Science.gov

Sample records for image library search

  1. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data. PMID:26616598

  2. NIAID Biodefense Image Library

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Image Library These high-resolution (300 dpi) images may be ... for Disease Control and Prevention public health image library . Smallpox Vaccination Study-1 Smallpox vaccination dilution study: ...

  3. Digital imaging access library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Jay F.; Hansen, Mark; Francoise, James J.; Leckie, Robert G.; Smith, Donald V.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to access a vast array of radiological and pathologic diagnoses through computer searches of local medical facility databases is a by-product of the continued development of filmless imaging systems. The Department of Defense (DoD) Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support initiative is expanding through the addition of on-line systems at several DoD health care facilities. Madigan Army Medical Center, as the initial site, will soon be 90% filmless, with over one million images archived. Multiple other DoD medical centers are under installation. The eventual goal is an interconnected network of PACS systems of DoD medical centers and their supported medical facilities throughout the United States. To access this potential pool of medical information requires a centralized database capable of acting as a diagnostic index system. The establishment of a multi-center film library index begins with an initial analysis of issues regarding data storage and access, indexing, cross-coding with pathological files, communication formats, cost sharing, and patient confidentiality. In initiating these first steps to developing this telecommunications library these issues and their implications are discussed. The final implementation of this system will facilitate markedly improved research and teaching capabilities in both radiological and pathological fields.

  4. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single

  5. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  6. Image-analysis library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    MATHPAC image-analysis library is collection of general-purpose mathematical and statistical routines and special-purpose data-analysis and pattern-recognition routines for image analysis. MATHPAC library consists of Linear Algebra, Optimization, Statistical-Summary, Densities and Distribution, Regression, and Statistical-Test packages.

  7. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A Java wrapper around the library allows parts of it to be used from Java code (via a native JNI interface). Future conversions of all or part of the library to Java are contemplated.

  8. Library Instruction and Online Database Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in online database searching in academic libraries. Topics include librarians conducting all searches; the advent of end-user searching and the need for user instruction; compact disk technology; online public catalogs; the Internet; full text databases; electronic information literacy; user education and the remote library user;…

  9. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  10. Image analysis library software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Bryant, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Image Analysis Library consists of a collection of general purpose mathematical/statistical routines and special purpose data analysis/pattern recognition routines basic to the development of image analysis techniques for support of current and future Earth Resources Programs. Work was done to provide a collection of computer routines and associated documentation which form a part of the Image Analysis Library.

  11. Medical image libraries: ICoS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honniball, John; Thomas, Peter

    1999-08-01

    FOr use of digital techniques for the production, manipulation and storage of images has resulted in the creation of digital image libraries. These libraries often store many thousands of images. While provision of storage media for such large amounts of data has been straightforward, provision of effective searching and retrieval tools has not. Medicine relies heavily on images as a diagnostic tool. The most obvious example is the x-ray, but many other image forms are in everyday use. Advances in technology are affecting the ways medical images are generated, stored and retrieved. The paper describes the work of the Image COding and Segmentation to Support Variable Rate Transmission Channels and Variable Resolution Platforms (ICoS) research project currently under way in Bristol, UK. ICoS is a project of the Mobile of England and Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories Europe. Funding is provided by the Engineering and PHysical Sciences Research Council. The aim of the ICoS project is to demonstrate the practical application of computer networking to medical image libraries. Work at the University of the West of England concentrates on user interface and indexing issues. Metadata is used to organize the images, coded using the WWW Consortium standard Resource Description Framework. We are investigating the application of such standards to medical images, one outcome being to implement a metadata-based image library. This paper describes the ICoS project in detail and discuses both metadata system and user interfaces in the context of medical applications.

  12. Searching images using Ultimedia Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, Harold; Ort, Ed; Ho, J.; Vo, M.; Jang, J. S.; Hall, L.; Tung, F.; Petkovic, Dragutin

    1995-03-01

    IBM's Ultimedia Manager is a software product for management and retrieval of image data. The product includes both traditional database search and content based search. Traditional database search allows images to be retrieved by text descriptors or business data such as price, date, and catalog number. Content based search allows retrieval by similarity to a specified color, texture, shape, position or any combination of these. The two can be combined, as in 'retrieve all images with the text `beach' in their description, and sort them in order by how much blue they contain.' Functions are also available for fast browning, and for database navigation. The two main components of Ultimedia Manger are a database population tool to prepare images for query by identifying areas of interest and computing their features, and the query tool for doing retrievals. Application areas include stock photography, electronic libraries, retail, cataloging, and business graphics.

  13. Image library of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Sühnel, J

    1996-06-01

    An Image Library of Biological Macromolecules is described, which contains image and text files related to structures of biological macromolecules. Currently, the Library has approximately 3000 image files of approximately 300 structures of biological macromolecules whose coordinates are available in the Protein Data Bank and in the Nucleic Acid Database. The entries include all RNA structures, approximately 70 DNA structures, 150 proteins and a few carbohydrates. The Library contains further images of amino acids, of standard and modified nucleotides and of nucleic acid model structures. Each entry consists of an annotation file with bibliographic and sequence information and possibly comments, of a color-coded distance plot and of structure images. Almost all of the images are available both in a mono and in a stereo representation. Standard procedures for generating these images were strictly avoided. Therefore, mixed rendering, coloring and labeling techniques were used extensively. Since May 1995 the Library has a growing division of images in the new Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format. The Image Library of Biological Macromolecules can be accessed via the World-Wide Web (http://www.imb-jena.de/IMAGE.html). There is a large number of structures determined by experimental and/or modeling techniques which are not intended to be included into the Protein Data Bank or Nucleic Acid Database for some reason. The Image Library could be a repository of these structures and of images of these and other structures of biological macromolecules including structures which are not known at atomic detail. Authors who are willing to make available images or coordinates to the scientific community via the Image Library of Biological Macromolecules are requested to contact the author. PMID:8872391

  14. Search of the Library Information Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley Univ., Peoria, IL. Computer Center.

    Search of the Library Information Collection (SLIC) is a relatively inexpensive program for searching the ERIC files. The concepts of the inverted file used by the SLIC programs has reduced the overhead required in previous systems thereby decreasing operating costs and loss of valuable research time. The amount of main storage required is small.…

  15. CAMEL: concept annotated image libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsev, Apostol; Chadha, Atul; Soetarman, Basuki; Vitter, Jeffrey S.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of content-based image searching has received considerable attention in the last few years. Thousands of images are now available on the Internet, and many important applications require searching of images in domains such as E-commerce, medical imaging, weather prediction, satellite imagery, and so on. Yet, content-based image querying is still largely unestablished as a mainstream field, nor is it widely used by search engines. We believe that two of the major hurdles for this poor acceptance are poor retrieval quality and usability.

  16. CAMEL: concept annotated image libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsev, Apostol; Chadha, Atul; Soetarman, Basuki; Vitter, Jeffrey S.

    2000-12-01

    The problem of content-based image searching has received considerable attention in the last few years. Thousands of images are now available on the Internet, and many important applications require searching of images in domains such as E-commerce, medical imaging, weather prediction, satellite imagery, and so on. Yet, content-based image querying is still largely unestablished as a mainstream field, nor is it widely used by search engines. We believe that two of the major hurdles for this poor acceptance are poor retrieval quality and usability.

  17. The Library as Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a Technology Forum that focuses on online archives and their role in academe. The forum brought together Daniel Greenstein, associate vice provost for scholarly information and university librarian at the California Digital Library of the University of California; Adam Smith, group business-product manager for the Google Book…

  18. The Library as Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a Technology Forum that focuses on online archives and their role in academe. The forum brought together Daniel Greenstein, associate vice provost for scholarly information and university librarian at the California Digital Library of the University of California; Adam Smith, group business-product manager for the Google Book

  19. Evaluation of Federated Searching Options for the School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    Three hosted federated search tools, Follett One Search, Gale PowerSearch Plus, and WebFeat Express, were configured and implemented in a school library. Databases from five vendors and the OPAC were systematically searched. Federated search results were compared with each other and to the results of the same searches in the database's native…

  20. Predicting the Relevance of a Library Catalog Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael D.; Chen, Hui-Min

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an operational definition of relevance for a Web-based library catalog. Proposes measures that characterize user behavior while searching a Web-based library catalog. Develops a methodology to predict when a user's search will be perceived to be relevant by the user. Tests the methodology with over 900,000 user search sessions with the…

  1. ESS: The Library of Congress Experimental Search System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Dean; Greenfield, Rich

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Library of Congress's Experimental Search System (ESS), a Web-based online public access catalog that introduced new search methods to replace Boolean searching as well as powerful navigational aids for browsing and cross-linking. Discusses problems, ESS user comments, acceptance by Library of Congress staff, and future…

  2. Image Searching across the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to find digital images on the Web. Considers images and copyright; provides an overview of the search capabilities of six search engines, including AltaVista, Google, AllTheWeb.com, Ditto.com, Picsearch, and Lycos; and describes specialized image search engines. (LRW)

  3. A Statistical Study of Online Searches in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Moid A.

    1996-01-01

    Searches conducted at the library of King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Library (Saudi Arabia) were analyzed as to online versus CD-ROM, costs, academic department, user status, subject, databases accessed, and search strategy. A database management system was used to compile results, and statistics will aid in material selection and…

  4. Federated Search and the Library Web Site: A Study of Association of Research Libraries Member Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how federated search engines are incorporated into the Web sites of libraries in the Association of Research Libraries. In 2009, information was gathered for each library in the Association of Research Libraries with a federated search engine. This included the name of the federated search service and…

  5. Federated Search and the Library Web Site: A Study of Association of Research Libraries Member Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how federated search engines are incorporated into the Web sites of libraries in the Association of Research Libraries. In 2009, information was gathered for each library in the Association of Research Libraries with a federated search engine. This included the name of the federated search service and

  6. A Corporate Library's "Single Search Box" Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldstein, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alcatel-Lucent has had an internal library website called InfoView since 1993. They always had pages for the various diverse resources they maintained for Alcatel-Lucent employees, such as books, serials, artifacts, market reports, and discounts. Each page had two search boxes: one for a "site" search on all pages and one searching the…

  7. A Corporate Library's "Single Search Box" Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldstein, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alcatel-Lucent has had an internal library website called InfoView since 1993. They always had pages for the various diverse resources they maintained for Alcatel-Lucent employees, such as books, serials, artifacts, market reports, and discounts. Each page had two search boxes: one for a "site" search on all pages and one searching the

  8. Is Library Database Searching a Language Learning Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how non-native speakers of English think of words to enter into library databases when they begin the process of searching for information in English. At issue is whether or not language learning takes place when these students use library databases. Language learning in this study refers to the use of strategies employed by

  9. Visualizing Document Classification: A Search Aid for the Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieu, Yew-Huey; Dantzig, Paul; Sachs, Martin; Corey, James T.; Hinnebusch, Mark T.; Damashek, Marc; Cohen, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses access to digital libraries on the World Wide Web via Web browsers and describes the design of a language-independent document classification system to help users of the Florida Center for Library Automation analyze search query results. Highlights include similarity scores, clustering, graphical representation of document similarity,…

  10. Is Library Database Searching a Language Learning Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how non-native speakers of English think of words to enter into library databases when they begin the process of searching for information in English. At issue is whether or not language learning takes place when these students use library databases. Language learning in this study refers to the use of strategies employed by…

  11. Designing Search: Effective Search Interfaces for Academic Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ghaphery, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries customize, support, and provide access to myriad information systems, each with complex graphical user interfaces. The number of possible information entry points on an academic library Web site is both daunting to the end-user and consistently challenging to library Web site designers. Faced with the challenges inherent in…

  12. Image Editing Via Searching Source Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Han; Deng, Liang-Jian

    Image editing has important applications by changing the image texture, illumination, target location, etc. As an important application of Poisson equation, Poisson image editing processes images on the gradient domain and has been applied to seamless clone, selection editing, image denoising, etc. In this paper, we present a new application of Poisson image editing, which is based on searching source image. The main feature of the new application is all modifying information comes from the source image. Experimental results show that the proposed application performs well.

  13. Spectral Library Searching To Identify Cross-Linked Peptides.

    PubMed

    Schweppe, Devin K; Chavez, Juan D; Navare, Arti T; Wu, Xia; Ruiz, Bianca; Eng, Jimmy K; Lam, Henry; Bruce, James E

    2016-05-01

    Methods harnessing protein cross-linking and mass spectrometry (XL-MS) offer high-throughput means to identify protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and structural interfaces of protein complexes. Yet, specialized data dependent methods and search algorithms are often required to confidently assign peptide identifications to spectra. To improve the efficiency of matching high confidence spectra, we developed a spectral library based approach to search cross-linked peptide data derived from Protein Interaction Reporter (PIR) methods using the spectral library search algorithm, SpectraST. Spectral library matching of cross-linked peptide data from query spectra increased the absolute number of confident peptide relationships matched to spectra and thereby the number of PPIs identified. By matching library spectra from bona fide, previously established PIR-cross-linked peptide relationships, spectral library searching reduces the need for continued, complex mass spectrometric methods to identify peptide relationships, increases coverage of relationship identifications, and improves the accessibility of XL-MS technologies. PMID:27089058

  14. Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

  15. Building and searching tandem mass spectral libraries for peptide identification.

    PubMed

    Lam, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Spectral library searching is an emerging approach in peptide identifications from tandem mass spectra, a critical step in proteomic data analysis. Conceptually, the premise of this approach is that the tandem MS fragmentation pattern of a peptide under some fixed conditions is a reproducible fingerprint of that peptide, such that unknown spectra acquired under the same conditions can be identified by spectral matching. In actual practice, a spectral library is first meticulously compiled from a large collection of previously observed and identified tandem MS spectra, usually obtained from shotgun proteomics experiments of complex mixtures. Then, a query spectrum is then identified by spectral matching using recently developed spectral search engines. This review discusses the basic principles of the two pillars of this approach: spectral library construction, and spectral library searching. An overview of the software tools available for these two tasks, as well as a high-level description of the underlying algorithms, will be given. Finally, several new methods that utilize spectral libraries for peptide identification in ways other than straightforward spectral matching will also be described. PMID:21900153

  16. After Losing Users in Catalogs, Libraries Find Better Search Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Traditional online library catalogs do not tend to order search results by ranked relevance, and they can befuddle users with clunky interfaces. However, that's changing because of two technology trends. First, a growing number of universities are shelling out serious money for sophisticated software that makes exploring their collections more…

  17. Online Searching in a University Library of a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Moid A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the microcomputer-based online search services provided by the library of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Topics addressed include databases used; users; searcher characteristics; computer printouts; costs and user fees; interlibrary loans; and CD-ROMs. (four references) (LRW)

  18. Artificial decoy spectral libraries for false discovery rate estimation in spectral library searching in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Henry; Deutsch, Eric W; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of estimating false discovery rates (FDR) in peptide identification from MS/MS spectra has received increased attention in proteomics. The simple approach of target-decoy searching has become popular with traditional sequence (database) searching methods, but has yet to be practiced in spectral (library) searching, an emerging alternative to sequence searching. We extended this target-decoy searching approach to spectral searching by developing and validating a robust method to generate realistic, but unnatural, decoy spectra. Our method involves randomly shuffling the peptide identification of each reference spectrum in the library, and repositioning each fragment ion peak along the m/z axis to match the fragment ions expected from the shuffled sequence. We show that this method produces decoy spectra that are sufficiently realistic, such that incorrect identifications are equally likely to match real and decoy spectra, a key assumption necessary for decoy counting. This approach has been implemented in the open-source library building software, SpectraST. PMID:19916561

  19. Searching for a New Way to Reach Patrons: A Search Engine Optimization Pilot Project at Binghamton University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erin E.; Kelehan, Martha Daisy; Strong, Marcy A.

    2008-01-01

    Search engine use is one of the most popular online activities. According to a recent OCLC report, nearly all students start their electronic research using a search engine instead of the library Web site. Instead of viewing search engines as competition, however, librarians at Binghamton University Libraries decided to employ search engine…

  20. Searching for a New Way to Reach Patrons: A Search Engine Optimization Pilot Project at Binghamton University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erin E.; Kelehan, Martha Daisy; Strong, Marcy A.

    2008-01-01

    Search engine use is one of the most popular online activities. According to a recent OCLC report, nearly all students start their electronic research using a search engine instead of the library Web site. Instead of viewing search engines as competition, however, librarians at Binghamton University Libraries decided to employ search engine

  1. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in

  2. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

  3. ISee: perceptual features for image library navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojsilovic, Aleksandra; Gomes, Jose; Rogowitz, Bernice E.

    2002-06-01

    To develop more satisfying image navigation systems, we need tools to construct a semantic bridge between the user and the database. In this paper we present an image indexing scheme and a query language, which allow the user to introduce a cognitive dimension to the search. At an abstract level, this approach consists of: 1) learning the natural language that humans speak to communicate their semantic experience of images, 2) understand the relationships between this language and objective measurable image attributes, and then 3) develop the corresponding feature extraction schemes. In our previous work we have conducted a number of subjective experiments in which we asked human subjects to group images, and then explain verbally why they did so. The results of this study indicated that part of the abstraction involved in image interpretation is often driven by semantic categories, which can be broken into more tangible semantic entities, i.e. objective semantic indicators. By analyzing our experimental data, we identified some candidate semantic categories (i.e. portraits, people, crowds, cityscapes, landscapes, etc.), discovered their underlying semantic indicators (i.e. skin, sky, water, object, etc.), and derived important low-level image descriptors accounting for our perception of these indicators. In our recent work we have used these findings to develop a set of image features that match the way humans communicate image meaning, and a semantic-friendly query language for browsing and searching diverse collections of images. We have implemented our approach into an Internet search engine, ISee, and tested it on a large number of images. The results we obtained are very promising.

  4. Manually Classifying User Search Queries on an Academic Library Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Suzanne; Desai, Shevon; Hagedorn, Kat; Varnum, Ken; Mishra, Sonali; Piacentine, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The University of Michigan Library wanted to learn more about the kinds of searches its users were conducting through the "one search" search box on the Library Web site. Library staff conducted two investigations. A preliminary investigation in 2011 involved the manual review of the 100 most frequently occurring queries conducted…

  5. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  6. What Is Used during Cognitive Processing in Information Retrieval and Library Searching? Eleven Sources of Search Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Dee Andy

    1994-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy of 11 sources of information used during library and database searching based on observations of 49 searches in a variety of libraries and search situations. Three categories of sources are identified: those internal to the searcher, those created by the searcher, and those external to the searcher. (Contains 54 references.)…

  7. Semantically Enriching the Search System of a Music Digital Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Paloma; Iglesias, Carlos

    Traditional search systems are usually based on keywords, a very simple and convenient mechanism to express a need for information. This is the most popular way of searching the Web, although it is not always an easy task to accurately summarize a natural language query in a few keywords. Working with keywords means losing the context, which is the only thing that can help us deal with ambiguity. This is the biggest problem of keyword-based systems. Semantic Web technologies seem a perfect solution to this problem, since they make it possible to represent the semantics of a given domain. In this chapter, we present three projects, Harmos, Semusici and Cantiga, whose aim is to provide access to a music digital library. We will describe two search systems, a traditional one and a semantic one, developed in the context of these projects and compare them in terms of usability and effectiveness.

  8. Image Searching on the Excite Web Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby; Spink, Amanda

    2001-01-01

    Examines visual information needs as expressed in users' Web image queries on the Excite search engine. Discusses metadata; content-based image retrieval; user interaction with images; terms per query; term frequency; and implications for the development of models for visual information retrieval and for the design of Web search engines.

  9. Image Searching on the Excite Web Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby; Spink, Amanda

    2001-01-01

    Examines visual information needs as expressed in users' Web image queries on the Excite search engine. Discusses metadata; content-based image retrieval; user interaction with images; terms per query; term frequency; and implications for the development of models for visual information retrieval and for the design of Web search engines.…

  10. Amino acid Alphabet Size in Protein Evolution Experiments: Better to Search a Small library Thoroughly or a Large Library Sparsely?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We compare the results obtained from searching a smaller library thoroughly versus searching a more diverse, larger library sparsely. We study protein evolution with reduced amino acid alphabets, by simulating directed evolution experiments at three different alphabet sizes: 20, 5 and 2. We employ a physical model for evolution, the generalized NK model, that has proved successful in modeling protein evolution, antibody evolution, and T cell selection. We find that antibodies with higher affinity are found by searching a library with a larger alphabet sparsely than by searching a smaller library thoroughly, even with well-designed reduced libraries. We find ranked amino acid usage frequencies in agreement with observations of the CDR-H3 variable region of human antibodies. PMID:18375453

  11. Liverpool's Discovery: A University Library Applies a New Search Tool to Improve the User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article features the University of Liverpool's arts and humanities library, which applies a new search tool to improve the user experience. In nearly every way imaginable, the Sydney Jones Library and the Harold Cohen Library--the university's two libraries that serve science, engineering, and medical students--support the lives of their…

  12. Discovering How Students Search a Library Web Site: A Usability Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Susan; Greene, Courtney

    2002-01-01

    Discusses results of a usability study at the University of Illinois Chicago that investigated whether Internet search engines have influenced the way students search library Web sites. Results show students use the Web site's internal search engine rather than navigating through the pages; have difficulty interpreting library terminology; and…

  13. Library Research and Computer Search Module, Revised Edition. National College of Education: Field Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coll. of Education, Evanston, IL.

    This self-instructional library module is the textbook used in a 4-hour library instruction course for field-based students of the National College of Education. The field program involves instruction sessions in local libraries, instructor-assisted online reference searching, and document delivery to field-based students working on a…

  14. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Vivienne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  15. Substance identification based on transmission THz spectra using library search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platte, Frank; Heise, H. Michael

    2014-09-01

    Over recent years terahertz spectroscopy has become a new tool for the characterization of solid materials, in particular for investigating polymorphism and crystallinity in pharmaceutics. Search strategies have been tested for THz spectra of various organic compounds with their spectra taken from the Riken database (http://www.riken.jp), using the GRAMS spectroscopy software. A subset of the entire database was used, which had been processed by removal of atmospheric water vapour lines and smoothing applied based on Savitzky-Golay convolution or time domain filtering. The spectral range available for all library substances was restricted to an interval from 0.9 to 4.5 THz (30-150 cm-1). The number of vibrational bands within this spectral range is much reduced compared with mid-infrared or Raman spectra. The appropriateness of spectral pre-treatment is demonstrated with regard to reliability and robustness of the search methods. In particular, time-domain filters for smoothing and pre-treatment by the removal of water lines and etalon effects have been successfully tested in combination with least squares and correlation methods. With these insights, applications for substance identification, especially for the pharmaceutical industry, may be enlarged.

  16. Solar System Object Image Search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, Jj

    2016-01-01

    While regular astronomical image archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either an object designation, a list of observations, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 24.5 million images. As the Pan-STARRS and Hyper Suprime-Cam archives become available, they will be incorporated as well. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  17. The Impact of On-line Searching on Document Supply Services at Individual Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Kimio; Tanaka, Isao; Fukazawa, Yoshiko

    As use of on-line searching services has progressed in libraries, requests on primary materials have increased much more than before. For the purpose of clarifying this trend and countermeasures against it a survey by questionnaire was conducted in 1985. The respondants from totally 112 libraries are as follows ; 60 industrial libraries, 41 academic libraries and 11 libraries of research institutes and laboratories. It was shown that industrial libraries have received more requests on primary materials mostly resulting from on-line searching while the requests have not increased remarkably in academic libraries. Regardless the type of libraries, almost all libraries can not fully meet the requests with their own collection so that industrial libraries have to rely on external information services and academic libraries utilize interlibrary loan system. Requests are sent via on-line from industrial libraries, and by mail from academic libraries. In fact, any-libraries are not likely to review their material-collecting policy. Therefore it is urgent to establish the system which enables use of external information services or interlibrary loan system more than ever.

  18. Imaging Technology in Libraries: Photo CD Offers New Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiser, Karl

    1993-01-01

    Describes Kodak's Photo CD technology, a format for the storage and retrieval of photographic images in electronic form. Highlights include current and future Photo CD formats; computer imaging technology; ownership issues; hardware for using Photo CD; software; library and information center applications, including image collections and…

  19. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, S.; Hill, N.; Kavelaars, J.

    2014-07-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 7.6 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  20. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, JJ

    2015-08-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 18 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  1. Search prefilters to assist in library searching of infrared spectra of automotive clear coats.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; White, Collin; Sandercock, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Clear coat searches of the infrared (IR) spectral library of the paint data query (PDQ) forensic database often generate an unusable number of hits that span multiple manufacturers, assembly plants, and years. To improve the accuracy of the hit list, pattern recognition methods have been used to develop search prefilters (i.e., principal component models) that differentiate between similar but non-identical IR spectra of clear coats on the basis of manufacturer (e.g., General Motors, Ford, Chrysler) or assembly plant. A two step procedure to develop these search prefilters was employed. First, the discrete wavelet transform was used to decompose each IR spectrum into wavelet coefficients to enhance subtle but significant features in the spectral data. Second, a genetic algorithm for IR spectral pattern recognition was employed to identify wavelet coefficients characteristic of the manufacturer or assembly plant of the vehicle. Even in challenging trials where the paint samples evaluated were all from the same manufacturer (General Motors) within a limited production year range (2000-2006), the respective assembly plant of the vehicle was correctly identified. Search prefilters to identify assembly plants were successfully validated using 10 blind samples provided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) as part of a study to populate PDQ to current production years, whereas the search prefilter to discriminate among automobile manufacturers was successfully validated using IR spectra obtained directly from the PDQ database. PMID:25476296

  2. Overall framework on digital image searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Mun-Kew; Lim, Joo-Hwee

    2005-08-01

    We propose a framework for digital image searching which seeks to include the best practices learnt from document information retrieval systems. In particular, we motivate the importance of the user in the search process, and show how the user's task can significantly alter the evaluation of results from the search system. The framework makes the roles of the user explicit to avoid the academic omniscient truth approach which characterizes current content-based image retrieval systems. While primary (low-level) features are a necessary part of the image search process, it is the higher level semantics which have created significant results from image analysis and search. We show that the user is a necessary component in this process.

  3. The Science Library Catalog Project: Comparison of Children's Searching Behavior in Hypertext and a Keyword Search System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgman, Christine L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on a continuing project to study children's use of the Science Library Catalog (SLC), a graphically based direct manipulation microcomputer interface for locating science materials in elementary school libraries. Search success on SLC, which uses HyperCard, is compared with a Boolean system; effects of age and gender are studied; and user…

  4. Building and searching tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral libraries for peptide identification in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Henry; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2011-08-01

    Spectral library searching is an emerging approach in peptide identifications from tandem mass spectra, a critical step in proteomic data analysis. In spectral library searching, a spectral library is first meticulously compiled from a large collection of previously observed peptide MS/MS spectra that are conclusively assigned to their corresponding amino acid sequence. An unknown spectrum is then identified by comparing it to all the candidates in the spectral library for the most similar match. This review discusses the basic principles of spectral library building and searching, describes its advantages and limitations, and provides a primer for researchers interested in adopting this new approach in their data analysis. It will also discuss the future outlook on the evolution and utility of spectral libraries in the field of proteomics. PMID:21277371

  5. Google vs. the Library (Part II): Student Search Patterns and Behaviors When Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the information-seeking behavior of undergraduate students within a research context. Student searches were recorded while the participants used Google and a library (federated) search tool to find sources (one book, two articles, and one other source of their choosing) for a selected topic. The undergraduates in this study…

  6. Google vs. the Library (Part II): Student Search Patterns and Behaviors When Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the information-seeking behavior of undergraduate students within a research context. Student searches were recorded while the participants used Google and a library (federated) search tool to find sources (one book, two articles, and one other source of their choosing) for a selected topic. The undergraduates in this study

  7. Immediate structured visual search for medical images.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Karen; Zisserman, Andrew; Criminisi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is a scalable, real-time visual search engine for medical images. In contrast to existing systems that retrieve images that are globally similar to a query image, we enable the user to select a query Region Of Interest (ROI) and automatically detect the corresponding regions within all returned images. This allows the returned images to be ranked on the content of the ROI, rather than the entire image. Our contribution is two-fold: (i) immediate retrieval - the data is appropriately pre-processed so that the search engine returns results in real-time for any query image and ROI; (ii) structured output - returning ROIs with a choice of ranking functions. The retrieval performance is assessed on a number of annotated queries for images from the IRMA X-ray dataset and compared to a baseline. PMID:22003711

  8. User Evaluation of a Corporate Library Online Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Carolyn L.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a survey taken to measure user satisfaction with General Electric's online search services, including search retrieval relevance and search benefits. Nine references are cited and a sample questionnaire is provided. (FM)

  9. Close the Textbook & Open "The Cell: An Image Library"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Cheston; Taylor, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Many students leave the biology classroom with misconceptions centered on cellular structure. This article presents an activity in which students utilize images from an online database called "The Cell: An Image Library" (http://www.cellimagelibrary. org/) to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of cellular structure and the

  10. Close the Textbook & Open "The Cell: An Image Library"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Cheston; Taylor, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Many students leave the biology classroom with misconceptions centered on cellular structure. This article presents an activity in which students utilize images from an online database called "The Cell: An Image Library" (http://www.cellimagelibrary. org/) to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of cellular structure and the…

  11. MEDLINE on CD-ROM: end user searching in a medical school library.

    PubMed

    Miller, N; Kirby, M; Templeton, E

    1988-01-01

    End users at the Medical College of Pennsylvania enjoyed searching CD-ROM versions of MEDLINE and judged such searches "extremely useful." To assess the effectiveness of their searches, a sample of 500 search statements from Compact Cambridge (CC) MEDLINE was examined. A high proportion of search statements (224, or 45 percent) retrieved no documents. Over one-third of search statements (185, or 37 percent) contained at least one error, which usually resulted in zero retrieval for that search statement. Searchers attempting to enter Medical Subject Headings were frequently defeated by the elaborate punctuation requirement of CC MEDLINE. "Missed opportunities" were evident in over three-fourths of search statements. One-on-one instruction and library classes may increase search success, but these measures reach a limited audience. Improvement in the search software itself is needed to help searchers improve the effectiveness of their searches. PMID:10303159

  12. Ontology driven image search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, Yun; Dmitrieva, Julia; Belmamoune, Mounia; Verbeek, Fons J.

    2007-01-01

    Image collections are most often domain specific. We have developed a system for image retrieval of multimodal microscopy images. That is, the same object of study visualized with a range of microscope techniques and with a range of different resolutions. In microscopy, image content is depending on the preparation method of the object under study as well as the microscope technique. Both are taken into account in the submission phase as metadata whilst at the same time (domain specific) ontologies are employed as controlled vocabularies to annotate the image. From that point onward, image data are interrelated through the relationships derived from annotated concepts in the ontology. By using concepts and relationships of an ontology, complex queries can be built with true semantic content. Image metadata can be used as powerful criteria to query image data which are directly or indirectly related to original data. The results of image retrieval can be represented using a structural graph by exploiting relationships from ontology rather than a listed table. Applying this to retrieve images from the same subject at different levels of resolution opens a new field for the analysis of image content.

  13. Pepitome: evaluating improved spectral library search for identification complementarity and quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C; Martinez, Misti A; Carpenter, Kristin L; Ham, Amy-Joan L; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo J; Tabb, David L

    2012-03-01

    Spectral libraries have emerged as a viable alternative to protein sequence databases for peptide identification. These libraries contain previously detected peptide sequences and their corresponding tandem mass spectra (MS/MS). Search engines can then identify peptides by comparing experimental MS/MS scans to those in the library. Many of these algorithms employ the dot product score for measuring the quality of a spectrum-spectrum match (SSM). This scoring system does not offer a clear statistical interpretation and ignores fragment ion m/z discrepancies in the scoring. We developed a new spectral library search engine, Pepitome, which employs statistical systems for scoring SSMs. Pepitome outperformed the leading library search tool, SpectraST, when analyzing data sets acquired on three different mass spectrometry platforms. We characterized the reliability of spectral library searches by confirming shotgun proteomics identifications through RNA-Seq data. Applying spectral library and database searches on the same sample revealed their complementary nature. Pepitome identifications enabled the automation of quality analysis and quality control (QA/QC) for shotgun proteomics data acquisition pipelines. PMID:22217208

  14. Visual search engine for product images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaofan; Gokturk, Burak; Sumengen, Baris; Vu, Diem

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays there are many product comparison web sites. But most of them only use text information. This paper introduces a novel visual search engine for product images, which provides a brand-new way of visually locating products through Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) technology. We discusses the unique technical challenges, solutions, and experimental results in the design and implementation of this system.

  15. Library Renovation Leads to Soul Searching at Cal Poly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a library renovation at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona which incurs complaints from professors and librarians about a shift from print to online materials. The $60-million project at Cal Poly is providing a difficult lesson in the challenges of library renovation, and in the changing role of one of the…

  16. Developing a portable GPU library for hyperspectral image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Irizarry, Gabriel J.; De La Cruz-Sanchez, Francisco; Landrón-Rivera, Brian A.; Santiago, Nayda G.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    The increasing volume of data produced by hyperspectral image sensors have forced researches and developers to seek out new and more ecient ways of analyzing the data as quick as possible. Medical, scientic, and military applications present performance requirements for tools that perform operations on hyperspectral sensor data. By providing a hyperspectral image analysis library, we aim to accelerate hyperspectral image application development. Development of a cross-platform library, Libdect, with GPU support for hyperspectral image analysis is presented. Coupling library development with ecient hyperspectral algorithms escalates into a signicant time invest- ment in many projects or prototypes. Provided a solution to these issues, developers can implement hyperspectral image analysis applications in less time. Developers will not be focused on implementing target detection code and potential issues related to platform or GPU architecture dierences. Libdect's development team counts with previously implemented detection algorithms. By utilizing proven tools, such as CMake and CTest, to develop Libdect's infrastructure, we were able to develop and test a prototype library that provides target detection code with GPU support on Linux platforms. As a whole, Libdect is an early prototype of an open and documented example of Software Engineering practices and tools. They are put together in an eort to increase developer productivity and encourage new developers into the eld of hyperspectral image application development.

  17. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information. PMID:24820052

  18. Learning object detectors from online image search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Feng; Tretter, Daniel R.

    2011-03-01

    Being able to detect distinguishable objects is a key component in many high level computer vision applications. Traditional methods for building such detectors require a large amount of carefully collected and cleaned data. For example to build a face detector, a large number of face images need to be collected and faces in each image need to be cropped and aligned as the data for training. This process is tedious and error-pruning. Recently more and more people are sharing their photos on the internet, if we could leverage these data for building a detector, it will save tremendous amount of effort in collecting training data. Popular internet search engines and community photo websites like Google image search, Picassa, Flickr make it possible to harvesting online images for image understanding tasks. In this paper, we develop a method leveraging images obtained from online image search to build an object detector. The proposed method can automatically identify the most distinguishable features across the downloaded images. Using these learned features, a detector can be built to detect the object in a new image. Experiments show promising results of our approach.

  19. Understanding the foundation: the state of generalist search education in library schools as related to the needs of expert searchers in medical libraries

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper explores the current state of generalist search education in library schools and considers that foundation in respect to the Medical Library Association's statement on expert searching. Setting/Subjects: Syllabi from courses with significant searching components were examined from ten of the top library schools, as determined by the U.S. News & World Report rankings. Methodology: Mixed methods were used, but primarily quantitative bibliometric methods were used. Results: The educational focus in these searching components was on understanding the generalist searching resources and typical users and on performing a reflective search through application of search strategies, controlled vocabulary, and logic appropriate to the search tool. There is a growing emphasis on Web-based search tools and a movement away from traditional set-based searching and toward free-text search strategies. While a core set of authors is used in these courses, no core set of readings is used. Discussion/Conclusion: While library schools provide a strong foundation, future medical librarians still need to take courses that introduce them to the resources, settings, and users associated with medical libraries. In addition, as more emphasis is placed on Web-based search tools and free-text searching, instructors of the specialist medical informatics courses will need to focus on teaching traditional search methods appropriate for common tools in the medical domain. PMID:15685276

  20. Approximate search in image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Alfredo; Gallo, Giovanni; Giugno, Rosalba

    1999-12-01

    This paper present a new approach to content based retrieval in image databases. The basic new idea in the proposed technique is to organize the quantized and truncated wavelet coefficient of an image into a suitable tree structure. The tree structure respects the natural hierarchy imposed on the coefficients by the successive resolution levels. Al the trees relative to the images in a database are organized into a trie. This structure helps in the error tolerant retrieval of queries. The result obtained show that this approach is promising provided that a suitable distance function between trees is adopted.

  1. A digital library for medical imaging activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Furuie, Sérgio S.

    2007-03-01

    This work presents the development of an electronic infrastructure to make available a free, online, multipurpose and multimodality medical image database. The proposed infrastructure implements a distributed architecture for medical image database, authoring tools, and a repository for multimedia documents. Also it includes a peer-reviewed model that assures quality of dataset. This public repository provides a single point of access for medical images and related information to facilitate retrieval tasks. The proposed approach has been used as an electronic teaching system in Radiology as well.

  2. Plug Your Users into Library Resources with OpenSearch Plug-Ins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nicholas C.

    2007-01-01

    To bring the library catalog and other online resources right into users' workspace quickly and easily without needing much more than a short XML file, the author, a reference and Web services librarian at Williams College, learned to build and use OpenSearch plug-ins. OpenSearch is a set of simple technologies and standards that allows the…

  3. An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether…

  4. Information Retrieval Strategies of Millennial Undergraduate Students in Web and Library Database Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Brandi

    2009-01-01

    Millennial students make up a large portion of undergraduate students attending colleges and universities, and they have a variety of online resources available to them to complete academically related information searches, primarily Web based and library-based online information retrieval systems. The content, ease of use, and required search

  5. Improving e-book access via a library-developed full-text search tool*

    PubMed Central

    Foust, Jill E.; Bergen, Phillip; Maxeiner, Gretchen L.; Pawlowski, Peter N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool for searching the contents of licensed full-text electronic book (e-book) collections. Setting: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) provides services to the University of Pittsburgh's medical programs and large academic health system. Brief Description: The HSLS has developed an innovative tool for federated searching of its e-book collections. Built using the XML-based Vivísimo development environment, the tool enables a user to perform a full-text search of over 2,500 titles from the library's seven most highly used e-book collections. From a single “Google-style” query, results are returned as an integrated set of links pointing directly to relevant sections of the full text. Results are also grouped into categories that enable more precise retrieval without reformulation of the search. Results/Evaluation: A heuristic evaluation demonstrated the usability of the tool and a web server log analysis indicated an acceptable level of usage. Based on its success, there are plans to increase the number of online book collections searched. Conclusion: This library's first foray into federated searching has produced an effective tool for searching across large collections of full-text e-books and has provided a good foundation for the development of other library-based federated searching products. PMID:17252065

  6. An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether

  7. Data Manipulation in an XML-Based Digital Image Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To help to clarify the role of XML tools and standards in supporting transition and migration towards a fully XML-based environment for managing access to information. Design/methodology/approach: The Ching Digital Image Library, built on a three-tier architecture, is used as a source of examples to illustrate a number of methods of data

  8. Data Manipulation in an XML-Based Digital Image Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To help to clarify the role of XML tools and standards in supporting transition and migration towards a fully XML-based environment for managing access to information. Design/methodology/approach: The Ching Digital Image Library, built on a three-tier architecture, is used as a source of examples to illustrate a number of methods of data…

  9. Pattern recognition-assisted infrared library searching of automotive clear coats.

    PubMed

    Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; White, Collin; Allen, Matthew; Sandercock, Mark P; Lavine, Barry K

    2015-01-01

    Pattern recognition techniques have been developed to search the infrared (IR) spectral libraries of the paint data query (PDQ) database to differentiate between similar but nonidentical IR clear coat paint spectra. The library search system consists of two separate but interrelated components: search prefilters to reduce the size of the IR library to a specific assembly plant or plants corresponding to the unknown paint sample and a cross-correlation searching algorithm to identify IR spectra most similar to the unknown in the subset of spectra identified by the prefilters. To develop search prefilters with the necessary degree of accuracy, IR spectra from the PDQ database were preprocessed using wavelets to enhance subtle but significant features in the data. Wavelet coefficients characteristic of the assembly plant of the vehicle were identified using a genetic algorithm for pattern recognition and feature selection. A search algorithm was then used to cross-correlate the unknown with each IR spectrum in the subset of library spectra identified by the search prefilters. Each cross-correlated IR spectrum was simultaneously compared to an autocorrelated IR spectrum of the unknown using several spectral windows that span different regions of the cross-correlated and autocorrelated data from the midpoint. The top five hits identified in each search window are compiled, and a histogram is computed that summarizes the frequency of occurrence for each selected library sample. The five library samples with the highest frequency of occurrence are selected as potential hits. Even in challenging trials where the clear coat paint samples evaluated were all the same make (e.g., General Motors) within a limited production year range, the model of the automobile from which the unknown paint sample was obtained could be identified from its IR spectrum. PMID:25506887

  10. User support for a library-managed online database search service: the BMA Library free MEDLINE service.

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, J; Yeadon, J; Forrester, W; McSeán, T

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses user support in the context of a library-managed online database search service. Experience is drawn from the British Medical Association (BMA) Library's Free MEDLINE Service. More than 9,600 BMA members, who are largely unfamiliar with computer communications and database searching, have registered as users of the service. User support has played a significant role in the development of the service and has comprised four main aspects: an information pack, a help desk, online help, and MEDLINE courses. The paper includes an analysis of help desk usage statistics collected from January 1996 through June 1996, and highlights other relevant research. Plans for further service enhancements and their implications in terms of future user support are discussed. PMID:9285124

  11. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  12. IPLIB (Image processing library) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulcon, N. D.; Monteith, J. H.; Miller, K.

    1985-01-01

    IPLIB is a collection of HP FORTRAN 77 subroutines and functions that facilitate the use of a COMTAL image processing system driven by an HP-1000 computer. It is intended for programmers who want to use the HP 1000 to drive the COMTAL Vision One/20 system. It is assumed that the programmer knows HP 1000 FORTRAN 77 or at least one FORTRAN dialect. It is also assumed that the programmer has some familiarity with the COMTAL Vision One/20 system.

  13. State of the art of expert searching: results of a Medical Library Association survey

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Ruth; Funk, Carla J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Medical Library Association (MLA) members were surveyed to gather background about the current state of expert searching in institutions. The survey results were intended to guide the recommendations of the Task Force on Expert Searching for promoting the importance of expert searching and implementing those recommendations. Methods: MLA members were surveyed, and data obtained from the survey were compiled and analyzed to answer three general questions: what is the perceived value of searching skills to the institution, how do health sciences librarians maintain and improve their searching skills, and how are searching services promoted and/or mandated in the institution. Results: There were 256 responses to the survey. Over 95% of the respondents saw their expert-searching skills were of value to their institutions, primarily through performing mediated searches and search consultations. Over 83% of the respondents believed that their searching skills had improved over the past 10 years. Most indicated that continued training was very important in maintaining and improving their skills. Respondents promoted searching services most frequently through orientations, brochures, and the libraries' Web pages. No respondent's institution mandated expert searching. Less than 2% of respondents' institutions had best practice guidelines related to expert searching, and only about 8% had guidelines or policies that identified situations where expert searching was recommended. Conclusions: The survey supports the belief that health sciences librarians still play a valuable role in searching, particularly in answering questions about treatment options and in providing education. It also highlights the need for more expert searching courses. There has been minimal discussion about the perceived need for expert-searching guidelines in the institutions represented by survey respondents. PMID:15685274

  14. MusiCat System Makes Library Searches More Fruitful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Per Hofman

    2002-01-01

    Describes MusiCat, an experimental user interface designed in Denmark that reflects the different ways that patrons think when searching for musical material on the Web. Discusses technology versus content; search trees that use a hierarchy of subject terms; and usability testing. (LRW)

  15. Wayfinding in the Library: Book Searches and Route Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Gale

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of how library buildings communicate affective information and meet users' information needs focuses on a study that investigated locational problems experienced by elementary and high school students in finding books on the shelves. Speed and directness are discussed as measures of success, spatial learning is considered, and

  16. Hunting for unexpected post-translational modifications by spectral library searching with tier-wise scoring.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun Wai Manson; Lam, Henry

    2014-05-01

    Discovering novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) to proteins and detecting specific modification sites on proteins is one of the last frontiers of proteomics. At present, hunting for post-translational modifications remains challenging in widely practiced shotgun proteomics workflows due to the typically low abundance of modified peptides and the greatly inflated search space as more potential mass shifts are considered by the search engines. Moreover, most popular search methods require that the user specifies the modification(s) for which to search; therefore, unexpected and novel PTMs will not be detected. Here a new algorithm is proposed to apply spectral library searching to the problem of open modification searches, namely, hunting for PTMs without prior knowledge of what PTMs are in the sample. The proposed tier-wise scoring method intelligently looks for unexpected PTMs by allowing mass-shifted peak matches but only when the number of matches found is deemed statistically significant. This allows the search engine to search for unexpected modifications while maintaining its ability to identify unmodified peptides effectively at the same time. The utility of the method is demonstrated using three different data sets, in which the numbers of spectrum identifications to both unmodified and modified peptides were substantially increased relative to a regular spectral library search as well as to another open modification spectral search method, pMatch. PMID:24661115

  17. Adaptation and visual search in mammographic images.

    PubMed

    Kompaniez-Dunigan, Elysse; Abbey, Craig K; Boone, John M; Webster, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Radiologists face the visually challenging task of detecting suspicious features within the complex and noisy backgrounds characteristic of medical images. We used a search task to examine whether the salience of target features in x-ray mammograms could be enhanced by prior adaptation to the spatial structure of the images. The observers were not radiologists, and thus had no diagnostic training with the images. The stimuli were randomly selected sections from normal mammograms previously classified with BIRADS Density scores of "fatty" versus "dense," corresponding to differences in the relative quantities of fat versus fibroglandular tissue. These categories reflect conspicuous differences in visual texture, with dense tissue being more likely to obscure lesion detection. The targets were simulated masses corresponding to bright Gaussian spots, superimposed by adding the luminance to the background. A single target was randomly added to each image, with contrast varied over five levels so that they varied from difficult to easy to detect. Reaction times were measured for detecting the target location, before or after adapting to a gray field or to random sequences of a different set of dense or fatty images. Observers were faster at detecting the targets in either dense or fatty images after adapting to the specific background type (dense or fatty) that they were searching within. Thus, the adaptation led to a facilitation of search performance that was selective for the background texture. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptation allows observers to more effectively suppress the specific structure of the background, thereby heightening visual salience and search efficiency. PMID:25720760

  18. Using internet search engines and library catalogs to locate toxicology information.

    PubMed

    Wukovitz, L D

    2001-01-12

    The increasing importance of the Internet demands that toxicologists become aquainted with its resources. To find information, researchers must be able to effectively use Internet search engines, directories, subject-oriented websites, and library catalogs. The article will explain these resources, explore their benefits and weaknesses, and identify skills that help the researcher to improve search results and critically evaluate sources for their relevancy, validity, accuracy, and timeliness. PMID:11164979

  19. A survey of computer search service costs in the academic health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, S

    1978-01-01

    The Norris Medical Library, University of Southern California, has recently completed an extensive survey of costs involved in the provision of computer search services beyond vendor charges for connect time and printing. In this survey costs for such items as terminal depreciation, repair contract, personnel time, and supplies are analyzed. Implications of this cost survey are discussed in relation to planning and price setting for computer search services. PMID:708953

  20. Beyond Failure: Potentially Mitigating Failed Author Searches in the Online Library Catalog through the Use of Linked Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulaison, Heather Lea; Stanley, Susan Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Linked data stores house vetted content that can supplement the information available through online library catalogs, potentially mitigating failed author searches if information about the author exists in linked data formats. In this case study, a total of 689 failed author index queries from a large Midwestern academic library's online library

  1. CALIL.JP, a new web service that provides one-stop searching of Japan-wide libraries' collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Ryuuji

    Calil.JP is a new free online service that enables federated searching, marshalling and integration of Web-OPAC data on the collections of libraries from around Japan. It offers the search results through user-friendly interface. Developed with a concept of accelerating discovery of fun-to-read books and motivating users to head for libraries, Calil was initially designed mainly for public library users. It now extends to cover university libraries and special libraries. This article presents the Calil's basic capabilities, concept, progress made thus far, and plan for further development as viewed from an engineering development manager.

  2. Administrative Issues in Planning a Library End User Searching Program. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    This digest presents a reprint of an article which examines management principles that should be considered when implementing library end user searching programs. A brief discussion of specific implementation issues includes needs assessment, hardware, software, training, budgeting, what systems to offer, publicity and marketing, policies and…

  3. A Handbook for the Introduction of On-Line Bibliographic Search Services Into Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, David M.

    A handbook is provided for library administrators who are planning to install commercially available on-line interactive search services. It includes guidelines for selecting and organizing the service, staffing, training and orientation, preparing the service sites, promotion and user education, finance, data collection, and service evaluation.…

  4. Information Retrieval Strategies of Millennial Undergraduate Students in Web and Library Database Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Brandi

    2009-01-01

    Millennial students make up a large portion of undergraduate students attending colleges and universities, and they have a variety of online resources available to them to complete academically related information searches, primarily Web based and library-based online information retrieval systems. The content, ease of use, and required search…

  5. Many Libraries Have Gone to Federated Searching to Win Users Back from Google. Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    In the last issue, this journal asked a question on many librarians' minds, and it was pleased with the depth and variety of responses. As suggested by this journal editorial board member Oliver Pesch, readers were asked, "Many libraries have gone to federated searching to win users back from Google. Is it working?" Respondents approached the…

  6. Many Libraries Have Gone to Federated Searching to Win Users Back from Google. Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    In the last issue, this journal asked a question on many librarians' minds, and it was pleased with the depth and variety of responses. As suggested by this journal editorial board member Oliver Pesch, readers were asked, "Many libraries have gone to federated searching to win users back from Google. Is it working?" Respondents approached the

  7. Exploring Gender Differences in SMS-Based Mobile Library Search System Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tiong-Thye

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates differences in how male and female students perceived a short message service (SMS) library catalog search service when adopting it. Based on a sample of 90 students, the results suggest that there are significant differences in perceived usefulness and intention to use but no significant differences in self-efficacy and…

  8. An Analysis of Web Image Queries for Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Hsiao-Tieh

    2003-01-01

    Examines the differences between Web image and textual queries, and attempts to develop an analytic model to investigate their implications for Web image retrieval systems. Provides results that give insight into Web image searching behavior and suggests implications for improvement of current Web image search engines. (AEF)

  9. Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Jeffrey R.; Fuller, Charles; Gupta, Amarnath; Hampapur, Arun; Horowitz, Bradley; Humphrey, Rich; Jain, Ramesh C.; Shu, Chiao-Fe

    1996-03-01

    Until recently, the management of large image databases has relied exclusively on manually entered alphanumeric annotations. Systems are beginning to emerge in both the research and commercial sectors based on 'content-based' image retrieval, a technique which explicitly manages image assets by directly representing their visual attributes. The Virage image search engine provides an open framework for building such systems. The Virage engine expresses visual features as image 'primitives.' Primitives can be very general (such as color, shape, or texture) or quite domain specific (face recognition, cancer cell detection, etc.). The basic philosophy underlying this architecture is a transformation from the data-rich representation of explicit image pixels to a compact, semantic-rich representation of visually salient characteristics. In practice, the design of such primitives is non-trivial, and is driven by a number of conflicting real-world constraints (e.g. computation time vs. accuracy). The virage engine provides an open framework for developers to 'plug-in' primitives to solve specific image management problems. The architecture has been designed to support both static images and video in a unified paradigm. The infrastructure provided by the Virage engine can be utilized to address high-level problems as well, such as automatic, unsupervised keyword assignment, or image classification.

  10. Image and Its Semantic Role in Search Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touheed, Nasir; Saeed, Muhammad; Qureshi, M. Atif; Younus, Arjumand

    The world has now shrunk and information today exists in many forms ranging from text to videos. An overloaded World Wide Web, full of data makes it difficult to extract information from that data and this has given birth to a new phenomenon in the computer industry which is the search engine technology. Image that contains dense information has not yet found its real interpretation over search engines. In this paper we practice application of Semantic Web concepts and propose a standard dimension in image structures in order to improve searching ability in image search engines. An image annotation tool, called "SemImage", was developed which allows users to annotate an image with various ontologies and JPEG was taken as a case-study. This work describes our initial research efforts in semantics-based searching driven by ontological standards for images which we refer to as Image SemSearch.

  11. Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

  12. Google vs. the Library: Student Preferences and Perceptions when Doing Research Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Federated searching was once touted as the library world's answer to Google, but ten years since federated searching technology's inception, how does it actually compare? This study focuses on undergraduate student preferences and perceptions when doing research using both Google and a federated search tool. Students were asked about their…

  13. Analysis of Searches by End-Users of Science and Engineering CD-ROM Databases in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzed CD-ROM searches in five science and engineering databases in an academic library. Results indicated that users were usually able to obtain results and print records but that few used more sophisticated techniques to refine their searches. It was concluded that instruction in CD-ROM database searching should be a high priority.

  14. Google vs. the Library: Student Preferences and Perceptions when Doing Research Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Federated searching was once touted as the library world's answer to Google, but ten years since federated searching technology's inception, how does it actually compare? This study focuses on undergraduate student preferences and perceptions when doing research using both Google and a federated search tool. Students were asked about their

  15. Library+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses possible future directions for academic libraries in the post Web/Library 2.0 world. These possible directions include areas such as data literacy, linked data sets, and opportunities for libraries in support of digital humanities. The author provides a brief sketch of the background information regarding the topics and…

  16. Library+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses possible future directions for academic libraries in the post Web/Library 2.0 world. These possible directions include areas such as data literacy, linked data sets, and opportunities for libraries in support of digital humanities. The author provides a brief sketch of the background information regarding the topics and

  17. A Library of Local Search Heuristics for the Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2010-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a difficult and well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. Real-world instances of the VRP can contain hundreds and even thousands of customer locations and can involve many complicating constraints, necessitating the use of heuristic methods. We present a software library of local search heuristics that allow one to quickly generate good solutions to VRP instances. The code has a logical, object-oriented design and uses efficient data structures to store and modify solutions. The core of the library is the implementation of seven local search operators that share a similar interface and are designed to be extended to handle additional options with minimal code change. The code is well-documented, is straightforward to compile, and is freely available for download at http://sites.google.com/site/vrphlibrary/ . The distribution of the code contains several applications that can be used to generate solutions to instances of the capacitated VRP.

  18. Development and tuning of an original search engine for patent libraries in medicinal chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The large increase in the size of patent collections has led to the need of efficient search strategies. But the development of advanced text-mining applications dedicated to patents of the biomedical field remains rare, in particular to address the needs of the pharmaceutical & biotech industry, which intensively uses patent libraries for competitive intelligence and drug development. Methods We describe here the development of an advanced retrieval engine to search information in patent collections in the field of medicinal chemistry. We investigate and combine different strategies and evaluate their respective impact on the performance of the search engine applied to various search tasks, which covers the putatively most frequent search behaviours of intellectual property officers in medical chemistry: 1) a prior art search task; 2) a technical survey task; and 3) a variant of the technical survey task, sometimes called known-item search task, where a single patent is targeted. Results The optimal tuning of our engine resulted in a top-precision of 6.76% for the prior art search task, 23.28% for the technical survey task and 46.02% for the variant of the technical survey task. We observed that co-citation boosting was an appropriate strategy to improve prior art search tasks, while IPC classification of queries was improving retrieval effectiveness for technical survey tasks. Surprisingly, the use of the full body of the patent was always detrimental for search effectiveness. It was also observed that normalizing biomedical entities using curated dictionaries had simply no impact on the search tasks we evaluate. The search engine was finally implemented as a web-application within Novartis Pharma. The application is briefly described in the report. Conclusions We have presented the development of a search engine dedicated to patent search, based on state of the art methods applied to patent corpora. We have shown that a proper tuning of the system to adapt to the various search tasks clearly increases the effectiveness of the system. We conclude that different search tasks demand different information retrieval engines' settings in order to yield optimal end-user retrieval. PMID:24564220

  19. Beyond Failure: Potentially Mitigating Failed Author Searches in the Online Library Catalog through the Use of Linked Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulaison, Heather Lea; Stanley, Susan Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Linked data stores house vetted content that can supplement the information available through online library catalogs, potentially mitigating failed author searches if information about the author exists in linked data formats. In this case study, a total of 689 failed author index queries from a large Midwestern academic library's online library…

  20. High Res at High Speed: Automated Delivery of High-Resolution Images from Digital Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, R. Niccole; Watkins, Sean

    2012-01-01

    As primary source materials in the library are digitized and made available online, the focus of related library services is shifting to include new and innovative methods of digital delivery via social media, digital storytelling, and community-based and consortial image repositories. Most images on the Web are not of sufficient quality for most…

  1. Digital Images over the Internet: Rome Reborn at the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes digital images of incunabula from the Library of the Vatican that are available over the Internet based on an actual exhibit that was displayed at the Library of Congress. Viewers, i.e., compression routines created to efficiently send color images, are explained; and other digital exhibits are described. (Contains three references.)…

  2. High Res at High Speed: Automated Delivery of High-Resolution Images from Digital Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, R. Niccole; Watkins, Sean

    2012-01-01

    As primary source materials in the library are digitized and made available online, the focus of related library services is shifting to include new and innovative methods of digital delivery via social media, digital storytelling, and community-based and consortial image repositories. Most images on the Web are not of sufficient quality for most

  3. IntentSearch: Capturing User Intention for One-Click Internet Image Search.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoou; Liu, Ke; Cui, Jingyu; Wen, Fang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2012-07-01

    Web-scale image search engines (e.g., Google image search, Bing image search) mostly rely on surrounding text features. It is difficult for them to interpret users' search intention only by query keywords and this leads to ambiguous and noisy search results which are far from satisfactory. It is important to use visual information in order to solve the ambiguity in text-based image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a novel Internet image search approach. It only requires the user to click on one query image with minimum effort and images from a pool retrieved by text-based search are reranked based on both visual and textual content. Our key contribution is to capture the users' search intention from this one-click query image in four steps. 1) The query image is categorized into one of the predefined adaptive weight categories which reflect users' search intention at a coarse level. Inside each category, a specific weight schema is used to combine visual features adaptive to this kind of image to better rerank the text-based search result. 2) Based on the visual content of the query image selected by the user and through image clustering, query keywords are expanded to capture user intention. 3) Expanded keywords are used to enlarge the image pool to contain more relevant images. 4) Expanded keywords are also used to expand the query image to multiple positive visual examples from which new query specific visual and textual similarity metrics are learned to further improve content-based image reranking. All these steps are automatic, without extra effort from the user. This is critically important for any commercial web-based image search engine, where the user interface has to be extremely simple. Besides this key contribution, a set of visual features which are both effective and efficient in Internet image search are designed. Experimental evaluation shows that our approach significantly improves the precision of top-ranked images and also the user experience. PMID:22156100

  4. Log analysis to understand medical professionals' image searching behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tsikrika, Theodora; Müller, Henning; Kahn, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of the query logs of a visual medical information retrieval system that provides access to radiology resources. Our analysis shows that, despite sharing similarities with general Web search and also with biomedical text search, query formulation and query modification when searching for visual biomedical information have unique characteristics that need to be taken into account in order to enhance the effectiveness of the search support offered by such systems. Typical information needs of medical professionals searching radiology resources are also identified with the goal to create realistic search tasks for a medical image retrieval evaluation benchmark. PMID:22874348

  5. Tabu search algorithm for DNA sequencing by hybridization with isothermic libraries.

    PubMed

    Błazewicz, Jacek; Formanowicz, Piotr; Kasprzak, Marta; Markiewicz, Wojciech T; Swiercz, Aleksandra

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, a problem of isothermic DNA sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is considered. In isothermic SBH a new type of oligonucleotide libraries is used. The library consists of oligonucleotides of different lengths depending on an oligonucleotide content. It is assumed that every oligonucleotide in such a library has an equal melting temperature. Each nucleotide adds its increment to the oligonucleotide temperature and it is assumed that A and T add 2 degrees C and C and G add 4 degrees C. The hybridization experiment using isothermic libraries should provide data with a lower number of errors due to an expected similarity of melting temperatures. From the computational point of view the problem of isothermic DNA sequencing with errors is hard, similarly like its classical counterpart. Hence, there is a need for developing heuristic algorithms that construct good suboptimal solutions. The aim of the paper is to propose a heuristic algorithm based on tabu search approach. The algorithm solves the problem with both positive and negative errors. Results of an extensive computational experiment are presented, which prove the high quality of the proposed method. PMID:14871640

  6. Image and video search engine for the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.; Chang, Shih-Fu

    1997-01-01

    We describe a visual information system prototype for searching for images and videos on the World-Wide Web. New visual information in the form of images, graphics, animations and videos is being published on the Web at an incredible rate. However, cataloging this visual data is beyond the capabilities of current text-based Web search engines. In this paper, we describe a complete system by which visual information on the Web is (1) collected by automated agents, (2) processed in both text and visual feature domains, (3) catalogued and (4) indexed for fast search and retrieval. We introduce an image and video search engine which utilizes both text-based navigation and content-based technology for searching visually through the catalogued images and videos. Finally, we provide an initial evaluation based upon the cataloging of over one half million images and videos collected from the Web.

  7. Wavelets and genetic algorithms applied to search prefilters for spectral library matching in forensics.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Ryland, Scott; Sandercock, Mark

    2011-12-15

    Currently, the identification of the make, model and year of a motor vehicle involved in a hit and run collision from only a clear coat paint smear left at a crime scene is not possible. Search prefilters for searching infrared (IR) spectral libraries of the paint data query (PDQ) automotive database to differentiate between similar but nonidentical Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) paint spectra are proposed. Applying wavelets, FTIR spectra of clear coat paint smears can be denoised and deconvolved by decomposing each spectrum into wavelet coefficients which represent the sample's constituent frequencies. A genetic algorithm for pattern recognition analysis is used to identify wavelet coefficients for underdetermined data that are characteristic of the model and manufacturer of the automobile from which the spectra of the clear coats were obtained. Even in challenging trials where the samples evaluated were all the same manufacturer (Chrysler) with a limited production year range, the respective models and manufacturing plants were correctly identified. Search prefilters for spectral library matching are necessary to extract investigative lead information from a clear coat paint smear; unlike the undercoat and color coat paint layers, which can be identified using the text based portion of the PDQ database. PMID:22099647

  8. Analysis of Users' Searches of CD-ROM Databases in the National and University Library in Zagreb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokic, Maja

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the search behavior of CD-ROM database users in Zagreb (Croatia) libraries: one group needed a minimum of technical assistance, and the other was completely independent. Highlights include the use of questionnaires and transaction log analysis and the need for end-user education. The questionnaire and definitions of search process…

  9. Multiview alignment hashing for efficient image search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling

    2015-03-01

    Hashing is a popular and efficient method for nearest neighbor search in large-scale data spaces by embedding high-dimensional feature descriptors into a similarity preserving Hamming space with a low dimension. For most hashing methods, the performance of retrieval heavily depends on the choice of the high-dimensional feature descriptor. Furthermore, a single type of feature cannot be descriptive enough for different images when it is used for hashing. Thus, how to combine multiple representations for learning effective hashing functions is an imminent task. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised multiview alignment hashing approach based on regularized kernel nonnegative matrix factorization, which can find a compact representation uncovering the hidden semantics and simultaneously respecting the joint probability distribution of data. In particular, we aim to seek a matrix factorization to effectively fuse the multiple information sources meanwhile discarding the feature redundancy. Since the raised problem is regarded as nonconvex and discrete, our objective function is then optimized via an alternate way with relaxation and converges to a locally optimal solution. After finding the low-dimensional representation, the hashing functions are finally obtained through multivariable logistic regression. The proposed method is systematically evaluated on three data sets: 1) Caltech-256; 2) CIFAR-10; and 3) CIFAR-20, and the results show that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art multiview hashing techniques. PMID:25594968

  10. The Library in Your Toolbar: You Can Make It Easy to Search Library Resources from Your Own Browser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Peter

    2007-01-01

    For years, patrons have been able to access library services from home and in the library building, but in the world of Google, Yahoo, YouTube, MySpace, and Facebook, library web sites and catalogs are too often not the first place people go to look for information. The innovative use of toolbars could change this. Toolbars have been popular for…

  11. The Library in Your Toolbar: You Can Make It Easy to Search Library Resources from Your Own Browser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Peter

    2007-01-01

    For years, patrons have been able to access library services from home and in the library building, but in the world of Google, Yahoo, YouTube, MySpace, and Facebook, library web sites and catalogs are too often not the first place people go to look for information. The innovative use of toolbars could change this. Toolbars have been popular for

  12. Searching for Pulsars Using Image Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Flanigan, J.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Rohr, M.; Walker, A.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Venkataraman, A.

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ~9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The performance of this system can be improved over time as more training data are accumulated. This AI system has been integrated into the PALFA survey pipeline and has discovered six new pulsars to date.

  13. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M. E-mail: berndsen@phas.ubc.ca; and others

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ∼9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The performance of this system can be improved over time as more training data are accumulated. This AI system has been integrated into the PALFA survey pipeline and has discovered six new pulsars to date.

  14. The mini MEDLINE SYSTEM: a library-based end-user search system.

    PubMed

    Broering, N C

    1985-04-01

    The mini MEDLINE SYSTEM, a user-friendly search system developed in 1981 at the Georgetown University Medical Center, has been operational since 1982. The system is designed to meet the immediate educational and clinical information needs of students, residents, and faculty. This article focuses on system planning and design, database creation through "downloading," hardware adaptation, and system use. The database is a subset of the NLM's MEDLINE file; it includes over 180,000 citations to articles indexed in over 160 journals from 1982 to the present. With only a few keystrokes in a two-step process it allows users to conduct bibliographic searches. The system is being replicated at eight other medical libraries. PMID:3888329

  15. ChemCom: A Software Program for Searching and Comparing Chemical Libraries.

    PubMed

    Saeedipour, Sirus; Tai, David; Fang, Jianwen

    2015-07-27

    An efficient chemical comparator, a computer application facilitating searching and comparing chemical libraries, is useful in drug discovery and other relevant areas. The need for an efficient and user-friendly chemical comparator prompted us to develop ChemCom (Chemical Comparator) based on Java Web Start (JavaWS) technology. ChemCom provides a user-friendly graphical interface to a number of fast algorithms including a novel algorithm termed UnionBit Tree Algorithm. It utilizes an intuitive stepwise mechanism for selecting chemical comparison parameters before starting the comparison process. UnionBit has shown approximately an 165% speedup on average compared to its closest competitive algorithm implemented in ChemCom over real data. It is approximately 11 times faster than the Open Babel FastSearch algorithm in our tests. ChemCom can be accessed free-of-charge via a user-friendly website at http://bioinformatics.org/chemcom/. PMID:26067384

  16. Role of the Library in Education. The Library Image as Presented in Selected Teacher Training Textbooks in Use in the State of Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Virginia B.

    A study was made to discover how the public school educator views the library and its librarian and what attempts are made in Kentucky teacher training institutions to offer instruction in the use of library facilities. Specific questions involved the image and role of libraries in education textbooks and courses, and the implications of that

  17. Essential issues in the design of shared document/image libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladney, Henry M.; Mantey, Patrick E.

    1990-08-01

    We consider what is needed to create electronic document libraries which mimic physical collections of books, papers, and other media. The quantitative measures of merit for personal workstations-cost, speed, size of volatile and persistent storage-will improve by at least an order ofmagnitude in the next decade. Every professional worker will be able to afford a very powerful machine, but databases and libraries are not really economical and useful unless they are shared. We therefore see a two-tier world emerging, in which custodians of information make it available to network-attached workstations. A client-server model is the natural description of this world. In collaboration with several state governments, we have considered what would be needed to replace paper-based record management for a dozen different applications. We find that a professional worker can anticipate most data needs and that (s)he is interested in each clump of data for a period of days to months. We further find that only a small fraction of any collection will be used in any period. Given expected bandwidths, data sizes, search times and costs, and other such parameters, an effective strategy to support user interaction is to bring large clumps from their sources, to transform them into convenient representations, and only then start whatever investigation is intended. A system-managed hierarchy of caches and archives is indicated. Each library is a combination of a catalog and a collection, and each stored item has a primary instance which is the standard by which the correctness of any copy is judged. Catalog records mostly refer to 1 to 3 stored items. Weighted by the number of bytes to be stored, immutable data dominate collections. These characteristics affect how consistency, currency, and access control of replicas distributed in the network should be managed. We present the large features of a design for network docun1ent/image library services. A prototype is being built for State of California pilot applications. The design allows library servers in any environment with an ANSI SQL database; clients execute in any environment; conimunications are with either TCP/IP or SNA LU 6.2.

  18. Searching for patterns in remote sensing image databases using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paola, Justin D.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated a method, based on a successful neural network multispectral image classification system, of searching for single patterns in remote sensing databases. While defining the pattern to search for and the feature to be used for that search (spectral, spatial, temporal, etc.) is challenging, a more difficult task is selecting competing patterns to train against the desired pattern. Schemes for competing pattern selection, including random selection and human interpreted selection, are discussed in the context of an example detection of dense urban areas in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. When applying the search to multiple images, a simple normalization method can alleviate the problem of inconsistent image calibration. Another potential problem, that of highly compressed data, was found to have a minimal effect on the ability to detect the desired pattern. The neural network algorithm has been implemented using the PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) library and nearly-optimal speedups have been obtained that help alleviate the long process of searching through imagery.

  19. A novel method of wide searching scope and fast searching speed for image block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Li, Chao; Mei, Qiang; Lin, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    When the image matching method is used for motion estimation, the performance parameters like searching scope, searching speed, accuracy and robustness of the method normally are significant and need enhancement. In this paper, a novel method of block matching containing the wide range image block matching strategy and the strategy of multi-start points and parallel searching are presented. In the wide range matching strategy, the size of template block and searching block are same. And the average value of cumulative results by pixels in calculation is taken to ensure matching parameters can accurately represent the matching degree. In the strategy of multi-start points and parallel searching, the way of choosing starting points evenly is presented based on the characteristic of the block matching search, and the adaptive conditions and adaptive schedule is established based on the searching region. In the processing of iteration, the new strategy can not only adapt to the solution that lead the objective to the correct direction, but also adapt to the solution that have a little offset comparing with the objective. Therefore the multi-start points and parallel searching algorithm can be easy to keep from the trap of local minima effectively. The image processing system based on the DSP chip of TMS320C6415 is used to make the experiment for the video image stabilization. The results of experiment show that, the application of two methods can improve the range of motion estimation and reduce the searching computation.

  20. The Sci/Tech Image Invasion: Approaches to Managing the Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzwalder, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the networking of image-based libraries of scientific and technical documents and the role of information professionals in the future of libraries and information access. Topics include commercial databanks, projects involving cooperation between technical publishers and universities, and the Internet and World Wide Web. (LRW)

  1. The Convergence of Information Technology, Data, and Management in a Library Imaging Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Fenella G.; Emery, Doug; Toth, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Integrating advanced imaging and processing capabilities in libraries, archives, and museums requires effective systems and information management to ensure that the large amounts of digital data about cultural artifacts can be readily acquired, stored, archived, accessed, processed, and linked to other data. The Library of Congress is developing

  2. Image and Status of the Library and Information Services Field. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, J. Hart, Jr.

    The objective of this study on the image and status of the library and information services field was to learn something about the attractiveness of an occupation and to determine, for example, how prestigious the library and information services profession is in comparison with other occupations. The status of different types of job within the…

  3. The Convergence of Information Technology, Data, and Management in a Library Imaging Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Fenella G.; Emery, Doug; Toth, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Integrating advanced imaging and processing capabilities in libraries, archives, and museums requires effective systems and information management to ensure that the large amounts of digital data about cultural artifacts can be readily acquired, stored, archived, accessed, processed, and linked to other data. The Library of Congress is developing…

  4. Combining history of medicine and library instruction: an innovative approach to teaching database searching to medical students.

    PubMed

    Timm, Donna F; Jones, Dee; Woodson, Deidra; Cyrus, John W

    2012-01-01

    Library faculty members at the Health Sciences Library at the LSU Health Shreveport campus offer a database searching class for third-year medical students during their surgery rotation. For a number of years, students completed "ten-minute clinical challenges," but the instructors decided to replace the clinical challenges with innovative exercises using The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus to emphasize concepts learned. The Surgical Papyrus is an online resource that is part of the National Library of Medicine's "Turning the Pages" digital initiative. In addition, vintage surgical instruments and historic books are displayed in the classroom to enhance the learning experience. PMID:22853300

  5. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel

  6. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  7. Searching for novel CYP members using cDNA library from a minke whale liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The contaminant-induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) members in minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) can be potential biomarkers of the contaminant exposure and toxic effects. In this study, we constructed a cDNA library from the liver of minke whale from the North Pacific, and further screened a total of 6930 clones randomly selected in the library for the isolation of cDNA clones encoding novel members of CYP superfamily. The screening revealed the isolation of six novel CYP cDNA clones that are classified into CYP1A, CYP2C, CYP2E, CYP3A, CYP4, and CYP4A subfamilies. The BLAST homology search using the partial cDNA fragments of four CYP subfamilies (CYP1A, CYP2C, CYP2E and CYP4A) demonstrated that the minke whale CYPs were most closely related to pig CYPs (81-91%). Identification of multiple CYP genes in marine mammal species such as minke whale will provide new insights into the metabolic or toxicological functions of individual CYP members. PMID:15178072

  8. Image object search combining color with Gabor wavelet shape descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Darryl D.; Drew, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    An image and object search and retrieval algorithm is devised that combines color and spatial information. Spatial characteristics are described in terms of Wiskott"s jets formulation, based on a set of Gabor wavelet functions at varying scales, orientations and locations. Color information is first converted to a form more impervious to illumination color change, reduced to 2D, and encoded in a histogram based on a new stretched chromaticity space for which all bins are populated. An image database of 27,380 images is devised by replicating 2,738 JPEG images by a set of transforms that include resizing, various cropping attacks, JPEG quality changes, aspect ratio alteration, and reducing color to grayscale. Correlation of the complete encode vector is used as the similarity measure. For both searches with the original image as probe within the complete dataset, and with the altered images as probes with the original dataset, the grayscale, the stretched, and the resized images had near-perfect results. The most formidable challenge was found to be images that were cropped both horizontally as well as vertically. The algorithm"s ability to identify objects, as opposed to just images, is tested. In searching for images in a set of 4 classifications, the jets were found to contribute most analytic power when objects with distinctive spatial characteristics were the target.

  9. Target image search using fMRI signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shi; Song, Sutao; Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Jiacai

    2014-03-01

    Recent neural signal decoding studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified the specific image presenting to the subject from a set of potential images, and some studies extend neural decoding into image reconstruction, i.e. image contents that the subject perceived were decoded from the fMRI signals recorded during the subject looking at images. In this paper, we decoded the target images using fMRI signals and described a target image searching method based on the relationship between target image stimuli and fMRI activity. We recorded fMRI data during a serial visual stimuli image presentation task, some of the stimuli images were target images and the rest images were non-target ones. Our fMRI data analysis results showed that in the serial visual presentation task, target images elicited a stereotypical response in the fMRI, which can be detected by multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). Classifiers designed with support vector machine (SVM) used this response to decipher target images from non-target images. The leave-one-run-out cross-validation showed that we can pick out the target images with a possibility far above the chance level, which indicate that there's a neural signatures correlated with the target image recognition process in the human systems.

  10. On-Line Computer Literature Searching in the Small-To-Medium Size Research Library. A Comparison of Results in 1973 and 1974 Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linepensel, Kenneth C.

    The experience of the research library of International Flavors and Fragrances using on-line data bases is described. On-line searches of Chemical Abstracts condensates and other data bases are compared with the library's previous experience with manual indexes. Two tables show the number of literature searches conducted and the time required.…

  11. Computational assessment of visual search strategies in volumetric medical images.

    PubMed

    Wen, Gezheng; Aizenman, Avigael; Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Markey, Mia K

    2016-01-01

    When searching through volumetric images [e.g., computed tomography (CT)], radiologists appear to use two different search strategies: "drilling" (restrict eye movements to a small region of the image while quickly scrolling through slices), or "scanning" (search over large areas at a given depth before moving on to the next slice). To computationally identify the type of image information that is used in these two strategies, 23 naïve observers were instructed with either "drilling" or "scanning" when searching for target T's in 20 volumes of faux lung CTs. We computed saliency maps using both classical two-dimensional (2-D) saliency, and a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic saliency that captures the characteristics of scrolling through slices. Comparing observers' gaze distributions with the saliency maps showed that search strategy alters the type of saliency that attracts fixations. Drillers' fixations aligned better with dynamic saliency and scanners with 2-D saliency. The computed saliency was greater for detected targets than for missed targets. Similar results were observed in data from 19 radiologists who searched five stacks of clinical chest CTs for lung nodules. Dynamic saliency may be superior to the 2-D saliency for detecting targets embedded in volumetric images, and thus "drilling" may be more efficient than "scanning." PMID:26759815

  12. Paths of Discovery: Comparing the Search Effectiveness of EBSCO Discovery Service, Summon, Google Scholar, and Conventional Library Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Andrew D.; Duke, Lynda M.; Wilson, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, researchers at Bucknell University and Illinois Wesleyan University compared the search efficacy of Serial Solutions Summon, EBSCO Discovery Service, Google Scholar, and conventional library databases. Using a mixed-methods approach, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on students' usage of these tools. Regardless of the…

  13. The Use of OPAC in a Large Academic Library: A Transactional Log Analysis Study of Subject Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villen-Rueda, Luis; Senso, Jose A.; de Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of user searches in catalogs has been the topic of research for over four decades, involving numerous studies and diverse methodologies. The present study looks at how different types of users effect queries in the catalog of a university library. For this purpose, we analyzed log files to determine which was the most frequent type of…

  14. Newborn Screening: National Library of Medicine Literature Search, January 1980 through March 1987. No. 87-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrias, Karen

    This bibliography, prepared by the National Library of Medicine through a literature search of its online databases, covers all aspects of newborn screening. It includes references to screening for: inborn errors of metabolism, such as phenylketonuria and galactosemia; hemoglobinopathies, particularly sickle cell disease; congenital hypothyroidism

  15. UNM General Library/Technology Application Center Literature Search Service, An Experimental Program, FY 1974. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Nancy M.

    In July 1973 the University of New Mexico's General Library, in cooperation with the Technology Application Center, introduced a computerized search service for faculty members on a one-year experimental basis. During the study two user evaluation meetings caused some improvements to be made, particularly in the area of working more closely with…

  16. Newborn Screening: National Library of Medicine Literature Search, January 1980 through March 1987. No. 87-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrias, Karen

    This bibliography, prepared by the National Library of Medicine through a literature search of its online databases, covers all aspects of newborn screening. It includes references to screening for: inborn errors of metabolism, such as phenylketonuria and galactosemia; hemoglobinopathies, particularly sickle cell disease; congenital hypothyroidism…

  17. A Kind of Transformation of Information Service--Science and Technology Novelty Search in Chinese University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiguo, Li

    2007-01-01

    Science and Technology Novelty Search (S&TNS) is a special information consultation service developed as part of the Chinese Sci-Tech system. The author introduces the concept of S&TNS, and explains its role, and the role of the university library in the process. A quality control model to improve the quality of service of the S&TNS at Southeast…

  18. Optimization of reference library used in content-based medical image retrieval scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Cheol; Sukthankar, Rahul; Mummert, Lily; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Zheng Bin

    2007-11-15

    Building an optimal image reference library is a critical step in developing the interactive computer-aided detection and diagnosis (I-CAD) systems of medical images using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) schemes. In this study, the authors conducted two experiments to investigate (1) the relationship between I-CAD performance and size of reference library and (2) a new reference selection strategy to optimize the library and improve I-CAD performance. The authors assembled a reference library that includes 3153 regions of interest (ROI) depicting either malignant masses (1592) or CAD-cued false-positive regions (1561) and an independent testing data set including 200 masses and 200 false-positive regions. A CBIR scheme using a distance-weighted K-nearest neighbor algorithm is applied to retrieve references that are considered similar to the testing sample from the library. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (A{sub z}) is used as an index to evaluate the I-CAD performance. In the first experiment, the authors systematically increased reference library size and tested I-CAD performance. The result indicates that scheme performance improves initially from A{sub z}=0.715 to 0.874 and then plateaus when the library size reaches approximately half of its maximum capacity. In the second experiment, based on the hypothesis that a ROI should be removed if it performs poorly compared to a group of similar ROIs in a large and diverse reference library, the authors applied a new strategy to identify 'poorly effective' references. By removing 174 identified ROIs from the reference library, I-CAD performance significantly increases to A{sub z}=0.914 (p<0.01). The study demonstrates that increasing reference library size and removing poorly effective references can significantly improve I-CAD performance.

  19. An image stitching method based on eigenvalues search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ran; Zhang, Lichao; Zhang, Yisheng; Zhao, Zuye

    2015-07-01

    As the limit of the number of pixels and the size of the sensor, the accuracy of a single pixel cannot satisfy the demands on the machining precision while we capture only one picture of a large component. In this paper, we propose a new rapid image stitching method to solve this problem which is based on the positions of the images and the eigenvalues search method. This method divides the images to a series of grid points at the same step length, and stitches the images into a composite image. The experiment results show that the precision of the stitching process is ±5 microns which can meet the requirements of manufacturing.

  20. Retrieving and Ranking Unannotated Images through Collaboratively Mining Online Search Results

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Jiang, Hao; Lau, Francis

    2011-01-01

    We present a new image search and ranking algorithm for retrieving unannotated images by collaboratively mining online search results, which consist of online image and text search results. The online image search results are leveraged as reference examples to perform content-based image search over unannotated images. The online text search results are utilized to estimate individual reference images relevance to the search query as not all the online image search results are closely related to the query. Overall, the key contribution of our method lies in its capability to deal with unreliable online image search results through jointly mining visual and textual aspects of online search results. Through such collaborative mining, our algorithm infers the relevance of an online search result image to a text query. Once we estimate a query relevance score for each online image search result, we can selectively use query specific online search result images as reference examples for retrieving and ranking unannotated images. To explore the performance of our algorithm, we tested our algorithm both on the standard public image datasets and several modest sized personal photo collections. We also compared the performance of our method with that of two peer methods. The results are very positive, indicating that our algorithm is superior to existing content-based image search algorithms for retrieving and ranking unannotated images. Overall, the main advantage of our algorithm comes from its collaborative mining over online search results both in the visual and textual domains.

  1. Java Library for Input and Output of Image Data and Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert; Levoe, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A Java-language library supports input and output (I/O) of image data and metadata (label data) in the format of the Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) image-processing software and in several similar formats, including a subset of the Planetary Data System (PDS) image file format. The library does the following: It provides low-level, direct access layer, enabling an application subprogram to read and write specific image files, lines, or pixels, and manipulate metadata directly. Two coding/decoding subprograms ("codecs" for short) based on the Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) software provide access to VICAR and PDS images in a file-format-independent manner. The VICAR and PDS codecs enable any program that conforms to the specification of the JAI codec to use VICAR or PDS images automatically, without specific knowledge of the VICAR or PDS format. The library also includes Image I/O plugin subprograms for VICAR and PDS formats. Application programs that conform to the Image I/O specification of Java version 1.4 can utilize any image format for which such a plug-in subprogram exists, without specific knowledge of the format itself. Like the aforementioned codecs, the VICAR and PDS Image I/O plug-in subprograms support reading and writing of metadata.

  2. A fast clustering approach for effectively searching person specific image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Tao

    2010-02-01

    Person-specific image searching and retrieval is an important issue in several areas, including biometrics, robot vision, human-computer interfaces and surveillance. A wildly accepted retrieval methods are always relevant with either large-scale features description or complicated classifiers design. In this paper a system using an image clustering method is presented, which enables fast approximate search based on person face image. First, for face detection, both skin color segmentation strategy and the AdaBoost algorithm have been employed. In clustering, different image streams have been achieved in unsupervised manner where no prior knowledge about the input sequence is required. The proposed system applied to a variety of image datasets with satisfactory performance was demonstrated by the experimental results. The proposed method is also highly efficient, since most computations can be out-sourced to the GPU and competitive with other systems presented recently in the literatures.

  3. Comprehensive C++ I/O libraries supporting image processing in a university research environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gash, Alfred G.; Appelman, Fernandus J. R.; Zuiderveld, Karel J.

    1992-07-01

    An on-going development effort to write a set of class-based libraries in C++ for image I/O and image processing is described. These new libraries will provide the following features to application programs based on them: derivable image classes, machine-architecture independence of data storage, fast, user-customizable image I/O, unlimited number of descriptive data items, arbitrary number of image dimensions, user-definable data types, optional automatic type conversion and compression, and support for accessing images using reference files and pipes. This highly-flexible and powerful capability is designed to meet the needs of workstation-based image processing and computer vision research in a multi- departmental university environment.

  4. Image save and carry system-based teaching-file library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Kouji; Kimura, Michio; Fujii, Toshiyuki

    1994-05-01

    Digital imaging technology has introduced some new possibilities of forming teaching files without films. IS&C (Image Save & Carry) system, which is based on magneto-optic disc, is a good medium for this purpose, because of its large capacity, prompt access time, and unified format independent of operating systems. The author have constructed a teaching file library, on which user can add and edit images. CD-ROM and IS&C satisfy most of basic criteria for teaching file construction platform. CD-ROM is the best medium for circulating large numbers of identical copies, while IS&C is advantageous in personal addition and editing of library.

  5. The library without walls: images, medical dictionaries, atlases, medical encyclopedias free on web.

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this article was to present the ''reference room'' of the Internet, a real library without walls. The reader will find medical encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, e-books, images, and will also learn something useful about the use and reuse of images in a text and in a web site, according to the copyright law. PMID:18762749

  6. Geometric direct search algorithms for image registration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok; Choi, Minseok; Kim, Hyungmin; Park, Frank Chongwoo

    2007-09-01

    A widely used approach to image registration involves finding the general linear transformation that maximizes the mutual information between two images, with the transformation being rigid-body [i.e., belonging to SE(3)] or volume-preserving [i.e., belonging to SL(3)]. In this paper, we present coordinate-invariant, geometric versions of the Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm on the groups SL(3), SE(3), and their various subgroups, that are applicable to a wide class of image registration problems. Because the algorithms respect the geometric structure of the underlying groups, they are numerically more stable, and exhibit better convergence properties than existing local coordinate-based algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the improved convergence properties of our geometric algorithms. PMID:17784595

  7. Image superresolution of cytology images using wavelet based patch search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Telecytology is a new research area that holds the potential of significantly reducing the number of deaths due to cervical cancer in developing countries. This work presents a novel super-resolution technique that couples high and low frequency information in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of cervical image transmission. The proposed approach starts by decomposing into wavelets the high resolution images and transmitting only the lower frequency coefficients. The transmitted coefficients are used to reconstruct an image of the original size. Additional details are added by iteratively replacing patches of the wavelet reconstructed image with equivalent high resolution patches from a previously acquired image database. Finally, the original transmitted low frequency coefficients are used to correct the final image. Results show a higher signal to noise ratio in the proposed method over simply discarding high frequency wavelet coefficients or replacing directly down-sampled patches from the image-database.

  8. High speed image search engine using collinear holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2006-04-01

    We propose an image search engine that integrates collinear holography and the optical correlation technology used in FARCO. From preliminary correlation experiments using the collinear optical setup, we achieved excellent performance of high correlation peaks and low error rates. We expect optical correlation of 10 μs/frame assuming 12,000 pages of hologram in one track rotating at 600rpm. It follows that it is possible to take correlation at the speed of more than 100,000 faces/s when applied to face recognition. This system can also be applied for High-Vision image searching.

  9. Relevance Preserving Projection and Ranking for Web Image Search Reranking.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhong; Pang, Yanwei; Li, Xuelong

    2015-11-01

    An image search reranking (ISR) technique aims at refining text-based search results by mining images' visual content. Feature extraction and ranking function design are two key steps in ISR. Inspired by the idea of hypersphere in one-class classification, this paper proposes a feature extraction algorithm named hypersphere-based relevance preserving projection (HRPP) and a ranking function called hypersphere-based rank (H-Rank). Specifically, an HRPP is a spectral embedding algorithm to transform an original high-dimensional feature space into an intrinsically low-dimensional hypersphere space by preserving the manifold structure and a relevance relationship among the images. An H-Rank is a simple but effective ranking algorithm to sort the images by their distances to the hypersphere center. Moreover, to capture the user's intent with minimum human interaction, a reversed k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm is proposed, which harvests enough pseudorelevant images by requiring that the user gives only one click on the initially searched images. The HRPP method with reversed KNN is named one-click-based HRPP (OC-HRPP). Finally, an OC-HRPP algorithm and the H-Rank algorithm form a new ISR method, H-reranking. Extensive experimental results on three large real-world data sets show that the proposed algorithms are effective. Moreover, the fact that only one relevant image is required to be labeled makes it has a strong practical significance. PMID:26011885

  10. World Wide Web Based Image Search Engine Using Text and Image Content Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bo; Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2003-01-01

    Using both text and image content features, a hybrid image retrieval system for Word Wide Web is developed in this paper. We first use a text-based image meta-search engine to retrieve images from the Web based on the text information on the image host pages to provide an initial image set. Because of the high-speed and low cost nature of the text-based approach, we can easily retrieve a broad coverage of images with a high recall rate and a relatively low precision. An image content based ordering is then performed on the initial image set. All the images are clustered into different folders based on the image content features. In addition, the images can be re-ranked by the content features according to the user feedback. Such a design makes it truly practical to use both text and image content for image retrieval over the Internet. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of the system.

  11. Searching near-replicas of images via clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Edward Y.; Li, Chen; Wang, James Z.; Mork, Peter; Wiederhold, Gio

    1999-08-01

    Internet piracy has been one of the major concerns for Web publishing. In this study we present a system, RIME, that we have prototyped for detecting unauthorized image copying on the WWW. To speed up the copy detection, RIME uses a new clustering/hashing approach that first clusters similar images on adjacent disk cylinders and then builds indexes to access the clusters made in this way. Searching for the replicas of an image often takes just one IO to loop up the location of the cluster containing similar objects and one sequential file IO to read in this cluster. Our experimental results show that RIME can detect images copies both more efficiently and effectively than the traditional content- based image retrieval systems that use tree-like structures to index images. In addition, RIME copes well with image format conversion, resampling, requantization and geometric transformation.

  12. Hard x ray imaging graphics development and literature search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    1991-01-01

    This report presents work performed between June 1990 and June 1991 and has the following objectives: (1) a comprehensive literature search of imaging technology and coded aperture imaging as well as relevant topics relating to solar flares; (2) an analysis of random number generators; and (3) programming simulation models of hard x ray telescopes. All programs are compatible with NASA/MSFC Space Science LAboratory VAX Cluster and are written in VAX FORTRAN and VAX IDL (Interactive Data Language).

  13. A rational workflow for sequential virtual screening of chemical libraries on searching for new tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Casanola-Martín, Gerardo M; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Rescigno, Antonio; Abad, Concepcion; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosinase is a bifunctional, copper-containing enzyme widely distributed in the phylogenetic tree. This enzyme is involved in the production of melanin and some other pigments in humans, animals and plants, including skin pigmentations in mammals, and browning process in plants and vegetables. Therefore, enzyme inhibitors has been under the attention of the scientist community, due to its broad applications in food, cosmetic, agricultural and medicinal fields, to avoid the undesirable effects of abnormal melanin overproduction. However, the research of novel chemical with antityrosinase activity demands the use of more efficient tools to speed up the tyrosinase inhibitors discovery process. This chapter is focused in the different components of a predictive modeling workflow for the identification and prioritization of potential new compounds with activity against the tyrosinase enzyme. In this case, two structure chemical libraries Spectrum Collection and Drugbank are used in this attempt to combine different virtual screening data mining techniques, in a sequential manner helping to avoid the usually expensive and time consuming traditional methods. Some of the sequential steps summarize here comprise the use of drug-likeness filters, similarity searching, classification and potency QSAR multiclassifier systems, modeling molecular interactions systems, and similarity/diversity analysis. Finally, the methodologies showed here provide a rational workflow for virtual screening hit analysis and selection as a promissory drug discovery strategy for use in target identification phase. PMID:24853562

  14. Optimization and testing of mass spectral library search algorithms for compound identification.

    PubMed

    Stein, S E; Scott, D R

    1994-09-01

    Five algorithms proposed in the literature for library search identification of unknown compounds from their low resolution mass spectra were optimized and tested by matching test spectra against reference spectra in the NIST-EPA-NIH Mass Spectral Database. The algorithms were probability-based matching (PBM), dot-product, Hertz et al. similarity index, Euclidean distance, and absolute value distance. The test set consisted of 12,592 alternate spectra of about 8000 compounds represented in the database. Most algorithms were optimized by varying their mass weighting and intensity scaling factors. Rank in the list of candidatc compounds was used as the criterion for accuracy. The best performing algorithm (75% accuracy for rank 1) was the dot-product function that measures the cosine of the angle between spectra represented as vectors. Other methods in order of performance were the Euclidean distance (72%), absolute value distance (68%) PBM (65%), and Hertz et al. (64%). Intensity scaling and mass weighting were important in the optimized algorithms with the square root of the intensity scale nearly optimal and the square or cube the best mass weighting power. Several more complex schemes also were tested, but had little effect on the results. A modest improvement in the performance of the dot-product algorithm was made by adding a term that gave additional weight to relative peak intensities for spectra with many peaks in common. PMID:24222034

  15. Designing Novel Image Search Interfaces by Understanding Unique Characteristics and Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Paul; Cutrell, Edward; Tan, Desney S.; Smith, Greg

    In most major search engines, the interface for image search is the same as traditional Web search: a keyword query followed by a paginated, ranked list of results. Although many image search innovations have appeared in both the literature and on the Web, few have seen widespread use in practice. In this work, we explore the differences between image and general Web search to better support users’ needs. First, we describe some unique characteristics of image search derived through informal interviews with researchers, designers, and managers responsible for building and deploying a major Web search engine. Then, we present results from a large scale analysis of image and Web search logs showing the differences in user behaviour. Grounded in these observations, we present design recommendations for an image search engine supportive of the unique experience of image search. We iterate on a number of designs, and describe a functional prototype that we built.

  16. Google Will Digitize and Search Millions of Books from 5 Top Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott; Young, Jeffrey R.

    2005-01-01

    Five of the world's largest libraries have joined Google in a herculean effort to digitize millions of books and make every sentence searchable. The project involves libraries at Harvard and Stanford Universities, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and the University of Oxford, in England, as well as the New York Public Library. It could…

  17. A Search for Vulcanoids Using STEREO Heliospheric Imager Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, Andrew J.; Cunningham, N. J.; Durda, D. D.; Stern, S. A.

    2009-09-01

    Over the past 20 years, our understanding of the solar system has grown dramatically, as a series of heretofore wholly or largely undetected populations of small bodies have been revealed in increasing detail. Among the few stable dynamical niches that remain relatively unexplored is the region interior to Mercury's orbit (specifically, orbits with semi-major axes between 0.07 and 0.21 AU), where a population of small, asteroid-like bodies called Vulcanoids is hypothesized to reside. We present the initial results from our campaign to use images from the Heliospheric Imagers aboard NASA's two STEREO spacecraft to conduct the most constraining search yet performed for Vulcanoids. In terms of photometric depth times the area covered, our campaign is over two orders of magnitude better than the previous best search. We are able to detect main-belt asteroids as faint as V=13.5 as they appear to transit through the Vulcanoid region. We have not yet detected any candidate Vulcanoids, although our search is still ongoing. We conservatively estimate the limiting magnitude of our search to be approximately V=13, meaning our search will be complete for Vulcanoids as small as 6.4 km in diameter at 0.21 AU and 2.2 km at 0.07 AU. At these limits, even the non-detection of any Vulcanoids will place new constraints on the formation and subsequent collisional and dynamical evolution of objects in the deep inner solar system.

  18. A survey of the use of on-line computer-based scientific search services by academic libraries.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D B

    1975-11-01

    To explore their use of on-line computer-based bibliographic search services, a one-page questionnaire was sent to 100 academic libraries in the United States having separate departmental chemistry or science libraries. An attempt was made to determine the background training of the persons performing the searches, who the end users were, the growth trend, the funding, the data bases used, and the value to the users. Of the 73 replies, 49.3% indicated use of such services, while 24.6% were planning to use them primarily by faculty and graduate students. Of those reporting, 83.3% used searchers with a background in library or information science; 47.2% had a background in scientific discipline. Two or more on-line services were used by 72.2%. A majority of respondents stated that the user paid all expenses or a portion of the expenses. The searches met the needs of the user most of the time in 83.3% of the cases, and all of the time in 5.4%. PMID:1194385

  19. Mobile robot control for composition of seamless and high-resolution images in library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Ryuichi; Moriya, Toshio; Trevai, Chomchana; Arai, Tamio

    2004-05-01

    We are developing an assistant robot system for administration of a library. In this system, an autonomous mobile robot obtains images with a camera, and composes seamless and high-resolution images of a bookshelf by using mosaicing and super-resolution techniques. In this paper, we propose a control method for the robot in front of a bookshelf as a part of this system. To obtain images that are suitable for mosaicing, a robot should take images from the same distance and orientation to a bookshelf. Our control method utilizes horizontal edges, which are detected easily in any bookshelf. The robot modifies its orientation with the edge in camera images. We implemented a super-resolution and mosaicing algorithm. Our implementation is simple. However, it can compose a high quality image in an experiment, since the robot obtains preferable images for the image processing.

  20. Getting the Picture: Observations from the Library of Congress on Providing Online Access to Pictorial Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, Caroline R.

    1999-01-01

    The Library of Congress (LC) has increasingly created digital reproductions of visual materials to enhance access to its resources. This article describes selected aspects of LC's practical experience and current practices from digital capture through interactions with users, with an emphasis on the integration of access to pictorial images online…

  1. Rebels in search of champions: Envisioning the library of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Moulik, A.; Lai, D.

    1991-06-21

    The traditional role of librarians to secure and provide access to the archives of recorded knowledge is being rapidly challenged on three fronts: the increasing technical sophistication of library users, the wide availability of information management software, and economic pressures on the growth of library collections. While we may argue endlessly about turf'' and ownership'', the real challenge is to forge a new ethic of librarianship which defies the stereotype of the passive provider of information services, explores new models of partnership with users, and champions an interactive environment in which to create the library of the future. The Main Library at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is actively engaged in testing experimental models of the library of the future, centered on dynamic user-librarian interactions, versatile information technologies, and on forecasting creative partnerships with library users in different environments. These experiments are described, evaluated, and their implications for future development are explored. 39 refs.

  2. Searching for Images: The Analysis of Users' Queries for Image Retrieval in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngok; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied users' queries for visual information in American history to identify the image attributes important for retrieval and the characteristics of users' queries for digital images, based on queries from 38 faculty and graduate students. Results of pre- and post-test questionnaires and interviews suggest principle categories of search terms.

  3. Searching for Images: The Analysis of Users' Queries for Image Retrieval in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngok; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied users' queries for visual information in American history to identify the image attributes important for retrieval and the characteristics of users' queries for digital images, based on queries from 38 faculty and graduate students. Results of pre- and post-test questionnaires and interviews suggest principle categories of search terms.…

  4. RVC-CAL library for endmember and abundance estimation in hyperspectral image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazcano López, R.; Madroñal Quintín, D.; Juárez Martínez, E.; Sanz Álvaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HI) collects information from across the electromagnetic spectrum, covering a wide range of wavelengths. Although this technology was initially developed for remote sensing and earth observation, its multiple advantages - such as high spectral resolution - led to its application in other fields, as cancer detection. However, this new field has shown specific requirements; for instance, it needs to accomplish strong time specifications, since all the potential applications - like surgical guidance or in vivo tumor detection - imply real-time requisites. Achieving this time requirements is a great challenge, as hyperspectral images generate extremely high volumes of data to process. Thus, some new research lines are studying new processing techniques, and the most relevant ones are related to system parallelization. In that line, this paper describes the construction of a new hyperspectral processing library for RVC-CAL language, which is specifically designed for multimedia applications and allows multithreading compilation and system parallelization. This paper presents the development of the required library functions to implement two of the four stages of the hyperspectral imaging processing chain--endmember and abundances estimation. The results obtained show that the library achieves speedups of 30%, approximately, comparing to an existing software of hyperspectral images analysis; concretely, the endmember estimation step reaches an average speedup of 27.6%, which saves almost 8 seconds in the execution time. It also shows the existence of some bottlenecks, as the communication interfaces among the different actors due to the volume of data to transfer. Finally, it is shown that the library considerably simplifies the implementation process. Thus, experimental results show the potential of a RVC-CAL library for analyzing hyperspectral images in real-time, as it provides enough resources to study the system performance.

  5. Full Elastic Waveform Search Engine for Near Surface Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    For processing land seismic data, the near-surface problem is often very complex and may severely affect our capability to image the subsurface. The current state-of-the-art technology for near surface imaging is the early arrival waveform inversion that solves an acoustic wave-equation problem. However, fitting land seismic data with acoustic wavefield is sometimes invalid. On the other hand, performing elastic waveform inversion is very time-consuming. Similar to a web search engine, we develop a full elastic waveform search engine that includes a large database with synthetic elastic waveforms accounting for a wide range of interval velocity models in the CMP domain. With each CMP gather of real data as an entry, the search engine applies Multiple-Randomized K-Dimensional (MRKD) tree method to find approximate best matches to the entry in about a second. Interpolation of the velocity models at CMP positions creates 2D or 3D Vp, Vs, and density models for the near surface area. The method does not just return one solution; it gives a series of best matches in a solution space. Therefore, the results can help us to examine the resolution and nonuniqueness of the final solution. Further, this full waveform search method can avoid the issues of initial model and cycle skipping that the method of full waveform inversion is difficult to deal with.

  6. The cell: an image library-CCDB: a curated repository of microscopy data.

    PubMed

    Orloff, David N; Iwasa, Janet H; Martone, Maryann E; Ellisman, Mark H; Kane, Caroline M

    2013-01-01

    The cell: an image library-CCDB (CIL-CCDB) (http://www.cellimagelibrary.org) is a searchable database and archive of cellular images. As a repository for microscopy data, it accepts all forms of cell imaging from light and electron microscopy, including multi-dimensional images, Z- and time stacks in a broad variety of raw-data formats, as well as movies and animations. The software design of CIL-CCDB was intentionally designed to allow easy incorporation of new technologies and image formats as they are developed. Currently, CIL-CCDB contains over 9250 images from 358 different species. Images are evaluated for quality and annotated with terms from 14 different ontologies in 16 different fields as well as a basic description and technical details. Since its public launch on 9 August 2010, it has been designed to serve as not only an archive but also an active site for researchers and educators. PMID:23203874

  7. The cell: an image library-CCDB: a curated repository of microscopy data

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, David N.; Iwasa, Janet H.; Martone, Maryann E.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kane, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    The cell: an image library-CCDB (CIL-CCDB) (http://www.cellimagelibrary.org) is a searchable database and archive of cellular images. As a repository for microscopy data, it accepts all forms of cell imaging from light and electron microscopy, including multi-dimensional images, Z- and time stacks in a broad variety of raw-data formats, as well as movies and animations. The software design of CIL-CCDB was intentionally designed to allow easy incorporation of new technologies and image formats as they are developed. Currently, CIL-CCDB contains over 9250 images from 358 different species. Images are evaluated for quality and annotated with terms from 14 different ontologies in 16 different fields as well as a basic description and technical details. Since its public launch on 9 August 2010, it has been designed to serve as not only an archive but also an active site for researchers and educators. PMID:23203874

  8. Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata).

    PubMed

    Pietrewicz, A T; Kamil, A C

    1979-06-22

    Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search image. PMID:17813172

  9. In Search of Facilitating Citizens' Problem Solving: Public Libraries' Collaborative Development of Services with Related Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeya, Nozomi; Tamura, Shunsaku; Miwa, Makiko; Koshizuka, Mika; Saito, Seiichi; Kasai, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The paper attempts to understand value constellations in organising and using the business information service that was recently developed by various stakeholders with libraries who were in pursuit of supporting people's problem solving in Japanese public libraries. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted not only with users and…

  10. Visual Image Transmission. An Examination of Electronic Delivery of Visual Images and Text from the Library to the Academic Community. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Merrill W.; And Others

    Designed to examine the potential for delivering images stored on videodisc and other optical media from the library to the classroom, the pilot project described in this report has focused on ways to transmit still color or black and white images from the library's collection to a constituent academic unit. This report discusses analog and…

  11. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  12. Trainable Cataloging for Digital Image Libraries with Applications to Volcano Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, M. C.; Fayyad, U. M.; Perona, P.; Smyth, P.

    1995-01-01

    Users of digital image libraries are often not interested in image data per se but in derived products such as catalogs of objects of interest. Converting an image database into a usable catalog is typically carried out manually at present. For many larger image databases the purely manual approach is completely impractical. In this paper we describe the development of a trainable cataloging system: the user indicates the location of the objects of interest for a number of training images and the system learns to detect and catalog these objects in the rest of the database. In particular we describe the application of this system to the cataloging of small volcanoes in radar images of Venus. The volcano problem is of interest because of the scale (30,000 images, order of 1 million detectable volcanoes), technical difficulty (the variability of the volcanoes in appearance) and the scientific importance of the problem. The problem of uncertain or subjective ground truth is of fundamental importance in cataloging problems of this nature and is discussed in some detail. Experimental results are presented which quantify and compare the detection performance of the system relative to human detection performance. The paper concludes by discussing the limitations of the proposed system and the lessons learned of general relevance to the development of digital image libraries.

  13. Image Unveilings and Library Exhibits: IYA Outreach Projects for Audiences Old and New

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, F.; Smith, D.; Stoke, J.; Eisenhamer, B.

    2008-11-01

    The Office of Public Outreach at STScI is leading several major projects for the International Year of Astronomy. We are continuing our previous, and extremely successful, mural-sized image unveilings at approximately 100 planetariums, museums, and schools across the country. Further, this program is being extended to feature images from all of NASA's Great Observatories for a multi-wavelength understanding of the cosmos. In addition, we are reaching out to new audiences by creating a traveling exhibit that will elucidate and celebrate the 400 years of telescopic astronomy. This colorful and engaging exhibit will tour 40 select libraries during 2009--2010, and is a collaboration with the American Library Association and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  14. Blocking of pornography-seeking behavior in digital image libraries: adventures in the skin trade.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Christoph U; Cohen, Bernard A; Kim, George R

    2005-01-01

    The escalating competition between online pornography - seeking and disseminating behaviors and technologies that attempt to reduce them creates technical, semantic and legal barriers to the legitimate discussion of and education about sensitive health issues involving sexuality, anatomy and pathology, especially when image-based knowledge is used. The effects of this competition on the use and management of an online dermatology atlas are described with a discussion on the importance of anticipating, addressing and controlling this problem while developing and maintaining image-based digital libraries and other e-Health applications. PMID:16779077

  15. An evolutionary tabu search for cell image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianzi; Yang, Faguo

    2002-01-01

    Many engineering problems can be formulated as optimization problems. It has become more and more important to develop an efficient global optimization technique for solving these problems. In this paper, we propose an evolutionary tabu search (ETS) for cell image segmentation. The advantages of genetic algorithms (GA) and TS algorithms are incorporated into the proposed method. More precisely, we incorporate "the survival of the fittest" from evolutionary algorithms into TS. The method has been applied to the segmentation of several kinds of cell images. The experimental results show that the new algorithm is a practical and effective one for global optimization; it can yield good, near-optimal solutions and has better convergence and robustness than other global optimization approaches. PMID:18244872

  16. Extending the Role of the Corporate Library: Corporate Database Applications Using BRS/Search Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammert, Diana

    1993-01-01

    Describes the McKenna Information Center's application of BRS/SEARCH, information retrieval software, as part of its services to Kennmetal Inc., its parent company. Features and uses of the software, including commands, custom searching, menu-driven interfaces, preparing reports, and designing databases are covered. Nine examples of software

  17. A Search for Vulcanoids Using STEREO Heliospheric Imager Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, Andrew J.; Cunningham, N. J.; Graps, A. L.; Durda, D. D.; Stern, S. A.

    2010-10-01

    Interior to the orbit of Mercury, between 0.07 and 0.21 AU, is a dynamically stable region where a population of asteroids, known as Vulcanoids, may reside. As seen from Earth, the Vulcanoid zone lies between 4-12 degrees from the sun, making observations difficult. The best previous search used data from the LASCO C3 coronagraph on the SOHO spacecraft to place an upper limit on the apparent brightness of any Vulcanoids of V=8.0, corresponding to an object diameter of 55km. Here, we present results from our campaign to analyze data from the Heliospheric Imagers aboard NASA's two STEREO spacecraft for Vulcanoids transiting through the instrument's field of view. At present, we have not detected any Vulcanoids, even though our search is sensitive to objects as small as approximately 5 km in diameter--nearly 100 times fainter than the SOHO search. These limits place significant constraints on the formation and evolution of the putative Vulcanoid population.

  18. HSI-Find: A Visualization and Search Service for Terascale Spectral Image Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Smith, A. T.; Castano, R.; Palmer, E. E.; Xing, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging spectrometers are remote sensing instruments commonly deployed on aircraft and spacecraft. They provide surface reflectance in hundreds of wavelength channels, creating data cubes known as hyperspecrtral images. They provide rich compositional information making them powerful tools for planetary and terrestrial science. These data products can be challenging to interpret because they contain datapoints numbering in the thousands (Dawn VIR) or millions (AVIRIS-C). Cross-image studies or exploratory searches involving more than one scene are rare; data volumes are often tens of GB per image and typical consumer-grade computers cannot store more than a handful of images in RAM. Visualizing the information in a single scene is challenging since the human eye can only distinguish three color channels out of the hundreds available. To date, analysis has been performed mostly on single images using purpose-built software tools that require extensive training and commercial licenses. The HSIFind software suite provides a scalable distributed solution to the problem of visualizing and searching large catalogs of spectral image data. It consists of a RESTful web service that communicates to a javascript-based browser client. The software provides basic visualization through an intuitive visual interface, allowing users with minimal training to explore the images or view selected spectra. Users can accumulate a library of spectra from one or more images and use these to search for similar materials. The result appears as an intensity map showing the extent of a spectral feature in a scene. Continuum removal can isolate diagnostic absorption features. The server-side mapping algorithm uses an efficient matched filter algorithm that can process a megapixel image cube in just a few seconds. This enables real-time interaction, leading to a new way of interacting with the data: the user can launch a search with a single mouse click and see the resulting map in seconds. This allows the user to quickly explore each image, ascertain the main units of surface material, localize outliers, and develop an understanding of the various materials' spectral characteristics. The HSIFind software suite is currently in beta testing at the Planetary Science Institute and a process is underway to release it under an open source license to the broader community. We believe it will benefit instrument operations during remote planetary exploration, where tactical mission decisions demand rapid analysis of each new dataset. The approach also holds potential for public spectral catalogs where its shallow learning curve and portability can make these datasets accessible to a much wider range of researchers. Acknowledgements: The HSIFind project acknowledges the NASA Advanced MultiMission Operating System (AMMOS) and the Multimission Ground Support Services (MGSS). E. Palmer is with the Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ. Other authors are with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2013, California Institute of Technology.

  19. The Answer Machine and Direct Connect: Do-It-Yourself Searching in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayen, Emily Gallup

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Answer Machine, a microcomputer system which uses the EasyNet software to provide a gateway to more than 900 online databanks. Topics covered include: (1) system features; (2) costs; (3) experiences and results of a user questionnaire at a test site at the University of Pennsylvania; and (4) benefits for libraries. (MES)

  20. Strategies for Searching. A Self-Paced Workbook for Basic Library Skills. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Celia; And Others

    This self-paced workbook is designed to help students at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte acquire basic skills in using a university library. The workbook, which is used in conjuction with course assignments, is divided into six sections: (l) Introduction; (2) How to Locate Background Information; (3) How to Locate Books; (4) How to…

  1. Data Base Royalty Fees and the Growth of Online Search Services in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Brewster; Knapp, Sara D.

    1981-01-01

    Views increasing costs in the form of royalties as an obstacle to the development of online services in academic libraries. Increased volume, creative pricing, and alternate charging algorithms are suggested for containing costs. Comments of vendors and database producers are included. (RAA)

  2. State Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  3. Productivity, Profit, and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estabrook, Leigh

    1981-01-01

    Economic pressures on the information industry and on libraries are significantly affecting the nature of services and the organization of work within libraries. These effects are illustrated by three phenomena: emphasis on productivity in libraries, marketing of online database searches through libraries, and the repackaging of library services…

  4. Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…

  5. Using relevant regions in image search and query refinement for medical CBIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Antani, Sameer; Huang, Xiaolei; Long, L. Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2011-03-01

    In clinical decision processes, relevant scientific publications and their associated medical images can provide valuable and insightful information. However, effectively searching through both text and image data is a difficult and arduous task. More specifically in the area of image search, finding similar images (or regions within images) poses another significant hurdle for effective knowledge dissemination. Thus, we propose a method using local regions within images to perform and refine medical image retrieval. In our first example, we define and extract large, characteristic regions within an image, and then show how to use these regions to match a query image to similar content. In our second example, we enable the formulation of a mixed query based upon text, image, and region information, to better represent the end user's search intentions. Given our new framework for region-based queries, we present an improved set of similar search results.

  6. Imaging ATUM ultrathin section libraries with WaferMapper: a multi-scale approach to EM reconstruction of neural circuits.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Kenneth J; Morgan, Josh L; Schalek, Richard; Berger, Daniel R; Hildebrand, David G C; Lichtman, Jeff W

    2014-01-01

    The automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome (ATUM) makes it possible to collect large numbers of ultrathin sections quickly-the equivalent of a petabyte of high resolution images each day. However, even high throughput image acquisition strategies generate images far more slowly (at present ~1 terabyte per day). We therefore developed WaferMapper, a software package that takes a multi-resolution approach to mapping and imaging select regions within a library of ultrathin sections. This automated method selects and directs imaging of corresponding regions within each section of an ultrathin section library (UTSL) that may contain many thousands of sections. Using WaferMapper, it is possible to map thousands of tissue sections at low resolution and target multiple points of interest for high resolution imaging based on anatomical landmarks. The program can also be used to expand previously imaged regions, acquire data under different imaging conditions, or re-image after additional tissue treatments. PMID:25018701

  7. Imaging ATUM ultrathin section libraries with WaferMapper: a multi-scale approach to EM reconstruction of neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Hayworth, Kenneth J.; Morgan, Josh L.; Schalek, Richard; Berger, Daniel R.; Hildebrand, David G. C.; Lichtman, Jeff W.

    2014-01-01

    The automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome (ATUM) makes it possible to collect large numbers of ultrathin sections quickly—the equivalent of a petabyte of high resolution images each day. However, even high throughput image acquisition strategies generate images far more slowly (at present ~1 terabyte per day). We therefore developed WaferMapper, a software package that takes a multi-resolution approach to mapping and imaging select regions within a library of ultrathin sections. This automated method selects and directs imaging of corresponding regions within each section of an ultrathin section library (UTSL) that may contain many thousands of sections. Using WaferMapper, it is possible to map thousands of tissue sections at low resolution and target multiple points of interest for high resolution imaging based on anatomical landmarks. The program can also be used to expand previously imaged regions, acquire data under different imaging conditions, or re-image after additional tissue treatments. PMID:25018701

  8. Dimensionality reduction and endmember extraction for hyperspectral imaging using an RVC-CAL library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madroñal Quintín, D.; Lazcano López, R.; Juárez Martínez, E.; Sanz Álvaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imaging (HI) collects high resolution spectral information consisting of hundred of bands raging from the infrared to the ultraviolet wave lengths. In the medical field, specifically, in the cancer tissue identification at the operating room, the potential of HI is huge. However, given the data volume of HI and the computational complexity and cost of identification algorithms, real-time processing is the key, differential feature that brings value to surgeons. In order to achieve real-time implementations, the parallelism available in a specification needs to be explicitly highlighted. Data-flow programming languages, like RVC-CAL, are able to accomplish this goal. In this paper, an RVC-CAL library to implement dimensionality reduction and endmember extraction is presented. The results obtained show significant improvements with regard to a state-of-the-art analysis tool. A speedup of 30% is carried out using the complete processing chain and, in particular, a speedup of 5% has been achieved in the dimensionality reduction step. This dimensionality reduction takes ten of the thirteen seconds that the whole system needs to analyze one of the images. In addition, the RVC-CAL library is an excellent tool to simplify the implementation process of HI algorithms. Effectively, during the experimental test, the potential of the RVC-CAL library to reveal possible bottlenecks present in the HI processing chain and, therefore, to improve the system performance to achieve real-time constraints has been shown. Furthermore, the RVC-CAL library provides the possibility of system performance testing.

  9. Protocols for printing thick film ceramic libraries using the London University Search Instrument (LUSI).

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zhang, Y; Yang, S; Evans, J R G

    2007-07-01

    Thick film combinatorial libraries can be prepared by mixing ceramic suspensions using stepper-driven syringes to control ink-jet-printing nozzles, but a more tolerant and efficient method has been devised using a simplification of the same equipment. By simplifying the printing sequence and using direct deposition from the stepper syringes, the time committed to a repetitive sequence of priming and cleaning the ink-jet printer nozzles is reduced. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) open ended tubes and commercial pipette tips are used as the printing nozzles. Calibration and corrections for the method are described. This method opens up the possibility for making ceramic libraries more rapidly with much simpler and less expensive equipment. PMID:17672741

  10. Protocols for printing thick film ceramic libraries using the London University Search Instrument (LUSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, S.; Evans, J. R. G.

    2007-07-15

    Thick film combinatorial libraries can be prepared by mixing ceramic suspensions using stepper-driven syringes to control ink-jet-printing nozzles, but a more tolerant and efficient method has been devised using a simplification of the same equipment. By simplifying the printing sequence and using direct deposition from the stepper syringes, the time committed to a repetitive sequence of priming and cleaning the ink-jet printer nozzles is reduced. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) open ended tubes and commercial pipette tips are used as the printing nozzles. Calibration and corrections for the method are described. This method opens up the possibility for making ceramic libraries more rapidly with much simpler and less expensive equipment.

  11. The Direct Imaging Search of Exoplanets from Ground and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian

    2015-08-01

    Exoplanets search is one of the hottest topics in both modern astronomy and public domain. Until now over 1990 exoplanets have been confirmed mostly by the indirect radial velocity and transiting approaches, yielding several important physical information such as masses and radius. The study of the physics of planet formation and evolution will focus on giant planets through the direct imaging.However, the direct imaging of exoplanets remains challenging, due to the large flux ratio difference and the nearby angular distance. In recent years, the extreme adaptive optics (Ex-AO) coronagraphic instrumentation has been proposed and developed on 8-meter class telescopes, which is optimized for the high-contrast imaging observation from ground, for the giant exoplanets and other faint stellar companions. Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) has recently come to its first light, with a development period over 10 years. The contrast level has been pushed to 10-6. Due to the space limitation or this or other reasons, none professional adaptive optics is available for most of current 3~4 meter class telescopes, which will limit its observation power to some extent, especially in the research of high-contrast imaging of exoplanets.In this presentation, we will report the latest observation results by using our Extreme Adaptive Optics (Ex-AO) as a visiting instrument for high-contrast imaging on ESO’s 3.58-meter NTT telescope at LSO, and on 3.5-meter ARC telescope at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. It has demonstrated the Ex-AO can be used for the scientific research of exoplanets and brown dwarfs. With a update of the currect configuration with critical hardware, the dedicated instrument called as EDICT for imaging research of young giant exoplanets will be presented. Meanwhile, we have fully demonstrated in the lab a contrast on the order of 10-9 in a large detection area, which is a critical technique for future Earth-like exoplanets imaging space missions. And a space program of JEEEDIS will also be presented in this talk.

  12. Lyman Continuum Emission Search at z 1 Using GALEX Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Peter G.; Small, T. A.; Deharveng, J. M.; Milliard, B.

    2007-12-01

    We present the status and results of a search for Lyman continuum emission from galaxies at z 1. We use GALEX data in the Extended Groth Strip. Our method is to stack FUV image flux at locations of DEEP2 redshift catalog galaxies in the redshift range 1 < z < 1.5. In this range, the GALEX FUV band (1350-1800 A) is sensitive only to rest wavelengths below 912 A. We normalize FUV flux to NUV flux and calculate the Lyman continuum emission escape fraction by fitting SED models to broad-band fluxes from ground-based surveys of the same galaxies. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer mission with contributions from France and South Korea. This work uses data from the AEGIS collaboration, which is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Keck Observatory.

  13. GALEX Imaging Search for Lyman Continuum Emission at z 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Peter G.; Small, T. A.; Deharveng, J. M.; Milliard, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the status and results of a search for Lyman continuum emission from galaxies at z 1. We use GALEX data in the Extended Groth Strip. Our method is to stack FUV image flux at locations of DEEP2 redshift catalog galaxies in the redshift range 1 < z < 1.5. In this range, the GALEX FUV band (1350-1800 A) is sensitive only to rest wavelengths below 912 A. We normalize FUV flux to NUV flux and calculate the Lyman continuum emission escape fraction by fitting SED models to broad-band fluxes from ground-based surveys of the same galaxies. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer mission with contributions from France and South Korea. This work uses data from the AEGIS collaboration, which is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Keck Observatory.

  14. GALEX Imaging Search for Lyman Continuum Emission at z 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Peter G.; Small, T. A.; Deharveng, J. M.; Milliard, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present the status and results of a search for Lyman continuum emission from galaxies at z 1. We use GALEX data in the Extended Groth Strip. Our method is to stack FUV image flux at locations of DEEP2 redshift catalog galaxies in the redshift range 1 < z < 1.5. In this range, the GALEX FUV band (1350-1800 A) is sensitive only to rest wavelengths below 912 A. We normalize FUV flux to NUV flux and calculate the Lyman continuum emission escape fraction by fitting SED models to broad-band fluxes from ground-based surveys of the same galaxies. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer mission with contributions from France and South Korea. This work uses data from the AEGIS collaboration, which is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Keck Observatory.

  15. Find Good Sources of Online Images: A Picture Doesn't Have to Be a Thousand Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The Internet is a natural place to look for images that teachers can use in lessons and students can use in projects and assignments. Google, Yahoo, AltaVista--many of these popular search engines offer image searching. Usually there is a tab to click at the top of the page to select image searching; just enter a search term and go! However, this…

  16. Find Good Sources of Online Images: A Picture Doesn't Have to Be a Thousand Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The Internet is a natural place to look for images that teachers can use in lessons and students can use in projects and assignments. Google, Yahoo, AltaVista--many of these popular search engines offer image searching. Usually there is a tab to click at the top of the page to select image searching; just enter a search term and go! However, this

  17. NICMOS Imaging Search for a Candidate Companion to Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstone, M. D.; Schneider, G.; Schultz, A. B.

    2001-05-01

    A candidate companion to Proxima Centauri (Prox Cen) was identified in Faint Object Spectrograph observations (Schultz, A.B. et al, 1998 AJ 115, 345). Subsequently, the field surrounding Prox Cen was observed at 3 epochs (UT 8 March, 1 July, and 13 October 1998) with NICMOS Camera 1 (0.043 arcsec/pix), in HST observing program GO/7847. At each epoch the field, which was oriented by the HST nominal roll, was observed in 4 dither positions in each of 3 filters (F160W, F165M, and F170M). The M5.5V star GL 905 was observed similarly at one epoch, to serve as a PSF reference for Prox Cen. This total survey covered approx. 300 square arcseconds near Prox Cen, of which about 80 square arcseconds was common to two epochs, and about 60 square arcseconds was imaged in all three epochs. We searched the PSF-subtracted images for common proper-motion and common parallax companions to this close (d ≈ 1.3 pc) primary. Background stars were identified by comparison to archival WFPC-2 images and differential astrometry between the epochs. We did not find multi-epoch evidence of candidate companions, though we have identified a number of single-epoch point-source like objects in the images. We derive upper limits for near-infrared flux densities from undetected companions as a function of projected distance. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number GO-07847.01-96A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  18. Adapted waveform analysis, wavelet packets, and local cosine libraries as a tool for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coifman, Ronald R.

    1993-11-01

    Adapted wave form analysis, refers to a collection of FFT like adapted transform algorithms. Given an image these methods provide special matched collections of templates (orthonormal bases) enabling an efficient coding of the image. Perhaps the closest well known examples of such coding method is provided by musical notation, where each segment of music is represented by a musical score made up of notes (templates) characterized by their duration, pitch, location and amplitude, our method corresponds to transcribing the music in as few notes as possible. The extension of images and video is straightforward. We describe the image by collections of oscillatory patterns of various sizes, locations and amplitudes using a variety of orthogonal bases. These selected basis functions are chosen inside predefined libraries of oscillatory localized functions (trigonometric and wavelet-packets waveforms) so as to optimize the number of parameters needed to describe our object. These algorithms are of complexity N log N opening the door for a large range of applications in signal and image processing, such as compression, feature extraction denoising and enhancement. In particular we describe a class of special purpose compressions for fingerprint images, as well as denoising tools for texture and noise extraction.

  19. Categorical and Specificity Differences between User-Supplied Tags and Search Query Terms for Images. An Analysis of "Flickr" Tags and Web Image Search Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, EunKyung; Yoon, JungWon

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare characteristics and features of user supplied tags and search query terms for images on the "Flickr" Website in terms of categories of pictorial meanings and level of term specificity. Method: This study focuses on comparisons between tags and search queries using Shatford's categorization…

  20. Online Search Service at the King Abdulaziz University Library, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marghalani, Mohammad Amin; Hafez, Abdulrashid A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of the online search service at a university in Saudi Arabia which used personal interviews and questionnaires to evaluate the demand from faculty in different institutions and departments and to discover which subjects were requested the most. Guidelines for improvements to the service are proposed. (Contains seven references.)…

  1. PIXTOOLS - 13 PROGRAMS AND A LIBRARY THAT OPERATE ON BITMAP IMAGE FILES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, D.

    1994-01-01

    PIXTOOLS is a package for the Silicon Graphics IRIS consisting of thirteen programs plus a library for operating on bitmap images. The image data structure is referred to as a PIXIMAGE. The programs allow the IRIS user to create and edit, perform screen saves, resize, and capture high-resolution images from the Sharp JX450 scanner. Images can be output to the QMS laser printer, the Tektronix 4693 color thermal printer, and the Matrix QCRZ film recorder. Additionally, PIX format images can be converted to SGI image format (and vice versa) or converted to PostScript format. PIX or SGI format images can be converted to ".ras" files which can be read by the "rasp" routine in the PLOT3D/AMES program (available from COSMIC), and ".ras" files can be converted to PIX files. Eleven of the programs print information and read and write files while two, PIXSCAN and PIXEDIT, offer graphical interfaces. PIXEDIT uses the full IRIS screen as a drawing area and pop-up menus are available. The menus allow manipulation of images and background color, and saving the screen to a file. PIXSCAN is the user interface to the Sharp JX450 scanner. This program allows the user to do a preliminary scan of an image at low resolution, and then select an area to rescan in higher resolution into a file. PIXSCAN requires the user to have the "gpib" (IEEE 488) board and "libgpib.a" library from Silicon Graphics, Inc. User instructions for all the programs are provided in the form of UNIX on-line manual pages. The PIXTOOLS programs are written in C-Language for execution on SGI IRIS 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or later. PIXEDIT (the largest program) requires 840K of main memory. The programs with graphical interfaces require that the IRIS have at least 24 bit planes. The program package is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. A README file and UNIX man pages provide information regarding installation and use of the PIXTOOLS programs. A nine-page manual which provides slightly more detailed information may be purchased separately. PIXTOOLS was developed in 1990 and updated in 1991. SGI, IRIS 4D and IRIX are trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  2. Direct Imaging Searches with the Apodizing Phase Plate Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenworthy, M.; Meshkat, T.; Otten, , G.; Codona, J.

    2014-03-01

    The sensitivity of direct imaging searches for extrasolar planets is limited by the presence of diffraction rings from the primary star. Coronagraphs are angular filters that minimise these diffraction structures whilst allowing light from faint companions to shine through. The Apodizing Phase Plate (APP; Kenworthy 2007) coronagraph is a simple pupil plane optic that suppresses diffraction over a 180 degree region around each star simultaneously, providing easy beam switching observations and requiring no time consuming optical alignment at the telescope. We will present our results on using the APP at the Very Large Telescope in surveys for extrasolar planets around A/F and debris disk hosting stars in the L' band (3.8 microns) in the Southern Hemisphere, where we reach a contrast of 12 magnitudes at 0.5 arcseconds (Meshkat 2013). In Leiden, we are also developing the next generation of broadband achromatic coronagraphs that can simultaneously image both sides of the star using Vector APPs (Snik 2012, Otten 2012). Recent laboratory results showing the potential of this technology for future ELTs will also be presented.

  3. The search for new amphiphiles: synthesis of a modular, high-throughput library

    PubMed Central

    Feast, George C; Lepitre, Thomas; Mulet, Xavier; Conn, Charlotte E; Hutt, Oliver E

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amphiphilic compounds are used in a variety of applications due to their lyotropic liquid-crystalline phase formation, however only a limited number of compounds, in a potentially limitless field, are currently in use. A library of organic amphiphilic compounds was synthesised consisting of glucose, galactose, lactose, xylose and mannose head groups and double and triple-chain hydrophobic tails. A modular, high-throughput approach was developed, whereby head and tail components were conjugated using the copper-catalysed azidealkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The tails were synthesised from two core alkyne-tethered intermediates, which were subsequently functionalised with hydrocarbon chains varying in length and degree of unsaturation and branching, while the five sugar head groups were selected with ranging substitution patterns and anomeric linkages. A library of 80 amphiphiles was subsequently produced, using a 24-vial array, with the majority formed in very good to excellent yields. A preliminary assessment of the liquid-crystalline phase behaviour is also presented. PMID:25161714

  4. SimITK: visual programming of the ITK image-processing library within Simulink.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Andrew W L; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Gobbi, David G; Mousavi, Parvin

    2014-04-01

    The Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) is a software library used for image analysis, visualization, and image-guided surgery applications. ITK is a collection of C++ classes that poses the challenge of a steep learning curve should the user not have appropriate C++ programming experience. To remove the programming complexities and facilitate rapid prototyping, an implementation of ITK within a higher-level visual programming environment is presented: SimITK. ITK functionalities are automatically wrapped into "blocks" within Simulink, the visual programming environment of MATLAB, where these blocks can be connected to form workflows: visual schematics that closely represent the structure of a C++ program. The heavily templated C++ nature of ITK does not facilitate direct interaction between Simulink and ITK; an intermediary is required to convert respective data types and allow intercommunication. As such, a SimITK "Virtual Block" has been developed that serves as a wrapper around an ITK class which is capable of resolving the ITK data types to native Simulink data types. Part of the challenge surrounding this implementation involves automatically capturing and storing the pertinent class information that need to be refined from an initial state prior to being reflected within the final block representation. The primary result from the SimITK wrapping procedure is multiple Simulink block libraries. From these libraries, blocks are selected and interconnected to demonstrate two examples: a 3D segmentation workflow and a 3D multimodal registration workflow. Compared to their pure-code equivalents, the workflows highlight ITK usability through an alternative visual interpretation of the code that abstracts away potentially confusing technicalities. PMID:24402456

  5. Enhancement of discontinuities in seismic 3-D images using a Java estimation library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Matthias

    Seismic images are difficult to interpret. The nature of the seismic experiment and the ever present sedimentary layering of the subsurface result in oscillatory and complex 3-D seismic images In principle, computer programs can enhance geologically significant image features, such as faults, erosional surfaces, and salt boundaries. Standard edge enhancement, however, fails to compute useful seismic discontinuity maps. The correlation between an image region and its best-fitting local plane wave generates clear and discriminating maps for a wide range of images. A third approach, prediction-error filtering, yields detailed fault maps for images with sharp faults. For images with rather smooth fault zones, prediction error unfortunately fails. This dissertation's discontinuity computations are the first comprehensive application of a new innovative Java estimation library: Jest (Java for estimation). Jest comprises a general and extendible library for numerical optimization for science and engineering, Jam (Java and mathematics), and a particular extension of that framework for seismic image processing, Jag (Java and geophysics). Jest successfully separates optimization and application software. To ensure the compatibility of solver and application, Jest is built around a set of simple interfaces that define method invocations for the fundamental mathematical objects of numerical optimization, such as vectors, vector spaces, operators, and solvers. Jest's solvers are implemented in terms of these mathematical objects and, consequently, possess the generality of the original abstract mathematical algorithm. Finally, the dissertation is a reproducible electronic document, a simple software filing system that organizes, preserves, and potentially transfers the technology of any computational scientific research project. The document's central makefile offers readers four standard commands: burn removes the document's result figures, build recomputes them, view displays the figures, and clean removes any intermediate files. of these commands. Although we developed these standards to aid readers we discovered that authors are often the principal beneficiaries. In combination with the World Wide Web's ability to distribute software,. standardized reproducibility of computational research offers unprecedented opportunities for collaboration and learning. In particular, the combination of Java software (such as Jest) and the concept of reproducible documents, potentially enables any reader to reproduce a scientist's results at the push of a button in a World Wide Web browser.

  6. Start Your Search Engines. Part 2: When Image is Everything, Here are Some Great Ways to Find One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Anna; Mowers, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that Google is great for finding images. Simply head to its home page, click the "Images" link, enter criteria in the search box, and--voila! In this article, the authors share some of their other favorite search engines for finding images. To make sure the desired images are available for educational use, consider searching for

  7. Start Your Search Engines. Part 2: When Image is Everything, Here are Some Great Ways to Find One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Anna; Mowers, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that Google is great for finding images. Simply head to its home page, click the "Images" link, enter criteria in the search box, and--voila! In this article, the authors share some of their other favorite search engines for finding images. To make sure the desired images are available for educational use, consider searching for…

  8. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  9. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and

  10. The Role of Mental Models in a Multi-Modal Image Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, C. Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Reports the preliminary findings of a research project that investigated users' mental models in the course of an image search. Generalist users searched a database of 1500 earth and space science images using a system that provided for both textual and content-based retrieval modalities. Factors such as ease of use and satisfaction with the…

  11. The Role of Mental Models in a Multi-Modal Image Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, C. Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Reports the preliminary findings of a research project that investigated users' mental models in the course of an image search. Generalist users searched a database of 1500 earth and space science images using a system that provided for both textual and content-based retrieval modalities. Factors such as ease of use and satisfaction with the

  12. A geometry-based image search engine for advanced RADARSAT-1/2 GIS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotamraju, Vinay; Rabus, Bernhard; Busler, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors, such as RADARSAT-1 and -2, enable a multitude of defense and security applications owing to their unique capabilities of cloud penetration, day/night imaging and multi-polarization imaging. As a result, advanced SAR image time series exploitation techniques such as Interferometric SAR (InSAR) and Radargrammetry are now routinely used in applications such as underground tunnel monitoring, infrastructure monitoring and DEM generation. Imaging geometry, as determined by the satellite orbit and imaged terrain, plays a critical role in the success of such techniques. This paper describes the architecture and the current status of development of a geometry-based search engine that allows the search and visualization of archived and future RADARSAT-1 and -2 images appropriate for a variety of advanced SAR techniques and applications. Key features of the search engine's scalable architecture include (a) Interactive GIS-based visualization of the search results; (b) A client-server architecture for online access that produces up-to-date searches of the archive images and that can, in future, be extended to acquisition planning; (c) A techniquespecific search mode, wherein an expert user explicitly sets search parameters to find appropriate images for advanced SAR techniques such as InSAR and Radargrammetry; (d) A future application-specific search mode, wherein all search parameters implicitly default to preset values according to the application of choice such as tunnel monitoring, DEM generation and deformation mapping; (f) Accurate baseline calculations for InSAR searches, and, optimum beam configuration for Radargrammetric searches; (g) Simulated quick look images and technique-specific sensitivity maps in the future.

  13. A Search of HST Images for Relative Variations of Proplyds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Bales, M.

    1995-12-01

    Several dozen optical counterparts to highly ionized, compact (subarcsecond) emission features (Laques, & Vidal, 1979, A&A, 73, 97; Churchwell, Felli, Wood, & Massi 1991, ApJ, 321, 516; Felli, Churchwell, Wilson, & Taylor 1992, A&ASupp, 98, 137) have been resolved by the HST (O'Dell, Wen, & Hu 1993, ApJ, 410, 696; O'Dell, C. R. & Wen, Z. 1994, ApJ, 436, 194). These objects are sometimes referred to as ``proplyds" (``proto-planetary disks"), EIDERS (``externally ionized disks in the environs of radio sources"), or PIGs (partially ionized globules). Typically they appear as a faint central star with asymmetric highly ionized extended emission which is thought to be due to external ionization of circumstellar material by nearby OB stars in the Trapezium. The central stars of these objects are of spectral type F, G, and K. Their age has been estimated to be no more than a few hundred thousand years, so they are the youngest low- mass PMS objects known in which the central star is not optically obscured. Because optical variability and sometimes ejection- driven morphological changes are seen in many higher-mass PMS stars, we compared proplyds in HST images of the Orion Nebula taken in August 1991 and January 1994 to search for morphological and flux variations. The 1991 and 1994 sets of images overlap in Hα and [OIII]. Twelve proplyds could be found in both sets of data. We will present sets of images of several proplyds. No morphological changes are seen at Hα or [OIII]. We also did differential aperture photometry on each proplyd comparing the proplyd flux to several nearby comparison stars. We found no difference in fluxes at Hα or [OIII], which indicates that no FU Ori type flaring behavior was in progress while the images were being taken. Variations of less than about 0.2 mag, however, cannot be ruled out. Support for this research is kindly provided by the STScI Archive Research Grant AR-04645.01-92A.

  14. Information Literacy for Users at the National Medical Library of Cuba: Cochrane Library Course for the Search of Best Evidence for Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Arroyo, Sonia; del Carmen Gonzalez Rivero, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The National Medical Library of Cuba is currently developing an information literacy program to train users in the use of biomedical databases. This paper describes the experience with the course "Cochrane Library: Evidence-Based Medicine," which aims to teach users how to make the best use of this database, as well as the evidence-based medicine…

  15. Building and evaluating an informatics tool to facilitate analysis of a biomedical literature search service in an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Elizabeth G; Oelschlegel, Sandra; Vaughn, Cynthia J; Lindsay, J Michael; Hurst, Sachiko M; Earl, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes an informatics tool to analyze a robust literature search service in an academic medical center library. Structured interviews with librarians were conducted focusing on the benefits of such a tool, expectations for performance, and visual layout preferences. The resulting application utilizes Microsoft SQL Server and .Net Framework 3.5 technologies, allowing for the use of a web interface. Customer tables and MeSH terms are included. The National Library of Medicine MeSH database and entry terms for each heading are incorporated, resulting in functionality similar to searching the MeSH database through PubMed. Data reports will facilitate analysis of the search service. PMID:23869631

  16. Contextual hashing for large-scale image search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Houqiang; Zhou, Wengang; Zhao, Ruizhen; Tian, Qi

    2014-04-01

    With the explosive growth of the multimedia data on the Web, content-based image search has attracted considerable attentions in the multimedia and the computer vision community. The most popular approach is based on the bag-of-visual-words model with invariant local features. Since the spatial context information among local features is critical for visual content identification, many methods exploit the geometric clues of local features, including the location, the scale, and the orientation, for explicitly post-geometric verification. However, usually only a few initially top-ranked results are geometrically verified, considering the high computational cost in full geometric verification. In this paper, we propose to represent the spatial context of local features into binary codes, and implicitly achieve geometric verification by efficient comparison of the binary codes. Besides, we explore the multimode property of local features to further boost the retrieval performance. Experiments on holidays, Paris, and Oxford building benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24577195

  17. Clinical evaluation of using semantic searching engine for radiological imaging services in RIS-integrated PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Tonghui; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hua, Yanqing; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    We had designed a semantic searching engine (SSE) for radiological imaging to search both reports and images in RIS-integrated PACS environment. In this presentation, we present evaluation results of this SSE about how it impacting the radiologists' behaviors in reporting for different kinds of examinations, and how it improving the performance of retrieval and usage of historical images in RIS-integrated PACS.

  18. Design of Content Based Image Retrieval Scheme for Diabetic Retinopathy Images using Harmony Search Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sivakamasundari, J; Natarajan, V

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disorder that affects the structure of retinal blood vessels due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Automated segmentation of blood vessel is vital for periodic screening and timely diagnosis. An attempt has been made to generate continuous retinal vasculature for the design of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) application. The typical normal and abnormal retinal images are preprocessed to improve the vessel contrast. The blood vessels are segmented using evolutionary based Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) combined with Otsu Multilevel Thresholding (MLT) method by best objective functions. The segmentation results are validated with corresponding ground truth images using binary similarity measures. The statistical, textural and structural features are obtained from the segmented images of normal and DR affected retina and are analyzed. CBIR in medical image retrieval applications are used to assist physicians in clinical decision-support techniques and research fields. A CBIR system is developed using HSA based Otsu MLT segmentation technique and the features obtained from the segmented images. Similarity matching is carried out between the features of query and database images using Euclidean Distance measure. Similar images are ranked and retrieved. The retrieval performance of CBIR system is evaluated in terms of precision and recall. The CBIR systems developed using HSA based Otsu MLT and conventional Otsu MLT methods are compared. The retrieval performance such as precision and recall are found to be 96% and 58% for CBIR system using HSA based Otsu MLT segmentation. This automated CBIR system could be recommended for use in computer assisted diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy screening. PMID:25996728

  19. Comparing image search behaviour in the ARRS GoldMiner search engine and a clinical PACS/RIS.

    PubMed

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Do, Bao; Rubin, Daniel; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Information search has changed the way we manage knowledge and the ubiquity of information access has made search a frequent activity, whether via Internet search engines or increasingly via mobile devices. Medical information search is in this respect no different and much research has been devoted to analyzing the way in which physicians aim to access information. Medical image search is a much smaller domain but has gained much attention as it has different characteristics than search for text documents. While web search log files have been analysed many times to better understand user behaviour, the log files of hospital internal systems for search in a PACS/RIS (Picture Archival and Communication System, Radiology Information System) have rarely been analysed. Such a comparison between a hospital PACS/RIS search and a web system for searching images of the biomedical literature is the goal of this paper. Objectives are to identify similarities and differences in search behaviour of the two systems, which could then be used to optimize existing systems and build new search engines. Log files of the ARRS GoldMiner medical image search engine (freely accessible on the Internet) containing 222,005 queries, and log files of Stanford's internal PACS/RIS search called radTF containing 18,068 queries were analysed. Each query was preprocessed and all query terms were mapped to the RadLex (Radiology Lexicon) terminology, a comprehensive lexicon of radiology terms created and maintained by the Radiological Society of North America, so the semantic content in the queries and the links between terms could be analysed, and synonyms for the same concept could be detected. RadLex was mainly created for the use in radiology reports, to aid structured reporting and the preparation of educational material (Lanlotz, 2006) [1]. In standard medical vocabularies such as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) specific terms of radiology are often underrepresented, therefore RadLex was considered to be the best option for this task. The results show a surprising similarity between the usage behaviour in the two systems, but several subtle differences can also be noted. The average number of terms per query is 2.21 for GoldMiner and 2.07 for radTF, the used axes of RadLex (anatomy, pathology, findings, …) have almost the same distribution with clinical findings being the most frequent and the anatomical entity the second; also, combinations of RadLex axes are extremely similar between the two systems. Differences include a longer length of the sessions in radTF than in GoldMiner (3.4 and 1.9 queries per session on average). Several frequent search terms overlap but some strong differences exist in the details. In radTF the term "normal" is frequent, whereas in GoldMiner it is not. This makes intuitive sense, as in the literature normal cases are rarely described whereas in clinical work the comparison with normal cases is often a first step. The general similarity in many points is likely due to the fact that users of the two systems are influenced by their daily behaviour in using standard web search engines and follow this behaviour in their professional search. This means that many results and insights gained from standard web search can likely be transferred to more specialized search systems. Still, specialized log files can be used to find out more on reformulations and detailed strategies of users to find the right content. PMID:26002820

  20. Hierarchical content-based image retrieval by dynamic indexing and guided search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jane; Cheung, King H.; Liu, James; Guo, Linong

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to content-based image retrieval by using dynamic indexing and guided search in a hierarchical structure, and extending data mining and data warehousing techniques. The proposed algorithms include: a wavelet-based scheme for multiple image feature extraction, the extension of a conventional data warehouse and an image database to an image data warehouse for dynamic image indexing, an image data schema for hierarchical image representation and dynamic image indexing, a statistically based feature selection scheme to achieve flexible similarity measures, and a feature component code to facilitate query processing and guide the search for the best matching. A series of case studies are reported, which include a wavelet-based image color hierarchy, classification of satellite images, tropical cyclone pattern recognition, and personal identification using multi-level palmprint and face features.

  1. Adapted waveform analysis, wavelet packets, and local cosine libraries as a tool for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coifman, Ronald R.; Woog, Lionel J.

    1995-09-01

    Adapted wave form analysis, refers to a collection of FFT like adapted transform algorithms. Given an image these methods provide special matched collections of templates (orthonormal bases) enabling an efficient coding of the image. Perhaps the closest well known example of such coding method is provided by musical notation, where each segment of music is represented by a musical score made up of notes (templates) characterised by their duration, pitch, location and amplitude, our method corresponds to transcribing the music in as few notes as possible. The extension to images and video is straightforward we describe the image by collections of oscillatory patterns (paint brush strokes)of various sizes locations and amplitudes using a variety of orthogonal bases. These selected basis functions are chosen inside predefined libraries of oscillatory localized functions (trigonometric and wavelet-packets waveforms) so as to optimize the number of parameters needed to describe our object. These algorithms are of complexity N log N opening the door for a large range of applications in signal and image processing, such as compression, feature extraction denoising and enhancement. In particular we describe a class of special purpose compressions for fingerprint irnages, as well as denoising tools for texture and noise extraction. We start by relating traditional Fourier methods to wavelet, wavelet-packet based algorithms using a recent refinement of the windowed sine and cosine transforms. We will then derive an adapted local sine transform show it's relation to wavelet and wavelet-packet analysis and describe an analysis toolkit illustrating the merits of different adaptive and nonadaptive schemes.

  2. A survey of medical students on the impact of a new digital imaging library in the dissection room.

    PubMed

    Turmezei, T D; Tam, M D B S; Loughna, S

    2009-09-01

    Radiology has a recognised role in undergraduate anatomy education. The recent digitalisation of radiology has created new learning opportunities involving techniques such as image labelling, 3D reconstruction, and multiplanar reformatting. An opportunity was identified at the University of Nottingham to create a digital library of normal radiology images as a learner-driven adjunct in anatomy dissection sessions. We describe the process of creating a de novo digital library by sourcing images for presentation at computer workstations. Students' attitudes towards this new resource were assessed using a questionnaire which used a 5 point Likert scale and also offered free text responses. One hundred and forty-one out of 260 students (54%) completed the questionnaire. The most notable findings were: a positive response to the relevance of imaging to the session topics (median score 4), strong agreement that images should be available on the university website (median score 5), and disagreement that enough workstations were available (median score 2). About 24% of respondents suggested independently that images needed more labeling to help with orientation and identification. This first phase of supplying a comprehensive imaging library can be regarded as a success. Increasing availability and incorporating dynamic labeling are well recognized as important design concepts for electronic learning resources and these will be improved in the second phase of delivery as a direct result of student feedback. Hopefully other centers can benefit from this experience and will consider such a venture to be worthwhile. PMID:19637297

  3. Qualitative Confirmation of 9 Synthetic Cannabinoids and 20 Metabolites in Human Urine Using LCMS/MS and Library Search

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Hua-fen; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Synthetic cannabinoids are an emerging illicit drug class. The variety of available substances is large and ever-changing, making it difficult for laboratories to remain current. We present a qualitative LCMS/MS method identifying urinary metabolites of JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-250, RCS-4, and AM2201 and the parent compounds JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-210, JWH-250, RCS-4, AM2201, and MAM2201. Methods After enzymatic hydrolysis, urinary proteins were precipitated with acetonitrile. Chromatography utilized a 10 min gradient on a Kinetex XB-C18 column with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Scheduled multiple reaction monitoring survey scans were followed by information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion scan experiments on an ABSciex 5500 QTRAP mass spectrometer. Analytes were identified by software-assisted library searching against reference spectra. Results The method was fully validated, including proof of selectivity (no exogenous or endogenous interferences were observed), assessment of matrix effects (95122%) and recovery (5395%), determination of limits of detection (0.510 ng/mL), carry-over studies (thresholds between 100 and 1000 ng/mL), and determination of autosampler stability (samples were stable for at least 3 days). Hydrolysis efficiency was thoroughly investigated for a wide range of glucuronides and for the reference standard, JWH-018 5-hydroxypentyl glucuronide PMID:23458260

  4. Images of Computer Searching: Depictions in Educational Research Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Educational research textbooks often portray online computer searching as available only from distant database producers, or as something students can do for themselves without assistance from a reference librarian/search intermediary. User education may be needed in this area to correct users' misconceptions. (Author/EM)

  5. Photo Library of the Nevada Site Office (Includes historical archive of nuclear testing images)

    DOE Data Explorer

    See also the Historical Film Library at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/testfilms.aspx and the Current Film Library at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/current.aspx. Current films can be viewed online, but only short clips of the historical films are viewable. They can be ordered via an online request form for a very small shipping and handling fee.

  6. Developing a Web Tool for Searching and Viewing Collections of High-Quality Cultural Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Searching for information and viewing visual representations of products in e-organisations is a common activity of the e-visitors to these organisations. For example, in e-museums, users are shown images or other visual information of the existing objects. The aim of this paper is to present a tool which supports the effective searching

  7. VisualRank: applying PageRank to large-scale image search.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yushi; Baluja, Shumeet

    2008-11-01

    Because of the relative ease in understanding and processing text, commercial image-search systems often rely on techniques that are largely indistinguishable from text-search. Recently, academic studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing image-based features to provide alternative or additional signals. However, it remains uncertain whether such techniques will generalize to a large number of popular web queries, and whether the potential improvement to search quality warrants the additional computational cost. In this work, we cast the image-ranking problem into the task of identifying "authority" nodes on an inferred visual similarity graph and propose VisualRank to analyze the visual link structures among images. The images found to be "authorities" are chosen as those that answer the image-queries well. To understand the performance of such an approach in a real system, we conducted a series of large-scale experiments based on the task of retrieving images for 2000 of the most popular products queries. Our experimental results show significant improvement, in terms of user satisfaction and relevancy, in comparison to the most recent Google Image Search results. Maintaining modest computational cost is vital to ensuring that this procedure can be used in practice; we describe the techniques required to make this system practical for large scale deployment in commercial search engines. PMID:18787237

  8. Bad Pixels, Cosmic Rays, and PSF-libraries from deep HST/WFC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, B. E.; Duchene, N. S.; Schroeder, L. L.; Gordon, J. M.; Neuschaefer, L. W.; Windhorst, R. A.

    1992-12-01

    We present the careful removal of bad pixels and cosmic-ray (``CR'') events from HST/WFC images. The WFC bad-pixel map is known to vary with time, because the intense on-orbit CR-flux (see below) increases the dark-current of pixels that have been hit by CR's many times. This is not always properly reflected in the standard WFC dark-frames. We have thus begun a program to monitor and update ``new'' WFC bad pixels over time. Similarly, we present the construction of a library of PSF-stars from available Cycle 1 images across the WFC field-of-view in various filters. This will allow us to monitor the PSF's time- and focus-dependence, and to properly deconvolve objects seen in sub-sections of WFC images with no available nearby PSF-star (see our other HST AAS-posters this Volume). To assess the on-orbit cosmic-ray flux quantitatively, we constructed CR-clipped images from our 8---12 orbit WFC data-cube through an iterative local 2sigma -clip that uses and preserves the local S/N per pixel, and subtracted these from the straight image average. The resulting ``CR-images'' were processed with FOCAS using various detection thresholds. Differential CR ``magnitude-counts'' follow from their summed DN/unit time (as if all CR's had been misclassified as objects). The CR-``counts'' have a power-law slope gamma =~ 0.60 [N(m)~ m(gamma ) ]. At Gunn g=25 mag, the CR-``counts'' are ~ 1.0 dex higher in amplitude than the galaxy counts. They continue with a nearly ``Euclidean'' slope down to g=27.5 mag (our 1-sigma point source sensitivity), below which they turnover due to ``incompleteness'' and FOCAS splitting problems. Their formal sky-integral thus ``diverges'' into the noise, and their integral surface density approaches ~ 10(8) \\ deg(-2) down to g=28 mag, which corresponds to 1 out of every 12 pixels in the WFC data-cube, or an integrated sky-signal of at least V =~ 25.0--25.75 mag/arcsec(-2) . This work was supported by NASA/HST grants GO-2405-01-87A from STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  9. Parallel content-based sub-image retrieval using hierarchical searching

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Qi, Xin; Xing, Fuyong; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel; Foran, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The capacity to systematically search through large image collections and ensembles and detect regions exhibiting similar morphological characteristics is central to pathology diagnosis. Unfortunately, the primary methods used to search digitized, whole-slide histopathology specimens are slow and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. The central objective of this research was to design, develop, and evaluate a content-based image retrieval system to assist doctors for quick and reliable content-based comparative search of similar prostate image patches. Method: Given a representative image patch (sub-image), the algorithm will return a ranked ensemble of image patches throughout the entire whole-slide histology section which exhibits the most similar morphologic characteristics. This is accomplished by first performing hierarchical searching based on a newly developed hierarchical annular histogram (HAH). The set of candidates is then further refined in the second stage of processing by computing a color histogram from eight equally divided segments within each square annular bin defined in the original HAH. A demand-driven master-worker parallelization approach is employed to speed up the searching procedure. Using this strategy, the query patch is broadcasted to all worker processes. Each worker process is dynamically assigned an image by the master process to search for and return a ranked list of similar patches in the image. Results: The algorithm was tested using digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained prostate cancer specimens. We have achieved an excellent image retrieval performance. The recall rate within the first 40 rank retrieved image patches is ∼90%. Availability and implementation: Both the testing data and source code can be downloaded from http://pleiad.umdnj.edu/CBII/Bioinformatics/. Contact: lin.yang@uky.edu PMID:24215030

  10. Hyperspectral Image-Based Broad Area Search (HIBAS) Final Report Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W

    2003-01-07

    Two of the more important tasks faced by image analysts are broad area search and site monitoring. In each case, the objective is to detect occurrences of targets of interest (e.g., buildings, mobile targets of military significance, etc.). In broad area search, large swaths of countryside are imaged. In site monitoring, a number of smaller areas of interest are imaged multiple times. The crisis currently facing image analysts lies in their inability to analyze massive volumes of remotely sensed imagery in a time critical fashion. The problem has become more critical with technological advances that have enabled images of increasing size, resolution and dimensionality (such as monochrome images at higher spatial resolution--e.g., Digital Globe imagery--and hyperspectral images at higher spectral resolution) to be rapidly acquired.

  11. Analyzing web log files of the health on the net HONmedia search engine to define typical image search tasks for image retrieval evaluation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henning; Boyer, Célia; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Hersh, William; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Medical institutions produce ever-increasing amount of diverse information. The digital form makes these data available for the use on more than a single patient. Images are no exception to this. However, less is known about how medical professionals search for visual medical information and how they want to use it outside of the context of a single patient. This article analyzes ten months of usage log files of the Health on the Net (HON) medical media search engine. Key words were extracted from all queries and the most frequent terms and subjects were identified. The dataset required much pre-treatment. Problems included national character sets, spelling errors and the use of terms in several languages. The results show that media search, particularly for images, was frequently used. The most common queries were for general concepts (e.g., heart, lung). To define realistic information needs for the ImageCLEFmed challenge evaluation (Cross Language Evaluation Forum medical image retrieval), we used frequent queries that were still specific enough to at least cover two of the three axes on modality, anatomic region, and pathology. Several research groups evaluated their image retrieval algorithms based on these defined topics. PMID:17911928

  12. Simultaneous screening of targeted and non-targeted contaminants using an LC-QTOF-MS system and automated MS/MS library searching.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Lopez, S; Hernando, M D; García-Calvo, E; Fernández-Alba, A R; Ulaszewska, M M

    2014-09-01

    Simultaneous high-resolution full-scan and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis using time of flight mass spectrometry brings an answer for increasing demand of retrospective and non-targeted data analysis. Such analysis combined with spectral library searching is a promising tool for targeted and untargeted screening of small molecules. Despite considerable extension of the panel of compounds of tandem mass spectral libraries, the heterogeneity of spectral data poses a major challenge against the effective usage of spectral libraries. Performance evaluation of available LC-MS/MS libraries will significantly increase credibility in the search results. The present work was aimed to evaluate fluctuation of MS/MS pattern, in the peak intensities distribution together with mass accuracy measurements, and in consequence, performance compliant with ion ratio and mass error criteria as principles in identification processes for targeted and untargeted contaminants at trace levels. Matrix effect and ultra-trace levels of concentration (from 50 ng l(-1) to 1000 ng l(-1) were evaluated as potential source of inaccuracy in the performance of spectral matching. Matrix-matched samples and real samples were screened for proof of applicability. By manual review of data and application of ion ratio and ppm error criteria, false negatives were obtained; this number diminished when in-house library was used, while with on-line MS/MS databases 100% of positive samples were found. In our experience, intensity of peaks across spectra was highly correlated to the concentration effect and matrix complexity. In turn, analysis of spectra acquired at trace concentrations and in different matrices results in better performance in providing correct and reliable identification. PMID:25230185

  13. Synthesis and systematic evaluation of dark resonance energy transfer (DRET)-based library and its application in cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Kang, Nam-Young; Yu, Xiaotong; Sahu, Srikanta; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report a new strategy for constructing a dye library with large Stokes shifts. By coupling a dark donor with BODIPY acceptors of tunable high quantum yield, a novel dark resonance energy transfer (DRET)-based library, named BNM, has been synthesized. Upon excitation of the dark donor (BDN) at 490 nm, the absorbed energy is transferred to the acceptor (BDM) with high efficiency, which was tunable in a broad range from 557 nm to 716 nm, with a high quantum yield of up to 0.8. It is noteworthy to mention that the majority of the non-radiative energy loss of the donor was converted into the acceptor's fluorescence output with a minimum leak of donor emission. Fluorescence imaging tested in live cells showed that the BNM compounds are cell-permeable and can also be employed for live-cell imaging. This is a new library which can be excited through a dark donor allowing for strong fluorescence emission in a wide range of wavelengths. Thus, the BNM library is well suited for high-throughput screening or multiplex experiments in biological applications by using a single laser excitation source. PMID:25530300

  14. Optical Disc Technology and the Cooperative Television Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranch, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of individual television film libraries combining film holdings onto optical disks and developing networks that would allow online searching of, access to, and transmission of video images. It is concluded that recent advances in technology would support fast and cost effective image retrieval with no loss in video

  15. Global Image Dissimilarity in Macaque Inferotemporal Cortex Predicts Human Visual Search Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sripati, Arun P.; Olson, Carl R.

    2010-01-01

    Finding a target in a visual scene can be easy or difficult depending on the nature of the distractors. Research in humans has suggested that search is more difficult the more similar the target and distractors are to each other. However, it has not yielded an objective definition of similarity. We hypothesized that visual search performance depends on similarity as determined by the degree to which two images elicit overlapping patterns of neuronal activity in visual cortex. To test this idea, we recorded from neurons in monkey inferotemporal cortex (IT) and assessed visual search performance in humans using pairs of images formed from the same local features in different global arrangements. The ability of IT neurons to discriminate between two images was strongly predictive of the ability of humans to discriminate between them during visual search, accounting overall for 90% of the variance in human performance. A simple physical measure of global similarity – the degree of overlap between the coarse footprints of a pair of images – largely explains both the neuronal and the behavioral results. To explain the relation between population activity and search behavior, we propose a model in which the efficiency of global oddball search depends on contrast-enhancing lateral interactions in high-order visual cortex. PMID:20107054

  16. Arc-An OAI Service Provider for Digital Library Federation; Kepler-An OAI Data/Service Provider for the Individual; Information Objects and Rights Management: A Mediation-Based Approach to DRM Interoperability; Automated Name Authority Control and Enhanced Searching in the Levy Collection; Renardus Project Developments and the Wider Digital Library Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaoming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Nelson, Michael L.; Erickson, John S.; DiLauro, Tim; Choudhury, G. Sayeed; Patton, Mark; Warner, James W.; Brown, Elizabeth W.; Heery, Rachel; Carpenter, Leona; Day, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss the OAI (Open Archive Initiative), an interface between data providers and service providers; information objects and digital rights management interoperability; digitizing library collections, including automated name authority control, metadata, and text searching engines; and building digital library services…

  17. Ideal and visual-search observers: accounting for anatomical noise in search tasks with planar nuclear imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.

    2015-03-01

    Model observers have frequently been used for hardware optimization of imaging systems. For model observers to reliably mimic human performance it is important to account for the sources of variations in the images. Detection-localization tasks are complicated by anatomical noise present in the images. Several scanning observers have been proposed for such tasks. The most popular of these, the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) incorporates anatomical variations through covariance matrices. We propose the visual-search (VS) observer as an alternative to the CHO to account for anatomical noise. The VS observer is a two-step process which first identifies suspicious tumor candidates and then performs a detailed analysis on them. The identification of suspicious candidates (search) implicitly accounts for anatomical noise. In this study we present a comparison of these two observers with human observers. The application considered is collimator optimization for planar nuclear imaging. Both observers show similar trends in performance with the VS observer slightly closer to human performance.

  18. An Adaptive Image Enhancement Technique by Combining Cuckoo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. PMID:25784928

  19. Improved sequential search algorithms for classification in hyperspectral remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakariyakul, Songyot

    2014-11-01

    Two new sequential search algorithms for feature selection in hyperspectral remote sensing images are proposed. Since many wavebands in hyperspectral images are redundant and irrelevant, the use of feature selection to improve classification results is highly needed. First, we present a new generalized steepest ascent (GSA) feature selection technique that improves upon the prior steepest ascent algorithm by selecting a better starting search point and performing a more thorough search. It is guaranteed to provide solutions that equal or exceed those of the classical sequential forward floating selection algorithm. However, when the number of available wavebands is large, the computational load required for the GSA algorithm becomes excessive. We thus propose a modification of the improved floating forward selection algorithm which is more computationally efficient. Experimental results for two hyperspectral data sets show that our proposed algorithms yield better classification results than other suboptimal search algorithms.

  20. A Survey of Online Bibliographic Searching in the Reference Department of a Medium-Sized University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Jeanie M.

    This paper describes the development of online bibliographic searching at Lamar University, a state-supported university in Beaumont, Texas, and the results of a 1983 users' survey evaluating satisfaction with online searching services. Online searching is defined and its advantages and disadvantages are briefly outlined. The equipment used in…

  1. A neotropical Miocene pollen database employing image-based search and semantic modeling1

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing Ginger; Cao, Hongfei; Barb, Adrian; Punyasena, Surangi W.; Jaramillo, Carlos; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Digital microscopic pollen images are being generated with increasing speed and volume, producing opportunities to develop new computational methods that increase the consistency and efficiency of pollen analysis and provide the palynological community a computational framework for information sharing and knowledge transfer. • Methods: Mathematical methods were used to assign trait semantics (abstract morphological representations) of the images of neotropical Miocene pollen and spores. Advanced database-indexing structures were built to compare and retrieve similar images based on their visual content. A Web-based system was developed to provide novel tools for automatic trait semantic annotation and image retrieval by trait semantics and visual content. • Results: Mathematical models that map visual features to trait semantics can be used to annotate images with morphology semantics and to search image databases with improved reliability and productivity. Images can also be searched by visual content, providing users with customized emphases on traits such as color, shape, and texture. • Discussion: Content- and semantic-based image searches provide a powerful computational platform for pollen and spore identification. The infrastructure outlined provides a framework for building a community-wide palynological resource, streamlining the process of manual identification, analysis, and species discovery. PMID:25202648

  2. Study on Human Recognition by Ear Image Based on Genetic Local Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Tsurusawa, Hidenobu; Yuizono, Takaya; Sato, Kiminori; Nakayama, Shigeru

    An individual recognition system using the genetic local search with respect to ear images has been examined. We generated a set of individuals which are ramdomly selected from the ear images consisted of 50 registrants, and carried out genetic operations to the set of the individuals in order to lead to new generation. The local search is applied to some top elites with the best fitnesses in the new generation. The best fitness is searched between some positions selected near the elite position. Individual recognition experiment using the ear image with the uncertain data was carried out in respect of the method. As the result, it is noted that the registrant recognition rate was 100 percent, and it became 100 percent, at the un-registrant denial rate.

  3. What Can Pictures Tell Us About Web Pages? Improving Document Search Using Images.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vaamonde, Sergio; Torresani, Lorenzo; Fitzgibbon, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Web search engines do not use the images in the HTML pages to find relevant documents for a given query. Instead, they typically operate by computing a measure of agreement between the keywords provided by the user and only the text portion of each page. In this paper we study whether the content of the pictures appearing in a Web page can be used to enrich the semantic description of an HTML document and consequently boost the performance of a keyword-based search engine. We present a Web-scalable system that exploits a pure text-based search engine to find an initial set of candidate documents for a given query. Then, the candidate set is reranked using visual information extracted from the images contained in the pages. The resulting system retains the computational efficiency of traditional text-based search engines with only a small additional storage cost needed to encode the visual information. We test our approach on one of the TREC Million Query Track benchmarks where we show that the exploitation of visual content yields improvement in accuracies for two distinct text-based search engines, including the system with the best reported performance on this benchmark. We further validate our approach by collecting document relevance judgements on our search results using Amazon Mechanical Turk. The results of this experiment confirm the improvement in accuracy produced by our image-based reranker over a pure text-based system. PMID:26357348

  4. Hybrid Imaging-Periodicity Search for Radio Pulsars: A Pilot VLA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Molly; Wharton, Robert; Chatterjee, Shami; Cordes, James M.; Kaplan, David L. A.; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Crawford, Fronefield; Deller, Adam; Lazio, Joseph; Ransom, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all of the ~2300 known pulsars have been discovered using the standard period-dispersion measure (P-DM) search. In a P-DM search, time series intensity data are collected, de-dispersed for a set of trial DMs, and searched for periodic signals usually with frequency-domain algorithms but with fast-folding algorithms for long-period objects. Here we describe a hybrid imaging-periodicity search, an alternate method that uses an imaging survey to select radio point sources as pulsar candidates, followed by a deep P-DM search of these candidates using new or archival data. Since the hybrid search is largely conducted in the imaging domain of time-averaged intensities, it does not suffer reduced sensitivity (as the P-DM method does) when a pulsar signal is heavily modulated by orbital motion, pulse-broadened by scattering, or intermittently emitting (due to large-scale magnetospheric changes, eclipses, etc). As such, the hybrid method is sensitive to systems that are highly selected against in P-DM searches such as compact neutron star binaries, highly scattered millisecond pulsars, and pulsars with spin periods less than a millisecond (should they exist). Interferometric imaging also requires a lower significance threshold for detection than a periodicity search and is more robust against radio-frequency interference. We present preliminary results of a wide-field high dynamic range imaging survey conducted with the Jansky VLA at 1-2 GHz in a pilot program to test the efficacy of a hybrid imaging-periodicity search for radio pulsars in the Galactic plane. The survey region covers four square degrees (Galactic longitudes 32.5-36.5 degrees) using 38 pointings and overlaps with the Arecibo PALFA pulsar survey, which will be used as the periodicity component of our hybrid search. We analyze the observed properties of the 23 known radio pulsars in the survey region and discuss the implications for the selection process needed to narrow the thousands of detected compact sources down to high probability pulsar candidates for a full hybrid survey.

  5. Search algorithm complexity modeling with application to image alignment and matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelMarco, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Search algorithm complexity modeling, in the form of penetration rate estimation, provides a useful way to estimate search efficiency in application domains which involve searching over a hypothesis space of reference templates or models, as in model-based object recognition, automatic target recognition, and biometric recognition. The penetration rate quantifies the expected portion of the database that must be searched, and is useful for estimating search algorithm computational requirements. In this paper we perform mathematical modeling to derive general equations for penetration rate estimates that are applicable to a wide range of recognition problems. We extend previous penetration rate analyses to use more general probabilistic modeling assumptions. In particular we provide penetration rate equations within the framework of a model-based image alignment application domain in which a prioritized hierarchical grid search is used to rank subspace bins based on matching probability. We derive general equations, and provide special cases based on simplifying assumptions. We show how previously-derived penetration rate equations are special cases of the general formulation. We apply the analysis to model-based logo image alignment in which a hierarchical grid search is used over a geometric misalignment transform hypothesis space. We present numerical results validating the modeling assumptions and derived formulation.

  6. Leveraging Open Standards and Technologies to Search and Display Planetary Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M.; Schauer, C.; Quinol, M.; Trimble, J.

    2011-12-01

    Mars and the Moon have both been visited by multiple NASA spacecraft. A large number of images and other data have been gathered by the spacecraft and are publicly available in NASA's Planetary Data System. Through a collaboration with Google, Inc., the User Centered Technologies group at NASA Ames Resarch Center has developed at tool for searching and browsing among images from multiple Mars and Moon missions. Development of this tool was facilitated by the use of several open technologies and standards. First, an open-source full-text search engine is used to search both place names on the target and to find images matching a geographic region. Second, the published API of the Google Earth browser plugin is used to geolocate the images on a virtual globe and allow the user to navigate on the globe to see related images. The structure of the application also employs standard protocols and services. The back-end is exposed as RESTful APIs, which could be reused by other client systems in the future. Further, the communication between the front- and back-end portions of the system utilizes open data standards including XML and KML (Keyhole Markup Language) for representation of textual and geographic data. The creation of the search index was facilitated by reuse of existing, publicly available metadata, including the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature from the USGS, available in KML format. And the image metadata was reused from standards-compliant archives in the Planetary Data System. The system also supports collaboration with other tools by allowing export of search results in KML, and the ability to display those results in the Google Earth desktop application. We will demonstrate the search and visualization capabilities of the system, with emphasis on how the system facilitates reuse of data and services through the adoption of open standards.

  7. Crater detection via genetic search methods to reduce image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Joseph Paul; Ding, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Recent approaches to crater detection have been inspired by face detection's use of gray-scale texture features. Using gray-scale texture features for supervised machine learning crater detection algorithms provides better classification of craters in planetary images than previous methods. When using Haar features it is typical to generate thousands of numerical values from each candidate crater image. This magnitude of image features to extract and consider can spell disaster when the application is an entire planetary surface. One solution is to reduce the number of features extracted and considered in order to increase accuracy as well as speed. Feature subset selection provides the operational classifiers with a concise and denoised set of features by reducing irrelevant and redundant features. Feature subset selection is known to be NP-hard. To provide an efficient suboptimal solution, four genetic algorithms are proposed to use greedy selection, weighted random selection, and simulated annealing to distinguish discriminate features from indiscriminate features. Inspired by analysis regarding the relationship between subset size and accuracy, a squeezing algorithm is presented to shrink the genetic algorithm's chromosome cardinality during the genetic iterations. A significant increase in the classification performance of a Bayesian classifier in crater detection using image texture features is observed.

  8. Orbital Imaging Radar and the Search for Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Grant, J. A.; Hensley, S.; Maxwell, T. A.; Plaut, J. J.; Rosen, P.; Shepard, M. K.; Simpson, R.

    2001-01-01

    The surface of Mars has been modified by a range of geologic processes, and many regions are mantled by varying depths of wind-blown dust, volcanic ash, and fluvially deposited or other water-lain sediments. We are proposing an orbital mission carrying a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that can penetrate a significant depth of overlying material to reveal the detailed geomorphology as it relates to the changing fluvial, eolian, volcanic, and cratering history of Mars. Moreover, the data to be returned are of direct relevance to the search for past and present occurrences of liquid water, life, changing martian climate, and geologic history (e.g., origin of the northern plains, mechanisms for past and possible present valley formation, and genesis of widespread mantling deposits), the validation of potential landing sites for rover safety, and evaluation of sub-surface accessibility for drilling.

  9. Public Relations in Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent

  10. Multi-scale saliency search in image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Slepoy, Alexander; Campisi, Anthony; Backer, Alejandro

    2005-10-01

    Saliency detection in images is an important outstanding problem both in machine vision design and the understanding of human vision mechanisms. Recently, seminal work by Itti and Koch resulted in an effective saliency-detection algorithm. We reproduce the original algorithm in a software application Vision and explore its limitations. We propose extensions to the algorithm that promise to improve performance in the case of difficult-to-detect objects.

  11. An iterative framework for EEG-based image search: robust retrieval with weak classifiers.

    PubMed

    Ušćumlić, Marija; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Millán, José Del R

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the framework for brain-coupled image search, where the Electroencephalography (EEG) channel under rapid serial visual presentation protocol is used to detect user preferences. Extending previous works on the synergy between content-based image labeling and EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI), we propose a different perspective on iterative coupling. Previously, the iterations were used to improve the set of EEG-based image labels before propagating them to the unseen images for the final retrieval. In our approach we accumulate the evidence of the true labels for each image in the database through iterations. This is done by propagating the EEG-based labels of the presented images at each iteration to the rest of images in the database. Our results demonstrate a continuous improvement of the labeling performance across iterations despite the moderate EEG-based labeling (AUC <75%). The overall analysis is done in terms of the single-trial EEG decoding performance and the image database reorganization quality. Furthermore, we discuss the EEG-based labeling performance with respect to a search task given the same image database. PMID:23977196

  12. An Iterative Framework for EEG-based Image Search: Robust Retrieval with Weak Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Ušćumlić, Marija; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Millán, José del R.

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the framework for brain-coupled image search, where the Electroencephalography (EEG) channel under rapid serial visual presentation protocol is used to detect user preferences. Extending previous works on the synergy between content-based image labeling and EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI), we propose a different perspective on iterative coupling. Previously, the iterations were used to improve the set of EEG-based image labels before propagating them to the unseen images for the final retrieval. In our approach we accumulate the evidence of the true labels for each image in the database through iterations. This is done by propagating the EEG-based labels of the presented images at each iteration to the rest of images in the database. Our results demonstrate a continuous improvement of the labeling performance across iterations despite the moderate EEG-based labeling (AUC <75%). The overall analysis is done in terms of the single-trial EEG decoding performance and the image database reorganization quality. Furthermore, we discuss the EEG-based labeling performance with respect to a search task given the same image database. PMID:23977196

  13. Searching for T dwarfs in IC 2391 using methane imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, S. R.; Tinney, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    We have performed a 970 arcmin2 (1.75 pc2) survey of the young cluster IC 2391 using the High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager on the Very Large Telescope. Observations were made in both the CH4 and H filters, targeting the methane absorption found in T dwarfs. From our survey of the cluster, five candidate T dwarfs were found. This is substantially smaller than the number that would be found by an equivalent near-infrared broad-band imaging survey, and allowed rapid spectroscopy of all five candidates. Follow-up spectroscopy was carried out using the Folded-port Infrared Echellette on Magellan. These spectra confirm that none of these objects are T dwarfs. This negative result emphasizes the critical importance of follow-up spectroscopy for any photometrically selected candidates, even those from methane imaging. Simulations of the photometric data set, combined with data for known IC 2391 members, imply that the power-law mass function in IC 2391 between 0.003 and 0.13 M⊙ has a slope of α < 1.7.

  14. Search for Exoplanets around Young Stellar Objects by Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyama, Taichi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    SEEDS project, exploring exoplanets and protoplanetary disks with Subaru/HiCIAO, has observed about 500 stars by Direct Imaging from 2009 Dec to 2015 Apr. Among these targets we explore around Young Stellar Objects (YSOs; age ≦ 10Myr) which often have the protoplanetary disks where planets are being formed in order to detect young exoplanets and to understand the formation process. We analyzed 66 YSOs (about 100 data in total) with LOCI data reduction. We will report the results (companion candidates and detection limit) of our exploration.

  15. Successes and Failures of Patrons Searching the Online Catalog at a Large Academic Library: A Transaction Log Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Rhonda N.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on a transaction log study of the online catalog at North Carolina State University-Raleigh that was conducted to determine users' searching behavior and the problems they experienced. Failure rates for various searches are examined, usage patterns are described, and results are compared with data from earlier studies. (seven references)…

  16. Developing a Web Tool for Searching and Viewing Collections of High-Quality Cultural Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Searching for information and viewing visual representations of products in e-organisations is a common activity of the e-visitors to these organisations. For example, in e-museums, users are shown images or other visual information of the existing objects. The aim of this paper is to present a tool which supports the effective searching…

  17. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a "background-known-statistically" protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer. PMID:26835503

  18. WCSTools 3.0: More Tools for Image Astrometry and Catalog Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mink, Douglas J.

    For five years, WCSTools has provided image astrometry for astronomers who need accurate positions for objects they wish to observe. Other functions have been added and improved since the package was first released. Support has been added for new catalogs, such as the GSC-ACT, 2MASS Point Source Catalog, and GSC II, as they have been published. A simple command line interface can search any supported catalog, returning information in several standard formats, whether the catalog is on a local disk or searchable over the World Wide Web. The catalog searching routine can be located on either end (or both ends!) of such a web connection, and the output from one catalog search can be used as the input to another search.

  19. Assessing the sensitivity of images in research collections: A new approach at the Wellcome Library.

    PubMed

    Wakely, Helen; Dakin, Carly

    2015-06-01

    In 2014 The Wellcome Library, part of the Wellcome Trust, introduced a new policy in order to address research access to personal data within its collections. The policy has now been used by library staff for almost a year. The policy was devised using a multi-stage approach which consisted of internal surveys and 1:1 interviews. Library staff can use the policy to guide decisions based on what level of access to award material donated or contributed to the Wellcome collections. The policy has been applied to 1 - a series of victorian medical photographs supplied by University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, and 2 - an album of family photographs from the collection of the psychiatrist Dr Ann Dally. Following almost a year in circulation the advantages and disadvantages can now be summarised. PMID:26203940

  20. Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special section includes two articles that review products and services for the automated library environment. Highlights include ergonomic products; products for visually, hearing-, and speech-impaired users; analog film recorders; computer filters; document imaging systems; electric filing systems; and printers. A list of vendors is…

  1. Diversity oriented fluorescence library approach (DOFLA) for live cell imaging probe development.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seong-Wook; Kang, Nam-Young; Park, Sung-Jin; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Yun Kyung; Lee, Jun-Seok; Chang, Young-Tae

    2014-04-15

    A cell is the smallest functional unit of life. All forms of life rely on cellular processes to maintain normal functions, and changes in cell function induced by metabolic disturbances, physicochemical damage, infection, or abnormal gene expression may cause disease. To understand basic biology and to develop therapeutics for diseases, researchers need to study live cells. Along with advances in fluorescence microscopy and in vitro cell culture, live-cell imaging has become an essential tool in modern biology for the study of molecular and cellular events. Although researchers have often used fluorescent proteins to visualize cell-type-specific markers, this method requires genetic manipulations, which may not be appropriate in nontransgenic cells. Immunodetection of cellular markers requires the use of xenogenic antibodies, which may not detect intracellular markers in live cells. One option for overcoming these problems is the use of fluorescent small molecules targeted to specific cell types, which can enter live cells and interact with molecules of interest. We have used combinatorial chemistry to develop a large number of fluorescent small molecules as new imaging probes even without prior information about the probes' binding targets and mechanism, a strategy that we call the diversity oriented fluorescence library approach (DOFLA). We have used DOFLA to produce novel sensors and probes that detect a variety of biological and chemical molecules in vivo as well as in vitro. In this Account, we describe a series of fluorescent small molecules developed using DOFLA that bind specifically to particular cell types. These molecules provide new ways to detect and isolate these cells. The fluorescent probes CDy1, CDg4, and CDb8 tag embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells but not fibroblasts or germ-line cells. CDr3 binds to an intracellular neural stem cell marker, fatty acid binding protein 7, which allows researchers to separate neural stem cells from embryonic stems cells and more differentiated cells such as neurons and glia. In addition, we have developed CDr10, which distinguishes microglia from neurons and glia. CDy2 stains myocytes much more brightly than myoblasts because of the increase in mitochondrial membrane potential during myogenesis. GY and PiY selectively stain ? and ? cells of pancreatic islets, respectively. Histamine Blue binds directly to histamine and stains basophils and macrophages containing high quantities of histamine. Glutathione Green allows researchers to measure the level of glutathione in cells and tissues by binding to glutathione and then triggering a hypsochromic shift. We have also developed a set of compounds that bind to cancer cells based on the cell type of origin and biocompatible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanotags for cancer detection. In addition to discussing these new probes and their cell-type specificity, we also describe their applications in new assays, cell characterization, and pathology studies. PMID:24552450

  2. Cathodoluminescence : an imaging technique for the search of extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramboz, C.; Rubert, Y.; Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Lerouge, C.

    2012-04-01

    Solids irradiated by a 10-20 keV electron beam emit ligth in the UV-visible range, which is called cathodoluminescence (CL). CL imagery is a powerful tool for visualizing minerals and their internal structures (lattice defects, zoning). For example, terrestrial calcite, either of sedimentary or biogenic origin, often display a bright orange CL, as a result of the incorporation of trace Mn2+ in its lattice. Aragonite can also be discriminated from calcite by its green CL. Carbonates are a major target for the search of life on Mars, and CL imagery could contribute to reveal carbonates in situ. Thomas et al. [1] have validated the concept of an electron lamp to make CL imagery of a rock surface placed in a martian CO2 atmosphere. We present 2 examples of terrestrial bacterial microstructures that are revealed by CL. (1) In Sinemurian sediments from the Montmiral borehole (Valence Basin, France), banded wavy calcite in contact with pyrite represents fossilized biofilms of sulfato-reducing bacteria, as confirmed by the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite ~+36 %0 PDB. (2) At l'Ile Crémieux, north of the Valence basin, a dense filamentous microbial/fungal community with a bright orange CL signature is embedded in vuggy calcite from a tectonic vein. The mat is anchored 1-2 mm deep in the oolitic veinwall and emerges at right angle in the 'open' fracture space. Finally, carbonate vesicles and exhalite crusts from the Svalbard basalt in Groendland, with orange CL, are shown as analogues to carbonates from the martian ALH84001 igneous meteorite. [1]Thomas et al. (2009) in A. Gucsik (Ed.) "Cathodoluminescence and Its Application in the Planetary Sciences"

  3. Direct Imaging Search for Extrasolar Planets in the Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kodai; Matsuo, Taro; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Konishi, Mihokko; Sudo, Jun; Tanii, Ryoko; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyn; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E,; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; McElwain, Mike; Serabyn, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the H and K(sub S) bands using HiCIAO combined with adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the H band around 9 stars. Five of these 13 were confirmed to be background stars by measurement of their proper motion. One was not found in the second epoch observation, and thus was not a background or companion object. One had multi-epoch images, but the precision of its proper motion was not sufficient to conclude whether it was a background object. Four other candidates are waiting for second-epoch observations to determine their proper motion. Finally, the remaining two were confirmed to be 60 M(sub J) brown dwarf companions orbiting around HD 23514 (G0) and HII 1348 (K5), respectively, as had been reported in previous studies. In our observations, the average detection limit for a point source was 20.3 mag in the H band beyond 1.'' 5 from the central star. On the basis of this detection limit, we calculated the detection efficiency to be 90% for a planet with 6 to 12 Jovian masses and a semi-major axis of 50–1000 AU. For this reason we extrapolated the distribution of the planet mass and the semi-major axis derived from radial velocity observations, and adopted the planet evolution model Baraffe et al. (2003, A&A, 402, 701). Since there was no detection of a planet, we estimated the frequency of such planets to be less than 17.9% (2 sigma) around one star of the Pleiades cluster.

  4. Describing Images: A Case Study of Visual Literacy among Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the development of pedagogical methods for increasing the visual literacy skills of a group of library and information science students. Through a series of three assignments, students were asked to provide descriptive information for a set of historical photographs and record reflections on their…

  5. Cross-indexing of binary SIFT codes for large-scale image search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Houqiang; Zhang, Liyan; Zhou, Wengang; Tian, Qi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in mapping visual features into compact binary codes for applications on large-scale image collections. Encoding high-dimensional data as compact binary codes reduces the memory cost for storage. Besides, it benefits the computational efficiency since the computation of similarity can be efficiently measured by Hamming distance. In this paper, we propose a novel flexible scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) binarization (FSB) algorithm for large-scale image search. The FSB algorithm explores the magnitude patterns of SIFT descriptor. It is unsupervised and the generated binary codes are demonstrated to be dispreserving. Besides, we propose a new searching strategy to find target features based on the cross-indexing in the binary SIFT space and original SIFT space. We evaluate our approach on two publicly released data sets. The experiments on large-scale partial duplicate image retrieval system demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24710404

  6. Library Synthesis, Screening, and Discovery of Modified Zinc(II)-Bis(dipicolylamine) Probe for Enhanced Molecular Imaging of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc(II)-bis(dipicolylamine) (Zn-BDPA) coordination complexes selectively target the surfaces of dead and dying mammalian cells, and they have promise as molecular probes for imaging cell death. A necessary step toward eventual clinical imaging applications is the development of next-generation Zn-BDPA complexes with enhanced affinity for the cell death membrane biomarker, phosphatidylserine (PS). This study employed an iterative cycle of library synthesis and screening, using a novel rapid equilibrium dialysis assay, to discover a modified Zn-BDPA structure with high and selective affinity for vesicles containing PS. The lead structure was converted into a deep-red fluorescent probe and its targeting and imaging performance was compared with an unmodified control Zn-BDPA probe. The evaluation process included a series of FRET-based vesicle titration studies, cell microscopy experiments, and rat tumor biodistribution measurements. In all cases, the modified probe exhibited comparatively higher affinity and selectivity for the target membranes of dead and dying cells. The results show that this next-generation deep-red fluorescent Zn-BDPA probe is well suited for preclinical molecular imaging of cell death in cell cultures and animal models. Furthermore, it should be possible to substitute the deep-red fluorophore with alternative reporter groups that enable clinically useful, deep-tissue imaging modalities, such as MRI and nuclear imaging. PMID:24575875

  7. Imaging cytometry for counting circulating tumor cells: comparative analysis of the CellSearch vs ImageStream systems.

    PubMed

    Lpez-Riquelme, Natividad; Minguela, Alfredo; Villar-Permuy, Flori; Ciprian, Daniel; Castillejo, Adela; lvarez-Lpez, Mara-Rocio; Soto, Jos-Luis

    2013-12-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration is important clinically for identifying prognostic and predictive factors in patients with solid cancers. The CellSearch device (Veridex) is an immunomagnetic CTC selection and enumeration system used in clinical practice. The ImageStream (Amnis) combines the strengths of flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy in a single platform and has potential application for CTC counting. The performance in CTC enumeration was compared between the ImageStream and CellSearch systems. Various numbers of PANC-1 tumor cells were spiked into 7.5 mL of peripheral blood from a healthy donor. Before cell analysis by the ImageStream, tumor cell enrichment was performed by immunomagnetic selection with anti-EpPCAM. Anti-CD45 and anti-CK markers were used to discriminate between tumor cells and leukocytes. The ratios of tumor cells recovered from each dilution were calculated for both methods. The Wilcoxon rank test was applied to compare the results of the two methods and the reference value. The results of the two tested methods differed significantly from the reference value, but did not differ between them. Nevertheless, lower level of trueness and precision was observed in ImageStream when fewer numbers of CTCs were analyzed. Our results suggest that ImageStream platform for CTC enumeration has a potential value for the early diagnosis of disseminated disease, but needs an improvement of precision for the enumeration of low number of CTC. PMID:23510386

  8. Development of a Navigator and Imaging Techniques for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilen, Chris; /Carleton Coll. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-06-22

    This project contributes to the detection of flaws in the germanium detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Specifically, after imaging the detector surface with a precise imaging and measuring device, they developed software to stitch the resulting images together, applying any necessary rotations, offsets, and averaging, to produce a smooth image of the whole detector that can be used to detect flaws on the surface of the detector. These images were also tiled appropriately for the Google Maps API to use as a navigation tool, allowing viewers to smoothly zoom and pan across the detector surface. Automated defect identification can now be implemented, increasing the scalability of the germanium detector fabrication.

  9. iMap: A stable layout for navigating the Astronomy Picture of the Day image collection with embedded search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Wang, C.; Reese, J. P.; Zhang, H.; Tao, J.; Bonnell, J.

    2014-01-01

    Effective techniques for organizing and visualizing large image collections are in growing demand as visual search becomes increasingly popular. Targeting an online astronomy archive -- the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) archive with thousands of images -- we present a practical organizational approach for image search and clustering based on a measure of image similarity that leverages both visual and textual information. To lay out images, we introduce iMap, a treemap-based representation for visualizing and navigating image search and clustering results. We show the effectiveness of our approach by demonstrating experimental results from a comparative user study. The results indicate that iMap makes relevant images in APOD easier to find, in particular for educators seeking astronomy images to augment topical or educational classroom presentations.

  10. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  11. Fermilab Library projects

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P.; Ritchie, D.

    1990-05-03

    Preprint database management as done at various centers -- the subject of this workshop -- is hard to separate from the overall activities of the particular center. We therefore present the wider context at the Fermilab Library into which preprint database management fits. The day-to-day activities of the Library aside, the dominant activity at present is that of the ongoing Fermilab Library Automation. A less dominant but relatively time-consuming activity is that of doing more online searches in commercial databases on behalf of laboratory staff and visitors. A related activity is that of exploring the benefits of end-user searching of similar sources as opposed to library staff searching of the same. The Library Automation Project, which began about two years ago, is about to go fully online.'' The rationale behind this project is described in the documents developed during the December 1988--February 1989 planning phase.

  12. Characterizing the development of visual search expertise in pathology residents viewing whole slide images.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Graham, Anna R; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this study was to examine and characterize changes in the ways that pathology residents examine digital whole slide images as they progress through the residency training. A series of 20 digitized breast biopsy whole slide images (half benign and half malignant biopsies) were individually shown to 4 pathology residents at four points in time--at the beginning of their first, second, third, and fourth years of residency. Their task was to examine each image and select three areas that they would most want to zoom in on in order to view the diagnostic detail at higher resolution. Eye position was recorded as they scanned each whole slide image at low magnification. The data indicate that with each successive year of experience, the residents' search patterns do change. Overall, with time, it takes significantly less time to view an individual slide and decide where to zoom, significantly fewer fixations are generated overall, and there is less examination of nondiagnostic areas. Essentially, the residents' search becomes much more efficient. These findings are similar to those in radiology, and support the theory that an important aspect of the development of expertise is improved pattern recognition (taking in more information during the initial Gestalt or gist view) as well as improved allocation of attention and visual processing resources. Progression in improvements in visual search strategies was similar, but not identical, for the 4 residents. PMID:22835956

  13. Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Clark, K W; Gierada, D S; Moore, S M; Maffitt, D R; Koppel, P; Phillips, S R; Prior, F W

    2007-03-01

    The CT Image Library (CTIL) of the Lung Screening Study (LSS) network of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) consists of up to three annual screens using CT imaging from each of 17,308 participants with a significant history of smoking but no evidence of cancer at trial enrollment (Fall 2002-Spring 2004). Screens performed at numerous medical centers associated with 10 LSS-NLST screening centers are deidentified of protected health information and delivered to the CTIL via DVD, external hard disk, or Internet/Virtual Private Network transmission. The collection will be completed in late 2006. The CTIL is of potential interest to clinical researchers and software developers of nodule detection algorithms. Its attractiveness lies in its very specific, well-defined patient population, scanned via a common CT protocol, and in its collection of evenly spaced serial screens. In this work, we describe the technical details of the CTIL collection process from screening center retrieval through library storage. PMID:16783598

  14. BSIFT: toward data-independent codebook for large scale image search.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wengang; Li, Houqiang; Hong, Richang; Lu, Yijuan; Tian, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Bag-of-Words (BoWs) model based on Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) has been widely used in large-scale image retrieval applications. Feature quantization by vector quantization plays a crucial role in BoW model, which generates visual words from the high- dimensional SIFT features, so as to adapt to the inverted file structure for the scalable retrieval. Traditional feature quantization approaches suffer several issues, such as necessity of visual codebook training, limited reliability, and update inefficiency. To avoid the above problems, in this paper, a novel feature quantization scheme is proposed to efficiently quantize each SIFT descriptor to a descriptive and discriminative bit-vector, which is called binary SIFT (BSIFT). Our quantizer is independent of image collections. In addition, by taking the first 32 bits out from BSIFT as code word, the generated BSIFT naturally lends itself to adapt to the classic inverted file structure for image indexing. Moreover, the quantization error is reduced by feature filtering, code word expansion, and query sensitive mask shielding. Without any explicit codebook for quantization, our approach can be readily applied in image search in some resource-limited scenarios. We evaluate the proposed algorithm for large scale image search on two public image data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the index efficiency and retrieval accuracy of our approach. PMID:25585420

  15. Losing Libraries, Saving Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This summer, as public libraries continued to get budget hit after budget hit across the country, several readers asked for a comprehensive picture of the ravages of the recession on library service. In partnership with 2010 Movers & Shakers Laura Solomon and Mandy Knapp, Ohio librarians who bought the Losing Libraries domain name, "LJ" launched…

  16. Fast Image Search with Locality-Sensitive Hashing and Homogeneous Kernels Map

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-yi; Li, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    Fast image search with efficient additive kernels and kernel locality-sensitive hashing has been proposed. As to hold the kernel functions, recent work has probed methods to create locality-sensitive hashing, which guarantee our approach's linear time; however existing methods still do not solve the problem of locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) algorithm and indirectly sacrifice the loss in accuracy of search results in order to allow fast queries. To improve the search accuracy, we show how to apply explicit feature maps into the homogeneous kernels, which help in feature transformation and combine it with kernel locality-sensitive hashing. We prove our method on several large datasets and illustrate that it improves the accuracy relative to commonly used methods and make the task of object classification and, content-based retrieval more fast and accurate. PMID:25893210

  17. Fast image search with locality-sensitive hashing and homogeneous kernels map.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-yi; Li, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    Fast image search with efficient additive kernels and kernel locality-sensitive hashing has been proposed. As to hold the kernel functions, recent work has probed methods to create locality-sensitive hashing, which guarantee our approach's linear time; however existing methods still do not solve the problem of locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) algorithm and indirectly sacrifice the loss in accuracy of search results in order to allow fast queries. To improve the search accuracy, we show how to apply explicit feature maps into the homogeneous kernels, which help in feature transformation and combine it with kernel locality-sensitive hashing. We prove our method on several large datasets and illustrate that it improves the accuracy relative to commonly used methods and make the task of object classification and, content-based retrieval more fast and accurate. PMID:25893210

  18. XML in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy, Ed.

    This book presents examples of how libraries are using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to solve problems, expand services, and improve systems. Part I contains papers on using XML in library catalog records: "Updating MARC Records with XMLMARC" (Kevin S. Clarke, Stanford University) and "Searching and Retrieving XML Records via the Web" (Theo van…

  19. XML in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy, Ed.

    This book presents examples of how libraries are using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to solve problems, expand services, and improve systems. Part I contains papers on using XML in library catalog records: "Updating MARC Records with XMLMARC" (Kevin S. Clarke, Stanford University) and "Searching and Retrieving XML Records via the Web" (Theo van

  20. Object recognition based on Google's reverse image search and image similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, András.

    2015-12-01

    Image classification is one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision and a general multiclass classifier could solve many different tasks in image processing. Classification is usually done by shallow learning for predefined objects, which is a difficult task and very different from human vision, which is based on continuous learning of object classes and one requires years to learn a large taxonomy of objects which are not disjunct nor independent. In this paper I present a system based on Google image similarity algorithm and Google image database, which can classify a large set of different objects in a human like manner, identifying related classes and taxonomies.

  1. Optimum wavelet based masking for the contrast enhancement of medical images using enhanced cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Anitha, J

    2016-04-01

    Unsharp masking techniques are a prominent approach in contrast enhancement. Generalized masking formulation has static scale value selection, which limits the gain of contrast. In this paper, we propose an Optimum Wavelet Based Masking (OWBM) using Enhanced Cuckoo Search Algorithm (ECSA) for the contrast improvement of medical images. The ECSA can automatically adjust the ratio of nest rebuilding, using genetic operators such as adaptive crossover and mutation. First, the proposed contrast enhancement approach is validated quantitatively using Brain Web and MIAS database images. Later, the conventional nest rebuilding of cuckoo search optimization is modified using Adaptive Rebuilding of Worst Nests (ARWN). Experimental results are analyzed using various performance matrices, and our OWBM shows improved results as compared with other reported literature. PMID:26945462

  2. The impact of complaint management and service quality on organizational image: A case study at the Malaysian public university library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pei Kian; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Saludin, Mohamad Nasir

    2013-04-01

    Service failure frequently occurs. This affects customer expectations which lead to complaint. However, not all dissatisfied customers actually complain. Without customer feedback, it would be impossible for a company to know whether they needed a change for improvement. Thus, complaint management brings a learning experience to organization in order to provide better service. Therefore, it is important to identify customer dissatisfaction through a systematic complaint handling or management. The study proposes a model of systematic complaint management which applied to academic library as a tool of service recovery. As such, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the critical success factors of complaint management towards service quality, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the impact to organizational image at academic library. Three academic libraries have been identified and selected for this project, the Library of Tun Sri Lanang, UKM, UTeM and UNIMAS. Using the justice theory, this study investigates the perception of customers on complaint management in terms of outcomes they receive, procedures used by organization and interpersonal treatment. In this study, there are five factors of complaint management identified, which includes speed of recovery, management system, empowerment, culture and psychology and tangible compensation. A questionnaire was designed and used as the data gathering instrument. A total of 600 respondents participated in this study. Ten hypotheses were used to test the relationships between complaint management, service quality, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and organizational image. To measure the construct relationships, Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach was used. The results show that management system (b = 0.210; p < 0.05) exerts the highest positive impact on service quality. It followed by psychology and culture (b = 0.188; p < 0.05), empowerment (b = 0.179; p < 0.05) and tangible compensation (b = 0.175; p < 0.05). However, the empirical results suggest that speed of recovery (b = -0.009; p > 0.05) do not influence service quality. The second part of this study uses confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to analyze and confirm the conceptual model proposed in this research. The result shows that all the values obtained in this study fits the data reasonably well.

  3. MapReduce Implementation of a Hybrid Spectral Library-Database Search Method for Large-Scale Peptide Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Cannon, William R.; Latt, Benjamin K.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2011-11-01

    A MapReduce-based implementation called MR- MSPolygraph for parallelizing peptide identification from mass spectrometry data is presented. The underlying serial method, MSPolygraph, uses a novel hybrid approach to match an experimental spectrum against a combination of a protein sequence database and a spectral library. Our MapReduce implementation can run on any Hadoop cluster environment. Experimental results demonstrate that, relative to the serial version, MR-MSPolygraph reduces the time to solution from weeks to hours, for processing tens of thousands of experimental spectra. Speedup and other related performance studies are also reported on a 400-core Hadoop cluster using spectral datasets from environmental microbial communities as inputs.

  4. A Web-Based Search Service to Support Imaging Spectrometer Instrument Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alexander; Thompson, David R.; Sayfi, Elias; Xing, Zhangfan; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers yield rich and informative data products, but interpreting them demands time and expertise. There is a continual need for new algorithms and methods for rapid first-draft analyses to assist analysts during instrument opera-tions. Intelligent data analyses can summarize scenes to draft geologic maps, searching images to direct op-erator attention to key features. This validates data quality while facilitating rapid tactical decision making to select followup targets. Ideally these algorithms would operate in seconds, never grow bored, and be free from observation bias about the kinds of mineral-ogy that will be found.

  5. A secure image encryption method based on dynamic harmony search (DHS) combined with chaotic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei Talarposhti, Khadijeh; Khaki Jamei, Mehrzad

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the security of digital images. This study focuses on the gray scale image encryption using dynamic harmony search (DHS). In this research, first, a chaotic map is used to create cipher images, and then the maximum entropy and minimum correlation coefficient is obtained by applying a harmony search algorithm on them. This process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the diffusion of a plain image using DHS to maximize the entropy as a fitness function will be performed. However, in the second step, a horizontal and vertical permutation will be applied on the best cipher image, which is obtained in the previous step. Additionally, DHS has been used to minimize the correlation coefficient as a fitness function in the second step. The simulation results have shown that by using the proposed method, the maximum entropy and the minimum correlation coefficient, which are approximately 7.9998 and 0.0001, respectively, have been obtained.

  6. Planning a new library in an age of transition: the Washington University School of Medicine Library and Biomedical Communications Center.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, S; Halbrook, B

    1990-01-01

    In an era of great technological and socioeconomic changes, the Washington University School of Medicine conceptualized and built its first Library and Biomedical Communications Center in seventy-eight years. The planning process, evolution of the electronic library, and translation of functions into operating spaces are discussed. Since 1983, when the project was approved, a whole range of information technologies and services have emerged. The authors consider the kind of library that would operate in a setting where people can do their own searches, order data and materials through an electronic network, analyze and manage information, and use software to create their own publications. Images PMID:2393757

  7. Securing Digital Image Assets in Museums and Libraries: A Risk Management Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamsley, Teresa Grose

    1999-01-01

    A number of threats to the integrity of digital image information can be identified when standard practices in museums and archives are examined. Systematic consideration of risk factors can inform the creation of procedures and application of security that works to guarantee the reliability and accuracy of digital image assets. (Author/AEF)

  8. Art Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on art libraries and information services for the arts, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "'I See All': Information Technology and the Universal Availability of Images" by Philip Pacey (United Kingdom); (2) "Online Databases in the Fine Arts" by Michael Rinehart…

  9. Art Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on art libraries and information services for the arts, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "'I See All': Information Technology and the Universal Availability of Images" by Philip Pacey (United Kingdom); (2) "Online Databases in the Fine Arts" by Michael Rinehart

  10. Search Middleware and the Simple Digital Library Interoperability Protocol [and] Meeting the Challenge of Film Research In the Electronic Age [and] Collection-based Persistent Digital Archives-Part 1 [and] The Virtual Union Catalog: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paepcke, Andreas; Brandriff, Robert; Janee, Greg; Larson, Ray; Ludaescher, Bertram; Melnik, Sergey; Raghavan, Sriram; [and] Owen, Catherine; Pearson, Tony; Arnold, Stephen; [and] Moore, Reagan; Baru, Chaitan; Rajasekar, Arcot; Ludaescher, Bertram; Marciano, Richard; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne; Gupta, Amarnath; [and] Coyle, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss: (1) search middleware, or software packages that allow access to information sources for digital libraries; (2) film archives and building online collections of data for use in film research and teaching; (3) digital archives; and (4) a virtual union catalog for the University of California. (LRW)

  11. Exploring Library 2.0 on the Social Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Library 2.0 literature has described many of the possibilities Web 2.0 technologies offer to libraries. Case studies have assessed local use, but no studies have measured the Library 2.0 phenomenon by searching public social networking sites. This study used library-specific terms to search public social networking sites, blog search engines, and…

  12. Exploring Library 2.0 on the Social Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Library 2.0 literature has described many of the possibilities Web 2.0 technologies offer to libraries. Case studies have assessed local use, but no studies have measured the Library 2.0 phenomenon by searching public social networking sites. This study used library-specific terms to search public social networking sites, blog search engines, and

  13. "Do Users Do What They Think They Do?"- A Comparative Study of User Perceived and Actual Information Searching Behaviour in the National Electronic Library of Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anjana; Kostkova, Patty; Catchpole, Mike; Carson, Ewart

    In the last decade, the Internet has profoundly changed the delivery of healthcare. Medical websites for professionals and patients are playing an increasingly important role in providing the latest evidence-based knowledge for professionals, facilitating virtual patient support groups, and providing an invaluable information source for patients. Information seeking is the key user activity on the Internet. However, the discrepancy between what information is available and what the user is able to find has a profound effect on user satisfaction. The UK National electronic Library of Infection (NeLI, www.neli.org.uk) and its subsidiary projects provide a single-access portal for quality-appraised evidence in infectious diseases. We use this national portal, as test-bed for investigating our research questions. In this paper, we investigate actual and perceived user navigation behaviour that reveals important information about user perceptions and actions, in searching for information. Our results show: (i) all users were able to access information they were seeking; (ii) broadly, there is an agreement between "reported" behaviour (from questionnaires) and "observed" behaviour (from web logs), although some important differences were identified; (iii) both browsing and searching were equally used to answer specific questions and (iv) the preferred route for browsing for data on the NeLI website was to enter via the "Top Ten Topics" menu option. These findings provide important insights into how to improve user experience and satisfaction with health information websites.

  14. Digital Libraries on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Taly; Frank, Ariel J.

    This paper discusses digital libraries on the Internet. The resource repository hierarchy, consisting of two major paradigms, search engines (SEs) and digital libraries, is presented. SEs are classified into three categories: basic-SE, directory, and meta-SE. The following six major characteristics of a library are summarized: collection of data…

  15. Analyzing Medical Image Search Behavior: Semantics and Prediction of Query Results.

    PubMed

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Log files of information retrieval systems that record user behavior have been used to improve the outcomes of retrieval systems, understand user behavior, and predict events. In this article, a log file of the ARRS GoldMiner search engine containing 222,005 consecutive queries is analyzed. Time stamps are available for each query, as well as masked IP addresses, which enables to identify queries from the same person. This article describes the ways in which physicians (or Internet searchers interested in medical images) search and proposes potential improvements by suggesting query modifications. For example, many queries contain only few terms and therefore are not specific; others contain spelling mistakes or non-medical terms that likely lead to poor or empty results. One of the goals of this report is to predict the number of results a query will have since such a model allows search engines to automatically propose query modifications in order to avoid result lists that are empty or too large. This prediction is made based on characteristics of the query terms themselves. Prediction of empty results has an accuracy above 88%, and thus can be used to automatically modify the query to avoid empty result sets for a user. The semantic analysis and data of reformulations done by users in the past can aid the development of better search systems, particularly to improve results for novice users. Therefore, this paper gives important ideas to better understand how people search and how to use this knowledge to improve the performance of specialized medical search engines. PMID:25810317

  16. The Pore3D library package for the textural analysis of X-ray computed microtomographic images of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, Daria; Mancini, Lucia; Voltolini, Marco; Brun, Francesco; Polacci, Margherita

    2010-05-01

    Many research fields in Geosciences require the knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) texture of rocks. X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) supplies an effective method to directly acquire 3D information. Transmission X-ray μCT is a non-destructive technique based on the mapping of the linear attenuation coefficient of X-rays crossing the investigated sample. The 3D distribution of constituents and the contrast based on the different absorption properties of the components can be enhanced by phase-contrast imaging. On an X-ray tomographic dataset, if spatial resolution at the micron scale and proper software are available, a complete textural and morphological quantitative analysis can be carried out and a number of parameters can be extracted, including geometry and organization of discrete rock components (such as crystals, vesicles, fractures, alteration-compositional zones). In the case of volcanic rocks, μCT can be used to image and quantify the textural and morphological characteristics of the rock constituents, such as vesicles (gas bubbles in solidified, erupted products), crystals and glass fibers. For pyroclastic rocks, investigated parameters to characterize the vesicle portion are the size distribution, geometry and orientation of the pores, the pore-throat size and organization, the pore-surface roughness and the topology of the overall pore and pore-throat network. In this work we present several procedures able to extract quantitative information from CT images of volcanic rocks. The imaging experiments have been carried out at the Elettra Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Trieste (Italy) using both the synchrotron radiation at the SYRMEP beamline and a custom-developed μCT system, named TOMOLAB, equipped with a microfocus X-ray tube and based on a cone-beam geometry. The reconstructed 3D images (or volumes) have been elaborated with a software library, named Pore3D, custom-developed by the SYRMEP group at Elettra. The Pore3D software library allows a quantitative description of the morphology and topology of the sample components and it operates directly in the 3D domain, without inferring about the 3D behavior from stacked 2D information. The library has been elaborated to merge together in a common environment some of the features already available in previous research and commercial software, customizing in some cases their applications, adding new tools for the artifact reduction in the tomographic images and enhancing state-of-the-art methods for the quantitative analysis, as based on the specific know-how acquired by the SYRMEP group. The microtomographic experiments on selected pumices and scoriae have given us the opportunity to reconstruct and study the 3D internal structure of very different samples, originated at volcanoes with unique eruptive behavior and hazard potential. In particular, the analysis of vesicle size, shape, distribution, orientation and degree of interconnectivity, quantifies aspects that are directly related to the magma nature and dynamics. In fact, magma near the Earth's surface exists as a multiphase system, including gas bubbles and solid crystals in a liquid medium. The rheology of the magma and the processes that govern the transition between effusive and explosive eruptions can be fully understood if the gas permeability and flow through the bubble networks are quantified. As pyroclasts are natural records of the magma state, in terms of texture and composition, during the last phases of the conduit ascent, the textural 3D information can be coupled to physical, rheological and chemical properties of the parent magma.

  17. Source-Search Sensitivity of a Large-Area, Coded-Aperture, Gamma-Ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Collins, J W; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W; Smith, E; Woodring, M L

    2004-10-27

    We have recently completed a large-area, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager for use in searching for radiation sources. The instrument was constructed to verify that weak point sources can be detected at considerable distances if one uses imaging to overcome fluctuations in the natural background. The instrument uses a rank-19, one-dimensional coded aperture to cast shadow patterns onto a 0.57 m{sup 2} NaI(Tl) detector composed of 57 individual cubes each 10 cm on a side. These are arranged in a 19 x 3 array. The mask is composed of four-centimeter thick, one-meter high, 10-cm wide lead blocks. The instrument is mounted in the back of a small truck from which images are obtained as one drives through a region. Results of first measurements obtained with the system are presented.

  18. Searching for transits in the Wide Field Camera Transit Survey with difference-imaging light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendejas Dominguez, J.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Birkby, J. L.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Kovács, G.; Pinfield, D. J.; Sipőcz, B.; Barrado, D.; Bender, R.; del Burgo, C.; Cappetta, M.; Martín, E. L.; Nefs, S. V.; Riffeser, A.; Steele, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Wide Field Camera Transit Survey is a pioneer program aiming at for searching extra-solar planets in the near-infrared. The images from the survey are processed by a data reduction pipeline, which uses aperture photometry to construct the light curves. We produce an alternative set of light curves using the difference-imaging method for the most complete field in the survey and carry out a quantitative comparison between the photometric precision achieved with both methods. The results show that difference-photometry light curves present an important improvement for stars with J > 16. We report an implementation on the box-fitting transit detection algorithm, which performs a trapezoid-fit to the folded light curve, providing more accurate results than the box-fitting model. We describe and optimize a set of selection criteria to search for transit candidates, including the V-shape parameter calculated by our detection algorithm. The optimized selection criteria are applied to the aperture photometry and difference-imaging light curves, resulting in the automatic detection of the best 200 transit candidates from a sample of ~475 000 sources. We carry out a detailed analysis in the 18 best detections and classify them as transiting planet and eclipsing binary candidates. We present one planet candidate orbiting a late G-type star. No planet candidate around M-stars has been found, confirming the null detection hypothesis and upper limits on the occurrence rate of short-period giant planets around M-dwarfs presented in a prior study. We extend the search for transiting planets to stars with J ≤ 18, which enables us to set a stricter upper limit of 1.1%. Furthermore, we present the detection of five faint extremely-short period eclipsing binaries and three M-dwarf/M-dwarf binary candidates. The detections demonstrate the benefits of using the difference-imaging light curves, especially when going to fainter magnitudes.

  19. Image management research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of research issues are involved in image management systems with space station applications: image processing research and image perception research. The image processing issues are the traditional ones of digitizing, coding, compressing, storing, analyzing, and displaying, but with a new emphasis on the constraints imposed by the human perceiver. Two image coding algorithms have been developed that may increase the efficiency of image management systems (IMS). Image perception research involves a study of the theoretical and practical aspects of visual perception of electronically displayed images. Issues include how rapidly a user can search through a library of images, how to make this search more efficient, and how to present images in terms of resolution and split screens. Other issues include optimal interface to an IMS and how to code images in a way that is optimal for the human perceiver. A test-bed within which such issues can be addressed has been designed.

  20. Metric performance in similar blocks search and their use in collaborative 3D filtering of grayscale images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2014-02-01

    Similar blocks (patches) search plays an important role in image processing. However, there are many factors making this search problematic and leading to errors. Noise in images that arises due to bad acquisition conditions or other sources is one of the main factors. Performance of similar patch search might make worse dramatically if noise level is high and/or if noise is not additive, white and Gaussian. In this paper, we consider the influence of similarity metrics (distances) on search performance. We demonstrate that robustness of similarity metrics is a crucial issue for performance of similarity search. Two models of additive noise are used: AWGN and spatially correlated noise with a wide set of noise standard deviations. To investigate metric performance, five test images are used for artificially inserted group of identical blocks. Metric effectiveness evaluation is carried out for nine different metric (including several unconventional ones) in three domains (one spatial and two spectral). It is shown that conventional Euclidian metric might be not the best choice which depends upon noise properties and data processing domain. After establishing the best metrics, they are exploited within non-local image denoising, namely the BM3D filter. This filter is applied to intensity images of the database TID2008. It is demonstrated that the use of more robust metrics instead of classical ones (Euclidean) in BM3D filter allows improving similar block search and, as a result, provides better results of image denoising for the case of spatially correlated noise.

  1. Building an intranet digital mammography case library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Fan, Yu; Sickles, Edward A.; Huang, H. K.

    2000-05-01

    To practice mammography diagnosis effectively, radiologists expect convenient access to well-organized and authoritative mammography related information, especially when there is case in question. The purpose of this study is to build infrastructural diagnosis support by incorporating various clinical information into a digital mammography case library, and allow user to search the library based on mammographic findings. The digital mammography case library has a three- tier architecture: (1) Back-end mammography databases integrate multimedia clinical information from various operational systems, including RIS and PACS. Cases are stored in a finding index database powered by an object-relational database with finding-coded reports, which are modeled around the ACR BI-RADS (American College of Radiology, Breast Imaging Report and Data System) standard. (2) The middle-end application controllers process application logic, such as user authorization, HTTP request handling, database connection and dynamic HTML page generation. (3) Web-based user interface is developed for authorized Intranet personnel to formulate query based on radiological finding (such as mass, calcification and architectural distortion), shape and assessment, using ACR BI-RADS specified lexicon. The case library so far has 103 cases selected from over 800 digital mammography studies carried out at the Mt. Zion hospital, UCSF, during an on-going digital telemammography project. We believe that an Intranet based digital mammography case library with mammographic finding search capability facilitates continuous medical education and online decision support, by providing exemplary study to compare with case in question.

  2. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-12-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8 < η < 4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 { GeV/c^2}.

  3. University Faculty Describe Their Use of Moving Images in Teaching and Learning and Their Perceptions of the Library's Role in That Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Jane Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The moving image plays a significant role in teaching and learning; faculty in a variety of disciplines consider it a crucial component of their coursework. Yet little has been written about how faculty identify, obtain, and use these resources and what role the library plays. This study, which engaged teaching faculty in a dialogue with library…

  4. Library Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Patricia; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes nine articles that discuss cooperative library networking in Illinois. Highlights include library systems as cooperative agencies; PALI (Private Academic Libraries of Illinois); rural school and public library development; systemwide users; regional medical libraries; virtual libraries and the Coalition for Networked Information; a…

  5. Extraction of microcracks in rock images based on heuristic graph searching and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhihua; Zhu, Zhende; Ruan, Huaining; Shi, Chong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method, based on a graph searching technique, for microcrack extraction from scanning electron microscopic images of rocks. This method mainly focuses on how to detect the crack and extract it, and then quantify some basic geometrical features. The crack can be detected automatically with the aid of two endpoints of the crack. The algorithm involves the following process: the A* graph searching technique is first used to find a path throughout the crack region, defined by the initial two endpoints; the pixels of the path will be used as the seeds for the region growing method to restore the primary crack area; then, an automatic filling holes' operation is used to remove the possible holes in the region growing result; the medial axis and distance transformation of the crack area are acquired, and then the final crack is rebuilt by painting disks along a medial axis without branches. The crack result is separated without interaction. In the remaining parts, the crack features are quantified, such as the length, width, angle and area, and error analysis shows that the error percentage of the proposed approach reduces to a low level with actual width increases, and results of some example images are illustrated. The algorithm is efficient and can also be used for image detection of other linear structural objects.

  6. An adaptive knowledge-driven medical image search engine for interactive diffuse parenchymal lung disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yimo; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Bi, Jinbo; Jerebkoa, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnana, Arun

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) using Computed Tomography (CT) is an important issue in clinical research. Recently, several classification-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems [1-3] for DPLD have been proposed. For some of those systems, a degradation of performance [2] was reported on unseen data because of considerable inter-patient variances of parenchymal tissue patterns. We believe that a CAD system of real clinical value should be robust to inter-patient variances and be able to classify unseen cases online more effectively. In this work, we have developed a novel adaptive knowledge-driven CT image search engine that combines offline learning aspects of classification-based CAD systems with online learning aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. Our system can seamlessly and adaptively fuse offline accumulated knowledge with online feedback, leading to an improved online performance in detecting DPLD in both accuracy and speed aspects. Our contribution lies in: (1) newly developed 3D texture-based and morphology-based features; (2) a multi-class offline feature selection method; and, (3) a novel image search engine framework for detecting DPLD. Very promising results have been obtained on a small test set.

  7. A nanobuffer reporter library for fine-scale imaging and perturbation of endocytic organelles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chensu; Wang, Yiguang; Li, Yang; Bodemann, Brian; Zhao, Tian; Ma, Xinpeng; Huang, Gang; Hu, Zeping; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; White, Michael A.; Gao, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Endosomes, lysosomes and related catabolic organelles are a dynamic continuum of vacuolar structures that impact a number of cell physiological processes such as protein/lipid metabolism, nutrient sensing and cell survival. Here we develop a library of ultra-pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles with chemical properties that allow fine-scale, multiplexed, spatio-temporal perturbation and quantification of catabolic organelle maturation at single organelle resolution to support quantitative investigation of these processes in living cells. Deployment in cells allows quantification of the proton accumulation rate in endosomes; illumination of previously unrecognized regulatory mechanisms coupling pH transitions to endosomal coat protein exchange; discovery of distinct pH thresholds required for mTORC1 activation by free amino acids versus proteins; broad-scale characterization of the consequence of endosomal pH transitions on cellular metabolomic profiles; and functionalization of a context-specific metabolic vulnerability in lung cancer cells. Together, these biological applications indicate the robustness and adaptability of this nanotechnology-enabled ‘detection and perturbation' strategy. PMID:26437053

  8. Library resources on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  9. Search for cool extrasolar giant planets combining coronagraphy, spectral and angular differential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Anne-Lise; Boccaletti, Anthony; Rameau, Julien; Chauvin, Gaël; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Desidera, Silvano; Sylvestre, Mélody; Baudoz, Pierre; Galicher, Raphaël; Mouillet, David

    2014-01-01

    Spectral differential imaging (SDI) is part of the observing strategy of current and on-going high-contrast imaging instruments on ground-based telescopes. Although it improves the star light rejection, SDI attenuates the signature of off-axis companions to the star, just like angular differential imaging (ADI). However, the attenuation due to SDI has the peculiarity of being dependent on the spectral properties of the companions. To date, no study has investigated these effects. Our team is addressing this problem based on data from a direct imaging survey of 16 stars combining the phase-mask coronagraph, the SDI and the ADI modes of VLT/NaCo. The objective of the survey is to search for cool (Teff<1000-1300 K) giant planets at separations of 5-10 AU orbiting young, nearby stars (<200 Myr, <25 pc). The data analysis did not yield any detections. As for the estimation of the sensivity limits of SDI-processed images, we show that it requires a different analysis than that used in ADI-based surveys. Based on a method using the flux predictions of evolutionary models and avoiding the estimation of contrast, we determine directly the mass sensivity limits of the survey for the ADI processing alone and with the combination of SDI and ADI. We show that SDI does not systematically improve the sensitivity due to the spectral properties and self-subtraction of point sources.

  10. Scanning system and image process for double-lambda hypernucleus searching in nuclear emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Junya; Nakazawa, Kazuma; Tint, Khin Than; Soe, Myint Kyaw; Kinbara, Shinji; Mishina, Akihiro; Endo, Yoko; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; E07 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A new method named ``Overall scanning'' is being developed to search for more events of double -lambda hypernucleus in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans full volume of emulsion layers exhaustively and a high-speed, high-resolution camera takes their sequential microscopic images. Then, an image process picks out ``double-lambda hypernucleus-like shapes'' having multi tracks and 3 vertices stem from production and cascade weak decay of double-lambda hypernucleus. In this talk, I'll present the current status of development and its operation. During test operations by E373's emulsion plates, about 20cc volume of emulsion was scanned so far. It equals a half of an E373's emulsion plate. Some candidates of double- ? hypernuclei and twin single-lambda hypernucleus have been detected. Besides, 103 single-lambda hypernucleus and 103 alpha decays were found, which is calibration samples for range-energy relation.

  11. Microchannel plate image readouts:. in search of high resolution and count rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.

    2003-11-01

    The search for the ultimate imaging performance in microchannel plate (MCP) detector systems invariably ends in compromise between competing factors in both the operational and performance arenas. We discuss these compromises in the context of the trade-offs made by current state-of-the-art readout techniques. We present an alternative readout scheme with the potential to rival current readout technologies. This readout scheme uses novel position encoding strategies such as charge comparison amongst a subset of readout electrodes combined with a signal timing method to obtain low resolution charge measurement which enables it to provide high spatial resolution at high count rates. We describe results of a readout simulation using measured data from an electronic breadboard to predict performance. We discuss how this scheme could be adapted to provide the capability for simultaneous event imaging and higher count rates by implementing parallelism.

  12. Search for temperature-related albedo changes in nightside and posteclipse images of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonelli, Damon P.; Boucher, Jennifer; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; O'Shaughnessy, Megan

    1994-01-01

    Using an image-summing process that increases the visibility of Jupiterlit surface features in Voyager images, we have produced the best-ever violet-filter image of the nightside of Io and the best-ever nightside/dayside brightness ratio map of this jovian moon. The ratio map shows no convincing evidence, on either global or local scales, of diurnal temperature-dependent albedo variations. We have also taken an image-ratioing technique developed by O'Shaughnessy et al. (1989), which those authors applied to Voyager violet-filter observations of one Io eclipse reappearance, and extended it to two other, higher-resolution Voyager posteclipse imaging sequences. In none of three imaging sequences do we find any isolated surface regions that convincingly exhibit posteclipse temperature-related albedo variations. These negative results suggest that on Io, pure cyclo-octasulfur (S8), and transient nighttime or in-eclipse deposits of SO2 frost, are at best limited to isolated areas smaller than the resolution of the images in use (i.e., smaller than a few tens of kilometers in size). Such limits are consistent with (1) the negative results reported by the majority of telescopic observers who have searched for posteclipse brightening of Io, (2) indications that physical processes in the ionian surface environment will change any S8 into other allotropes of sulfur, and (3) suggestions that Io's atmosphere is too thin to allow the deposition of transient, optically thick SO2 frost layers at nighttime or during eclipse.

  13. Search for satellites near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta/OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, I.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Lara, L. M.; Marzari, F.; Moreno, F.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Ferri, F.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Giacomini, L.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Magrin, S.; Massironi, M.; Michalik, H.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. TheEuropean Space Agency Rosetta mission reached and started escorting its main target, the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, at the beginning of August 2014. Within the context of solar system small bodies, satellite searches from approaching spacecraft were extensively used in the past to study the nature of the visited bodies and their collisional environment. Aims: During the approaching phase to the comet in July 2014, the OSIRIS instrument onboard Rosetta performed a campaign aimed at detecting objects in the vicinity of the comet nucleus and at measuring these objects' possible bound orbits. In addition to the scientific purpose, the search also focused on spacecraft security to avoid hazardous material in the comet's environment. Methods: Images in the red spectral domain were acquired with the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera, when the spacecraft was at a distance between 5785 km and 5463 km to the comet, following an observational strategy tailored to maximize the scientific outcome. From the acquired images, sources were extracted and displayed to search for plausible displacements of all sources from image to image. After stars were identified, the remaining sources were thoroughly analyzed. To place constraints on the expected displacements of a potential satellite, we performed Monte Carlo simulations on the apparent motion of potential satellites within the Hill sphere. Results: We found no unambiguous detections of objects larger than ~6 m within ~20 km and larger than ~1 m between ~20 km and ~110 km from the nucleus, using images with an exposure time of 0.14 s and 1.36 s, respectively. Our conclusions are consistent with independent works on dust grains in the comet coma and on boulders counting on the nucleus surface. Moreover, our analysis shows that the comet outburst detected at the end of April 2014 was not strong enough to eject large objects and to place them into a stable orbit around the nucleus. Our findings underline that it is highly unlikely that large objects survive for a long time around cometary nuclei.

  14. Restoration of digital off-axis Fresnel hologram by exemplar and search based image inpainting with enhanced computing speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, A. S. M.; Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, T.-C.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method for restoration of heavily damaged digital off-axis Fresnel holograms based on image inpainting. Being different from existing image inpainting algorithms, we have employed Artificial Bee Colony search technique to increase the computation efficiency of the inpainting process, resulting in a reduction of over one order of magnitude in the computation time. Briefly, an exemplar and search based image inpainting technique is applied to fill in the damaged regions in the hologram, with the most similar fringe patterns in the intact areas obtained from Artificial Bee Colony search algorithm. Experimental results reveal that with our proposed method, the pictorial information in heavily damaged holograms can be recovered with good fidelity, as compared with those obtained with the original intact holograms. This is the first time that image inpainting technique is applied on hologram restoration.

  15. Lesion search and recognition by thymine DNA glycosylase revealed by single molecule imaging.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Claudia N; Maiti, Atanu; Drohat, Alexander C; Tessmer, Ingrid

    2015-03-11

    The ability of DNA glycosylases to rapidly and efficiently detect lesions among a vast excess of nondamaged DNA bases is vitally important in base excision repair (BER). Here, we use single molecule imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM) supported by a 2-aminopurine fluorescence base flipping assay to study damage search by human thymine DNA glycosylase (hTDG), which initiates BER of mutagenic and cytotoxic G:T and G:U mispairs in DNA. Our data reveal an equilibrium between two conformational states of hTDG-DNA complexes, assigned as search complex (SC) and interrogation complex (IC), both at target lesions and undamaged DNA sites. Notably, for both hTDG and a second glycosylase, hOGG1, which recognizes structurally different 8-oxoguanine lesions, the conformation of the DNA in the SC mirrors innate structural properties of their respective target sites. In the IC, the DNA is sharply bent, as seen in crystal structures of hTDG lesion recognition complexes, which likely supports the base flipping required for lesion identification. Our results support a potentially general concept of sculpting of glycosylases to their targets, allowing them to exploit the energetic cost of DNA bending for initial lesion sensing, coupled with continuous (extrahelical) base interrogation during lesion search by DNA glycosylases. PMID:25712093

  16. Automatic cytoplasm and nuclei segmentation for color cervical smear image using an efficient gap-search MRF.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Li, Kuan; Wang, Mao; Yin, Jianping; Zhu, En; Wu, Chengkun; Wang, Siqi; Zhu, Chengzhang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and effective cervical smear image segmentation is required for automated cervical cell analysis systems. Thus, we proposed a novel superpixel-based Markov random field (MRF) segmentation framework to acquire the nucleus, cytoplasm and image background of cell images. We seek to classify color non-overlapping superpixel-patches on one image for image segmentation. This model describes the whole image as an undirected probabilistic graphical model and was developed using an automatic label-map mechanism for determining nuclear, cytoplasmic and background regions. A gap-search algorithm was designed to enhance the model efficiency. Data show that the algorithms of our framework provide better accuracy for both real-world and the public Herlev datasets. Furthermore, the proposed gap-search algorithm of this model is much more faster than pixel-based and superpixel-based algorithms. PMID:26874832

  17. Graphic Novel Collections in Academic ARL Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which ARL academic libraries collect graphic novels. Using a core list of 176 titles developed from winners of major comics industry awards and a library-focused "best of" list, the holdings of 111 ARL academic libraries were searched using the libraries' online catalogs. Results suggest that most of the…

  18. The Difference Imaging Pipeline for the Transient Search in the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kessler, R.

    2015-09-09

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg2 fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, zpassbands with a cadence of about 1 week. Our observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functions aremore » to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ~130 detections per deg2 per observation in each band, of which only ~25% are artifacts. Of the ~7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ~30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. Furthermore, the DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 "shallow" fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ~23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our 2 "deep" fields with mag-depth ~24.5, the efficiency falls to 1/2 at z ≈ 1.1. A remaining performance issue is that the measured fluxes have additional scatter (beyond Poisson fluctuations) that increases with the host galaxy surface brightness at the transient location. This bright-galaxy issue has minimal impact on the SNe Ia program, but it may lower the efficiency for finding fainter transients on bright galaxies.« less

  19. The Difference Imaging Pipeline for the Transient Search in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, R.; Marriner, J.; Childress, M.; Covarrubias, R.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Kuehn, K.; Marcha, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg2 fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, z passbands with a cadence of about 1 week. The observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functions are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ˜130 detections per deg2 per observation in each band, of which only ˜25% are artifacts. Of the ˜7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ˜30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. The DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 “shallow” fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ˜23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our 2 “deep” fields with mag-depth ˜24.5, the efficiency falls to 1/2 at z ≈ 1.1. A remaining performance issue is that the measured fluxes have additional scatter (beyond Poisson fluctuations) that increases with the host galaxy surface brightness at the transient location. This bright-galaxy issue has minimal impact on the SNe Ia program, but it may lower the efficiency for finding fainter transients on bright galaxies.

  20. The Difference Imaging Pipeline for the Transient Search in the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.

    2015-09-09

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg2 fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, zpassbands with a cadence of about 1 week. Our observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functions are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ~130 detections per deg2 per observation in each band, of which only ~25% are artifacts. Of the ~7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ~30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. Furthermore, the DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 "shallow" fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ~23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our 2 "deep" fields with mag-depth ~24.5, the efficiency falls to 1/2 at z ≈ 1.1. A remaining performance issue is that the measured fluxes have additional scatter (beyond Poisson fluctuations) that increases with the host galaxy surface brightness at the transient location. This bright-galaxy issue has minimal impact on the SNe Ia program, but it may lower the efficiency for finding fainter transients on bright galaxies.

  1. A GALEX Imaging Search for Lyman Continuum Emission at z 1 in the EGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Peter G.; Small, T. A.; Deharveng, J. M.; Milliard, B.; GALEX Science Team

    2006-12-01

    We are using GALEX imaging data in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) to search for Lyman continuum emission from galaxies at z 1. Our method is to sum FUV image flux at locations of DEEP2 catalog galaxies in the redshift range 1 < z < 1.5, for which the GALEX FUV band (1350-1800A) is sensitive only to rest wavelengths below 912 A. We subtract sky flux using control locations near each catalog galaxy. Using photometric catalogs we veto galaxy and control locations near sources that might add spurious FUV flux. We normalize FUV flux using NUV flux to derive the Lyman continuum emission escape fraction. We use various galaxy attributes from DEEP2 spectra and other data to bin galaxies to search for galaxy populations with higher escape fractions. Such a finding might shed light on differences in escape fraction measurements in the literature. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer mission with contributions from France and South Korea. This work uses data from the AEGIS collaboration, which is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Keck Observatory.

  2. Olfactory search-image use by a mosquito-eating predator.

    PubMed

    Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R

    2010-10-22

    By choosing blood-carrying mosquitoes as prey, Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid spider, specializes at feeding indirectly on vertebrate blood. It also has an exceptionally complex mate-choice system. An earlier study revealed that search-image use assists E. culicivora in finding prey and mates when restricted to using vision alone. Here we show that search-image use assists E. culicivora in finding prey and mates when restricted to using olfaction alone. After being primed with prey odour or mate odour (control: not primed with odour), spiders were transferred to an olfactometer designed to test ability to find a prey-odour or mate-odour source that was either 'cryptic' (i.e. accompanied by a masking odour source, Lantana camara) or 'conspicuous' (no L. camara odour). When tested with conspicuous odour, the identity of the priming odour had no significant effect on how many spiders found the odour source. However, when tested with cryptic odour, significantly more spiders found the odour source when primed with congruent odour and significantly fewer spiders found the odour source when primed with incongruent odour. PMID:20504813

  3. A systematic search for undiscovered companions to near-Earth asteroids in radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, M. Oliver; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-11-01

    Radar observations have been paramount to the characterization of small (<20 km) Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), specifically with regards to asteroid trajectories, shapes, spins, and multi-component systems. Binary systems make up a sizable fraction (~16%) of the asteroid population in near-Earth space. Their formation process is understood to be rotational fission caused by the YORP effect. Possible outcomes of post-fission dynamics include contact binaries, tightly and loosely bound binaries, and asteroid pairs. Radar images have been used to identify asteroid satellites that orbit near the primary component, but relatively little attention has been paid to the detection of more distant satellites. We are conducting a systematic search for faint and/or distant satellites in the Arecibo radar data archive. To this end, we have developed a software package to identify candidate objects in radar images and to differentiate these candidates from background noise using statistical analysis; preliminary results of the search will be presented at the meeting. Possible future applications include systematic measurements of asteroid radar properties (e.g., Doppler and range extents) that could become part of an automated data reduction pipeline.

  4. Development of a handheld bistatic imaging sonar system for underwater search and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Alice; Broadstone, Steven; Impagliazzo, John

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution, handheld imaging sonar system is under development by Teratech Corporation for the U.S. Navy. This is a 192 channel, dual frequency bistatic sonar for Navy divers performing search and survey missions for underwater explosives. Our goal is to provide the most compact and energy efficient imaging system for the divers. The system consists of a self-contained handheld unit and a head mounted display integrated into the divers mask. The low power and small volume are a result of the development of Teratechs Charge Domain Processing (CDP) technology. This technology has led to the development of a low power 64-channel beamformer chip. As a result, only three beamformer chips will be required for the 192 channels. Until now, the implementation of small, low power sonar systems containing this many elements and forming enough beams to create an image was considered impossible. Progress in the development of this product will be presented. In-water testing is planned for late summer 2003. Experimental results and test images available will be presented at the conference. [Work sponsored by ONR and OSD Small Business Innovative Research Program, Program manager, Mr. Bruce Johnson, Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division.

  5. Fully Polarimetric Passive W-band Millimeter Wave Imager for Wide Area Search

    SciTech Connect

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Sheen, David M.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-09-27

    We describe the design and phenomenology imaging results of a fully polarimetric W-band millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for wide-area search. Operating from 92 - 94 GHz, the W-band radiometer employs a Dicke switching heterodyne design isolating the horizontal and vertical mm-wave components with 40 dB of polarization isolation. Design results are presented for both infinite conjugate off-axis parabolic and finite conjugate off-axis elliptical fore-optics using optical ray tracing and diffraction calculations. The received linear polarizations are down-converted to a microwave frequency band and recombined in a phase-shifting network to produce all six orthogonal polarization states of light simultaneously, which are used to calculate the Stokes parameters for display and analysis. The resulting system performance produces a heterodyne receiver noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 150m Kelvin. The radiometer provides novel imaging capability by producing all four of the Stokes parameters of light, which are used to create imagery based on the polarization states associated with unique scattering geometries and their interaction with the down welling MMW energy. The polarization states can be exploited in such a way that man-made objects can be located and highlighted in a cluttered scene using methods such as image comparison, color encoding of Stokes parameters, multivariate image analysis, and image fusion with visible and infrared imagery. We also present initial results using a differential imaging approach used to highlight polarization features and reduce common-mode noise. Persistent monitoring of a scene using the polarimetric passive mm-wave technique shows great promise for anomaly detection caused by human activity.

  6. Radiographic imaging of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Anil K.; Kumar, Bhaskaranand; Acharya, Ashwath

    2011-01-01

    Imaging techniques play an important role in evaluating the complex anatomy of bone and soft tissues of the wrist. The standard wrist radiographs and specialized views still form a very important imaging modality to unravel the wrist pathology in their simplest forms. This article discusses the routine radiography of the wrist followed by ancillary views and dynamic studies for each of the routine view described that helps reveal both static and dynamic pathologies. The literature search was carried out using the search strings or key words, and the databases were searched using the time frame of 1990 to 2011 that included Scopus, MD consult, Web of Knowledge, Pub Med, Ovid Medline and Cochrane Library. The print journals and books available at Manipal University library were hand searched and secondary search was done for the relevant articles included in the references of primary articles. Full articles as well as abstracts were used for the review. PMID:22022028

  7. The optimal code searching method with an improved criterion of coded exposure for remote sensing image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lirong; Cui, Guangmang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2015-03-01

    Coded exposure photography makes the motion de-blurring a well-posed problem. The integration pattern of light is modulated using the method of coded exposure by opening and closing the shutter within the exposure time, changing the traditional shutter frequency spectrum into a wider frequency band in order to preserve more image information in frequency domain. The searching method of optimal code is significant for coded exposure. In this paper, an improved criterion of the optimal code searching is proposed by analyzing relationship between code length and the number of ones in the code, considering the noise effect on code selection with the affine noise model. Then the optimal code is obtained utilizing the method of genetic searching algorithm based on the proposed selection criterion. Experimental results show that the time consuming of searching optimal code decreases with the presented method. The restoration image is obtained with better subjective experience and superior objective evaluation values.

  8. Real-time sound speed correction using golden section search to enhance ultrasound imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Chong Ook; Yoon, Changhan; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong; Chang, Jin Ho

    2013-03-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, high-performance beamforming is important to enhance spatial and contrast resolutions. A modern receive dynamic beamfomer uses a constant sound speed that is typically assumed to 1540 m/s in generating receive focusing delays [1], [2]. However, this assumption leads to degradation of spatial and contrast resolutions particularly when imaging obese patients or breast since the sound speed is significantly lower than the assumed sound speed [3]; the true sound speed in the fatty tissue is around 1450 m/s. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the modified nonlinear anisotropic diffusion is capable of determining an optimal sound speed and the proposed method is a useful tool to improve ultrasound image quality [4], [5]. In the previous study, however, we utilized at least 21 iterations to find an optimal sound speed, which may not be viable for real-time applications. In this paper, we demonstrates that the number of iterations can be dramatically reduced using the GSS(golden section search) method with a minimal error. To evaluate performances of the proposed method, in vitro experiments were conducted with a tissue mimicking phantom. To emulate a heterogeneous medium, the phantom was immersed in the water. From the experiments, the number of iterations was reduced from 21 to 7 with GSS method and the maximum error of the lateral resolution between direct and GSS was less than 1%. These results indicate that the proposed method can be implemented in real time to improve the image quality in the medical ultrasound imaging.

  9. An Optimized NICI Imaging Search for Planets around Young Stars with Luminous Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Jayawardhana, Ray; Matsumura, Soko; Bonavita, Mariangela; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Lisse, Carey; Kenyon, Scott; Bromley, Ben; Kuchner, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Two stars with confirmed, directly imaged planets, (beta) Pic (10 Myr old) and HR 8799 (30 Myr old), are surrounded by luminous debris disks. We propose a deep NICI imaging search for planets around 14 other nearby 5-30 Myr-old AFG stars with luminous debris disks consistent with sculpting/stirring by massive unseen planets. While many of our targets have been previously observed by the NICI campaign, these data were taken in a suboptimal mode and thus provide poor sensitivity. Therefore, we need new observations. Our program should be able to detect jovian planets at separations analogous to the gas/ice giant planet region in our solar system. We will quantify the frequency of planets more massive than Jupiter on wide orbits around stars with luminous debris disks. We will compare this frequency to those derived from the recently completed NICI campaign and recent IDPS studies for stars with and without debris disks. As a result, we will truly see if stars with luminous debris disks are more likely to have massive, wide- separation 1-10 M_J companions and thus whether/how clearly debris disks are signposts of textitmassive planets. If the planet frequency distribution in mass/semimajor axis is an extension of the RV distribution for massive stars, our program will result in 2 new imaged exoplanets.

  10. Local search for optimal global map generation using mid-decadal landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatib, L.; Gasch, J.; Morris, R.; Covington, S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA and the US Geological Survey (USGS) are seeking to generate a map of the entire globe using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor data from the "mid-decadal" period of 2004 through 2006. The global map is comprised of thousands of scene locations and, for each location, tens of different images of varying quality to chose from. Furthermore, it is desirable for images of adjacent scenes be close together in time of acquisition, to avoid obvious discontinuities due to seasonal changes. These characteristics make it desirable to formulate an automated solution to the problem of generating the complete map. This paper formulates a Global Map Generator problem as a Constraint Optimization Problem (GMG-COP) and describes an approach to solving it using local search. Preliminary results of running the algorithm on image data sets are summarized. The results suggest a significant improvement in map quality using constraint-based solutions. Copyright ?? 2007, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic hip cartilage segmentation from 3D MR images using arc-weighted graph searching.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ying; Chandra, Shekhar S; Engstrom, Craig; Strudwick, Mark W; Crozier, Stuart; Fripp, Jurgen

    2014-12-01

    Accurate segmentation of hip joint cartilage from magnetic resonance (MR) images offers opportunities for quantitative investigations of pathoanatomical conditions such as osteoarthritis. In this paper, we present a fully automatic scheme for the segmentation of the individual femoral and acetabular cartilage plates in the human hip joint from high-resolution 3D MR images. The developed scheme uses an improved optimal multi-object multi-surface graph search framework with an arc-weighted graph representation that incorporates prior morphological knowledge as a basis for segmentation of the individual femoral and acetabular cartilage plates despite weak or incomplete boundary interfaces. This automated scheme was validated against manual segmentations from 3D true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) MR examinations of the right hip joints in 52 asymptomatic volunteers. Compared with expert manual segmentations of the combined, femoral and acetabular cartilage volumes, the automatic scheme obtained mean ( standard deviation) Dice's similarity coefficients of 0.81 ( 0.03), 0.79 ( 0.03) and 0.72 ( 0.05). The corresponding mean absolute volume difference errors were 8.44% ( 6.36), 9.44% ( 7.19) and 9.05% ( 8.02). The mean absolute differences between manual and automated measures of cartilage thickness for femoral and acetabular cartilage plates were 0.13 mm ( 0.12) and 0.11 mm ( 0.11), respectively. PMID:25383566

  12. Security Analysis of Image Encryption Based on Gyrator Transform by Searching the Rotation Angle with Improved PSO Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Xiang, Zhili; Cai, Bin; Xiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gyrator transform has been widely used for image encryption recently. For gyrator transform-based image encryption, the rotation angle used in the gyrator transform is one of the secret keys. In this paper, by analyzing the properties of the gyrator transform, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed to search the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since the gyrator transform is continuous, it is time-consuming to exhaustedly search the rotation angle, even considering the data precision in a computer. Therefore, a computational intelligence-based search may be an alternative choice. Considering the properties of severe local convergence and obvious global fluctuations of the gyrator transform, an improved PSO algorithm was proposed to be suitable for such situations. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed improved PSO algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since gyrator transform is the foundation of image encryption in gyrator transform domains, the research on the method of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform is useful for further study on the security of such image encryption algorithms. PMID:26251910

  13. Security Analysis of Image Encryption Based on Gyrator Transform by Searching the Rotation Angle with Improved PSO Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Xiang, Zhili; Cai, Bin; Xiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gyrator transform has been widely used for image encryption recently. For gyrator transform-based image encryption, the rotation angle used in the gyrator transform is one of the secret keys. In this paper, by analyzing the properties of the gyrator transform, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed to search the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since the gyrator transform is continuous, it is time-consuming to exhaustedly search the rotation angle, even considering the data precision in a computer. Therefore, a computational intelligence-based search may be an alternative choice. Considering the properties of severe local convergence and obvious global fluctuations of the gyrator transform, an improved PSO algorithm was proposed to be suitable for such situations. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed improved PSO algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform. Since gyrator transform is the foundation of image encryption in gyrator transform domains, the research on the method of searching the rotation angle in a single gyrator transform is useful for further study on the security of such image encryption algorithms. PMID:26251910

  14. A library of Lick Observatory Image Dissector Scanner indices for binary stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghui; Li, Lifang

    2006-08-01

    Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present 13 refined absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory Image Dissector Scanner (Lick/IDS) system for an extensive set of instantaneous-burst binary stellar populations (BSPs) at high resolution (~0.3 Å), and 38 indices at intermediate resolution (3 Å). The ages of the populations are at an interval of 1Gyr in the range 1-15Gyr, and the metallicities are in the range 0.004-0.03. These indices are obtained by two methods: (i) using the empirical fitting functions (FFs method); (ii) measured directly from the synthetic spectra (DC method). Together with our previous paper, a data base of Lick/IDS spectral absorption-line indices for BSPs at high and intermediate resolutions is provided. This set of indices includes 21 indices of Worthey et al., four Balmer indices defined by Worthey & Ottaviani, and 13 indices with the new passband definitions of Trager et al. The full set of synthetic indices and the integrated pseudo-continuum are listed in the Appendices, which are only available online at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/ or from our website (http://www.ast9.com/), or on request from the first author. Moreover, the full set of the integrated spectral energy distributions can be obtained from our website. We compare the synthetic Lick/IDS indices obtained by the FFs method and those by the DC method for BSPs with various metallicities, and find that the discrepancies are significant: Ca4455 (index 6), Fe4668 (8), Mgb (13), Fe5709 (17), NaD (19), TiO1 (20) and TiO2 (21, except for Z = 0.02) in the W94 system, Ca4455T (6T), C24668T (8T), NaDT (19T), TiOT1 (20T) and TiOT2 (21T, except for Z = 0.02) in the T98 system obtained by the DC method are less (bluer) than the corresponding ones obtained by the FFs method for all metallicities. Ca4227 (index 3), Fe5782 (18), Ca4227T (3T) and Fe5782T (18T) are greater at Z = 0.03 and become bluer at Z = 0.004; the Fe5709T (17T) index is less at Z = 0.03 and becomes redder at Z = 0.004 than the corresponding ones obtained by the FFs method.

  15. Electronic biomedical literature search for budding researcher.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Subhash B; Thakre S, Sushama S; Thakre, Amol D

    2013-09-01

    Search for specific and well defined literature related to subject of interest is the foremost step in research. When we are familiar with topic or subject then we can frame appropriate research question. Appropriate research question is the basis for study objectives and hypothesis. The Internet provides a quick access to an overabundance of the medical literature, in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary literature. It is accessible through journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualised, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Scirus, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Several web-libraries (National library Medicine, Cochrane, Web of Science, Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature, levels of evidence, and detail about features of search engine as available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. Literature search is a dynamic and interactive process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. It is suggested that a systematic search of literature that uses available electronic resource effectively, is more likely to produce quality research. PMID:24179937

  16. Electronic Biomedical Literature Search for Budding Researcher

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Subhash B.; Thakre S, Sushama S.; Thakre, Amol D.

    2013-01-01

    Search for specific and well defined literature related to subject of interest is the foremost step in research. When we are familiar with topic or subject then we can frame appropriate research question. Appropriate research question is the basis for study objectives and hypothesis. The Internet provides a quick access to an overabundance of the medical literature, in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary literature. It is accessible through journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualised, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Scirus, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Several web-libraries (National library Medicine, Cochrane, Web of Science, Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature, levels of evidence, and detail about features of search engine as available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. Literature search is a dynamic and interactive process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. It is suggested that a systematic search of literature that uses available electronic resource effectively, is more likely to produce quality research. PMID:24179937

  17. A Method for Estimating View Transformations from Image Correspondences Based on the Harmony Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. PMID:26339228

  18. A Method for Estimating View Transformations from Image Correspondences Based on the Harmony Search Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. PMID:26339228

  19. Comprehensive identification of active compounds in tablets by flow-injection data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry combined with library search.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Marion; Schubert, Birthe; Libiseller, Kathrin; Oberacher, Herbert

    2010-04-15

    A convenient mass spectrometric approach for the identification of toxicologically relevant compounds in tablets and tablet residues is presented. For comprehensive forensic-toxicological analysis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was accomplished in positive as well as in negative ion mode on a quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight instrument. Dissolved samples were introduced into the mass spectrometer by flow-injection. Mass spectra as well as tandem mass spectra were acquired. A data-dependent acquisition strategy was used to switch between the mass spectrometric modes. Identification was accomplished via search within a tandem mass spectral library. The applied database contained 8252 spectra collected from 836 compounds in positive ion mode as well as 1023 spectra collected from 103 compounds in negative ion mode. A total of 22 casework samples collected during autopsies from mouth, oesophagus or gastric contents, seized by the police, or found with patients at hospital were screened. Twelve samples contained compounds only detectable in positive ion mode (sildenafil, dihydrocodeine, diphenhydramine, oxprenolol, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, morphine, amphetamine, caffeine, pemoline, orphenadrine, m-chlorphenylpiperazine and tramadol), six samples contained species exclusively detectable in negative ion mode (salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketorolac, valproic acid and phenobarbital), and three samples contained diclofenac detectable in both ionization polarities. One sample did not contain any compound amenable to mass spectrometric analysis. For verification all samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. Both methods revealed identical results for all but one sample. The beta-adrenergic blocker oxprenolol was exclusively detected by the flow-injection method. PMID:20097023

  20. The application of improved block-matching method and block search method for the image motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Hui, Mei; Han, Wei; Wang, Peng; Dong, Li-quan; Zhao, Yue-jin

    2010-12-01

    Image block matching is one of the motion estimation methods for video inter-frame coding and digital image stabilization. The methods used for matching and searching will greatly affect the accuracy and speed of block matching. The block matching method based on the oblique vectors is suggested in this paper where matching parameters contain both horizontal and vertical vectors in the image blocks at the same time. Improved matching information can be obtained after making correlative calculations in the oblique direction. A novel search method of matching block based on the idea of simulated annealing is presented in this paper to improve the searching speed, accuracy and robustness in the fast operation of the block-matching motion estimation. The simulated annealing algorithm can easily escape from the trap of local minima effectively. With the two methods the block matching can be used for motion estimation at the real-time image processing system and high estimation accuracy can be achieved. An image stabilization system based on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) system is developed to verify this algorithm. Results show that both the matching accuracy and the search speed are improved with the methods presented.

  1. Evaluation of image features and search strategies for segmentation of bone structures in radiographs using Active Shape Models.

    PubMed

    Behiels, Gert; Maes, Frederik; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate various image features and different search strategies for fitting Active Shape Models (ASM) to bone object boundaries in digitized radiographs. The original ASM method iteratively refines the pose and shape parameters of the point distribution model driving the ASM by a least squares fit of the shape to update the target points at the estimated object boundary position, as determined by a suitable object boundary criterion. We propose an improved search procedure that is more robust against outlier configurations in the boundary target points by requiring subsequent shape changes to be smooth, which is imposed by a smoothness constraint on the displacement of neighbouring target points at each iteration and implemented by a minimal cost path approach. We compare the original ASM search method and our improved search algorithm with a third method that does not rely on iteratively refined target point positions, but instead optimizes a global Bayesian objective function derived from statistical a priori contour shape and image models. Extensive validation of these methods on a database containing more than 400 images of the femur, humerus and calcaneus using the manual expert segmentation as ground truth shows that our minimal cost path method is the most robust. We also evaluate various measures for capturing local image appearance around each boundary point and conclude that the Mahalanobis distance applied to normalized image intensity profiles extracted normal to the shape is the most suitable criterion among the tested ones for guiding the ASM optimization. PMID:11836134

  2. WEIRD : Wide orbit Exoplanet search with InfraRed Direct imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Frédérique; Artigau, Etienne; Rameau, Julien; Lafrenière, David; Albert, Loic; Naud, Marie-Eve; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Doyon, Rene; Beichman, Charles; Delorme, Philippe; Janson, Markus

    2015-12-01

    We currently do not know what does the emission spectrum of a young 1 Jupiter-mass planet look like, as no such object has yet been directly imaged. Arguably, the most useful Jupiter-mass planet would be one that is bound to a star of known age, distance and metallicity but which has an orbit large enough (100-5000 UA) that it can be studied as an "isolated" object. We are therefore searching for the most extreme planetary systems. We are currently gathering a large dataset to try to identify such objects through deep [3.6] and [4.5] imaging from SPITZER and deep seeing-limited J (with Flamingos 2 and WIRCam) and z imaging (with GMOS-S and MegaCam) of all 181 known confirmed members of a known young association (<120 Myr) within 70pc of the Sun. Our study will reveal distant planetary companions, over the reveal distant PMCs up to 5000 AU. AU separation range, through their distinctively red z-J and [4.5]-[3.6] colors. The sensitivity limits of our combined Spitzer+ground-based program will allow detection of planets with masses as low as 1 Mjup with very low contamination rates. Here we present some preliminary results of our survey. This approach is unique in the community and will give us an overview of the architecture of the outer part of planetary systems that were never probed before. Our survey will provide benchmark young Saturn and Jupiter for imaging and spectroscopy with the JWST

  3. OBN (Open Library Network) Final Report: From Project to Library User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Leiden (Netherlands).

    The Open Library Network (OBN) is intended to connect national and local university library systems in the Netherlands. OBN integrates existing automated library systems and procedures and brings services like catalog searching and document delivery to the desk of the library user. Project results can be grouped into four categories: (1) the new…

  4. Library 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    In fall 1984, the Georgia Institute of Technology administration and library staff began planning for Library 2000, a project aimed at creating a showcase library to demonstrate the application of the latest information technology in an academic and research environment. The purposes of Library 2000 include: increasing awareness of students,…

  5. User and Library Failures in an Undergraduate Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rita Hoyt; Granade, Warner

    1978-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the undergraduate library at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, to determine the availability rate of library materials. The results indicated that 53.8 percent of the titles searched were located on the shelves. Reasons for failure, recommendations for improvement, the questionnaire used, and data tables are…

  6. The regional medical library and the hospital library.

    PubMed

    Waters, S T

    1971-04-01

    A description of the origin of the Regional Medical Program is given and of regional service activities. Among the topics discussed are interlibrary loans, MEDLARS searches, orientation of librarians and library users, including workshops and the library Core collection, and the evaluation of needs for biomedical information in the regions. PMID:5582101

  7. Online Search Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Michael; Worley, Penny

    This course syllabus describes methods for optimizing online searching, using as an example searching on the National Library of Medicine (NLM) online system. Four major activities considered are the online interview, query analysis and search planning, online interaction, and post-search analysis. Within the context of these activities, concepts…

  8. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  9. SPOTS: Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars A Direct Imaging Survey for Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, C.; Desidera, S.; Bergfors, C.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonavita, M.; Carson, J. C.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Henning, T.; Janson, M.; Mordasini, C.

    2013-09-01

    Over the last decade, a vast amount of effort has been poured into gaining a better understanding of the fre- quency and diversity of extrasolar planets. Yet, most of these studies focus on single stars, leaving the population of planets in multiple systems poorly explored. This investigational gap persists despite the fact that both theoretical and observational evidence suggest that such systems represent a significant fraction of the overall planet population. With SPOTS, the Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars, we are now carrying out the first direct imaging campaign dedicated to circumbinary planets. Our long-term goals are to survey 66 spectroscopic binaries in H-band with VLT NaCo and VLT SPHERE over the course of 4-5 years. This will establish first constraints on the wide-orbit circumbinary planet population, and may yield the spectacular first image of a bona fide circumbinary planet. Here we report on the results of the first two years of the SPOTS survey, as well as on our ongoing observation program.

  10. A Search for Population III Galaxies in CLASH. I. Singly-imaged Candidates at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Zackrisson, Erik; Zitrin, Adi; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Asadi, Saghar; Gonzalez, Juan; Östlin, Göran; Ström, Tina

    2015-05-01

    Population III (Pop III) galaxies are predicted to exist at high redshifts and may be rendered sufficiently bright for detection with current telescopes when gravitationally lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster. Pop III galaxies that exhibit strong Lyα emission should furthermore be identifiable from broadband photometry because of their unusual colors. Here, we report on a search for such objects at z≳ 6 in the imaging data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH), covering 25 galaxy clusters in 16 filters. Our selection algorithm returns five singly imaged candidates with Lyα-like color signatures, for which ground-based spectroscopy with current 8-10 m class telescopes should be able to test the predicted strength of the Lyα line. None of these five objects have been included in previous CLASH compilations of high-redshift galaxy candidates. However, when large grids of spectral synthesis models are applied to the study of these objects, we find that only two of these candidates are significantly better fitted by Pop III models than by more mundane, low-metallicity stellar populations.

  11. Direct imaging search for planets around low-mass stars and spectroscopic characterization of young exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan Peter

    Low--mass stars between 0.1--0.6 M⊙ are the most abundant members our galaxy and may be the most common sites of planet formation, but little is known about the outer architecture of their planetary systems. We have carried out a high-contrast adaptive imaging search for gas giant planets between 1--13 MJup around 122 newly identified young M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood ( ≲ 35 pc). Half of our targets are younger than 145 Myr, and 90% are younger than 580 Myr. After removing 39 resolved stellar binaries, our homogeneous sample of 83 single young M dwarfs makes it the largest imaging search for planets around low--mass stars to date. Our H- and K- band coronagraphic observations with Subaru/HiCIAO and Keck/NIRC2 achieve typical contrasts of 9--13 mag and 12--14 mag at 100, respectively, which corresponds to limiting masses of ˜1--10 M Jup at 10--30 AU for most of our sample. We discovered four brown dwarfs with masses between 25--60 MJup at projected separations of 4--190 AU. Over 100 candidate planets were discovered, nearly all of which were found to be background stars from follow-up second epoch imaging. Our null detection of planets nevertheless provides strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. Assuming circular orbits and a logarithmically-flat power law distribution in planet mass and semi--major axis of the form d 2N=(dloga dlogm) infinity m0 a0, we measure an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 8.8% and 12.6% for 1--13 MJup companions between 10--100 AU for hot start and cold start evolutionary models, respectively. For massive gas giant planets in the 5--13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799, GJ 504, and beta Pictoris, we find that fewer than 5.3% (7.8%) of M dwarfs harbor these planets between 10--100 AU for a hot start (cold start) formation scenario. Our best constraints are for brown dwarf companions; the frequency of 13--75 MJup companions between (de--projected) physical separations of 10--100 AU is 2.1+2.1-1.2 %. Altogether, our results show that gas giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. If disk instability is a viable way to form planets, our constraints for the most common type of star imply that overall it is an inefficient mechanism.

  12. A visual-search model observer for multislice-multiview SPECT images

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers are intended for efficient assessment of diagnostic image quality, but model-observer studies often are not representative of clinical realities. Model observers based on a visual-search (VS) paradigm may allow for greater clinical relevance. The author has compared the performances of several VS model observers with those of human observers and an existing scanning model observer for a study involving nodule detection and localization in simulated Tc-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung volumes. Methods: A localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study compared two iterative SPECT reconstruction strategies: an all-corrections (AllC) strategy with compensations for attenuation, scatter, and distance-dependent camera resolution and an “RC” strategy with resolution compensation only. Nodules in the simulation phantom were of three different relative contrasts. Observers in the study had access to the coronal, sagittal, and transverse displays of the reconstructed volumes. Three human observers each read 50 training volumes and 100 test volumes per reconstruction strategy. The same images were analyzed by a channelized nonprewhitening (CNPW) scanning observer and two VS observers. The VS observers implemented holistic search processes that identified focal points of Tc-99m uptake for subsequent analysis by the CNPW scanning model. The level of prior knowledge about the background structure in the images was a study variable for the model observers. Performance was scored by area under the LROC curve. Results: The average human-observer performances were respectively 0.67 ± 0.04 and 0.61 ± 0.03 for the RC and AllC strategies. Given approximate knowledge about the background structure, both VS models scored 0.69 ± 0.08 (RC) and 0.66 ± 0.08 (AllC). The scanning observer reversed the strategy ranking in scoring 0.73 ± 0.08 with the AllC strategy and 0.64 ± 0.08 with the RC strategy. The VS observers exhibited less sensitivity to variations in background knowledge compared to the scanning observer. Conclusions: The VS framework has the potential to increase the clinical similitude of model-observer studies and to enhance the ability of existing model observers to quantitatively predict human-observer performance. PMID:24007181

  13. Libraries and the Search for Academic Excellence. Proceedings of the Arden House Symposium (New York, New York, March 15-17, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    In the introductory paper Patricia Senn Breivik provides background information on and an overview of a national symposium. This introduction is followed by the full text of nine papers presented at the symposium: (1) "The Academic Library and Education for Leadership" (Major R. Owens, U.S. House of Representatives); (2) "Academic Libraries and…

  14. Mold Image Library

    MedlinePlus

    ... on walls When built, the roof had a hole for the drainpipe; however, a drainpipe was not ... deposits resulting from rain pouring through the drain hole onto the walls. Photo courtesy of Terry Brennan ...

  15. Mold Image Library

    MedlinePlus

    ... The crawlspace has a vapor barrier over the earth, is air-sealed, and insulated on the walls. ... walls, and there is also condensation on the earth-chilled concrete. (The floor is about 3 feet ...

  16. Excellence in Library Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naulty, Deborah

    By emulating traits of high-performing corporations such as those described in the book "In Search of Excellence," the library/information profession can also reach the goal of excellence. Attributes characterizing excellent companies include exhibiting a bias for action; maintaining quality service through closeness to the customer; encouraging…

  17. Broad screening and identification of β-agonists in feed and animal body fluid and tissues using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry combined with spectra library search.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xian; He, Pingli

    2016-02-01

    Broad screening and identification of β-agonists in feed, serum, urine, muscle and liver samples was achieved in a quick and highly sensitive manner using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) combined with a spectra library search. Solid-phase extraction technology was employed for sample purification and enrichment. After extraction and purification, the samples were analyzed using a Q-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer under full-scan and data-dependent MS/MS mode. The acquired mass spectra were compared with an in-house library (compound library and MS/MS mass spectral library) built with TraceFinder Software which contained the M/Z of the precursor ion, chemical formula, retention time, character fragment ions and the entire MS/MS spectra of 32 β-agonist standards. Screening was achieved by comparing 5 key mass spectral results and positive matches were marked. Using the developed method, the identification results from 10 spiked samples and 238 actual samples indicated that only 2% of acquired mass spectra produced false identities. The method validation results showed that the limit of detection ranged from 0.021-3.854 μg kg(-1)and 0.015-1.198 ng mL(-1) for solid and liquid samples, respectively. PMID:26304337

  18. DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Releases Speeches and Testimony Major Operations Multi-Media Library Micrograms Legislative & Legal Resources Events ESPAÑOL Contáctenos Declaración ... Liderazgo de la DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First ...

  19. The library as a reference tool: online catalogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, M.

    1991-01-01

    Online catalogs are computerized listings of materials in a particular library or group of libraries. General characteristics of online catalogs include ability for searching interactively and for locating descriptions of books, maps, and reports on regional or topical geology. Suggestions for searching, evaluating results, modifying searches, and limitations of searching are presented. -Author

  20. Searching for transits in the WTS with the difference imaging light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendejas Dominguez, Jesus

    2013-12-01

    The search for exo-planets is currently one of the most exiting and active topics in astronomy. Small and rocky planets are particularly the subject of intense research, since if they are suitably located from their host star, they may be warm and potentially habitable worlds. On the other hand, the discovery of giant planets in short-period orbits provides important constraints on models that describe planet formation and orbital migration theories. Several projects are dedicated to discover and characterize planets outside of our solar system. Among them, the Wide-Field Camera Transit Survey (WTS) is a pioneer program aimed to search for extra-solar planets, that stands out for its particular aims and methodology. The WTS has been in operation since August 2007 with observations from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and represents the first survey that searches for transiting planets in the near-infrared wavelengths; hence the WTS is designed to discover planets around M-dwarfs. The survey was originally assigned about 200 nights, observing four fields that were selected seasonally (RA = 03, 07, 17 and 19h) during a year. The images from the survey are processed by a data reduction pipeline, which uses aperture photometry to construct the light curves. For the most complete field (19h-1145 epochs) in the survey, we produce an alternative set of light curves by using the method of difference imaging, which is a photometric technique that has shown important advantages when used in crowded fields. A quantitative comparison between the photometric precision achieved with both methods is carried out in this work. We remove systematic effects using the sysrem algorithm, scale the error bars on the light curves, and perform a comparison of the corrected light curves. The results show that the aperture photometry light curves provide slightly better precision for objects with J < 16. However, difference photometry light curves present a significant improvement for fainter stars. In order to detect transits in the WTS light curves, we use a modified version of the box-fitting algorithm. The implementation on the detection algorithm performs a trapezoid-fit to the folded light curve. We show that the new fit is able to produce more accurate results than the box-fit model. We describe a set of selection criteria to search for transit candidates that include a parameter calculated by our detection algorithm: the V-shape parameter, which has proven to be useful to automatically identify and remove eclipsing binaries from the survey. The criteria are optimized using Monte-Carlo simulations of artificial transit signals that are injected into the real WTS light curves and subsequently analyzed by our detection algorithm. We separately optimize the selection criteria for two different sets of light curves, one for F-G-K stars, and another for M-dwarfs. In order to search for transiting planet candidates, the optimized selection criteria are applied to the aperture photometry and difference imaging light curves. In this way, the best 200 transit candidates from a sample of ~ 475 000 sources are automatically selected. A visual inspection of the folded light curves of these detections is carried out to eliminate clear false-positives or false-detections. Subsequently, several analysis steps are performed on the 18 best detections, which allow us to classify these objects as transiting planet and eclipsing binary candidates. We report one planet candidate orbiting a late G-type star, which is proposed for photometric follow-up. The independent analysis on the M-dwarf sample provides no planet candidates around these stars. Therefore, the null detection hypothesis and upper limits on the occurrence rate of giant planets around M-dwarfs with J < 17 mag presented in a prior study are confirmed. In this work, we extended the search for transiting planets to stars with J < 18 mag, which enables us to impose a more strict upper limit of 1.1 % on the occurrence rate of short-period giant planets around M-dwarfs, which is significantly lower than other limit published so far. The lack of Hot Jupiters around M-dwarfs play an important role in the existing theories of planet formation and orbital migration of exo-planets around low-mass stars. The dearth of gas-giant planets in short-period orbit detections around M stars indicates that it is not necessary to invoke the disk instability formation mechanism, coupled with an orbital migration process to explain the presence of such planets around low-mass stars. The much reduced efficiency of the core-accretion model to form Jupiters around cool stars seems to be in agreement with the current null result. However, our upper limit value, the lowest reported sofar, is still higher than the detection rates of short-period gas-giant planets around hotter stars. Therefore, we cannot yet reach any firm conclusion about Jovian planet formation models around low-mass and cool main-sequence stars, since there are currently not sufficient observational evidences to support the argument that Hot Jupiters are less common around M-dwarfs than around Sun-like stars. The way to improve this situation is to monitor larger samples of M-stars. For example, an extended analysis of the remaining three WTS fields and currently running M-dwarf transit surveys (like Pan-Planets and PTF/M-dwarfs projects, which are monitoring up to 100 000 objects) may reduce this upper limit. Current and future space missions like Kepler and GAIA could also help to either set stricter upper limits or finally detect Hot Jupiters around low-mass stars. In the last part of this thesis, we present other applications of the difference imaging light curves. We report the detection of five faint extremely-short-period eclipsing binary systems with periods shorter than 0.23 d, as well as two candidates and one confirmed M-dwarf/M-dwarf eclipsing binaries. The etections and results presented in this work demonstrate the benefits of using the difference imaging light curves, especially when going to fainter magnitudes.

  1. Search and retrieval of medical images for improved diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekin, Ahmet; Jasinschi, Radu; Turan, Erman; Engbers, Rene; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    In the medical world, the accuracy of diagnosis is mainly affected by either lack of sufficient understanding of some diseases or the inter-, and/or intra-observer variability of the diagnoses. The former requires understanding the progress of diseases at much earlier stages, extraction of important information from ever growing amounts of data, and finally finding correlations with certain features and complications that will illuminate the disease progression. The latter (inter-, and intra- observer variability) is caused by the differences in the experience levels of different medical experts (inter-observer variability) or by mental and physical tiredness of one expert (intra-observer variability). We believe that the use of large databases can help improve the current status of disease understanding and decision making. By comparing large number of patients, some of the otherwise hidden relations can be revealed that results in better understanding, patients with similar complications can be found, the diagnosis and treatment can be compared so that the medical expert can make a better diagnosis. To this effect, this paper introduces a search and retrieval system for brain MR databases and shows that brain iron accumulation shape provides additional information to the shape-insensitive features, such as the total brain iron load, that are commonly used in the clinics. We propose to use Kendall's correlation value to automatically compare various returns to a query. We also describe a fully automated and fast brain MR image analysis system to detect degenerative iron accumulation in brain, as it is the case in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The system is composed of several novel image processing algorithms and has been extensively tested in Leiden University Medical Center over so far more than 600 patients.

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left parietal cortex facilitates visual search for a letter among its mirror images.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zhaoping, Li; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Interference by task irrelevant information is seen in visual search paradigms using letters. Thus, it is harder to find the letter 'N' among its mirror reversals 'И' than vice versa. This observation, termed the reversed letter effect, involves both a linguistic association and an interference of task irrelevant information—the shape of 'N' or 'И' is irrelevant, the search requires merely distinguishing the tilts of oblique bars. We adapted the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) methods that we previously used, and conducted three rTMS experiments using healthy subjects. The first experiment investigated the effects of rTMS on the left and right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) on the search performance. The second experiment focused on the role of the left PPC. The third experiment explored whether another left posterior region, known to be involved in word reading (ventral occipito-temporal cortex, vOTC), plays a role. We found that rTMS on right PPC and left VOTC had no effect on the speed and accuracy of the visual search regardless of whether the target is 'N' or its mirror reversal. In contrast, rTMS on the left PPC speeded up the search on finding target 'N' among its mirror images. We suggest that left PPC is involved in letter recognition, and that rTMS on left PPC facilitated our visual search task by reducing task interference triggered by task irrelevant letter recognition. PMID:25744867

  3. Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minudri, Regina; Coats, Reed

    1969-01-01

    A proposal to extend the traditional library services to media which work through machines--such as, television, film and filmstrip projectors, phonographs, radio, and tape recorders. The emphasis is on library services to the young. (RM)

  4. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  5. A systematic search for lensed high-redshift galaxies in HST images of MACS clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repp, A.; Ebeling, H.; Richard, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a 135-arcmin2 search for high-redshift galaxies lensed by 29 clusters from the MAssive Cluster and extended MAssive Cluster Surveys. We use relatively shallow images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in four passbands, namely, F606W, F814W, F110W, and F140W. We identify 130 F814W dropouts as candidates for galaxies at z ≳ 6. In order to fit the available broad-band photometry to galaxy spectral energy distribution (SED) templates, we develop a prior for the level of dust extinction at various redshifts. We also investigate the systematic biases incurred by the use of SED-fit software. The fits we obtain yield an estimate of 20 Lyman-break galaxies with photometric redshifts from z ˜ 7 to 9. In addition, our survey has identified over 100 candidates with a significant probability of being lower redshift (z ˜ 2) interlopers. We conclude that even as few as four broad-band filters - when combined with fitting the SEDs - are capable of isolating promising objects. Such surveys thus allow one both to probe the bright end (M1500 ≲ -19) of the high-redshift ultraviolet luminosity function and to identify candidate massive evolved galaxies at lower redshifts.

  6. National Libraries: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Godfrey

    1973-01-01

    The title National Library'' means different things in different countries. It can encompass parliamentary libraries, public libraries, special interest libraries (museums, etc.), and reference and lending libraries. (DH)

  7. Towards using eye-tracking data to develop visual-search observers for x-ray breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhengqiang; Liang, Zhihua; Das, Mini; Gifford, Howard C.

    2015-03-01

    Visual-search (VS) model observers have the potential to provide reliable predictions of human-observer performance in detection-localization tasks. The purpose of this work was to examine some characteristics of human gaze on breast images with the goal of informing the design of our VS observers. Using a helmet-mounted eye- tracking system, we recording the movement of gaze from human observers as they searched for masses in sets of 2D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images. The masses in this study were of a single profile. The DBT images were extracted from image volumes reconstructed with filtered back-projection and penalized maximum- likelihood methods. Fixation times associated with observer points of interest (POIs) were computed from the observer data. The fixation times were then compared to sets of morphological feature values extracted from the images. These features, extracted as cross-correlations involving the mass profile and the test image, included the matched filter (MF), gradient MF, and Laplacian MF. For this initial investigation, we computed correlation coefficients between the fixation times and the feature values.

  8. The IDL astronomy user's library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    IDL (Interactive Data Language) is a commercial programming, plotting, and image display language, which is widely used in astronomy. The IDL Astronomy User's Library is a central repository of over 400 astronomy-related IDL procedures accessible via anonymous FTP. The author will overview the use of IDL within the astronomical community and discuss recent enhancements at the IDL astronomy library. These enhancements include a fairly complete I/O package for FITS images and tables, an image deconvolution package and an image mosaic package, and access to IDL Open Windows/Motif widgets interface. The IDL Astronomy Library is funded by NASA through the Astrophysics Software and Research Aids Program.

  9. Process Not Product in Course-Integrated Instruction: A Generic Model of Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Constance A.

    1984-01-01

    In order to blend writing process with introduction to library, the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga developed generic model of library research having three stages (pre-library, library awareness, library competence) that parallel stages in writing process. Library use is presented as series of activities including searching, retrieving,…

  10. A direct imaging search for close stellar and sub-stellar companions to young nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhäuser, R.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Contreras-Quijada, A.; Schmidt, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 28 young nearby stars (ages {≤ 60} Myr) have been observed in the K_s-band with the adaptive optics imager Naos-Conica of the Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. Among the targets are ten visual binaries and one triple system at distances between 10 and 130 pc, all previously known. During a first observing epoch a total of 20 faint stellar or sub-stellar companion-candidates were detected around seven of the targets. These fields, as well as most of the stellar binaries, were re-observed with the same instrument during a second epoch, about one year later. We present the astrometric observations of all binaries. Their analysis revealed that all stellar binaries are co-moving. In two cases (HD 119022 AB and FG Aqr B/C) indications for significant orbital motions were found. However, all sub-stellar companion candidates turned out to be non-moving background objects except PZ Tel which is part of this project but whose results were published elsewhere. Detection limits were determined for all targets, and limiting masses were derived adopting three different age values; they turn out to be less than 10 Jupiter masses in most cases, well below the brown dwarf mass range. The fraction of stellar multiplicity and of the sub-stellar companion occurrence in the star forming regions in Chamaeleon are compared to the statistics of our search, and possible reasons for the observed differences are discussed. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 083.C-0150(B), 084.C-0364(A), 084.C-0364(B), 084.C-0364(C), 086.C-0600(A) and 086.C-0600(B).

  11. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  12. Health sciences library building projects, 1998 survey.

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, V M

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-eight health sciences library building projects are briefly described, including twelve new buildings and sixteen additions, remodelings, and renovations. The libraries range in size from 2,144 square feet to 190,000 gross square feet. Twelve libraries are described in detail. These include three hospital libraries, one information center sponsored by ten institutions, and eight academic health sciences libraries. Images PMID:10550027

  13. Generalizing the OpenURL Framework beyond References to Scholarly Works: The Bison-Fute Model; Digital Libraries and Education: Trends and Opportunities; E-Books and Their Future in Academic Libraries: An Overview; Penn State Visual Image User Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Beit-Arie, Oren; Roes, Hans; Snowhill, Lucia; Pisciotta, Henry; Brisson, Roger; Ferrin, Eric; Dooris, Michael; Spink, Amanda

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss a conceptual framework for open and context-sensitive reference linking for Web-based scholarly information; issues for academic libraries due to increased use of information and communication technologies; the future of electronic books in academic libraries; and an academic library user study on the needs for…

  14. Basic Research in Atkins Library. A Research Guide and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith

    This workbook is designed to help students at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte acquire basic research skills in using a university library. The workbook is divided into 10 sections: (1) Finding Books in Atkins Library; (2) Library of Congress Subject Headings; (3) Searching ALADDIN (the online catalog); (4) Searching a Subject; (5) Call…

  15. A nanobuffer reporter library for fine-scale imaging and perturbation of endocytic organelles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Endosomes, lysosomes and related catabolic organelles are a dynamic continuum of vacuolar structures that impact a number of cell physiological processes such as protein/lipid metabolism, nutrient sensing and cell survival. Here we develop a library of ultra-pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles with chemical properties that allow fine-scale, multiplexed, spatio-temporal perturbation and quantification of catabolic organelle maturation at single organelle resolution to support quantitative investigation of these processes in living cells.

  16. Libraries program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

  17. Efficient Solutions for Time-Consuming Jobs in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kieren

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most time-consuming jobs in the library are taking inventory and keeping track of in-house uses of library material. Librarians have long been searching for more efficient solution for these two activities. New technology can be the answer to creating efficiency for libraries. In fact, if one is a SirsiDynix library, there is an easy…

  18. Accessing Digital Libraries: A Study of ARL Members' Digital Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Chad M.; Williams, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    To ensure efficient access to and integrated searching capabilities for their institution's new digital library projects, the authors studied Web sites of the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) 111 academic, English-language libraries. Data were gathered on 1117 digital projects, noting library Web site and project access, metadata, and…

  19. Tomorrow's library.

    PubMed

    Penniman, W D

    1994-09-01

    The buildings in which we house libraries are like other special purpose structures; the needs they fill are significantly influenced by technology. A prime function of the library building is to house collections (of people, material, and systems) as well as collections of collections (networks). Electronic formats for library material offer new approaches to information service delivery. An example, the information access station, typifies how traditional functions can be reconfigured with respect to space. Flexible design can help ensure that tomorrow's libraries meet the users' needs, but we need to question all our assumptions about building design including those driven by our understanding of the browsing process. PMID:7842657

  20. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and duplication costs. Most importantly, increasing collaboration across research groups provides unprecedented access to information relevant to NASA s mission. Conclusion: This project is an expansion and cost-effective leveraging of the existing JSC centralized library. Adding key word and author search capabilities and an alert function for notifications about new articles, based on users profiles, represent examples of future enhancements.

  1. Robust coastal region detection method using image segmentation and sensor LOS information for infrared search and track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Sun, Sun-Gu; Kwon, Soon; Kim, Kyung-Tae

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel coastal region detection method for infrared search and track. The coastal region detection is critical to home land security and ship defense. Detected coastal region information can be used to the design of target detector such as moving target detection and threshold setting. We can detect coastal regions robustly by combining the infrared image segmentation and sensor line-of-sight (LOS) information. The K-means-based image segmentation can provide initial region information and the sensor LOS information can predict the approximate horizon location in images. The evidence of coastal region is confirmed by contour extraction results. The experimental results on remote coasts and near coasts validate the robustness of the proposed coastal region detector.

  2. Advanced spectral imaging for noninvasive microanalysis of cultural heritage materials: review of application to documents in the U.S. Library of Congress.

    PubMed

    France, Fenella G

    2011-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging was originally developed for remote sensing and astronomical applications, but adaptations of this technology have been of great benefit to the preservation of cultural heritage. Developments in noninvasive analytical techniques have advanced the preservation of cultural heritage materials by enabling the identification and analysis of a range of materials, utilizing their unique spectral response to nondestructively determine chemical composition, and determining states of deterioration and change due to environmental conditions. When used as a tool for noninvasive characterization of cultural heritage, these spectral imaging systems allow the collection of chemical identification information about materials without sampling, which is a critical factor for cultural heritage materials. The United States Library of Congress has been developing the application of hyperspectral imaging to the preservation and analysis of cultural heritage materials as a powerful noncontact technique. It allows noninvasive characterization of materials, by identifying and characterizing colorants, inks, and substrates with narrow-band illumination to protect the object while also monitoring deterioration or changes due to exhibit and other environmental conditions. Contiguous illumination from the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral regions allows the capture of lost, obscured, and deteriorated information. The resulting image cube allows greater capabilities for mapping and coordinating a range of complementary chemical and spectral analyses. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated by a review of results from analysis of the Waldseemüller World Map, the L'Enfant plan for Washington, D.C., and the first draft of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. PMID:21639977

  3. Understanding Internet Searching Performance in a Heterogeneous Portal for K-12 Students: Search Success, Search Time, Strategy, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Robins, David; Holmes, Jason; Salaba, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to better understand search performance using an online portal containing a collection of heterogeneous library resources for K-12 students. Search performance is examined in terms of search success, search time, strategy, and effort. This study revealed unsuccessful searches tended to take longer than successful searches;…

  4. Library Automation: A Year on.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electronic Library, 1997

    1997-01-01

    A follow-up interview with librarians from Hong Kong, Mexico, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand about library automation systems in their libraries and their plans for the future. Discusses system performance, upgrades, services, resources, intranets, trends in automation, Web interfaces, full-text image/document systems, document delivery, OPACs…

  5. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  6. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,

  7. Image intensifiers. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning classifications, components, and applications of image intensifiers. Classifications include x-ray, gamma-ray, electron beam, and neutron beam image intensifiers. Design and fabrication methods of image intensifier tubes, input phosphor screens, photocathodes, resolution enhancers, brightness control devices, color contrast devices, and power supply circuits are presented. Patent applications of image intensifiers used in x-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems, electron microscopes, charge coupled image sensors, television cameras, photographic apparatus, and underwater viewing systems are included. Patents concerning night vision devices are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and…

  9. Macintoshed Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J., Ed.; John, Nancy R., Ed.

    Contributed by librarians from public, academic, school, and special libraries, the 17 essays in this collection describe ways in which the Apple Macintosh is used in their libraries: (1) "Workstations and the Apple Macintosh" (Edward J. Valauskas); (2) "The Macintosh Experience at Chesapeake College" (Liz Cooper); (3) "ANSEL Character Set for the…

  10. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  11. Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and

  12. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation

  13. Library Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Keyes D.

    Chapter I provides a background and explains pertinent library lighting problems such as quality, function, aesthetics, intensity, and costs. Emphasis is on the quality and function of lighting for library users. Chapter II deals with the comments and answers to questions by persons who have a special interest and competence in the field of…

  14. Virtual digital library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.

    1996-03-01

    The virtual digital library, a concept that is quickly becoming a reality, offers rapid and geography-independent access to stores of text, images, graphics, motion video and other datatypes. Furthermore, a user may move from one information source to another through hypertext linkages. The projects described here further the notion of such an information paradigm from an end user viewpoint.

  15. Next Gen Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Keeping a history of peace studies. Cataloging audio and video broadcasts important to the Northwest. Digitizing images and other documents older than the state of California. All of these efforts are important steps toward preserving the history of the nation's development. Digital library initiatives are nothing new; the effort to digitize data…

  16. Children's Search Engines from an Information Search Process Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broch, Elana

    2000-01-01

    Describes cognitive and affective characteristics of children and teenagers that may affect their Web searching behavior. Reviews literature on children's searching in online public access catalogs (OPACs) and using digital libraries. Profiles two Web search engines. Discusses some of the difficulties children have searching the Web, in the…

  17. Content-based image retrieval for brain MRI: an image-searching engine and population-based analysis to utilize past clinical data for future diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Faria, Andreia V; Oishi, Kenichi; Yoshida, Shoko; Hillis, Argye; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Radiological diagnosis is based on subjective judgment by radiologists. The reasoning behind this process is difficult to document and share, which is a major obstacle in adopting evidence-based medicine in radiology. We report our attempt to use a comprehensive brain parcellation tool to systematically capture image features and use them to record, search, and evaluate anatomical phenotypes. Anatomical images (T1-weighted MRI) were converted to a standardized index by using a high-dimensional image transformation method followed by atlas-based parcellation of the entire brain. We investigated how the indexed anatomical data captured the anatomical features of healthy controls and a population with Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). PPA was chosen because patients have apparent atrophy at different degrees and locations, thus the automated quantitative results can be compared with trained clinicians' qualitative evaluations. We explored and tested the power of individual classifications and of performing a search for images with similar anatomical features in a database using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The agreement between the automated z-score and the averaged visual scores for atrophy (r = 0.8) was virtually the same as the inter-evaluator agreement. The PCA plot distribution correlated with the anatomical phenotypes and the PLS-DA resulted in a model with an accuracy of 88% for distinguishing PPA variants. The quantitative indices captured the main anatomical features. The indexing of image data has a potential to be an effective, comprehensive, and easily translatable tool for clinical practice, providing new opportunities to mine clinical databases for medical decision support. PMID:25685706

  18. Content-based image retrieval for brain MRI: An image-searching engine and population-based analysis to utilize past clinical data for future diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Andreia V.; Oishi, Kenichi; Yoshida, Shoko; Hillis, Argye; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Radiological diagnosis is based on subjective judgment by radiologists. The reasoning behind this process is difficult to document and share, which is a major obstacle in adopting evidence-based medicine in radiology. We report our attempt to use a comprehensive brain parcellation tool to systematically capture image features and use them to record, search, and evaluate anatomical phenotypes. Anatomical images (T1-weighted MRI) were converted to a standardized index by using a high-dimensional image transformation method followed by atlas-based parcellation of the entire brain. We investigated how the indexed anatomical data captured the anatomical features of healthy controls and a population with Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). PPA was chosen because patients have apparent atrophy at different degrees and locations, thus the automated quantitative results can be compared with trained clinicians' qualitative evaluations. We explored and tested the power of individual classifications and of performing a search for images with similar anatomical features in a database using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The agreement between the automated z-score and the averaged visual scores for atrophy (r = 0.8) was virtually the same as the inter-evaluator agreement. The PCA plot distribution correlated with the anatomical phenotypes and the PLS-DA resulted in a model with an accuracy of 88% for distinguishing PPA variants. The quantitative indices captured the main anatomical features. The indexing of image data has a potential to be an effective, comprehensive, and easily translatable tool for clinical practice, providing new opportunities to mine clinical databases for medical decision support. PMID:25685706

  19. Ontology-guided organ detection to retrieve web images of disease manifestation: towards the construction of a consumer-based health image library

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Ren, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual information is a crucial aspect of medical knowledge. Building a comprehensive medical image base, in the spirit of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), would greatly benefit patient education and self-care. However, collection and annotation of such a large-scale image base is challenging. Objective To combine visual object detection techniques with medical ontology to automatically mine web photos and retrieve a large number of disease manifestation images with minimal manual labeling effort. Methods As a proof of concept, we first learnt five organ detectors on three detection scales for eyes, ears, lips, hands, and feet. Given a disease, we used information from the UMLS to select affected body parts, ran the pretrained organ detectors on web images, and combined the detection outputs to retrieve disease images. Results Compared with a supervised image retrieval approach that requires training images for every disease, our ontology-guided approach exploits shared visual information of body parts across diseases. In retrieving 2220 web images of 32 diseases, we reduced manual labeling effort to 15.6% while improving the average precision by 3.9% from 77.7% to 81.6%. For 40.6% of the diseases, we improved the precision by 10%. Conclusions The results confirm the concept that the web is a feasible source for automatic disease image retrieval for health image database construction. Our approach requires a small amount of manual effort to collect complex disease images, and to annotate them by standard medical ontology terms. PMID:23792805

  20. A Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscope Extension for Ultrafast Screening of One-Bead One-Compound Libraries Using a Spectral Image Subtraction Approach.

    PubMed

    Heusermann, Wolf; Ludin, Beat; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Weidemann, Thomas; Hintersteiner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The increasing involvement of academic institutions and biotech companies in drug discovery calls for cost-effective methods to identify new bioactive molecules. Affinity-based on-bead screening of combinatorial one-bead one-compound libraries combines a split-mix synthesis design with a simple protein binding assay operating directly at the bead matrix. However, one bottleneck for academic scale on-bead screening is the unavailability of a cheap, automated, and robust screening platform that still provides a quantitative signal related to the amount of target protein binding to individual beads for hit bead ranking. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy has long been considered unsuitable due to significant broad spectrum autofluorescence of the library beads in conjunction with low detection sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate how such a standard microscope equipped with LED-based excitation and a modern CMOS camera can be successfully used for selecting hit beads. We show that the autofluorescence issue can be overcome by an optical image subtraction approach that yields excellent signal-to-noise ratios for the detection of bead-associated target proteins. A polymer capillary attached to a semiautomated bead-picking device allows the operator to efficiently isolate individual hit beads in less than 20 s. The system can be used for ultrafast screening of >200,000 bead-bound compounds in 1.5 h, thereby making high-throughput screening accessible to a wider group within the scientific community. PMID:27057765

  1. Facilitating medical information search using Google Glass connected to a content-based medical image retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Antoine; Schaer, Roger; Markonis, Dimitrios; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Wearable computing devices are starting to change the way users interact with computers and the Internet. Among them, Google Glass includes a small screen located in front of the right eye, a camera filming in front of the user and a small computing unit. Google Glass has the advantage to provide online services while allowing the user to perform tasks with his/her hands. These augmented glasses uncover many useful applications, also in the medical domain. For example, Google Glass can easily provide video conference between medical doctors to discuss a live case. Using these glasses can also facilitate medical information search by allowing the access of a large amount of annotated medical cases during a consultation in a non-disruptive fashion for medical staff. In this paper, we developed a Google Glass application able to take a photo and send it to a medical image retrieval system along with keywords in order to retrieve similar cases. As a preliminary assessment of the usability of the application, we tested the application under three conditions (images of the skin; printed CT scans and MRI images; and CT and MRI images acquired directly from an LCD screen) to explore whether using Google Glass affects the accuracy of the results returned by the medical image retrieval system. The preliminary results show that despite minor problems due to the relative stability of the Google Glass, images can be sent to and processed by the medical image retrieval system and similar images are returned to the user, potentially helping in the decision making process. PMID:25570993

  2. Efficiency image data retrieval based on asynchronous capability aware spatial search service middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nengcheng; Chen, Zeqiang; Gong, Jianya

    2007-11-01

    Recent advances in open geospatial web service, such as Web Coverage Service as well as corresponding web ready data processing service, have led to the generation of large amounts of OGC enabled links on Internet. Recently a few search engines that are specialised with respect to geographic space have appeared. However, users do not always get the effective OGC WCS link information they expect when searching the Web. How to quickly find the correct spatial aware web service in a heterogeneous distributed environment has become a "bottleneck" of geospatial web-based applications. In order to improve the retrieval efficiency of OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) on WWW, a new methodology for retrieving WCS based on clustering capability aware spatial search service middleware is put forward in this paper.

  3. Fostering Information Literate Students at a Medium-Sized Research Library: A Comparison of Manual and Online Searches on an Interdisciplinary Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Laura M.; And Others

    This study investigated the benefits of online research methods over manual methods for novice researchers. It was hypothesized that novice researchers who conduct online searches submit better research projects than those who use manual methods. Undergraduate students in two classes of a journalism course on "Law and Mass Communications", taught…

  4. Limits on the cosmological abundance of supermassive compact objects from a search for multiple imaging in compact radio sources.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P N; Henstock, D R; Browne, I W; Polatidis, A G; Augusto, P; Readhead, A C; Pearson, T J; Xu, W; Taylor, G B; Vermeulen, R C

    2001-01-22

    Using very long baseline interferometry we have searched a sample of 300 compact radio sources for examples of multiple imaging produced by gravitational lensing; no multiple images were found with separations in the angular range 1.5--50 milliarcsec. This null result allows us to place a limit on the cosmological abundance of intergalactic supermassive compact objects in the mass range approximately 10(6)M( middle dot in circle) to approximately 10(8)M( middle dot in circle); such objects cannot make up more than approximately 1% of the closure density ( 95% confidence). A uniformly distributed population of supermassive black holes forming soon after the big bang does not, therefore, contribute significantly to the dark matter content of the Universe. PMID:11177887

  5. Image retargeting using non-uniform scaling with adaptive local search window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Abdel-Dayem, Amr

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new content-aware image-retargeting scheme, based on non-uniform scaling, to adaptively adjust the image's dimensions for various screen sizes. Based on an importance map, the energy contribution for each line in the reduced dimension to the overall energy within the image is computed. Then, the image is adaptively mapped and resampled based on the energy contribution function. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed scheme is comparable to seam carving in visual quality. However, it is computationally less expensive.

  6. The Use of Social Tags in Text and Image Searching on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Mi

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, tags have become a standard feature on a diverse range of sites on the Web, accompanying blog posts, photos, videos, and online news stories. Tags are descriptive terms attached to Internet resources. Despite the rapid adoption of tagging, how people use tags during the search process is not well understood. There is little

  7. The Use of Social Tags in Text and Image Searching on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Mi

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, tags have become a standard feature on a diverse range of sites on the Web, accompanying blog posts, photos, videos, and online news stories. Tags are descriptive terms attached to Internet resources. Despite the rapid adoption of tagging, how people use tags during the search process is not well understood. There is little…

  8. PERSIVAL, a System for Personalized Search and Summarization over Multimedia Healthcare Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Kathleen R.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Cimino, James; Feiner, Steven K.; Friedman, Carol; Gravano, Luis; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Johnson, Steven; Jordan, Desmond A.; Klavans, Judith L.; Kushniruk, Andre; Patel, Vimla; Teufel, Simone

    This paper reports on the ongoing development of PERSIVAL (Personalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video, and Language), a system designed to provide personalized access to a distributed digital library of medical literature and consumer health information. The goal for PERSIVAL is to tailor search, presentation, and summarization of…

  9. Callpath Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-11-09

    The "Callpath Library" is a software abstraction layer over a number of stack tracing utilities. It allows tool develoopers to conveniently represent and mNipulate call paths gathered fro U. Wisconsin's Stackwalker API and GNU Backtrace.

  10. BIRP: Software for interactive search and retrieval of image engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Bolef, L. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Norberg, P.

    1980-01-01

    Better Image Retrieval Programs (BIRP), a set of programs to interactively sort through and to display a database, such as engineering data for images acquired by spacecraft is described. An overview of the philosophy of BIRP design, the structure of BIRP data files, and examples that illustrate the capabilities of the software are provided.

  11. A Novel Passive Millimeter Imager for Broad-Area Search - Final Report on Project PL09-NPMI-PD07 (PNNL-55180)

    SciTech Connect

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Harris, Robert V.; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Knopik, Clint D.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Mendoza, Albert; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2011-12-31

    This report describes research and development efforts toward a novel passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) electromagnetic imaging device for broad-area search. It addresses the technical challenge of detecting anomalies that occupy a small fraction of a pixel. The purpose of the imager is to pinpoint suspicious locations for cuing subsequent higher-resolution imaging. The technical basis for the approach is to exploit thermal and polarization anomalies that distinguish man-made features from natural features.

  12. Evaluation of Diffusion-Tensor Imaging-Based Global Search and Tractography for Tumor Surgery Close to the Language System

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Mirco; Zolal, Amir; Ganslandt, Oliver; Buchfelder, Michael; Nimsky, Christopher; Merhof, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    Pre-operative planning and intra-operative guidance in neurosurgery require detailed information about the location of functional areas and their anatomo-functional connectivity. In particular, regarding the language system, post-operative deficits such as aphasia can be avoided. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, the connectivity between functional areas can be reconstructed by tractography techniques that need to cope with limitations such as limited resolution and low anisotropic diffusion close to functional areas. Tumors pose particular challenges because of edema, displacement effects on brain tissue and infiltration of white matter. Under these conditions, standard fiber tracking methods reconstruct pathways of insufficient quality. Therefore, robust global or probabilistic approaches are required. In this study, two commonly used standard fiber tracking algorithms, streamline propagation and tensor deflection, were compared with a previously published global search, Gibbs tracking and a connection-oriented probabilistic tractography approach. All methods were applied to reconstruct neuronal pathways of the language system of patients undergoing brain tumor surgery, and control subjects. Connections between Broca and Wernicke areas via the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were validated by a clinical expert to ensure anatomical feasibility, and compared using distance- and diffusion-based similarity metrics to evaluate their agreement on pathway locations. For both patients and controls, a strong agreement between all methods was observed regarding the location of the AF. In case of the IFOF however, standard fiber tracking and Gibbs tracking predominantly identified the inferior longitudinal fasciculus that plays a secondary role in semantic language processing. In contrast, global search resolved connections in almost every case via the IFOF which could be confirmed by probabilistic fiber tracking. The results show that regarding the language system, our global search is superior to clinically applied conventional fiber tracking strategies with results similar to time-consuming global or probabilistic approaches. PMID:23308093

  13. Mapping of low-frequency chimeric yeast artificial chromosome libraries from human chromosomes 16 and 21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, B.L.; Campbell, E.W.; Anzick, S.L.; Shera, K.; Campbell, M.; Yoshida, T.M.; McCormick, M.K.; Deaven, L. )

    1994-05-01

    Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones from low-frequency chimeric libraries of human chromosomes 16 and 21 were mapped onto human diploid fibroblast metaphase chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital imaging microscopy. YACs mapped onto chromosome 21 were selected to provide subregional location and ordering of known and unknown markers on the long arm of chromosome 21, particularly in the Down syndrome region (q22). YACs mapped onto chromosome 16 were selected to overlap regions spanning chromosome 16 cosmid maps. YAC clones were indirectly labeled with fluorescein, and the total DNA of the chromosome was counterstained with propidium iodide. A single image containing both the FISH signal and the whole chromosome was acquired for each chromosome of interest containing the fluorescent probe signal in a metaphase spread. From the digitized image, the fluorescence intensity profile through the long axis of the chromosome gave the total chromosome length and the probe position. The map position of the probe was expressed as the fractional length (FL) of the total chromosome relative to the end of the short arm (Flpter). From each clone hybridized, 20-40 chromosome images were analyzed. Thirty-eight YACs were mapped onto chromosome 16, and their FLs were distributed along the short and long arms. On chromosome 21, 47 YACs were mapped, including 12 containing known markers. To confirm the order of a dense population of YACs within the Down syndrome region, a two-color mapping strategy was used in which an anonymous YAC was located relative to one or two known markers on the metaphase chromosome. The chromosome FL maps have a 1- to 2-Mb resolution, and the FL measurement of each probe has a typical standard error of 0.5-1 Mb. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Genome Clone Libraries and Data from the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression (I.M.A.G.E.) Consortium

    DOE Data Explorer

    The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium was initiated in 1993 by four academic groups on a collaborative basis after informal discussions led to a common vision of how to achieve an important goal in the study of the human genome: the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression Consortium's primary goal is to create arrayed cDNA libraries and associated bioinformatics tools, and make them publicly available to the research community. The primary organisms of interest include intensively studied mammalian species, including human, mouse, rat and non-human primate species. The Consortium has also focused on several commonly studied model organisms; as part of this effort it has arrayed cDNAs from zebrafish, and Fugu (pufferfish) as well as Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis (frog). Utilizing high speed robotics, over nine million individual cDNA clones have been arrayed into 384-well microtiter plates, and sufficient replicas have been created to distribute copies both to sequencing centers and to a network of five distributors located worldwide. The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium represents the world's largest public cDNA collection, and works closely with the National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection(MGC) to help it achieve its goal of creating a full-length cDNA clone for every human and mouse gene. I.M.A.G.E. is also a member of the ORFeome Collaboration, working to generate a complete set of expression-ready open reading frame clones representing each human gene. Custom informatics tools have been developed in support of these projects to better allow the research community to select clones of interest and track and collect all data deposited into public databases about those clones and their related sequences. I.M.A.G.E. clones are publicly available, free of any royalties, and may be used by anyone agreeing with the Consortium's guidelines.

  15. Searching for molecular markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) by statistical and bioinformatic analysis of larynx-derived SAGE libraries

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nelson JF; Varuzza, Leonardo; Machado-Lima, Ariane; Lauretto, Marcelo S; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Rodrigues, Rodrigo V; Severino, Patrícia; Nobrega, Francisco G; Silva, Wilson A; de B Pereira, Carlos A; Tajara, Eloiza H

    2008-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignancies in humans. The average 5-year survival rate is one of the lowest among aggressive cancers, showing no significant improvement in recent years. When detected early, HNSCC has a good prognosis, but most patients present metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, which significantly reduces survival rate. Despite extensive research, no molecular markers are currently available for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. Methods Aiming to identify differentially-expressed genes involved in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) development and progression, we generated individual Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) libraries from a metastatic and non-metastatic larynx carcinoma, as well as from a normal larynx mucosa sample. Approximately 54,000 unique tags were sequenced in three libraries. Results Statistical data analysis identified a subset of 1,216 differentially expressed tags between tumor and normal libraries, and 894 differentially expressed tags between metastatic and non-metastatic carcinomas. Three genes displaying differential regulation, one down-regulated (KRT31) and two up-regulated (BST2, MFAP2), as well as one with a non-significant differential expression pattern (GNA15) in our SAGE data were selected for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a set of HNSCC samples. Consistent with our statistical analysis, quantitative PCR confirmed the upregulation of BST2 and MFAP2 and the downregulation of KRT31 when samples of HNSCC were compared to tumor-free surgical margins. As expected, GNA15 presented a non-significant differential expression pattern when tumor samples were compared to normal tissues. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting SAGE data in head and neck squamous cell tumors. Statistical analysis was effective in identifying differentially expressed genes reportedly involved in cancer development. The differential expression of a subset of genes was confirmed in additional larynx carcinoma samples and in carcinomas from a distinct head and neck subsite. This result suggests the existence of potential common biomarkers for prognosis and targeted-therapy development in this heterogeneous type of tumor. PMID:19014460

  16. The JPL Library Information Retrieval System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Josephine

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. (Author)

  17. Access to Periodicals: Search Key versus Keyword.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Susan U.; Golden, Gary A.

    1983-01-01

    Retrievability of titles of 152 periodicals were compared in a fixed-length algorithmic search (Library Computer System) and a keyword search (Washington Library Network) to determine which type of search algorithm is more successful with titles of varying lengths. Three references and a list of English language stopwords are appended. (EJS)

  18. Differentiation of Isodon japonica and Adulterants Based on Identification and Quantitation 14 Diterpenoids Using LC-MS-MS Library Search Approach and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiran; Tian, Tingting; Ma, Yinghua; Liu, Minyan; Xie, Weiwei; Wang, Xin; Xu, Huijun; Du, Yingfeng

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical differences between genunine Isodon japonica and its adulterants. A linear ion trap liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analytical method has been developed for the identification and quantification of 14 major diterpenoids in I. japonica. Data acquisition was multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode followed by an information-dependent acquisition using the enhanced product ion (EPI) scan in a single run. The target compounds were further identified and confirmed using an EPI spectral library. Overall validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantification. The results demonstrated that the method was selective, sensitive and reliable. The determination results of 21 batches of I. japonica and adulterants were then analyzed and differentiated by hierarchical clustering analysis. PMID:26489434

  19. Remote access to electronic library services through a campus network.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, L M; Silver, J T; Givens, M K

    1991-01-01

    The Health Science Library at University of Tennessee (UT), Memphis has taken advantage of a campuswide network for the purpose of providing enhanced access to library services. With a terminal or microcomputer, members of the UT Memphis community can use an electronic menu system to complete photocopy, interlibrary loan, and computer literature search request forms; leave messages or sign up for library workshops; use electronic mail to receive citations and abstracts from computer literature searches; use an electronic bulletin board to scan the library's new acquisitions lists, library hours, services, and policies; and use bibliographic retrieval software to search the library's locally mounted databases. Remote access to library services and electronic resources, which is available twenty-four hours a day, could potentially save users time and the institution money. Remote access, however, is intended to supplement, not to supplant or discourage, in-house library use. PMID:1998820

  20. High content image-based screening of a protease inhibitor library reveals compounds broadly active against Rift Valley fever virus and other highly pathogenic RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Mudhasani, Rajini; Kota, Krishna P; Retterer, Cary; Tran, Julie P; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bavari, Sina

    2014-08-01

    High content image-based screening was developed as an approach to test a protease inhibitor small molecule library for antiviral activity against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and to determine their mechanism of action. RVFV is the causative agent of severe disease of humans and animals throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Of the 849 compounds screened, 34 compounds exhibited ≥ 50% inhibition against RVFV. All of the hit compounds could be classified into 4 distinct groups based on their unique chemical backbone. Some of the compounds also showed broad antiviral activity against several highly pathogenic RNA viruses including Ebola, Marburg, Venezuela equine encephalitis, and Lassa viruses. Four hit compounds (C795-0925, D011-2120, F694-1532 and G202-0362), which were most active against RVFV and showed broad-spectrum antiviral activity, were selected for further evaluation for their cytotoxicity, dose response profile, and mode of action using classical virological methods and high-content imaging analysis. Time-of-addition assays in RVFV infections suggested that D011-2120 and G202-0362 targeted virus egress, while C795-0925 and F694-1532 inhibited virus replication. We showed that D011-2120 exhibited its antiviral effects by blocking microtubule polymerization, thereby disrupting the Golgi complex and inhibiting viral trafficking to the plasma membrane during virus egress. While G202-0362 also affected virus egress, it appears to do so by a different mechanism, namely by blocking virus budding from the trans Golgi. F694-1532 inhibited viral replication, but also appeared to inhibit overall cellular gene expression. However, G202-0362 and C795-0925 did not alter any of the morphological features that we examined and thus may prove to be good candidates for antiviral drug development. Overall this work demonstrates that high-content image analysis can be used to screen chemical libraries for new antivirals and to determine their mechanism of action and any possible deleterious effects on host cellular biology. PMID:25144302

  1. High Content Image-Based Screening of a Protease Inhibitor Library Reveals Compounds Broadly Active against Rift Valley Fever Virus and Other Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mudhasani, Rajini; Kota, Krishna P.; Retterer, Cary; Tran, Julie P.; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Bavari, Sina

    2014-01-01

    High content image-based screening was developed as an approach to test a protease inhibitor small molecule library for antiviral activity against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and to determine their mechanism of action. RVFV is the causative agent of severe disease of humans and animals throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Of the 849 compounds screened, 34 compounds exhibited ≥50% inhibition against RVFV. All of the hit compounds could be classified into 4 distinct groups based on their unique chemical backbone. Some of the compounds also showed broad antiviral activity against several highly pathogenic RNA viruses including Ebola, Marburg, Venezuela equine encephalitis, and Lassa viruses. Four hit compounds (C795-0925, D011-2120, F694-1532 and G202-0362), which were most active against RVFV and showed broad-spectrum antiviral activity, were selected for further evaluation for their cytotoxicity, dose response profile, and mode of action using classical virological methods and high-content imaging analysis. Time-of-addition assays in RVFV infections suggested that D011-2120 and G202-0362 targeted virus egress, while C795-0925 and F694-1532 inhibited virus replication. We showed that D011-2120 exhibited its antiviral effects by blocking microtubule polymerization, thereby disrupting the Golgi complex and inhibiting viral trafficking to the plasma membrane during virus egress. While G202-0362 also affected virus egress, it appears to do so by a different mechanism, namely by blocking virus budding from the trans Golgi. F694-1532 inhibited viral replication, but also appeared to inhibit overall cellular gene expression. However, G202-0362 and C795-0925 did not alter any of the morphological features that we examined and thus may prove to be good candidates for antiviral drug development. Overall this work demonstrates that high-content image analysis can be used to screen chemical libraries for new antivirals and to determine their mechanism of action and any possible deleterious effects on host cellular biology. PMID:25144302

  2. Detection and confirmation of 60 anabolic and androgenic steroids in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with instant library searching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; Li, Xiaoqing; Guan, Fuyu; You, Youwen; Rudy, Jeffrey A; Chen, Jin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Pennsylvania (PA) became the first State in the USA to ban and enforce the ban on the use of anabolic and androgenic steroids (AAS) in equine athletes by using plasma for analysis. To enforce the ban, a rapid and high-throughput method for analysis of 60 AAS in equine plasma was developed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analytes were recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using methyl tert-butyl ether, separated on a reversed-phase C₁₈ column and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scan was employed for screening. When the MRM signal of an analyte exceeded 1000 counts per second (cps), information-dependent acquisition (IDA) triggered generation of an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan of the analyte. A library for the analytes was simultaneously established using the EPI spectrum. Unambiguous identification of any of the 60 AAS in a test sample was based on both the presence of MRM response within the correct retention time (t(R)) window and a qualitative match between EPI spectrum of the test sample and that of the reference drug standard stored in the library. Total analysis time was 7 min. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of confirmation (LOC) for most of the analytes were 0.01-2 ng/mL and 0.1-10 ng/mL, respectively. Recovery of the analytes from plasma by LLE was 74-138%. The method was successfully verified and is routinely used in the screening of post-race equine plasma samples for the presence of these 60 AAS. The method is rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and reliable. PMID:20878876

  3. Spectral characterization of coastal sediments using Field Spectral Libraries, Airborne Hyperspectral Images and Topographic LiDAR Data (FHyL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Valentini, Emiliana; Taramelli, Andrea; Filipponi, Federico; Disperati, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Beach dune systems are important for coastal zone ecosystems as they provide natural sea defences that dissipate wave energy. Geomorphological models of this near-shore topography require site-specific sediment composition, grain size and moisture content as inputs. Hyperspectral, field radiometry and LiDAR remote sensing can be used as tools by providing synoptic maps of these properties. However, multi-remote sensing of near-shore beach images can only be interpreted if there are adequate bio-geophysical or empirical models for information extraction. Our aim was thus to model the effects of varying sediment properties on the reflectance in both field and laboratory conditions within the FHyL (Field Spectral Libraries, Airborne Hyperspectral Images and Topographic LiDAR) procedure, using a multisource dataset (airborne Hyperspectral - MIVIS and topographic LiDAR - Hawk-eye II and field radiometry). The methodology consisted of (i) acquisition of simultaneous multi-source datasets (airborne Hyperspectral - MIVIS and topographic LiDAR - Hawk-eye) (ii) hyperspectral measurements of sediment mixtures with varying physical characteristics (moisture, grain size and minerals) in field and laboratory conditions, (iii) determination and quantification of specific absorption features, and (iv) correlation between the absorption features and physical parameters cited above. Results showed the potential of hyperspectral signals to assess the effect of moisture, grain-size and mineral composition on sediment properties.

  4. Helping Students Use Virtual Libraries Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mary Ann; Galloway, Chad

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study in which online behavior of high school and undergraduate students using GALILEO (Georgia Library Learning Online), a virtual library, were observed. Topics include cognitive demands; technology literacy; domain knowledge; search strategies; relevance; evaluation of information; information literacy standards; and suggestions to…

  5. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  6. Negotiating the Digital Library: Document Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Neil; Morris, Anne

    1999-01-01

    The eLib-funded FIDDO (Focused Investigation of Document Delivery Options) project provides library managers/others with information to support policy decisions. Senior libraries were interviewed about the future of document delivery and interviews were analyzed with the support of NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data by Indexing, Searching and…

  7. Google's Evolution Leads to Library Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Susan; Sullivan, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Do library catalogs compete with Google or is it the other way around? We know which came first but which will finish in the end? Only trained library professionals were considered qualified to develop reliable catalog records. However, with the increased sophistication of search engines, we are beginning to realize that a collaborative effort may…

  8. Google's Evolution Leads to Library Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Susan; Sullivan, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Do library catalogs compete with Google or is it the other way around? We know which came first but which will finish in the end? Only trained library professionals were considered qualified to develop reliable catalog records. However, with the increased sophistication of search engines, we are beginning to realize that a collaborative effort may

  9. Can Library Use Enhance Intercultural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Joron

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the questions to what extent educational research addresses library use in education and how the library can contribute to intercultural education. The focus is primarily on elementary education in Europe. Analysis of research publications was based on searches for peer-reviewed journals in international databases, literary…

  10. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,

  11. FALCON: An Interactive Library Instruction Tutorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Stefanie; Broughton, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    The Bowling Green State University Web tutorial, FALCON, models a standard library instructional session on use of the library's Web-based catalog. The tutorial's self-containment, achieved with a complex system of files and without a live catalog connection, enables users to learn how to search the catalog at a pace, time and place of their…

  12. Search without Boundaries Using Simple APIs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Library, where the author serves as the digital services librarian, is increasingly challenged to make it easier for users to find information from many heterogeneous information sources. Information is scattered throughout different software applications (i.e., library catalog, federated search engine, link resolver, and vendor websites), and each specializes in one thing. How could the library integrate the functionalities of one application with another and provide a single point of entry for users to search across? To improve the user experience, the library launched an effort to integrate the federated search engine into the library's intranet website. The result is a simple search box that leverages the federated search engine's built-in application programming interfaces (APIs). In this article, the author describes how this project demonstrated the power of APIs and their potential to be used by other enterprise search portals inside or outside of the library.

  13. International Relations: Library Instruction Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathie

    In support of the United States Naval Academy's program in international relations, library reference staff developed an instruction unit featuring appropriate research guides and a videotape produced at the Naval Academy Educational Resource Center. The videotape illustrates a sample search strategy and then highlights the use of four basic…

  14. Technology and the Modern Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Overview of the impact of information technology on libraries highlights turnkey vendors, bibliographic utilities, commercial suppliers of records, state and regional networks, computer-to-computer linkages, remote database searching, terminals and microcomputers, building local databases, delivery of information, digital telefacsimile,…

  15. Charging Users for Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)

  16. Evaluation of activity images in dynamics speckle in search of objective estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño Montecinos, Marcos; Mora Canales, Victor; Cap, Nelly; Grumel, Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo; Baradit, Erik

    2015-08-01

    We explore the performance of two algorithms to screen loci of equal activity in dynamic speckle images. Dynamic speckle images are currently applied to several applications in medicine, biology, agriculture and other disciplines. Nevertheless, no objective standard has been proposed so far to evaluate the performance of the algorithms, which must be then relied on subjective appreciations. We use two case studies of activity that do not bear the biologic inherent variability to test the methods: "Generalized Differences" and "Fujii", looking for a standard to evaluate their performance in an objective way. As study cases, we use the drying of paint on an (assumed) unknown topography, namely the surface of a coin, and the activity due to pre heating a piece of paper that hides writings in the surface under the paper. A known object of simple topography is included in the image, besides of the painted coin, consisting in a paint pool where the depth is a linear function of its position. Both algorithms are applied to the images and the intensity profile of the results along the linear region of the pool activity is used to estimate the depth of the geometric topography hidden under paint in the coin. The accuracy of the result is used as a merit estimation of the corresponding algorithm. In the other experiment, a hidden dark bar printed on paper is covered with one or two paper leaves, slightly pre heated with a lamp and activity images registered and processed with both algorithms. The intensity profile of the activity images is used to estimate which method gives a better description of the bar edges images and their deterioration. Experimental results are shown.

  17. Image Querying by Image Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne; Jorgensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reports the analysis of search logs from a commercial image provider over a one-month period and discusses results in relation to previous findings. Analyzes image searches, image queries composing the search, user search modification strategies, results returned, and user browsing of results. (Author/AEF)

  18. High-throughput search for photoabsorbers for solar fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovic, Slobodan; Cornell, Earl; Newhouse, Paul; Haber, Joel; Jones, Ryan; Gregoire, John

    2015-03-01

    We present the suite of instrumentation developed specifically to search for light absorber materials for solar hydrogen and carbon-based fuels. A pre-screening method utilizes colorimetric image analysis to search for positive and negative metrics for electronic bandgaps, isolate materials not suitable for further screening and identify phase clusters in the compositional space of combinatorial material libraries. Then, two highly-automatized instruments screen for photocurrent, by performing incident-photon conversion efficiency measurement in a redox couple, and absorption properties via UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Finally, we present a new instrument for multispectral microscopic imaging of material libraries. We will discuss the challenges in automated data analysis from large datasets and multispectral data-cubes. This material is based upon work performed by the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC000499.

  19. Comparison of Iranian National Medical Library with digital libraries of selected countries

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Najafi, Nayere Sadat Soleimanzade; Atashpour, Bahare

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The important role of information and communication technologies and their influence on methods of storing, retrieving information in digital libraries, has not only changed the meanings behind classic library activates but has also created great changes in their services. However, it seems that not all digital libraries provide their users with similar services and only some of them are successful in fulfilling their role in digital environment. The Iranian National Medical library is among those that appear to come short compared to other digital libraries around the world. By knowing the different services provided by digital libraries worldwide, one can evaluate the services provided by Iranian National Medical library. The goal of this study is a comparison between Iranian National Medical library and digital libraries of selected countries. Materials and Methods: This is an applied study and uses descriptive – survey method. The statistical population is the digital libraries around the world which were actively providing library services between October and December 2011 and were selected by using the key word “Digital Library” in Google search engine. The data-gathering tool was direct access to the websites of these digital libraries. The statistical study is descriptive and Excel software was used for data analysis and plotting of the charts. Results: The findings showed that among the 33 digital libraries investigated worldwide, most of them provided Browse (87.87%), Search (84.84%), and Electronic information retrieval (57.57%) services. The “Help” in public services (48/48%) and “Interlibrary Loan” in traditional services (27/27%) had the highest frequency. The Iranian National Medical library provides more digital services compared to other libraries but has less classic and public services and has less than half of possible public services. Other than Iranian National Medical library, among the 33 libraries investigated, the leaders in providing different services are Library of University of California in classic services, Count Way Library of Medicine in digital services, and Library of Finland in public services. Results and Discussion: The results of this study show that among the digital libraries investigated, most provided similar public, digital, and classic services and The Iranian National Medical library has been somewhat successful in providing these services compared to other digital libraries. One can also conclude that the difference in services is at least in part due to difference in environments, information needs, and users. Conclusion: Iranian National Medical Library has been somewhat successful in providing library services in digital environment and needs to identify the services which are valuable to its users by identifying the users’ needs and special characteristics of its environment PMID:25540782

  20. Examining Search Functions of EAD Finding Aids Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaomu

    2006-01-01

    This article examined the search functions for all individual EAD Web sites listed on the Library of Congress Web site in 2003. In particular, the type of search engine, search modes, options for searching, search results display, search feedback, and other features of the search systems were studied. The data analysis suggests that there have

  1. In search of optimal fear inducing stimuli: Differential behavioral responses to computer animated images in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Luca, Ruxandra M; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish has been gaining popularity in behavioral genetics and behavioral neuroscience as this species offers an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity for mechanistic analyses of brain and behavior function. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate methods with which fear responses may be induced reliably in zebrafish. The ultimate goal of these studies has been to develop zebrafish models of pathological processes and to investigate the mechanisms of fear and to eventually translate the findings to the human clinic. Previously, animated image of a sympatric predator of zebrafish was shown to induce fear responses. Here we expand on this recently gained knowledge and investigate whether other moving images may induce more robust fear responses. The images investigated include the original sympatric predator, the Indian leaf fish, another sympatric predator, the needle fish, a bird silhouette moved on the side or above the tank, an expanding dot mimicking rapid approach of an object shown on the side and from above the tank, as well as non-fear inducing images including a single and a group of zebrafish. Our results indicate that although the sympatric predators do induce some fear responses, the other images, particularly the expanding dot but also the bird silhouette shown from above are more effective. The results also reveal a stimulus dependent motor pattern response repertoire of zebrafish demonstrating that perhaps univariate quantification methods may not be appropriate for uncovering the complexity of fear or anxiety related phenotypical changes in this species. PMID:21920389

  2. Advanced image collection, information extraction, and change detection in support of NN-20 broad area search and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Perry, E.M.; Kirkham, R.R.; Slator, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Research and Development (NN-20). The work supports the NN-20 Broad Area Search and Analysis, a program initiated by NN-20 to improve the detection and classification of undeclared weapons facilities. Ongoing PNNL research activities are described in three main components: image collection, information processing, and change analysis. The Multispectral Airborne Imaging System, which was developed to collect georeferenced imagery in the visible through infrared regions of the spectrum, and flown on a light aircraft platform, will supply current land use conditions. The image information extraction software (dynamic clustering and end-member extraction) uses imagery, like the multispectral data collected by the PNNL multispectral system, to efficiently generate landcover information. The advanced change detection uses a priori (benchmark) information, current landcover conditions, and user-supplied rules to rank suspect areas by probable risk of undeclared facilities or proliferation activities. These components, both separately and combined, provide important tools for improving the detection of undeclared facilities.

  3. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  4. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve

  5. A Web-Based Search Engine for Chinese Calligraphic Manuscript Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yi; Jiang, Nan; Hu, Haiyang

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework for the web-based retrieval of Chinese calligraphic manuscript images which includes two main components: 1). A Shape- Similarity (SS)-based method which is to effectively support a retrieval over large Chinese calligraphic manuscript databases [19]. In this retrieval method, shapes of calligraphic characters are represented by their approximate contour points extracted from the character images; 2). To speed up the retrieval efficiency, we then propose a Composite - Distance- Tree(CD-Tree)-based high-dimensional indexing scheme for it. Comprehensive experiments are conducted to testify the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed retrieval and indexing methods respectively.

  6. Shaping the library of the future: Digital library developments at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Research Library

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, R. E.

    1994-10-01

    This paper offers an overview of current efforts at the Research Library, Los Alamos National Laboratory, (LANL), to develop digital library services. Current projects of LANL`s Library without Walls initiative are described. Although the architecture of digital libraries generally is experimental and subject to debate, one principle of LANL`s approach to delivering library information is the use of Mosaic as a client for the Research Library`s resources. Several projects under development have significant ramifications for delivering library services over the Internet. Specific efforts via Mosaic include support for preprint databases, providing access to citation databases, and access to a digital image database of unclassified Los Alamos technical reports.

  7. A search for p-mode pulsations in white dwarf stars using the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Welsh, B. Y.; Koen, C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-speed photometry (resolution 0.1 s) obtained during the commissioning of the Berkely Visible Imaging Tube system on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The observations were an attempt to search for very rapid p-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars and included three DA stars known to be g-mode pulsators (ZZ Cet, HK Cet and AF Pic), one other DA star (WD 1056-384) not known to be variable and one AM Cvn star (HP Lib). No evidence was found for any variations greater than about 1 mmag in amplitude (˜0.1 per cent) at frequencies in excess of 60 mHz (periods <17 s) in any of the target stars, though several previously known g-mode frequencies were recovered.

  8. A SEARCH FOR RADIO TRANSIENTS IN VERY LARGE ARRAY ARCHIVAL IMAGES OF THE 3C 286 FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Saul, Destry E-mail: destry@astro.columbia.edu

    2011-02-10

    We present a search for radio transients (RTs) in the field of the bright radio source 3C 286 using archival observations from the Very Large Array (VLA). These observations span 23 years and include 1852 epochs at 1.4 GHz in the C and D configurations. We find no transients in the field. The sensitivity of the observations is limited by dynamic range effects in the images. At large flux densities (>0.2 Jy), single-epoch observations provide a strong limit on the transient surface density. At flux densities near the dynamic range threshold, we use the requirement that transient sources must appear in consecutive epochs to be confirmed as real. This sets the sensitivity at low flux densities to transient durations of {tau} {approx} 1 day, while {tau}>1 minute for high flux densities. At 70 mJy, we find a 2{sigma} limit on the surface density {Sigma} < 3 x 10{sup -3} deg{sup -2}. At 3 Jy, we find a 2{sigma} limit {Sigma} < 9 x 10{sup -4} deg{sup -2}. A future systematic search of the VLA archives can provide one to two orders of magnitude more sensitivity to RTs.

  9. Library Venturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, H. Donald

    1986-01-01

    There is opportunity for service and profit to imaginative libraries organizing to provide new forms of knowledge. Librarians as entrepreneurs must learn venture management and finance. Available assistance includes growing entrepreneural understanding in large institutions; family and friends; private wealth-seeking investment; new business

  10. Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  11. Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Building data is given for the following public libraries: New York, New York; Blue Island, Illinois; Corte Madera, California; Muskogee, Oklahoma: Charlotte, North Carolina; Washington, D.C.; Houston, Texas; Albermarle, North Carolina; Spokane, Washington; and Hemet, California. (Author/NH)

  12. Library Collaboration Aids Global Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, G. J.; Howard, A. L.; Sommer, S.

    2005-12-01

    In the geosciences, organizational libraries and information centers are local sources for scientists, students, and members of the general public who are searching for current or historic information in their fields. They offer focused collections, rare materials, and knowledgeable librarians, but often issues caused by isolation and limited resources impede their ability to fulfill the researchers' needs. Unlike the local university libraries, these small special information centers are usually housed in the same building as their scientists' offices. To help overcome these problems of limited resources and isolation, while retaining the organizational focus and unique collections that are its strengths, the National Snow & Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Information Center has begun to collaborate with similar libraries and information centers. This project has three major steps: 1. Catalog sharing through internet-based links. 2. Resource sharing. 3. Expansion of collaboration. NSIDC is creating catalog links with a sister library, the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) Information Center. Once the links are established, the two libraries will develop a plan for resource sharing and coordinated purchasing. This small collaborative effort will serve as a template for a network of special libraries within Colorado. Ultimately, they hope to expand the collaborative effort to small libraries with a similar focus around the globe. This poster will outline and graphically illustrate these steps, as well as provide a template for future expansion of the project.

  13. A Search for Fast Radio Bursts at Low Frequencies with Murchison Widefield Array High Time Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Wayth, R. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Murphy, T.; Oberoi, D.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a pilot study search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at low frequencies (139-170 MHz). We utilized MWA data obtained in a routine imaging mode from observations where the primary target was a field being studied for Epoch of Reionization detection. We formed images with 2 s time resolution and 1.28 MHz frequency resolution for 10.5 hr of observations, over 400 square degrees of the sky. We de-dispersed the dynamic spectrum in each of 372,100 resolution elements of 2 × 2 arcmin2, between dispersion measures of 170 and 675 pc cm-3. Based on the event rate calculations in Trott et al., which assume a standard candle luminosity of 8 × 1037 Js-1, we predict that with this choice of observational parameters, the MWA should detect (˜10, ˜2, ˜0) FRBs with spectral indices corresponding to (-2, -1, 0), based on a 7σ detection threshold. We find no FRB candidates above this threshold from our search, placing an event rate limit of \\lt 700 above 700 Jy ms per day per sky and providing evidence against spectral indices α \\lt -1.2 (S\\propto {ν }α ). We compare our event rate and spectral index limits with others from the literature. We briefly discuss these limits in light of recent suggestions that supergiant pulses from young neutron stars could explain FRBs. We find that such supergiant pulses would have to have much flatter spectra between 150 and 1400 MHz than have been observed from Crab giant pulses to be consistent with the FRB spectral index limit we derive.

  14. Millimeter wave radar system on a rotating platform for combined search and track functionality with SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbacher, Uwe; Rech, Klaus; Sedlmeier, Johannes; Pratisto, Hans; Wellig, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Ground based millimeter wave radar sensors offer the potential for a weather-independent automatic ground surveillance at day and night, e.g. for camp protection applications. The basic principle and the experimental verification of a radar system concept is described, which by means of an extreme off-axis positioning of the antenna(s) combines azimuthal mechanical beam steering with the formation of a circular-arc shaped synthetic aperture (SA). In automatic ground surveillance the function of search and detection of moving ground targets is performed by means of the conventional mechanical scan mode. The rotated antenna structure designed as a small array with two or more RX antenna elements with simultaneous receiver chains allows to instantaneous track multiple moving targets (monopulse principle). The simultaneously operated SAR mode yields areal images of the distribution of stationary scatterers. For ground surveillance application this SAR mode is best suited for identifying possible threats by means of change detection. The feasibility of this concept was tested by means of an experimental radar system comprising of a 94 GHz (W band) FM-CW module with 1 GHz bandwidth and two RX antennas with parallel receiver channels, placed off-axis at a rotating platform. SAR mode and search/track mode were tested during an outdoor measurement campaign. The scenery of two persons walking along a road and partially through forest served as test for the capability to track multiple moving targets. For SAR mode verification an image of the area composed of roads, grassland, woodland and several man-made objects was reconstructed from the measured data.

  15. Science Parametrics for Missions to Search for Earth-like Exoplanets by Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We use Nt , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various "27-vectors" of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate Nt . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ~4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ~1300 unique stars observed in ~2600 observations, of which ~1300 are revisits, and it produces N 1 ~ 50 exoplanets after one year and N 5 ~ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z < 50 zodis, end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ < 10-10. We find that observational overheads, completeness recovery and revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N.

  16. SCIENCE PARAMETRICS FOR MISSIONS TO SEARCH FOR EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS BY DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-20

    We use N{sub t} , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various ''27-vectors'' of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate N{sub t} . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ∼4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ∼1300 unique stars observed in ∼2600 observations, of which ∼1300 are revisits, and it produces N {sub 1} ∼ 50 exoplanets after one year and N {sub 5} ∼ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z < 50 zodis, end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ < 10{sup –10}. We find that observational overheads, completeness recovery and revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N.

  17. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  18. Digital Libraries Based on Full-Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Ian H.; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Cunningham, Sally Jo

    This paper discusses the indexing, collection, and maintenance processes, as well as the retrieval interface, to public digital libraries. The paper begins by briefly surveying both Internet technical report collections and World Wide Web search engines. It goes on to describe a prototype digital library, the New Zealand Digital Library for…

  19. Building a Microforms Database at the New York Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Wendy

    1990-01-01

    Discusses some problems in accessing the microform collection of the Research Libraries of the New York Public Library using the library's printed and online catalogs. Creation of an in-house automated microforms database is described, including software, selection and downloading of records, updating, and searching the database. (MES)

  20. Information Seeking Behavior in Digital Image Collections: A Cognitive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matusiak, Krystyna K.

    2006-01-01

    Presents the results of a qualitative study that focuses on search patterns of college students and community users interacting with a digital image collection. The study finds a distinct difference between the two groups of users and examines the role of mental models in information seeking behavior in digital libraries.

  1. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

  2. (Meta)Search like Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochkind, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The ability to search and receive results in more than one database through a single interface--or metasearch--is something many users want. Google Scholar--the search engine of specifically scholarly content--and library metasearch products like Ex Libris's MetaLib, Serials Solution's Central Search, WebFeat, and products based on MuseGlobal used

  3. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of

  4. (Meta)Search like Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochkind, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The ability to search and receive results in more than one database through a single interface--or metasearch--is something many users want. Google Scholar--the search engine of specifically scholarly content--and library metasearch products like Ex Libris's MetaLib, Serials Solution's Central Search, WebFeat, and products based on MuseGlobal used…

  5. Nondestructive Visual Search for Fossils in Rock Using X-Ray Interferometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masami; Chen, Junyuan; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Mori, Koichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Xian, Dingchang; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2000-10-01

    Fossils inside rock have been clearly visualized utilizing an X-ray interferometer. Two types of clear images are obtained, one involves phase contrast in interference beams and the other involving refraction contrast in forward-diffracted beams. 2D monochromatic synchrotron X-ray radiation with a beam size of 10 mm× 10 mm and a photon energy of 35 keV was used. Using a stereographic pair of X-ray images, the locations of fossils inside rock can easily be determined with a precision of 0.5 mm. This method can be a powerful nondestructive tool in the fields of paleontology and paleobiology to discover and locate fossils and trace fossils inside rock.

  6. [The image of the dentist. Part 1: Results of a literature search].

    PubMed

    Wolf, Christian A; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2012-01-01

    The dentist enjoys a high degree of professional independence. He is seen as reliable and productive at work while carrying a big responsibility. His foremost social responsibility is to treat patients suffering from toothache and to promote oral health prevention for all people, regardless of their social status. At the same time, the dentist is prestigious, respected and honest. Comparable to other professions, however, dentistry is under public pressure. Media often associate the dental profession with negative properties such as sadism, immorality, or madness. Does the image of the dental profession suffer in this context? Our first article discusses the environmental factors which are identifiable to influence both each dentist and ultimately the whole image of dentistry. PMID:22362180

  7. A Ground-based Search for Lunar Resources Using High-resolution Imaging in the Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, C. R.; Mckechnie, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    When humans return to the Moon, lunar resources will play an important role in the successful deployment and maintenance of the lunar base. Previous studies have illustrated the abundance of resource materials available on the surface of the Moon, as well as their ready accessibility. Particularly worth considering are the lunar regional (2,000-30,000 sq km) pyroclastic deposits scattered about the lunar nearside. These 30-50-m-thick deposits are composed of fine-grained unconsolidated titanium- and iron-rich mafic glasses and may be used as bulk feedstock for the beneficiation of oxygen, iron, titanium, sulfur, and other solar wind gases, or simply used as is for construction and shielding purposes. A groundbased observing survey of the resource-rich regions on the lunar nearside using a new imaging technique designed to obtain much higher resolution images, and more precise compositional analyses than previously obtainable is proposed.

  8. A Review of the Status of 20 Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyyappan, N.; Chowdhury, G. G.; Foo, Schubert

    2000-01-01

    Provides a review of 20 digital libraries from around the world. Examines library objectives; funding, including the role of government and private sector organizations; subject coverage; collections; information storage and retrieval; search features; access to the collections; output formats; and sorting search output. (LRW)

  9. Characterizing populations and searching for diagnostics via elastic registration of MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettey, David; Gee, James C.

    2001-07-01

    Given image data from two distinct populations and a family of functions, we find the scalar discriminant function which best discriminates between the populations. The goals are two-fold: first, to construct a discriminant function which can accurately and reliably classify subjects via the image data. Second, the best discriminant allows us to see which features in the images distinguish between the populations; these features can guide us to finding characteristic differences between the two groups even if these differences are not sufficient to perform classification. We apply our method to mid-sagittal MRI sections of the corpus callosum from 34 males and 52 females. While we are not certain of the ability of the derived discriminant function to perform sex classification, we find that regions in the anterior of the corpus callosum do appear to be more important for the discriminant function than other regions. This indicates there may be significant differences in the relative size of the splenium in males and females, as has been reported elsewhere. More notably, we applied previous methods which support this view on our larger data set, but found that these methods no longer show statistically significant differences between the male and female splenium.

  10. Report on the search for atmospheric holes using airs image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinleitner, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    Frank et al (1986) presented a very controversial hypothesis which states that the Earth is being bombarded by water-vapor clouds resulting from the disruption and vaporization of small comets. This hypothesis was based on single-pixel intensity decreases in the images of the earth's dayglow emissions at vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths using the DE-1 imager. These dark spots, or atmospheric holes, are hypothesized to be the result of VUV absorption by a water-vapor cloud between the imager and the dayglow-emitting region. Examined here is the VUV data set from the Auroral Ionospheric Remote Sensor (AIRS) instrument that was flown on the Polar BEAR satellite. AIRS was uniquely situated to test this hypothesis. Due to the altitude of the sensor, the holes should show multi-pixel intensity decreases in a scan line. A statistical estimate indicated that sufficient 130.4-nm data from AIRS existed to detect eight to nine such holes, but none was detected. The probability of this occurring is less than 1.0 x 10(exp -4). A statistical estimate indicated that sufficient 135.6-nm data from AIRS existed to detect approx. 2 holes, and two ambiguous cases are shown. In spite of the two ambiguous cases, the 135.6-nm data did not show clear support for the small-comet hypothesis. The 130.4-nm data clearly do not support the small-comet hypothesis.

  11. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Within a digital library, collections may range from an ad hoc set of objects that serve a temporary purpose to established library collections intended to persist through time. The objects in these collections vary widely, from library and data center holdings to pointers to real-world objects, such as geographic places, and the various metadata schemas that describe them. The key to integrated use of such a variety of collections in a digital library is collection metadata that represents the inherent and contextual characteristics of a collection. The Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project has designed and implemented collection metadata for several purposes: in XML form, the collection metadata "registers" the collection with the user interface client; in HTML form, it is used for user documentation; eventually, it will be used to describe the collection to network search agents; and it is used for internal collection management, including mapping the object metadata attributes to the common search parameters of the system.

  12. ELNET--The Electronic Library Database System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Shirley V.

    1991-01-01

    ELNET (Electronic Library Network), a Japanese language database, allows searching of index terms and free text terms from articles and stores the full text of the articles on an optical disc system. Users can order fax copies of the text from the optical disc. This article also explains online searching and discusses machine translation. (LRW)

  13. Gamma-ray Spectral Analysis Algorithm Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-09-25

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithm library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from GE semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  14. Gamma-ray spectral analysis algorithm library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-06

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithms library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from Ge semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  15. The Mars Surveyor 1998 Landing Zone: Searching for Mars Polar Lander in High Resolution MOC Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.

    2000-08-01

    Between mid-December 1999 and early February 2000, forty images (approx. 400 MBytes) were acquired of the area believed to be the location where the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander is believed to have crashed, uniquely covering 667 sq km and, additionally, covering most of this area stereoscopically. These images cover most of the landing ellipses identified as encompassing the most probable crash site. No evidence of the lander or of the lander delivery system (parachute or aeroshell) was seen. A geomorphic sketch map was created at a scale of 10 m/pixel. Eleven characteristic morphologies (plus one 'other') and three qualitative assessments of topographic roughness were plotted on a base map compiled from the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) images. By these criteria, 36 percent of the surface is considered smooth, 26 percent intermediate, and 33 percent rough (5 percent was not classified owing to uncertainty in application of the qualitative criteria, e.g., are sand dunes rough or smooth?). To quantitatively assess the topographic roughness, a topographic profile in a characteristically rough area was constructed by point stereophotogrammetry. These data were then calibrated against a nearby Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic profile to produce a controlled MOC topographic profile. Slopes were measured over distances ranging from 10 to 150 inches, with slopes measured over long distances typically shallower than those measured over short distances. In the most topographically rugged region within the landing zone (e.g., on the slopes of the depression along the western margin of the landing zone uncertainty ellipses), no more than 12 percent of the surface has slopes in excess of 10 degrees when sampled at scales of 10-40 m/pixel; about 4 percent of the surface has slopes greater than 15 degrees. Sampling over longer distances yielded lower slope values. Indeed, much of the landing zone is substantially smoother. A graph shows the frequency of occurrence of a given slope angle as a function of slope angle for the same three metrics as described above. The overlap between the adjacent sample metric and the other, larger sampling window computations, shows that these measurements reasonably sample the range in slopes. MOC images show close-up examples of some stereo pairs, illustrating the steepest and most rugged relief in the vicinity of the landing site. The polar landing site was less hazardous than many areas on Mars, but not without hazards. It is unlikely that the lander failed owing to geology.

  16. Search for spontaneous edge currents and vortex imaging in Sr2RuO4 mesostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Desoky, W. M.; Gibbs, A. S.; Lee, S. L.; Mackenzie, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    Scanning Hall probe microscopy has been used to search for spontaneous fields at the well-defined edges of large mesoscopic disks, etched into the ab surface of very high quality single crystal Sr2RuO4. Such fields are predicted to exist at locations of broken translational symmetry as a consequence of the proposed two-component spin-triplet chiral order parameter d ̂=Δ0(kx±iky)ẑ. We find no evidence for such fields and impose an upper limit of ±2.5 mG on their magnitude. We do, however, observe an abrupt apparent loss of strong bulk pinning and a change in the screening behavior above H ˜25 Oe. At high fields (H >25 Oe) pronounced magnetic screening by the disks is very well described by a model containing only strong edge currents, and bulk critical currents do not appear to play a significant role. Our results are discussed in terms of relevant theoretical predictions.

  17. Content-based numerical report searching for image enabled case retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Ling, Tonghui; Zhang, Jianguo

    2010-03-01

    One way to improve accuracy of diagnosis and provide better medical treatment to patients is to recall or find records of previous patients with similar disease features from healthcare information systems which already have confirmed diagnostic results. In most situations, features of disease may be described by other kinds of information or data types such as numerical reports or a simple or complicated SR (Structure Reports) generated from Ultrasound Information System (USIS) or from computer assisted detection (CAD) components, or laboratory information system (LIS). In this presentation, we described a new approach to search and retrieve numerical reports based on the contents of parameters from large database of numerical reports. We have tested this approach by using numerical data from an ultrasound information system (USIS) and got desired results both in accuracy and performance. The system can be wrapped as a web service and is being integrated into a USIS and EMR for clinical evaluation without interrupting the normal operations of USIS/RIS/PACS. We give the design architecture and implementation strategy of this novel framework to provide feature based case retrieval capability in an integrated healthcare information system.

  18. Wrong Way: Go Back! An Exploration of Novice Search Behaviours While Conducting an Information Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debowski, Shelda

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of user-managed online search processes in libraries and the search strategies of novices focuses on a study of Western Australia undergraduates while they performed an information search task. Considers measurement of search behavior and reports results that showed problems in formulating an effective search strategy and the need for…

  19. Symposium on Presidential Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss presidential libraries. Highlights include an overview of the development of the federal presidential library system; the Ronald Reagan library; the Richard Nixon library archives; access at the Gerald Ford library; and computerizing the Jimmy Carter library. (LRW)

  20. Turkish Libraries: Historical Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakin, Irfan

    1984-01-01

    Summary of the development of libraries in Turkey highlights the existence of libraries in the ninth century, the Shamssaddin Altunaba Medrese library in Konya, libraries established during the Ottoman era, reports to reform libraries (1869-70, 1909), and reports and library developments attributed to the Republican Era beginning in 1923. (EJS)