novel method of high-speed imaging spectroscopy has been used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for identifying the internal distribution of the electron density and temperature of the plasma cloud surrounding the pellet. This spectroscopic system consists of a five-branch fiberscope and a fast camera, with each objective lens having a different narrow-band optical filter for the hydrogen Balmer lines and the background continuum radiation. The electron density and temperature in the plasma cloud are obtained, with a spatial resolution of about 6 mm and a temporal resolution of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} s, from the intensity ratio measured through these filters. To verify the imaging, the average electron density and temperature also have been measured from the total emission by using a photodiode, showing that both density and temperature increase with time during the pellet ablation. The electron density distribution ranging from 10{sup 22} to 10{sup 24} m{sup -3} and the temperature distribution around 1 eV have been observed via imaging. The electron density and temperature of a 0.1 m plasma cloud are distributed along the magnetic field lines and a significant electron pressure forms in the plasma cloud for typical experimental conditions of the LHD.

  3. Perineural spread of pelvic malignancies to the lumbosacral plexus and beyond: clinical and imaging patterns.

    PubMed

    Capek, Stepan; Howe, Benjamin M; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Perineural spread along pelvic autonomie nerves has emerged as a logical, anatomical explanation for selected cases of neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy (LSP) in patients with prostate, bladder, rectal, and cervical cancer. The authors wondered whether common radiological and clinical patterns shared by various types of pelvic cancer exist. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed their institutional series of 17 cases concluded as perineural tumor spread. All available history, physical examination, electrodiagnostic studies, biopsy data and imaging studies, evidence of other metastatic disease, and follow-up were recorded in detail. The series was divided into 2 groups: cases with neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy confirmed by biopsy (Group A) and cases included based on imaging characteristics despite the lack of biopsy or negative biopsy results (Group B). RESULTS Group A comprised 10 patients (mean age 69 years); 9 patients were symptomatic and 1 was asymptomatic. The L5-S1 spinal nerves and sciatic nerve were most frequently involved. Three patients had intradural extension. Seven patients were alive at last follow-up. Group B consisted of 7 patients (mean age 64 years); 4 patients were symptomatic, 2 were asymptomatic, and 1 had only imaging available. The L5-S1 spinal nerves and the sciatic nerve were most frequently involved. No patients had intradural extension. Four patients were alive at last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The authors provide a unifying theory to explain lumbosacral plexopathy in select cases of various pelvic neoplasms. The tumor cells can use splanchnic nerves as conduits and spread from the end organ to the lumbosacral plexus. Tumor can continue to spread along osseous and muscle nerve branches, resulting in muscle and bone "metastases." Radiological studies show a reproducible, although nonspecific pattern, and the same applies to clinical presentation. PMID:26323816

  4. Automatic reconstruction of 3D urban landscape by computing connected regions and assigning them an average altitude from LiDAR point cloud image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2014-10-01

    The demand of 3D city modeling has been increasing in many applications such as urban planing, computer gaming with realistic city environment, car navigation system with showing 3D city map, virtual city tourism inviting future visitors to a virtual city walkthrough and others. We proposed a simple method for reconstructing a 3D urban landscape from airborne LiDAR point cloud data. The automatic reconstruction method of a 3D urban landscape was implemented by the integration of all connected regions, which were extracted and extruded from the altitude mask images. These mask images were generated from the gray scale LiDAR image by the altitude threshold ranges. In this study we demonstrated successfully in the case of Kanazawa city center scene by applying the proposed method to the airborne LiDAR point cloud data.

  5. Parameter Estimation of Fossil Oysters from High Resolution 3D Point Cloud and Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, Ana; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Nothegger, Clemens; Mandic, Oleg; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    A unique fossil oyster reef was excavated at Stetten in Lower Austria, which is also the highlight of the geo-edutainment park 'Fossilienwelt Weinviertel'. It provides the rare opportunity to study the Early Miocene flora and fauna of the Central Paratethys Sea. The site presents the world's largest fossil oyster biostrome formed about 16.5 million years ago in a tropical estuary of the Korneuburg Basin. About 15,000 up to 80-cm-long shells of Crassostrea gryphoides cover a 400 m2 large area. Our project 'Smart-Geology for the World's largest fossil oyster reef' combines methods of photogrammetry, geology and paleontology to document, evaluate and quantify the shell bed. This interdisciplinary approach will be applied to test hypotheses on the genesis of the taphocenosis (e.g.: tsunami versus major storm) and to reconstruct pre- and post-event processes. Hence, we are focusing on using visualization technologies from photogrammetry in geology and paleontology in order to develop new methods for automatic and objective evaluation of 3D point clouds. These will be studied on the basis of a very dense surface reconstruction of the oyster reef. 'Smart Geology', as extension of the classic discipline, exploits massive data, automatic interpretation, and visualization. Photogrammetry provides the tools for surface acquisition and objective, automated interpretation. We also want to stress the economic aspect of using automatic shape detection in paleontology, which saves manpower and increases efficiency during the monitoring and evaluation process. Currently, there are many well known algorithms for 3D shape detection of certain objects. We are using dense 3D laser scanning data from an instrument utilizing the phase shift measuring principle, which provides accurate geometrical basis < 3 mm. However, the situation is difficult in this multiple object scenario where more than 15,000 complete or fragmentary parts of an object with random orientation are found. The goal is to investigate if the application of state-of-the-art 3D digitizing, data processing, and visualization technologies support the interpretation of this paleontological site. The obtained 3D data (approx. 1 billion points at the respective area) is analyzed with respect to their 3D structure in order to derive geometrical information. The aim of this contribution is to segment the 3D point cloud of laser scanning data into meaningful regions representing particular objects. Geometric parameters (curvature, tangent plane orientation, local minimum and maximum, etc.) are derived for every 3D point of the point cloud. A set of features is computed in each point using different kernel sizes to define neighborhoods of different size. This provides information on convexity (outer surface), concavity (inner surface) and locally flat areas, which shall be further utilized in fitting model of Crassostrea-shells. In addition, digitizing is performed manually in order to obtain a representative set of reference data for the evaluation of the obtained results. For evaluating these results the reference data (length and orientation of specimen) is then compared to the automatically derived segments of the point cloud. The study is supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF P 25883-N29).

  6. The detection of weak signal patterns in radar ocean intensity images

    SciTech Connect

    Manasse, R.

    1996-06-15

    Detection of weak patterns in radar ocean RCS images is complicated by the fact that signals and noise are interactive rather than additive and the ambient noise background is non Gaussian or even strongly non Gaussian at low grazing angles. This paper addresses this difficult problem with the aid of two simplifying assumptions: (1) the signal modulation is weak, and (2) departure from Gaussianity is small. In situations where this departure is large, an approach is suggested for reducing this non Gaussianity. The relevant weak signal detection theory, based on the Likelihood ratio, is reviewed and adapted for use in the analysis. The approach to this problem, similar to that previously used for complex images, is facilitated by approximating the multivariate probability distributions as a composite integral involving underlying processes which are assumed to be Gaussian. This formulation, subject to the approximations in the analysis, permits derivation of an ideal detection statistic (which determines the form of optimum receiver) and a signal/noise ratio which characterizes detection performance in the weak signal limit. Implications for image processing are discussed and directions for future analysis are suggested.

  7. Simplified Classification of Capillary Pattern in Barrett Esophagus Using Magnifying Endoscopy With Narrow Band Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Goichi; Ishimura, Norihisa; Tada, Yasumasa; Tamagawa, Yuji; Yuki, Takafumi; Matsushita, Takashi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Maruyama, Riruke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The classification of Barrett esophagus (BE) using magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) is not widely used in clinical settings because of its complexity. To establish a new simplified available classification using ME-NBI. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a single-referral center. One hundred eight consecutive patients with BE using ME-NBI and crystal violet (CV) chromoendoscopy, and histological findings were enrolled. BE areas observed by ME-NBI were classified as type I or II on the basis of capillary pattern (CP), and as closed or open type on the basis of a mucosal pit pattern using CV chromoendoscopy; then, biopsy samples were obtained. We evaluated the relation between CP and pit pattern, expression of the factors with malignant potential, percentage of microvascular density, and interobserver agreement. One hundred thirty lesions from 91 patients were analyzed. Type II CP had more open type pit pattern areas and significantly greater microvascular density than type I. The presence of dysplasia, specialized intestinal metaplasia, expressions of COX-2, CDX2, and CD34, and PCNA index were significantly higher in type II, whereas the multivariate analysis showed that type II was the best predictor for the presence of dysplasia (OR 11.14), CD34 expression (OR 3.60), and PCNA (OR 3.29). Interobserver agreement for this classification was substantial (??=?0.66). A simplified CP classification based on observation with ME-NBI is presented. Our results indicate that the classification may be useful for surveillance of BE with high malignant potential. PMID:25621687

  8. Self-Organization of Spatio-Temporal Hierarchy via Learning of Dynamic Visual Image Patterns on Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns. PMID:26147887

  9. Automatic analysis of stereoscopic GOES/GOES and GOES/NOAA image pairs for measurement of hurricane cloud top height and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Strong, J.; Pierce, H.; Woodward, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a baseline study using an synthetic stereo image pair to test the Automatic Stereo Analysis (ASA) technique for reproducing cloud top structure. The ASA analysis, display, and calibration procedures are described. A GEO/LEO (GOES/NOAA AVHRR) image pair from Hurrican Allen in 1980 is used to illustrate the results that can be obtained using the ASA technique. Also, results are presented from applying the ASA technique to a GEO/GEO (GOES/GOES) image pair of Hurricane Gilbert in 1988.

  10. Non-Precipitating Stratus Cloud Images Retrieval and Characterization Using a Ground-Based Dual-Wavelength

    E-print Network

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    , OK, in the spring of 2000. Radar scans of cloud reflectivity using the CPRS were gathered from low-Wavelength Millimeter Doppler Radar Nivia Colón-Díaza , Sandra L. Cruz-Pol*a , Stephen M. Sekelsky**b a Center for CLoud at two millimeter frequencies, 33 GHz and 95 GHz, using UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS

  11. Wave Clouds over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Like a massive, ethereal bird gliding into the Persian Gulf, a large cluster of wave clouds spans the Arabian Sea from Oman to India. This cloud formation is likely an undular bore, which is created in the interaction between the cool, dry air in a low-pressure system with a stable layer of warm, moist air. In this case, a low-pressure system probably sits over the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Oman, and Iran and Pakistan. The strong winds generated by the low-pressure system are kicking up clouds of dust from Iran and Pakistan, and, to a lesser degree, Oman. The low-pressure system is also pushing air south-southeast, and this south-moving wave of displaced air pushes ahead of the low-pressure system like a mound of water moving ahead of a boat in calm water. The wave of cool, dry air pushes forward until it meets the wall of warm, moist air that blankets the Arabian Sea. When the two air masses clash, the cool air pushes the warm air up. The warm air rises, cools at the peak of the wave, falls again, and then rises to a slightly lower peak, and so forth, until the wave dissipates. Clouds form at the high-altitude peaks of the waves, with the most defined cloud at the front of the group, where the initial wave formed, followed by increasingly less-defined lines of cloud. The air that moves in front of the low-pressure system does not push forward in a uniform wall; instead it pushes forward in a ragged band, with one part racing ahead of another, like a line of crew racers on a river. Because the air is not uniform, there are small, interacting arcs of waves within the larger band of clouds. Undular bores are rare and hard to predict. This particular undular bore formed over the Arabian Sea on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image. Typical undular bore patterns might display one or two rows of clouds. With more than thirty waves of clouds, this cloud pattern is unusually large. Some secondary air mass--a jet of warm tropical air, perhaps--cuts across the center of the wave pattern, creating the long vertical cloud that makes the formation resemble a bird. The undulating air also appears to have roughened the surface of the ocean. Bands of light and dark water mimic the wave pattern near the shore of Oman. Rough water disperses light, creating the dark bands, while calm water is brighter. This wave pattern is probably happening across the Arabian Sea, but it is only visible on the left side of the image because of the angle of the light reflecting from the water. In this area, sunlight reflecting off the water directly to the MODIS sensor turns the water's surface into a silvery mirror. It is only in these areas of sunglint that the surface roughness created by the undular bore is visible. The large image provided above is at MODIS' maximum resolution of 250 meters per pixel. The image is available in additional resolutions from the MODIS Rapid Response System. For a different view of an undular bore, see LIDAR Profile of a Passing Cold Front on the Earth Science Picture of the Day, a service of the Universities Space Research Association sponsored by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  12. Landsat 7 - First Cloud-free Image of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Yellowstone Lake, in the center of Yellowstone National Park, was taken by Landsat 7 on July 13, 1999. Bands 5 (1.65um),4 (.825um), and 2 (.565um) were used for red, green, and blue, respectively. Water appears blue/black, snow light blue, mature forest red/green, young forest pink, and grass and fields appear light green. Southwest of the lake is young forest that is growing in the wake of the widespread fires of 1988. For more information, see: Landsat 7 Fact Sheet Landsat 7 in Mission Control Image by Rich Irish, NASA GSFC

  13. LETTER The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations

    E-print Network

    Goldsmith, Greg

    satellite and ground-based observa- tions to study cloud and leaf wetting patterns in contrasting tropical land and sea sur- face temperatures will affect cloud patterns (Pounds et al. 1999; Still et al. 1999LETTER The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations Gregory R

  14. EVALUATION OF INTERNATIONAL SATELLITE CLOUD CLIMATOLOGY PROJECT (ISCCP) D2 CLOUD AMOUNT CHANGES AND THEIR CONNECTIONS

    E-print Network

    Schubert, Wayne H.

    the changes are occurring and the types of clouds expressing them. These patterns are examined for features increase in cloud amount. These patterns help to identify atmospheric phenomena that are connectedEVALUATION OF INTERNATIONAL SATELLITE CLOUD CLIMATOLOGY PROJECT (ISCCP) D2 CLOUD AMOUNT CHANGES

  15. Imaging Patterns in MRI in Recent Bone Injuries Following Negative or Inconclusive Plain Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Sadineni, Raghu Teja; Bellapa, Narayan Chander; Velicheti, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background Few bony injuries and most soft tissue injuries cannot be detected on plain radiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect such occult bony injuries due to signal changes in bone marrow. In addition to excluding serious bony injuries, it can also identify tendon, ligament, cartilage and other soft tissue injuries and thus help in localizing the cause of morbidity. Aims and Objectives To determine the MRI imaging patterns in recent bone injuries (less than 4 weeks) following negative or inconclusive plain radiographs. To determine the role of MRI in recent fractures. Results Out of the 75 individuals with history of recent injury of less than 4 weeks duration, fracture line was demonstrated in 16 patients (21%) who had no obvious evidence of bone injury on plain radiographs. Bone contusion or bruising of the bone was demonstrated in 39 (52%) patients. This was the commonest abnormality detected in MRI. The remaining 20 patients did not show any obvious injury to the bone on MR imaging however, soft tissue injury could be demonstrated in 12 (16%) patients which show that the extent of soft tissue injury was relatively well demonstrated by MR imaging. The present study showed that occult injuries commonly occur at the Knee followed by Ankle, Wrist, Foot, Elbow, Leg, Hands, Hips & Spine. Conclusion The study showed that MR is efficient in the detection of occult bone injuries which are missed on radiography. Compared to radiographs, MRI clearly depicted the extent of injuries and associated soft tissue involvement. MRI demonstrates both acute and chronic injuries and also differentiates both, whereas radiography has poor sensitivity for acute injuries. Also, the soft tissue injuries like tendionous and ligamentous injuries cannot be identified on radiographs. PMID:26557590

  16. Temporal variations in the cloud cover of Venus as detected from Venus Monitoring Camera Images on Venus Express Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, S. S.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Krauss, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on Venus Express [1] has been collecting images of the planet since orbit insertion in April 2006 through four narrow band pass (50 nm halfwidth) with center wavelengths of 365, 550, 950 and 1050 nm [2]. With varying range to the planet during the spacecraft's elliptical, near polar orbit, VMC obtains views of the day side southern hemisphere ( ~ 72,500 km) and the limb when it is furthest away from the planet, and can see a fraction of the planet's sun-lit limb northern latitudes when the spacecraft is closer to the planet ( >~ 25,000 km). We use these images to look at the temporal behavior of the normalized intensity and unit slant optical depth (location of the bright limb) at four wavelengths during April 2006 - March 2014. We detect correlated changes in the normalized brightness and the altitude of the unit optical depth over this period. Images were normalized using Minnaert function to account for the varying scattering geometry in order to detect changes in the reflectivity of the cloud cover at selected locations in local solar time. The unit optical depth was determined from the location of the planet's bright limb, taken to be where the brightness gradient is maximum along the bright limb azimuth. The changes observed appear to be quasi periodic. References [1] H. Svedhem,D.V. Titov, F.W. Taylor, O. Witasse, The Venus Express mission, Nature 450, 629-632, 2007. [2] Markiewicz, W. J. et al. Venus monitoring camera for Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1701-1711, 2007.

  17. Monitoring changes in landscape pattern: use of Ikonos and Quickbird images.

    PubMed

    Alphan, Hakan; Çelik, Nil

    2016-02-01

    This paper aimed to analyze short-term changes in landscape pattern that primarily results from building development in the east coast of Mersin Province (Turkey). Three sites were selected. Ikonos (2003) and Quickbird (2009) images for these sites were classified, and land cover transformations were quantitatively analyzed using cross-tabulation of classification results. Changes in landscape structure were assessed by comparing the calculated values of area/edge and shape metrics for the earlier and later dates. Area/edge metrics included percentage of land and edge density, while shape metrics included perimeter-area ratio, fractal dimension, and related circumscribing circle (RCC) metrics. Orchards and buildings were dominating land cover classes. Variations in patch edge, size, and shapes were also analyzed and discussed. Degradation of prime agricultural areas due to building development and implications of such development on habitat fragmentation were highlighted. PMID:26739011

  18. Uv Imaging of Intermediate-Age Magellanic Cloud Clusters: Hot Stellar Populations in Composite Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Wendy

    1994-01-01

    Hot stars were first recognized to be an important component of galactic spheroids with early vacuum ultraviolet observations of ellipticals and spiral bulges that were made with OAO. Now, 20 years later, we still do not have a full understanding of the VUV evolution of intermediate and old age stellar populations. Using the WFPC2, we therefore propose to undertake an ultraviolet survey of a sample of star clusters spanning a range in age in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The objective of this investigation is to determine the nature of the hot stellar components in rich, intermediate-to-old age LMC clusters. Ground-based optical/IR studies suggest the presence of short-lived hot horizontal branch and post-asymptotic giant branch stars in these clusters but detailed characterizations of the stars require the ultraviolet capability of HST. In this effort we will be aided by the absence of red leaks in the WFPC2 Woods filter and very high angular resolution of the HST. Although old star clusters in the Galaxy and M31 are, and will be, the subjects of intense investigation by HST, OUR SURVEY WILL BE THE FIRST OF ITS KIND FOR POPULATIONS OF INTERMEDIATE AGE. Such systems are critical for interpreting the spectra and colors of high redshift galaxies, and will provide important support to these studies.

  19. Primary Linitis Plastica of the Rectum: Focus on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Boustani, Jihane; Kim, Stefano; Lescut, Nicolas; Lakkis, Zaher; de Billy, Marjolaine; Arbez-Gindre, Francine; Jary, Marine; Borg, Christophe; Bosset, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 59 • Male, 85 • Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: refractory metastatic rectal cancer Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Chemotherapy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Rectal linitis plastica (RLP) is a rare disease with poor outcome. It is often accompanied by a delayed histopathological diagnosis, primarily due to submucosal disease. A concentric ring pattern or “target sign” on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as being characteristic for early suspicion. Even though RLP is more aggressive and has poorer survival than other rectal adenocarcinomas, no specific treatment is recommended. In this case report of 3 patients, we challenge the sensitivity of the characteristic radiological pattern, and we review the existing data for a treatment strategy. Case Report: One patient presented classic clinical characteristics of RLP with young age and advanced stage at diagnosis, with chemo-refractory disease and rapid fatal evolution. Biopsies confirmed the RLP with the presence of signet-ring cells (SRC) in a strong desmoplastic stromal reaction. However, the characteristic concentric ring pattern was absent. Instead, he had a large vegetative lesion with important tumor infiltration in mesorectum and pelvic organs, with major lymph node involvement. The 2 other patients presented resectable locally advanced disease with characteristic concentric ring pattern. No clinical and radiological responses were observed to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), including 1 patient with non-resectable disease at surgery and another with upstaged disease at pathological specimen after resection. However, data suggest 2 types of RLP: about half of patients are extremely sensitive to CRT with pathological complete response, and the other half are highly resistant with no response to CRT. Current data are insufficient to distinguish between these 2 populations. Conclusions: The absence of a concentric ring pattern should not eliminate the suspicion of RLP, especially in young patients with aggressive clinical presentation. There are probably 2 types of RLP in terms of chemoradiosensitivity, and neoadjuvant CRT could delay the curative-intent surgery in refractory patients. Future molecular analysis of the tumor and its environment are required to characterize the 2 different forms of RLP to develop more personalized treatment strategies. PMID:26322720

  20. Automated characterisation of ultrasound images of ovarian tumours: the diagnostic accuracy of a support vector machine and image processing with a local binary pattern operator

    PubMed Central

    Khazendar, S.; Sayasneh, A.; Al-Assam, H.; Du, H.; Kaijser, J.; Ferrara, L.; Timmerman, D.; Jassim, S.; Bourne, T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Preoperative characterisation of ovarian masses into benign or malignant is of paramount importance to optimise patient management. Objectives: In this study, we developed and validated a computerised model to characterise ovarian masses as benign or malignant. Materials and methods: Transvaginal 2D B mode static ultrasound images of 187 ovarian masses with known histological diagnosis were included. Images were first pre-processed and enhanced, and Local Binary Pattern Histograms were then extracted from 2 × 2 blocks of each image. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) was trained using stratified cross validation with randomised sampling. The process was repeated 15 times and in each round 100 images were randomly selected. Results: The SVM classified the original non-treated static images as benign or malignant masses with an average accuracy of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.59-0.65). This performance significantly improved to an average accuracy of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.75-0.79) when images were pre-processed, enhanced and treated with a Local Binary Pattern operator (mean difference 0.15: 95% 0.11-0.19, p < 0.0001, two-tailed t test). Conclusion: We have shown that an SVM can classify static 2D B mode ultrasound images of ovarian masses into benign and malignant categories. The accuracy improves if texture related LBP features extracted from the images are considered. PMID:25897367

  1. The Anatomy of the Perseus Spiral ARM: (sup 12)CO and IRAS Imaging Observations of the W3-W4-W5 Cloud Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyer, Mark H.; Terebey, S.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic images of (sup l2)CO J = 1-0 and thermal dust emissions from the W3-W4-W5 region of the outer Galaxy are presented. These data and recently published H (sub I) 21 cm line emission images provide an approx. 1 min resolution perspective to the dynamics and thermal energy content of the interstellar gas and dust components contained within a 9 deg arc of the Perseus spiral arm. We tabulate the molecular properties of 1560 clouds identified as closed surfaces within the l-b-v CO data cube at a threshold of 0.9 K T(sup *)(sub R). Relative surface densities of the molecular (28:1) and atomic (2.5: 1) gas components determined within the arm and interarm velocity intervals demonstrate that the gas component that enters the spiral arm is predominantly atomic. Molecular clouds must necessarily condense from the compressed atomic material that enters the spiral arm and are likely short lived within the interarm regions. From the distribution of centroid velocities of clouds, we determine a random cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of 4 km/s over the width of the spiral arm but find no clear evidence within the molecular gas for streaming motions induced by the spiral potential. The far-infrared images are analyzed with the CO J = 1-0 and H (sub I) 21 cm line emission. The enhanced UV radiation field from members of the Cas OB6 association and embedded newborn stars provide a significant source of heating to the extended dust component within the Perseus arm relative to the quiescent cirrus regions. Much of the measured far-infrared flux (69% at 60 microns and 47% at 100 microns) originates from regions associated with star formation rather than the extended, infrared cirrus component.

  2. The Anatomy of the Perseus Spiral Arm: 12 CO and IRAS Imaging Observations of the W3-W4-W5 Cloud Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyer, Mark H.; Terebey, S.

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic images of 12CO J = 1-0 and thermal dust emissions from the W3-W4-W5 region of the outer Galaxy are presented. These data and recently published H I 21 cm line emission images provide an approximate 1' resolution perspective to the dynamics and thermal energy content of the interstellar gas and dust components contained within a 9 deg. arc of the Perseus spiral arm. We tabulate the molecular properties of 1560 clouds identified as closed surfaces within the l-b-v CO data cube at a threshold of 0.9 K T* (sub R). Relative surface densities of the molecular (28:1) and atomic (2.5:1) gas components determined within the arm and interarm velocity intervals demonstrate that the gas component that enters the spiral arm is predominantly atomic. Molecular clouds must necessarily condense from the compressed atomic material that enters the spiral arm and are likely short lived within the interarm regions. From the distribution of centroid velocities of clouds, we determine a random cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of 4 km s (exp. -1) over the width of the spiral arm but find no clear evidence within the molecular gas for streaming motions induced by the spiral potential. The far-infrared images are analyzed with the CO J = 1-0 and H I 21 cm line emission. The enhanced UV (Ultraviolet) radiation field from members of the Cas OB6 association and embedded newborn stars provide a significant source of heating to the extended dust component within the Perseus arm relative to the quiescent cirrus regions. Much of the measured far-infrared flux (69% at 60 micrometers and 47% at 100 micrometers) originates from regions associated with star formation rather than the extended, infrared cirrus component.

  3. The Statistical Analysis of Multi-Voxel Patterns in Functional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Kai; Krekelberg, Bart

    2013-01-01

    The goal of multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) in BOLD imaging is to determine whether patterns of activation across multiple voxels change with experimental conditions. MVPA is a powerful technique, its use is rapidly growing, but it poses serious statistical challenges. For instance, it is well-known that the slow nature of the BOLD response can lead to greatly exaggerated performance estimates. Methods are available to avoid this overestimation, and we present those here in tutorial fashion. We go on to show that, even with these methods, standard tests of significance such as Students’ T and the binomial tests are invalid in typical MRI experiments. Only a carefully constructed permutation test correctly assesses statistical significance. Furthermore, our simulations show that performance estimates increase with both temporal as well as spatial signal correlations among multiple voxels. This dependence implies that a comparison of MVPA performance between areas, between subjects, or even between BOLD signals that have been preprocessed in different ways needs great care. PMID:23861966

  4. DMD-based implementation of patterned optical filter arrays for compressive spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Hoover; Arguello, Henry; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-01-01

    Compressive spectral imaging (CSI) captures multispectral imagery using fewer measurements than those required by traditional Shannon-Nyquist theory-based sensing procedures. CSI systems acquire coded and dispersed random projections of the scene rather than direct measurements of the voxels. To date, the coding procedure in CSI has been realized through the use of block-unblock coded apertures (CAs), commonly implemented as chrome-on-quartz photomasks. These apertures block or permit us to pass the entire spectrum from the scene at given spatial locations, thus modulating the spatial characteristics of the scene. This paper extends the framework of CSI by replacing the traditional block-unblock photomasks by patterned optical filter arrays, referred to as colored coded apertures (CCAs). These, in turn, allow the source to be modulated not only spatially but spectrally as well, entailing more powerful coding strategies. The proposed CCAs are synthesized through linear combinations of low-pass, high-pass, and bandpass filters, paired with binary pattern ensembles realized by a digital micromirror device. The optical forward model of the proposed CSI architecture is presented along with a proof-of-concept implementation, which achieves noticeable improvements in the quality of the reconstruction. PMID:26366492

  5. Giant Molecular Cloud Populations in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon; Leroy, Adam; Dobbs, Clare; Schinnerer, Eva; Colombo, Dario; Wong, Tony; Pety, Jerome

    2015-08-01

    The structure of the molecular interstellar medium on the scale of individual giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is an important quantity for models of star formation, and one that is often invoked to explain the correlations between tracers of gas and star formation obtained by kiloparsec-scale observations of nearby galaxies. In this talk, I will highlight new results from recent wide-field, cloud-scale imaging surveys of CO emission in nearby galaxies that have provided important new insights into the timescales of GMC evolution, the dominant processes of GMC formation and destruction, and the emergence of a kiloparsec-scale star formation law from the physical properties of individual clouds. These results underscore the importance of galactic environment on the evolution of GMCs, and on a galaxy's global pattern of star formation.

  6. Rapid Patterning of 1-D Collagenous Topography as an ECM Protein Fibril Platform for Image Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Niannan; Li, Xia; Bertulli, Cristina; Li, Zhaoying; Patharagulpong, Atipat; Sadok, Amine; Huang, Yan Yan Shery

    2014-01-01

    Cellular behavior is strongly influenced by the architecture and pattern of its interfacing extracellular matrix (ECM). For an artificial culture system which could eventually benefit the translation of scientific findings into therapeutic development, the system should capture the key characteristics of a physiological microenvironment. At the same time, it should also enable standardized, high throughput data acquisition. Since an ECM is composed of different fibrous proteins, studying cellular interaction with individual fibrils will be of physiological relevance. In this study, we employ near-field electrospinning to create ordered patterns of collagenous fibrils of gelatin, based on an acetic acid and ethyl acetate aqueous co-solvent system. Tunable conformations of micro-fibrils were directly deposited onto soft polymeric substrates in a single step. We observe that global topographical features of straight lines, beads-on-strings, and curls are dictated by solution conductivity; whereas the finer details such as the fiber cross-sectional profile are tuned by solution viscosity. Using these fibril constructs as cellular assays, we study EA.hy926 endothelial cells' response to ROCK inhibition, because of ROCK's key role in the regulation of cell shape. The fibril array was shown to modulate the cellular morphology towards a pre-capillary cord-like phenotype, which was otherwise not observed on a flat 2-D substrate. Further facilitated by quantitative analysis of morphological parameters, the fibril platform also provides better dissection in the cells' response to a H1152 ROCK inhibitor. In conclusion, the near-field electrospun fibril constructs provide a more physiologically-relevant platform compared to a featureless 2-D surface, and simultaneously permit statistical single-cell image cytometry using conventional microscopy systems. The patterning approach described here is also expected to form the basics for depositing other protein fibrils, seen among potential applications as culture platforms for drug screening. PMID:24727667

  7. Clouds Over 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds in the martian sky above 'Endurance Crater' in this image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity can remind the viewer that Mars, our celestial neighbor, is subject to weather. On Earth, clouds like these would be referred to as 'cirrus' or theaptly nicknamed 'mares' tails.' These clouds occur in a region of strong vertical shear. The cloud particles (ice in this martiancase) fall out, and get dragged along away from the location where they originally condensed, forming characteristic streamers. Opportunity took this picture with its navigation camera during the rover's 282nd martian day (Nov. 8, 2004).

    The mission's atmospheric science team is studying cloud observations to deduce seasonal and time-of-day behavior of the clouds. This helps them gain a better understanding of processes that control cloud formation.

  8. WSRT HI imaging of ultra-compact high velocity clouds: gas-bearing dark matter minihalos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A.; Oosterloo, Tom; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Cannon, John M.; Faerman, Yakov; Janesh, William; Janowiecki, Steven; Munoz, Ricardo; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John Joseph; Sternberg, Amiel

    2015-01-01

    A long standing problem in cosmology is the mismatch between the number of low mass dark matter halos predicted by simulations and the number of low mass galaxies observed in the Local Volume. We recently presented a set of isolated ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) identified within the dataset of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) HI line survey that are consistent with representing low-mass gas-bearing dark matter halos within the Local Volume (Adams+ 2013). At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have HI masses of ~10^5 Msun and indicative dynamical masses of 10^7-10^8 Msun. The HI diameters of the UCHVCs range from 4' to 20', or 1 to 6 kpc at a distance of 1 Mpc.We have selected the most compact and isolated UCHVCs with the highest average column densities as representing the best galaxy candidates. These systems have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) to enable higher spatial resolution (~60") studies of the HI distribution. The HI morphology revealed by the WSRT data offers clues to the environment and origin of the UCHVCs, the kinematics of the HI allow the underlying mass distribution to be constrained, and the combination of spatial and spectral resolution allow the detection of a cold neutral medium component to the HI. The WSRT HI observations discriminate among the selected galaxy candidates for those objects that are most likely gas-bearing dark matter halos.One UCHVC, AGC198606, is of particular interest as it is located 16 km/s and 1.2 degrees from Leo T and has similar HI properties within the ALFALFA dataset. The WSRT HI observations reveal a smooth HI morphology and a velocity gradient along the HI major axis of the system consistent with rotation. These properties are consistent with the hypothesis that this object is a gas-bearing low-mass dark matter halo.

  9. Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Brunel, M.; Rondeau, A.; Porcheron, E.; Gréhan, G.

    2015-12-01

    According to changes in aircraft certifications rules, instrumentation has to be developed to alert the flight crews of potential icing conditions. The technique developed needs to measure in real time the amount of ice and liquid water encountered by the plane. Interferometric imaging offers an interesting solution: It is currently used to measure the size of regular droplets, and it can further measure the size of irregular particles from the analysis of their speckle-like out-of-focus images. However, conventional image processing needs to be speeded up to be compatible with the real-time detection of icing conditions. This article presents the development of an optimised algorithm to accelerate image processing. The algorithm proposed is based on the detection of each interferogram with the use of the gradient pair vector method. This method is shown to be 13 times faster than the conventional Hough transform. The algorithm is validated on synthetic images of mixed phase clouds, and finally tested and validated in laboratory conditions. This algorithm should have important applications in the size measurement of droplets and ice particles for aircraft safety, cloud microphysics investigation, and more generally in the real-time analysis of triphasic flows using interferometric particle imaging.

  10. Ground-Truthing Moderate Resolution Satellite Imagery with Near-Surface Canopy Images in Hawai'i's Tropical Cloud Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrom, R.; Miura, T.; Lepczyk, C.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Nullet, M. A.; Nagai, S.

    2012-12-01

    Phenological studies are gaining importance globally as the onset of climate change is impacting the timing of green up and senescence in forest canopies and agricultural regions. Many studies use and analyze land surface phenology (LSP) derived from satellite vegetation index time series (VI's) such as those from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to monitor changes in phenological events. Seasonality is expected in deciduous temperate forests, while tropical regions are predicted to show more static reflectance readings given their stable and steady state. Due to persistent cloud cover and atmospheric interference in tropical regions, satellite VI time series are often subject to uncertainties and thus require near surface vegetation monitoring systems for ground-truthing. This study has been designed to assess the precision of MODIS phenological signatures using above-canopy, down-looking digital cameras installed on flux towers on the Island of Hawai'i. The cameras are part of the expanding Phenological Eyes Network (PEN) which has been implementing a global network of above-canopy, hemispherical digital cameras for forest and agricultural phenological monitoring. Cameras have been installed at two locations in Hawaii - one on a flux tower in close proximity to the Thurston Lave Tube (HVT) in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park and the other on a weather station in a section of the Hawaiian Tropical Experimental Forest in Laupaphoehoe (LEF). HVT consists primarily of a single canopy species, ohi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), with an understory of hapu'u ferns (Cibotium spp), while LEF is similarly comprised with an additional dominant species, Koa (Acacia Koa), included in the canopy structure. Given these species' characteristics, HVT is expected to show little seasonality, while LEF has the potential to deviate slightly during periods following dry and wet seasons. MODIS VI time series data are being analyzed and will be compared to images from the cameras which will have VI's extracted from their RGB image planes and will be normalized to be comparable with MODIS VI's. Given Hawai'i's susceptibility to invasion and delicacy of its endemic species, results from this study will provide necessary site specific detail in determining the reliability of satellite based inference in similar tropical phenology studies. Should satellite images provide adequate information, results from this study will allow for extrapolation across similar understudied tropical forests.

  11. A cloud-based system for automatic glaucoma screening.

    PubMed

    Fengshou Yin; Damon Wing Kee Wong; Ying Quan; Ai Ping Yow; Ngan Meng Tan; Gopalakrishnan, Kavitha; Beng Hai Lee; Yanwu Xu; Zhuo Zhang; Jun Cheng; Jiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of automatic computer-based systems for the detection of eye diseases including glaucoma. However, these systems are usually standalone software with basic functions only, limiting their usage in a large scale. In this paper, we introduce an online cloud-based system for automatic glaucoma screening through the use of medical image-based pattern classification technologies. It is designed in a hybrid cloud pattern to offer both accessibility and enhanced security. Raw data including patient's medical condition and fundus image, and resultant medical reports are collected and distributed through the public cloud tier. In the private cloud tier, automatic analysis and assessment of colour retinal fundus images are performed. The ubiquitous anywhere access nature of the system through the cloud platform facilitates a more efficient and cost-effective means of glaucoma screening, allowing the disease to be detected earlier and enabling early intervention for more efficient intervention and disease management. PMID:26736579

  12. Image Analysis And Pattern Recognition For Porosity Estimation From Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richa, R.; Mukerji, T.; Keehm, Y.; Mavko, G.

    2005-12-01

    Estimating porosity from thin sections is one of the key steps in many different rock physics and petrologic analyses. The estimated porosity is a critical input for computing transport properties of rocks from thin sections. The porosity estimate and its uncertainty depend, amongst other things, on the image analyses techniques used. In this poster, we present the results of exploring different image analysis algorithms for estimating porosity from thin section. The general methodology for calculating porosity from thin section involves conversion of a colored image to a binary image. The average of the binary image gives us the porosity. As most thin sections use blue epoxy impregnation, the conversion to binary image requires computationally identifying pixels that are blue. One of the challenges is to capture the variability of the color value, all of which are nominally blue. We compared two different color spaces, RGB and HSV color space, which can be used to specify the blue color. Two different approaches were tried for converting the colored image in different color spaces to a binary image. The first approach involved using thresholds for conversion. A single dimension threshold based on the intensity histogram as well as a multiple dimension threshold based on (RGB) and (HSV) pixel values were explored. In general, multiple dimension thresholding in HSV space gave better results but the choice of threshold is subjective. The second approach involved statistical pattern recognition and classifying of grains and pores. We tested both discriminant analysis and neural network classification. A training data was defined using different groups of pixels from selected pore and grain regions of the thin section. The trivariate training data consists of the range of HSV values for each group (grain or pore). A misclassification error was calculated for the different classification algorithms as the fraction of the observations in the training data that are misclassified. The quadratic discriminant method seems to give the best results and least error. The misclassification error was about 12.6%. The neural network classification depends upon the residual error to be achieved. Different instantiations of the neural network give slightly different porosities for a specified residual. The variance of the estimated porosities decreases with decrease in residual error, but the trade-off is an increased bias in the estimate. This is the expected bias-variance trade-off behavior. In general, the HSV color space gave better results in specifying the blue color than the RGB color space. The multiple dimensional threshold works better than the single threshold. It also proved to be a simpler, though subjective, method than statistical discriminant analysis. Though discriminant analysis gave good results, it involved preparation of training data from the thin section, which adds to processing time. Nevertheless, it can be useful for identifying different types of grains and hence may be useful for computational methods that require not only classification of pore space but also different grain types.

  13. Integrating Remote Sensing Data, Hybrid-Cloud Computing, and Event Notifications for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Agram, P.; Manipon, G.; Stough, T. M.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilson, B. D.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Cruz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are now important elements in our toolset for monitoring earthquake-generating faults, volcanic eruptions, hurricane damage, landslides, reservoir subsidence, and other natural and man-made hazards. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation with high spatial and temporal resolution has revolutionized both earthquake science and volcanology. Continuous monitoring of surface deformation and surface change before, during, and after natural hazards improves decision-making from better forecasts, increased situational awareness, and more informed recovery. However, analyses of InSAR and GPS data sets are currently handcrafted following events and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for use in operational response to natural disasters. Additionally, the sheer data volumes needed to handle a continuous stream of InSAR data sets also presents a bottleneck. It has been estimated that continuous processing of InSAR coverage of California alone over 3-years would reach PB-scale data volumes. Our Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Monitoring Hazards (ARIA-MH) science data system enables both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interest with derived geodetic data products via seamless data preparation, processing, discovery, and access. We will present our findings on the use of hybrid-cloud computing to improve the timely processing and delivery of geodetic data products, integrating event notifications from USGS to improve the timely processing for response, as well as providing browse results for quick looks with other tools for integrative analysis.

  14. Search Cloud

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... of Top 110 zoloft Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  15. A Hybrid-Cloud Science Data System Enabling Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Moore, A. W.; Fielding, E. J.; Radulescu, C.; Sacco, G.; Stough, T. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cervelli, P. F.; Poland, M. P.; Cruz, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions, landslides, and levee failures are some examples of hazards that can be more accurately forecasted with sufficient monitoring of precursory ground deformation, such as the high-resolution measurements from GPS and InSAR. In addition, coherence and reflectivity change maps can be used to detect surface change due to lava flows, mudslides, tornadoes, floods, and other natural and man-made disasters. However, it is difficult for many volcano observatories and other monitoring agencies to process GPS and InSAR products in an automated scenario needed for continual monitoring of events. Additionally, numerous interoperability barriers exist in multi-sensor observation data access, preparation, and fusion to create actionable products. Combining high spatial resolution InSAR products with high temporal resolution GPS products--and automating this data preparation & processing across global-scale areas of interests--present an untapped science and monitoring opportunity. The global coverage offered by satellite-based SAR observations, and the rapidly expanding GPS networks, can provide orders of magnitude more data on these hazardous events if we have a data system that can efficiently and effectively analyze the voluminous raw data, and provide users the tools to access data from their regions of interest. Currently, combined GPS & InSAR time series are primarily generated for specific research applications, and are not implemented to run on large-scale continuous data sets and delivered to decision-making communities. We are developing an advanced service-oriented architecture for hazard monitoring leveraging NASA-funded algorithms and data management to enable both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interests via seamless data preparation, processing, and distribution. Our objectives: * Enable high-volume and low-latency automatic generation of NASA Solid Earth science data products (InSAR and GPS) to support hazards monitoring. * Facilitate NASA-USGS collaborations to share NASA InSAR and GPS data products, which are difficult to process in high-volume and low-latency, for decision-support. * Enable interoperable discovery, access, and sharing of NASA observations and derived actionable products, and between the observation and decision-making communities. * Enable their improved understanding through visualization, mining, and cross-agency sharing. Existing InSAR & GPS processing packages and other software are integrated for generating geodetic decision support monitoring products. We employ semantic and cloud-based data management and processing techniques for handling large data volumes, reducing end product latency, codifying data system information with semantics, and deploying interoperable services for actionable products to decision-making communities.

  16. Neptune's cloud structure in 1989 - Photometric variations and correlation with ground-based images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, G. W.; Thompson, D. T.; Hammel, H. B.; Birch, P.; Candy, M.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based photoelectric photometry in b, y, and the 6190 and 7250 A methane-bands, as well as spectrum scans of the methane 6190 A band and CCD images at 6190 and 8900 A, were obtained for Neptune during Voyager 2's approach of that planet on August 24, 1989. Photometric variations are presently correlated with the disk transit of bright planetary features, and the changes in feature distribution and brightness noted in the results are evaluated for implications bearing on long-term variability. It is suggested that the long-term secular variation is related to a slow change in a size of location of both the bright companion and the Great Dark Spot.

  17. An excess of emission in the dark cloud LDN1111 with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ami Consortium; Scaife, A. M. M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Green, D. A.; Davies, M. L.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Hobson, M. P.; Lasenby, A. N.; López-Caniego, M.; Pooley, G. G.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Scott, P. F.; Titterington, D. J.; Waldram, E. M.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2009-03-01

    We present observations of the Lynds' dark nebula LDN1111 made at microwave frequencies between 14.6 and 17.2GHz with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager. We find emission in this frequency band in excess of a thermal free-free spectrum extrapolated from data at 1.4GHz with matched uv coverage. This excess is >15? above the predicted emission. We fit the measured spectrum using the spinning dust model of Draine & Lazarian and find the best-fitting model parameters agree well with those derived from the Scuba data for this object by Visser, Richer & Chandler. We request that any reference to this Letter should be cited as `AMI Consortium; Scaife et al. 2008'. E-mail: as595@mrao.cam.ac.uk

  18. British Machine Vision Association, Applied Vision Association, and Society for Pattern Recognition Image Features & Statistics Symposium 2005

    E-print Network

    Rajashekar, Umesh

    British Machine Vision Association, Applied Vision Association, and Society for Pattern Recognition on a given input image. This has applications for machine vision, auto-foveated video compression properties are of particular interest due to their applicability to biologically motivated artificial vision

  19. 858 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 12, No. 11 / November 1987 Image synthesis from nonimaged laser-speckle patterns

    E-print Network

    Fienup, James R.

    858 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 12, No. 11 / November 1987 Image synthesis from nonimaged laser-speckle illuminated, diffuse objects can be formed from measure- ments of backscattered laser-speckle intensity that the spatial structure of a fully developed laser-speckle pattern-produced by the co- herent interference

  20. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  1. Applying Chemical Imaging Analysis to Improve Our Understanding of Cold Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, A.; Knopf, D. A.; Wang, B.; Alpert, P. A.; Roedel, T.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    The impact that atmospheric ice nucleation has on the global radiation budget is one of the least understood problems in atmospheric sciences. This is in part due to the incomplete understanding of various ice nucleation pathways that lead to ice crystal formation from pre-existing aerosol particles. Studies investigating the ice nucleation propensity of laboratory generated particles indicate that individual particle types are highly selective in their ice nucleating efficiency. This description of heterogeneous ice nucleation would present a challenge when applying to the atmosphere which contains a complex mixture of particles. Here, we employ a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical methods to relate particle physical and chemical properties with observed water uptake and ice nucleation. Field-collected particles from urban environments impacted by anthropogenic and marine emissions and aging processes are investigated. Single particle characterization is provided by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). A particle-on-substrate approach coupled to a vapor controlled cooling-stage and a microscope system is applied to determine the onsets of water uptake and ice nucleation including immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. We observe for urban aerosol particles that for T > 230 K the oxidation level affects initial water uptake and that subsequent immersion freezing depends on particle mixing state, e.g. by the presence of insoluble particles. For T < 230 K the particles initiate deposition ice nucleation well below the homogeneous freezing limit. Particles collected throughout one day for similar meteorological conditions show very similar deposition ice nucleation efficiencies, indicating that chemical changes due to aging processes might not have a dominant effect on this nucleation pathway consistent with previous observations. The field-collected particles exhibit ice nucleation efficiencies that suggest that these kinds of particles can play a potential role in mixed-phase and cirrus cloud formation. Initial results applying single particle IN analysis using CCSEM/EDX and STXM/NEXAFS reveal that a significant amount of IN are coated by organics and, thus, are similar to the majority of the particles that do not nucleate ice. However respective particle cores can be of different mineral composition. This suggests that highly abundant and chemically complex aerosol, typical of an urban environment, initiate ice despite possessing potentially mediocre ice nucleation efficiency. This is in contrast to the general notion that the most efficient IN and usually less abundant particles of a population will govern ice nucleation in an air parcel.

  2. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-09-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics.

  3. Mathematical Investigation of Gamma Ray and Neutron Absorption Grid Patterns for Homeland Defense Related Fourier Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Terrorist suitcase nuclear devices typically using converted Soviet tactical nuclear warheads contain several kilograms of plutonium. This quantity of plutonium emits a significant number of gamma rays and neutrons as it undergoes radioactive decay. These gamma rays and neutrons normally penetrate ordinary matter to a significant distance. Unfortunately this penetrating quality of the radiation makes imaging with classical optics impractical. However, this radiation signature emitted by the nuclear source may be sufficient to be imaged from low-flying aerial platforms carrying Fourier imaging systems. The Fourier imaging system uses a pair of co-aligned absorption grids to measure a selected range of spatial frequencies from an object. These grids typically measure the spatial frequency in only one direction at a time. A grid pair that looks in all directions simultaneously would be an improvement over existing technology. A number of grid pairs governed by various parameters were investigated to solve this problem. By examining numerous configurations, it became apparent that an appropriate spiral pattern could be made to work. A set of equations was found to describe a grid pattern that produces straight fringes. Straight fringes represent a Fourier transform of a point source at infinity. An inverse Fourier transform of this fringe pattern would provide an accurate image (location and intensity) of a point source.

  4. LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOLKOV,V.V.ZHU,Y.

    2003-08-03

    Understanding magnetic structures and properties of patterned and ordinary magnetic films at nanometer length-scale is the area of immense technological and fundamental scientific importance. The key feature to such success is the ability to achieve visual quantitative information on domain configurations with a maximum ''magnetic'' resolution. Several methods have been developed to meet these demands (Kerr and Faraday effects, differential phase contrast microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, SEMPA etc.). In particular, the modern off-axis electron holography allows retrieval of the electron-wave phase shifts down to 2{pi}/N (with typical N = 10-20, approaching in the limit N {approx} 100) in TEM equipped with field emission gun, which is already successfully employed for studies of magnetic materials at nanometer scale. However, it remains technically demanding, sensitive to noise and needs highly coherent electron sources. As possible alternative we developed a new method of Lorentz phase microscopy [1,2] based on the Fourier solution [3] of magnetic transport-of-intensity (MTIE) equation. This approach has certain advantages, since it is less sensitive to noise and does not need high coherence of the source required by the holography. In addition, it can be realized in any TEM without basic hardware changes. Our approach considers the electron-wave refraction in magnetic materials (magnetic refraction) and became possible due to general progress in understanding of noninterferometric phase retrieval [4-6] dealing with optical refraction. This approach can also be treated as further development of Fresnel microscopy, used so far for imaging of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials studied by TEM. Figs. 1-3 show some examples of what kind information can be retrieved from the conventional Fresnel images using the new approach. Most of these results can be compared with electron-holographic data. Using this approach we can shed more light on fine details of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials and films studied by TEM. As an example, Fig.4 illustrates the evolution of domain configurations in 25-nm thick Co-elements patterned on silicon nitride membrane as function of applied field, ranging from +70 to -70 Oe. The Lorentz phase microscopy allows better understanding the role of magnetization ripple (41 Oe) in nucleation of reverse domains (28 Oe), or vortex formation (-4.4 Oe) followed by the reverse domains expansion and final annihilation of domain walls (41/-41 Oe) at the sample edges. It is believed that due to technical simplicity the Lorentz phase microscopy will find more applications in the nearest future.

  5. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaiter, M.; Järvinen, E.; Vochezer, P.; Abdelmonem, A.; Wagner, R.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Shcherbakov, V. N.; Schmitt, C. G.; Tricoli, U.; Ulanowski, Z.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    This study reports on the origin of ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3). It was found that a high ice crystal complexity is dominating the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapour during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4/H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers; the Polar Nephelometer (PN) probe of LaMP and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO) probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side- and backward scattering directions resulting in low asymmetry parameters g around 0.78. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  6. Simulating Spatial Pattern and Dynamics of Military Training Impacts for Allocation of Land Repair Using Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangxing; Gertner, George; Anderson, Alan; Howard, Heidi

    2009-10-01

    The land management of US Army installations requires information on land conditions and their history for planning future military training activities and allocation of land repair. There is thus a strong need for methodology development to estimate the land conditions and cumulative military training impacts for the purpose of repair and restoration. In this study, we simulated at Fort Riley, USA, spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of military training impacts on land conditions quantified as percent ground cover using an image-aided spatial conditional co-simulation algorithm. Moreover, we estimated the historical percent ground cover as a measure of the cumulative impacts, and then calculated the allocation of land repair and restoration based on both current and historical land conditions. In addition, we developed a loss function method for allocation of land repair and restoration. The results showed: (1) this co-simulation algorithm reproduced spatial and temporal variability of percent ground cover and provided estimates of uncertainties with the correlation coefficients and root mean square errors between the simulated and observed values varying from 0.63 to 0.88 and from 23% to 78%, respectively; (2) with and without the cumulative impacts, the obtained spatial patterns of the land repair categories were similar, but their land areas differed by 5% to 40% in some years; (3) the combination of the loss function with the co-simulation made it possible to estimate and computationally propagate the uncertainties of land conditions into the uncertainties of expected cost loss for misallocation of land repair and restoration; and (4) the loss function, physical threshold, and probability threshold methods led to similar spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of the land repair categories, however, the loss function increased the land area by 5% to 30% for intense and moderate repairs and decreased the area by 5% to 30% for no repairs and light repairs for most of the years. This approach provided the potential to improve and automate the existing land rehabilitation and maintenance (LRAM) system used for the land management of the U.S. Army installations, and it can be applied to the management of other civil lands and environments. In conclusion, this study overcame the important gaps that exist in the methodological development and application for simulating land conditions and cumulative impacts due to human activities, and also in the methods for the allocation of land for repair and restoration.

  7. 18F-Fluorothymidine-Pet Imaging of Glioblastoma Multiforme: Effects of Radiation Therapy on Radiotracer Uptake and Molecular Biomarker Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Hollander, Andrew; Xu, Xiangsheng; Benci, Joseph L.; Davis, James J.; Dorsey, Jay F.; Kao, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. PET imaging is a useful clinical tool for studying tumor progression and treatment effects. Conventional 18F-FDG-PET imaging is of limited usefulness for imaging Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) due to high levels of glucose uptake by normal brain and the resultant signal-to-noise intensity. 18F-Fluorothymidine (FLT) in contrast has shown promise for imaging GBM, as thymidine is taken up preferentially by proliferating cells. These studies were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of 18F-FLT-PET in a GBM mouse model, especially after radiation therapy (RT), and its correlation with useful biomarkers, including proliferation and DNA damage. Methods. Nude/athymic mice with human GBM orthografts were assessed by microPET imaging with 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. Patterns of tumor PET imaging were then compared to immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for markers of proliferation (Ki-67), DNA damage and repair (?H2AX), hypoxia (HIF-1?), and angiogenesis (VEGF). Results. We confirmed that 18F-FLT-PET uptake is limited in healthy mice but enhanced in the intracranial tumors. Our data further demonstrate that 18F-FLT-PET imaging usefully reflects the inhibition of tumor by RT and correlates with changes in biomarker expression. Conclusions. 18F-FLT-PET imaging is a promising tumor imaging modality for GBM, including assessing RT effects and biologically relevant biomarkers. PMID:23690748

  8. Automated cloud and shadow detection and filling using two-date Landsat imagery in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, Suming; Homer, Collin G.; Yang, Limin; Xian, George; Fry, Joyce; Danielson, Patrick; Townsend, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, efficient, and practical approach for detecting cloud and shadow areas in satellite imagery and restoring them with clean pixel values has been developed. Cloud and shadow areas are detected using spectral information from the blue, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared bands of Landsat Thematic Mapper or Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery from two dates (a target image and a reference image). These detected cloud and shadow areas are further refined using an integration process and a false shadow removal process according to the geometric relationship between cloud and shadow. Cloud and shadow filling is based on the concept of the Spectral Similarity Group (SSG), which uses the reference image to find similar alternative pixels in the target image to serve as replacement values for restored areas. Pixels are considered to belong to one SSG if the pixel values from Landsat bands 3, 4, and 5 in the reference image are within the same spectral ranges. This new approach was applied to five Landsat path/rows across different landscapes and seasons with various types of cloud patterns. Results show that almost all of the clouds were captured with minimal commission errors, and shadows were detected reasonably well. Among five test scenes, the lowest producer's accuracy of cloud detection was 93.9% and the lowest user's accuracy was 89%. The overall cloud and shadow detection accuracy ranged from 83.6% to 99.3%. The pixel-filling approach resulted in a new cloud-free image that appears seamless and spatially continuous despite differences in phenology between the target and reference images. Our methods offer a straightforward and robust approach for preparing images for the new 2011 National Land Cover Database production.

  9. Magnetic imaging of ion-irradiation patterned Co/Pt multilayers using complementary electron and photon probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kusinski, G.J.; Krishnan, K.M.; Denbeaux, G.; Thomas, G.; Terris, B.D.; Weller, D.

    2001-04-01

    The three-dimensional magnetic structure and reversal mechanism of patterned Co/Pt multilayers, were imaged using complementary Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) (in-plane component) and magnetic transmission x-ray microscopy (M-TXM) (perpendicular magnetization). The Co/Pt films with perpendicular anisotropy were patterned by ion irradiation through a stencil mask to produce in-plane magnetization in the irradiated regions. The boundaries of the patterns, defined by the transition from out-of-plane to in-plane magnetization, were found to be determined by the stencil mask, whilst the scale of the magnetic reversal by the physical microstructure. The nucleation fields were substantially reduced to 50 Oe for the in-plane regions and 1 kOe for the perpendicular regions, comparing to 4.5 kOe for the as-grown film. The perpendicular reversals were found to always originate at the pattern boundaries.

  10. Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization: A pattern matching algorithm for multiple classes of image subject matter including pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Jason D.; Cheng, Jerome Y.; Toner, Mehmet; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Balis, Ulysses J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, effective clinical utilization of image analysis and pattern recognition algorithms in pathology has been hampered by two critical limitations: 1) the availability of digital whole slide imagery data sets and 2) a relative domain knowledge deficit in terms of application of such algorithms, on the part of practicing pathologists. With the advent of the recent and rapid adoption of whole slide imaging solutions, the former limitation has been largely resolved. However, with the expectation that it is unlikely for the general cohort of contemporary pathologists to gain advanced image analysis skills in the short term, the latter problem remains, thus underscoring the need for a class of algorithm that has the concurrent properties of image domain (or organ system) independence and extreme ease of use, without the need for specialized training or expertise. Results: In this report, we present a novel, general case pattern recognition algorithm, Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization (SIVQ), that overcomes the aforementioned knowledge deficit. Fundamentally based on conventional Vector Quantization (VQ) pattern recognition approaches, SIVQ gains its superior performance and essentially zero-training workflow model from its use of ring vectors, which exhibit continuous symmetry, as opposed to square or rectangular vectors, which do not. By use of the stochastic matching properties inherent in continuous symmetry, a single ring vector can exhibit as much as a millionfold improvement in matching possibilities, as opposed to conventional VQ vectors. SIVQ was utilized to demonstrate rapid and highly precise pattern recognition capability in a broad range of gross and microscopic use-case settings. Conclusion: With the performance of SIVQ observed thus far, we find evidence that indeed there exist classes of image analysis/pattern recognition algorithms suitable for deployment in settings where pathologists alone can effectively incorporate their use into clinical workflow, as a turnkey solution. We anticipate that SIVQ, and other related class-independent pattern recognition algorithms, will become part of the overall armamentarium of digital image analysis approaches that are immediately available to practicing pathologists, without the need for the immediate availability of an image analysis expert. PMID:21383936

  11. A Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the (rho) Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsony, Mary; Ressler, Michael E.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the (rho) Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5m and at the Keck 10m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0'.5 and 0'.25 resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. Among the 22 multiple systems observed, 15 were resolved and their individual component fluxes determined. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend approx.4 x 10(exp 5) yr in the flat-spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large-amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. Although a general trend of mid-infrared excess and near-infrared veiling exists progressing through SED classes, with Class I objects generally exhibiting r(sub K) >= 1, flat-spectrum objects with r(sub K) >= 0.58, and Class III objects with r(sub K) =0, Class II objects exhibit the widest range of r(sub K) values, ranging from 0 <= r(sub K) <= 4.5. However, the highly variable value of veiling that a single source can exhibit in any of the SED classes in which active disk accretion can take place is striking and is direct observational evidence for highly time-variable accretion activity in disks. Finally, by comparing mid-infrared versus near-infrared excesses in a subsample with well-determined effective temperatures and extinction values, disk-clearing mechanisms are explored. The results are consistent with disk clearing proceeding from the inside out.

  12. Cloud cover analysis with Arctic advanced very high resolution radiometer data. 2. Classification with spectral and textural measures

    SciTech Connect

    Key, J. )

    1990-05-20

    The variation in cloud amount over polar ice sheets, sea ice, and ocean surfaces can have important effects on planetary albedo gradients and on surface energy exchanges, so that monitoring of polar cloud cover is crucial to studies of climate change. The spectral and textural characteristics of polar clouds and surfaces for a 7-day summer series of advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data in two Arctic locations are examined, and the results used in the development of a cloud classification procedure for polar satellite data. Since spatial coherence and texture sensitivity tests indicate that a joint spectral-textural analysis based on the same cell size is inappropriate, cloud detection with AVHRR data and surface identification with passive microwave data are first done on the pixel level as detailed in part 1 (Key and Barry, 1989). Next, cloud patterns within (250 km){sup 2} regions are described, then the spectral and local textural characteristics of cloud patterns in the image are determined and each cloud pixel is classified by statistical methods. Results indicate that both spectral and textural features can be utilized in the classification of cloudy pixels, although spectral features are most useful for the discrimination between cloud classes. This methodology provides a basis for future objective automated mapping of cloud types and amount over snow and ice covered surfaces.

  13. Water Ice Clouds over the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 48.5 N and 240.5 W, displays splotchy water ice clouds that obscure the northern lowland plains in the region where the Viking 2 spacecraft landed. This image is far enough north to catch the edge of the north polar hood that develops during the northern winter. This is a cap of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds that form over the Martian north pole. As Mars progresses into northern spring, the persistent north polar hood ice clouds will dissipate and the surface viewing conditions will improve greatly. As the season develops, an equatorial belt of water ice clouds will form. This belt of water ice clouds is as characteristic of the Martian climate as the southern hemisphere summer dust storm season. Seasons on Mars have a dramatic effect on the state of the dynamic Martian atmosphere. The Story Muted in an almost air-brushed manner, this image doesn't have the crispness that most THEMIS images have. That's because clouds were rising over the surface of the red planet on the day this picture was taken. Finding clouds on Mars might remind us of conditions here on Earth, but these Martian clouds are made of frozen water and frozen carbon dioxide -- in other words, clouds of ice and 'dry ice.' Strange as that may sound, the clouds seen here form on a pretty regular basis at the north Martian pole during its winter season. As springtime comes to the northern hemisphere of Mars (and fall comes to the southern), these clouds will slowly disappear, and a nice belt of water ice clouds will form around the equator. So, if you were a THEMIS camera aimer, that might tell you when your best viewing conditions for different areas on Mars would be. As interesting as clear pictures of Martian landforms are, however, you wouldn't want to bypass the weather altogether. Pictures showing seasonal shifts are great for scientists to study, because they reveal a lot about the patterns of the Martian climate and the circulation of the atmosphere. There are a lot of interesting global climate relationships to study. For example, when it's winter in the north of Mars and clouds like the ones in this image form, dust storms rage in the south of Mars, where it's summer. So why does Mars have these wild seasons? Like the Earth, Mars is tilted on its axis. As it travels in its orbit around the sun, the angle between the Earth's axis and the Earth-Sun line changes. That's true for Mars as well. As each point on Mars spins on the rotating red planet each day, the part of the cycle spent in sunlight (day) and shadow (night) just aren't equal because of these angles. When day is longer than night (summer) in the north, night is longer than day (winter) in the south. Half a year later, when Mars has traveled in its orbit to the other side of the sun, the situation is exactly reversed. All this sounds familiar to Earthlings, but there's yet one more difference. Mars is farther away from the sun than the Earth. That means it takes longer for Mars to make a trip around the sun in its orbit than the Earth does -- about twice as long, in fact. That means that the seasons on Mars also last twice as long!

  14. Low-level properties of natural images predict topographic patterns of neural response in the ventral visual pathway

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Timothy J.; Watson, David M.; Rice, Grace E.; Hartley, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging research over the past 20 years has begun to reveal a picture of how the human visual system is organized. A key distinction that has arisen from these studies is the difference in the organization of low-level and high-level visual regions. Low-level regions contain topographic maps that are tightly linked to properties of the image. In contrast, high-level visual areas are thought to be arranged in modules that are tightly linked to categorical or semantic information in the image. To date, an unresolved question has been how the strong functional selectivity for object categories in high-level visual regions might arise from the image-based representations found in low-level visual regions. Here, we review recent evidence suggesting that patterns of response in high-level visual areas may be better explained by response to image properties that are characteristic of different object categories. PMID:26024512

  15. SU-D-BRD-02: A Web-Based Image Processing and Plan Evaluation Platform (WIPPEP) for Future Cloud-Based Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, X; Liu, L; Xing, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Visualization and processing of medical images and radiation treatment plan evaluation have traditionally been constrained to local workstations with limited computation power and ability of data sharing and software update. We present a web-based image processing and planning evaluation platform (WIPPEP) for radiotherapy applications with high efficiency, ubiquitous web access, and real-time data sharing. Methods: This software platform consists of three parts: web server, image server and computation server. Each independent server communicates with each other through HTTP requests. The web server is the key component that provides visualizations and user interface through front-end web browsers and relay information to the backend to process user requests. The image server serves as a PACS system. The computation server performs the actual image processing and dose calculation. The web server backend is developed using Java Servlets and the frontend is developed using HTML5, Javascript, and jQuery. The image server is based on open source DCME4CHEE PACS system. The computation server can be written in any programming language as long as it can send/receive HTTP requests. Our computation server was implemented in Delphi, Python and PHP, which can process data directly or via a C++ program DLL. Results: This software platform is running on a 32-core CPU server virtually hosting the web server, image server, and computation servers separately. Users can visit our internal website with Chrome browser, select a specific patient, visualize image and RT structures belonging to this patient and perform image segmentation running Delphi computation server and Monte Carlo dose calculation on Python or PHP computation server. Conclusion: We have developed a webbased image processing and plan evaluation platform prototype for radiotherapy. This system has clearly demonstrated the feasibility of performing image processing and plan evaluation platform through a web browser and exhibited potential for future cloud based radiotherapy.

  16. Vegetation-zonation patterns across a temperate mountain cloud forest ecotone are not explained by variation in hydraulic functioning or water relations.

    PubMed

    Berry, Z Carter; Johnson, Daniel M; Reinhardt, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated linkages between the occurrence of fog and ecophysiological functioning in cloud forests, but few have investigated hydraulic functioning as a determining factor that explains sharp changes in vegetation. The objective of this study was to compare the plant water status during cloud-immersed and non-immersed conditions and hydraulic vulnerability in branches and roots of species across a temperate, mountain fog ecotone. Because cloud forests are often dark, cool and very moist, we expected cloud forest species to have less drought-tolerant characteristics (i.e., lower Pe and P50-the pressures required to induce a 12 and 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity, respectively) relative to non-cloud forest species in adjacent (lower elevation) forests. Additionally, due to the ability of cloud forest species to absorb cloud-fog water, we predicted greater improvements in hydraulic functioning during fog in cloud forest species relative to non-cloud forest species. Across the cloud forest ecotone, most species measured were very resistant to losses in conductivity with branch P50 values from -4.5 to -6.0?MPa, hydraulic safety margins (?min - P50) >1.5?MPa and low calculated hydraulic conductivity losses. Roots had greater vulnerabilities, with P50 values ranging from -1.4 to -2.5?MPa, leading to greater predicted losses in conductivity (?20%). Calculated values suggested strong losses of midday leaf hydraulic conductance in three of the four species, supporting the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis. In both cloud forest and hardwood species, ?s were greater on foggy days than sunny days, demonstrating the importance of fog periods to plant water balance across fog regimes. Thus, frequent fog did not result in systemic changes in hydraulic functioning or vulnerability to embolism across our temperate cloud forest ecotone. Finally, roots functioned with lower hydraulic conductivity than branches, suggesting that they may serve as more sensitive indicators of hydraulic functioning in these mesic, foggy ecosystems. PMID:26209616

  17. Differential polarization imaging. III. Theory confirmation. Patterns of polymerization of hemoglobin S in red blood sickle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Beach, D A; Bustamante, C; Wells, K S; Foucar, K M

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we test the predictions of the differential polarization imaging theory developed in the previous two papers. A characterization of the patterns of polymerization of hemoglobin in red blood cells from patients with sickle cell anemia is presented. This system was chosen because it is relatively easy to handle and because previous studies have been done on it. A differential polarization microscope designed and built in our laboratory was used to carry out this study. This microscope uses an image dissector camera, a photoelastic modulator, and a phase-lock amplifier. This design represents a substantial modification with respect to the instrumentation used in the previous results communicated on this system. Therefore, the results presented here also permit us to confirm the validity of our conclusions. On the basis of the differential polarization images obtained, models of the patterns of polymerization of the hemoglobin S inside the sickle cells are proposed and their M12 and regular images are calculated by the theory. Good agreement between those models and the experimental systems is found, as well as with the results previously reported. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:3427201

  18. Differential polarization imaging. III. Theory confirmation. Patterns of polymerization of hemoglobin S in red blood sickle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Beach, D A; Bustamante, C; Wells, K S; Foucar, K M

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we test the predictions of the differential polarization imaging theory developed in the previous two papers. A characterization of the patterns of polymerization of hemoglobin in red blood cells from patients with sickle cell anemia is presented. This system was chosen because it is relatively easy to handle and because previous studies have been done on it. A differential polarization microscope designed and built in our laboratory was used to carry out this study. This microscope uses an image dissector camera, a photoelastic modulator, and a phase-lock amplifier. This design represents a substantial modification with respect to the instrumentation used in the previous results communicated on this system. Therefore, the results presented here also permit us to confirm the validity of our conclusions. On the basis of the differential polarization images obtained, models of the patterns of polymerization of the hemoglobin S inside the sickle cells are proposed and their M12 and regular images are calculated by the theory. Good agreement between those models and the experimental systems is found, as well as with the results previously reported. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:3349134

  19. An Improved Cloud Classification Algorithm for China’s FY-2C Multi-Channel Images Using Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Xia, Jun; Shi, Chun-Xiang; Hong, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The crowning objective of this research was to identify a better cloud classification method to upgrade the current window-based clustering algorithm used operationally for China’s first operational geostationary meteorological satellite FengYun-2C (FY-2C) data. First, the capabilities of six widely-used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods are analyzed, together with the comparison of two other methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Support Vector Machine (SVM), using 2864 cloud samples manually collected by meteorologists in June, July, and August in 2007 from three FY-2C channel (IR1, 10.3–11.3 ?m; IR2, 11.5–12.5 ?m and WV 6.3–7.6 ?m) imagery. The result shows that: (1) ANN approaches, in general, outperformed the PCA and the SVM given sufficient training samples and (2) among the six ANN networks, higher cloud classification accuracy was obtained with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). Second, to compare the ANN methods to the present FY-2C operational algorithm, this study implemented SOM, one of the best ANN network identified from this study, as an automated cloud classification system for the FY-2C multi-channel data. It shows that SOM method has improved the results greatly not only in pixel-level accuracy but also in cloud patch-level classification by more accurately identifying cloud types such as cumulonimbus, cirrus and clouds in high latitude. Findings of this study suggest that the ANN-based classifiers, in particular the SOM, can be potentially used as an improved Automated Cloud Classification Algorithm to upgrade the current window-based clustering method for the FY-2C operational products. PMID:22346714

  20. An Improved Cloud Classification Algorithm for China's FY-2C Multi-Channel Images Using Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Xia, Jun; Shi, Chun-Xiang; Hong, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The crowning objective of this research was to identify a better cloud classification method to upgrade the current window-based clustering algorithm used operationally for China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite FengYun-2C (FY-2C) data. First, the capabilities of six widely-used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods are analyzed, together with the comparison of two other methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Support Vector Machine (SVM), using 2864 cloud samples manually collected by meteorologists in June, July, and August in 2007 from three FY-2C channel (IR1, 10.3-11.3 ?m; IR2, 11.5-12.5 ?m and WV 6.3-7.6 ?m) imagery. The result shows that: (1) ANN approaches, in general, outperformed the PCA and the SVM given sufficient training samples and (2) among the six ANN networks, higher cloud classification accuracy was obtained with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). Second, to compare the ANN methods to the present FY-2C operational algorithm, this study implemented SOM, one of the best ANN network identified from this study, as an automated cloud classification system for the FY-2C multi-channel data. It shows that SOM method has improved the results greatly not only in pixel-level accuracy but also in cloud patch-level classification by more accurately identifying cloud types such as cumulonimbus, cirrus and clouds in high latitude. Findings of this study suggest that the ANN-based classifiers, in particular the SOM, can be potentially used as an improved Automated Cloud Classification Algorithm to upgrade the current window-based clustering method for the FY-2C operational products. PMID:22346714

  1. Fundamental remote science research program. Part 2: Status report of the mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heydorn, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (MPRIA) Project is concerned with basic research problems related to the study of he Earth from remotely sensed measurements of its surface characteristics. The program goal is to better understand how to analyze the digital image that represents the spatial, spectral, and temporal arrangement of these measurements for purposing of making selected inferences about the Earth. This report summarizes the progress that has been made toward this program goal by each of the principal investigators in the MPRIA Program.

  2. Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI): A control and data acquisition system for scanning laser vibrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Brown, Donald E.; Shaffer, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from scanning laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor, but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. The sensor itself is not part of the VPI system. A graphical interface program, which runs on a PC under the MS-DOS operating system, functions in an interactive mode and communicates with the DSP and I/O boards in a user-friendly fashion through the aid of pop-up menus. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or 'full field.' In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and is stored by the PC. The position of the measuring point (adjusted by mirrors in the sensor) is controlled via a mouse input. The mouse input is translated to output voltages by the D/A converter on the I/O board to control the mirror servos. In the 'full field' mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selectable rectangular area. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms 'full field' velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage on the PC.

  3. A spatiotemporal mining framework for abnormal association patterns in marine environments with a time series of remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Cunjin; Song, Wanjiao; Qin, Lijuan; Dong, Qing; Wen, Xiaoyang

    2015-06-01

    A spatiotemporal mining framework is a novel tool for the analysis of marine association patterns using multiple remote sensing images. From data pretreatment, to algorithm design, to association rule mining and pattern visualization, this paper outlines a spatiotemporal mining framework for abnormal association patterns in marine environments, including pixel-based and object-based mining models. Within this framework, some key issues are also addressed. In the data pretreatment phase, we propose an algorithm for extracting abnormal objects or pixels over marine surfaces, and construct a mining transaction table with object-based and pixel-based strategies. In the mining algorithm phase, a recursion method to construct a direct association pattern tree is addressed with an asymmetric mutual information table, and a recursive mining algorithm to find frequent items. In the knowledge visualization phase, a "Dimension-Attributes" visualization framework is used to display spatiotemporal association patterns. Finally, spatiotemporal association patterns for marine environmental parameters in the Pacific Ocean are identified, and the results prove the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed mining framework.

  4. Monitoring mental work and pattern recognition of a human brain with a functional near-infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiguo; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Yang, Zhongzhong; Guan, Lingchu; Chance, Britton

    1999-03-01

    A NIRS imager is used as a real time monitor in psychological test to record the response in blood oxyhemoglobin state and blood flow of the frontal gyri of human subject. The imager has 9 lamps and 4 dual detector pairs and an area of 9*4 cm. In mental work and pattern recognition test, we recorded oxygen consumption and blood flow changes of the volunteer's frontal gyri. The psychological results showed that down part of the left frontal gyri has intensive relation with pattern recognition and has definite boundaries. However, the mental work involved more zones of frontal gyri and it may be a more complicated think model. The results also suggested that brain have an exquisite and complicated adjust ability. As a result, the oxygen supplement in excited area increased as the neuron excited.

  5. CloudSense: Continuous Fine-Grain Cloud Monitoring With Compressive Sensing

    E-print Network

    Kung, H. T.

    in cloud design and usage patterns fur- ther call for fine-grain and low-latency status report- ingCloudSense: Continuous Fine-Grain Cloud Monitoring With Compressive Sensing H. T. Kung, Chit Continuous fine-grain status monitoring of a cloud data center enables rapid response to anomalies

  6. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects; automates reconfiguration of their virtual machines; ensures accountability for donated computing; and optimizes the use of "interstitial" computing. Initial applications include fire detection from multispectral satellite imagery and flood risk mapping through hydrological simulations.

  7. A Tool for Classifying Individuals with Chronic Back Pain: Using Multivariate Pattern Analysis with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Daniel; Mills, Lloyd; Nott, Connie; England, Robert; England, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world today, yet neurological markers, critical to diagnosis of chronic pain, are still largely unknown. The ability to objectively identify individuals with chronic pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is important for the advancement of diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical knowledge of brain processes associated with chronic pain. The purpose of our research is to investigate specific neurological markers that could be used to diagnose individuals experiencing chronic pain by using multivariate pattern analysis with fMRI data. We hypothesize that individuals with chronic pain have different patterns of brain activity in response to induced pain. This pattern can be used to classify the presence or absence of chronic pain. The fMRI experiment consisted of alternating 14 seconds of painful electric stimulation (applied to the lower back) with 14 seconds of rest. We analyzed contrast fMRI images in stimulation versus rest in pain-related brain regions to distinguish between the groups of participants: 1) chronic pain and 2) normal controls. We employed supervised machine learning techniques, specifically sparse logistic regression, to train a classifier based on these contrast images using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. We correctly classified 92.3% of the chronic pain group (N?=?13) and 92.3% of the normal control group (N?=?13) by recognizing multivariate patterns of activity in the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortex. This technique demonstrates that differences in the pattern of brain activity to induced pain can be used as a neurological marker to distinguish between individuals with and without chronic pain. Medical, legal and business professionals have recognized the importance of this research topic and of developing objective measures of chronic pain. This method of data analysis was very successful in correctly classifying each of the two groups. PMID:24905072

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging of Functional Patterns for Disease Assessment and Treatment Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S; Hattery, D; Hassan, M; Aleman, K; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Gandjbakhche, A

    2003-12-05

    We have designed and built a six-band multi-spectral NIR imaging system used in clinical testing on cancer patients. From our layered tissue model, we create blood volume and blood oxygenation images for patient treatment monitoring.

  9. Investigating the Use of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCT) to Monitor On-orbit Performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) using Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, Hugh J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the on-orbit performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) for changes in instrument calibration that will affect GLM's lightning detection efficiency. GLM has no onboard calibration so GLM background radiance observations (available every 2.5 min) of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) are investigated as invariant targets to monitor GLM performance. Observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used as proxy datasets for GLM and ABI 11 m measurements.

  10. Atmospheric circulation patterns, cloud-to-ground lightning, and locally intense convective rainfall associated with debris flow initiation in the Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, S. J.; Schultz, M. D.; Berti, M.; Gregoretti, C.; Simoni, A.; Mote, T. L.; Saylor, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    The Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy experience debris flows with great frequency during the summer months. An ample supply of unconsolidated material on steep slopes and a summer season climate regime characterized by recurrent thunderstorms combine to produce an abundance of these destructive hydrogeologic events. In the past debris flow events have been studied primarily in the context of their geologic and geomorphic characteristics. The atmospheric contribution to these mass wasting events has been limited to recording rainfall and developing intensity thresholds for debris mobilization. This study aims to expand the examination of atmospheric processes that preceded both locally intense convective rainfall (LICR) and debris flows in the Dolomite region. 500 hPa pressure level plots of geopotential heights were constructed for a period of three days prior to debris flow events to gain insight into the synoptic scale processes which provide an environment conducive to LICR in the Dolomites. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data recorded at the meso-scale were incorporated to assess the convective environment proximal to debris flow source regions. Twelve events were analyzed and from this analysis three common synoptic scale circulation patterns were