Science.gov

Sample records for image details places

  1. Detail view, roofing material removed from firedamaged roof and placed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view, roofing material removed from fire-damaged roof and placed on lawn to the east of biddle hall. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Adaptive infrared-image details enhancement technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shi-yong; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Chen, Qian

    2014-11-01

    In order to surmount the infrared-image object differentiation difficulty caused by the blurred image edge, a kind of adaptive filter based infrared-image nonlinear edge enhancement technology was proposed in this paper. This technology integrates image nonlinear edge-sharpening and Multi-scale analyze method. The approach of Gauss pyramid structure can enhance detail information by using non-linear algorithms in different scales. The enhanced detail information is then added back to the original image iteratively. While saving the image edge information it can filter image noise and edge distortion caused by edge-sharpening and improve image's clarity and SNR obviously. Gray scale grads was defined based on gray linear increment, image edge enhancement arithmetic can be real time realized, and has been applied in high performance thermal imager. As it is shown in experiments, this algorithm has practicality and potential application value in the field of infrared images contrast enhancement

  3. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  4. HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

  5. Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

    Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

    The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

    Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

    This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  6. Active place recognition using image signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelson, Sean P.

    1992-11-01

    For reliable navigation, a mobile robot needs to be able to recognize where it is in the world. We previously described an efficient and effective image-based representation of perceptual information for place recognition. Each place is associated with a set of stored image signatures, each a matrix of numbers derived by evaluating some measurement functions over large blocks of pixels. One difficulty, though, is the large number of inherently ambiguous signatures which bloats the database and makes recognition more difficult. Furthermore, since small differences in orientation can produce very different images, reliable recognition requires many images. These problems can be ameliorated by using active methods to select the best signatures to use for the recognition. Two criteria for good images are distinctiveness (is the scene distinguishable from others?) and stability (how much do small viewpoint motions change image recognizability?). We formulate several heuristic distinctiveness metrics which are good predictors of real image distinctiveness. These functions are then used to direct the motion of the camera to find locally distinctive views for use in recognition. This method also produces some modicum of stability, since it uses a form of local optimization. We present the results of applying this method with a camera mounted on a pan-tilt platform.

  7. Place-Identity in a School Setting: Effects of the Place Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcouyeux, Aurore; Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane

    2011-01-01

    Studies on place identity show positive relationships between the evaluation of a place and mechanisms involved in place identification. However, individuals also identify with places of low social prestige (places that bear a negative social image). Few authors investigate the nature of place identity processes in this case. The goal of this

  8. Research on the Hotel Image Based on the Detail Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ban; Shenghua, Zheng; He, Yi

    Detail service management, initially developed as marketing programs to enhance customer loyalty, has now become an important part of customer relation strategy. This paper analyzes the critical factors of detail service and its influence on the hotel image. We establish the theoretical model of influencing factors on hotel image and propose corresponding hypotheses. We use applying statistical method to test and verify the above-mentioned hypotheses. This paper provides a foundation for further study of detail service design and planning issues.

  9. 13. LOOKING NORTH FROM THE SOUTH, A DETAIL IMAGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LOOKING NORTH FROM THE SOUTH, A DETAIL IMAGE OF THE BRONZE DEDICATION PLAQUE, LOCATED ON THE NORTH INSIDE PARAPET. A TWIN PLAQUE ON THE SOUTHWEST PARAPET. - Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Haw Creek at Seventh Street, Columbus, Bartholomew County, IN

  10. Hdr Imaging for Feature Detection on Detailed Architectural Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontogianni, G.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Doulamis, A.

    2015-02-01

    3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR) images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR) images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  11. Detail enhancement of blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyuan; Zeng, Deguo; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Ziyang; Wei, Fei; Wang, Tiedan

    2016-05-01

    A novel algorithm for enhancing the details of the blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation has been raised in this paper. Unlike other researchers' work, this algorithm mainly focuses on how to predict the higher frequency information based on the Laplacian pyramid separation of the blurred image. This algorithm uses the first level of the high frequency component of the pyramid of the blurred image to reverse-generate a higher, non-existing frequency component, and adds back to the histogram equalized input blurred image. A simple nonlinear operator is used to analyze the extracted first level high frequency component of the pyramid. Two critical parameters are participated in the calculation known as the clipping parameter C and the scaling parameter S. The detailed analysis of how these two parameters work during the procedure is figure demonstrated in this paper. The blurred image will become clear, and the detail will be enhanced due to the added higher frequency information. This algorithm has the advantages of computational simplicity and great performance, and it can definitely be deployed in the real-time industrial applications. We have done lots of experiments and gave illustrations of the algorithm's performance in this paper to convince its effectiveness.

  12. Detail enhancement for high-dynamic-range infrared images based on guided image filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Zhao, Dongxue

    2014-11-01

    Detail enhancement and noise reduction play crucial roles in high dynamic range infrared image processing. The main focuses are to compress the high dynamic range images with an effective way to display on lower dynamic range monitors, enhance the perceptibility of small details, and reduce the noises without causing artifacts. In this paper, we propose a new method for detail enhancement and noise reduction of high dynamic range infrared images. We first apply a guided image filter to smooth the input image and separate the image into the base component and the detail component. This process also gives us an adaptive weighting coefficient associated with the details generated by the filter kernel. After the filtering process, we compress the base component into the display range by our modified histogram projection and enhance the detail component using the gain mask of the filter weighting coefficient. At last, we recombine the two parts and quantize the result to 8-bit domain. Our method is significantly better than those based on histogram equalization (HE), and it also has better visual effect than bilateral filter-based methods. Furthermore, our proposed method is much faster, non-approximate and suffers much less gradient flipping artifacts compared to the bilateral filter-based methods because the guided image filter uses the local linear model. We demonstrate that our method is both effective and efficient in a great variety of applications. Experimental verification and detailed analysis are shown in this paper.

  13. Image signatures for place recognition and map construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelson, Sean P.; McDermott, Drew V.

    1992-04-01

    For reliable navigation, a mobile robot needs to be able to recognize where it is in the world. We describe an efficient and effective image-based representation of perceptual information for place recognition. Each place is associated with a set of stored image signatures, each a matrix of numbers derived by evaluating some measurement function over large blocks of pixels. Measurements are chosen to be characteristic of a location yet reasonably invariant over different viewing conditions. Signature matching can be done quickly by element wise comparison. Additional stability can be gotten by matching signatures at offsets or across scales. Signatures can be stored in a k-d tree so that retrieval of similar signatures is fast. We can also use several types of measurements in tandem to enhance recognition accuracy. We present preliminary experimental results which show up to 90% recognition accuracy. When used together with prior position information, we suggest that this performance is good enough to support reliable place recognition from a series of images.

  14. Maia X-ray fluorescence imaging: Capturing detail in complex natural samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, C. G.; Siddons, D. P.; Kirkham, R.; Li, Z. Y.; de Jonge, M. D.; Paterson, D. J.; Kuczewski, A.; Howard, D. L.; Dunn, P. A.; Falkenberg, G.; Boesenberg, U.; De Geronimo, G.; Fisher, L. A.; Halfpenny, A.; Lintern, M. J.; Lombi, E.; Dyl, K. A.; Jensen, M.; Moorhead, G. F.; Cleverley, J. S.; Hough, R. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; James, S. A.; Spiers, K. M.; Alfeld, M.; Wellenreuther, G.; Vukmanovic, Z.; Borg, S.

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by the challenge of capturing complex hierarchical chemical detail in natural material from a wide range of applications, the Maia detector array and integrated realtime processor have been developed to acquire X-ray fluorescence images using X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM). Maia has been deployed initially at the XFM beamline at the Australian Synchrotron and more recently, demonstrating improvements in energy resolution, at the P06 beamline at Petra III in Germany. Maia captures fine detail in element images beyond 100 M pixels. It combines a large solid-angle annular energy-dispersive 384 detector array, stage encoder and flux counter inputs and dedicated FPGA-based real-time event processor with embedded spectral deconvolution. This enables high definition imaging and enhanced trace element sensitivity to capture complex trace element textures and place them in a detailed spatial context. Maia hardware and software methods provide per pixel correction for dwell, beam flux variation, dead-time and pileup, as well as off-line parallel processing for enhanced throughput. Methods have been developed for real-time display of deconvoluted SXRF element images, depth mapping of rare particles and the acquisition of 3D datasets for fluorescence tomography and XANES imaging using a spectral deconvolution method that tracks beam energy variation.

  15. Cloud Imagers Offer New Details on Earth's Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A stunning red sunset or purple sunrise is an aesthetic treat with a scientific explanation: The colors are a direct result of the absorption or reflectance of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols, minute particles (either solid or liquid) in the Earth s atmosphere that occur both naturally and because of human activity. At the beginning or end of the day, the Sun s rays travel farther through the atmosphere to reach an observer s eyes and more green and yellow light is scattered, making the Sun appear red. Sunset and sunrise are especially colorful when the concentration of atmospheric particles is high. This ability of aerosols to absorb and reflect sunlight is not just pretty; it also determines the amount of radiation and heat that reaches the Earth s surface, and can profoundly affect climate. In the atmosphere, aerosols are also important as nuclei for the condensation of water droplets and ice crystals. Clouds with fewer aerosols cannot form as many water droplets (called cloud particles), and consequently, do not scatter light well. In this case, more sunlight reaches the Earth s surface. When aerosol levels in clouds are high, however, more nucleation points can form small liquid water droplets. These smaller cloud particles can reflect up to 90 percent of visible radiation to space, keeping the heat from ever reaching Earth s surface. The tendency for these particles to absorb or reflect the Sun s energy - called extinction by astronomers - depends on a number of factors, including chemical composition and the humidity and temperature in the surrounding air; because cloud particles are so small, they are affected quickly by minute changes in the atmosphere. Because of this sensitivity, atmospheric scientists study cloud particles to anticipate patterns and shifts in climate. Until recently, NASA s study of atmospheric aerosols and cloud particles has been focused primarily on satellite images, which, while granting large-scale atmospheric analysis, limited scientists ability to acquire detailed information about individual particles. Now, experiments with specialized equipment can be flown on standard jets, making it possible for researchers to monitor and more accurately anticipate changes in Earth s atmosphere and weather patterns.

  16. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  17. Hundred metre virtual telescope captures unique detailed colour image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    A team of French astronomers has captured one of the sharpest colour images ever made. They observed the star T Leporis, which appears, on the sky, as small as a two-storey house on the Moon [1]. The image was taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), emulating a virtual telescope about 100 metres across and reveals a spherical molecular shell around an aged star. ESO PR Photo 06a/09 The star T Leporis as seen with VLTI ESO PR Photo 06b/09 The star T Leporis to scale ESO PR Photo 06c/09 A virtual 100-metre telescope ESO PR Photo 06d/09 The orbit of Theta1 Orionis C ESO PR Video 06a/09 Zoom-in onto T Leporis "This is one of the first images made using near-infrared interferometry," says lead author Jean-Baptiste Le Bouquin. Interferometry is a technique that combines the light from several telescopes, resulting in a vision as sharp as that of a giant telescope with a diameter equal to the largest separation between the telescopes used. Achieving this requires the VLTI system components to be positioned to an accuracy of a fraction of a micrometre over about 100 metres and maintained so throughout the observations -- a formidable technical challenge. When doing interferometry, astronomers must often content themselves with fringes, the characteristic pattern of dark and bright lines produced when two beams of light combine, from which they can model the physical properties of the object studied. But, if an object is observed on several runs with different combinations and configurations of telescopes, it is possible to put these results together to reconstruct an image of the object. This is what has now been done with ESO's VLTI, using the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes. "We were able to construct an amazing image, and reveal the onion-like structure of the atmosphere of a giant star at a late stage of its life for the first time," says Antoine Mérand, member of the team. "Numerical models and indirect data have allowed us to imagine the appearance of the star before, but it is quite astounding that we can now see it, and in colour." Although it is only 15 by 15 pixel across, the reconstructed image shows an extreme close-up of a star 100 times larger than the Sun, a diameter corresponding roughly to the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This star is, in turn, surrounded by a sphere of molecular gas, which is about three times as large again. T Leporis, in the constellation of Lepus (the Hare), is located 500 light-years away. It belongs to the family of Mira stars, well known to amateur astronomers. These are giant variable stars that have almost extinguished their nuclear fuel and are losing mass. They are nearing the end of their lives as stars, and will soon die, becoming white dwarfs. The Sun will become a Mira star in a few billion years, engulfing the Earth in the dust and gas expelled in its final throes. Mira stars are among the biggest factories of molecules and dust in the Universe, and T Leporis is no exception. It pulsates with a period of 380 days and loses the equivalent of the Earth's mass every year. Since the molecules and dust are formed in the layers of atmosphere surrounding the central star, astronomers would like to be able to see these layers. But this is no easy task, given that the stars themselves are so far away -- despite their huge intrinsic size, their apparent radius on the sky can be just half a millionth that of the Sun. "T Leporis looks so small from the Earth that only an interferometric facility, such as the VLTI at Paranal, can take an image of it. VLTI can resolve stars 15 times smaller than those resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope," says Le Bouquin. To create this image with the VLTI astronomers had to observe the star for several consecutive nights, using all the four movable 1.8-metre VLT Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The ATs were combined in different groups of three, and were also moved to different positions, creating more new interferometric configurations, so that astronomers could emulate a virtual telescope approximately 100 metres across and build up an image. "Obtaining images like these was one of the main motivations for building the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. We have now truly entered the era of stellar imaging," says Mérand. A perfect illustration of this is another VLTI image showing the double star system Theta1 Orionis C in the Orion Nebula Trapezium. This image, which was the first ever constructed from VLTI data, separates clearly the two young, massive stars from this system. The observations themselves have a spatial resolution of about 2 milli-arcseconds. From these, and several other observations, the team of astronomers, led by Stefan Kraus and Gerd Weigelt from the Max-Planck Institute in Bonn, could derive the properties of the orbit of this binary system, including the total mass of the two stars (47 solar masses) and their distance from us (1350 light-years).

  18. A detail enhancement and dynamic range adjustment algorithm for high dynamic range images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Huachuang; Liang, Mingtao; Yu, Cong; Hu, Jinlong; Cheng, Hua

    2014-08-01

    Although high dynamic range (HDR) images contain large amounts of information, they have weak texture and low contrast. What's more, these images are difficult to be reproduced on low dynamic range displaying mediums. If much more information is to be acquired when these images are displayed on PCs, some specific transforms, such as compressing the dynamic range, enhancing the portions of little difference in original contrast and highlighting the texture details on the premise of keeping the parts of large contrast, are needed. To this ends, a multi-scale guided filter enhancement algorithm which derives from the single-scale guided filter based on the analysis of non-physical model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, this algorithm decomposes the original HDR images into base image and detail images of different scales, and then it adaptively selects a transform function which acts on the enhanced detail images and original images. By comparing the treatment effects of HDR images and low dynamic range (LDR) images of different scene features, it proves that this algorithm, on the basis of maintaining the hierarchy and texture details of images, not only improves the contrast and enhances the details of images, but also adjusts the dynamic range well. Thus, it is much suitable for human observation or analytical processing of machines.

  19. Gaussian mixture model-based gradient field reconstruction for infrared image detail enhancement and denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Wenda; Qu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Infrared images are characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio and low contrast. Therefore, the edge details are easily immerged in the background and noise, making it much difficult to achieve infrared image edge detail enhancement and denoising. This article proposes a novel method of Gaussian mixture model-based gradient field reconstruction, which enhances image edge details while suppressing noise. First, by analyzing the gradient histogram of noisy infrared image, Gaussian mixture model is adopted to simulate the distribution of the gradient histogram, and divides the image information into three parts corresponding to faint details, noise and the edges of clear targets, respectively. Then, the piecewise function is constructed based on the characteristics of the image to increase gradients of faint details and suppress gradients of noise. Finally, anisotropic diffusion constraint is added while visualizing enhanced image from the transformed gradient field to further suppress noise. The experimental results show that the method possesses unique advantage of effectively enhancing infrared image edge details and suppressing noise as well, compared with the existing methods. In addition, it can be used to effectively enhance other types of images such as the visible and medical images.

  20. Research of detecting details and features of infrared polarization imaging experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Xiao-cheng; Wang, Ji-zhong

    2013-09-01

    Along with modern infrared camouflage technique developed, it is hard to distinguish target and background by using traditional infrared intensity imaging in general because infrared feature of target and background are tending to consistent. To address this issue, a thought that utilizes infrared polarization imaging technique to detect target is proposed in this paper based on analyzing of the principle of infrared polarization imaging. The experiments are carried out for detecting of infrared low-contrast target imaging. Comparing with the infrared intensity images, the average gradient of the infrared polarization image has been improved 155% and the contrast of target and background has been improved 120% in infrared polarization images. The effective experimental data and imaging law between infrared polarization images and infrared intensity images are obtained that, the technology of infrared polarization imaging can detect details of infrared target more clearly than the infrared intensity imaging, and it can obviously increase the contrast between target and background. Therefore, it is more helpful to detecting details and features of target.

  1. Noise suppression and details enhancement for infrared image via novel prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zunlin; Bi, Duyan; He, Linyuan; Ma, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Infrared images always suffer from blurring edges, fewer details and low signal-to-noise ratio. So, sharpening edges and suppressing noise become the urgent techniques in infrared image technology field. However, they are contradictories in most cases. Hence, to depict correctly infrared image features under low signal-to-noise ratio circumstance, a novel prior, which is immune to noise, is presented in this paper. The proposed method scopes noise suppression and details enhancement. In noise suppression, the prior is introduced into Bayesian model to obtain optimal estimation through iteration. In details enhancement, based on the proposed prior, the final image is obtained by the improved unsharp mask algorithm which enhances adaptively details and edges of optimal estimation. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method is analyzed by testing the infrared images obtained from different signal-to-noise ratio conditions. Compared with other well-established methods, the proposed method shows a significant performance in terms of noise suppression, actual scene reappearance, enhancing the details and sharpening edges.

  2. Interactive level-of-detail selection using image-based quality metric for large volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoli; Garcia, Antonio; Shen, Han-Wei

    2007-01-01

    For large volume visualization, an image-based quality metric is difficult to incorporate for level-of-detail selection and rendering without sacrificing the interactivity. This is because it is usually time-consuming to update view-dependent information as well as to adjust to transfer function changes. In this paper, we introduce an image-based level-of-detail selection algorithm for interactive visualization of large volumetric data. The design of our quality metric is based on an efficient way to evaluate the contribution of multiresolution data blocks to the final image. To ensure real-time update of the quality metric and interactive level-of-detail decisions, we propose a summary table scheme in response to runtime transfer function changes and a GPU-based solution for visibility estimation. Experimental results on large scientific and medical data sets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm. PMID:17093341

  3. Investigating the visual inspection subjectivity on the contrast-detail evaluation in digital mammography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Medeiros, Regina B.; Schiabel, Homero

    2014-03-01

    A major difficulty in the interpretation of mammographic images is the low contrast and, in the case of early detection of breast cancer, the reduced size of the features of malignancy on findings such as microcalcifications. Furthermore, image assessment is subject to significant reliance of the capacity of observation of the expert that will perform it, compromising the final diagnosis accuracy. Thinking about this aspect, this study evaluated the subjectivity of visual inspection to assess the contrast-detail in mammographic images. For this, we compared the human readings of images generated with the CDMAM phantom performed by four observers, enabling to determining a threshold of contrast visibility in each diameter disks present in the phantom. These thresholds were compared graphically and by statistical measures allowing us to build a strategy for use of contrast and detail (dimensions) as parameters of quality in mammography.

  4. Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals {Delta}T{sub image} from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For {Delta}T{sub image}=150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380{+-}9 ms for MV and 420{+-}12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms), MLC position calculation (16 ms), and MLC adjustment (52 ms) were considerably faster. For {Delta}T{sub image}=1000 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment increased to 1030{+-}62 ms (MV) and 1330{+-}52 ms (kV) mainly because of delayed image file writing. The MLC adjustment duration was constant 52 ms ({+-}3 ms) for MLC adjustments below 1.1 mm and increased linearly for larger MLC adjustments. Conclusions: A method for detailed time analysis of each individual real-time position signal for DMLC tracking has been developed and applied to image-based tracking. The method allows identification of the major contributors to latency and therefore a focus for reducing this latency. The method could be an important tool for the reconstruction of the delivered target dose during DMLC tracking as it provides synchronization between target motion and MLC motion.

  5. Impacts of Filtration on Contrast-Detail Detectability of an X-ray Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qirong; Rong, John; Wu, Xizeng; Li, Yuhua; Chen, Wei R; Liu, Hong

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of added filtration on the contrast-detail detectability of a digital X-ray imaging system for small animal studies. A digital X-ray imaging system specifically designed for small animal studies was used. This system is equipped with a micro X-ray source with a tungsten target and a beryllium window filtration and a CCD-based digital detector. Molybdenum filters of 0 mm, 0.02 mm, and 0.05 mm in thickness were added. The corresponding X-ray spectra and contrast-detail detectabilities were measured using two phantoms of different thicknesses simulating breast tissue under different exposures. The added Mo filters reduced the low-energy as well as the high-energy photons, hence providing a narrowband for imaging quality improvement. In the experiments with a 1.15 cm phantom, the optimal image detectability was observed using 22 kVp and the 0.05 mm Mo filter. With the 2.15 cm phantom, the best detectability was obtained with 22 kVp and the 0.02 mm Mo filter. Our experiments showed that appropriate filtrations could reduce certain low- and high-energy components of X-ray spectra which have limited contributions to image contrast. At the same time, such filtration could improve the contrast-detail detectability, particularly at relatively low kVp and high filtration. Therefore, optimal image quality can be obtained with the same absorbed radiation dose by the subjects when appropriate filtration is used. PMID:23165063

  6. New Details of the Human Corneal Limbus Revealed With Second Harmonic Generation Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Jimmy K.; Zhang, Cheng; Chuck, Roy S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report novel findings of the human corneal limbus by using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Methods Corneal limbus was imaged by using an inverted two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope. Laser (Ti:Sapphire) was tuned at 850 nm for two-photon excitation. Backscatter signals of SHG and autofluorescence (AF) were collected through a 425/30-nm emission filter and a 525/45-emission filter, respectively. Multiple, consecutive, and overlapping image stacks (z-stack) were acquired for the corneal limbal area. Results Two novel collagen structures were revealed by SHG imaging at the limbus: an anterior limbal cribriform layer and presumed anchoring fibers. Anterior limbal cribriform layer is an intertwined reticular collagen architecture just beneath the limbal epithelial niche and is located between the peripheral cornea and Tenon's/scleral tissue. Autofluorescence imaging revealed high vascularity in this structure. Central to the anterior limbal cribriform layer, radial strands of collagen were found to connect the peripheral cornea to the limbus. These presumed anchoring fibers have both collagen and elastin and were found more extensively in the superficial layers than deep layer and were absent in very deep limbus near Schlemm's canal. Conclusions By using SHG imaging, new details of the collagen architecture of human corneal limbal area were elucidated. High resolution images with volumetric analysis revealed two novel collagen structures. PMID:26393473

  7. On Detailed Contrast of Biomedical Object in X-ray Dark-Field Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shimao, Daisuke; Mori, Koichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami

    2007-01-19

    Over the past 10 years, refraction-based X-ray imaging has been studied together with a perspective view to clinical application. X-ray Dark-Field Imaging that utilizes a Laue geometry analyzer has recently been proposed and has the proven ability to depict articular cartilage in an intact human finger. In the current study, we researched detailed image contrast using X-ray Dark-Field Imaging by observing the edge contrast of an acrylic rod as a simple case, and found differences in image contrast between the right and left edges of the rod. This effect could cause undesirable contrast in the thin articular cartilage on the head of the phalanx. To avoid overlapping with this contrast at the articular cartilage, which would lead to a wrong diagnosis, we suggest that a joint surface on which articular cartilage is located should be aligned in the same sense as the scattering vector of the Laue case analyzer crystal. Defects of articular cartilage were successfully detected under this condition. When utilized under appropriate imaging conditions, X-ray Dark-Field Imaging will be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of arthropathy, as minute changes in articular cartilage may be early-stage features of this disease.

  8. On Detailed Contrast of Biomedical Object in X-ray Dark-Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimao, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Mori, Koichi; Ando, Masami

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, refraction-based X-ray imaging has been studied together with a perspective view to clinical application. X-ray Dark-Field Imaging that utilizes a Laue geometry analyzer has recently been proposed and has the proven ability to depict articular cartilage in an intact human finger. In the current study, we researched detailed image contrast using X-ray Dark-Field Imaging by observing the edge contrast of an acrylic rod as a simple case, and found differences in image contrast between the right and left edges of the rod. This effect could cause undesirable contrast in the thin articular cartilage on the head of the phalanx. To avoid overlapping with this contrast at the articular cartilage, which would lead to a wrong diagnosis, we suggest that a joint surface on which articular cartilage is located should be aligned in the same sense as the scattering vector of the Laue case analyzer crystal. Defects of articular cartilage were successfully detected under this condition. When utilized under appropriate imaging conditions, X-ray Dark-Field Imaging will be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of arthropathy, as minute changes in articular cartilage may be early-stage features of this disease.

  9. A parameterization for land-atmosphere-cloud-exchange (PLACE): Documentation and testing of a detailed process model of the partly cloudy boundary layer over heterogeneous land

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, P.J.; Boone, A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a general description of, and demonstrates the capabilities of, the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE). The PLACE model is a detailed process model of the partly cloudy atmospheric boundary layer and underlying heterogeneous land surfaces. In its development, particular attention has been given to three of the model`s subprocesses: the prediction of boundary layer cloud amount, the treatment of surface and soil subgrid heterogeneity, and the liquid water budget. The model includes a three-parameter nonprecipitating cumulus model that feeds back to the surface and boundary layer though radiative effects. Surface heterogeneity in the PLACE model is treated both statistically and by resolving explicit subgrid patches. The model maintains a vertical column of liquid water that is divided into seven reservoirs, from the surface interception store down to bedrock. Five single-day demonstration cases are presented, in which the PLACE model was initialized, run, and compared to field observations from four diverse sites. The model is shown to predict cloud amount well in these cases while predicting the surface fluxes with similar accuracy. A slight tendency to underpredict boundary layer depth is noted in all cases. Sensitivity tests were also run using anemometer-level forcing provided by the Project for Inter-comparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS). The purpose is to demonstrate the relative impact of heterogeneity of surface parameters on the predicted annual mean surface fluxes. Significant sensitivity to subgrid variability of certain parameters is demonstrated, particularly to parameters related to soil moisture. A major result is that the PLACE-computed impact of total (homogeneous) deforestation of a rain forest is comparable in magnitude to the effect of imposing heterogeneity of certain surface variables. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Maria Ida; Neufeld, Esra; Akinnagbe, Esther; Bower, Kelsey; Wolf, Johanna; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Sharma, Deepika; Lloyd, Bryn; Wilm, Bertram J.; Wyss, Michael; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Jakab, Andras; Makris, Nikos; Cohen, Ethan D.; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Angelone, Leonardo M.

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1–2 mm and with 10–50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named “MIDA”. The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i) structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data to image the vasculature, and iii) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25901747

  11. Imaging the internal structure of fluid upflow zones with detailed digital Parasound echosounder surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Schwenk, T.

    2001-12-01

    Sites of venting fluids both with continuous and episodic supply often reveal complex surface and internal structures, which are difficult to image and cause problems to transfer results from local sampling towards a structural reconstruction and a quantification of (average) flux rates. Detailed acoustic and seismic surveys would be required to retrieve this information, but also an appropriate environment, where fluid migration can be properly imaged from contrasts to unaffected areas. Hemipelagic sediments are most suitable, since typically reflectors are coherent and of low lateral amplitude variation and structures are continuous over distances much longer than the scale of fluid migration features. During RV Meteor Cruise M473 and RV Sonne Cruise SO 149 detailed studies were carried out in the vicinity of potential fluid upflow zones in the Lower Congo Basin at 5oS in 3000 m water depth and at the Northern Cascadia Margin in 1000 m water depth. Unexpected sampling of massive gas hydrates from the sea floor as well as of carbonate concretions, shell fragments and different liveforms indicated active fluid venting in a typically hemipelagic realm. The acoustic signature of such zones includes columnar blanking, pockmark depressions at the sea floor, association with small offset faults (< 1m). A dedicated survey with closely spaced grid lines was carried out with the Parasound sediment echosounder (4 kHz), which data were digitally acquired with the ParaDigMA System for further processing and display, to image the spatial structure of the upflow zones. Due to the high data density amplitudes and other acoustic properties could be investigated in a 3D volume and time slices as well as reflector surfaces were analyzed. Pronounced lateral variations of reflection amplitudes within a complex pattern indicate potential pathways for fluid/gas migration and occurrences of near-surface gas hydrate deposits, which may be used to trace detailed surface evidence from side scan sonar imaging down to depth and support dedicated sampling.

  12. A novel material detection algorithm based on 2D GMM-based power density function and image detail addition scheme in dual energy X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Material detection is a vital need in dual energy X-ray luggage inspection systems at security of airport and strategic places. In this paper, a novel material detection algorithm based on statistical trainable models using 2-Dimensional power density function (PDF) of three material categories in dual energy X-ray images is proposed. In this algorithm, the PDF of each material category as a statistical model is estimated from transmission measurement values of low and high energy X-ray images by Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Material label of each pixel of object is determined based on dependency probability of its transmission measurement values in the low and high energy to PDF of three material categories (metallic, organic and mixed materials). The performance of material detection algorithm is improved by a maximum voting scheme in a neighborhood of image as a post-processing stage. Using two background removing and denoising stages, high and low energy X-ray images are enhanced as a pre-processing procedure. For improving the discrimination capability of the proposed material detection algorithm, the details of the low and high energy X-ray images are added to constructed color image which includes three colors (orange, blue and green) for representing the organic, metallic and mixed materials. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on real images that had been captured from a commercial dual energy X-ray luggage inspection system. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and operative in detection of the metallic, organic and mixed materials with acceptable accuracy. PMID:22635176

  13. The extreme UV imager of solar orbiter: from detailed design to flight model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Auchère, F.; Berghmans, D.; Harra, L.; Schühle, U.; Schmutz, W.; Zhukov, A.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Delmotte, F.; Dumesnil, C.; Gyo, M.; Kennedy, T.; Mercier, R.; Verbeeck, F.; Thome, M.; Heerlein, K.; Hermans, A.; Jacques, L.; Mazzoli, A.; Meining, S.; Rossi, L.; Tandy, J.; Smith, P.; Winter, B.

    2014-07-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board the Solar Orbiter mission will provide full-sun and high-resolution image sequences of the solar atmosphere at selected spectral emission lines in the extreme and vacuum ultraviolet. After the breadboarding and prototyping activities that focused on key technologies, the EUI project has completed the design phase and has started the final manufacturing of the instrument and its validation. The EUI instrument has successfully passed its Critical Design Review (CDR). The process validated the detailed design of the Optical Bench unit and of its sub-units (entrance baffles, doors, mirrors, camera, and filter wheel mechanisms), and of the Electronic Box unit. In the same timeframe, the Structural and Thermal Model (STM) test campaign of the two units have been achieved, and allowed to correlate the associated mathematical models. The lessons learned from STM and the detailed design served as input to release the manufacturing of the Qualification Model (QM) and of the Flight Model (FM). The QM will serve to qualify the instrument units and sub-units, in advance of the FM acceptance tests and final on-ground calibration.

  14. Noise removal and real-time detail enhancement of high-dynamic-range infrared images with time consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Frederic; Schockaert, Cedric; Mirbach, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a noise removal and image detail enhancement method that accounts for the limitations on human's perception to effectively visualize high-dynamic-range (HDR) infrared (IR) images. In order to represent real world scenes, IR images use to be represented by a HDR that generally exceeds the working range of common display devices (8 bits). Therefore, an effective HDR mapping without losing the perceptibility of details is needed. To do so, we introduce the use of two guided filters (GF) to generate an accurate base and detail image component. A plausibility mask is also generated from the combination of the linear coefficients that result from each GF; an indicator of the spatial detail that enables to identify those regions that are prominent to present noise in the detail image component. Finally, we filter the working range of the HDR along time to avoid global brightness fluctuations in the final 8 bit data representation, which results from combining both detail and base image components using a local adaptive gamma correction (LAGC). The last has been designed according to the human vision characteristics. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed approach significantly enhances image details in addition to improving the contrast of the entire image. Finally, the high performance of the proposed approach makes it suitable for real word applications.

  15. Processing of Uav Based Range Imaging Data to Generate Detailed Elevation Models of Complex Natural Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, T. K.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2012-07-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters) UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM) camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies) carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre level. The RIM data indicated a high noise level in the measured distance image, due to the vibrations caused by the flight system. Multi-image processing reduced the noise level of the distance image. The produced elevation models from a test area show the high potential of the proposed method for complex structures such as riverbeds.

  16. Recursive, in-place algorithm for the hexagonal orthogonal oriented quadrature image pyramid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1989-01-01

    Pyramid image transforms have proven useful in image coding and pattern recognition. The hexagonal orthogonal oriented quadrature image pyramid (HOP), transforms an image into a set of orthogonal, oriented, odd and even bandpass subimages. It operates on a hexagonal input lattice and employs seven kernels, each of which occupies a neighborhood consisting of a point and a hexagon of six nearest neighbors. The kernels consist of one lowpass and six bandpass kernels that are orthogonal, self-similar, and localized in space, spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. The kernels are first applied to the image samples to create the first level of the pyramid, then to the lowpass coefficients to create the next level. The resulting pyramid is a compact, efficient image code. Here, a recursive, in-place algorithm for computation of the HOP transform is described. The transform may be regarded as a depth-first traversal of a tree structure. It is shown that the algorithm requires a number of operations that is on the order of the number of pixels.

  17. Investigation on improved infrared image detail enhancement algorithm based on adaptive histogram statistical stretching and gradient filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bangze; Zhu, Youpan; Li, Zemin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Lin; Zhao, Deli; Huang, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Duo to infrared image with low contrast, big noise and unclear visual effect, target is very difficult to observed and identified. This paper presents an improved infrared image detail enhancement algorithm based on adaptive histogram statistical stretching and gradient filtering (AHSS-GF). Based on the fact that the human eyes are very sensitive to the edges and lines, the author proposed to extract the details and textures by using the gradient filtering. New histogram could be acquired by calculating the sum of original histogram based on fixed window. With the minimum value for cut-off point, author carried on histogram statistical stretching. After the proper weights given to the details and background, the detail-enhanced results could be acquired finally. The results indicate image contrast could be improved and the details and textures could be enhanced effectively as well.

  18. Detailed imaging of flowing structures at depth using microseismicity: a tool for site investigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharouli, S.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2011-12-01

    Field evidence shows that faults and fractures can act as focused pathways or barriers for fluid migration. This is an important property for modern engineering problems, e.g., CO2 sequestration, geological radioactive waste disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, land reclamation and remediation. For such applications the detailed characterization of the location, orientation and hydraulic properties of existing fractures is necessary. These investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment (excavator or drill rigs), which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they only provide information for discrete sample 'windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), have been used as tools for site investigations. Their imaging ability is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. Our research has shown that high quality seismic data can be successfully used in the detailed imaging of sub-surface structures at depth; using induced microseismicity data recorded beneath the Açu reservoir in Brazil we identified orientations and values of average permeability of open shear fractures at depths up to 2.5km. Could microseismicity also provide information on the fracture width in terms of stress drops? First results from numerical simulations showed that higher stress drop values correspond to narrower fractures. These results were consistent with geological field observations. This study highlights the great potential of using microseismicity data as a supplementary tool for site investigation. Individual large-scale shear fractures in large rock volumes cannot currently be identified by any other geophysical dataset. The resolution of the method is restricted by the detection threshold of the local seismic networks used for the monitoring of the seismic activity. However, it could be significantly increased if complete seismic data sets were available using high-sensitivity seismographs e.g. nanoseismic monitoring.

  19. Can We Evaluate the Impact of a Critical Detail? The Role of a Type of Diagram in Understanding Optical Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viennot, Laurence; Kaminski, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt at evaluating a potentially critical "detail" of teaching practice; that is, using a particular diagram to illustrate the imaging role of a converging lens. This "basic" diagram has been designed to contribute to help students overcome the well-known "travelling image" syndrome. We conducted a comparative study with…

  20. Comparison of low-contrast detail perception on storage phosphor radiographs and digital flat panel detector images.

    PubMed

    Peer, S; Neitzel, U; Giacomuzzi, S M; Peer, R; Gassner, E; Steingruber, I; Jaschke, W

    2001-03-01

    A contrast detail analysis was performed to compare perception of low-contrast details on X-ray images derived from digital storage phosphor radiography and from a flat panel detector system based on a cesium iodide/amorphous silicon matrix. The CDRAD 2.0 phantom was used to perform a comparative contrast detail analysis of a clinical storage phosphor radiography system and an indirect type digital flat panel detector unit. Images were acquired at exposure levels comparable to film speeds of 50/100/200/400 and 800. Four observers evaluated a total of 50 films with respect to the threshold contrast for each detail size. The numbers of correctly identified objects were determined for all image subsets. The overall results show that low-contrast detail perception with digital flat panel detector images is better than with state of the art storage phosphor screens. This is especially true for the low-exposure setting, where a nearly 10% higher correct observation ratio is reached. Given its high detective quantum efficiency the digital flat panel technology based on the cesium iodide scintillator/amorphous silicon matrix is best suited for detection of low-contrast detail structures, which shows its high potential for clinical imaging. PMID:11341713

  1. Enceladus South Polar Terrain Geology: New Details From Cassini ISS High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; Ingersoll, A.; Johnson, T. V.; McEwen, A. S.; Neukum, G.; Perry, J.; Porco, C. C.; Roatsch, T.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft executed a close flyby of Enceladus on August 11 (altitude: 50km); two more are planned for October 9 (altitude: 25 km), and October 31 (altitude: 196 km). High resolution (as fine as 7m/pixel) images of known geologically active features in the South Polar Terrain (SPT) have been returned to investigate how plume eruptions, tectonism, and seismicity alter the surface and to reveal how the SPT has evolved over time. We examined six known eruption sites (Spitale and Porco 2007, Nature 449, 695-697) along Cairo, Baghdad, and Damascus Sulci, as well as inactive portions of the "tiger stripes" and bright fractured terrain in adjacent areas. We also obtained contiguous ISS broadband multi-spectral mosaics of the entire SPT region to refine our geological and digital terrain maps and to search for volcanically and tectonically driven temporal changes. The highest-resolution images show ice blocks up to tens of meters in size that are widely but non-uniformly distributed over a variety of terrain units. The upraised flanks and valley walls of active tiger stripes are mantled in places by smooth fluffy-looking deposits, most likely accumulations of coarse-grained plume fallout. With increasing lateral distance from the stripes, the smooth upraised flank deposits grade into rounded, platy-textured, elongate hills and a conspicuous system of quasi-parallel knobby ridges and grooves that have spacings and dimensions comparable to the tiger stripe flanks themselves. Peculiar narrow lenticular ridges, perhaps emplaced by extrusion or as icy pyroclastic deposits, rise from tens to hundreds of meters along the medial fissures of some tiger stripes. On regional scales, the ends of the tiger stripes are bounded by a complex network of fractured terrain, within which can be found numerous transform faults that lie at high angles relative to the trends of the tiger stripes. Observed offsets along these transforms and an absence of lateral symmetry of the displaced terrains suggest that tiger stripes are not exact analogs to classic terrestrial oceanic rifts. Instead, any possible tectonic divergence is more likely a result of the superposition of many regionally and temporally distributed spreading centers.

  2. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che; Junet, Laila Kalidah

    2015-04-01

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom's hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed` that, Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  3. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    SciTech Connect

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che

    2015-04-24

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  4. Enceladus Close Up: New Details Recovered from Cassini ISS Boresight-Drag Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.

    2013-10-01

    Among the many Cassini ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) images of Enceladus are a few severely-underexposed, motion-blurred images that were acquired on “boresight-drag” events on the closest flybys. During boresight-drags, ISS is statically aimed at a point that intercepts the predicted path of Enceladus’ across the sky. The ISS Narrow angle (NAC) and Wide Angle (WAC) cameras are repeatedly triggered together in hope of serendipitously capturing a close-up “BOTSIM” image-pair of the body as it passes. Because the events are so fast, the surface footprints and lighting geometry cannot be predicted in advance - a cascade of images are just quickly shuttered at the minimum 5 msec exposure. On each of four boresight-drags, surface images were captured. However, the two most recent (image-pair W/N1669812043 in November 2010 and W/N1713106405 in April 2012, respectively) were poorly illuminated -- three of four images only in Saturnshine. Despite their poor signal quality, they are rare images of Enceladus’ surface obtained with spatial resolutions better than a few meters/pixel. Careful use of Fourier filtering and spatial reconstruction techniques was needed to eliminate image noise and residual electronic banding that was not removed during routine radiometric calibration of the images. Fourier motion debluring techniques were then applied to correct for significant motion smear. Images W/N1669812043 (55.1°N, 20.2°W) are in old cratered terrain, inside a prominent 23 km sized impact crater along the rise of its updomed floor. They show a system of parallel ~250m wide mesas trending around the dome’s circumference. Smooth detritus inundates mesas and valleys near the dome summit and the mesa surfaces are otherwise mantled with regolith that is finely cratered down to the ~2 m/pixel NAC resolution limit. W/N1713106405 (66.9°S, 29.5°W) show the chaotically fractured margin of the active South Polar Terrain - an area divided by parallel ridges and troughs with relatively smooth flanks and valley floors. Quasi-linear arrangements of ice-blocks, each block tens of meters or smaller, are found mostly near ridge-tops.

  5. Integration of Point Clouds Originated from Laser Scaner and Photogrammetric Images for Visualization of Complex Details of Historical Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, C.

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of historical buildings are created for documentation and virtual realization of them. Laser scanning and photogrammetry are extensively used to perform for these aims. The selection of the method that will be used in threedimensional modelling study depends on the scale and shape of the object, and also applicability of the method. Laser scanners are high cost instruments. However, the cameras are low cost instruments. The off-the-shelf cameras are used for taking the photogrammetric images. The camera is imaging the object details by carrying on hand while the laser scanner makes ground based measurement. Laser scanner collect high density spatial data in a short time from the measurement area. On the other hand, image based 3D (IB3D) measurement uses images to create 3D point cloud data. The image matching and the creation of the point cloud can be done automatically. Historical buildings include more complex details. Thus, all details cannot be measured by terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) due to the blocking the details with each others. Especially, the artefacts which have complex shapes cannot be measured in full details. They cause occlusion on the point cloud model. However it is possible to record photogrammetric images and creation IB3D point cloud for these areas. Thus the occlusion free 3D model is created by the integration of point clouds originated from the TLS and photogrammetric images. In this study, usability of laser scanning in conjunction with image based modelling for creation occlusion free three-dimensional point cloud model of historical building was evaluated. The IB3D point cloud was created in the areas that could not been measured by TLS. Then laser scanning and IB3D point clouds were integrated in the common coordinate system. The registration point clouds were performed with the iterative closest point (ICP) and georeferencing methods. Accuracy of the registration was evaluated by convergency and its standard deviations for the ICP and residuals on the control points for the georeferencing method.

  6. Large-scale aerial images capture details of invasive plant populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite and aerial remote sensing have been successfully used to measure invasive weed infestations over very large areas, but have limited resolution. Ground-based methods have provided detailed measurements of invasive weeds, but can measure only limited areas. Here we test a novel approach th...

  7. Contextual consistency facilitates long-term memory of perceptual detail in barely seen images.

    PubMed

    Gronau, Nurit; Shachar, Meytal

    2015-08-01

    It is long known that contextual information affects memory for an object's identity (e.g., its basic level category), yet it is unclear whether schematic knowledge additionally enhances memory for the precise visual appearance of an item. Here we investigated memory for visual detail of merely glimpsed objects. Participants viewed pairs of contextually related and unrelated stimuli, presented for an extremely brief duration (24 ms, masked). They then performed a forced-choice memory-recognition test for the precise perceptual appearance of 1 of 2 objects within each pair (i.e., the "memory-target" item). In 3 experiments, we show that memory-target stimuli originally appearing within contextually related pairs are remembered better than targets appearing within unrelated pairs. These effects are obtained whether the target is presented at test with its counterpart pair object (i.e., when reiterating the original context at encoding) or whether the target is presented alone, implying that the contextual consistency effects are mediated predominantly by processes occurring during stimulus encoding, rather than during stimulus retrieval. Furthermore, visual detail encoding is improved whether object relations involve implied action or not, suggesting that, contrary to some prior suggestions, action is not a necessary component for object-to-object associative "grouping" processes. Our findings suggest that during a brief glimpse, but not under long viewing conditions, contextual associations may play a critical role in reducing stimulus competition for attention selection and in facilitating rapid encoding of sensory details. Theoretical implications with respect to classic frame theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010591

  8. A method for detailed analysis of the structure of mast cell secretory granules by negative contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Takakuwa, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) in mast cells contain various molecules that elicit allergy symptoms and are generally considered therapeutic targets. However, the biogenesis, maintenance, regulation, and recycling of these granules remain controversial, mainly due to the lack of suitable live-cell imaging methods. In this study, we applied negative contrast imaging with soluble green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cytoplasm as a method to validate structural information of mast cell SGs. We evaluated the accuracy of the method in detail, and we demonstrated that it can be used for quantitative analysis. Using this technique, secretory granules, the nucleus, mitochondria, and the cell body were visualized in individual RBL-2H3 mast cells without any influence. When combined with conventional multicolor fluorescence imaging, visualization of SG-associated proteins and SG–SG fusion was achieved. Moreover, 3D images were constructed based on this method, and detailed information on the number, size, and shape of individual SGs was obtained. We found that cell volume was correlated with SG number. In summary, the technique provides valuable and unique data, and will therefore advance SG research. PMID:26997316

  9. A method for detailed analysis of the structure of mast cell secretory granules by negative contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Takakuwa, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) in mast cells contain various molecules that elicit allergy symptoms and are generally considered therapeutic targets. However, the biogenesis, maintenance, regulation, and recycling of these granules remain controversial, mainly due to the lack of suitable live-cell imaging methods. In this study, we applied negative contrast imaging with soluble green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cytoplasm as a method to validate structural information of mast cell SGs. We evaluated the accuracy of the method in detail, and we demonstrated that it can be used for quantitative analysis. Using this technique, secretory granules, the nucleus, mitochondria, and the cell body were visualized in individual RBL-2H3 mast cells without any influence. When combined with conventional multicolor fluorescence imaging, visualization of SG-associated proteins and SG-SG fusion was achieved. Moreover, 3D images were constructed based on this method, and detailed information on the number, size, and shape of individual SGs was obtained. We found that cell volume was correlated with SG number. In summary, the technique provides valuable and unique data, and will therefore advance SG research. PMID:26997316

  10. Fractal-feature distance analysis of contrast-detail phantom image and meaning of pseudo fractal dimension and complexity.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Ikeda, M; Enchi, Y; Niimi, T

    2009-12-01

    The purposes of our studies are to examine whether or not fractal-feature distance deduced from virtual volume method can simulate observer performance indices and to investigate the physical meaning of pseudo fractal dimension and complexity. Contrast-detail (C-D) phantom radiographs were obtained at various mAs values (0.5 - 4.0 mAs) and 140 kVp with a computed radiography system, and the reference image was acquired at 13 mAs. For all C-D images, fractal analysis was conducted using the virtual volume method that was devised with a fractional Brownian motion model. The fractal-feature distances between the considered and reference images were calculated using pseudo fractal dimension and complexity. Further, we have performed the C-D analysis in which ten radiologists participated, and compared the fractal-feature distances with the image quality figures (IQF). To clarify the physical meaning of the pseudo fractal dimension and complexity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and standard deviation (SD) of images noise were calculated for each mAs and compared with the pseudo fractal dimension and complexity, respectively. A strong linear correlation was found between the fractal-feature distance and IQF. The pseudo fractal dimensions became large as CNR increased. Further, a linear correlation was found between the exponential complexity and image noise SD. PMID:20169837

  11. Detailed rupture imaging of the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake using teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake with globally recorded teleseismic P waves. The rupture propagated east-southeast from the hypocenter for about 160 km with a duration of ˜55 s. Backprojection of both high-frequency (HF, 0.2 to 3 Hz) and low-frequency (LF, 0.05 to 0.2 Hz) P waves suggest a multistage rupture process. From the low-frequency images, we resolve an initial slow downdip (northward) rupture near the nucleation area for the first 20 s (Stage 1), followed by two faster updip ruptures (20 to 40 s for Stage 2 and 40 to 55 s for Stage 3), which released most of the radiated energy northeast of Kathmandu. The centroid rupture power from LF backprojection agrees well with the Global Centroid Moment Tensor solution. The spatial resolution of the backprojection images is validated by applying similar analysis to nearby aftershocks. The overall rupture pattern agrees well with the aftershock distribution. A multiple-asperity model could explain the observed multistage rupture and aftershock distribution.

  12. Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part II. NPWE as a validated alternative for contrast detail analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, P.; Marshall, N. W.; Bosmans, H.; Bochud, F. O.; Verdun, F. R.

    2011-07-01

    Assessment of image quality for digital x-ray mammography systems used in European screening programs relies mainly on contrast-detail CDMAM phantom scoring and requires the acquisition and analysis of many images in order to reduce variability in threshold detectability. Part II of this study proposes an alternative method based on the detectability index (d') calculated for a non-prewhitened model observer with an eye filter (NPWE). The detectability index was calculated from the normalized noise power spectrum and image contrast, both measured from an image of a 5 cm poly(methyl methacrylate) phantom containing a 0.2 mm thick aluminium square, and the pre-sampling modulation transfer function. This was performed as a function of air kerma at the detector for 11 different digital mammography systems. These calculated d' values were compared against threshold gold thickness (T) results measured with the CDMAM test object and against derived theoretical relationships. A simple relationship was found between T and d', as a function of detector air kerma; a linear relationship was found between d' and contrast-to-noise ratio. The values of threshold thickness used to specify acceptable performance in the European Guidelines for 0.10 and 0.25 mm diameter discs were equivalent to threshold calculated detectability indices of 1.05 and 6.30, respectively. The NPWE method is a validated alternative to CDMAM scoring for use in the image quality specification, quality control and optimization of digital x-ray systems for screening mammography.

  13. Visual acuity-adaptive detail enhancement and shadow noise reduction for iCAM06-based HDR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geun-Young; Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2015-04-01

    An image appearance model is extremely useful for high-dynamic-range image (HDRI) rendering. However, the base-detail separation and the tone compression process for tonal control cause degradations in image quality. This study focuses on the de-saturation, reduced contrast, and noise problems in dark regions that occur through HDRI-rendering. First, we discuss de-saturation compensation using a bilateral filter that is based on the visual acuity characteristics of various illuminant levels. The edge stop function of the bilateral filter in iCAM06 is adaptively modified according to the illuminant information. Second, to reduce the magnified noise in the dark regions caused by tone mapping, the shadow regions are detected by an object's intensity and illuminant level, and then the noise of the detected regions is reduced using a luminance-adaptive coring function. Finally, we confirmed the enhanced color saturation, image contrast, and reduced noise in shadow regions through the application of the proposed methods.

  14. A detailed three-step protocol for live imaging of intracellular traffic in polarized primary porcine RPE monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Toops, Kimberly A.; Tan, Li Xuan; Lakkaraju, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) performs numerous functions that are indispensable for photoreceptor health and vision. This monolayer of cells is also a major site of insult in inherited and age-related macular degenerations. In vitro models of primary RPE such as human fetal and adult RPE cultures have been invaluable for dissecting disease pathways at the cellular and molecular level. However, numerous studies show that it takes over four weeks for human RPE cell monolayers to become fully polarized after plating on semipermeable membrane supports. Poor persistence of transgene expression over this time period critically limits the applicability of human RPE cultures for live imaging studies required to follow dynamic processes like intracellular trafficking and organelle transport that occur over timescales of milliseconds. Here, we provide a detailed three-step protocol for live imaging of polarized primary RPE using high-speed spinning disk confocal microscopy. Step 1: establish porcine RPE monolayers that undergo differentiation within one week after plating on semipermeable membrane supports; step 2: transfect or transduce RPE using either of two different protocols that result in prolonged transgene expression; and step 3: perform multicolor high-speed live imaging of organelle transport in polarized RPE monolayers. Porcine RPE cells and photoreceptor outer segments were isolated from freshly harvested eyes and plated on collagen-coated Transwell® filters to generate polarized monolayers. After seven days, RPE monolayers were highly pigmented, had TER values ≥ 200 Ω.cm2 and cleared outer segments within 5 hours after phagocytosis. These cells expressed RPE65, localized ZO-1 to the tight junction, Na+,K+-ATPase to the apical membrane and acetylated tubulin to the primary cilium. There was an inverse relationship between initial plating density and the time to differentiation. We used nucleofection to express fluorescently tagged genes in RPE cells prior to plating on filters or baculovirus fusion constructs to transfect polarized monolayers. Both these methods resulted in transfection efficiencies over 40% and transgene expression lasted up to 8 days after plating. These filters were imaged by high-speed spinning disk microscopy to follow tubulovesicular trafficking of lysosomes and actin dynamics in the RPE. Four-dimensional image analysis performed using commercially available software was used to analyze live imaging data. In conclusion, this 3-step protocol describes a powerful method to investigate organelle trafficking and function in real time in the RPE that can be used for answering fundamental questions of RPE cell biology and pathobiology. PMID:24861273

  15. Combining Seismic Arrays to Image Detailed Rupture Properties of Large Earthquakes: Evidence for Frequent Triggering of Multiple Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, M.; Kiser, E.

    2010-12-01

    Imaging detailed rupture characteristics using the back-projection method, which time-reverses waveforms to their source, has become feasible in recent years due to the availability of data from large aperture arrays with dense station coverage. In contrast to conventional techniques, this method can quickly and indiscriminately provide the spatio-temporal details of rupture propagation. Though many studies have utilized the back-projection method with a single regional array, the limited azimuthal coverage often leads to skewed resolution. In this study, we enhance the imaging power by combining data from two arrays, i.e., the Transportable Array (TA) in the United States and the High Sensitivity Seismographic Network (Hi-net) in Japan. This approach suppresses artifacts and achieves good lateral resolution by improving distance and azimuthal coverage while maintaining waveform coherence. We investigate four large events using this method: the August 15, 2007 Pisco, Peru earthquake, the September 12, 2007 Southern Sumatra earthquake, the September 29, 2009 Samoa Islands earthquake, and the February 27, 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake. In every case, except the Samoa Islands event, the distance of one of the arrays from the epicenter requires us to use the direct P wave and core phases in the back-projection. One of the common features of the rupture characteristics obtained from the back-projection analysis is spatio-temporal rupture discontinuities, or discrete subevents. Both the size of the gaps and the timing between subevents suggest that multiple segments are involved during giant earthquakes, and that they trigger slip on other faults. For example, the 2009 Samoa Islands event began with a rupture propagating north for about 15 seconds followed by a much larger rupture that originated 30 km northwest of the terminus of the first event and propagated back toward the southeast. The involvement of multiple rupture segments with different slip characteristics suggest that large earthquakes are more complex compared to smaller events.

  16. [Place of indocyanine green coupled with fluorescence imaging in research of breast cancer sentinel node].

    PubMed

    Vermersch, Charlotte; Raia Barjat, Tiphaine; Perrot, Marianne; Lima, Suzanne; Chauleur, Céline

    2016-04-01

    The sentinel node has a fundamental role in the management of early breast cancer. Currently, the double detection of blue and radioisotope is recommended. But in common practice, many centers use a single method. However, with a single detection, the risk of false negatives and the identification failure rate increase to a significant extent and the number of sentinel lymph node detected and removed is not enough. Furthermore, the tracers used until now show inconveniences. The purpose of this work is to present a new method of detection, using the green of indocyanine coupled with fluorescence imaging, and to compare it with the already existing methods. The method combined by fluorescence and isotopic is reliable, sure, of fast learning and could constitute a good strategy of detection. The major interest is to obtain a satisfactory number of sentinel nodes. The profit could be even more important for overweight patients. The fluorescence used alone is at the moment not possible. Wide ranging studies are necessary. The FLUOTECH, randomized study of 100 patients, comparing the isotopic method of double isotope technique and fluorescence, is underway to confirm these data. PMID:26946971

  17. Psychophysical evaluation of the image quality of a dynamic flat-panel digital x-ray image detector using the threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Andrew G.; Cowen, Arnold R.; Bruijns, Tom J. C.

    1999-05-01

    We are currently in an era of active development of the digital X-ray imaging detectors that will serve the radiological communities in the new millennium. The rigorous comparative physical evaluations of such devices are therefore becoming increasingly important from both the technical and clinical perspectives. The authors have been actively involved in the evaluation of a clinical demonstration version of a flat-panel dynamic digital X-ray image detector (or FDXD). Results of objective physical evaluation of this device have been presented elsewhere at this conference. The imaging performance of FDXD under radiographic exposure conditions have been previously reported, and in this paper a psychophysical evaluation of the FDXD detector operating under continuous fluoroscopic conditions is presented. The evaluation technique employed was the threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique, which enables image quality to be measured on devices operating in the clinical environment. This approach addresses image quality in the context of both the image acquisition and display processes, and uses human observers to measure performance. The Leeds test objects TO[10] and TO[10+] were used to obtain comparative measurements of performance on the FDXD and two digital spot fluorography (DSF) systems, one utilizing a Plumbicon camera and the other a state of the art CCD camera. Measurements were taken at a range of detector entrance exposure rates, namely 6, 12, 25 and 50 (mu) R/s. In order to facilitate comparisons between the systems, all fluoroscopic image processing such as noise reduction algorithms, were disabled during the experiments. At the highest dose rate FDXD significantly outperformed the DSF comparison systems in the TCDD comparisons. At 25 and 12 (mu) R/s all three-systems performed in an equivalent manner and at the lowest exposure rate FDXD was inferior to the two DSF systems. At standard fluoroscopic exposures, FDXD performed in an equivalent manner to the DSF systems for the TCDD comparisons. This would suggest that FDXD would therefore perform adequately in a clinical fluoroscopic environment and our initial clinical experiences support this. Noise reduction processing of the fluoroscopic data acquired on FDXD was also found to further improve TCDD performance for FDXD. FDXD therefore combines acceptable fluoroscopic performance with excellent radiographic (snap shot) imaging fidelity, allowing the possibility of a universal x-ray detector to be developed, based on FDXD's technology. It is also envisaged that fluoroscopic performance will be improved by the development of digital image enhancement techniques specifically tailored to the characteristics of the FDXD detector.

  18. The impact of CBCT imaging when placing dental implants in the anterior edentulous mandible: a before–after study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, A; Brunton, P; Goodwin, M; Horner, K

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of CBCT imaging when placing dental implants in the anterior edentulous mandible, using a “before–after” study design. Methods: Eight dental practitioners, who regularly place dental implants in independent dental practice in the North West of England, were presented with realistic simulations of four edentulous cases. The practitioners were asked to assess case difficulty, select implants and then drill osteotomies in preparation for dental implants in the lower canine regions to support a complete overdenture. In the “before” part of the study, a panoramic and a trans-symphyseal view were available. In the “after” part of the study, a CBCT image was added. Perception of case difficulty, implant selection and the incidence of perforations or “near miss perforations” of the lingual cortical plate were recorded. Two cases were regarded as “regular” and two as “challenging”. Results: In challenging cases, the availability of CBCT led practitioners to select narrower implants and to assess cases as more difficult. In the challenging cases only, there were fewer perforations of the lingual cortical plate after the availability of CBCT, but this difference was not statistically significant. There were no perforations in the regular cases either before or after the availability of CBCT. Conclusions: Perception of case difficulty and implant selection are of importance only if they change the outcome for the patient. This study provided weak evidence that CBCT is helpful in avoiding perforations in challenging cases. The availability of CBCT had no impact in regular cases. PMID:25472617

  19. Detailed Decomposition of Galaxy Images II: Fitting Spiral Arms, Bars, and Non-axisymmetric Structures in GALFIT 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chien Y.; Ho, L. C.; Impey, C. D.; Rix, H. W.

    2007-12-01

    The technique of fitting galaxy light profiles with analytic functions (e.g. de Vaucouleurs, exponential), also known as parametric fitting, has been a useful tool for studying galaxy structure and evolution. It is often used to quantify global properties of galaxies such as luminosity, size, ellipticity, and profile shape in a self-consistent manner. It also allows one to deblend multiple components of a galaxy, e.g. bulge/disk/bar/AGN, or to separate overlapping galaxies in a rigorous and robust way. However, the traditional method of fitting galaxies relies on using ellipsoid models, which is sometimes criticized to argue in favor of non-parametric techniques. In this study, we show that two dimensional image fitting is not fundamentally restricted to using axisymmetric ellipsoid shapes. By breaking from axisymmetry parametrically through the use of Fourier modes, one can better quantify the degree of galaxy irregularity in an intuitive and well-motivated manner. We also introduce a technique that allows one to fit spiral structures in late-type galaxies through the use of coordinate rotation. By comparing with more realistic models now possible, we find that the traditional use of simple ellipsoid models is robust even on irregular and spiral galaxies, because single component fits are by nature large scale averages. However, when it comes to quantifying sub-components of a galaxy, sometimes it is necessary to model structures in detail, such as when performing bulge-to-disk decomposition of galaxies with strong spiral arms, or quantifying the symmetry due to bright (e.g. bulge) and faint (e.g. disk) galaxy sub-components separately. These new techniques are implemented in GALFIT 3.0 (http://www.ociw.edu/ peng/work/galfit/galfit.html ). CYP gratefully acknowledges support from the Plaskett Fellowship (NRC-HIA) and the Institute/Giacconi Fellowship (STScI) programs.

  20. Real-time visualization of low contrast targets from high-dynamic range infrared images based on temporal digital detail enhancement filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Frederic; Schockaert, Cedric; Mirbach, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    An image detail enhancement method to effectively visualize low contrast targets in high-dynamic range (HDR) infrared (IR) images is presented regardless of the dynamic range width. In general, high temperature dynamics from real-world scenes used to be encoded in a 12 or 14 bits IR image. However, the limitations of the human visual perception, from which no more than 128 shades of gray are distinguishable, and the 8-bit working range of common display devices make necessary an effective 12/14 bits HDR mapping into the 8-bit data representation. To do so, we propose to independently treat the base and detail image components that result from splitting the IR image using two dedicated guided filters. We also introduce a plausibility mask from which those regions that are prominent to present noise are accurately defined to be explicitly tackled to avoid noise amplification. The final 8-bit data representation results from the combination of the processed detail and base image components and its mapping to the 8-bit domain using an adaptive histogram-based projection approach. The limits of the histogram are accommodated through time in order to avoid global brightness fluctuations between frames. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed noise-aware approach preserves low contrast details with an overall contrast enhancement of the image. A comparison with widely used HDR mapping approaches and runtime analysis is also provided. Furthermore, the proposed mathematical formulation enables a real-time adjustment of the global contrast and brightness, letting the operator adapt to the visualization display device without nondesirable artifacts.

  1. Functional hyperspectral imaging captures subtle details of cell metabolism in olfactory neurosphere cells, disease-specific models of neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Gosnell, Martin E; Anwer, Ayad G; Cassano, Juan C; Sue, Carolyn M; Goldys, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging uses spectral and spatial image information for target detection and classification. In this work hyperspectral autofluorescence imaging was applied to patient olfactory neurosphere-derived cells, a cell model of a human metabolic disease MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like syndrome). By using an endogenous source of contrast subtle metabolic variations have been detected between living cells in their full morphological context which made it possible to distinguish healthy from diseased cells before and after therapy. Cellular maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant cell subpopulations, in particular a subpopulation with compromised mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results demonstrate that multispectral spectral imaging provides a new non-invasive method to investigate neurodegenerative and other disease models, and it paves the way for novel cellular characterisation in health, disease and during treatment, with proper account of intrinsic cellular heterogeneity. PMID:26431992

  2. Devilish Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small, springtime dust devil creating a dark streak on the plains of Argyre. The small, bright dot is the dust devil. Many other dark streaks on the plains indicate the areas where other dust devils had passed within the past several weeks before this July 2005 image was acquired.

    Location near: 44.6oS, 40.3oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  3. Details of Glaucomatous Damage Are Better Seen on OCT En Face Images Than on OCT Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Maps

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Donald C.; Fortune, Brad; Mavrommatis, Maria A.; Reynaud, Juan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Ritch, Robert; Rosen, Richard B.; Muhammad, Hassan; Dubra, Alfredo; Chui, Toco Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose High-resolution images of glaucomatous damage to the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were obtained with an adaptive optics-scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) and used as a basis for comparisons between en face slab images and thickness maps derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Methods Wide-field (9 × 12 mm) cube scans were obtained with swept-source OCT (DRI-OCT) from six eyes of six patients. All eyes had a deep defect near fixation as seen on a 10-2 visual field test. Optical coherence tomography en face images, based on the average reflectance intensity, were generated (ATL 3D-Suite) from 52-μm slabs just below the vitreal border of the inner limiting membrane. The RNFL thickness maps were generated from the same OCT data. Both were compared with the AO-SLO peripapillary images that were previously obtained. Results On AO-SLO images, three eyes showed small regions of preserved and/or missing RNFL bundles within the affected region. Details in these regions were seen on the OCT en face images but not on the RNFL thickness maps. In addition, in the healthier hemi-retinas of two eyes, there were darker, arcuate-shaped regions on en face images that corresponded to abnormalities seen on AO-SLO. These were not seen on RNFL thickness maps. Conclusions Details of local glaucomatous damage, missing or easily overlooked on traditional OCT RNFL thickness analysis used in clinical OCT reports, were seen on OCT en face images based on the average reflectance intensity. While more work is needed, it is likely that en face slab imaging has a role in the clinical management of glaucoma. PMID:26426403

  4. High-resolution single-molecule recognition imaging of the molecular details of ricin-aptamer interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular details of DNA aptamer-ricin interactions were investigated. The toxic protein ricin molecules were immobilized on Au(111) surface using N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to specifically react with lysine residues located on the ricin B chains. A single ricin molecule was visualized in ...

  5. Dynamism & Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    New material discovered in the study of cell research is presented for the benefit of biology teachers. Huge amounts of data are being generated in fields like cellular dynamics, and it is felt that people's understanding of the cell is becoming much more complex and detailed.

  6. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  7. Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution within Carbonate Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Pennington; Mohamed Ibrahim; Roger Turpening; Sean Trisch; Josh Richardson; Carol Asiala; Walid Mabrouk

    2008-09-30

    Crosswell seismic surveys were conducted at two fields in northern Michigan. One of these, Springdale, included two monitor wells that are located external to the reef, and the other, Coldspring, employed two production wells within the reef. The Springdale wells extended to much greater depths than the reef, and imaging was conducted from above and from beneath the reef. The resulting seismic images provide the best views of pinnacle Niagaran reefs obtained to date. The tops of the reservoirs can be clearly distinguished, and their lateral extent or dipping edges can be observed along the profile. Reflecting events internal to the reef are evident; some of them are fairly continuous across the reef and others are discontinuous. Inversion of the seismic data indicates which events represent zones of higher porosity and which are lower porosity or even anhydrite plugged. The full stacked image includes angles that are beyond critical for many of the interfaces, and some reflections are visible only for a small range of angles, presumably near their critical angle. Stacking these angles in provides an opportunity for these events to be seen on the stacked image, where otherwise they would have been unrecognized. For inversion, however, the complexity associated with phase changes beyond critical can lead to poor results, and elastic inversion of partial angle stacks may be best conducted with restrictions to angles less than critical. Strong apparent attenuation of signals occurs when seismic ray paths pass through the upper part of the Springdale reservoir; this may be due to intrinsic attenuation and/or scattering of events due to the locally strongly varying gas saturation and extremely low fluid pressures. Signal-to-noise limitations become evident far from the source well in the Coldspring study, probably because the raw data were strongly affected by tube-wave noise generated by flow through the perforation of the receiver well. The seismic images obtained, and interpretations of them, as assisted by Amplitude-versus-Angle studies and accompanying inversion, provide additional insight into the internal geometry of these two reefs and provide data that should be useful for reservoir management.

  8. Detailed in situ laser calibration of the infrared imaging video bolometer for the JT-60U tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Parchamy, H.; Peterson, B. J.; Konoshima, S.; Hayashi, H.; Seo, D. C.; Ashikawa, N

    2006-10-15

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) in JT-60U includes a single graphite-coated gold foil with an effective area of 9x7 cm{sup 2} and a thickness of 2.5 {mu}m. The thermal images of the foil resulting from the plasma radiation are provided by an IR camera. The calibration technique of the IRVB gives confidence in the absolute levels of the measured values of the plasma radiation. The in situ calibration is carried out in order to obtain local foil properties such as the thermal diffusivity {kappa} and the product of the thermal conductivity k and the thickness t{sub f} of the foil. These quantities are necessary for solving the two-dimensional heat diffusion equation of the foil which is used in the experiments. These parameters are determined by comparing the measured temperature profiles (for kt{sub f}) and their decays (for {kappa}) with the corresponding results of a finite element model using the measured HeNe laser power profile as a known radiation power source. The infrared camera (Indigo/Omega) is calibrated by fitting the temperature rise of a heated plate to the resulting camera data using the Stefan-Boltzmann law.

  9. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  10. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  11. Label-free and highly sensitive optical imaging of detailed microcirculation within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yali; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that the detailed blood flow distribution within intracranial dura mater and cortex can be visualized by an ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG). The study uses an UHS-OMAG system operating at 1310 nm with an imaging speed at 150 frames per second that requires ~10 s to complete one 3-D scan of ~2.5×2.5 mm2. The system is sensitive to blood flow with a velocity ranging from ~4 μm/s to ~23 mm/s. We show superior performance of UHS-OMAG in providing functional images of capillary level microcirculation within meninges in mice with the cranium left intact, the results of which correlate well with the standard dural histopathology.

  12. Upper Yosemite Falls Detail

    In this image, a detailed view Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen from the Yosemite Falls Trail. Upper Yosemite Falls has a total plunge of 1,430 ft (440 m). Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

  13. Characterizing accuracy of total hemoglobin recovery using contrast-detail analysis in 3D image-guided near infrared spectroscopy with the boundary element method

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyani, Hamid R.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) obtained from multi-modality image-guided near infrared spectroscopy (IG-NIRS) was characterized using the boundary element method (BEM) for 3D image reconstruction. Multi-modality IG-NIRS systems use a priori information to guide the reconstruction process. While this has been shown to improve resolution, the effect on quantitative accuracy is unclear. Here, through systematic contrast-detail analysis, the fidelity of IG-NIRS in quantifying HbT was examined using 3D simulations. These simulations show that HbT could be recovered for medium sized (20mm in 100mm total diameter) spherical inclusions with an average error of 15%, for the physiologically relevant situation of 2:1 or higher contrast between background and inclusion. Using partial 3D volume meshes to reduce the ill-posed nature of the image reconstruction, inclusions as small as 14mm could be accurately quantified with less than 15% error, for contrasts of 1.5 or higher. This suggests that 3D IG-NIRS provides quantitatively accurate results for sizes seen early in treatment cycle of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the tumors are larger than 30mm. PMID:20720975

  14. Secret Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  15. Sanctified Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Cynthia S.

    2010-01-01

    Cynthia Harnisch shares her unique perspective on the revered place that museums and community arts organizations occupy in the lives of the people they serve. She relates how, as vice president of the Autry National Center in 1994, she came to be introduced to Inner-City Arts and through that introduction discovered a new respect and recognition

  16. Flooded Place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a flood-carved canyon within the larger Kasei Valles system on Mars. This canyon is the result of the very last flood event that poured through the Kasei valleys, long ago.

    Location near: 21.1oN, 72.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  17. Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH(i)-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Christof; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker D.

    2001-12-14

    In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded with ammonia in the fuel stream. We have performed numerical simulations with detailed chemistry as well as laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements for a range of ammonia injection rates. For comparison with the experimental data, synthetic LIF images are calculated based on the numerical data accounting for temperature and fluorescence quenching effects. We demonstrate good agreement between measurements and computations. The LIF corrections inferred from the simulation are then used to calculate absolute NO mole fractions from the measured signal.The NO formation in both doped and undoped flames occurs in the flame sheet. In the undoped flame, four different mechanisms including thermal and prompt NO appear to contribute to NO formation. As the NH3 seeding level increases, fuel-NO becomes the dominant mechanism and N2 shifts from being a net reactant to being a net product. Nitric oxide in the undoped flame as well as in the core region of the doped flames are underpredicted by the model; we attribute this mainly to inaccuracies in the NO recycling chemistry on the fuel-rich side of the flame sheet.

  18. X-MIME: An Imaging X-ray Spectrometer for Detailed Study of Jupiter's Icy Moons and the Planet's X-ray Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Such maps would provide important constraints on formation and evolution scenarios for the surfaces of these moons. Here we describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIMO mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.

  19. Investigation of optimal display size for viewing T1-weighted MR images of the brain using a digital contrast-detail phantom.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideki; Kuwahata, Nao; Hattori, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Haruyuki

    2016-01-01

    We clarified the relationship between the display size of MRI images and observer performance using a digital contrast-detail (d-CD) phantom. The d-CD phantom was developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Express. It had a 512 × 512 matrix in size and a total of 100 holes, whose diameter increased stepwise from 4 to 40 pixels with a 4-pixel interval in the vertical direction; the contrast varied stepwise in the horizontal direction. The digital driving level (DDL) of the back-ground, the width of the DDL, and the contrast were adjustable. These parameters were determined on the basis of the actual T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain. In this study, the DDL, width, and contrast were set to 85, 20, and 1, respectively. The observer performance study was performed for three different display sizes (30 cm × 30 cm as the enlarged size, 16 cm × 16 cm as the original size, and 10 cm × 10 cm as the reduced size) using a 2-megapixel color liquid crystal display monitor, and it was analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon statistical tests. The observer performances for the original display (p < 0.01) and the reduced display sizes (p < 0.01) were superior to that observed for the enlarged size, whereas there was no significant difference between the original display and reduced display sizes (p = 0.31). Evaluation with the digital phantom simulating MR imaging also revealed that the original and reduced display sizes were superior to the enlarged display size in observer performance. The d-CD phantom enables a short-term evaluation of observer performance and is useful in analyzing relation-ship between display size and observer performance. PMID:26894360

  20. South Polar Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows details among some of the eroded layer outcrops of the martian south polar region. Much of the south polar region of Mars is covered by a thick unit of layered material. For decades, the layers have been assumed to consist of a mixture of dust and ice, but it is equally possible that the materials are sedimentary rocks. This image was captured during southern spring, at a time when some of the surface was still covered by seasonal carbon dioxide (CO2) frost.

    Location near: 86.5oS, 116.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals detailed spatial and temporal distribution of iron-based nanoparticles transported through water-saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Laure; Herrling, Maria Pia; Guthausen, Gisela; Horn, Harald; Delay, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The application of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) such as iron-based ENP in environmental systems or in the human body inevitably raises the question of their mobility. This also includes aspects of product optimization and assessment of their environmental fate. Therefore, the key aim was to investigate the mobility of iron-based ENP in water-saturated porous media. Laboratory-scale transport experiments were conducted using columns packed with quartz sand as model solid phase. Different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) were selected to study the influence of primary particle size (d(P)=20 nm and 80 nm) and surface functionalization (plain, -COOH and -NH2 groups) on particle mobility. In particular, the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the transport and retention behaviour of SPION was investigated. In our approach, a combination of conventional breakthrough curve (BTC) analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively and non-destructively visualize the SPION inside the column was applied. Particle surface properties (surface functionalization and resulting zeta potential) had a major influence while their primary particle size turned out to be less relevant. In particular, the mobility of SPION was significantly increased in the presence of NOM due to the sorption of NOM onto the particle surface resulting in a more negative zeta potential. MRI provided detailed spatially resolved information complementary to the quantitative BTC results. The approach can be transferred to other porous systems and contributes to a better understanding of particle transport in environmental porous media and porous media in technical applications. PMID:26335945

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals detailed spatial and temporal distribution of iron-based nanoparticles transported through water-saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuny, Laure; Herrling, Maria Pia; Guthausen, Gisela; Horn, Harald; Delay, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The application of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) such as iron-based ENP in environmental systems or in the human body inevitably raises the question of their mobility. This also includes aspects of product optimization and assessment of their environmental fate. Therefore, the key aim was to investigate the mobility of iron-based ENP in water-saturated porous media. Laboratory-scale transport experiments were conducted using columns packed with quartz sand as model solid phase. Different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) were selected to study the influence of primary particle size (dP = 20 nm and 80 nm) and surface functionalization (plain, -COOH and -NH2 groups) on particle mobility. In particular, the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the transport and retention behaviour of SPION was investigated. In our approach, a combination of conventional breakthrough curve (BTC) analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively and non-destructively visualize the SPION inside the column was applied. Particle surface properties (surface functionalization and resulting zeta potential) had a major influence while their primary particle size turned out to be less relevant. In particular, the mobility of SPION was significantly increased in the presence of NOM due to the sorption of NOM onto the particle surface resulting in a more negative zeta potential. MRI provided detailed spatially resolved information complementary to the quantitative BTC results. The approach can be transferred to other porous systems and contributes to a better understanding of particle transport in environmental porous media and porous media in technical applications.

  4. Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Rosell, Joan; Gutiérrez, Mateo

    2015-07-01

    Detailed geomorphological-geological mapping in Canelles Reservoir, the Spanish Pyrenees, reveals the presence of several large landslides overlooked in previous cartographic works. One of the slope movements, designated as the Canelles landslide, corresponds to a 40 × 106 m3 translational landslide reactivated in 2006 by a severe decline in the reservoir water level. The geomorphic features mapped in the upper part of the Canelles landslide, including surface ruptures corroborated by electrical resistivity imaging and trenching, indicate multiple displacement episodes previous to the 2006 human-induced event. Consistently, the stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench record at least two displacement events older and larger in magnitude than the 2006 reactivation. The oldest recorded event occurred in the 6th to 7th Centuries and the second in 1262-1679 yr AD. This latter episode might be correlative to the 1373 Ribagorza earthquake (Mw 6.2), which caused the reactivation of a landslide and the consequent destruction of a village in the adjacent valley. The available data indicate that over more than one millennium the kinematics of the landslide has been characterised by discrete small-displacement episodes. These data, together with the available literature on rapid rockslides, do not concur with the acceleration predicted by modelling in a previous investigation, which foresees a speed of 16 m s- 1 despite the low average dip of the sliding surface (9-10°). This case study illustrates that the trenching technique may provide valuable practical information on the past behaviour of landslides, covering a much broader time span than instrumental and historical records.

  5. 17. A closeup detail, looking east from the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. A close-up detail, looking east from the northeast corner of the roadbed. This image shows the concrete commemorative inscription which is let into the inside of the eastern balustrade at the north end of the bridge. The name of one of the county commissioners has been chiselled out of the inscription. The parting fault between the parapet and its coping is evident. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  6. A Sense of Place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Labeled image for A Sense of Place

    NASA's Mars Exploration rover Spirit continues to descend along the east side of the 'Columbia Hills,' taking panoramic views of surrounding terrain at the end of each day of driving. This helps members of the science team get a sense of place before proceeding, kind of the way a hiker pauses now and then to view the scenery. Scientists and engineers use panoramas like this to select interesting rocks and soils for further study and to plan a safe path for the rover.

    In this image mosaic, Spirit is pausing to take a good look around while descending due east toward a ridge nicknamed 'Haskin Ridge.' Before driving the rest of the way down, Spirit will take a panoramic image of the large, deep basin to the left of the ridge, labeled 'East Basin,' which was not visible from the summit. A longer-term destination is the prominent, round, platform-like feature labeled 'Home Plate.'

    This 360-degree panorama was assembled from images Spirit took with its navigation camera on the 651st martian day, or sol (Nov. 2, 2005), of its exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  8. Detailed imaging of the 2007 Pisco co-seismic and post-seismic deformation - implications on the seismogenic behavior of subduction megathrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfettini, H.; Sladen, A.; Avouac, J.; Simons, M.; Nocquet, J.; Bondoux, F.; Kositsky, A.; Chlieh, M.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Konca, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Farber, D.; Ortega, F. H.

    2009-12-01

    In the last couple of decades, advances in the analysis techniques and instrumentation have improved significantly our capability to document the different stages of the seismic cycle, namely the co-, post- and inter-seismic phases. To this respect, the Mw8.0 Pisco, Peru, earthquake of August 2007 is exemplary, with numerous data sets allowing to explore the details of each phase and study their relationship. We derive a kinematic model of the coseismic rupture from the joint non-linear inversion of teleseismic and six Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images. Our preferred model indicates a remarkable anti-correlation between the co-seismic slip distribution and the aftershock distribution determined from the Peruvian seismic network. The proposed source model is compatible with regional run-up measurements and open-ocean tsunami records. In particular, the tsunami observations validate that the rupture did not extend to the trench, and confirm that the Pisco event is not a tsunami earthquake despite its low apparent rupture velocity (< 1.5 km/s). We favor the interpretation that the earthquake consists of 2 subevents, each with a conventional rupture velocity (2-4 km/s). The delay between the 2 subevents might reflect the time for the second shock to nucleate or, alternatively, the time it took for afterslip to increase the stress level on the second asperity to a level necessary for static triggering. The source model predicts uplift offshore and subsidence onland with the pivot line following the changes in curvature of the coastline. This observation set the Pisco earthquake as one of the best examples of a link between the geomorphology of the coastline and the pattern of surface deformation induced by large interplate ruptures. The post-seismic deformation following the mainshock is studied using a local network of continuous GPS stations and the PCAIM inversion method. The inversion indicates that the two patches of co-seismic slip triggered aseismic frictional afterslip on two other adjacent patches. The most prominent of those post-seismic patches coincides with the subducting Nazca ridge, an area also characterized by a locally low interseismic coupling and which seems to have acted as a barrier to seismic rupture propagation repeatedly in the past. The ’seismogenic’ portion of the megathrust thus appears to be paved with interfingering of rate-weakening and rate-strengthening patches. The rate-strengthening patches are shown to contribute to an unsuspectedly high proportion of aseismic slip and to determine the extent and frequency of large interplate earthquakes. Aseismic slip accounts for as much as 50-70% of the slip budget on the seismogenic portion of the megathrust of central Peru and the return period of Mw 8.0 earthquakes in the Pisco area is estimated to 250 years.

  9. Moon over Half Dome Detail

    In this image, the Moon may be seen in detail rising over Half Dome. Half Dome is a granite dome, rising about 4,737 ft (1,444 m) above the surrounding valley. It is part of the Sierra Nevada batholith and is one of Yosemite National Park's most famous features....

  10. Ventricular Arrhythmias from the Left Ventricular Summit: Critical Importance of Anatomy, Imaging, and Detailed Mapping to Allow Safe and Effective Ablation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Tedrow, Usha B; Stevenson, William G

    2016-03-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias arising from the region of the left ventricular summit can be challenging for catheter-based percutaneous ablation. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of this region and the need of high-density mapping of surrounding structures are critical in ensuring safe and effective ablation. This case-based review focuses on the particular challenges with ablation in this region. PMID:26920176

  11. Limitations Placed on the Time Coverage, Isoplanatic Patch Size and Exposure Time for Solar Observations Using Image Selection Procedures in the Presence of Telescope Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Rimmele, T. R.

    1996-12-01

    Image selection, adaptive optics and post-facto image restoration methods are all techniques being used for diffraction limited imaging with ground-based solar and stellar telescopes. Often these techniques are used in a hybrid form like e.g. the application of adaptive optics and/or post-facto image restoration in combination with already good images obtained by image selection in periods of good seeing. Fried (JOSA 56, 1372, 1966), Hecquet and Coupinot (J. Optics/Paris 16, 21, 1985) and Beckers ("Solar and Stellar Granulation", Kluwer, Rutten & Severino Eds, 55, 1988) already discussed the usefulness of image selection, or the "Lucky Observer" mode, for high resolution imaging. All assumed perfect telescope optics. In case of moderate telescope aberrations image selection can still lead to diffraction limited imaging but only when the atmospheric wavefront aberration happens to compensate that of the telescope. In this "Very Lucky Observer" mode the probability of obtaining a good image is reduced over the un-aberrated case, as are the size of the isoplanatic patch and the exposure time. We describe an analysis of these effects for varying telescope aberrations. These result in a strong case for the removal of telescope aberrations either by initial implementation or by the use of slow active optics.

  12. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Fu Hai; Cooray, A.; Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Baker, A. J.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Coppin, K.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Hopwood, R.; and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies discovered by Herschel.

  13. Rossby-wave driven stirring of the UTLS - a detailed view on the intricately layered structure by the 3-D imaging limb-sounder GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, J.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Hoepfner, M.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Gimballed Limb Radiance Imager of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is a new instrument that combines a classical Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with a 2-D detector array. Imaging allows the spatial sampling to be improved by up to an order of magnitude when compared to a limb scanning instrument. GLORIA is designed to operate on various high altitude research platforms. The instrument is a joint development of the German Helmholtz Large Research Facilities Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Research Centre Juelich (FZJ). GLORIA builds upon the heritage of KIT and FZJ in developing and operating IR limb sounders (MIPAS, CRISTA). In Summer 2012, GLORIA was an integral part of the first large missions for the German research aircraft HALO dedicated to atmospheric research, TACTS and ESMVAL. The data span latitudes from 80°N to 65°S and include several tomographic flight patterns that allow the 3-D reconstruction of observed air masses. We provide an overview of the heterogeneous structure of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) as observed over Europe. Retrieved water vapor and ozone are used to identify the tropospheric or stratospheric character of air masses and can thus be used to visualize the multi-species 2-D (and partly 3-D) chemical structure of the UTLS. A highly intricate structure is found consisting often of fine-scale layers extending only several hundred meters in the vertical. These horizontally large-scale structures are thus below the typical vertical resolution of current chemistry climate models. Trajectory studies reveal the origin of the filaments to be Rossby wave-breaking events over the Pacific and Atlantic that cause tropical air stemming from the general area of the Asian monsoon to be mixed across the jet-stream into the subtropical lowermost stratosphere. These results demonstrate a rich spatial structure of the UTLS region at the subtropical jet, where the tropopause break is perturbed by breaking Rossby waves. The frequency of such observations seems to indicate that such a highly heterogeneous state is a regular occurrence for the UTLS in summer over Europe. Further tomographic processing of GLORIA data will deliver further 3-D snapshots of stirred filaments.

  14. Putting Place Value in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the concept of "moving one place to the left." A recent investigation by Thompson and Bramald explored the relationship between young children's understanding of place value and their ability to add two-digit numbers. The study took the form of a series of one-to-one interviews with a sample of 144 children…

  15. Places for Pedagogies, Pedagogies for Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhn, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Working with an understanding of assemblage as the ad hoc groupings of vibrant materials and elements, this article argues that conceptualizing place as an assemblage opens possibilities for bridging the gap between subjects and objects that continue to structure pedagogy. Considering "place" as an assemblage of humans and their multiple "others"…

  16. It's time for a crisper image of the Face of the Earth: Landsat and climate time series for massive land cover & climate change mapping at detailed resolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Xavier; Miquel, Ninyerola; Oscar, González-Guerrero; Cristina, Cea; Pere, Serra; Alaitz, Zabala; Lluís, Pesquer; Ivette, Serral; Joan, Masó; Cristina, Domingo; Maria, Serra Josep; Jordi, Cristóbal; Chris, Hain; Martha, Anderson; Juanjo, Vidal

    2014-05-01

    Combining climate dynamics and land cover at a relative coarse resolution allows a very interesting approach to global studies, because in many cases these studies are based on a quite high temporal resolution, but they may be limited in large areas like the Mediterranean. However, the current availability of long time series of Landsat imagery and spatially detailed surface climate models allow thinking on global databases improving the results of mapping in areas with a complex history of landscape dynamics, characterized by fragmentation, or areas where relief creates intricate climate patterns that can be hardly monitored or modeled at coarse spatial resolutions. DinaCliVe (supported by the Spanish Government and ERDF, and by the Catalan Government, under grants CGL2012-33927 and SGR2009-1511) is the name of the project that aims analyzing land cover and land use dynamics as well as vegetation stress, with a particular emphasis on droughts, and the role that climate variation may have had in such phenomena. To meet this objective is proposed to design a massive database from long time series of Landsat land cover products (grouped in quinquennia) and monthly climate records (in situ climate data) for the Iberian Peninsula (582,000 km2). The whole area encompasses 47 Landsat WRS2 scenes (Landsat 4 to 8 missions, from path 197 to 202 and from rows 30 to 34), and 52 Landsat WRS1 scenes (for the previous Landsat missions, 212 to 221 and 30 to 34). Therefore, a mean of 49.5 Landsat scenes, 8 quinquennia per scene and a about 6 dates per quinquennium , from 1975 to present, produces around 2376 sets resulting in 30 m x 30 m spatial resolution maps. Each set is composed by highly coherent geometric and radiometric multispectral and multitemporal (to account for phenology) imagery as well as vegetation and wetness indexes, and several derived topographic information (about 10 Tbyte of data). Furthermore, on the basis on a previous work: the Digital Climatic Atlas of the Iberian Peninsula, spatio-temporal surface climate data has been generated with a monthly resolution (from January 1950 to December 2010) through a multiple regression model and residuals spatial interpolation using geographic variables (altitude, latitude and continentality) and solar radiation (only in the case of temperatures). This database includes precipitation, mean minimum and mean maximum air temperature and mean air temperature, improving the previous one by using the ASTER GDEM at 30 m spatial resolution, by deepening to a monthly resolution and by increasing the number of meteorological stations used, representing a total amount of 0.7 Tbyte of data. An initial validation shows accuracies higher than 85 % for land cover maps and an RMS of 1.2 ºC, 1.6 ºC and 22 mm for mean and extreme temperatures, and for precipitation, respectively. This amount of new detailed data for the Iberian Peninsula framework will be used to study the spatial direction, velocity and acceleration of the tendencies related to climate change, land cover and tree line dynamics. A global analysis using all these datasets will try to discriminate the climatic signal when interpreted together with anthropogenic driving forces. Ultimately, getting ready for massive database computation and analysis will improve predictions for global models that will require of the growing high-resolution information available.

  17. Imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH): Details of passive-source seismic deployment and preliminary 3-D velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Denlinger, R. P.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Vidale, J. E.; Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Schultz, A.

    2014-12-01

    The imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment aims to delineate the extent of the magmatic system beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH) in Washington State. The experiment involves active- and passive-source seismology, magnetotellurics, and geochemistry/petrology. Seventy passive-source broadband seismometers were deployed in a 100-km-diameter array centered on MSH, with an average spacing of 10 km, and a planned duration of two years. The deployment over two weeks in June 2014 involved a group of 18 people split into 6 teams. Approximately half of the seismic stations have aircell batteries and/or pole-mounted solar panels in order to maintain power through deep snow at higher elevations during the winter months. Data will be retrieved 2-4 times a year throughout the duration of the experiment. The first service run performed in mid-July 2014 had a 98.4% data recovery. This is one of the largest wide-aperture two-dimensional arrays covering a volcano anywhere. The active-source portion of the experiment successfully set off 23 shots in late-July 2014. These were recorded clearly at permanent stations run by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network up to 200 km away, and are expected to be well-recorded on many of the 70 broadband seismometers in addition to the 2500 Reftek "Texans" deployed temporarily for this purpose. For the 2-4 weeks of broadband data collected in July, local earthquakes down to magnitude 0 are recorded across the array, with clear P- and S- arrivals. Earthquakes of this size occur daily within 50 km of MSH. We are keeping a careful catalog of all activity in the region for the duration of the iMUSH experiment. We will pick P- and S-wave travel times at the 70 broadband stations from local earthquakes and active shots, for available data from between June and October 2014. We will also use a tomographic code (Preston et al, 2003, Science) to invert the travel times to obtain preliminary earthquake location and 3-D velocity structure.

  18. Place and Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannatella, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Do places matter educationally? When Edward Casey remarks: "The world is, minimally and forever, a place-world", we might take this statement as presupposing without argument that places exist as a given, that we know what a place is, a point that Aristotle would have never taken for granted and in fact neither does Casey. I find Casey's remark…

  19. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  20. Images of a place and vacation preferences: Implications of the 1989 surveys for assessing the economic impacts of a nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Flynn, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    In July, 1989 the authors produced a report titled Perceived Risk, Stigma, and Potential Economic Impacts of a High-Level Nuclear-Waste Repository in Nevada (Slovic et al., 1989). That report described a program of research designed to assess the potential impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. It was concluded that adverse economic impacts potentially may result from two related social processes. Specifically, the study by Slovic et al. employed analyses of imagery in order to overcome concerns about the validity of direct questions regarding the influence of a nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain upon a person`s future behaviors. During the latter months of 1989, data were collected in three major telephone surveys, designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to replicate the results from the Phoenix, Arizona, surveys using samples from other populations that contribute to tourism, migration, and development in Nevada; (2) to retest the original Phoenix respondents to determine the stability of their images across an 18-month time period and to determine whether their vacation choices subsequent to the first survey were predictable from the images they produced in that original survey; (3) to elicit additional word-association images for the stimulus underground nuclear waste repository in order to determine whether the extreme negative images generated by the Phoenix respondents would occur with other samples of respondents; and (4) to develop and test a new method for imagery elicitation, based upon a rating technique rather than on word associations. 2 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Place and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, David

    2013-01-01

    David Orr's classic article links education to living in the outdoors and studying all disciplines through the unifying lens of place. Pedagogy of place counters abstraction, it is the natural world embodying principles of learning that involve direct observation, investigation, experimentation, and manual skills. Place is the laboratory providing…

  2. Detail of pahoehoe lobe

    A detail of a pahoehoe lobe at the top of a tumulus. The upper crust that is lifted up during the formation of a tumulus is typically quite vesicular (has lots of bubbled trapped in it). Roza Formation, Columbia River Basalt Group. Southwest of Quincy, WA. Tumuli are structures usually associated w...

  3. Illilouette Falls Detail

    In this image, Illilouettea Falls, a tributary of the Merced River can be seen just upstream of Happy Isles and the USGS Benchmark Streamgage in Yosemite National Park. The Merced River is a 145 mile (233 km) long tributary of the San Joaquin River. It drains a large section of the Sierra Nevad...

  4. Detail One Half of Wood Truss, Detail One Quarter Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail One Half of Wood Truss, Detail One Quarter Plan of Floor Beams & Bottom Truss Cord, Detail at A Plan, Detail at B Plan - Covered Bridge, Spanning Darby Creek, North Lewisburg, Champaign County, OH

  5. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  6. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  7. [Comparison of film-screen combinations in contrast-detail diagram and with interactive image analysis. 3: Trimodal histograms of gray scale distribution in bar groups of lead pattern images].

    PubMed

    Hagemann, G; Eichbaum, G; Stamm, G

    1998-05-01

    The following four screen film combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film and c) two conventional green fluorescing screen film combinations. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an Ibas system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a PbO photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an Ibas image matrix of 512 x 512 pixels with a spatial resolution of ca. 7 cycles/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 micron 2. Maxima in the histograms of a grouped bar pattern were estimated as mean values from the bar and gap regions ("mean value method"). They were used to calculate signal contrast, standard deviations of the means and scatter fraction. Comparing the histograms with respect to spatial resolution and kV setting a clear advantage of the UVR system becomes obvious. The quantitative analysis yielded a maximum spatial resolution of approx. 3 cycles/mm for the UVR system at 60 kV which decreased to half of this value at 117 kV caused by the increasing influence of scattered radiation. A ranking of screen-film systems with respect to image quality and dose requirement is presented. For its evaluation an interactive image analysis using the mean value method was found to be superior to signal/noise ratio measurements and visual analysis in respect to diagnostic relevance and saving of time. PMID:9645256

  8. The value of place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-03-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

  9. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  10. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Place as Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Digital technology is redrawing the library's blueprint. Planners are thinking in new ways about how to design libraries as places for learning rather than primarily as storehouses of information. This thinking has given rise to much discussion--and to many publications--about the "library as place." In this article, the author asks why not also…

  12. Teaching Bodies in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie; Woglom, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: This piece draws on literature in justice-oriented teacher education, feminist pedagogy, and postmodern notions of bodies and place to make sense of data generated from a three-year study of an undergraduate teacher education course. A feminist lens was used to engage a body- and place-focused pedagogy that aimed to engage

  13. The Case for Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    Bookstores, record stores, libraries, Facebook: these places--both physical and virtual--demonstrate an established and essential purpose as centers of community, expertise, convenience, immediacy, and respect. Yet as digital, mobile, and social shifts continue to transform culture and interactions, these spaces and places transform, too.…

  14. Schooling Out of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Cathryn

    2006-01-01

    Education in rural communities is an interesting site for an analysis of the relationship between place and the cultural politics of schooling. In particular the movements of people, ideas and practices to and from, and also within, rural places suggest the need for theorizing on rural education to consider the relevance of new mobility…

  15. Understanding Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Tomayko, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an understanding of place value and the base-ten number system is considered a fundamental goal of the early primary grades. For years, teachers have anecdotally reported that students struggle with place-value concepts. Among the common errors cited are misreading such numbers as 26 and 62 by seeing them as identical in meaning,…

  16. Teaching Bodies in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie; Woglom, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: This piece draws on literature in justice-oriented teacher education, feminist pedagogy, and postmodern notions of bodies and place to make sense of data generated from a three-year study of an undergraduate teacher education course. A feminist lens was used to engage a body- and place-focused pedagogy that aimed to engage…

  17. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  18. About Maggie's Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmens, Carol E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

  19. Preference for Well-Balanced Saliency in Details Cropped from Photographs

    PubMed Central

    Abeln, Jonas; Fresz, Leonie; Amirshahi, Seyed Ali; McManus, I. Chris; Koch, Michael; Kreysa, Helene; Redies, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Photographic cropping is the act of selecting part of a photograph to enhance its aesthetic appearance or visual impact. It is common practice with both professional (expert) and amateur (non-expert) photographers. In a psychometric study, McManus et al. (2011b) showed that participants cropped photographs confidently and reliably. Experts tended to select details from a wider range of positions than non-experts, but other croppers did not generally prefer details that were selected by experts. It remained unclear, however, on what grounds participants selected particular details from a photograph while avoiding other details. One of the factors contributing to cropping decision may be visual saliency. Indeed, various saliency-based computer algorithms are available for the automatic cropping of photographs. However, careful experimental studies on the relation between saliency and cropping are lacking to date. In the present study, we re-analyzed the data from the studies by McManus et al. (2011a,b), focusing on statistical image properties. We calculated saliency-based measures for details selected and details avoided during cropping. As expected, we found that selected details contain regions of higher saliency than avoided details on average. Moreover, the saliency center-of-mass was closer to the geometrical center in selected details than in avoided details. Results were confirmed in an eye tracking study with the same dataset of images. Interestingly, the observed regularities in cropping behavior were less pronounced for experts than for non-experts. In summary, our results suggest that, during cropping, participants tend to select salient regions and place them in an image composition that is well-balanced with respect to the distribution of saliency. Our study contributes to the knowledge of perceptual bottom-up features that are germane to aesthetic decisions in photography and their variability in non-experts and experts. PMID:26793086

  20. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…

  1. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup

  2. Contrast-detail curves for liver CT.

    PubMed

    Judy, P F; Swensson, R G; Nawfel, R D; Chan, K H; Seltzer, S E

    1992-01-01

    Contrast-detail curves were constructed for liver computed tomographic (CT) images using an objective method. Stimuli were created by superimposing disks at specified locations on sets of 92 normal liver CT images. Bright and dark disks of 9 sizes and 36 possible image contrasts were used. Sets of 92 stimuli were rendered on film at five window widths (64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 HU). The contrast-detail (CD) curve flattened substantially for disks larger than 7-mm diameter, and its slope (on a log-log plot) was less than predicted from signal-detection theory. Manipulation of display window manipulation had little impact on this disks' visibility. The results indicate that human observers have difficulty visualizing large, low-contrast details on liver CT scans, and suggest that narrowing the display window will have little effect on this limitation. PMID:1435594

  3. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  4. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK in the more generalised RASP project (DEFRA and the Environment Agency), and in line with the expressed needs of the ABI (Association of British Insurers) and National Flood Forum. The detailed data produced will also support improved flood risk assessment for the provision of affordable insurance.

  5. Section, Elevation Details, Cartouche, Column Capital Brackets Details National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section, Elevation Details, Cartouche, Column Capital Brackets Details - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Mountain Branch, Mess Hall, Lamont & Veterans Way, Johnson City, Washington County, TN

  6. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  7. roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  8. Places to Go: Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Educators are becoming increasingly interested in alternatives to learning management systems (LMS) Blackboard and WebCT. Stephen Downes's column Places to Go turns to one internationally popular open source LMS--Moodle. Downes takes the reader through Moodle's Web site, which is simultaneously a Web site about its LMS and an example of what its…

  9. Schools as Dangerous Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    When students set off for school each day how many of them or their caregivers consider for a moment that they will spend the day at a potentially dangerous place? On the contrary, students and caregivers probably view schools as safe havens, and official research suggests that this is the case for the majority of teachers and pupils. However,…

  10. Universities Are Funny Places!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Universities are funny places. They have a strong sense of hierarchy and rank. They have an amazing disparity in salary levels and status between staff, are class conscious, and are run by a large bureaucracy that oils and keeps the machinery going. They operate as educational institutions and yet also are entrepreneurial, marketing themselves in…

  11. Finding Place in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Chris

    2011-01-01

    As a society, we are less and less comfortable in our localities. We have embraced the idea of a globalized placelessness, where everything, everywhere, resonates with a sameness. What do we lose, educationally and in society at large, when we reduce our inhabited places to those components that provide material wealth alone? If students and…

  12. No Place Like Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufresne, Derrick F.

    Historically, in the field of developmental disabilities, the place of residence determines the level of support provided. This has led to a situation in which the more home-like the residence, the less public financial support it receives. The more disabled an individual is and the more difficulties that individual presents, the further he or she…

  13. Creativity: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Finbarr

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that creativity has the greatest potential to flourish if a learning environment is embedded within a community that emphasises a deep sense of place. Yet in a globalised world, rootedness is often regarded as antithetical to creativity. But far from representing dead artefacts that are anti-modern and non-economic, culture and

  14. Tracking Self into Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

  15. The Value of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate

  16. Finding Place in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Chris

    2011-01-01

    As a society, we are less and less comfortable in our localities. We have embraced the idea of a globalized placelessness, where everything, everywhere, resonates with a sameness. What do we lose, educationally and in society at large, when we reduce our inhabited places to those components that provide material wealth alone? If students and

  17. The Value of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate…

  18. Creativity: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Finbarr

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that creativity has the greatest potential to flourish if a learning environment is embedded within a community that emphasises a deep sense of place. Yet in a globalised world, rootedness is often regarded as antithetical to creativity. But far from representing dead artefacts that are anti-modern and non-economic, culture and…

  19. Teaching With Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Designed for social studies educators, this theme issue presents 11 articles about historic places that feature a variety of ideas for elementary and secondary lesson plans, curricula, and program development. The articles are: (1) "Where did History Happen?" (Beth M. Boland); (2) "Creating a Partnership" (Carol D. Shull); (3) "Heritage Education:…

  20. Detail of Bridalveil Fall from Tunnel View

    In this image, Bridalveil Fall can be seen in detail from Tunnel View in Yosemite National Park. The waterfall is 617 ft (188 m) in height and is one of the most well-known of Yosemite National Park's waterfalls....

  1. The insanity of place.

    PubMed

    Scull, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    This paper uses English examples to scrutinize the complex interrelations of insanity and place over the past three centuries, taking as its starting point the late Erving Goffman's paper of the same title. From eighteenth-century Bedlam and the emerging trade in lunacy, through the county asylums and licensed madhouses of the nineteenth century to the return of the the mentally ill to the 'community' in the last half of the twentieth century, the place occupied by insanity has varied sharply, symbolically as well as concretely. These various techniques of containment and damage limitation must be understood as a response to the threats, symbolic and practical, that serious mental illness poses to the social order, at both the micro- and macroscopic levels of analysis. PMID:15628027

  2. Section, Cast Iron Stair Detail and Window Details St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section, Cast Iron Stair Detail and Window Details - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Atkins Hall, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, 518-542 Redwood Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 114. DETAILS OF PIER: TYPICAL CROSSSECTION, DETAILS OF PILES, TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. DETAILS OF PIER: TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION, DETAILS OF PILES, TYPICAL ELEVATION Sheet 5 of 9 (#3256) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  5. 58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards northeast of the pinion and bull gears of the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of round, terra cotta medallions on E elevation indicating date of building. - Central of Georgia Railway, Red (Administration) Building, 233 West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  9. 56. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF WINDING SHEAVES: Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF WINDING SHEAVES: Detail of south side of the winding sheaves. These sheaves drive the California Street cable. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing. PMID:19306198

  11. INTERIOR DETAIL, WINDOW OPENING ONTO THE SERVICE STAIR FROM DINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, WINDOW OPENING ONTO THE SERVICE STAIR FROM DINING ROOM PASSAGE. OPENINGS LIKE THESE ARE PRESENT IN A NUMBER OF PLACES, “BORROWING LIGHT” FOR OTHERWISE DARK INTERIOR SPACES - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 11. Detail, west parapet, showing typical expansion joint between the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail, west parapet, showing typical expansion joint between the two-span, poured-in-place parapet sections; view to southwest. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 20. Detail, Pier 3, with large stone riprap showing depth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, Pier 3, with large stone riprap showing depth of scour which has taken place since bridge was completed; view to northwest. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  14. Round ceiling detail, note tension wires working against outward forces ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Round ceiling detail, note tension wires working against outward forces on the vertical columns while restoration of collapsed roof takes place. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Exterior oblique detail view of typical sidewalk entry at north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique detail view of typical sidewalk entry at north side of Building 3 from Bay Street sidewalk, looking southeast - North Beach Place, 475 Bay Street, 475 Bay Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 5. EAST ELEVATION (OFFICE BLOCK), DETAIL SHOWING DECORATIVE PILASTERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST ELEVATION (OFFICE BLOCK), DETAIL SHOWING DECORATIVE PILASTERS AND STYLIZED EGG-AND-DART DECORATION AROUND WINDOWS OF UPPER FLOORS - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Hudson Place, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF BOTTOM DOOR, THIRD BAY Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF BOTTOM DOOR, THIRD BAY Showing splayed head jambs dadoes, interior casing design. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  18. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  19. Place memory in crickets.

    PubMed

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-04-22

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  20. Finding Your Place in Art History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lauren Parmelee

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art history project used with fifth-grade students where they selected a famous painting as a background for a self-portrait. Explains how the students used Adobe Photoshop to place a digital photograph of themselves into a scanned image of the artwork. (CMK)

  1. 17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST CORNER, THIRD BAY Showing insulated exterior wall at right; asphalt felt on interior separation wall at left; sill beam, stud, and concrete foundation detailing of interior wall. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  2. A woman's rightful place?

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    Rural development projects in sub-Saharan Africa tend not to succeed because they do not consider women's role and their significance, even though women constitute 70% of agricultural workers, 80% of food producers, 100% of people who prepare meals, and 60-90% do food marketing. Development specialists ignore women because they are not involved in political activities and in decision making. As long as women and women's contributions are not considered, rural development projects will remain inefficient and development will not take place. Thus, projects must include women as agents and beneficiaries of development in key sectors of the economy. Rural development specialists must also consider the effect male labor emigration has on rural women. For example, drought has forced many men to leave their villages, leaving a work force consisting of 95% women to fight desertification. All too often, women have no or limited land ownership rights, thereby keeping them from improving the land, e.g., planting perennial fruit crops. They also tend to be hired hands rather than food producers. They cannot obtain bank loans because they do not own land, and because they are often illiterate (over 90% female illiteracy in 28 African countries), they can neither understand nor complete bank loan forms. Rural development projects further alienate women by aiming training programs to men or by using male agricultural extension agents. Women react to this alienation by rejecting projects that do not benefit them and follow more profitable activities which sometimes interfere with projects. Thus, rural development programs need to invest in women to ensure viable and efficient sustainable development. PMID:12344988

  3. Color constancy technology based on detail description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huinan; Cao, Jianzhong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Color constancy is an important problem in machine vision and image processing fields. We propose a new method in this paper that is based on detail information description to estimate the chromaticity of the light source and restore the real color property of captured images. The main idea of the proposed approach is that according to human vision characteristics use the interest information in an image to estimate the lighting condition of real scene. To approve the proposed method, two well-known algorithms are selected and their contrast results are also presented. It is shown in this paper that the proposed approach performs better than other traditional methods for color constancy most of the time.

  4. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Remembering Places: Student Reliance on Place in Timed Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This is the story of a research journey that follows the trail of a novel evaluand--"place." I examine place as mentioned by rising juniors in timed exams. Using a hybridized methodology--the qualitative approach of a hermeneutic dialectic process as described by Guba and Lincoln (1989), and the quantitative evidence of place mention--I query…

  6. Remembering Places: Student Reliance on Place in Timed Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This is the story of a research journey that follows the trail of a novel evaluand--"place." I examine place as mentioned by rising juniors in timed exams. Using a hybridized methodology--the qualitative approach of a hermeneutic dialectic process as described by Guba and Lincoln (1989), and the quantitative evidence of place mention--I query

  7. A Critical Pedagogy of Place and the Critical Place(s) of Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of place-based education as grounding student learning in the local raises important questions about what constitutes the "local" in a now closely interconnected world and what constitutes an educational "place" when places of learning are shifting, as both new virtual sites emerge and old physical ones, including schools, lose some of…

  8. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  9. 24. INTERIOR DETAIL FROM THE SOUTH END OF THE DELIVERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR DETAIL FROM THE SOUTH END OF THE DELIVERY (RECEIVING LEVEL. THE DETAIL SHOWS THE WINDING DRUM AND REVERSING CLUTCH FOR THE TRAMWAY ORE CAR, AND AN ORE CHUTE IN THE FLOOR) FOREGROUND BOTTOM LEFT OF THE IMAGE). - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  10. Color anaglyph stereo scatterplots: Construction details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, D. B.; Littlefield, R. J.

    1983-03-01

    For those that can see stereo, stereo scatterplots provide a powerful method of displaying data that has three dimensional structure. While not the best quality stereo presentation method, color anaglyph stereo is easily produced on raster color devices. This simplicity makes color anaglyph stereo a useful tool for exploratory interactive data analysis. Attention to several details can enhance anaglyph scatterplots. Issues of perspective projection ambiguity, pixel-rounding noise, crosstalk between images, and the use of additional depth cues including overplotting, and shifts in point size, intensity, and hue are addressed.

  11. Color anaglyph stereo scatterplots: construction details

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.; Littlefield, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    For those that can see stereo, stereo scatterplots provide a powerful method of displaying data that has three-dimensional structure. While not the best quality stereo presentation method, color anglyph stereo is easily produced on raster color devices. This simplicity makes color anaglyph stereo a useful tool for exploratory intractive data analysis. Attention to several details can enhance anaglyph scatterplots. This poster paper addresses issues of perspective projection ambiguity, pixel-rounding noise, crosstalk between images, and the use of additional depth cues including overplotting, and shifts in point size, intensity, and hue.

  12. Seductive Details in Multimedia Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The seductive detail principle asserts that people learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when interesting but irrelevant adjuncts are excluded rather than included. However, critics could argue that studies about this principle contain methodological problems. The recent experiment attempts to overcome these problems. Students (N = 108)…

  13. Privileged Girls: The Place of Femininity and Femininity in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    Constructions of femininity and attendant notions of feminism are being produced in different ways in different places around the world. This is a complicated global process that cannot be reduced to analyses that take place in nation states. This paper seeks to respond to and enhance Angela McRobbie's compelling argument about understandings

  14. A Place for Everything, and Everything in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    Sixteen papers on the general theme of the "place" of psychology, particularly in higher education, arose from the author's paper "Psychology in its place." Several themes emerge from the disparate contributions. The author discusses two papers which directly comment on his original one, the papers of John Newland and Tom Dickins. Psychology in…

  15. Privileged Girls: The Place of Femininity and Femininity in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    Constructions of femininity and attendant notions of feminism are being produced in different ways in different places around the world. This is a complicated global process that cannot be reduced to analyses that take place in nation states. This paper seeks to respond to and enhance Angela McRobbie's compelling argument about understandings…

  16. Cooperative Ecology & Place: Development of a Pedagogy of Place Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewicki, James

    The major tenets of a pedagogy of place are that nature teaches; understanding place is indispensable to community; where and how a student learns is as vital as what a student learns; and respect is integral to learning. Environmental literacy is the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and to take

  17. 58. View looking north. Detail of the northwest gate pivot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. View looking north. Detail of the northwest gate pivot in place. This iron forging was held in place by rabbeting in the deck members and two spikes. The use for the large iron staple shown next to the pivot is unknown. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  18. Long-term dynamics of CA1 hippocampal place codes

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yaniv; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Hamel, Elizabeth O.; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Kitch, Lacey J.; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Via Ca2+-imaging in freely behaving mice that repeatedly explored a familiar environment, we tracked thousands of CA1 pyramidal cells' place fields over weeks. Place coding was dynamic, for each day the ensemble representation of this environment involved a unique subset of cells. Yet, cells within the ∼15–25% overlap between any two of these subsets retained the same place fields, which sufficed to preserve an accurate spatial representation across weeks. PMID:23396101

  19. Detailed mechanism of benzene oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed quantitative mechanism for the oxidation of benzene in both argon and nitrogen diluted systems is presented. Computed ignition delay time for argon diluted mixtures are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results for a wide range of initial conditions. An experimental temperature versus time profile for a nitrogen diluted oxidation was accurately matched and several concentration profiles were matched qualitatively. Application of sensitivity analysis has given approximate rate constant expressions for the two dominant heat release reactions, the oxidation of C6H5 and C5H5 radicals by molecular oxygen.

  20. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  1. Detailed Clinical Models: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Goossen-Baremans, Anneke; van der Zel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Due to the increasing use of electronic patient records and other health care information technology, we see an increase in requests to utilize these data. A highly level of standardization is required during the gathering of these data in the clinical context in order to use it for analyses. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) have been created toward this purpose and several initiatives have been implemented in various parts of the world to create standardized models. This paper presents a review of DCM. Methods Two types of analyses are presented; one comparing DCM against health care information architectures and a second bottom up approach from concept analysis to representation. In addition core parts of the draft ISO standard 13972 on DCM are used such as clinician involvement, data element specification, modeling, meta information, and repository and governance. Results Six initiatives were selected: Intermountain Healthcare, 13606/OpenEHR Archetypes, Clinical Templates, Clinical Contents Models, Health Level 7 templates, and Dutch Detailed Clinical Models. Each model selected was reviewed for their overall development, involvement of clinicians, use of data types, code bindings, expressing semantics, modeling, meta information, use of repository and governance. Conclusions Using both a top down and bottom up approach to comparison reveals many commonalties and differences between initiatives. Important differences include the use of or lack of a reference model and expressiveness of models. Applying clinical data element standards facilitates the use of conceptual DCM models in different technical representations. PMID:21818440

  2. Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at east side of Building 7 (including 3-story trash dump tower), looking north - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 18. Construction technique, detail, bridges along elevated right ofway of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Construction technique, detail, bridges along elevated right- of-way of Shaker Rapid Transit through east side city of Cleveland. 'Showing use of Pyrobar to decrease load of bridge (East 81st Street); the Pyrobar is shown placed on wet concrete. Workmen at left are finishing laying concrete over pyrobar.' 1915 - Shaker Heights Rapid Transit Line, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & PLATES FOR PIERS 4, 5, AND 6, DWG. NO. 97, 1-1/2" = 1', MADE BY A.F., JUNE 13, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. 19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD BAY Showing asphalt felt applied to both sides of interior wall studs beneath wood cladding. Back-nailing of felt indicates sequence of felt and cladding installation. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  6. 18. DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD EAST, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD EAST, THIRD BAY Showing furring strips, kraft faced cellulose fiber insulation, and asphalt felt applied to interior of exterior wall studs. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  7. 16. DETAIL OF END OF SWING SPAN (LEFT) AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF END OF SWING SPAN (LEFT) AND SOUTH END OF NORTH STATIONARY SPAN REVEALING IRON SKID AND SWING BALANCE SUPPORT WHEEL. NOTE CHAIN USED TO HOLD BRIDGE IN PLACE - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  8. 35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - RIVER FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  9. 36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - DRIVE FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  10. 15. Detail looking west from the bridge roadbed, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail looking west from the bridge roadbed, showing the face of the west parapet and demonstrating the ghosts of the form work. The coping was cast independent of the balusters. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  11. Exterior oblique detail view of sidewalk entry at north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique detail view of sidewalk entry at north side of Building 3 from Bay Street sidewalk, looking southeast (with original steps revised to accommodate handicap ramp) - North Beach Place, 475 Bay Street, 475 Bay Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT): ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT): SUBMERSIBLE TURBINE-GENERATOR (REMOVED FROM PENSTOCK AND PLACED HERE TEMPORARILY); GENERATOR; AND GOVERNOR - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  13. 11. DETAILS: CONCRETE SHEET PILING, CORNERS #4 & #6, DWG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAILS: CONCRETE SHEET PILING, CORNERS #4 & #6, DWG. NO. 11, 1-1/2" = 1 FT., FEB. 12, 1908, MADE BY E.C.L., APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 8. Detail, 1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Carlin, Nevada, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail, 1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Carlin, Nevada, in collection of Nevada Historical Society, Reno; credit Nevada Historical Society. Former Library in Engine Stores Building is now vacant Oil House is now in place, shown as corrugated iron cladding on frame. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  15. There's No Place Like Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living There's No Place Like Home Past Issues / ... state offices on aging; social services organizations; nearby senior centers; and civic, tribal, and religious organizations. They ...

  16. Place memory retention in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Daniela; Kahsai, Lily; Kramer, Elizabeth F; Knutson, Patrick; Zars, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Some memories last longer than others, with some lasting a lifetime. Using several approaches memory phases have been identified. How are these different phases encoded, and do these different phases have similar temporal properties across learning situations? Place memory in Drosophila using the heat-box provides an excellent opportunity to examine the commonalities of genetically-defined memory phases across learning contexts. Here we determine optimal conditions to test place memories that last up to three hours. An aversive temperature of 41°C was identified as critical for establishing a long-lasting place memory. Interestingly, adding an intermittent-training protocol only slightly increased place memory when intermediate aversive temperatures were used, and slightly extended the stability of a memory. Genetic analysis of this memory identified four genes as critical for place memory within minutes of training. The role of the rutabaga type I adenylyl cyclase was confirmed, and the latheo Orc3 origin of recognition complex component, the novel gene encoded by pastrel, and the small GTPase rac were all identified as essential for normal place memory. Examination of the dopamine and ecdysone receptor (DopEcR) did not reveal a function for this gene in place memory. When compared to the role of these genes in other memory types, these results suggest that there are genes that have both common and specific roles in memory formation across learning contexts. Importantly, contrasting the timing for the function of these four genes, plus a previously described role of the radish gene, in place memory with the temporal requirement of these genes in classical olfactory conditioning reveals variability in the timing of genetically-defined memory phases depending on the type of learning. PMID:26143995

  17. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. PMID:25437904

  18. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed fuel spray analyses are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel-air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. Thus, a research program is underway to demonstrate the capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments. The research activities from two contracts and one grant are described with results to data. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is also described. These experiments and data should be useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  19. Robust place recognition with an application to semantic topological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, J. R.; Khatibi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of robust and invariant representation of places is being addressed. A place recognition technique is proposed followed by an application to a semantic topological mapping. The proposed technique is evaluated on a robot localization database which consists of a large set of images taken under various weather conditions. The results show that the proposed method can robustly recognize the places and is invariant to geometric transformations, brightness changes and noise. The comparative analysis with the state-of-the-art semantic place description methods show that the method outperforms the competing methods and exhibits better average recognition rates.

  20. John Dewey and a Pedagogy of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayanandhan, Stephanie Raill

    2009-01-01

    If asked to define the idea of "place" one might struggle. Yet people across time and cultures readily share examples of important places or safe places or "foreign" places with one another and offer heartfelt descriptions in literature and art of childhood places, favorite places, strange places. Akinbola Akinwumi, paraphrasing Yi-Fu Tuan,…

  1. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  2. Study of the detail content of Apollo orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzly, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The development and application of image evaluation methods for assessing the detail content of Apollo orbital photography was demonstrated. Edge analysis using shadow to sunlight edges interior to craters was successfully used to evaluate the fine detail content of Apollo 15, 16, and 17 imagery. A method for evaluating tone quality was developed using a gain factor as a function of object contrast and average exposure level that can be related to object detectability.

  3. Healthy Places: Exploring the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard

    2003-01-01

    “Sense of place” is a widely discussed concept in fields as diverse as geography, environmental psychology, and art, but it has little traction in the field of public health. The health impact of place includes physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and aesthetic outcomes. In this article, the author introduces sense of place as a public health construct. While many recommendations for “good places” are available, few are based on empirical evidence, and thus they are incompatible with current public health practice. Evidence-based recommendations for healthy place making could have important public health implications. Four aspects of the built environment, at different spatial scales—nature contact, buildings, public spaces, and urban form—are identified as offering promising opportunities for public health research, and potential research agendas for each are discussed. PMID:12948962

  4. The Finer Details: Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    If you want to know whether you will need sunscreen or an umbrella for tomorrow's picnic, you can simply read the local weather report. However, if you are calculating the impact of gas combustion on global temperatures, or anticipating next year's rainfall levels to set water conservation policy, you must conduct a more comprehensive investigation. Such complex matters require long-range modeling techniques that predict broad trends in climate development rather than day-to-day details. Climate models are built from equations that calculate the progression of weather-related conditions over time. Based on the laws of physics, climate model equations have been developed to predict a number of environmental factors, for example: 1. Amount of solar radiation that hits the Earth. 2. Varying proportions of gases that make up the air. 3. Temperature at the Earth's surface. 4. Circulation of ocean and wind currents. 5. Development of cloud cover. Numerical modeling of the climate can improve our understanding of both the past and, the future. A model can confirm the accuracy of environmental measurements taken. in, the past and can even fill in gaps in those records. In addition, by quantifying the relationship between different aspects of climate, scientists can estimate how a future change in one aspect may alter the rest of the world. For example, could an increase in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean somehow set off a drought on the other side of the world? A computer simulation could lead to an answer for this and other questions. Quantifying the chaotic, nonlinear activities that shape our climate is no easy matter. You cannot run these simulations on your desktop computer and expect results by the time you have finished checking your morning e-mail. Efficient and accurate climate modeling requires powerful computers that can process billions of mathematical calculations in a single second. The NCCS exists to provide this degree of vast computing capability.

  5. A Place on the Shelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2007-01-01

    If we read to discover new worlds, we also read to find ourselves. For gays and lesbians, this act of discovery can be problematic: literature has so often excluded them. In the last decades, as gays and lesbians have grown increasingly vocal in the effort to secure their rightful place in society, a broad range of fiction has emerged that…

  6. "Changing Places" in Changed Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Thirty years ago, every American academic going on a research trip or a sabbatical to England carried a copy of David Lodge's comic classic, "Changing Places" (1975), which told a tale of two 40-year-old professors of English literature and two embattled campuses in the eventful spring of 1969. An ineffectual British academic, Philip Swallow, from…

  7. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  8. Creative Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal contains articles and materials to help teachers instruct students about U.S. historical and cultural heritage. Articles and teaching materials are: "History in the Hands of Tomorrow's Citizens" (C. D. Shull; B. M. Boland); "On-Site Learning--The Power of Historic Places" (J. O. Horton); "Visualizing History--Inquiring Minds Want To…

  9. A Place on the Shelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2007-01-01

    If we read to discover new worlds, we also read to find ourselves. For gays and lesbians, this act of discovery can be problematic: literature has so often excluded them. In the last decades, as gays and lesbians have grown increasingly vocal in the effort to secure their rightful place in society, a broad range of fiction has emerged that

  10. Sense of Place in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Pat, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal issue contains interviews, essays, short stories, and poetry focusing on sense of place in Appalachia. In interviews, author Wilma Dykeman discussed past and recent novels set in Appalachia with interviewer Sandra L. Ballard; and novelist Lee Smith spoke with interviewer Pat Arnow about how Appalachia has shaped her writing. Essays…

  11. 5 CFR 317.903 - Details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details. 317.903 Section 317.903... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Reassignments, Transfers, and Details § 317.903 Details. (a) Definition. In this section, detail means the temporary assignment of an SES member to another position (within or outside of the...

  12. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing tanks for distilled water (left), fuel (center), and gaseous nitrogen (right). Other tanks present for tests were removed before this image was taken. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 7. A DETAIL, TAKEN FROM THE EAST END OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. A DETAIL, TAKEN FROM THE EAST END OF THE BRIDGE. THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE MODERN, EDGE-LAID 2" X 4" DIMENSIONED LUMBER AS DECKING. - Freedom Bridge, Spanning West Fork of White River at County Road 590 South, Freedom, Owen County, IN

  15. Hangar no. 2 perspective detail view of west doors. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 perspective detail view of west doors. Note door tracks in underside of upper door structure. Darkening at top of image due to lens vignetting. Looking 78 w. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. 4. Credit BG. Detail view of pair of Clayton steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit BG. Detail view of pair of Clayton steam generators. Left part of image shows front, right part shows back. Generators were removed from 4280/E-81 for shipment to a new owner. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Steam Generator Plant, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 47. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL VANE ASSEMBLY AND TWO WHEEL SECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL VANE ASSEMBLY AND TWO WHEEL SECTIONS FROM ELI WINDMILLS, THE VANE SHEET BEARING STENCILED PAINTED INSCRIPTION, 'KREGEL WINDMILL CO. ELI NEBRASKA CITY, NEB.' VISIBLE IN THE IMAGE ARE BOTH SIDES OF THE WHEEL SECTIONS, SHOWING THE METHOD OF BLADE MOUNTING FOR ELI WINDMILLS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  18. Cardiac Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not available to all patients with narrowed arteries, balloon angioplasty has expanded dramatically since its introduction with an estimated further growth to 562,000 procedures in the U.S. alone by 1992. Growth has fueled demand for higher quality imaging systems that allow the cardiologist to be more accurate and increase the chances of a successful procedure. A major advance is the Digital Cardiac Imaging (DCI) System designed by Philips Medical Systems International, Best, The Netherlands and marketed in the U.S. by Philips Medical Systems North America Company. The key benefit is significantly improved real-time imaging and the ability to employ image enhancement techniques to bring out added details. Using a cordless control unit, the cardiologist can manipulate images to make immediate assessment, compare live x-ray and roadmap images by placing them side-by-side on monitor screens, or compare pre-procedure and post procedure conditions. The Philips DCI improves the cardiologist's precision by expanding the information available to him.

  19. A Novel Approach for Detail-Enhanced Exposure Fusion Using Guided Filter

    PubMed Central

    Bhooshan, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel detail-enhancing exposure fusion approach using nonlinear translation-variant filter (NTF). With the captured Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) images under different exposure settings, first the fine details are extracted based on guided filter. Next, the base layers (i.e., images obtained from NTF) across all input images are fused using multiresolution pyramid. Exposure, contrast, and saturation measures are considered to generate a mask that guides the fusion process of the base layers. Finally, the fused base layer is combined with the extracted fine details to obtain detail-enhanced fused image. The goal is to preserve details in both very dark and extremely bright regions without High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) representation and tone mapping step. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the proposed method is also suitable for the multifocus image fusion without introducing artifacts. PMID:24683353

  20. A novel approach for detail-enhanced exposure fusion using guided filter.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harbinder; Kumar, Vinay; Bhooshan, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel detail-enhancing exposure fusion approach using nonlinear translation-variant filter (NTF). With the captured Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) images under different exposure settings, first the fine details are extracted based on guided filter. Next, the base layers (i.e., images obtained from NTF) across all input images are fused using multiresolution pyramid. Exposure, contrast, and saturation measures are considered to generate a mask that guides the fusion process of the base layers. Finally, the fused base layer is combined with the extracted fine details to obtain detail-enhanced fused image. The goal is to preserve details in both very dark and extremely bright regions without High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) representation and tone mapping step. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the proposed method is also suitable for the multifocus image fusion without introducing artifacts. PMID:24683353

  1. Reading Place: Learning from the Savage Inequalities at Erasmus Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickar, Maryann

    2006-01-01

    Through his detailed descriptions of schools across America, Kozol (1991) demonstrated the symbolic impact of the physical space of schools with disturbing examples of institutionalized racism made visible. Thus, Savage Inequalities also initiated a critical pedagogy of place by questioning the relationship of racial identity to the quality and

  2. Professor and Editor Trade Places to Avoid Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanervo, Ellen; Ferrier, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Relates the story of how the city editor of a small daily newspaper and a journalism professor at the local university traded places for a semester. Details the problems they faced, the discoveries they made, and the benefits they found from such an exchange. (SR)

  3. Reading Place: Learning from the Savage Inequalities at Erasmus Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickar, Maryann

    2006-01-01

    Through his detailed descriptions of schools across America, Kozol (1991) demonstrated the symbolic impact of the physical space of schools with disturbing examples of institutionalized racism made visible. Thus, Savage Inequalities also initiated a critical pedagogy of place by questioning the relationship of racial identity to the quality and…

  4. Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

  5. Tapping the Power of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    In American popular culture, the word "rural" invokes images of sunny farms and little red schoolhouses--while "urban" means drugs, poverty, and crime. But those who know the reality of both worlds will say that rural schools face many of the same challenges as their urban counterparts. The problems of rural schools are often invisible to the…

  6. Tapping the Power of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    In American popular culture, the word "rural" invokes images of sunny farms and little red school-houses--while "urban" means drugs, poverty, and crime. But rural schools face many of the same challenges as their urban counterparts. The problems of rural schools are often invisible to the public and policy makers. The solutions may be found in the

  7. Tapping the Power of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    In American popular culture, the word "rural" invokes images of sunny farms and little red school-houses--while "urban" means drugs, poverty, and crime. But rural schools face many of the same challenges as their urban counterparts. The problems of rural schools are often invisible to the public and policy makers. The solutions may be found in the…

  8. Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood DoubleHung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood Double-Hung Window Details, Wood Door Details - Boxley Grist Mill, Boxley vicinity on State Route 43, Buffalo National River, Ponca, Newton County, AR

  9. An anthropologist in unexpected places

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called “primitive” tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype. PMID:25436019

  10. 5 CFR 532.411 - Details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details. 532.411 Section 532.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.411 Details. An appropriated fund employee detailed to a position other than the position...

  11. 49 CFR 176.102 - Supervisory detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervisory detail. 176.102 Section 176.102... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials § 176.102 Supervisory detail. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the COTP may assign a USCG supervisory detail to any vessel to supervise...

  12. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detailed investigation. 116.20... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.20 Detailed investigation. (a) When the Administrator, Office of Bridge Programs determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the...

  13. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detailed investigation. 116.20... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.20 Detailed investigation. (a) When the Administrator, Bridge Administration Program determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the...

  14. RPW: a hybrid reverse prediction method for level of detail.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangbao; Dong, Zegang; Ledley, Robert S

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a way of using multiple domain analysis methodology to speed up the image rendering process. We first apply wavelet transform to the original image, and then compress the wavelets in the frequency domain using histogram equalization techniques. When rendering the image, we uncompress the wavelets and reverse predict the upper level images. This process continues until it reaches a certain criteria. We use two terms-total image size (TIS) and total loading time (TLT) to measure the performance of level of detail (LOD) in a network environment. We compare traditional image-based LOD methods with the new method we are proposing. Experiments show that the proposed method can reduce both TIS and TLT. The image rendering speed on a remote client is approximately 2.5 times faster than the common image compression methods. Applications such as remote diagnostic systems and online museums can use this technique to achieve better real-time animation effects. PMID:17913457

  15. Race and Place in the Adaptation of Mariel Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skop, Emily H.

    2001-01-01

    The influx of lower class Cuban emigres during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift complicates the success story image of previous waves of Cuban exiles. Argues that place of incorporation should be a necessary ingredient in illuminating diverse adjustment experiences among immigrants and refugees to the United States. Concludes by discussing the Cuban

  16. The Place of Staff Morale in Educational Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zengaro, Franco

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the current place of staff morale in the educational marketing of one high school in the northwestern United States. It also looked at ways in which staff morale could be improved to ensure a positive image of the school in the community. Research was conducted by emailing questionnaires on issues relating to staff morale to…

  17. Race and Place in the Adaptation of Mariel Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skop, Emily H.

    2001-01-01

    The influx of lower class Cuban emigres during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift complicates the success story image of previous waves of Cuban exiles. Argues that place of incorporation should be a necessary ingredient in illuminating diverse adjustment experiences among immigrants and refugees to the United States. Concludes by discussing the Cuban…

  18. Detailed Globes Enhance Education and Recreation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Orbis World Globes creates inflatable globes-Earthballs-in many sizes that depict Earth as it is seen from space, complete with atmospheric cloud cover. Orbis designs and produces the most visually authentic replicas of Earth ever created, and NASA took notice of Orbis globes and employed a 16-inch diameter EarthBall for an educational film it made aboard the STS-45 shuttle mission. Orbis later collaborated with NASA to create two 16-foot diameter world globes for display at the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City, using more detailed satellite imagery. The satellite image now printed on all Orbis globes displays 1-kilometer resolution and is 21,600 by 43,200 pixels in size, and Orbis globes are otherwise meteorologically accurate, though the cloud cover has been slightly reduced in order for most of the landforms to be visible. Orbis also developed the exclusive NightGlow Cities feature, enabling EarthBalls to display the world's cities as they appear as the Earth revolves from daylight into night. Orbis inflatable globes are available in sizes from 1 to 100 feet in diameter, with the most common being the standard 16-inch and 1-meter diameter EarthBalls. Applications include educational uses from preschools to universities, games, and for a variety of display purposes at conferences, trade shows, festivals, concerts, and parades. A 16-foot diameter Orbis globe was exhibited at the United Nations' World Urban Forum, in Vancouver, Canada; the Space 2006 conference, in San Jose, California; and the X-Prize Cup Personal Spaceflight Exposition in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  19. Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking forward showing the overhead control panels. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-19 to expand the view to include the Commander and Pilot positions during ascent and reentry and landing. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. The astrophysics of crowded places.

    PubMed

    Davies, Melvyn

    2002-12-15

    Today the Sun is in a relatively uncrowded place. The distance between it and the nearest other star is relatively large (about 200,000 times the Earth-Sun distance!). This is beneficial to life on Earth; a close encounter with another star is extremely unlikely. Such encounters would either remove the Earth from its orbit around the Sun or leave it on an eccentric orbit similar to a comet's. But the Sun was not formed in isolation. It was born within a more-crowded cluster of perhaps a few hundred stars. As the surrounding gas evaporated away, the cluster itself evaporated too, dispersing its stars into the Galaxy. Virtually all stars in the Galaxy share this history, and here I will describe the role of 'clusterness' in a star's life. Stars are often formed in larger stellar clusters (known as open and globular clusters), some of which are still around today. I will focus on stars in globular clusters and describe how the interactions between stars in these clusters may explain the zoo of stellar exotica which have recently been observed with instruments such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the X-ray telescopes XMM-Newton and Chandra. In recent years, myriad planets orbiting stars other than the Sun--the so-called 'extrasolar' planets--have been discovered. I will describe how a crowded environment will affect such planetary systems and may in fact explain some of their mysterious properties. PMID:12626265

  1. A Great Place to Watch the Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In this time of year when Mars is most likely to be covered by global dust storms, NASA's Spirit rover has been experiencing relative calm. In fact, the martian winds have been quite beneficial, clearing dust from the rover's solar panels and increasing the solar energy available for driving to new places and conducting scientific experiments.

    Another thing the martian wind has done is send hundreds of dust devils spinning across the surface of the planet. From Spirit's high perch approximately 90 meters (295 feet) above the surrounding plains, as shown in this image taken from the summit of 'Husband Hill,' three dust devils are clearly visible in the plains of Gusev Crater. Planetary Scientist Ron Greeley of Arizona State University, Tempe, describes the whirling vortices of wind and dust as 'vacuum cleaners' that were first seen in images from the Viking Orbiter in 1985, though their existence was predicted as early as 1964.

    The most prominent dust devil in this image, visible on the left side of the 360-degree panorama, is one of the closest seen by Spirit. It is about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) away from the rover, about 90 meters (295 feet) in diameter at its widest point, and 275 meters (902 feet) tall. Its flux is about 1 kilogram per second, meaning it is picking up about 2 pounds of sediment each second and moving it around.

    The smaller dust devil just to the right of the largest one is 2.5 to 3 kilometers (1.6 to 1.9 miles) away and is churning up about 0.5 kilograms (1 pound) per second. Both are north of the rover's position and are moving in an east-southeast direction. On the right side of the mosaic shown here is a third dust devil.

    Greeley has calculated that if the number and frequency of dust devils Spirit has encountered are similarly spaced throughout Gusev Crater, the crater probably experiences about 90,000 dust devils per martian day, or sol. Collectively, the whirlwinds lift and redeposit an estimated 4.5 million kilograms (9.9 million U.S. pounds) of sediment per sol.

    Spirit took this mosaic of images with its navigation camera on sol 581 (Aug. 22). Straight ahead, just east of the rover, is the summit of 'Husband Hill.' The 360-degree field of view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  2. Detail view of the underside of a elevon on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the underside of a elevon on the port side wing of the Orbiter Discovery. Note the wear and replacement patterns of the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside of the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Detail view of the port side of the payload bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the port side of the payload bay of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows Remote Manipulator System, Canadarm, sensors in the center of the image and a close-up view of a small segment of the orbiter's radiator panel. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Imaging Biomarkers or Biomarker Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Since biomarker imaging is traditionally understood as imaging of molecular probes, we highly recommend to avoid any confusion with the previously defined term “imaging biomarkers” and, therefore, only use “molecular probe imaging (MPI)” in that context. Molecular probes (MPs) comprise all kinds of molecules administered to an organism which inherently carry a signalling moiety. This review highlights the basic concepts and differences of molecular probe imaging using specific biomarkers. In particular, PET radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in more detail. Specific radiochemical and radiopharmacological aspects as well as some legal issues are presented. PMID:24967536

  5. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  7. Understanding Brains: Details, Intuition, and Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important. PMID:25965068

  8. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  9. Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center with a lifting frame attached to the aft attach points of the orbiter. In this view, the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems pod is in place. Also note the darker-colored trapezoidal aft fuselage access door and the T-0 umbilical panel to its right in the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft viewing windows are uncovered in this view and look out towards the payload bay. The overhead viewing windows have exterior covers in place in this view. The aft flight deck contains displays and controls for executing maneuvers for rendezvous, docking, payload deployment and retrieval, payload monitoring and the remote manipulator arm controls. Payload bay doors are also operated from this location. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Prevalence of Infective Ova of Toxocara Species in Public Places

    PubMed Central

    Borg, O. A.; Woodruff, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    Out of a total of 800 soil samples from public places all over Britain ova of Toxocara species were found in 24·4%. Ova from 20 samples were incubated and active embryos developed in all; these were fed to eight mice and active larvae were later recovered from the livers of six. Some children living near these parks had become infected with toxocara. Clearly more control of pollution of public places by dogs and cats is needed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4758452

  12. Details of Layers in Victoria Crater's Cape St. Vincent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity rover spent about 300 sols (Martian days) during 2006 and 2007 traversing the rim of Victoria Crater. Besides looking for a good place to enter the crater, the rover obtained images of rock outcrops exposed at several cliffs along the way.

    The cliff in this image from Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) is informally named Cape St. Vincent. It is a promontory approximately 12 meters (39 feet) tall on the northern rim of Victoria crater, near the farthest point along the rover's traverse around the rim. Layers seen in Cape St. Vincent have proven to be among the best examples of meter scale cross-bedding observed on Mars to date. Cross-bedding is a geologic term for rock layers which are inclined relative to the horizontal and which are indicative of ancient sand dune deposits. In order to get a better look at these outcrops, Pancam 'super-resolution' imaging techniques were utilized. Super-resolution is a type of imaging mode which acquires many pictures of the same target to reconstruct a digital image at a higher resolution than is native to the camera. These super-resolution images have allowed scientists to discern that the rocks at Victoria Crater once represented a large dune field, not unlike the Sahara desert on Earth, and that this dune field migrated with an ancient wind flowing from the north to the south across the region. Other rover chemical and mineral measurements have shown that many of the ancient sand dunes studied in Meridiani Planum were modified by surface and subsurface liquid water long ago.

    This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image acquired on sol 1167 (May 7, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 16 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  13. A new place for death with dignity: the golden room.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Lynn; Drick, Carole Ann

    2011-12-01

    In this article, the authors consider how professional nurses can strive to advance death and dying to the next level in our evolution of compassionate end-of-life practices. The authors focus on describing the development of a place for dying that allows for a peaceful, profound experience that honors and respects human dignity and elevates the human family. Actual places called the Golden Room or Golden Room Centers are proposed to accommodate dying persons and their loved ones at end of life as they make the transition from physical life. The authors detail and propose a return to the sacredness of death and dying through access to a place for the physical transition. PMID:21357182

  14. Hawaii Play Fairway Analysis: Hawaiian Place Names

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-11-15

    Compilation of Hawaiian place names indicative of heat. Place names are from the following references: Pukui, M.K., and S.H. Elbert, 1976, Place Names of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI 96822, 289 pp. ; Bier, J. A., 2009, Map of Hawaii, The Big Island, Eighth Edition, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI  96822, 1 sheet.; and Reeve, R., 1993, Kahoolawe Place Names, Consultant Report No. 16, Kahoolawe Island Conveyance Commission, 259 pp.

  15. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Anthropological Studies of Native American Place Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Traces development of Native American place name studies from Boas (1880s) to the present. Argues that place names convey information about physical environments but also reveal how people perceive, conceptualize, and utilize their environment. Suggests the utility of place names as a framework for cultural analysis and describes recent…

  17. Using PlacesOnline in Instructional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Michael W.; Owusu, Francis; Roseman, Curtis C.

    2008-01-01

    PlacesOnLine.org is a Web portal that provides easy access to high quality Web sites that focus on places from around the world. It is intended for use by a wide range of people, including professional geographers, teachers and students at all levels, and the general public. This article explores the potential uses of PlacesOnLine as an…

  18. Sense of Place in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudryavtsev, Alex; Stedman, Richard C.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2012-01-01

    Although environmental education research has embraced the idea of sense of place, it has rarely taken into account environmental psychology-based sense of place literature whose theory and empirical studies can enhance related studies in the education context. This article contributes to research on sense of place in environmental education from…

  19. Northwest Literature and a Sense of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Harold P.

    Teachers should help students gain a sense of where they stand. It is difficult to imagine literature without a sense of place--places bridge time and evoke and recreate the past. To compose is to remember, to recreate, and a sense of place begins the composing. Some northwestern U.S. books illustrate the point. In a college literature class,…

  20. Sense of Place in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudryavtsev, Alex; Stedman, Richard C.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2012-01-01

    Although environmental education research has embraced the idea of sense of place, it has rarely taken into account environmental psychology-based sense of place literature whose theory and empirical studies can enhance related studies in the education context. This article contributes to research on sense of place in environmental education from

  1. Literacy, Place and the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Observing that place may be understood in a range of sometimes conflicting ways, the paper picks up on recent work within literacy studies on notions of place-making and locational disadvantage to argue for increasingly sophisticated and reflexive uses of place in the field, as a counterpoint to both increasing educational standardisation and

  2. Place of death: is home always best?

    PubMed

    Macleod, Una

    2011-08-01

    Place of death is now a quality marker of end of life care. Decisions around place of death are complex. This article considers the extent to which place of death is an appropriate way to determine good end of life care. PMID:21841588

  3. Literacy, Place and the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Observing that place may be understood in a range of sometimes conflicting ways, the paper picks up on recent work within literacy studies on notions of place-making and locational disadvantage to argue for increasingly sophisticated and reflexive uses of place in the field, as a counterpoint to both increasing educational standardisation and…

  4. POSITIVE EMOTIONS ENHANCE RECALL OF PERIPHERAL DETAILS

    PubMed Central

    Talarico, Jennifer M.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emotional events. Details of each memory were rated as central or peripheral to the event. Significance of the event, vividness, reliving and other aspects of remembering were also rated for each event. Positive affect enhanced recall of peripheral details. Furthermore, the impairment of peripheral recall was greatest in memories of anger, not of fear. Reliving the experience at retrieval was negatively correlated with recall of peripheral details for some emotions (e.g., anger) but not others (e.g., fear), irrespective of similarities in affect and intensity. Within individuals, recall of peripheral details was correlated with less belief in the memory’s accuracy and more likelihood to recall the memory from one’s own eyes (i.e., a field perspective). PMID:21359127

  5. Principle of Detailed Balance in Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the detailed balance on chemical kinetics on the chemical monomolecular triangle reactions are illustrated. A simple experiment that illustrates oscillations, limit cycles, bifurcations and noise are illustrated along with the oscillating reactions.

  6. A detailed model of ion propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    A detailed model for the determination of ion propulsion system masses and performance is presented. The model divides the propulsion system into its component parts and provides mass scaling relationships for each part. In addition, the model is coupled to a detailed ion engine performance model to facilitate investigation of the impact of engine technology assumptions on the overall propulsion system mass and performance. The model is exercised to determine the optimum specific impulse for a selected earth orbit transfer mission.

  7. Detailed modeling of cluster galaxies in free-form lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The main goal of the Frontier Fields is to characterize the population of high redshift galaxies that are gravitationally lensed and magnified by foreground massive galaxy clusters. The magnification received by lensed images has to be accurately quantified in order to derive the correct science results. The magnification is in turn computed from lens models, which are constructed from various constraints, most commonly the positions and redshifts of multiply-lensed galaxies.The locations and magnification of multiple images that appear near cluster galaxies are very sensitive to the mass distribution of those individual galaxies. In current free-form lens models, they are at best crudely approximated by arbitrary mass halos and are usually being completely neglected. Given sufficient free parameters and iterations, such models may be highly consistent but their predictive power would be rather limited. This shortcoming is particularly pronounced in light of the recent discovery of the first multiply-lensed supernova in the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ1149. The proximity of its images to cluster galaxies mandates detailed modeling on galaxy-scales, where free-form methods solely based on grid solutions simply fail.We present a hybrid free-form lens model of Abell 2744, which for the first time incorporates a detailed mass component modeled by GALFIT that accurately captures the stellar light distribution of the hundred brightest cluster galaxies. The model better reproduces the image positions than a previous version, which modeled cluster galaxies with simplistic NFW halos. Curiously, this improvement is found in all but system 2, which has two radial images appearing around the BCG. Despite its complex light profile is being captured by GALFIT, the persistent discrepancies suggest considering mass distributions that may be largely offset from the stellar light distribution.

  8. 48 CFR 447.302 - Place of delivery-F.O.B. point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Place of delivery-F.O.B... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 447.302 Place of delivery—F.O.B. point. The... clause may reference an attachment which lists various delivery locations and other delivery details...

  9. 48 CFR 447.302 - Place of delivery-F.O.B. point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of delivery-F.O.B... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 447.302 Place of delivery—F.O.B. point. The... clause may reference an attachment which lists various delivery locations and other delivery details...

  10. Hi-C: A Detailed View of the Sun - Duration: 11 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 10-second movie includes imagery collected from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument flying on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and Hi-C. Hi-C’s resolution is five times more detaile...

  11. Interior building details of Building C, Room C203: detail decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-203: detail decorative radiator and four-over-four windows; southwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  12. Plan, Detail of Lower Chord, Section at U8L8, Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan, Detail of Lower Chord, Section at U8L8, Detail of Upper Chord - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  13. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  14. Triton - Detail of Dark and Light Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Voyager 2 acquired this black and white image of Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, during the night of Aug. 24-25, 1989. Triton's limb cuts obliquely across the middle of the image. The field of view is about 1,000 km (600 miles) across. Three irregular dark areas, surrounded by brighter material, dominate the image. Low-lying material with intermediate albedo occupies the central area, and fresh craters occur along the right margin. Sub-parallel alignment of linear patches of dark material shown in the lower and left part of the image suggests that the patches are structurally controlled. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  15. 4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, c. 1912. SHOWS TIMBER FRAMING UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EAST AND WEST CRUDE ORE BINS AT PREVIOUS LOCATION OF CRUSHER HOUSE, AND SNOW SHED PRESENT OVER SOUTH CRUDE ORE BIN WITH PHASE CHANGE IN SNOW SHED CONSTRUCTION INDICATED AT EAST END OF EAST CRUDE ORE BIN. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE FIRST IMAGE OF THE MACHINE SHOP, UPPER LEFT CORNER. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA Image of SS 433: Red-and-Blue Line Shows Path of Constant-Speed Jets. Note Poor Match of Path to Image. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF SS 433 Same Image, With Colored Beads Representing Particle Ejections at Different Speeds. Particle Path Now Matches. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click Here for Page of Full-Sized Graphics The new VLA image shows two full turns of the jets' corkscrew on both sides of the core. Analyzing the image showed that if material came from the core at a constant speed, the jet paths would not accurately match the details of the image. "By simulating ejections at varying speeds, we were able to produce an exact match to the observed structure," Blundell explained. The scientists first did their match to one of the jets. "We then were stunned to see that the varying speeds that matched the structure of one jet also exactly reproduced the other jet's path," Blundell said. Matching the speeds in the two jets reproduced the observed structure even allowing for the fact that, because one jet is moving more nearly away from us than the other, it takes light longer to reach us from it, she added. The astrophysicists speculate that the changes in ejection speed may be caused by changes in the rate at which material is transferred from the companion star onto the accretion disk. The detailed new VLA image also allowed the astrophysicists to determine that SS 433 is nearly 18,000 light-years distant from Earth. Earlier estimates had the object, in the constellation Aquila, as near as 10,000 light-years. An accurate distance, the scientists said, now allows them to better determine the age of the shell of debris blown out by the supernova explosion that created the dense, compact object in the microquasar. Knowing the distance accurately also allows them to measure the actual brightness of the microquasar's components, and this, they said, improves their understanding of the physical processes at work in the system. The breakthrough image was made using 10 hours of observing time with the VLA in a configuration that maximizes the VLA's ability to see fine detail. It represents the longest "time exposure" of SS 433 at radio wavelengths, and thus shows the faintest details. It also represents the best such image that can be done with current technology. Because the jets in SS 433 are moving, their image would be "smeared" in a longer observation. In order to see even fainter details in the jets, the astrophysicists must await the greater sensitivity of the Expanded VLA, set to become available in a few years. SS 433 was the first example of what now are termed microquasars, binary systems with either a neutron star or black hole orbited by another star, and emitting jets of material at high speeds. The strange stellar system received a wealth of media coverage in the late 1970s and early 1980s. A 1981 Sky & Telescope article was entitled, "SS 433 -- Enigma of the Century." Because microquasars in our own Milky Way Galaxy are thought to produce their high-speed jets of material through processes similar to those that produce jets from the cores of galaxies, the nearby microquasars serve as a convenient "laboratory" for studying the physics of jets. The microquasars are closer and show changes more quickly than their larger cousins. Katherine Blundell is a University Research Fellow funded by the UK's Royal Society. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. The WorkPlace distributed processing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Henderson, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Real time control problems require robust, high performance solutions. Distributed computing can offer high performance through parallelism and robustness through redundancy. Unfortunately, implementing distributed systems with these characteristics places a significant burden on the applications programmers. Goddard Code 522 has developed WorkPlace to alleviate this burden. WorkPlace is a small, portable, embeddable network interface which automates message routing, failure detection, and re-configuration in response to failures in distributed systems. This paper describes the design and use of WorkPlace, and its application in the construction of a distributed blackboard system.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A comparison image of the M100 Galactic Nucleus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera-1 (WF/PC1) and Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WF/PC2). The HST was placed in a low-Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-31 mission, in April 1990. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. During four spacewalks, the STS-61 crew replaced the solar panel with its flexing problems; the WF/PC1 with the WF/PC2, with built-in corrective optics; and the High-Speed Photometer with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), to correct the aberration for the remaining instruments. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects.

  19. Sense of Place in the Practice and Assessment of Place-Based Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semken, Steven; Freeman, Carol Butler

    2008-01-01

    We teach earth, ecological, and environmental sciences in and about "places" imbued with meaning by human experience. Scientific understanding is but one of the many types of meanings that can accrue to a given place. People develop emotional attachments to meaningful places. The "sense of place," encompassing the meanings and attachments that…

  20. Third Sound Amplification and Detailed Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Eddinger, J. D.; Ellis, F. M.

    2006-09-07

    Condensation of atoms from the vapor into a third sound resonance is expected to be capable of acoustic amplification. This results from normal to superfluid conversion that coherently accommodates atoms into the third sound velocity field. Consideration of third sound in light of the equilibrium detailed balance between vapor particles and the superfluid film provides further evidence that acoustic amplification is attainable.

  1. Details on the biography of Jerzy Neyman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2003-04-01

    Details on the biography of Jerzy Neyman (1894-1981) and a short outline of the native town Tighina in Basarabia (the Republic of Moldova) of the outstanding mathematician and statistician, astronomer, meteorologist, biologist, philosopher and sociologist, founder of the mathematical theory of selection has been given.

  2. States Anxious to Get Details about Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2009-01-01

    As Congress began debate last week over the size and scope of more than $120 billion in proposed emergency education aid, state leaders were anxiously awaiting the details so they could make specific plans to spend the economic-stimulus money. Governors, state legislators, and state schools chiefs have yet to learn what rules Congress will attach…

  3. Details Of Collision-Avoidance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Olsen, M. Christine; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Report provides background information on and detailed description of study of pilots' use of traffic-alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS II) in simulated flights. Described in article, "Evaluation of an Aircraft-Collision-Avoidance System" (ARC-12367). Plans, forms, training narratives, scripts, questionnaires, and other information compiled.

  4. Big Heads, Small Details and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; O'Reilly, Helen; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Autism is thought to be associated with a bias towards detail-focussed processing. While the cognitive basis remains controversial, one strong hypothesis is that there are high processing costs associated with changing from local into global processing. A possible neural mechanism underlying this processing style is abnormal neural connectivity;…

  5. Detailed photometry of Comet Crommelin (1983 n)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, Iu. V.

    1986-04-01

    A computer-aided procedure used to obtain detailed photometry of Comet Crommelin (1983 n) is described. Determinations are made of the integral magnitude of the comet and of the magnitude of the bright nucleus. Analytical expressions are obtained which relate the surface brightness of the comet to the distance from the photometric center along selected directions.

  6. Big Heads, Small Details and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; O'Reilly, Helen; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Autism is thought to be associated with a bias towards detail-focussed processing. While the cognitive basis remains controversial, one strong hypothesis is that there are high processing costs associated with changing from local into global processing. A possible neural mechanism underlying this processing style is abnormal neural connectivity;

  7. Occupation Competency Profile: Steel Detailer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the steel detailer program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  8. Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging, based on the photoacoustic effect, has come a long way over the last decade. Possessing many attractive characteristics such as the use of non-ionizing electromagnetic waves, good resolution/contrast, portable instrumention, as well as the ability to quantitate the signal to a certain extent, photoacoustic techniques have been applied for the imaging of cancer, wound healing, disorders in the brain, gene expression, among others. As a promising structural, functional and molecular imaging modality for a wide range of biomedical applications, photoacoustic imaging systems can be briefly categorized into two types: photoacoustic tomography (PAT, the focus of this chapter) and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). We will first briefly describe the endogenous (e.g. hemoglobin and melanin) and exogenous contrast agents (e.g. indocyanine green, various gold nanoparticles, single-walled carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, and fluorescent proteins) for photoacoustic imaging. Next, we will discuss in detail the applications of non-targeted photoacoustic imaging. Recently, molecular photoacoustic (MPA) imaging has gained significant interest and a few proof-of-principle studies have been reported. We will summarize the current state-of-the-art of MPA imaging, including the imaging of gene expression and combination of photoacoustic imaging with other imaging modalities. Lastly, we will point out the obstacles facing photoacoustic imaging. Although photoacoustic imaging will likely continue to be a highly vibrant research field for the years to come, the key question of whether MPA imaging could provide significant advantages over non-targeted photoacoustic imaging remains to be demonstrated in the future. PMID:21880823

  9. Detailed geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: West Spur to Cumberland Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Rice, M. S.; Squyres, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater is one of the most intensively studied regions on Mars. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has been investigating the Columbia Hills for over 5 years. During this time, Spirit has acquired thousands of images and spectroscopic observations from several outcrops and many soil samples and float rocks. The Hills exhibit a remarkable variety of textures and compositions, as indicated by diverse rock and soil types. Many studies of local regions within the Columbia Hills have been published from MER data, as have high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Additionally, the MRO Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument has acquired 13 hyperspectral observations of the Columbia Hills at 18m/pixel resolution. Previous work has had a spectroscopic and mineralogical focus, with sparsely-sampled structural measurements. To date, these data sets have not been integrated into a single detailed and comprehensive geologic map. We present a preliminary geologic map of the Columbia Hills. Our goal is to integrate observations from multiple instruments and spacecraft into a single map, illuminating the geographic context of geologic observations. Our study is unique in that we incorporate detailed structural measurements, localized stratigraphic sequences, and the footprints of remote sensing and in-situ observations. We also map the distribution of textures, such as vesicular vs. nodular rocks; small impact craters; probable flow margins; boundaries marking textural and color changes relating to differences in process and mineralogy; and the rover’s traverse path. We measure the strike and dip of planar features such as foliations and bedding planes from stereo-derived topography and provide estimates of the uncertainty in these measurements. We place the measurements in a regional geologic context in order to estimate the stratigraphic relationships between outcrops, and to compare structural attitudes to the local topography measured from the HiRISE DEM. Textures and possible impact craters are examined using Pancam, Navcam, and HiRISE images. Flow margins are estimated from both MER Pancam multispectral and HiRISE observations. Mineralogy is derived from rover and orbiter observations. By integrating many spectroscopic and imaging datasets obtained at different scales and mapping the geology in detail we can test hypotheses related to the formation and evolution of the Columbia Hills. Are the Hills primarily a volcanic construction, or are they a result of structural uplift from crater-forming processes? Were the carbonates, sulfates and diagenetic minerals discovered by Spirit the result of unrelated aqueous processes, or were they part of the same hydrothermal event? How are the modification processes shaping the evolution of the Hills different from what occurs on the surrounding plains?

  10. 2-D Drift Velocities from the IMAGE EUV Plasmaspheric Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    The IMAGE Mission extreme ultraviolet imager (EW) observes He(+) plasmaspheric ions throughout the inner magnetosphere. Limited by ionizing radiation and viewing close to the Sun, images of the He(+) distribution are available every 10 minutes for many hours as the spacecraft passes through apogee in its highly elliptical orbit. As a consistent constituent at about 15%, He(+) is an excellent surrogate for monitoring all of the processes that control the dynamics of plasmaspheric plasma. In particular, the motion of He' transverse to the ambient magnetic field is a direct indication of convective electric fields. The analysis of boundary motions has already achieved new insights into the electrodynamic coupling processes taking place between energetic magnetospheric plasmas and the ionosphere. Yet to be fulfilled, however, is the original promise that global E W images of the plasmasphere might yield two-dimensional pictures of mesoscale to macro-scale electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. This work details the technique and initial application of an IMAGE EUV analysis that appears capable of following thermal plasma motion on a global basis.

  11. 2-D Drift Velocities from the IMAGE EUV Plasmaspheric Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D.; Adrian, M.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGE Mission extreme ultraviolet imager (EUY) observes He+ plasmaspheric ions throughout the inner magnetosphere. Limited by ionizing radiation and viewing close to the Sun, images of the He+ distribution are available every 10 minutes for many hours as the spacecraft passes through apogee in its highly elliptical orbit. As a consistent constituent at about 15%, He+ is an excellent surrogate for monitoring all of the processes that control the dynamics of plasmaspheric plasma. In particular, the motion ofHe+ transverse to the ambient magnetic field is a direct indication of convective electric fields. The analysis of boundary motions has already achieved new insights into the electrodynamic coupling processes taking place between energetic magnetospheric plasmas and the ionosphere. Yet to be fulfilled, however, is the original promise that global EUY images of the plasmasphere might yield two-dimensional pictures of meso-scale to macro-scale electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. This work details the technique and initial application of an IMAGE EUY analysis that appears capable of following thermal plasma motion on a global basis.

  12. A Quiet Place for Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    As electronic gadgets predominate a student's life, there comes a need for silence. A quiet place free of electromagnetic spectrum waves, dirty and stray electricity, and the endless chirps, whistles, beeps, and customized signaling. A quiet place can offer solitude for meditation, inspiration, and spiritual awareness. Student involvement in the…

  13. Section 2--Psychology in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, Graham Richards published "Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective." Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which…

  14. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  15. Classrooms as Safe Places To Be Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Derek

    This paper contends that classrooms should be safe places for students and their teachers to be wrong, suggesting that this concept should provide the mainspring for educational reform in Hong Kong and in other places in the world. It notes that education in Hong Kong is harsh and has a tendency to label students; for the majority of students,…

  16. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  17. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  18. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  19. Urban Environmental Education and Sense of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudryavtsev, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Urban environmental educators are trying to connect students to the urban environment and nature, and thus develop a certain sense of place. To do so, educators involve students in environmental stewardship, monitoring, activism, and outdoor recreation in cities. At the same time, sense of place has been linked to pro-environmental behaviors and

  20. Coloring in the Emotional Language of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Making educational places more inviting to learners is a key aspect of Invitational Theory. This paper introduces a simple technique for sensitizing learners and instructors to how their environment affects their feelings and ability to learn. It describes a learning exercise that may be used to assess, evaluate and transform places, to promote…

  1. A Quiet Place for Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    As electronic gadgets predominate a student's life, there comes a need for silence. A quiet place free of electromagnetic spectrum waves, dirty and stray electricity, and the endless chirps, whistles, beeps, and customized signaling. A quiet place can offer solitude for meditation, inspiration, and spiritual awareness. Student involvement in the

  2. Urban Environmental Education and Sense of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudryavtsev, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Urban environmental educators are trying to connect students to the urban environment and nature, and thus develop a certain sense of place. To do so, educators involve students in environmental stewardship, monitoring, activism, and outdoor recreation in cities. At the same time, sense of place has been linked to pro-environmental behaviors and…

  3. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  4. Agency as Place in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Grant R.; Patrizio, Kami M.

    2015-01-01

    We build upon the conceptualizations of agency in teacher education presented in the three previous articles in this issue to address the question of "where" agency occurs in the context of globalization. We rely on theories of place and place-based education to illuminate the paradoxical dimensions of the global commons, raising…

  5. Mars Polar Lander Site Surface Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This picture is an enlargement of a portion of a MOC image taken in late July 1999, showing the onset of defrosting of the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap (small, occasionally fan-shaped dark spots seen throughout this image). Two craters are seen in this image, a very rare occurrence on the south polar layered deposits. Shown for comparison at the same scale is a picture of Jack Murphy (now Qualcomm) Stadium in San Diego, California. Clearly visible in the inset is the baseball diamond and pitcher's mound; less clear but certainly visible are a number of automobiles (small light dots) in the parking lot west (to the left) of the stadium. The elevation of the sun in the Mars image is about 10o; the sunlight is coming from the bottom (north) in this image. The shadow of the rims of the craters can be used to determine their depths. The smaller crater in the bottom right corner is about 60 m (197 feet) across and 7 m (23 feet) deep; the large crater just below the inset is 175 m (574 feet) across and 17 m (56 feet) deep. Similar calculations for other features in the images indicate that much of the surface is smooth and flat. Relief is typically much less than 1-2 meters (3-7 feet) in height over areas of 10-15 meters across (33-49 feet).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  6. An automated digital imaging system for environmental monitoring applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogle, Rian; Velasco, Miguel; Vogel, John

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the affordability and availability of high-resolution digital cameras, data loggers, embedded computers, and radio/cellular modems have advanced the development of sophisticated automated systems for remote imaging. Researchers have successfully placed and operated automated digital cameras in remote locations and in extremes of temperature and humidity, ranging from the islands of the South Pacific to the Mojave Desert and the Grand Canyon. With the integration of environmental sensors, these automated systems are able to respond to local conditions and modify their imaging regimes as needed. In this report we describe in detail the design of one type of automated imaging system developed by our group. It is easily replicated, low-cost, highly robust, and is a stand-alone automated camera designed to be placed in remote locations, without wireless connectivity.

  7. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62 by 93 miles) Location: 42.5 deg. North lat., 140.3 deg. East lon. Orientation: North towards upper left Image Data: SRTM Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 17, 2000

  8. Langevin dynamics neglecting detailed balance condition.

    PubMed

    Ohzeki, Masayuki; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for driving a system into a desired distribution, for example, the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution, is proposed, which makes use of an artificial relaxation process. The standard techniques for achieving the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution involve numerical simulations under the detailed balance condition. In contrast, in the present study we formulate the Langevin dynamics, for which the corresponding Fokker-Planck operator includes an asymmetric component violating the detailed balance condition. This leads to shifts in the eigenvalues and results in the acceleration of the relaxation toward the steady state. The numerical implementation demonstrates faster convergence and shorter correlation time, and the technique of biased event sampling, Nemoto-Sasa theory, further highlights the efficacy of our method. PMID:26274123

  9. Langevin dynamics neglecting detailed balance condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzeki, Masayuki; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for driving a system into a desired distribution, for example, the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution, is proposed, which makes use of an artificial relaxation process. The standard techniques for achieving the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution involve numerical simulations under the detailed balance condition. In contrast, in the present study we formulate the Langevin dynamics, for which the corresponding Fokker-Planck operator includes an asymmetric component violating the detailed balance condition. This leads to shifts in the eigenvalues and results in the acceleration of the relaxation toward the steady state. The numerical implementation demonstrates faster convergence and shorter correlation time, and the technique of biased event sampling, Nemoto-Sasa theory, further highlights the efficacy of our method.

  10. DETAILED STUDIES OF ELECTRON COOLING FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; ABELL, D.T.; SIDORIN, A.O.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORFAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  11. Detailed Studies of Electron Cooling Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Abell, D. T.; Sidorin, A. O.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORPAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  12. SUV Tracks On Mars? The 'Devil' is in the Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) on Mars? Imagine the MOC imaging team's surprise on the morning of April 27, 1998, as the latest images came in from the 'Red Planet.'

    A picture taken by the camera on Mars Global Surveyor just one day earlier showed several thin, dark lines that--at first glance--looked like pathways blazed by off-road sport utility vehicles. Who's been driving around on Mars?

    The MOC image in question (#26403), seen here at full resolution of 13.8 meters (45 feet) per pixel, was obtained around 10:22 a.m. PDT on April 26, 1998, during Mars Global Surveyor's 264th orbit. North is approximately up, illumination is from the lower right. Located in eastern Arabia Terra near 16.5o N latitude, 311.4o W longitude, the image showed a number of natural features--small craters formed by meteor impact, several buttes and mesas left by erosion of the surrounding terrain, small dunes and drifts, and a mantle of dust that varies in thickness from place to place. But the new picture also showed two dark lines--each varying in width up to about 15 meters (49 feet)--that extended several kilometers/miles across the image.

    Lines like these have been seen before on Mars. They are most likely the result of dust devils--columnar vortices of wind that move across the landscape, pick up dust, and look somewhat like miniature tornadoes. Dust devils are a common occurrence in dry and desert landscapes on Earth as well as Mars. They form when the ground heats up during the day, warming the air immediately above the surface. As pockets of warm air rise and interfere with one another, they create horizontal pressure variations that, combined with other meteorological winds, cause the upward moving air to spin (the direction of the spin is controlled by the same Coriolis forces that cause terrestrial hurricanes to spin in specific directions). As the spinning column of air moves across the surface, it occasionally encounters dust on the surface, which it can suck upward. This dust rises into the spinning air, giving the appearance of a tornado-like column that moves across the landscape. As the column of air moves, its ability to pick up dust varies--sometimes they hold a lot of dust and are nearly opaque; sometimes you cannot even see them. Dust-devils rarely last long, since their very motion changes the conditions that allowed them to form in the first place.

    Mars Pathfinder detected the passage of several dust devils during its 83 days of operation on Mars in 1997. Mariner 9 and the Viking landers and orbiters of the 1970s also found evidence that dust devils occur on Mars; indeed, some Viking Orbiter images actually show dust devil clouds. MOC image 26403 is the latest entry in the body of evidence for the work of wind in the modern martian environment. The MOC Science Team is continuing to study these and other streaks caused by wind interacting with the martian surface.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. Detailed Jet Dynamics in a Collapsing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed visualizations of the micro-jet forming inside an aspherically collapsing cavitation bubble near a free surface. The high-quality visualizations of large and strongly deformed bubbles disclose so far unseen features of the dynamics inside the bubble, such as a mushroom-like flattened jet-tip, crown formation and micro-droplets. We also find that jetting near a free surface reduces the collapse time relative to the Rayleigh time.

  14. Detailed scour measurements around a debris accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Parola, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed scour measurements were made at Farm-Market 2004 over the Brazos River near Lake Jackson, Tex. during flooding in October 1994. Woody debris accumulations on bents 6, 7, and 8 obstructed flow through the bridge, causing scour of the streambed. Measurements at the site included three-dimensional velocities, channel bathymetry, water-surface elevations, water-surface slope, and discharge. Channel geometry upstream from the bridge caused approach conditions to be nonuniform.

  15. A Detailed Spectroscopic Analysis of The EQ Pegasi System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Murphy, Simon; Riedel, Adric R.

    2015-01-01

    EQ Pegasi (GJ 896, HIP 116132 ) is a resolved binary system comprised of mid-M dwarfs at a distance of only 6.2 pc. The system has been studied extensively over a broad range of wavelengths from the X-ray to the radio. These observations reveal both components are variable, flare, and exhibit high levels of magnetic activity. The pair were recently proposed as members of a nearby young kinematic association on the basis of consistent Galactic kinematics, strong X-ray emission, and color-magnitude diagram position. Thus, they may be the closest pre-main-sequence system to the Sun. Here we present a detailed analysis of EQ Peg A and B using medium resolution spectra covering ~0.5-2.5 microns. We investigate spectral types, chromospheric activity indicators, lithium depletion, and gravity sensitive alkali lines and molecular bands to characterize the system and place constraints on its age.

  16. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  17. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, kK.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical.

  18. Crowdsourcing a Collective Sense of Place

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Andrew; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew T.; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Place can be generally defined as a location that has been assigned meaning through human experience, and as such it is of multidisciplinary scientific interest. Up to this point place has been studied primarily within the context of social sciences as a theoretical construct. The availability of large amounts of user-generated content, e.g. in the form of social media feeds or Wikipedia contributions, allows us for the first time to computationally analyze and quantify the shared meaning of place. By aggregating references to human activities within urban spaces we can observe the emergence of unique themes that characterize different locations, thus identifying places through their discernible sociocultural signatures. In this paper we present results from a novel quantitative approach to derive such sociocultural signatures from Twitter contributions and also from corresponding Wikipedia entries. By contrasting the two we show how particular thematic characteristics of places (referred to herein as platial themes) are emerging from such crowd-contributed content, allowing us to observe the meaning that the general public, either individually or collectively, is assigning to specific locations. Our approach leverages probabilistic topic modelling, semantic association, and spatial clustering to find locations are conveying a collective sense of place. Deriving and quantifying such meaning allows us to observe how people transform a location to a place and shape its characteristics. PMID:27050432

  19. Crowdsourcing a Collective Sense of Place.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Andrew; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew T; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Place can be generally defined as a location that has been assigned meaning through human experience, and as such it is of multidisciplinary scientific interest. Up to this point place has been studied primarily within the context of social sciences as a theoretical construct. The availability of large amounts of user-generated content, e.g. in the form of social media feeds or Wikipedia contributions, allows us for the first time to computationally analyze and quantify the shared meaning of place. By aggregating references to human activities within urban spaces we can observe the emergence of unique themes that characterize different locations, thus identifying places through their discernible sociocultural signatures. In this paper we present results from a novel quantitative approach to derive such sociocultural signatures from Twitter contributions and also from corresponding Wikipedia entries. By contrasting the two we show how particular thematic characteristics of places (referred to herein as platial themes) are emerging from such crowd-contributed content, allowing us to observe the meaning that the general public, either individually or collectively, is assigning to specific locations. Our approach leverages probabilistic topic modelling, semantic association, and spatial clustering to find locations are conveying a collective sense of place. Deriving and quantifying such meaning allows us to observe how people transform a location to a place and shape its characteristics. PMID:27050432

  20. A Detailed Geomorphological Sketch Map of Titan's Afekan Crater Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Le Gall, A. A.; Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to Titan's uniquely thick atmosphere and organic haze layers, the most detailed images (with resolution of 300 meters per pixel) of the Saturnian moon's surface exist as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images taken by Cassini's RADAR instrument. Using the SAR data, we have been putting together detailed geomorphological sketch maps of various Titan regions in an effort to piece together its geologic history. We initially examined the Afekan region of Titan due to extensive SAR coverage. Features described on Afekan fall under the categories (in order of geologic age, extrapolated from their relative emplacement) of hummocky, labyrinthic, plains, and dunes. During our mapping effort, we also divided each terrain category into several different subclasses on a local level. Our map offers a chance to present and analyze the distribution, relationship, and potential formation hypotheses of the different terrains. In bulk, we find evidence for both Aeolian and fluvial processes. A particularly important unit found in the Afekan region is the unit designated "undifferentiated plains", or the "Blandlands" of Titan, a mid-latitude terrain unit comprising 25% of the moon's surface. Undifferentiated plains are notable for its relative featurelessness in radar and infrared. Our interpretation is that it is a fill unit in and around Afekan crater and other hummocky/mountainous units. The plains suggest that the nature of Titan's geomorphology seems to be tied to ongoing erosional forces and sediment deposition. Other datasets used in characterizing Titan's various geomorphological units include information obtained from radiometry, infrared (ISS), and spectrometry (VIMS). We will present the detailed geomorphological sketch map with all the terrain units assigned and labeled.

  1. Multiple-image oscilloscope camera

    DOEpatents

    Yasillo, Nicholas J.

    1978-01-01

    An optical device for placing automatically a plurality of images at selected locations on one film comprises a stepping motor coupled to a rotating mirror and lens. A mechanical connection from the mirror controls an electronic logical system to allow rotation of the mirror to place a focused image at the desired preselected location. The device is of especial utility when used to place four images on a single film to record oscilloscope views obtained in gamma radiography.

  2. A New Device to Place Elastic Separators

    PubMed Central

    Saklecha, Bhuwan; Agarwal, Chetan O; Mhaske, Arun; Patil, Harshal

    2015-01-01

    Separation of teeth is an important and integral aspect of orthodontic treatment. Elastomeric separators are the most common devices used today which require special instrument to place them. The purpose of this study was to design a separator placing instrument of dental probe/explorer which can be used as an alternative to the special instrument required. The materials required were two dental probes/explorers, a light wire plier and elastomeric separators. The modified instrument made is easy to fabricate, inexpensive and can partially or completely replace the special separator placing plier. PMID:26674925

  3. Management Documentation: Indicators & Good Practice at Cultural Heritage Places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppich, R.; Garcia Grinda, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation for cultural heritage places usually refers to describing the physical attributes, surrounding context, condition or environment; most of the time with images, graphics, maps or digital 3D models in their various forms with supporting textural information. Just as important as this type of information is the documentation of managerial attributes. How do managers of cultural heritage places collect information related to financial or economic well-being? How are data collected over time measured, and what are significant indicators for improvement? What quality of indicator is good enough? Good management of cultural heritage places is essential for conservation longevity, preservation of values and enjoyment by the public. But how is management documented? The paper will describe the research methodology, selection and description of attributes or indicators related to good management practice. It will describe the criteria for indicator selection and why they are important, how and when they are collected, by whom, and the difficulties in obtaining this information. As importantly it will describe how this type of documentation directly contributes to improving conservation practice. Good practice summaries will be presented that highlight this type of documentation including Pamplona and Ávila, Spain and Valletta, Malta. Conclusions are drawn with preliminary recommendations for improvement of this important aspect of documentation. Documentation of this nature is not typical and presents a unique challenge to collect, measure and communicate easily. However, it is an essential category that is often ignored yet absolutely essential in order to conserve cultural heritage places.

  4. Revisiting the Seductive Details Effect in Multimedia Learning: Context-Dependency of Seductive Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Devrim; Doolittle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of context-dependency of seductive details on recall and transfer in multimedia learning environments. Seductive details were interesting yet irrelevant sentences in the instructional text. Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to identify context-dependent and…

  5. "From this place and of this place:" climate change, sense of place, and health in Nunatsiavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Harper, Sherilee L; Ford, James D; Landman, Karen; Houle, Karen; Edge, Victoria L

    2012-08-01

    As climate change impacts are felt around the globe, people are increasingly exposed to changes in weather patterns, wildlife and vegetation, and water and food quality, access and availability in their local regions. These changes can impact human health and well-being in a variety of ways: increased risk of foodborne and waterborne diseases; increased frequency and distribution of vector-borne disease; increased mortality and injury due to extreme weather events and heat waves; increased respiratory and cardiovascular disease due to changes in air quality and increased allergens in the air; and increased susceptibility to mental and emotional health challenges. While climate change is a global phenomenon, the impacts are experienced most acutely in place; as such, a sense of place, place-attachment, and place-based identities are important indicators for climate-related health and adaptation. Representing one of the first qualitative case studies to examine the connections among climate change, a changing sense of place, and health in an Inuit context, this research draws data from a multi-year community-driven case study situated in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Canada. Data informing this paper were drawn from the narrative analysis of 72 in-depth interviews conducted from November 2009 to October 2010, as well as from the descriptive analysis of 112 questionnaires from a survey in October 2010 (95% response rate). The findings illustrated that climate change is negatively affecting feelings of place attachment by disrupting hunting, fishing, foraging, trapping, and traveling, and changing local landscapes-changes which subsequently impact physical, mental, and emotional health and well-being. These results also highlight the need to develop context-specific climate-health planning and adaptation programs, and call for an understanding of place-attachment as a vital indicator of health and well-being and for climate change to be framed as an important determinant of health. PMID:22595069

  6. A Woman's Place is at the Podium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kay D.

    1984-01-01

    The precedents set by contemporary women conductors, the models they represent, and the contributions they have made to music constitute significant reasons for them to remain the focus of attention that will confirm their place in musical history. (RM)

  7. Lessons learned in detailed clinical modeling at Intermountain Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Oniki, Thomas A; Coyle, Joseph F; Parker, Craig G; Huff, Stanley M

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Intermountain Healthcare has a long history of using coded terminology and detailed clinical models (DCMs) to govern storage of clinical data to facilitate decision support and semantic interoperability. The latest iteration of DCMs at Intermountain is called the clinical element model (CEM). We describe the lessons learned from our CEM efforts with regard to subjective decisions a modeler frequently needs to make in creating a CEM. We present insights and guidelines, but also describe situations in which use cases conflict with the guidelines. We propose strategies that can help reconcile the conflicts. The hope is that these lessons will be helpful to others who are developing and maintaining DCMs in order to promote sharing and interoperability. Methods We have used the Clinical Element Modeling Language (CEML) to author approximately 5000 CEMs. Results Based on our experience, we have formulated guidelines to lead our modelers through the subjective decisions they need to make when authoring models. Reported here are guidelines regarding precoordination/postcoordination, dividing content between the model and the terminology, modeling logical attributes, and creating iso-semantic models. We place our lessons in context, exploring the potential benefits of an implementation layer, an iso-semantic modeling framework, and ontologic technologies. Conclusions We assert that detailed clinical models can advance interoperability and sharing, and that our guidelines, an implementation layer, and an iso-semantic framework will support our progress toward that goal. PMID:24993546

  8. Details of extensive movements by Minnesota wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, S.B.; Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    We used VHF, GPS, and satellite radiocollars to study details of long distance movements by four Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus). Number of locations during our tracking ranged from 14 to 274. Farthest distances reached ranged from 183-494 km, and minimum distances traveled (sums of line segments) ranged from 490-4251 km. Numbers of times wolves crossed state, provincial or interstate highways ranged from 1 to 215. All four of the wolves returned to or near their natal territories after up to 179 d and at least two left again.

  9. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  10. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  11. Detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation has been developed and validated against a variety of experimental data sets. Laminar flame speed data obtained from a constant volume bomb, ignition delay data behind reflected shock waves, and ethanol oxidation product profiles from a turbulent flow reactor were used in this study. Very good agreement was found in modeling the data sets obtained from the three different experimental systems. The computational modeling results show that high temperature ethanol oxidation exhibits strong sensitivity to the fall-off kinetics of ethanol decomposition, branching ratio selection for c2h5oh+oh=products, and reactions involving the hydroperoxyl (HO2) radical.

  12. Operationalizing Place: Discovering, Reasoning about, and Exploring Place Knowledge from Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Benjamin Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Places and place types, such as "small town", play a fundamental role in how people organize knowledge about the world. Although places are commonly referenced in human communication, often they are not canonically defined and many of the properties people associate with them have proved difficult to operationalize. In information

  13. Re(Place) Your Typical Writing Assignment: An Argument for Place-Based Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Place-based writing affords students an opportunity to write meaningfully about themselves, grounded in a place that they know. Place-based writing is versatile and can be additive--taking just a week or two within a semester of different projects--or transformative, if positioned as the theme for an entire course. If students can learn to write…

  14. Foundations of Place: A Multidisciplinary Framework for Place-Conscious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenewald, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides educators at all levels with a theoretical rationale for place-conscious education; it also discusses pedagogical pathways, and institutional challenges, to place-consciousness. Drawing on insights from phenomenology, critical geography, bioregionalism, ecofeminism, and other place-conscious traditions, the author gathers…

  15. Remembering the Roots of Place Meanings for Place-Based Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Place-based education seeks to connect learners to local environments through a variety of strategies that increase environmental awareness and connectedness to particular parts of the world. The concept of place meanings encompasses the subjective ways people construct meaning through their experiences with an array of settings. Place meanings…

  16. Operationalizing Place: Discovering, Reasoning about, and Exploring Place Knowledge from Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Benjamin Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Places and place types, such as "small town", play a fundamental role in how people organize knowledge about the world. Although places are commonly referenced in human communication, often they are not canonically defined and many of the properties people associate with them have proved difficult to operationalize. In information…

  17. VLBA Movies Reveal New Details of Cosmic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have known for decades that supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies can shoot out jets of subatomic particles at tremendous speeds. However, details about the physics of such jets, including how they are generated, how the high-speed flows are shaped into jets, and how fast the particles are moving, among many others, have remained elusive. An international team of researchers now is making an unprecedented long-term study of the motions of these giant jets, using the super-sharp imaging capabilities of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). "We're making images of 200 galactic jets at regular intervals, tracking their motions and studying their magnetic-field properties. This is making major contributions to our understanding of such jets," said Matthew Lister, of Purdue University. MOJAVE Poster Click image for high-resolution file (11.9 MB) The research team has produced time-lapse movies of 100 of the jets, allowing measurement of the speed and direction of motion. "The results of these VLBA observations are going into a rich and still-growing set of data that is available to the entire astronomical research community as a tool for understanding the many unresolved questions we have about these jets," Lister said. The jet study is called MOJAVE -- Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments -- and began in 2002. It is a successor to an earlier VLBA study that regularly made images of nearly 200 jets from 1994 to 2002. The jets are powered by the gravitational energy of black holes containing hundreds of millions times more mass than the Sun. Black holes are concentrations of mass so dense that not even light can escape them. As these monsters draw material toward them, the material falls into a circular disk orbiting the black hole. The jets are propelled outward along the poles of the disk. The MOJAVE movies have given astronomers some surprises and also have spurred follow-on studies of individual objects. "Before the VLBA was built, we were hindered in our studies of extragalactic jets by the lack of a facility that could do high-quality, regularly-spaced images showing very great detail. The VLBA's capabilities have made it a premier facility for studying these objects out to very large distances, and thus getting a large sample," Lister said. The MOJAVE observations are showing new details about the structures of magnetic fields in the jets. This is important, because magnetic fields are thought to play vital roles in the acceleration of the particles and in shaping the jets. The time-lapse movies have revealed a variety of interesting behavior in the jets. For example, the powerful radio galaxy called 3C279 emitted a bright feature that moved along a straight path for 15 years, then suddenly brightened, showed a change in its magnetic field, and sped off in a new direction. Other jets shoot successive bright features that move outward in curved paths. Some features in jets are seen to break apart. "These detailed movies of complex motions are real-world data that allow researchers to refine their computer simulations of the jets, leading to a far better understanding of the physics involved in such impressive cosmic particle accelerators," Lister said. The MOJAVE data will prove valuable for comparison with the gamma-ray information to be collected by NASA's upcoming GLAST satellite. "Using the MOJAVE data along with data from other ground-based and orbiting observatories at different wavelengths is bringing the studies of galactic jets into a new era," Lister concluded. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for 2,4,6-tri-nitrotoluene (TNT) has been developed to explore problems of explosive performance and soot formation during the destruction of munitions. The TNT mechanism treats only gas-phase reactions. Reactions for the decomposition of TNT and for the consumption of intermediate products formed from TNT are assembled based on information from the literature and on current understanding of aromatic chemistry. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate and radical species are estimated by group additivity. Reaction paths are developed based on similar paths for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction-rate constant expressions are estimated from the literature and from analogous reactions where the rate constants are available. The detailed reaction mechanism for TNT is added to existing reaction mechanisms for RDX and for hydrocarbons. Computed results show the effect of oxygen concentration on the amount of soot precursors that are formed in the combustion of RDX and TNT mixtures in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures.

  19. Detailed balance of the Feynman micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Derek; Davis, Bruce R.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    1999-09-01

    One existing implication of micromotors is that they can be powered by rectifying non-equilibrium thermal fluctuations or mechanical vibrations via the so-called Feynman- micromotor. An example of mechanical rectification is found in the batteryless wristwatch. The original concept was described in as early as 1912 by Smoluchowski and was later revisited in 1963 by Feynman, in the context of rectifying thermal fluctuations to obtain useful motion. It has been shown that, although rectification is impossible at equilibrium, it is possible for the Feynman-micromotor to perform work under non-equilibrium conditions. These concepts can now be realized by MEMS technology and may have exciting implications in biomedicine - where the Feynman- micromotor can be used to power a smart pill, for example. Previously, Feynman's analysis of the motor's efficiency has been shown to be flawed by Parrondo and Espanol. We now show there are further problems in Feynman's treatment of detailed balance. In order to design and understand this device correctly, the equations of detailed balance must be found. Feynman's approach was to use probabilities based on energies and we show that this is problematic. In this paper, we demonstrate corrected equations using level crossing probabilities instead. A potential application of the Feynman-micromotor is a batteryless nanopump that consists of a small MEMS chip that adheres to the skin of a patient and dispense nanoliter quantities of medication. Either mechanical or thermal rectification via a Feynman- micromotor, as the power source, is open for possible investigation.

  20. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrazine Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, Nancy E.; Bates, Kami R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to develop and validate a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. Hydrazine is used extensively in aerospace propulsion, and although liquid hydrazine is not considered detonable, many fuel handling systems create multiphase mixtures of fuels and fuel vapors during their operation. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the decomposition chemistry of hydrazine under a variety of conditions can be of value in assessing potential operational hazards in hydrazine fuel systems. To gain such knowledge, a reasonable starting point is the development and validation of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. A reasonably complete mechanism was published in 1996, however, many of the elementary steps included had outdated rate expressions and a thorough investigation of the behavior of the mechanism under a variety of conditions was not presented. The current work has included substantial revision of the previously published mechanism, along with a more extensive examination of the decomposition behavior of hydrazine. An attempt to validate the mechanism against the limited experimental data available has been made and was moderately successful. Further computational and experimental research into the chemistry of this fuel needs to be completed.

  1. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  2. Advanced solar concentrator: Preliminary and detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Maraschin, R. A.; Matsushita, M. T.; Erskine, D.; Carlton, R.; Jakovcevic, A.; Yasuda, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A single reflection point focusing two-axis tracking paraboloidal dish with a reflector aperture diameter of approximately 11 m has a reflective surface made up of 64 independent, optical quality gores. Each gore is a composite of a thin backsilvered mirror glass face sheet continuously bonded to a contoured substrate of lightweight, rigid cellular glass. The use of largely self-supporting gores allows a significant reduction in the weight of the steel support structure as compared to alternate design concepts. Primary emphasis in the preliminary design package for the low-cost, low-weight, mass producible concentrator was placed on the design of the higher cost subsystems. The outer gore element was sufficiently designed to allow fabrication of prototype gores.

  3. Exterior detail direct view of typical entry steps (including 3story ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior detail direct view of typical entry steps (including 3-story trash-dump tower) at east side of Building 7, looking south - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Detail of radially placed steel beams supporting rotating platform. Part of shielded locomotive at upper right. Date: February 3, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-37-1-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Interior view, Slave Quarter/Service, second floor, detail view of framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, Slave Quarter/Service, second floor, detail view of framing to show joists (with ghosts of lathe) and header (trimmer) with keyed through tenon. - Decatur House, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 748 Jackson Place Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Exterior direct detail view of 2nd floor balcony at west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior direct detail view of 2nd floor balcony at west side of Building 6, showing curved concrete rail and tapered concrete column, looking north - North Beach Place, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Detailed Cloud Patterns in Martian Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cold and cloudy mornings; cool, hazy afternoons. High winds aloft and weather fronts moving slowly to the east. It is winter in the Martian northern hemisphere. One of the many reasons to study Mars is that, at times, its weather is very 'Earth-like.' At this time of the Martian year, clouds are abundant, especially in the morning and especially in the high northern latitudes. Clouds and fogs are also observed in low-lying areas farther to the south, in some lowlands they are as far south as the equator.

    The above color composite images, obtained by Mars Global Surveyor's camera on June 4, 1998, illustrate this Martian 'weather report.' Most of the thick, white clouds seen here occur north of latitude 35oN (roughly equivalent to Albuquerque NM, Memphis TN, and Charlotte, NC). Fog (seen as bright orange because it is lighter than the ground but some of the ground is still visible) occupies the lowest portions of the Kasei Valles outflow channel around 30oN and at 25oN.

    Several different types of cloud features are seen. The repetitious, wash-board pattern of parallel lines are 'gravity wave clouds'. These commonly form, in the lee--downwind side-- of topographic features such as mountain ranges (on Earth) or crater rims (on Mars), under very specific atmospheric conditions (low temperatures, high humidity, and high wind speeds). In this area, the wave clouds are lower in the atmosphere than some of the other clouds. These other clouds show attributes reflecting more the regional weather pattern, occasionally showing the characteristic 'slash' shape (southwest to northeast) of a weather front. These clouds probably contain mostly crystals of water ice but, depending on the temperature at high altitude (and more likely closer to the pole), some could also contain frozen carbon dioxide ('dry ice').

    MOC images 34501 (the red wide angle image) and 34502 (the blue wide angle image) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 345th orbit about the planet. The pictures were taken around 5: 34 p.m. PDT on June 4, 1998. Winter in the northern hemisphere began in mid-February, 1998, and continues to mid-July, 1998.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. MAGNIFICENT DETAILS IN A DUSTY SPIRAL GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the majestic spiral galaxy NGC 4414 was imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. An international team of astronomers, led by Dr. Wendy Freedman of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, observed this galaxy on 13 different occasions over the course of two months. Images were obtained with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) through three different color filters. Based on their discovery and careful brightness measurements of variable stars in NGC 4414, the Key Project astronomers were able to make an accurate determination of the distance to the galaxy. The resulting distance to NGC 4414, 19.1 megaparsecs or about 60 million light-years, along with similarly determined distances to other nearby galaxies, contributes to astronomers' overall knowledge of the rate of expansion of the universe. The Hubble constant (H0) is the ratio of how fast galaxies are moving away from us to their distance from us. This astronomical value is used to determine distances, sizes, and the intrinsic luminosities for many objects in our universe, and the age of the universe itself. Due to the large size of the galaxy compared to the WFPC2 detectors, only half of the galaxy observed was visible in the datasets collected by the Key Project astronomers in 1995. In 1999, the Hubble Heritage Team revisited NGC 4414 and completed its portrait by observing the other half with the same filters as were used in 1995. The end result is a stunning full-color look at the entire dusty spiral galaxy. The new Hubble picture shows that the central regions of this galaxy, as is typical of most spirals, contain primarily older, yellow and red stars. The outer spiral arms are considerably bluer due to ongoing formation of young, blue stars, the brightest of which can be seen individually at the high resolution provided by the Hubble camera. The arms are also very rich in clouds of interstellar dust, seen as dark patches and streaks silhouetted against the starlight. Image Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA) NOTE TO EDITORS: Image files and photo caption are available on the

  9. Video display during laparoscopy – where should it be placed?

    PubMed Central

    Pawełczak, Dariusz; Piotrowski, Piotr; Trzeciak, Piotr W.; Jędrzejczyk, Adam; Pasieka, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During laparoscopy, the monitor is usually placed near the operating table, at eye level, which significantly affects hand-eye coordination. First, it is impossible for the surgeon to simultaneously observe the operative field and hand movement. Second, the axis of view of the endoscope rarely matches the natural axis of the surgeon's sight: it resembles a direct view into the operative field. Finally, as the arms of the tools act as levers with a fulcrum at the site of the skin incision, the action of the tool handles is a mirror image of the movement of the tool tips seen on the monitor. Studies have shown that a neutral position with the head flexed at 15–45° is the most ergonomically suitable. Aim To evaluate whether the level of monitor placement exerts an influence on laparoscopic performance. Material and methods A group of 52 students of medicine were asked to pass a thread through 9 holes of different sizes, placed at different levels and angles, using a self-made laparoscopic simulator. Each student performed the task four times in two monitor positions: at eye level, and placed on a simulator. The order of monitor placement was randomized. Results The task was performed more quickly when the monitor was placed on the simulator and the sight was forced downwards. Lower placement was also found to be more beneficial for students with experience in laparoscopy. Conclusions New technologies which place the display on the patient, thus improving the ergonomics of the operation, should be developed. PMID:25960798

  10. Towards a chronotopic theory of "place" in place-based education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-12-01

    The notion of place, as in place- based education, has received considerable attention in educational theorizing because of its potential to link students, their lifeworlds, and their experiences in particular settings to formal education. However, in current debates of place-based education, the notion of place is emerging as problematic. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a rethinking of place in a form that is appropriate for describing and theorizing its occurrence in a world we share with others. We understand place as the result of a dialectical and dialogical relation of the material world and its chronotopic (time-space) nature in the various conversations (discourses) in which it is constituted as this place; that is, we view place as a lived entity that results from a dialogical transaction between a community and its material environment at a particular moment in cultural-historical time and which hence shapes and is shaped by the identity of the people. We exemplify our rethinking with a case of an environmental education project in which place unfolds as a chronotope from a dialogue between scientific and indigenous voices. The implications of this rethinking of place for place-based education are discussed.

  11. Detailed mechanism for oxidation of benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the oxidation of benzene is presented and used to compute experimentally obtained concentration profiles and ignition delay times over a wide range of equivalence ratio and temperature. The computed results agree qualitatively with all the experimental trends. Quantitative agreement is obtained with several of the composition profiles and for the temperature dependence of the ignition delay times. There are indications, however, that some important reactions are as yet undiscovered in this mechanism. Recent literature expressions have been used for the rate coefficients of most important reactions, except for some involving phenol. The discrepancy between the phenol pyrolysis rate coefficient used in this work and a recent literature expression remains to be explained.

  12. Report Details Solar Radiation Alert and Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staedter, Tracy

    2006-06-01

    High-energy particles from the Sun and from regions beyond the solar system constantly bombard Earth. Thanks to the planet's atmosphere and magnetic field, comsic radiation is not a significant threat to those rooted on terra firma. But airline crew and passengers flying at high altitudes, or over the poles where the Earth's magnetic field provides no protection, are particularly vulnerable to unpredictable flares on the Sun's surface that launch streams of sub-atomic particles toward Earth. The report, ``Solar Radiation Alert System,'' published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in July 2005 (www.faa.gov/library/reports/medical/oamtechreports/2000s/media/0514.pdf) details in alert system designed to estimate the ionizing radiation at aircraft flight altitudes and, depending on the resulting dose rate, issue a warning.

  13. New details on nuclear weapons program bared

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1994-07-11

    In a continuing effort to be more candid about Department of Energy nuclear weapons programs, Energy Secretary Hazel R. O'Leary recently declassified a substantial amount of information. On June 27, she revealed details about total US weapons-grade uranium production, testing of a bomb made of reactor-grade plutonium, radiation experiments conducted on humans since the 1920s, and underground and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. O'Leary explains the new revelations by saying thousands of people in meetings across the country this year have told her that openness in government is very important. DOE is responding today in a manner that both satisfies the strong public interest and respects critical national security requirements.

  14. Detailed assays conducted on Vietnamese crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1990-07-16

    More oil property data, in the form of recent crude oil assays, have been made available for two Vietnamese crude oils, Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear). Crude oil data presented earlier gave limited properties of the crudes,which are from the Miocene formations. Further analyses have been conducted on Bach Ho crude from the Oligocene formations. Production from Oligocene is far more representative of the oils produced from the Bach Ho field and marketed worldwide. Currently, Bach Ho is the only producing field. Dai Hung is expected to be in production during the next few years. Bach Ho is currently producing at the rate of 20,000 b/d. That figure is projected to grow to 100,000 b/d by 1992 and to 120,000 b/d by 1995. Detailed assays of both crude oils are presented.

  15. Capture barrier distributions: Some insights and details

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, N.; Grar, N.; Trotta, M.

    2007-10-15

    The 'experimental barrier distribution' provides a parameter-free representation of experimental heavy-ion capture cross sections that highlights the effects of entrance-channel couplings. Its relation to the s-wave transmission is discussed, and in particular it is shown how the full capture cross section can be generated from an l=0 coupled-channels calculation. Furthermore, it is shown how this transmission can be simply exploited in calculations of quasifission and evaporation-residue cross sections. The system {sup 48}Ca+{sup 154}Sm is studied in detail. A calculation of the compound-nucleus spin distribution reveals a possible energy dependence of barrier weights due to polarization arising from target and projectile quadrupole phonon states; this effect also gives rise to an entrance-channel 'extra-push'.

  16. Classification of stop consonant place of articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchato, Atiwong

    2001-05-01

    In this study we develop an experimental procedure for examining the relative importance of knowledge-based cues for identifying place of articulation for stop consonants. A set of acoustic attributes is selected for place classification of stops: amplitude and energy of burst, formant movement of adjacent vowels, spectrum of noise after the release, and some temporal cues. The ability of each attribute to separate the three places is evaluated by the classification error based on the distributions of its values for the three places, and another quantifier based on F ratio. These two quantifiers generally agree and show how well each individual attribute separates the three places. Linear discriminant function analysis is used to address the relative importance of these attributes when combinations are used. Their discriminating abilities and the ranking of their relative importance to the classification in different vowel and voicing contexts are reported. The overall findings are that attributes relating to the burst spectrum in relation to the vowel contribute most effectively, while formant transition is somewhat less effective. The approach used in this study can be applied to different classes of sound, as well as stops in different noise environments. [Work supported by NIH Grant Number DC 02978.

  17. Shocking Detail of Superstar's Activity Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has imaged Eta Carinae and revealed a hot inner core around this mysterious superstar. The new X-ray observation shows three distinct structures: an outer, horseshoe shaped ring about two light years in diameter, a hot inner core about 3 light months in diameter, and a hot central source less than a light month in diameter which may contain the superstar. All three structures are thought to represent shock waves produced by matter rushing away from the superstar at supersonic speeds. The temperature of the shock-heated gas ranges from 60 million degrees Celsius in the central regions to 3 million degrees Celsius on the outer structure. An earlier image of Eta Carinae by the Hubble Space Telescope revealed two spectacular bubbles of gas expanding in opposite directions away from a central bright region at speeds in excess of a million miles per hour. The inner region visible in the Chandra image has never been resolved before, and appears to be associated with a central disk of high velocity gas rushing out at much higher speeds perpendicular to the bipolar optical nebula. "It is not what I expected," said Dr. Fred Seward of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "I expected to see a strong point source with a little diffuse emission cloud around it. Instead, we see just the opposite- a bright cloud of diffuse emission, and much less radiation from the center." "The Chandra image contains some puzzles for existing ideas of how a star can produce such hot and intense X-rays," agreed Prof. Kris Davidson of the University of Minnesota. "In the most popular theory, X-rays are made by colliding gas streams from two stars so close together that they'd look like a point source to us. But what happens to gas streams that escape to farther distances? The extended hot stuff in the middle of the new image gives demanding new conditions for any theory to meet." Eta Carinae is one of the most enigmatic and intriguing objects in our galaxy. Between 1837 and 1856 it increased dramatically in brightness to become the brightest star in the sky except for Sirius, even though it is 7,500 light years away, more than eighty times the distance to Sirius. This "Great Eruption," as it is called, had an energy comparable to a supernova, yet did not destroy the star, which faded to become a dim star, invisible to the naked eye. Since 1940, Eta Carinae has begun to brighten again, becoming visible to the naked eye. Modern day observations of Eta Carinae have shown it to be the most luminous object known in our galaxy. It radiates at the rate of several million times that of the Sun. Most of the radiation is at infrared wavelengths, from dust in the bipolar nebula. Astronomers still do not know what lies at the heart of Eta Carinae. Most believe that it is powered by an extremely massive star that may be a hundred times as massive as the Sun. Such stars produce intense amounts of radiation that cause violent instabilities before they explode as a supernova. The Chandra X-ray image gives a glimpse deep into the nebula where the fastest material being thrown off by Eta Carinae is found. The outer ring provides evidence of another large explosion that occurred over a thousand years ago. Further Chandra observations of Eta Carinae are planned for the near future and should give astronomers deeper insight into this cryptic colossus. To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. This image will be available on NASA Video File which airs at noon, 3:00 p.m., 6:00 p.m., 9:00 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. High resolution digital versions of the X-ray image (JPG, 300 dpi TIFF) and other information associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/0099/index.html or via links in: http://chandra.harvard.edu

  18. Imaging Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarkin, Jason M.; Dweck, Marc R.; Evans, Nicholas R.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Brown, Adam J.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in atherosclerosis imaging technology and research have provided a range of diagnostic tools to characterize high-risk plaque in vivo; however, these important vascular imaging methods additionally promise great scientific and translational applications beyond this quest. When combined with conventional anatomic- and hemodynamic-based assessments of disease severity, cross-sectional multimodal imaging incorporating molecular probes and other novel noninvasive techniques can add detailed interrogation of plaque composition, activity, and overall disease burden. In the catheterization laboratory, intravascular imaging provides unparalleled access to the world beneath the plaque surface, allowing tissue characterization and measurement of cap thickness with micrometer spatial resolution. Atherosclerosis imaging captures key data that reveal snapshots into underlying biology, which can test our understanding of fundamental research questions and shape our approach toward patient management. Imaging can also be used to quantify response to therapeutic interventions and ultimately help predict cardiovascular risk. Although there are undeniable barriers to clinical translation, many of these hold-ups might soon be surpassed by rapidly evolving innovations to improve image acquisition, coregistration, motion correction, and reduce radiation exposure. This article provides a comprehensive review of current and experimental atherosclerosis imaging methods and their uses in research and potential for translation to the clinic. PMID:26892971

  19. 39. CLOSE UP DETAIL OF THE FEEDER AND STAMP CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. CLOSE UP DETAIL OF THE FEEDER AND STAMP CONNECTION. THE STAMP AN MORTAR BOX ARE ON THE LEFT AND THE FEEDER WITH ITS FEEDER DISK IS ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE COLLAR ON THE CENTER STAMP STEM (UPPER LEFT CORNER OF THE IMAGE) THAT ACTIVATES THE LEVER IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO. THE COLLAR IS POSITIONED SUCH THAT WHEN THE LEVEL OF THE MATERIAL REACHES A LOW POINT IN THE MORTAR BOX IT PUSHES DOWN ON THE LEVER WHICH IN TURN ACTIVATES THE AUTOMATIC FEEDER DRIVE MECHANISM WHICH THEM DELIVERS ORE INTO THE BACKSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  20. Detailed characterization of plasma wave behavior using collective Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Tierney, T.

    2004-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering is widely used to measure bulk plasma parameters in high density, laser-produced plasmas, and is used to detect plasma waves from instabilities. However, inhomogeneity in these small plasmas often leads to a spectrum with insufficient resolution to discern phenomena such as wave damping and nonlinear wave effects. Two techniques are discussed for laser-produced plasmas to overcome these limitations, and provide details of wave damping and nonlinear behavior. First, imaging Thomson scattering is used to obtain spatially-resolved plasma wave profiles in a 100-200 eV plasma, and allows us to infer ion-ion collisional damping rates. Second, a diffraction-limited laser beam is used to drive stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a hot plasma, generating large amplitude Langmuir waves. The comparatively small interaction volume permits sufficient spectral resolution to observe nonlinear wave behavior, previously unresolved in other experiments.

  1. Detailed Primitive-Based 3d Modeling of Architectural Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, F.; Lo Buglio, D.; Nony, N.; De Luca, L.

    2012-07-01

    The article describes a pipeline, based on image-data, for the 3D reconstruction of building façades or architectural elements and the successive modeling using geometric primitives. The approach overcome some existing problems in modeling architectural elements and deliver efficient-in-size reality-based textured 3D models useful for metric applications. For the 3D reconstruction, an opensource pipeline developed within the TAPENADE project is employed. In the successive modeling steps, the user manually selects an area containing an architectural element (capital, column, bas-relief, window tympanum, etc.) and then the procedure fits geometric primitives and computes disparity and displacement maps in order to tie visual and geometric information together in a light but detailed 3D model. Examples are reported and commented.

  2. Cure-in-place process for seals

    DOEpatents

    Hirasuna, Alan R.

    1981-01-01

    A cure-in-place process which allows a rubber seal element to be deformed to its service configuration before it is cross-linked and, hence, is a plastic and does not build up internal stress as a result of the deformation. This provides maximum residual strength to resist the differential pressure. Furthermore, the process allows use of high modulus formulations of the rubber seal element which would otherwise crack if cured and then deformed to its service configuration, resulting in a seal which has better gap bridging capability. Basically, the process involves positioning an uncured seal element in place, deforming it to its service configuration, heating the seal element, curing it in place, and then fully seating the seal.

  3. Place attachment among retirees in Greensburg, Kansas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Cartlidge, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    On 4 May 2007 an ef-5 tornado leveled 95 percent of Greensburg, Kansas. Because city leaders encouraged everyone to use “green” building techniques as they rebuilt their homes and businesses, not only has the return to normalcy been exceedingly slow, but some of the town's older residents feel that officials have overlooked their needs. These minor episodes of discord enabled us to learn what features are most important to people in retirement. The features include identifiable landmarks, a space in which to socialize, and age-specific businesses. We assert that the lessons learned in Greensburg are applicable to other communities with a sizable older population. As baby boomers rapidly enter retirement they will seek places to live that are elder friendly and enable them to effectively bond with place. As previous research attests, people who have a strong attachment to place commonly have a good quality of life. PMID:22319811

  4. Consumer views about aging-in-place

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Karen; Kay, Debra; Foot, Jan; Pastakia, Khushnum

    2015-01-01

    Background Supporting older people’s choices to live safely and independently in the community (age-in-place) can maximize their quality of life and minimize unnecessary hospitalizations and residential care placement. Little is known of the views of older people about the aging-in-place process, and how they approach and prioritize the support they require to live in the community accommodation of their choice. Purpose To explore and synthesize the experiences and perspectives of older people planning for and experiencing aging-in-place. Methods Two purposively sampled groups of community-dwelling people aged 65+ years were recruited for individual interviews or focus groups. The interviews were semistructured, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Themes were identified by three researchers working independently, then in consort, using a qualitative thematic analysis approach. Results Forty-two participants provided a range of insights about, and strategies for, aging-in-place. Thematic saturation was reached before the final interviews. We identified personal characteristics (resilience, adaptability, and independence) and key elements of successful aging-in-place, summarized in the acronym HIPFACTS: health, information, practical assistance, finance, activity (physical and mental), company (family, friends, neighbors, pets), transport, and safety. Discussion This paper presents rich, and rarely heard, older people’s views about how they and their peers perceive, characterize, and address changes in their capacity to live independently and safely in the community. Participants identified relatively simple, low-cost, and effective supports to enable them to adapt to change, while retaining independence and resilience. The findings highlighted how successful aging-in-place requires integrated, responsive, and accessible primary health and community services. PMID:26604723

  5. Place cells and place navigation

    PubMed Central

    Bures, J.; Fenton, A. A.; Kaminsky, Yu.; Zinyuk, L.

    1997-01-01

    The assumption that hippocampal place cells (PCs) form the neural substrate of cognitive maps can be experimentally tested by comparing the effect of experimental interventions on PC activity and place navigation. Conditions that interfere with place navigation (darkness, cholinergic blockade) but leave PC activity unaffected obviously disrupt spatial memory at a post-PC level. Situations creating a conflict between egocentric and allocentric orientation (place navigation in the Morris water maze filled with slowly rotating water) slow down spatial learning. PC recording in rats searching food pellets in a rotating arena makes it possible to determine which firing fields are stable relative to the room (allocentrically dependent on sighted extramaze landmarks), to the surface of the arena (dependent on egocentric path integration mechanisms and intra-arena cues), or disappear during rotation. Such comparison is made possible by the computerized tracking system simultaneously displaying a rat’s locomotion and the respective firing rate maps both in the room reference and arena reference frames. More severe conflict between allocentric and egocentric inputs is produced in the field clamp situation when the rat searching food in a ring-shaped arena is always returned by rotation of the arena to the same allocentric position. Ten-minute exposure to this condition caused subsequent disintegration or remapping of 70% PCs (n = 100). Simultaneous examination of PC activity and navigation is possible in the place avoidance task. A rat searching food in a stationary or rotating arena learns to avoid an allocentrically or egocentrically defined location where it receives mild electric footshock. In the place preference task the rat releases pellet delivery by entering an unmarked goal area and staying in it for a criterion time. Both tasks allow direct comparison of the spatial reference frames used by the PCs and by the behaving animal. PMID:8990211

  6. (Mis)placed central venous catheter in the left superior intercostal vein

    PubMed Central

    Padovan, Ranka Stern; Paar, Maja Hrabak; Aurer, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background Chest X-ray is routinely performed to check the position of the central venous catheter (CVC) inserted through the internal jugular or subclavian vein, while the further evaluation of CVC malfunction is usually performed by contrast venography. In patients with superior vena cava obstruction, the tip of the catheter is often seen in collateral mediastinal venous pathways, rather than in the superior vena cava. In such cases detailed knowledge of thoracic vessel anatomy is necessary to identify the exact location of the catheter. Case report. We report a case of 32-year-old female patient with relapsing mediastinal lymphoma and previous superior vena cava obstruction with collateral azygos-hemiazygos venous pathways. The patient had CVC inserted through the left subclavian vein and its position was detected by CT to be in the dilated left superior intercostal vein and accessory hemiazygos vein. Considering that dilated accessory hemiazygos vein can tolerate infusion, the CVC was left in place and the patient had no complaints related to CVC (mal)position. Furthermore, we present anatomical and radiological observations on the azygos-hemiazygos venous system with the special emphasis on the left superior intercostal vein. Conclusions Non-contrast CT scans can be a valuable imaging tool in the detection of the CVC position, especially in patients with renal insufficiency and contrast media hypersensitivity. PMID:22933931

  7. Different roles of the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) in panoramic scene perception

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojin; Chun, Marvin M.

    2009-01-01

    Constructing a rich and continuous visual experience requires computing specific details across views as well as integrating similarities across views. In this paper, we report functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence that these distinct computations may occur in two scene-sensitive regions in the brain, the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Participants saw different snapshot views from panoramic scenes, which represented clearly different views, but appeared to come from the same scene. Using fMRI adaptation, we tested whether the PPA and RSC treated these panoramic views as the same or different. In the panoramic condition, three different views from a single panoramic scene were presented. We did not find any attenuation for panoramic repeats in the PPA, showing viewpoint-specificity. In contrast, RSC showed significant attenuation for the panoramic condition, showing viewpoint-integration. However, when the panoramic views were not presented in a continuous way, both the specificity in the PPA and the integration in RSC were lost. These results demonstrate that the PPA and RSC compute different properties of scenes: the PPA focuses on selective discrimination of different views while RSC focuses on the integration of scenes under the same visual context. These complementary functions of the PPA and RSC enable both specific and integrative representations of scenes across several viewpoints. PMID:19398014

  8. Magnificant Details in a Dusty Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the majestic spiral galaxy NGC 4414 was imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. An international team of astronomers, led by Dr. Wendy Freedman of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, observed this galaxy on 13 different occasions over the course of two months. Images were obtained with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) through three different color filters. Based on their discovery and careful brightness measurements of variable stars in NGC 4414, the Key Project astronomers were able to make an accurate determination of the distance to the galaxy. The resulting distance to NGC 4414, 19.1 megaparsecs or about 60 million light-years, along with similarly determined distances to other nearby galaxies, contributes to astronomers' overall knowledge of the rate of expansion of the universe. In 1999, the Hubble Heritage Team revisited NGC 4414 and completed its portrait by observing the other half with the same filters as were used in 1995. The end result is a stunning full-color look at the entire dusty spiral galaxy. The new Hubble picture shows that the central regions of this galaxy, as is typical of most spirals, contain primarily older, yellow and red stars. The outer spiral arms are considerably bluer due to ongoing formation of young, blue stars, the brightest of which can be seen individually at the high resolution provided by the Hubble camera. The arms are also very rich in clouds of interstellar dust, seen as dark patches and streaks silhouetted against the starlight.

  9. Description of Axial Detail for ROK Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Trellue, Holly R; Galloway, Jack D

    2012-04-20

    For the purpose of NDA simulations of the ROK fuel assemblies, we have developed an axial burnup distribution to represent the pins themselves based on gamma scans of rods in the G23 assembly. For the purpose of modeling the G23 assembly (both at ORNL and LANL), the pin-by-pin burnup map as simulated by ROK is being assumed to represent the radial burnup distribution. However, both DA and NDA results indicate that this simulated estimate is not 100% correct. In particular, the burnup obtained from the axial gamma scan of 7 pins does not represent exactly the same 'average' pin burnup as the ROK simulation. Correction for this discrepancy is a goal of the well-characterized assembly task but will take time. For now, I have come up with a correlation for 26 axial points of the burnup as obtained by gamma scans of 7 different rods (C13, G01, G02, J11, K10, L02, and M04, neglecting K02 at this time) to the average burnup given by the simulation for each of the rods individually. The resulting fraction in each axial zone is then averaged for the 7 different rods so that it can represent every fuel pin in the assembly. The burnup in each of the 26 axial zones of rods in all ROK assemblies will then be directly adjusted using this fraction, which is given in Table 1. Note that the gamma scan data given by ROK for assembly G23 included a length of {approx}3686 mm, so the first 12 mm and the last 14 mm were ignored to give an actual rod length of {approx}366 cm. To represent assembly F02 in which no pin-by-pin burnup distribution is given by ROK, we must model it using infinitely-reflected geometry but can look at the effects of measuring in different axial zones by using intermediate burnup files (i.e. smaller burnups than 28 GWd/MTU) and determining which axial zone(s) each burnup represents. Details for assembly F02 are then given in Tables 2 and 3, which is given in Table 1 and has 44 total axial zones to represent the top meter in explicit detail in addition to the other 26 zones. Note that the MCNP files for F02 were created using the Monte Carlo burnup linkage code Monteburns, which saves MCNP input files with detailed compositions as a function of burnup. The 'intermediate burnup files' produced for F02 include a cooling time of 27 years. The axial location of 5 spacers was also included in the ROK F02 assembly in which each spacer contained a length of 3.81 cm. Note that due to the nature of Monteburns, which was run in a special fashion for this problem, the step number increments after the 27 year decay, so the second column of Table 2 refers to the step number that should be used in the Monteburns files.

  10. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  11. Study of the detail content of Apollo orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzly, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results achieved during a study of the Detail Content of Apollo Orbital Photography are reported. The effect of residual motion smear or image reproduction processes upon the detail content of lunar surface imagery obtained from the orbiting command module are assessed. Data and conclusions obtained from the Apollo 8, 12, 14 and 15 missions are included. For the Apollo 8, 12 and 14 missions, the bracket-mounted Hasselblad camera had no mechanism internal to the camera for motion compensation. If the motion of the command module were left totally uncompensated, these photographs would exhibit a ground smear varying from 12 to 27 meters depending upon the focal length of the lens and the exposure time. During the photographic sequences motion compensation was attempted by firing the attitude control system of the spacecraft at a rate to compensate for the motion relative to the lunar surface. The residual smear occurring in selected frames of imagery was assessed using edge analyses methods to obtain and achieved modulation transfer function (MTF) which was compared to a baseline MTF.

  12. Putting fear in its place: remapping of hippocampal place cells during fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Moita, Marta A P; Rosis, Svetlana; Zhou, Yu; LeDoux, Joseph E; Blair, Hugh T

    2004-08-01

    We recorded hippocampal place cells in two spatial environments: a training environment in which rats underwent fear conditioning and a neutral control environment. Fear conditioning caused many place cells to alter (or remap) their preferred firing locations in the training environment, whereas most cells remained stable in the control environment. This finding indicates that aversive reinforcement can induce place cell remapping even when the environment itself remains unchanged. Furthermore, contextual fear conditioning caused significantly more remapping of place cells than auditory fear conditioning, suggesting that place cell remapping was related to the rat's learned fear of the environment. These results suggest that one possible function of place cell remapping may be to generate new spatial representations of a single environment, which could help the animal to discriminate among different motivational contexts within that environment. PMID:15295037

  13. Inverse sequential simulation: Performance and implementation details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Teng; Gómez-Hernández, J. Jaime

    2015-12-01

    For good groundwater flow and solute transport numerical modeling, it is important to characterize the formation properties. In this paper, we analyze the performance and important implementation details of a new approach for stochastic inverse modeling called inverse sequential simulation (iSS). This approach is capable of characterizing conductivity fields with heterogeneity patterns difficult to capture by standard multiGaussian-based inverse approaches. The method is based on the multivariate sequential simulation principle, but the covariances and cross-covariances used to compute the local conditional probability distributions are computed by simple co-kriging which are derived from an ensemble of conductivity and piezometric head fields, in a similar manner as the experimental covariances are computed in an ensemble Kalman filtering. A sensitivity analysis is performed on a synthetic aquifer regarding the number of members of the ensemble of realizations, the number of conditioning data, the number of piezometers at which piezometric heads are observed, and the number of nodes retained within the search neighborhood at the moment of computing the local conditional probabilities. The results show the importance of having a sufficiently large number of all of the mentioned parameters for the algorithm to characterize properly hydraulic conductivity fields with clear non-multiGaussian features.

  14. The ACPMAPS system: A detailed overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the ACPMAPS computing system -- its purpose, its hardware architecture, how the system is used, and relevant programming paradigms and concepts. Features of the hardware and software will be discussed in some detail, both quantitative and qualitative. This should give some perspective as to the suitability of the ACPMAPS system for various classes of applications, and as to where this system stands in the spectrum of today's supercomputers. The ACPMAPS project at Fermilab was initiated in 1987 as a collaborations between the Advanced Computer Program (now the Computer R D department) and the lattice gauge physicists in the Theory department. ACPMAPS is an acronym for Advanced Computer Program Multiple Array Processor System -- this acronym is no longer accurate, but the name has stuck. Although research physics computations were done on ACPMAPS as early as 1989, the full-scale system was commissioned as a reliable physics tool in early 1991. The original ACPMAPS was a 5 Gflop (peak) system. An upgrade by a factor of ten in computer power and memory size, but substituting a new CPU board, will occur during early 1991 -- this is referred to as the new ACPMAPS Upgrade or 50 GF ACPMAPS. The appellation ACPMAPS II has also been applied to the upgrade; this is somewhat of a misnomer, since only one of five major components was changed.

  15. The ACPMAPS system: A detailed overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the ACPMAPS computing system -- its purpose, its hardware architecture, how the system is used, and relevant programming paradigms and concepts. Features of the hardware and software will be discussed in some detail, both quantitative and qualitative. This should give some perspective as to the suitability of the ACPMAPS system for various classes of applications, and as to where this system stands in the spectrum of today`s supercomputers. The ACPMAPS project at Fermilab was initiated in 1987 as a collaborations between the Advanced Computer Program (now the Computer R&D department) and the lattice gauge physicists in the Theory department. ACPMAPS is an acronym for Advanced Computer Program Multiple Array Processor System -- this acronym is no longer accurate, but the name has stuck. Although research physics computations were done on ACPMAPS as early as 1989, the full-scale system was commissioned as a reliable physics tool in early 1991. The original ACPMAPS was a 5 Gflop (peak) system. An upgrade by a factor of ten in computer power and memory size, but substituting a new CPU board, will occur during early 1991 -- this is referred to as the new ACPMAPS Upgrade or 50 GF ACPMAPS. The appellation ACPMAPS II has also been applied to the upgrade; this is somewhat of a misnomer, since only one of five major components was changed.

  16. Detailed Chromospheric Activity Nature of KIC 9641031

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoldaş, Ezgi; Dal, Hasan Ali

    2016-04-01

    This study depends on KIC 9641031 eclipsing binary with a chromospherically active component. There are three type variations, such as geometrical variations due to eclipses, sinusoidal variations due to the rotational modulations, and also flares, in the light curves. Taking into account results obtained from observations in the Kepler Mission Database, we discuss the details of chromospheric activity. The sinusoidal light variations due to rotational modulation and the flare events were modelled. 92 different data subsets separated using the analytic models were modelled separately to obtain the cool spot configuration. Acording to the model, there are two active regions separated by about 180° longitudinally between the latitudes of +50° and +100°. 240 flares, whose parameters were computed, were detected. Using these parameters, the OPEA model was derived, in which the Plateau value was found to be 1.232±0.069 s, and half-life parameter was found as 2291.7 s. The flare frequency N1 was found as 0.41632 h-1, while the flare frequency N2 was found as 0.00027. Considering these parameters together with the orbital period variations demonstrates that the period variations depend on chromospheric activity. Comparing the system with its analogue, the activity level of KIC 9641031 is remarkably lower than the others.

  17. Detailed surveys of offshore Peru margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hussong, D.M.; Taylor, B.; Kulm, L.D.; Hilde, T.W.C.

    1986-07-01

    The complex and highly variable structure of the submarine continental margin of central Peru is revealed by geophysical surveys and geologic sampling completed in 1985. The surveys were conducted in preparation for deep scientific drilling to be undertaken by the Ocean Drilling Program in November-December 1986. More than 11,000 km/sup 2/ of sea floor were mapped using the SeaMARC II side-scan sonar and bathymetry system; 1500 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 4000 km of single-channel seismic data were shot; and many coring, dredging, and heat-flow stations were obtained. The data permit construction of detailed three-dimensional geologic maps of the region. These maps show that the ancient metamorphic rocks of South America extend close to the trench axis and apparently have undergone a history of truncation and subsidence related to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate. Adjacent segments of the Peru forearc have dramatically different structure and appear to have had differing tectonic histories. The margin is disrupted by extensive (primarily tensional) faulting; the larger faults extend perpendicular to the strike of the trench and often serve as conduits for diapirs and mud volcanoes. Living chemosynthetic clams were dredged from 3800-m depth along one of these fault trends, suggesting that active fluid venting occurs at depth on the continental wall of the Peru Trench.

  18. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  19. The purchasable chemical space: a detailed picture.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Xavier; Grüning, Björn A; Bleher, Stefan; Günther, Stefan

    2015-05-26

    The screening of a reduced yet diverse and synthesizable region of the chemical space is a critical step in drug discovery. The ZINC database is nowadays routinely used to freely access and screen millions of commercially available compounds. We collected ∼125 million compounds from chemical catalogs and the ZINC database, yielding more than 68 million unique molecules, including a large portion of described natural products (NPs) and drugs. The data set was filtered using advanced medicinal chemistry rules to remove potentially toxic, promiscuous, metabolically labile, or reactive compounds. We studied the physicochemical properties of this compilation and identified millions of NP-like, fragment-like, inhibitors of protein-protein interactions (i-PPIs) like, and drug-like compounds. The related focused libraries were subjected to a detailed scaffold diversity analysis and compared to reference NPs and marketed drugs. This study revealed thousands of diverse chemotypes with distinct representations of building block combinations among the data sets. An analysis of the stereogenic and shape complexity properties of the libraries also showed that they present well-defined levels of complexity, following the tendency: i-PPIs-like < drug-like < fragment-like < NP-like. As the collected compounds have huge interest in drug discovery and particularly virtual screening and library design, we offer a freely available collection comprising over 37 million molecules under: http://pbox.pharmaceutical-bioinformatics.org , as well as the filtering rules used to build the focused libraries described herein. PMID:25894297

  20. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  1. Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.

  2. Murky details of the Miocene Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, N. K.; Huber, M.; Shevenell, A.; Müller, D.

    2013-12-01

    We examine Atlantic Ocean circulation during the Miocene based on published modelling and data. It has long been recognised that the Atlantic Ocean played a key role in climate changes throughout the Quaternary and determining whether this was the case earlier in the Cenozoic may be important for understanding the details of Miocene climate evolution. Current geochemical, sedimentological and micropaleontologic evidence allows for multiple interpretations of deep water activity, which is further hampered by a lack of precise dating of ocean gateway closures. Previous ocean modelling studies have shown strong increases in deep water formation due to closure of the Panama gateway but have disagreed on the oceanographic importance of the Tethys gateway and bathymetry of the far North Atlantic. This combination of ambiguous data and conflicting modelling results leaves the current state of knowledge of the Miocene ocean lacking. We propose several avenues of research to improve our knowledge of the Miocene Atlantic Ocean, which will ultimately improve our understanding of its response to climate change and vice versa.

  3. Image transfer protocol in progressively increasing resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); White, Richard L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of transferring digital image data over a communication link transforms and orders the data so that, as data is received by a receiving station, a low detail version of the image is immediately generated with later transmissions of data providing progressively greater detail in this image. User instructions are accepted, limiting the ultimate resolution of the image or suspending enhancement of the image except in certain user defined regions. When a low detail image is requested followed by a request for a high detailed version of the same image, the originally transmitted data of the low resolution image is not discarded or retransmitted but used with later data to improve the originally transmitted image. Only a single copy of the transformed image need be retained by the transmitting device in order to satisfy requests for different amounts of image detail.

  4. Viewing Places: Students as Visual Ethnographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a micro-ethnographic study that took place during a summer research course for six undergraduate and four graduate students majoring in the disciplines of architecture, art education, geography, landscape architecture and an integrative arts program. The research sought to implement ethnographic, visual methods as a means to…

  5. Factors Associated with Students' Place Location Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports results of a two-year survey of the place-location knowledge of 879 college students beginning introductory classes in World Regional Geography and Cultural Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh. Results showed, among other things, that attending to news media had a positive impact on ability to locate the countries while…

  6. Places to Go: YouTube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Founded in 2005 by three former PayPal employees, YouTube has revolutionized the Internet, marking a change from the static Internet to the dynamic Internet. In this edition of Places to Go, Stephen Downes discusses how the rise of a ubiquitous media format--Flash video--has made YouTube's success possible and argues that Flash video has important

  7. Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopko, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    This document focuses on state education agency (SEA) support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) completed this activity as part of its cooperative…

  8. Venturing into Scary Places: The Minority Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Students who have lived as part of a majority for their entire life may find it frightening to be asked to visit a place where they will be in the minority. In this article, the author uses this assignment to demonstrate to his students how some people feel everyday. The Minority Experience assignment challenges students to actively participate in…

  9. Rethinking the Place of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schissel, Bernard; Schissel, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    According to the annual United Nations declarations based on the Human Development Index (HDI), Canada remains one of the best places in the world in which to live. Ironically, this declaration of socio-economic superiority does not extend to the young people in the society. Although post-industrial societies like Canada and the United States may…

  10. Places to Go: YouTube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Founded in 2005 by three former PayPal employees, YouTube has revolutionized the Internet, marking a change from the static Internet to the dynamic Internet. In this edition of Places to Go, Stephen Downes discusses how the rise of a ubiquitous media format--Flash video--has made YouTube's success possible and argues that Flash video has important…

  11. The National Register of Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed

    2002-01-01

    This journal contains articles and materials to help teachers instruct students about U.S. historical and cultural heritage. Articles and materials are: "The National Register of Historic Places Today" (C. D. Shull); "The (Economic) Value of National Register Listing" (D. D. Rypkema); "The National Register and Heritage Areas" (B. Barrett);…

  12. "Place" Value: The Rural Perspective. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Vena; Bush, William S.; Theobald, Paul

    Place-based, or "contextualized," mathematics instruction gives learners the opportunity to see how mathematics is relevant to their lives. Such opportunities are crucial to the success of students in rural settings and may be crucial to the survival of rural communities. For the last half century, schools have educated rural children to believe…

  13. Placing a Fyke Net in Wetland Vegetation

    Glen Black of GLSC and Angela Wahlquist of Northland College places fyke net in wetland vegetation in Fish Creek Slough of Lake Superior near Ashland, Wisconsin, as part of a study of bioindicators of wetland degradation in the Great Lakes. This study is funded by the U.S. EPA Environmental Research...

  14. Knowing Our Place in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of the country, career and technical education programs are connecting learning with the resources, culture, history and people of the places where they are based. They are also forging a special connection between education and the needs of the community. Two such programs are discussed in this article. In the first example,…

  15. Reframing Primary Curriculum through Concepts of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Kerith; Green, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Australian curricula name "sustainability" as a key priority area with implications for preparing pre-service teachers. In the research that generated this paper, we asked: How can framing teaching through space and place inform pre-service teachers' pedagogical thinking and practice? In new third year Bachelor of Education…

  16. Toward an Art Education of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Douglas; Hoffman, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Contends that environmental issues are shaping contemporary scholarship across academic areas. Asserts that art educators are familiar with the relationships among art, art education, and the environment. Explores ideas of contemporary ecotheorists and proposes an expanded concept of the community in relation to place. (CFR)

  17. What Kind of Place Is Secondary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Monie; Vivian, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Secondary school introduces students to a public space that differs from the private spaces commonly found in elementary schools. One of the markers signaling a transition from private to public space is the use of discourse. Secondary schools are places where social practices reject the democratic and caring activities found in the elementary…

  18. THE PLACE OF NUISANCES IN THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Feezer, Lester W.

    1916-01-01

    Mr. Feezer, a member of the bar, has been practicing health rather than law and through his association with the Massachusetts and New York State Departments of Health, is well qualified to interpret this difficult phase of the health problem. In this article he places nuisances in their proper position and explains the most effective methods with which to accomplish their abatement. PMID:18009482

  19. Roadside Attractions. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay

    This document, part of the lesson plan series, "Teaching with Historic Places," examines roadside attractions of the United States. Following introductory material the document sets out student objectives and teaching activities. Among the instructional suggestions are sections on "Setting the Stage"; "Locating the Sites"; "Determining the Facts";…

  20. Video Games and the Pedagogy of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article the author explores the construction of place within virtual worlds and, in particular, in video games that appeal widely to children and youths. With the notable exception of "edutainment" titles, gaming and education have traditionally been viewed as separate pursuits. Yet, after school, millions of children and teens spend…

  1. In-Time On-Place Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauters, Merja; Purma, Jukka; Leinonen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to look at how mobile video recording devices could support learning related to physical practices or places and situations at work. This paper discusses particular kind of workplace learning, namely learning using short video clips that are related to physical environment and tasks preformed in situ. The paper…

  2. Teaching with Historic Places. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Kathleen

    This ERIC digest on a new curriculum project called "Teaching with Historic Places" discusses the program, its products, and how they can be used in classrooms and communities by students, teachers, and other interested groups. The program offers not only educational materials, but also professional training and development for teachers, museum…

  3. Geography's Place in Higher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Lily

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the other papers in this symposium, which deal with countries where there are large numbers of universities, and comparison can be made over time and across space of geography's place in higher education, this paper focuses on a country that was for a long time described as a "one-university town": Singapore. What interesting story can…

  4. In-Place Calibration of Instrumentation Microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Accidental damage and decalibration prevented. Linearity, sensitivity, and frequency response of microphone measured with commercial sound generator modified so placed directly over or under microphone. Artificial voice connected to oscillator and measuring amplifier. Requisite frequencies and sound pressures applied to microphone, and microphone output recorded. New calibration method used on aircraft and wind-tunnel microphones.

  5. Teenagers in Public and Private Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    In this paper the physical characteristics of community sites that are common gathering places for adolescents are described and recommendations are given for improving their use. It is suggested that there are some common factors in the society and in the organization of many towns and cities in the United States that contribute to the appearance…

  6. The Bay in Place of a Glacier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The cultural resource specialist at Glacier Bay National Park (Alaska) explains the collaborative efforts of park staff and the Hoonah Tlingit to overcome language and cultural barriers in documenting park place names and clan oral history and traditions. The new park-community relationship, which follows decades of conflict, includes training…

  7. Rethinking the Place of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schissel, Bernard; Schissel, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    According to the annual United Nations declarations based on the Human Development Index (HDI), Canada remains one of the best places in the world in which to live. Ironically, this declaration of socio-economic superiority does not extend to the young people in the society. Although post-industrial societies like Canada and the United States may

  8. Jamestown and Disneyland: Two Places in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Tideman, Robert

    This unit for high school students uses two dissimilar places in time; (2) Jamestown, Virginia, founded in 1607, one of the earliest settlements in the United States and (2) Disneyland, California, built in 1956, an institution of contemporary culture. The lessons address two fundamental questions in geography: (1) where? and (2) why here rather…

  9. Place-pitch manipulations with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P

    2012-03-01

    Pitch can be conveyed to cochlear implant listeners via both place of excitation and temporal cues. The transmission of place cues may be hampered by several factors, including limitations on the insertion depth and number of implanted electrodes, and the broad current spread produced by monopolar stimulation. The following series of experiments investigate several methods to partially overcome these limitations. Experiment 1 compares two recently published techniques that aim to activate more apical fibers than produced by monopolar or bipolar stimulation of the most apical contacts. The first technique (phantom stimulation) manipulates the current spread by simultaneously stimulating two electrodes with opposite-polarity pulses of different amplitudes. The second technique manipulates the neural spread of excitation by using asymmetric pulses and exploiting the polarity-sensitive properties of auditory nerve fibers. The two techniques yielded similar results and were shown to produce lower place-pitch percepts than stimulation of monopolar and bipolar symmetric pulses. Furthermore, combining these two techniques may be advantageous in a clinical setting. Experiment 2 proposes a method to create place pitches intermediate to those produced by physical electrodes by using charge-balanced asymmetric pulses in bipolar mode with different degrees of asymmetry. PMID:22423718

  10. Good Jobs--but Places for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with men and women's experience of elite positions and with the extent to which such positions are seen as places for women, so as to provide an insight into their commitment to continuing in them. Senior management in universities are elite positions in terms of income; those who occupy them are relatively powerful…

  11. Aging in place and negotiated risk agreements.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2008-01-01

    An assisted living community (i.e., residence [ALR]) that responds to a resident's changing needs by adjusting services and level of care criteria means that the resident is less likely to be discharged to a higher level of care, such as a nursing home, and will "age in place." A "managed" or negotiated risk agreement (NRA) can facilitate aging in place by accommodating a resident's choices and potential risks of remaining in the residence. Although more than half the states speak to aging-in-place in their assisted living regulations, far fewer provide guidelines for negotiated risk discussion and its influence on service plans. Managing decline and the risks to a resident's safety and well-being can perhaps be addressed by "upstream palliative care," a concept and practice that respects a resident's quality of life interests while meeting and supporting their physical, mental, and emotional needs. This article discusses these issues as well as the capacity of a cognitively impaired/demented resident to enter into an NRA and its continuance when resident understanding is questionable, and dying-in-place. PMID:18394509

  12. What a Queer Place Is School!?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter,

    2012-01-01

    Schools are queer places. Who would have thought that a book focusing on gender and sexual diversity in schools would even be necessary today? But in a time where education seems to have regressed in its liberalism, coupled with increased accessibility to information and knowledge, Elizabeth Meyer's Gender and Sexual Diversity in Schools: An…

  13. Indian Place Names in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasque, Thomas J.

    A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

  14. Places Rated Almanac: Flawed but Pedagogically Useful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Richard Boyer and David Savageau's book "Places Rated Almanac" is described, and ways the book can be used in secondary and college geography classes are discussed. The book rates the quality of the following aspects of urban life: climate and terrain, housing, health care, environment, crime, transportation, education, and recreation. (RM)

  15. Embodied Reimagining of Pedagogical Places/Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Shilpi; Bryzzheva, Lyudmila

    2012-01-01

    Students often find themselves disconnected from foundations courses such as Philosophy of Education, citing the abstract nature of some of the ideas studied and a perceived disconnect from practical issues. Moreover, the place/space of the university classroom itself can be seen to contribute to students' disengagement and stunting of their…

  16. Parents' Discipline of Children in Public Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Unobtrusive observation of parents and children in public places indicates that, as was found in previous obtrusive investigations, there are social class differences in the use of restrictive vs autonomy-granting discipline techniques. However, in the present study these social class differences were not significant. (Author)

  17. Embodied Reimagining of Pedagogical Places/Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Shilpi; Bryzzheva, Lyudmila

    2012-01-01

    Students often find themselves disconnected from foundations courses such as Philosophy of Education, citing the abstract nature of some of the ideas studied and a perceived disconnect from practical issues. Moreover, the place/space of the university classroom itself can be seen to contribute to students' disengagement and stunting of their

  18. Place Names in Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hugo

    1978-01-01

    Students find place names--and their origins--interesting. A number of German examples are given, ranging from the Familiar Koeln (Colonia) and Koblenz (Confluentes) to the less familiar Wien ( Celtic vindos, "white water") and Weimar (wihmari, sacred swamp). (WGA)

  19. Geography's Place in Higher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Lily

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the other papers in this symposium, which deal with countries where there are large numbers of universities, and comparison can be made over time and across space of geography's place in higher education, this paper focuses on a country that was for a long time described as a "one-university town": Singapore. What interesting story can

  20. Toward a detailed characterization of oil adsorbates as "solid liquids".

    PubMed

    Kutza, Claudia; Metz, Hendrik; Kutza, Johannes; Syrowatka, Frank; Mäder, Karsten

    2013-05-01

    Solid lipid formulation systems are used to overcome oral bioavailability problems of poorly water-soluble drugs. One promising process is the conversion of a liquid lipid system in a free flowing powder by use of adsorbing excipients. The aim of this study was the detailed characterization of solid-liquid interactions in oil adsorbed to Fujicalin and Neusilin which were manufactured by means of dual asymmetric centrifugation or conventional mortar/pestle blending. The adsorption strength of the excipients was investigated by Benchtop-NMR and ESR spectroscopy revealing the highest adsorption power for the Neusilin products. The adsorbate production methods as well as the storage of the excipients impact their adsorption properties. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) show that dual asymmetric centrifugation leads to a smoothing of the particle surface, whereas the mortar/pestle blending results in an uneven surface and particle destruction. The oil distribution at the particles is inhomogeneous for both production methods. The micropolarity of the adsorbed oil was investigated by ESR spectroscopy and multispectral fluorescence imaging. The adsorbing process on Neusilin leads to an increased micropolarity of the oil component. The release of the oil component in aqueous media could be verified by Benchtop-NMR and multispectral fluorescence imaging. PMID:23275113

  1. 5 CFR 352.306 - Length of details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length of details. 352.306 Section 352... RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.306 Length of details. The total length of a detail or several details combined must not exceed 5 consecutive...

  2. Amphetamine-induced place preference in humans

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Background The conditioned place preference procedure is a widely used animal model of rewarding drug effects that, to date, has not been tested in humans. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that humans, like non-humans, would exhibit a preference for a place previously associated with amphetamine. Further, we investigated the relationship between conditioned place preference and the mood-altering effects of the drug. Methods Thirty-one healthy individuals participated in a five-session procedure during which they experienced the effects of d-amphetamine (20mg) or placebo on two occasions in two distinctive environments (sessions 1 to 4). One group of subjects (paired group, N=19) received amphetamine consistently in one room and placebo in another room, while a second group (unpaired group, N=12) received amphetamine and placebo without regard to the rooms. During the sessions, participants completed questionnaires to rate their mood. On the fifth session, they rated their preference for the two rooms. Results Individuals in the paired group rated their liking of the amphetamine-paired room significantly higher than the placebo-associated room, while there was no difference between ratings of the two rooms for individuals in the unpaired group. In the paired group, drug liking ratings during the conditioning sessions positively predicted preference for the drug-associated room, whereas reports of amphetamine-induced anxiety and dysphoria negatively predicted room liking scores. Conclusions This study demonstrates that humans, like non-humans, prefer a place associated with amphetamine administration. These findings support the idea that subjective responses to a drug contribute to its ability to establish place conditioning. PMID:19111278

  3. Detailed slab and mantle structure beneath westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Miller, M. S.; Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    The geological evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean holds an important piece of the puzzle of how whole western Mediterranean evolved due to the convergence of Africa with Eurasia. Detailed upper mantle seismological images are crucial to test two controversial ideas about the dynamic process of the westernmost Mediterranean during the Cenozoic: slab rollback and lithosphere delamination. Recent tomographic images based on the dense seismic network in Spain and northern Morocco reveal a high-resolution continuous high-velocity anomaly to the transition zone depth under the Alboran domain [Bezada and Humphreys, 2013], which was used to support the slab roll back hypothesis for the westernmost Mediterranean tectonic evolution. However, the slab shape, width, and sharpness of its edges are not well resolved. Furthermore, the deep 2010 earthquake beneath Granada, Spain suggests possible oceanic crust material existing at ~ 600 km depth, which cannot be resolved by current tomography models. The study of multipathing and waveform broadening around sharp features has proven an efficient way to study those features. Here, we use both P and S waveform data from the PICASSO array to produce a detailed image. For the deep Granada earthquake, high frequency second arrivals and long coda after the P and S arrivals are shown on stations in the Rif Mountains of Morocco. By fitting both SH and P waveform data, we suggest that a low-velocity layer (LVL, 2 km thickness, δVs = -10%), possibly old oceanic crust, sits on top of the slab. The seismic waves travel through the LVL as guided waves preserving their high frequency energy. The strength of the second arrivals are very sensitive to the relative location between the deep earthquake and the LVL, which indicates the 2010 deep earthquake was most-likely within the subducted oceanic crust. Using both teleseismic and regional data, we conclude that the width of the sub-vertical slab is ~150 km, which is sharper than the tomography result. Further 3D modeling confirms that a sharp-sided slab structure is needed to explain the observed data. We also observe an abrupt travel time change between two nearby stations (PM21 and PM22) for earthquakes from the northeast, which indicates a sharp boundary existing between the Middle Atlas and Rif. This boundary was also observed in receiver functions and shear wave splitting studies [Miller and Becker, 2013]. Furthermore, introducing a low velocity zone across the whole lithosphere beneath the Middle Atlas, similar to interpretations from tomography, explains the waveform data well.

  4. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  5. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly α self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  6. Ancillary-service details: Dynamic scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic scheduling (DS) is the electronic transfer from one control area to another of the time-varying electricity consumption associated with a load or the time-varying electricity production associated with a generator. Although electric utilities have been using this technique for at least two decades, its use is growing in popularity and importance. This growth is a consequence of the major changes under way in US bulk-power markets, in particular efforts to unbundle generation from transmission and to increase competition among generation providers. DS can promote competition and increase choices. It allows consumers to purchase certain services from entities outside their physical-host area and it allows generators to sell certain services to entities other than their physical host. These services include regulation (following minute-to-minute variations in load) and operating reserves, among others. Such an increase in the number of possible suppliers and customers should encourage innovation and reduce the costs and prices of providing electricity services. The purpose of the project reported here was to collect and analyze data on utility experiences with DS. Chapter 2 provides additional details and examples of the definitions of DS. Chapter 3 explains why DS might be an attractive service that customers and generators, as well as transmission providers, might wan to use. Chapter 4 presents some of the many current DS examples the authors uncovered in their interviews. Chapter 5 discusses the costs and cost-effectiveness of DS. Chapter 6 explains what they believe can and cannot be electronically moved from one control area to another, primarily in terms of the six ancillary services that FERC defined in Order 888. Chapter 7 discusses the need for additional research on DS.

  7. Local detailed balance: a microscopic derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, M.; Cornu, F.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal contact is the archetype of non-equilibrium processes driven by constant non-equilibrium constraints when the latter are enforced by reservoirs exchanging conserved microscopic quantities. At a mesoscopic scale only the energies of the macroscopic bodies are accessible together with the configurations of the contact system. We consider a class of models where the contact system, as well as macroscopic bodies, have a finite number of possible configurations. The global system, with only discrete degrees of freedom, has no microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics, but it is shown that, if the microscopic dynamics is assumed to be deterministic and ergodic and to conserve energy according to some specific pattern, and if the mesoscopic evolution of the global system is approximated by a Markov process as closely as possible, then the mesoscopic transition rates obey three constraints. In the limit where macroscopic bodies can be considered as reservoirs at thermodynamic equilibrium (but with different intensive parameters), the mesoscopic transition rates turn into transition rates for the contact system and the third constraint becomes local detailed balance; the latter is generically expressed in terms of the microscopic exchange entropy variation, namely the opposite of the variation of the thermodynamic entropy of the reservoir involved in a given microscopic jump of the contact system configuration. For a finite-time evolution after contact has been switched on, we derive a fluctuation relation for the joint probability of the heat amounts received from the various reservoirs. The generalization to systems exchanging energy, volume and matter with several reservoirs, with a possible conservative external force acting on the contact system, is given explicitly.

  8. Rhinoscleroma: a detailed histopathological diagnostic insight

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed RH; El-badawy, Zeinab H; Mohamed, Ibrahim R; Abdelhameed, Waleed AM

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoscleroma (RS) is a chronic specific disease of nose and upper respiratory passages caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis bacilli. It is endemic in Egypt and in sporadic areas worldwide. Diagnosis of RS depends on identification of the pathognomonic Mickulicz cells (MCs) which is most prominent during granulomatous phase but spares or absent during catarrhal or sclerotic phases of the disease. This study aimed to identify the potential diagnostic features of nasal RS when MCs are absent. Nasal biopsies from 125 patients complaining of chronic nasal symptoms were retrieved for this study; including 72 chronic non specific inflammatory lesions and 53 RS diagnosed by PAS and Geimsa stains. The detailed histological differences among the two groups were measured statistically. RS was frequently a bilateral disease (P < 0.05) of young age (P < 0.001) with a female predominance (P < 0.05) and usually associated with nasal crustations (P < 0.001). Five strong histological indicators of RS were specified by univariate binary logistic regression analyses including squamous metaplasia (OR 27.2, P < 0.0001), dominance of plasma cells (OR 12.75, P < 0.0001), Russell bodies (OR 8.83, P < 0.0001), neutrophiles (OR 3.7, P < 0.001) and absence of oesinophiles (OR 12.0, P < 0.0001). According to Multivariate analysis, the diagnostic features of RS in absence of MCs can be classified into major criteria including dominance of plasma cells infiltration and absence of oesinophiles and minor criteria including young age, female gender, bilateral nasal involvement, nasal crustation, squamous metaplasia, Russell bodies, and neutrophiles. The diagnostic model using the two major criteria confirmed or excluded RS in 84.3% of the investigated cases. PMID:26339415

  9. Calcium transient prevalence across the dendritic arbor predicts place field properties

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Mark E. J.; Dombeck, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the hippocampal cellular ensemble that represents an animal’s environment involves the emergence and disappearance of place fields in specific CA1 pyramidal neurons1–4, and the acquisition of different spatial firing properties across the active population5. While such firing flexibility and diversity have been linked to spatial memory, attention and task performance6,7, the cellular and network origin of these place cell features is unknown. Basic integrate-and-fire models of place firing propose that such features result solely from varying inputs to place cells8,9, but recent studies3,10 instead suggest that place cells themselves may play an active role through regenerative dendritic events. However, due to the difficulty of performing functional recordings from place cell dendrites, no direct evidence of regenerative dendritic events exists, leaving any possible connection to place coding unknown. Using multi-plane two-photon calcium imaging of CA1 place cell somata, axons, and dendrites in mice navigating a virtual environment, we show that regenerative dendritic events do exist in place cells of behaving mice and, surprisingly, their prevalence throughout the arbor is highly spatiotemporally variable. Further, we show that the prevalence of such events predicts the spatial precision and persistence or disappearance of place fields. This suggests that the dynamics of spiking throughout the dendritic arbor may play a key role in forming the hippocampal representation of space. PMID:25363782

  10. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could make SSR surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive, particularly when geophone intervals of 25 cm or less are required. The most recent research analyzed the difference in seismic response of the geophones with variable geophone spike length and geophones attached to various steel media. Experiments investigated the azimuthal dependence of the quality of data relative to the orientation of the rigidly attached geophones. Other experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the data are being amplified in much the same way that an organ pipe amplifies sound have so far proved inconclusive. Taken together, the positive results show that SSR imaging within a few meters of the earth's surface is possible if the geology is suitable, that SSR imaging can complement GPR imaging, and that SSR imaging could be made significantly more cost effective, at least in areas where the topography and the geology are favorable. Increased knowledge of the Earth's shallow subsurface through non-intrusive techniques is of potential benefit to management of DOE facilities. Among the most significant problems facing hydrologists today is the delineation of preferential permeability paths in sufficient detail to make a quantitative analysis possible. Aquifer systems dominated by fracture flow have a reputation of being particularly difficult to characterize and model. At chemically contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and others at Department of Defense (DOD) installations worldwide, establishing the spatial extent of the contamination, along with the fate of the contaminants and their transport-flow directions, is essential to the development of effective cleanup strategies. Detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface is important not only in environmental, groundwater, and geotechnical engineering applications, but also in neotectonics, mining geology, and the analysis of petroleum reservoir analogs. Near-surface seismology is in the vanguard of non-intrusive approaches to increase knowledge of the shallow subsurface; our work is a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures.

  11. Consistent Multi-View Texturing of Detailed 3d Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, K.; Kuschk, G.; Hoegner, L.; Reinartz, P.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Texture mapping techniques are used to achieve a high degree of realism for computer generated large-scale and detailed 3D surface models by extracting the texture information from photographic images and applying it to the object surfaces. Due to the fact that a single image cannot capture all parts of the scene, a number of images should be taken. However, texturing the object surfaces from several images can lead to lighting variations between the neighboring texture fragments. In this paper we describe the creation of a textured 3D scene from overlapping aerial images using a Markov Random Field energy minimization framework. We aim to maximize the quality of the generated texture mosaic, preserving the resolution from the original images, and at the same time to minimize the seam visibilities between adjacent fragments. As input data we use a triangulated mesh of the city center of Munich and multiple camera views of the scene from different directions.

  12. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  13. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places hot spots, or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  14. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  15. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  16. Apply an Augmented Reality in a Mobile Guidance to Increase Sense of Place for Heritage Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Lien; Hou, Huei-Tse; Pan, Chao-Yang; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Based on the sense of place theory and the design principles of guidance and interpretation, this study developed an augmented reality mobile guidance system that used a historical geo-context-embedded visiting strategy. This tool for heritage guidance and educational activities enhanced visitor sense of place. This study consisted of 3 visitor…

  17. "My Place": Exploring Children's Place-Related Identities through Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Emma; Cliff Hodges, Gabrielle; Pointon, Pam; Nikolajeva, Maria; Spring, Erin; Taylor, Liz; Wyse, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how children perceive and represent their placed-related identities through reading and writing. It reports on the findings of an 18-month interdisciplinary project, based at Cambridge University Faculty of Education, which aimed to consider children's place-related identities through their engagement with, and creation

  18. "Knowing your Place in the World:" How Place and Culture Support and Obstruct Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing international interest in learning outside the classroom; place-based education is one manifestation of this. In this article, some conceptualisations of place are considered and attention drawn to alignments with habitus at micro, meso and macro levels. I develop a concept of cultural density as an explanatory tool to theorise…

  19. "My Place": Exploring Children's Place-Related Identities through Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Emma; Cliff Hodges, Gabrielle; Pointon, Pam; Nikolajeva, Maria; Spring, Erin; Taylor, Liz; Wyse, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how children perceive and represent their placed-related identities through reading and writing. It reports on the findings of an 18-month interdisciplinary project, based at Cambridge University Faculty of Education, which aimed to consider children's place-related identities through their engagement with, and creation…

  20. Apply an Augmented Reality in a Mobile Guidance to Increase Sense of Place for Heritage Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Lien; Hou, Huei-Tse; Pan, Chao-Yang; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Based on the sense of place theory and the design principles of guidance and interpretation, this study developed an augmented reality mobile guidance system that used a historical geo-context-embedded visiting strategy. This tool for heritage guidance and educational activities enhanced visitor sense of place. This study consisted of 3 visitor

  1. Method for placing deep-brain stimulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickele, Chris; Cetinkaya, Ebru; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Konrad, Peter E.

    2003-05-01

    A new system is evaluated for implanting deep-brain stimulators into the brain. The system relies on the custom construction of a rigid, one-piece mounting platform for each patient. During surgery the platform is attached rigidly to posts that are implanted into the patient's skull and extend outward through the scalp. The platform then acts as a miniature stereotactic frame that provides guidance for a catheter as it is advanced through a burr hole to the target. The target is selected on a pre-operative CT image. That image is acquired after the posts have been implanted and outfitted with fiducial markers. The positions of the markers and the target are used to design the platform. After initial implantation, the electrode's position is adjusted interoperatively on the basis of physical effects of stimulation, but the accuracy of the initial placement is determined entirely by the registration of the image to the physical anatomy through the shape of the platform and its placement on the posts. In this work, we test that accuracy by comparing the position of the electrode in post-operative patient images with the positions in the pre-operative images as determined by a rigid registration based on the fiducial markers.

  2. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  3. ground floor plan, sections, tower pier detail, columns & pilasters, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ground floor plan, sections, tower pier detail, columns & pilasters, keystone detail, typical windows, sections - Union League of Philadelphia, 140 South Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Being there: the library as place.

    PubMed

    Weise, Frieda

    2004-01-01

    The value of the library as place is examined in this Janet Doe Lecture. The lecture, which is intended to focus on the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship, presents an overview of the library as a place in society from ancient times to the present. The impact of information technology and changes in the methods of scholarly publication from print to digital are addressed as well as the role of the library as the repository of the written historical record of cultures. Functions and services of libraries are discussed in light of the physical library facility of the future. Finally, librarians are asked to remember the enduring values of librarianship in planning libraries of the future. PMID:14762459

  5. Forwardly-placed firearm fire control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frickey, Steven J.

    2001-12-22

    A firearm fire control assembly for disposition in a forwardly placed support-hand operative relationship within a firearm having a combination of a firing pin and a firearm hammer adapted to engage and fire a cartridge, a sear assembly to alternately engage and disengage the combination of the firearm hammer and firing pin, and a trigger assembly including a movable trigger mechanism that is operable to engage the sear assembly to cause the firearm hammer firing pin combination to fire the firearm, a fire control assembly including a fire control depression member and a fire control rod operably connected to the depression member, and being positioned in a forward disposition disposed within a forestock of the firearm, and the depression member adapted to be operably engaged and depressed by the user's conventional forwardly placed support hand to maneuver the fire control rod to provide firing control of the firing of the firearm.

  6. Being there: the library as place*

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Frieda

    2004-01-01

    The value of the library as place is examined in this Janet Doe Lecture. The lecture, which is intended to focus on the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship, presents an overview of the library as a place in society from ancient times to the present. The impact of information technology and changes in the methods of scholarly publication from print to digital are addressed as well as the role of the library as the repository of the written historical record of cultures. Functions and services of libraries are discussed in light of the physical library facility of the future. Finally, librarians are asked to remember the enduring values of librarianship in planning libraries of the future. PMID:14762459

  7. Gender bias torture in place of work.

    PubMed

    Pathak, P R

    1999-11-01

    Gender bias torture specially sexual harassment of women at the work place is now a hard reality, the ultimate form of control that repressed men, especially those in position of authority, can have today. They are generally being allowed to get away with it. Mainly because women are fearful and totally unorganized, managements are complacent and the law takes much too long to work if it ever does. Global picture is horrifying. Child abuse, women abuse and even some men are sexually abused. The fear of loss of job, hostility at work and social stigma still prevent women from complaining about sexual harassment. It has been recognized as human rights violation by the Supreme Court which has even drawn up legally binding guidelines directing employers to implement preventive and remedial measures in the work place. PMID:10638113

  8. Revisiting place and temporal theories of pitch.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The nature of pitch and its neural coding have been studied for over a century. A popular debate has revolved around the question of whether pitch is coded via "place" cues in the cochlea, or via timing cues in the auditory nerve. In the most recent incarnation of this debate, the role of temporal fine structure has been emphasized in conveying important pitch and speech information, particularly because the lack of temporal fine structure coding in cochlear implants might explain some of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant users in perceiving music and pitch contours in speech. In addition, some studies have postulated that hearing-impaired listeners may have a specific deficit related to processing temporal fine structure. This article reviews some of the recent literature surrounding the debate, and argues that much of the recent evidence suggesting the importance of temporal fine structure processing can also be accounted for using spectral (place) or temporal-envelope cues. PMID:25364292

  9. Improved Cure-in-Place Silicone Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, C. E.; Sweet, J.; Gonzalez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Two improved cure-in-place silicone-elastomer-based adhesives have low thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity. Adhesives are flexible at low temperature and withstand high temperatures without disintegrating. New ablative compounds were initially developed for in-flight repair of insulating tile on Space Shuttle orbiter. Could find use in other applications requiring high-performance adhesives, such as sealants for solar collectors.

  10. The Young Men of Marram Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Diana Armatage

    2010-01-01

    Bucky is 29 years old. Jesse is 27 is years old. Paul is 23 years old. They have lived together at Marram Place, a four-bedroom house, for over a year and have become best friends. Each works 20 hours per week in the community for his own spending money. After work, the guys walk, swim, work on computers, help with the housework, deliver a…

  11. Holding Cargo in Place With Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

  12. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  13. In-place filter testing summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, J.P.; Garcia, E.D.; Ortega, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The most common method of identifying particle penetration through a filter or adsorber system is through the performance of a periodic penetration test, i.e., in-place test or leak test using an aerosol or gas vapor to challenge the filter or adsorber system. The aerosol is usually formed by vaporization of a liquid, di-2(ethelhexyl sebacate) (DEHS), and allowed to condense to form liquid particles of a certain size and distribution. The gas vapor is formed by vaporization of Freon 11 liquid. The periodic penetration test, although conducted annually, can and has been demonstrated to show the beginning degradation of a filter or adsorber system. Other evidence of penetration can include detection of radiation downstream of the filter system or the existence of an unusually low pressure drop across the filter, i.e., torn filter, etc. However, these kinds of occurrences show up instantaneously and could release radioactive material to the atmosphere before the systems could be shut down. When a filter system fails the in--place test or is showing evidence of.filter or component degradation, corrective measures are put into place in order to return,the system back to its best operating condition. This report presents a summary of all filter tests.

  14. Using accelerator techniques to verify details in SIMS profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Steven W.; Magee, Charles W.; Büyüklimanli, Temel

    2005-12-01

    Recent use of ultra-low energy (ULE) ion implantation in the semiconductor industry has placed increasing pressure on SIMS depth profiling capabilities. We have used nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to calibrate implantation doses of boron ULE implants as an essential check of the SIMS accuracy. Comparison of NRA done in two different laboratories has revealed differences of up to 15%, making it essential to calibrate the measurements against an accurate standard. It has become evident in the last few years that the accepted SIMS depth profiling method for ULE B implants, low-energy oxygen bombardment with an oxygen leak, causes significant segregation of boron during the SIMS profile. High-resolution ERD measurements appear to be one of the few techniques other than SIMS that can resolve the near-surface details of the boron distribution. Careful comparisons of the ERD and SIMS profiles allow us to refine our SIMS correction procedures to produce the most accurate measurement of the boron distribution. Similarly, ULE As implants show significant segregation of As toward the native oxide interface as a result of annealing. To ensure that we measure these distributions accurately, MEIS has been employed to examine the As distribution within 10 nm of the surface.

  15. Place of Class Attendance of Nova Southeastern University Students during Calendar Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    This report contains a comprehensive summary of place of class attendance statistics for Nova Southeastern University for calendar year 2000. This summary provides both collapsed and breakout statistics that offer more detail than can be included in the University's annual Fact Book. In 2000, 81% of Nova Southeastern students attended class in…

  16. How Are Community College Students Assessed and Placed in Developmental Math? Grounding Our Understanding in Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Kosiewicz, Holly; Prather, George; Bos, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The study's main objective was to provide a detailed description of math Assessment and Placement (A&P) policies in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD). The study was focused on math because a larger proportion of students place into remedial math than remedial reading or English (Bailey, Jeong, & Cho, 2010; Parsad,…

  17. 5 CFR 352.305 - Eligibility for detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for detail. 352.305 Section... RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.305 Eligibility for detail. An employee is eligible for detail to an international organization with the rights provided...

  18. 5 CFR 2635.104 - Applicability to employees on detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability to employees on detail... Applicability to employees on detail. (a) Details to other agencies. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, an employee on detail, including a uniformed officer on assignment, from his employing agency...

  19. 5 CFR 370.104 - Length of details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length of details. 370.104 Section 370... TECHNOLOGY EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 370.104 Length of details. (a) Details may be for a period of between 3 months..., in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 3702(d). (b) Agencies may not approve or extend details after December...

  20. 5 CFR 930.106 - Details in the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details in the competitive service. 930... Operators § 930.106 Details in the competitive service. An agency may detail an employee to an operator... details exceeding 30 days, the employee must meet all the requirements of § 930.105 and any applicable...

  1. Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

  2. Space-Frequency Detail-Preserving Construction of Neonatal Brain Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuyao; Shi, Feng; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Brain atlases are an integral component of neuroimaging studies. However, most brain atlases are fuzzy and lack structural details, especially in the cortical regions. In particular, neonatal brain atlases are especially challenging to construct due to the low spatial resolution and low tissue contrast. This is mainly caused by the image averaging process involved in atlas construction, often smoothing out high-frequency contents that indicate fine anatomical details. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for detail-preserving construction of atlases. Our approach combines space and frequency information to better preserve image details. This is achieved by performing reconstruction in the space-frequency domain given by wavelet transform. Sparse patch-based atlas reconstruction is performed in each frequency subband. Combining the results for all these subbands will then result in a refined atlas. Compared with existing atlases, experimental results indicate that our approach has the ability to build an atlas with more structural details, thus leading to better performance when used to normalize a group of testing neonatal images. PMID:27169138

  3. Detail-Preserving and Content-Aware Variational Multi-View Stereo Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Kuanquan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Meng, Deyu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Accurate recovery of 3D geometrical surfaces from calibrated 2D multi-view images is a fundamental yet active research area in computer vision. Despite the steady progress in multi-view stereo (MVS) reconstruction, many existing methods are still limited in recovering fine-scale details and sharp features while suppressing noises, and may fail in reconstructing regions with less textures. To address these limitations, this paper presents a detail-preserving and content-aware variational (DCV) MVS method, which reconstructs the 3D surface by alternating between reprojection error minimization and mesh denoising. In reprojection error minimization, we propose a novel inter-image similarity measure, which is effective to preserve fine-scale details of the reconstructed surface and builds a connection between guided image filtering and image registration. In mesh denoising, we propose a content-aware ℓp-minimization algorithm by adaptively estimating the p value and regularization parameters. Compared with conventional isotropic mesh smoothing approaches, the proposed method is much more promising in suppressing noise while preserving sharp features. Experimental results on benchmark data sets demonstrate that our DCV method is capable of recovering more surface details, and obtains cleaner and more accurate reconstructions than the state-of-the-art methods. In particular, our method achieves the best results among all published methods on the Middlebury dino ring and dino sparse data sets in terms of both completeness and accuracy. PMID:26672037

  4. Detail-Preserving and Content-Aware Variational Multi-View Stereo Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Kuanquan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Meng, Deyu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Accurate recovery of 3D geometrical surfaces from calibrated 2D multi-view images is a fundamental yet active research area in computer vision. Despite the steady progress in multi-view stereo reconstruction, most existing methods are still limited in recovering fine-scale details and sharp features while suppressing noises, and may fail in reconstructing regions with few textures. To address these limitations, this paper presents a Detail-preserving and Content-aware Variational (DCV) multi-view stereo method, which reconstructs the 3D surface by alternating between reprojection error minimization and mesh denoising. In reprojection error minimization, we propose a novel inter-image similarity measure, which is effective to preserve fine-scale details of the reconstructed surface and builds a connection between guided image filtering and image registration. In mesh denoising, we propose a content-aware $\\ell_{p}$-minimization algorithm by adaptively estimating the $p$ value and regularization parameters based on the current input. It is much more promising in suppressing noise while preserving sharp features than conventional isotropic mesh smoothing. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our DCV method is capable of recovering more surface details, and obtains cleaner and more accurate reconstructions than state-of-the-art methods. In particular, our method achieves the best results among all published methods on the Middlebury dino ring and dino sparse ring datasets in terms of both completeness and accuracy.

  5. Conceptual Distinctiveness Supports Detailed Visual Long-Term Memory for Real-World Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-01

    Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of exemplars…

  6. Impregnating unconsolidated pyroclastic sequences: A tool for detailed facies analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, D.; Kueppers, U.; Castro, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of volcanic eruptions is usually derived from direct observation and the thorough analysis of the deposits. Processes in vent-proximal areas are usually not directly accessible or likely to be obscured. Hence, our understanding of proximal deposits is often limited as they were produced by the simultaneous events stemming from primary eruptive, transportative, and meteorological conditions. Here we present a method that permits for a direct and detailed quasi in-situ investigation of loose pyroclastic units that are usually analysed in the laboratory for their 1) grain-size distribution, 2) componentry, and 3) grain morphology. As the clast assembly is altered during sampling, the genesis of a stratigraphic unit and the relative importance of the above mentioned deposit characteristics is hard to achieve. In an attempt to overcome the possible loss of information during conventional sampling techniques, we impregnated the cleaned surfaces of proximal, unconsolidated units of the 1957-58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial, Azores. During this basaltic, emergent eruption, fluxes in magma rise rate led to a repeated build-up and collapse of tuff cones and consequently to a shift between phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptive style. The deposits are a succession of generally parallel bedded, cm- to dm-thick layers with a predominantly ashy matrix. The lapilli content is varying gradually; the content of bombs is enriched in discrete layers without clear bomb sags. The sample areas have been cleaned and impregnated with a two-component glue (EPOTEK 301). For approx. 10 * 10 cm, a volume of mixed glue of 20 ml was required. This low-viscosity, transparent glue allowed for an easy application on the target area by means of a syringe and permeated the deposit as deep as 5 mm. After > 24 h, the glue was sufficiently dry to enable the sample to be laid open. This impregnation method renders it possible to cut and polish the sample and investigate grain-size distribution, componentry, and grain morphology in situ in a 2D-plane. In a first step, the sample surface has been scanned and analysed by means of image analysis software (Image J). After that, selected areas were investigated through thin section analysis. We were able to define depositional units in the (sub)-mm scale and the show the varying relative importance of 1) eruptive style, 2) transportation mode, and 3) the influence of wind and (air) humidity. The presented method is an easy and efficient tool for a detailed stratigraphic investigation of unconsolidated pyroclastic units.

  7. Impregnating unconsolidated pyroclastic sequences: A tool for detailed facies analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Daniel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Castro, Jon M.; Pacheco, Jose M. R.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    The interpretation of volcanic eruptions is usually derived from direct observation and the thorough analysis of the deposits. Processes in vent-proximal areas are usually not directly accessible or likely to be obscured. Hence, our understanding of proximal deposits is often limited as they were produced by the simultaneous events stemming from primary eruptive, transportative, and meteorological conditions. Here we present a method that permits for a direct and detailed quasi in-situ investigation of loose pyroclastic units that are usually analysed in the laboratory for their 1) grain-size distribution, 2) componentry, and 3) grain morphology. As the clast assembly is altered during sampling, the genesis of a stratigraphic unit and the relative importance of the above mentioned deposit characteristics is hard to achieve. In an attempt to overcome the possible loss of information during conventional sampling techniques, we impregnated the cleaned surfaces of proximal, unconsolidated units of the 1957-58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial, Azores. During this basaltic, emergent eruption, fluxes in magma rise rate led to a repeated build-up and collapse of tuff cones and consequently to a shift between phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptive style. The deposits are a succession of generally parallel bedded, cm- to dm-thick layers with a predominantly ashy matrix. The lapilli content is varying gradually; the content of bombs is enriched in discrete layers without clear bomb sags. The sample areas have been cleaned and impregnated with two-component glue (EPOTEK 301). For approx. 10 * 10 cm, a volume of mixed glue of 20 ml was required. Using a syringe, this low-viscosity, transparent glue could be easily applied on the target area. We found that the glue permeated the deposit as deep as 5 mm. After > 24 h, the glue was sufficiently dry to enable the sample to be laid open. This impregnation method renders it possible to cut and polish the sample and investigate grain-size distribution, componentry, and grain morphology in situ in a 2D-plane. In a first step, the sample surface has been scanned and analysed by means of image analysis software (Image J). After that, selected areas were investigated through thin section analysis. We were able to define depositional units in the (sub)-mm scale and the show the varying relative importance of 1) eruptive style, 2) transportation mode, and 3) the influence of wind and (air) humidity. The presented method is an easy and efficient tool for a detailed stratigraphic investigation of unconsolidated pyroclastic units.

  8. Place of Death Among Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Hoyem, Ruby L.; Yin, Hongjun; Campbell, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    Background The majority of Americans die in institutions although most prefer to die at home. States vary greatly in their proportion of home deaths. Although individuals’ circumstances largely determine where they die, health policies may affect the range of options available to them. Objective To examine whether states’ spending on home- and community-based services (HCBS) affects place of death, taking into consideration county health care resources and individuals’ family, sociodemographic, and health factors. Methods Using exit interview data from respondents in the Health and Retirement Study born in 1923 or earlier who died between 1993 and 2002 (N = 3362), we conducted discrete-time survival analysis of the risk of end-of-life nursing home relocation to examine whether states’ HCBS spending would delay or prevent end-of-life nursing home admission. Then we ran logistic regression analysis to investigate the HCBS effects on place of death separately for those who relocated to a nursing home and those who remained in the community. Results Living in a state with higher HCBS spending was associated with lower risk of end-of-life nursing home relocation, especially among people who had Medicaid. However, state HCBS support was not directly associated with place of death. Conclusions States’ generosity for HCBS increases the chance of dying at home via lowering the risk of end-of-life nursing home relocation. State-to-state variation in HCBS spending may partly explain variation in home deaths. Our findings add to the emerging encouraging evidence for continued efforts to enhance support for HCBS. PMID:18665063

  9. The place of the dream in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D M

    1989-01-01

    The dream assumed an exceptional place in clinical practice beginning with Freud's extraordinary use of dream interpretation in his early presentations of psychoanalytic theory. Early students of analysis misconstrued this emphasis on the dream in theoretical exposition to apply to clinical practice as well. Eventually this difference was clarified, but there is still something exceptional about the dream in clinical practice that survives clarifications of this early misapprehension. The author reviews the historical issues, identifies the exceptional aspects of the dream in psychoanalytic practice, discusses some problems this phenomenon creates for the analyst, and describes several stereotypical attitudes toward the practice of dream interpretation. PMID:2912513

  10. Molecular data place Trypetheliaceae in Dothideomycetes.

    PubMed

    Del Prado, Ruth; Schmitt, Imke; Kautz, Stefanie; Palice, Zdenek; Lcking, Robert; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2006-05-01

    The phylogenetic position of Trypetheliaceae was studied using partial sequences of the mtSSU and nuLSU rDNA of 100 and 110 ascomycetes, respectively, including 48 newly obtained sequences. Our analysis confirms Trypetheliaceae as monophyletic and places the family in Dothideomycetes. Pyrenulaceae, which were previously classified with Trypetheliaceae in Pyrenulales or Melanommatales, are supported as belonging to Chaetothyriomycetes. Monophyly of Pyrenulales, including Trypetheliaceae is rejected using three independent test methods. Monophyly of Arthopyreniaceae plus Trypetheliaceae, the two families including lichen-forming fungi in Dothideomycetes, is also rejected, as well as a placement of Trypetheliaceae in Pleosporales (incl. Melanommatales). PMID:16621495

  11. Aging in place: multiple options, multiple choices.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2009-11-01

    The transition from one's own home into institutional settings is often difficult for residents and families. Historically, dependent elders wishing to remain in their communities had few options. Seniors now have multiple aging-in-place options that support their significant lifestyle demands and allow them to live with other like-minded individuals. These include privately developed age-restricted, gated retirement communities; continuing-care retirement communities; and naturally occurring retirement communities. Housing concerns include design elements that make homes more accessible for elders and people with disabilities, but also make the home more functional for others ("universal design"). PMID:20092218

  12. Targeted multimodal imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yong; Jeon, Seong Ik; Jung, Seulhee; Chung, In Jae; Ahn, Cheol-Hee

    2014-09-30

    Molecular imaging non-invasively visualizes and characterizes the biologic functions and mechanisms in living organisms at a molecular level. In recent years, advances in imaging instruments, imaging probes, assay methods, and quantification techniques have enabled more refined and reliable images for more accurate diagnoses. Multimodal imaging combines two or more imaging modalities into one system to produce details in clinical diagnostic imaging that are more precise than conventional imaging. Multimodal imaging offers complementary advantages: high spatial resolution, soft tissue contrast, and biological information on the molecular level with high sensitivity. However, combining all modalities into a single imaging probe involves problems yet to be solved due to the requirement of high dose contrast agents for a component of imaging modality with low sensitivity. The introduction of targeting moieties into the probes enhances the specific binding of targeted multimodal imaging modalities and selective accumulation of the imaging agents at a disease site to provide more accurate diagnoses. An extensive list of prior reports on the targeted multimodal imaging probes categorized by each modality is presented and discussed. In addition to accurate diagnosis, targeted multimodal imaging agents carrying therapeutic medications make it possible to visualize the theranostic effect and the progress of disease. This will facilitate the development of an imaging-guided therapy, which will widen the application of the targeted multimodal imaging field to experiments in vivo. PMID:25064554

  13. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  14. Dynamic NMDAR-mediated properties of place cells during the object place memory task

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Thomas W.; Robbiati, Sergio; Huerta, Tomás S.; Huerta, Patricio T.

    2013-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in the hippocampus participate in encoding and recalling the location of objects in the environment, but the ensemble mechanisms by which NMDARs mediate these processes have not been completely elucidated. To address this issue, we examined the firing patterns of place cells in the dorsal CA1 area of the hippocampus of mice (n = 7) that performed an object place memory (OPM) task, consisting of familiarization (T1), sample (T2), and choice (T3) trials, after systemic injection of 3-[(±)2-carboxypiperazin-4yl]propyl-1-phosphate (CPP), a specific NMDAR antagonist. Place cell properties under CPP (CPP–PCs) were compared to those after control saline injection (SAL–PCs) in the same mice. We analyzed place cells across the OPM task to determine whether they signaled the introduction or movement of objects by NMDAR-mediated changes of their spatial coding. On T2, when two objects were first introduced to a familiar chamber, CPP–PCs and SAL–PCs showed stable, vanishing or moving place fields in addition to changes in spatial information (SI). These metrics were comparable between groups. Remarkably, previously inactive CPP–PCs (with place fields emerging de novo on T2) had significantly weaker SI increases than SAL–PCs. On T3, when one object was moved, CPP–PCs showed reduced center-of-mass (COM) shift of their place fields. Indeed, a subset of SAL–PCs with large COM shifts (>7 cm) was largely absent in the CPP condition. Notably, for SAL–PCs that exhibited COM shifts, those initially close to the moving object followed the trajectory of the object, whereas those far from the object did the opposite. Our results strongly suggest that the SI changes and COM shifts of place fields that occur during the OPM task reflect key dynamic properties that are mediated by NMDARs and might be responsible for binding object identity with location. PMID:24381547

  15. Choices in medicine: illustrations from imaging.

    PubMed

    Wells, P N

    1990-01-01

    Progress in medicine is almost always led by advances in science and technology. During the last quarter of a century, startling developments have taken place in medical imaging. X-ray techniques have been extended by improvements in film-screen technology and image intensifiers; digital radiography and computed tomography have been introduced. The gamma camera has been combined with computer processing and new radiopharmaceuticals have been devised. The resolution of real-time two-dimensional ultrasonic scanning has been improved almost to the diffraction limit and Doppler techniques provide detailed information about blood flow. Magnetic resonance imaging yields exquisite anatomical detail, tissue characterization and flow data and biochemistry can be studied through spectroscopy. Research aimed at improving all these methods is actively being pursued and there is interest in the potential of microwave, electrical impedance and light transmission techniques as medical imaging tools. In parallel with these diagnostic advances, techniques for minimally invasive surgery are being developed. Guided by appropriate imaging methods, suitable forms of radiation can be directed through the intact skin, or small instruments can be introduced through natural orifices or tiny incisions. Thus it is possible to undertake many interventional procedures that previously required open surgery. Because resources are limited, choices have to be made taking benefits, risks and costs into account. No diagnostic method is perfect; medical imaging is expensive in terms of equipment and trained personnel and its use has to be justified in competition with demands from other areas of health care. Unproductive work is having to be identified and abandoned.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2283672

  16. The place and time of drugs.

    PubMed

    Duff, Cameron

    2014-05-01

    'Context' is one of the most enduring analytical devices in social science accounts of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, although its elaboration tends to emphasise macro-structural processes (like economic change, law enforcement, health policy, racism or stigma) at the expense of more finely-grained understandings of the place and time of consumption. Drawing on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the assemblage, and its reception in recent critical geographies of AOD use, I will characterise context as an assemblage of social, affective and material forces. Such a characterisation is not indifferent to the range of structural forces that are often understood to mediate AOD use. Rather, it is concerned to document how these forces actually participate in the modulations of consumption. The assemblage will thus be construed in ways that align context with the 'real conditions' (place and time) of drug use. I will develop this argument by way of a case study drawn from a recent qualitative study of the social contexts of methamphetamine use in Melbourne. My goal is to document the ways 'context' is produced in the activity of drug use, and how 'context' so constructed, comes to modulate this use. By contrasting traditional approaches to the analysis of context with methods borrowed from Deleuze, I aim to transcend structural understandings of context in order to clarify the active, local and contingent role of contexts in the mediation of what bodies do 'on' and 'with' drugs. PMID:24412676

  17. Introduction: modern airs, waters, and places.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Alison; Tracy, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four centuries have passed since the doctrine of AirsWaters Places was articulated in the Hippocratic corpus, promoting a mutually constitutive vision of humankind and climate. Yet the "airs, waters, places tradition" has proved remarkably resilient and adaptable as a framing device for relations among nations, natural and human resources, and human health. Redeployed in diverse historical contexts across time, the relationship between climate and humans has evolved from a dependent one in which human constitution and health are determined by climate to an interdependent one in which humans and climate influence one another. Recent scholarship extends the ways in which historians of colonial medicine, neo-Hippocratic medicine, public health, tropical disease, and race have characterized the climate-human nexus and its attendant politics. Through the exploration of the works of circumnavigators, physicians, physiologists, ecologists, geographers, paleoanthropologists, and economists, contributors to this special issue offer some new and sometimes challenging interpretations of medical climatology: beyond the link between tropical medicine and colonialism, beyond temperate versus tropical, beyond latitude to think of altitude. PMID:23263344

  18. WHO IS PLACED INTO SPECIAL EDUCATION?

    PubMed Central

    Hibel, Jacob; Farkas, George; Morgan, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    We use nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) to identify variables measured in the fall of 1998 (when the sample’s students were in kindergarten) that predict special education placement by the spring of 2004 (when those not retained were finishing fifth grade). Placement’s strongest kindergarten predictor is a student’s own level of academic achievement. Also important is the student’s frequency of classroom task engagement. There is a “frog-pond” contextual effect -- attending an elementary school with high levels of overall student academic ability and behavior increases a student’s likelihood of special education placement. This is the case even after statistically controlling for a wide range of individual-, family-, and school-level characteristics. Social class background displayed a weak or statistically non-significant relation with special education placement. However, girls are placed less frequently than boys. African American, Hispanic, and Asian students are placed less frequently than non-Hispanic whites. The under- or equal-placement rates for racial/ethnic minorities are partially explained by their concentration in high-minority schools. PMID:26005224

  19. The occipital place area represents the local elements of scenes.

    PubMed

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2016-05-15

    Neuroimaging studies have identified three scene-selective regions in human cortex: parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA). However, precisely what scene information each region represents is not clear, especially for the least studied, more posterior OPA. Here we hypothesized that OPA represents local elements of scenes within two independent, yet complementary scene descriptors: spatial boundary (i.e., the layout of external surfaces) and scene content (e.g., internal objects). If OPA processes the local elements of spatial boundary information, then it should respond to these local elements (e.g., walls) themselves, regardless of their spatial arrangement. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded similarly to images of intact rooms and these same rooms in which the surfaces were fractured and rearranged, disrupting the spatial boundary. Next, if OPA represents the local elements of scene content information, then it should respond more when more such local elements (e.g., furniture) are present. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded more to multiple than single pieces of furniture. Taken together, these findings reveal that OPA analyzes local scene elements - both in spatial boundary and scene content representation - while PPA and RSC represent global scene properties. PMID:26931815

  20. Large format CID x-ray image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Joseph; Alam, Zulfiquar; Borman, Claudia; Czebiniak, Steven; Ziegler, H.

    1998-04-01

    A large format CID imager module capitalizes on CID large well capacity and radiation resistance to image dental x- rays. The model, which consists of the imager, conversion phosphor and ancillary electronics, is encapsulated in a 40 X 28 X 5 mm3 robust package that is lightproof, moisture-proof and meets FDA and RFI/EMI standards. Data exposure and readout is simple. The imager normally exists in an active reset mode until x-ray application automatically places the imager into a charge integration mode. Readout begins immediately upon completion of the x- ray exposure or manual application of an external trigger source. The imager returns to the reset mode once the data read out is complete. Pixels are arranged in an SVGA compatible 800H X 600V format. Each pixel is square and 38.5 microns/side. The imager is coated using a propriety phosphor deposition process that result in a limiting resolution of 9 LP/mm from an x-ray illumination source. Better than 2,000:1 dynamic range and shot-noise limited operation is achieved. Direct x-ray detection and attendant noise is minimized via the phosphor and epitaxial layer that lies beneath the pixel array. The imager/module architecture and electro-optical performance are described in detail here in.

  1. A&M. TAN607. Construction detail showing structural steel framework with reinforcing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Construction detail showing structural steel framework with reinforcing steel in place prior to pouring concrete for biparting doors between hot shop and special equipment service (SES) room. Facing north. Hot shop to left, SES room to right. slot for north half of door shows at upper left of view. Date: May 21, 1954. INEEL negative no. 10548 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Multispectral image filtering method based on image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposed a novel filter scheme by image fusion based on Nonsubsampled ContourletTransform(NSCT) for multispectral image. Firstly, an adaptive median filter is proposed which shows great advantage in speed and weak edge preserving. Secondly, the algorithm put bilateral filter and adaptive median filter on image respectively and gets two denoised images. Then perform NSCT multi-scale decomposition on the de-noised images and get detail sub-band and approximate sub-band. Thirdly, the detail sub-band and approximate sub-band are fused respectively. Finally, the object image is obtained by inverse NSCT. Simulation results show that the method has strong adaptability to deal with the textural images. And it can suppress noise effectively and preserve the image details. This algorithm has better filter performance than the Bilateral filter standard and median filter and theirs improved algorithms for different noise ratio.

  3. Visualized numerical assessment for near infrared diffuse optical tomography with contrast-and-size detail analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Cheng; Pan, Min-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose an objective contrast-and-size detail (CSD) analysis for near infrared diffuse optical tomography (NIR DOT), of which the concept is derived from the subjective contrast detail (CD) analysis. We define a measure for numerical CSD analysis based on the resolution estimation of contrast and size. Following that, the contrast-and-size map of resolution can be calculated and displayed for each corresponding image in the map; furthermore, a CSD resolution curve can be plotted by calculating the average value of the projection corresponding to the physical quantity/axis (size or contrast). To provide some worked examples about the proposed CSD analysis evaluating the imaging performance of different reconstruction methods, Tikhonov regularization and edge-preserving regularization with different weighting functions were employed. Results suggested that using edge-preserving regularization with the generalized Lorentzian weighting function is the most attractive for the estimation of absorption-coefficient images.

  4. Peripheral limb vascular malformations: an update of appropriate imaging and treatment options of a challenging condition

    PubMed Central

    Farrant, J; Chhaya, N; Anwar, I; Marmery, H; Platts, A; Holloway, B

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations encompass a wide spectrum of lesions that can present as an incidental finding or produce potentially life- or limb-threatening complications. They can have intra-articular and intraosseous extensions that will result in more diverse symptomology and present greater therapeutic challenges. Developments in classification, imaging and interventional techniques have helped to improve outcome. The onus is now placed on appropriate detailed preliminary imaging, diagnosis and classification to direct management and exclude other more common mimics. Radiologists are thus playing an increasingly important role in the multidisciplinary teams charged with the care of these patients. By fully understanding the imaging characteristics and image-guided procedures available, radiologists will be armed with the tools to meet these responsibilities. This review highlights the recent advances made in imaging and the options available in interventional therapy. PMID:25525685

  5. SeaWinds Global Coverage with Detail of Hurricane Floyd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of ocean surface winds over the Atlantic Ocean, based on September 1999 data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite, shows wind direction (white streamlines) at a resolution of 25 kilometers (15.5 miles), superimposed on the color image indicating wind speed.

    Over the ocean, the strong (seen in violet) trade winds blow steadily from the cooler subtropical oceans to warm waters just north of the equator. The air rises over these warm waters and sinks in the subtropics at the horse latitudes. Low wind speeds are indicated in blue. In the mid-latitudes, the high vorticity caused by the rotation of the Earth generates the spirals of weather systems. The North Atlantic is dominated by a high-pressure system, whose anti-cyclonic (clockwise) flow creates strong winds blowing parallel to the coast of Spain and Morocco. This creates strong ocean upwelling and cold temperature. Hurricane Floyd, with its high winds (yellow), is clearly visible west of the Bahamas. Tropical depression Gert is seen as it was forming in the tropical mid-Atlantic (as an anti-clockwise spiral); it later developed into a full-blown hurricane.

    Because the atmosphere is largely transparent to microwaves, SeaWinds is able to cover 93 percent of the global oceans, under both clear and cloudy conditions, in a single day, with the capability of a synoptic view of the ocean. The high resolution of the data also gives detailed description of small and intense weather systems, like Hurricane Floyd. The image in the insert is based on data specially produced at 12.5 kilometers (7.7 miles). In the insert, white arrows of wind vector are imposed on the color image of wind speed. The insert represents a 3-degree area occupied by Hurricane Floyd. After these data were acquired, Hurricane Floyd turned north. Its strength and proximity to the Atlantic coast of the U.S. caused the largest evacuation of citizens in U.S. history. Its landfall on September 16, 1999 resulted in severe flooding and devastation in the Carolinas. The high-resolution SeaWinds data provided an opportunity to monitor and study this hurricane.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  6. Elevation of dwelling at 80 North Broad Place, SW, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of dwelling at 80 North Broad Place, SW, originally built to house workers from the nearby Merrimack Mill - 80 North Broad Place, Southwest (House), 80 North Broad Place, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. The Country in the Town: The Role of Real Estate Developers in the Construction of the Meaning of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Harvey C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the process by which real estate developers construct rural images of urban places, exploit anti-urban, pro-rural, and pro-community sentiments, and commodify and appropriate the established meanings of places. Uses Chapel Hill, North Carolina, as a case study. Contains 47 references. (SV)

  8. DNA origami based Au–Ag-core–shell nanoparticle dimers with single-molecule SERS sensitivity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information about materials and methods, designs of DNA origami templates, height profiles, additional SERS spectra, assignment of DNA bands, SEM images, additional AFM images, FDTD simulations, additional reference spectra for Cy3 and detailed description of EF estimation, simulated absorption and scattering spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08674d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, J.; Heck, C.; Ellerik, L.; Merk, V.

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled. PMID:26892770

  9. Evaluation of a software package for automated quality assessment of contrast detail images—comparison with subjective visual assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoal, A.; Lawinski, C. P.; Honey, I.; Blake, P.

    2005-12-01

    Contrast detail analysis is commonly used to assess image quality (IQ) associated with diagnostic imaging systems. Applications include routine assessment of equipment performance and optimization studies. Most frequently, the evaluation of contrast detail images involves human observers visually detecting the threshold contrast detail combinations in the image. However, the subjective nature of human perception and the variations in the decision threshold pose limits to the minimum image quality variations detectable with reliability. Objective methods of assessment of image quality such as automated scoring have the potential to overcome the above limitations. A software package (CDRAD analyser) developed for automated scoring of images produced with the CDRAD test object was evaluated. Its performance to assess absolute and relative IQ was compared with that of an average observer. Results show that the software does not mimic the absolute performance of the average observer. The software proved more sensitive and was able to detect smaller low-contrast variations. The observer's performance was superior to the software's in the detection of smaller details. Both scoring methods showed frequent agreement in the detection of image quality variations resulting from changes in kVp and KERMAdetector, which indicates the potential to use the software CDRAD analyser for assessment of relative IQ.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI) What is an MRI? MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is an important tool used in many fields of medicine, and is capable of generating a detailed image of any part of the human body. As an analogy, think about a loaf of ...

  12. Next Place Prediction Based on Spatiotemporal Pattern Mining of Mobile Device Logs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungjun; Lim, Junseok; Park, Jonghun; Kim, Kwanho

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent explosive growth of location-aware services based on mobile devices, predicting the next places of a user is of increasing importance to enable proactive information services. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven framework that aims to predict the user’s next places using his/her past visiting patterns analyzed from mobile device logs. Specifically, the notion of the spatiotemporal-periodic (STP) pattern is proposed to capture the visits with spatiotemporal periodicity by focusing on a detail level of location for each individual. Subsequently, we present algorithms that extract the STP patterns from a user’s past visiting behaviors and predict the next places based on the patterns. The experiment results obtained by using a real-world dataset show that the proposed methods are more effective in predicting the user’s next places than the previous approaches considered in most cases. PMID:26805850

  13. Next Place Prediction Based on Spatiotemporal Pattern Mining of Mobile Device Logs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungjun; Lim, Junseok; Park, Jonghun; Kim, Kwanho

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent explosive growth of location-aware services based on mobile devices, predicting the next places of a user is of increasing importance to enable proactive information services. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven framework that aims to predict the user's next places using his/her past visiting patterns analyzed from mobile device logs. Specifically, the notion of the spatiotemporal-periodic (STP) pattern is proposed to capture the visits with spatiotemporal periodicity by focusing on a detail level of location for each individual. Subsequently, we present algorithms that extract the STP patterns from a user's past visiting behaviors and predict the next places based on the patterns. The experiment results obtained by using a real-world dataset show that the proposed methods are more effective in predicting the user's next places than the previous approaches considered in most cases. PMID:26805850

  14. The place for performance in the digital holographic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Sandford-Richardson, Elizabeth; Bernardo, Luis Miguel; Crespo, Helder

    2014-02-01

    In this series of digital art holograms and lenticulars, we are examining different kinds of movement inside the digital holographic space explored by Elizabeth Sandford-Richardson, a visual performance artist. During the process of capturing the image, we used the HoloCam Portable Light System, equipped with Canon and Nikon cameras positioned at different heights and angles, in order to improve the rendering of the holographic space. Based on the "Performativity of Performance Documentation" a notion introduced by Philip Auslanderi we revisit some authors that have been working in the "theatrical" practise, mainly in photography, adding the possibility of movement in 3D space. We must realise that the movement of the viewer in front of a digital holographic image creates the performance that he/she is looking at. We should consider the physical space, outside the hologram, and this kind of "performance acts", also part of the work. In summary, we propose a reflection on the digital holographic space, time, movement and its place in contemporary art.

  15. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems. PMID:1599593

  16. Placing late Neanderthals in a climatic context.

    PubMed

    Tzedakis, P C; Hughen, K A; Cacho, I; Harvati, K

    2007-09-13

    Attempts to place Palaeolithic finds within a precise climatic framework are complicated by both uncertainty over the radiocarbon calibration beyond about 21,500 14C years bp and the absence of a master calendar chronology for climate events from reference archives such as Greenland ice cores or speleothems. Here we present an alternative approach, in which 14C dates of interest are mapped directly onto the palaeoclimate record of the Cariaco Basin by means of its 14C series, circumventing calendar age model and correlation uncertainties, and placing dated events in the millennial-scale climate context of the last glacial period. This is applied to different sets of dates from levels with Mousterian artefacts, presumably produced by late Neanderthals, from Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar: first, generally accepted estimates of about 32,000 14C years bp for the uppermost Mousterian levels; second, a possible extended Middle Palaeolithic occupation until about 28,000 14C years bp; and third, more contentious evidence for persistence until about 24,000 14C years bp. This study shows that the three sets translate to different scenarios on the role of climate in Neanderthal extinction. The first two correspond to intervals of general climatic instability between stadials and interstadials that characterized most of the Middle Pleniglacial and are not coeval with Heinrich Events. In contrast, if accepted, the youngest date indicates that late Neanderthals may have persisted up to the onset of a major environmental shift, which included an expansion in global ice volume and an increased latitudinal temperature gradient. More generally, our radiocarbon climatostratigraphic approach can be applied to any 'snapshot' date from discontinuous records in a variety of deposits and can become a powerful tool in evaluating the climatic signature of critical intervals in Late Pleistocene human evolution. PMID:17851522

  17. Stellar Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is one of NASA's "Vision Missions" - concepts for future, space-based, strategic missions that could enormously increase our capabilities for observing the Cosmos. SI is designed as a UV/Optical Interferometer which will enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI, with a characteristic angular resolution of 0.1 milli-arcseconds at 2000 Angstroms, represents an advance in image detail of several hundred times over that provided by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Stellar Imager will zoom in on what today-with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool as fundamental to astrophysics as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. It's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. Stellar Imager is included as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005) and as such is a candidate mission for the 2025-2030 timeframe. An artist's drawing of the current "baseline" concept for SI is presented.

  18. An analysis of the optimal size of image sensors in free space optic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixing; Huang, Yongmei; An, Tao

    2014-09-01

    There are several advantages offered by free space optic systems compared with conventional radio frequency systems. As a consequence of shorter wavelengths, the high directivity of the transmitted beam makes acquisition and pointing difficult, thus an imaging system is set up for acquisition and pointing. Optical wave front distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence result in a spreading of the beam leads to image jitter take place in the focal plane, where the image sensor is. The behavior of the image jitter can be described in a statistical manner. Consequently, the size, which is a very important parameter to an image sensor, can be determined by the statistical quantity of image jitter, which customarily is the root mean square (RMS) image displacement. The quantity of the RMS image displacement is as a function of several measurable parameters. In this paper, variations of the estimated RMS image displacement were calculate and discussed in detail. The calculation showed good agreement with the experimental results conducted with a propagation path length of 96 km. The optimal sizes of image sensors that are used for some specific circumstances were analyzed and proposed based on the RMS image displacement.

  19. Special Places for Children--The Schools in Reggio Emilia, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Lella; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four articles discuss the child-centered approach of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy: "Not Just Anywhere: Making Child Care Centers into 'Particular' Places" (Lella Gandini); "Your Image of the Child" (Loris Malaguzzi); "What Can We Learn from Reggio Emilia: An Italian-American Collaboration (Lella Gandini); and "Unpacking My Questions and…

  20. All Intimate Grammars Leak: Reflections on "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroskrity, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of