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Sample records for imaged luminous infrared

  1. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  2. Submillimeter Imaging of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy Pair VV114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frayer, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Yun, M. S.; Armus, L.

    1999-01-01

    We report on 450 and 850 mue observations of the interacting galaxy pair, VV114E+W (IC 1623), taken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and near-infrared observations taken with UFTI on the UK Infrared Telescope.

  3. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M{sub K} ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency.

  4. The VascuLuminator: effectiveness of a near-infrared vessel imaging system as a support in arterial puncture in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuper, Natascha J.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    A practical near-IR blood vessel imaging system, the 'VascuLuminator', was developed to facilitate the puncturing of blood vessels for different procedures. Technical solutions were found for certain difficulties, such as obtaining a maximum image contrast by reducing the interference of IR light present in the surroundings. In phantom studies it was shown that the device is able to visualize blood vessels of different sizes to a clinically relevant maximum depth. In a preliminary clinical study, the use of the VascuLuminator resulted in decrease of the failure rate in blood withdrawal in young children from 13% to 2% and the laboratory technicians were satisfied with the practical application of the device. After this study, the effectiveness of the VascuLuminator was investigated to facilitate arterial cannulation in a group of children undergoing cardiac surgery. In an ongoing study, 71 children up to 3 years of age were included and time of arterial cannulation, number of punctures and puncture site were recorded. In 38 patients, cannulation was performed without the VascuLuminator and in 33 patients with VascuLuminator by pediatric anesthesiologists. The initial results do not show significant differences in time and in number of punctures with and without the use of the VascuLuminator. However, the VascuLuminator was able to visualize the arteries in most cases. In 11 of the 33 cases, the artery was located by using only the near-infrared image was used, without palpating for a pulse or knowledge of anatomical landmarks. Further clinical studies are needed to identify the patients groups that will benefit the most from VascuLuminator-assisted vessel punctures.

  5. Morphological classification of local luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psychogyios, A.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Petty, S. M.; Evans, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    We present analysis of the morphological classification of 89 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample, using non-parametric coefficients and compare their morphology as a function of wavelength. We rely on images that were obtained in the optical (B- and I-band) as well as in the infrared (H-band and 5.8 μm). Our classification is based on the calculation of Gini and the second order of light (M20) non-parametric coefficients, which we explore as a function of stellar mass (M⋆), infrared luminosity (LIR), and star formation rate (SFR). We investigate the relation between M20, the specific SFR (sSFR) and the dust temperature (Tdust) in our galaxy sample. We find that M20 is a better morphological tracer than Gini, as it allows us to distinguish systems that were formed by double systems from isolated and post-merger LIRGs. The effectiveness of M20 as a morphological tracer increases with increasing wavelength, from the B to H band. In fact, the multi-wavelength analysis allows us to identify a region in the Gini-M20 parameter space where ongoing mergers reside, regardless of the band used to calculate the coefficients. In particular, when measured in the H band, a region that can be used to identify ongoing mergers, with minimal contamination from LIRGs in other stages. We also find that, while the sSFR is positively correlated with M20 when measured in the mid-infrared, i.e. star-bursting galaxies show more compact emission, it is anti-correlated with the B-band-based M20. We interpret this as the spatial decoupling between obscured and unobscured star formation, whereby the ultraviolet/optical size of an LIRG experience an intense dust-enshrouded central starburst that is larger that in the mid-infrared since the contrast between the nuclear to the extended disk emission is smaller in the mid-infrared. This has important implications for high redshift surveys of dusty sources, where sizes of galaxies

  6. Observations of Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armus, Lee

    2014-01-01

    A major result of the IRAS survey was the discovery of a large population of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) which emit a significant fraction of their bolometric luminosity in the far-infrared. LIRGs cover the full range of morphologies from isolated disk galaxies, to advanced mergers, exhibiting enhanced star-formation rates and a higher fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) compared to less luminous galaxies. A detailed study of low-redshift LIRGs is critical for our understanding of the cosmic evolution of galaxies and black holes, since LIRGs comprise the bulk of the cosmic far-infrared background and dominate the star-formation between 0.5 < z < 1. With ISO, it was possible to measure the full suite of infrared diagnostic lines in local normal and luminous infrared galaxies for the first time, but samples were small and observations challenging. With Herschel, we have been able to study large samples of low-redshift LIRGs, and even probe the physical conditions in poweful starburst galaxies out to significant redshifts. By combining the Herschel data with those from Spitzer, it is now possible to understand the heating and cooling of the dust and gas in complete samples of LIRGs for the first time. I will review recent results from a number of GTO, OTKP and GO programs in an attempt to summarize the advances we have made in understanding star formation and black hole accretion in LIRGs as a direct result of the Herschel mission.

  7. Extremely Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of Extremely Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of extremely active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the extreme ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two extreme ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.

  8. Compact radio sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Rodrigo

    2007-08-01

    Radio interferometry is an observational technique of high sensitivity and incomparably high spatial resolution. Moreover, because radio waves can freely propagate through interstellar dust and gas, it allows the study of regions of the universe completely obscured at other wavelengths. This thesis reports the observational and theoretical results of my research during the past four years which are mostly based on interferometric radio data. The COLA sample is an infrared selected sample of active star forming galaxies. We conducted 6 cm VLA and VLBI snapshot observations of the northern half of this sample. The radio emission seen at VLA scales is consistent with being powered by star formation activity because it follows the far infrared to radio correlation. We detect 22% of the sample sources in our VLBI snapshots. Based on luminosity arguments, we argue that these sub-parsec VLBI sources are powered by AGN activity. Furthermore, we find that VLBI detections are preferentially found in sources whose VLA scale structures have the highest peak brightnesses suggesting a strong correlation between compact starburst and AGN activity. This observational result is consistent with the theoretical picture of an Eddington-limited nuclear starburst acting as the last valve in the pipeline transporting the gas from kiloparsec scales onto the accretion disc of a buried AGN. Arp 220 is the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy. For many years this source has been known to harbour a compact (~100 pc) cluster of unresolved 18 cm bright sources believed to be bright core collapse supernovae. Using multiwavelength VLBI observations, we obtained for the first time radio spectra for 18 of these sources. We find that over a half of them have spectra consistent with young supernovae. The rest can be better explained as older supernova remnants interacting with the high density starburst ISM. This finding allowed us to constrain the number of possible scenarios for the Arp 220

  9. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Isaak, K. G.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Inami, H.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Sanders, D. B.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  10. Warm Molecular Gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Isaak, K. G.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Inami, H.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J-1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J <= 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ~ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L IR, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 <~ J <~ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5-4), (6-5), (7-6), (8-7) and (10-9) transitions to L IR, log R midCO, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of -4.13 (\\equiv log R^SF_midCO) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R midCO higher and lower than R^SF_midCO, respectively. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2012-09-01

    We present the AKARI near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-5 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 36 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z = 0.01-0.4. We measure the NIR spectral features including the strengths of 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and hydrogen recombination lines (Br{alpha} and Br{beta}), optical depths at 3.1 and 3.4 {mu}m, and NIR continuum slope. These spectral features are used to identify optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that half of the (U)LIRGs optically classified as non-Seyferts show AGN signatures in their NIR spectra. Using a combined sample of (U)LIRGs with NIR spectra in the literature, we measure the contribution of buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity from the spectral energy distribution fitting to the IRAS photometry. The contribution of these buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity is 5%-10%, smaller than the typical AGN contribution of (U)LIRGs including Seyfert galaxies (10%-40%). We show that NIR continuum slopes correlate well with WISE [3.4]-[4.6] colors, which would be useful for identifying a large number of buried AGNs using the WISE data.

  12. Infrared atomic hydrogen line formation in luminous stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.; Smith, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared atomic hydrogen lines observed in luminous stars, generally attributed to compact circumstellar H II regions, can also be formed in the winds likely to emanate from these stars. Implications are discussed for the class of obscured infrared point sources showing these lines, and an illustrative model is derived for the BN object in Orion. Such stellar winds should also produce weak, but detectable, radio emission.

  13. Optical and mid-infrared photometry of the luminous red nova 2015 in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, T.; Vinko, J.; Sarneczky, K.

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by ATel #7082, #8599 and #8848, we checked the Spitzer Heritage Archive (SHA) in order to find the remnant of the luminous red nova PSN J14021678+5426205 in M101 (ATel #7069, #7070, #7072, #7079, #7082, #7206) on archive mid-infrared images.

  14. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., III; Gelino, Chris; Griffith, Roger L.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank J.; Mason, Brian S.; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  15. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-INFRARED COOLING LINES IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT (ULTRA)-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G. E.; Thatte, N.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A.; Wang, L.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2014-01-20

    We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158 μm line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 luminous infrared galaxies, (U)LIRGs (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158 μm line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) × 10{sup –3} of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ∼10 times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} and L{sub [CII]}/L{sub CO(1-0)} ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ∼ 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.

  16. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN IN THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NGC 4418

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Evans, Aaron S.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Wilner, David J.

    2010-12-20

    Infrared pumping and its effect on the excitation of HCN molecules can be important when using rotational lines of HCN to probe dense molecular gas in galaxy nuclei. We report the first extragalactic detection of (sub)millimeter rotational lines of vibrationally excited HCN, in the dust-enshrouded nucleus of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. We estimate the excitation temperature of T{sub vib} {approx} 230 K between the vibrational ground and excited (v{sub 2} = 1) states. This excitation is most likely due to infrared radiation. At this high vibrational temperature the path through the v{sub 2} = 1 state must have a strong impact on the rotational excitation in the vibrational ground level, although it may not be dominant for all rotational levels. Our observations also revealed nearly confusion-limited lines of CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, H{sup 13}CN, HC{sup 15}N, CS, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HC{sub 3}N at {lambda} {approx} 1 mm. Their relative intensities may also be affected by the infrared pumping.

  17. Infrared images of merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, G. S.; James, P. A.; Joseph, R. D.; Mclean, I. S.; Doyon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared imaging of interacting galaxies is especially interesting because their optical appearance is often so chaotic due to extinction by dust and emission from star formation regions, that it is impossible to locate the nuclei or determine the true stellar distribution. However, at near-infrared wavelengths extinction is considerably reduced, and most of the flux from galaxies originates from red giant stars that comprise the dominant stellar component by mass. Thus near infrared images offer the opportunity to study directly components of galactic structure which are otherwise inaccessible. Such images may ultimately provide the framework in which to understand the activity taking place in many of the mergers with high Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) luminosities. Infrared images have been useful in identifying double structures in the nuclei of interacting galaxies which have not even been hinted at by optical observations. A striking example of this is given by the K images of Arp 220. Graham et al. (1990) have used high resolution imaging to show that it has a double nucleus coincident with the radio sources in the middle of the dust lane. The results suggest that caution should be applied in the identification of optical bright spots as multiple nuclei in the absence of other evidence. They also illustrate the advantages of using infrared imaging to study the underlying structure in merging galaxies. The authors have begun a program to take near infrared images of galaxies which are believed to be mergers of disk galaxies because they have tidal tails and filaments. In many of these the merger is thought to have induced exceptionally luminous infrared emission (cf. Joseph and Wright 1985, Sanders et al. 1988). Although the optical images of the galaxies show spectacular dust lanes and filaments, the K images all have a very smooth distribution of light with an apparently single nucleus.

  18. Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. I. Nuclear Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-C.; Sanders, D. B.; Veilleux, S.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Soifer, B. T.

    1995-05-01

    A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of luminous infrared galaxies [log (L_ir_/L_sun_)^7^ ~ 10.5-12.5; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^] has been carried out using the Palomar 5 m telescope,, and the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. Long-slit spectra covering 375o-8000 A at a resolution of ~10 A were obtained of 200 IRAS galaxies, including 114 objects from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey, and 86 objects with fainter infrared fluxes selected on the basis of their "warm" far-infrared (S_60_/S_100_) colors. The methods of observation and data reduction are discussed. An atlas of the spectra extracted from the nuclear region of these objects is presented along with a large number of parameters describing the properties of the emission lines, the stellar absorption lines, and the continuum emission that were measured from the spectra. An analysis of these data is presented in a companion paper (Veilleux et al. 1995) along with a discussion of the spatial variations of these parameters in a subsample of twenty-three objects.

  19. Luminance-model-based DCT quantization for color image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Peterson, Heidi A.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to approximate visibility thresholds for discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient quantization error based on the peak-to-peak luminance of the error image. Experimentally measured visibility thresholds for R, G, and B DCT basis functions can be predicted by a simple luminance-based detection model. This model allows DCT coefficient quantization matrices to be designed for display conditions other than those of the experimental measurements: other display luminances, other veiling luminances, and other spatial frequencies (different pixel spacings, viewing distances, and aspect ratios).

  20. XMM-Newton observations of three interacting luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, Dale; Mathur, Smita; Guainazzi, Matteo; Piconcelli, Enrico; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Stefano; Komossa, S.; Vignali, Cristian; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the X-ray properties of three interacting luminous infrared galaxy systems. In one of these systems, IRAS 18329+5950, we resolve two separate sources. A second and third source, IRAS 19354+4559 and IRAS 20550+1656, have only a single X-ray source detected. We compare the observed emission to point-spread function (PSF) profiles and determine that they are all consistent with the PSF, albeit with large uncertainties for some of our sources. We then model the spectra to determine soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) luminosities for the resolved sources and compare these to relationships found in the literature between infrared and X-ray luminosities for starburst galaxies. We obtain luminosities (0.5-10 keV) ranging from 1.7 to 7.3 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1} for our systems. These X-ray luminosities are consistent with predictions for star-formation-dominated sources and thus are most likely due to starbursts, but we cannot conclusively rule out active galactic nuclei.

  1. Rest-Frame Mid-Infrared Detection of an Extremely Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teplitz, H. I.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Houck, J. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Weedman, D.; Brandl, B. R.; vanCleve, J.; Grillmair, C.; Uchid, K. I.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first rest-frame of approximately 4 microns detection of a Lyman break galaxy. The data were obtained using the 16 microns imaging capability of the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. The target object, J134026.44+634433.2, is an extremely luminous Lyman break galaxy at z=2.79, first identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra (as reported by Bentz et al.). The source is strongly detected with a flux of 0.94 +/- 0.02 mJy. Combining Spitzer and SDSS photometry with supporting ground-based J- and K-band data, we show that the spectral energy distribution is consistent with an actively star-forming galaxy. We also detect other objects in the Spitzer field of view, including a very red mid-infrared source. We find no evidence of a strong lens among the mid-infrared sources.

  2. Resolved Molecular Gas Properties in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe are mergers of gas-rich galaxies. The merger event funnels the molecular gas towards the central kiloparsec, compressing the gas, and triggering an extreme starburst, making LIRGs the perfect laboratory for studying extreme modes of star formation. We use the Submillimeter Array sample and observations of Wilson et al. (2008), supplemented with new CARMA and ALMA observations, to constrain the physical conditions such as temperature, density and column density of the molecular gas in the sample of 7 LIRGs. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX (van der Tak et al. 2007) and a Bayesian likelihood code to fit the most probable physical conditions. Comparison of the molecular gas physical conditions shows that earlier merger stage LIRGs such as Arp 299 and NGC 1614 have denser (> 103cm-1) molecular gas than a later stage merger such as VV 114 and NGC 2623. We measure the CO luminosity to H2 mass conversion factor, αCO, using the radiative transfer analysis results and find that the values are a factor of 4-10 times lower than the Galactic value of 4.3 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. We also find unusually large 12CO-to-13CO abundance ratios (> 130), more than 2 times the local Galactic value.

  3. Evolution of luminous IRAS galaxies: Radio imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent study of IRAS galaxies' optical morphologies, we found that luminous IR sources lie in the IR color-luminosity plane in groups which separate out by optical spectroscopic type and also by degree of tidal disturbance. We found that the most luminous steep-IR-spectrum sources are generally galaxies in the initial stages of a major tidal interaction. Galaxies with active nuclei were generally found to have flatter IR spectra, to cover a range of IR luminosity, and to be in the later stages of a tidal interaction. We proposed a sequence of events by which luminous IR sources evolve: they start as interacting or merging galaxies, some develop active nuclei, and most undergo extensive star-formation in their central regions. Another way to study these objects and their individual evolution is to study their radio morphologies. Radio emission may arise at a detectable level from supernovae in star-forming regions and/or the appearance of an active nucleus can be accompanied by a nuclear radio source (which may develop extended structure). Therefore, the compact radio structure may trace the evolution of the inner regions of IRAS-luminous sources. If the radio sources are triggered by the interactions, we would expect to find the radio morphology related to the optical 'interactivity' of the systems. Here, we explore using the radio emission of IRAS galaxies as a possible tracer of galaxy evolution. We present and discuss observations of the compact radio morphology of 111 luminous IRAS-selected active galaxies covering a wide range of IR and optical properties.

  4. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, K. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Barnes, J. E.; Ishida, C. M.; Evans, A. S.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Kim, D.-C.; Privon, G. C.; Mirabel, I. F.; Flewelling, H. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions (MGFs) for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies from Great Observatories All-Sky Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRG) Survey using high resolution I-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11.5{L}ȯ ; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach {L}{IR}\\gt {10}12.0{L}ȯ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean MGF ({MGF} = {M}{{{H}}2}/({M}* +{M}{{{H}}2})) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18 ± 2%, which increases to 33 ± 3%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2).

  5. The Luminosity-Metallicity relation of distant luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y. C.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H.; Elbaz, D.; Marcillac, D.; Cesarsky, C. J.

    2004-09-01

    One hundred and five 15 \\mum-selected objects in three ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) deep survey fields (CFRS 3h, UDSR and UDSF) are studied on the basis of their high-quality optical spectra with resolution R>1000 from VLT/FORS2. ˜92 objects (88%) have secure redshifts, ranging from 0 to 1.16 with a median value of z_med=0.587. Considerable care is taken in estimating the extinction properties of individual galaxy, which can seriously affect diagnostic diagrams and estimates of star formation rates (SFRs) and of metal abundances. Two independent estimates of the extinction have been made, e.g. Balmer line ratio and energy balance between infrared (IR) and H\\beta luminosities. For most of the sources, we find a good agreement between the two extinction coefficients (within ±0.64 rms in AV, the extinction in V band), with median values of A_V(IR) = 2.36 and A_V(Balmer)= 1.82 for z>0.4 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs). At z >0.4, our sample show many properties (IR luminosity, continuum color, ionization and extinction) strikingly in common with those of local (IRAS) LIRGs studied by Veilleux et al. (\\cite{Veilleux1995}). Thus, our sample can provide a good representation of LIRGs in the distant Universe. We confirm that most (>77%) ISO 15 μm-selected galaxies are dominated by star formation. Oxygen abundances in interstellar medium in the galaxies are estimated from the extinction-corrected ``strong'' emission line ratios (e.g. \\ion{[O}{ii]}/Hβ, \\ion{[O}{iii]}/Hβ and \\ion{[O}{iii]}/\\ion{[O}{ii]}). The derived 12+log(O/H) values range from 8.36 to 8.93 for the z>0.4 galaxies with a median value of 8.67. Distant LIRGs present a metal content less than half of that of the local bright disks (i.e. L*). Their properties can be reproduced with infall models although one has to limit the infall time to avoid overproduction of metals at late times. The models predict that total masses (gas + stars) of the distant LIRGs are from 1011 M⊙ to ≤1012 M⊙. A

  6. Star-formation histories of local luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Arribas, Santiago; Bellocchi, Enrica; Cazzoli, Sara; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Piqueras López, Javier

    2015-05-01

    We present analysis of the integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared and Hα of a sample of 29 local systems and individual galaxies with infrared (IR) luminosities between 1011L⊙ and 1011.8L⊙. We combined new narrow-band Hα + [N ii] and broad-band g, r optical imaging taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), with archival GALEX, 2MASS, Spitzer, and Herschel data. Their SEDs(photometry and integrated Hα flux) were fitted simultaneously with a modified version of the magphys code using stellar population synthesis models for the UV-near-IR range and thermal emission models for the IR emission taking the energy balance between the absorbed and re-emitted radiation into account. From the SED fits, we derive the star-formation histories (SFH) of these galaxies. For nearly half of them, the star-formation rate appears to be approximately constant during the last few Gyr. In the other half, the current star-formation rate seems to be enhanced by a factor of 3-20 with respect to what occurred ~1 Gyr ago. Objects with constant SFH tend to be more massive than starbursts, and they are compatible with the expected properties of a main-sequence (M-S) galaxy. Likewise, the derived SFHs show that all our objects were M-S galaxies ~1 Gyr ago with stellar masses between 1010.1 and 1011.5 M⊙. We also derived the average extinction (Av = 0.6-3 mag) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon luminosity to LIR ratio (0.03-0.16) from our fits. We combined the Av with the total IR and Hα luminosities into a diagramthat can be used to identify objects with rapidly changing (increasing or decreasing) SFR during the past 100 Myr. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFITS files for all the reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A78

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of radio-luminous OH/IR stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Hyland, A. R.; Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Low-resolution 1.5-2.5-micron spectra for 21 radio-luminous OH/IR stars are presented. These spectra divide into two broad classes. Those with very strong water-vapor absorption closely resemble the spectra of classical Mira variables and are classified Type VM. Those with weaker water-vapor absorption, but still showing strong CO absorption, resemble the spectra of true core-burning supergiants and are classified Type SG. Comparison of the classification of 30 radio-luminous OH/IR stars with their Delta(V)s and luminosities suggests this classification is a good indicator of the intrinsic nature of the underlying star. There is some evidence, however, that some true supergiants (massive main-sequence progenitors) develop the pulsation properties and photospheric characteristics of the Mira-like OH/IR stars when they become optically obscured OH/IR stars.

  8. HALESIS projet: Hight Altitude Luminous Events Studied by Infrared Spectro-imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croizé, Laurence; Payan, Sébastien; Bureau, Jérome; Duruisseau, Fabrice; Huret, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades, the discovery of transient luminous events (TLEs) in the high atmosphere [1], as well as the observation of gamma ray flashes of terrestrial origin (Terrestrial Gamma Flashes or TGF) [2] demonstrated the existence of another interaction processes between the different atmospheric layers (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere). Indeed, the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena over thunderstorm cells, and the energies involved provide evidence for an impulsive energy transfer between the troposphere and the highest atmospheric layers, which was not considered before. HALESIS (High Altitude Luminous Events Studied by Infrared Spectro-imagery) is an innovative project based on hyperspectral imagery. The purpose of this experience is to measure the atmospheric perturbation in the minutes following the occurrence of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) from a stratospheric balloon in the altitude range of 20 to 40 km. The first part of the study has been dedicated to establish the project feasibility. To do that, we have simulated spectral perturbation induced by an isolated blue jet. Theoretical predictions [3] have been used to simulate the radiative perturbation due to O3, NO, NO2, NO+ concentration induced by the blue jet. Simulations have been performed using the line by line radiative transfer model LBLRM [4] taking into account of the Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium hypotheses. Then, the expected signatures have been compared to the available instrumentation. During this talk, HALESIS project and the results of the feasibility study will be presented. Then, the estimated spectral signatures will be confronted with the technical capabilities of different kind of hyperspectral imagers. We will conclude on the project feasibility, but also on the challenges that lie ahead for an imager perfectly suited for experiences like HALESIS. 1. Franz R, Nemzek R, Winckler J. Television image of a large upward electrical

  9. Variable waveband infrared imager

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C. E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu; and others

    2013-05-10

    A Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys study of the structural properties of 85 luminous and ultraluminous (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun }) infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample is presented. Two-dimensional GALFIT analysis has been performed on F814W ''I-band'' images to decompose each galaxy, as appropriate, into bulge, disk, central point-spread function (PSF) and stellar bar components. The fraction of bulge-less disk systems is observed to be higher in LIRGs (35%) than in ULIRGs (20%), with the disk+bulge systems making up the dominant fraction of both LIRGs (55%) and ULIRGs (45%). Further, bulge+disk systems are the dominant late-stage merger galaxy type and are the dominant type for LIRGs and ULIRGs at almost every stage of galaxy-galaxy nuclear separation. The mean I-band host absolute magnitude of the GOALS galaxies is -22.64 {+-} 0.62 mag (1.8{sup +1.4}{sub -0.4} L{sup *}{sub I}), and the mean bulge absolute magnitude in GOALS galaxies is about 1.1 mag fainter than the mean host magnitude. Almost all ULIRGs have bulge magnitudes at the high end (-20.6 to -23.5 mag) of the GOALS bulge magnitude range. Mass ratios in the GOALS binary systems are consistent with most of the galaxies being the result of major mergers, and an examination of the residual-to-host intensity ratios in GOALS binary systems suggests that smaller companions suffer more tidal distortion than the larger companions. We find approximately twice as many bars in GOALS disk+bulge systems (32.8%) than in pure-disk mergers (15.9%) but most of the disk+bulge systems that contain bars are disk-dominated with small bulges. The bar-to-host intensity ratio, bar half-light radius, and bar ellipticity in GOALS galaxies are similar to those found in nearby spiral galaxies. The fraction of stellar bars decreases toward later merger stages and smaller nuclear separations, indicating that bars are destroyed as the merger

  11. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}–L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the

  12. Radio continuum properties of luminous infrared galaxies. Identifying the presence of an AGN in the radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardoulaki, E.; Charmandaris, V.; Murphy, E. J.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Evans, A. S.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are systems enshrouded in dust, which absorbs most of their optical/UV emission and radiates it again in the mid- and far-infrared. Radio observations are largely unaffected by dust obscuration, enabling us to study the central regions of LIRGs in an unbiased manner. Aims: The main goal of this project is to examine how the radio properties of local LIRGs relate to their infrared spectral characteristics. Here we present an analysis of the radio continuum properties of a subset of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), which consists of 202 nearby systems (z< 0.088). Our radio sample consists of 35 systems, containing 46 individual galaxies, that were observed at both 1.49 and 8.44 GHz with the VLA with a resolution of about 1 arcsec (FWHM). The aim of the project is to use the radio imagery to probe the central kpc of these LIRGs in search of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Methods: We used the archival data at 1.49 and 8.44 GHz to create radio-spectral-index maps using the standard relation between flux density Sν and frequency ν, Sν ~ ν- α, where α is the radio spectral index. By studying the spatial variations in α, we classified the objects as radio-AGN, radio-SB, and AGN/SB (a mixture). We identified the presence of an active nucleus using the radio morphology, deviations from the radio/infrared correlation, and spatially resolved spectral index maps, and then correlated this to the usual mid-infrared ([NeV]/[NeII] and [OIV]/[NeII] line ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm PAH feature) and optical (BPT diagram) AGN diagnostics. Results: We find that 21 out of the 46 objects in our sample (~45%) are radio-AGN, 9 out of the 46 (~20%) are classified as starbursts (SB) based on the radio analysis, and 16 (~35%) are AGN/SB. After comparing to other AGN diagnostics we find 3 objects out of the 46 (~7%) that are identified as AGN based on the radio analysis, but are not classified as such based on

  13. Faint CO Line Wings in Four Star-forming (Ultra)luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bolatto, Alberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s-1-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  14. Hybrid Infrared Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Gary C.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental device has low noise and high uniformity. Infrared imaging device combines array of InSb photodetectors with array of silicon field-effect-transistor switches. InSb chip forms roof over Si chip, each InSb detector cell engaging indium bump on corresponding Si switch cell below it. FET switches in 128-by-128 array turn on in sequence, read out charges on 128-by-128 array of photodetectors and multiplex them in serial output that represents pattern of light on array of photodetectors. Useful in sensitive infrared cameras for astronomy, medicine, inspection, and military surveillance. Reads out image data at rates up to 10 MHz and expands to 256-by-256 array.

  15. Buried Quasars in Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    We were awarded l00kS of INTEGRAL spacecraft time (Priority A) to observe the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIG) Mrk 2273 in order to measure the integrated flux of the 20-1003 KeV gamma-Ray emission, and to use this information to search for the presence of an highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). With this observation we hope to be able to better assess the role of AGN in the complete class of ULIGs and therefore to better constrain their contribution to the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray backgrounds. Our Priority A 100 kS observation of Mrk 273 was successfully carried out during revolution #73 using 4 separate exposures with the IBIS camera during May, 2003. Our IBIS observations of Mrk 273 were successfully executed, and the source was properly centered in the Field-of-view of the detectors. We are still in the process of interpreting the IBIS gamma-ray data.

  16. Unveiling the hearts of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxy mergers with laser guide star adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Anne M.

    2013-03-01

    Gas-rich galaxies across cosmic time exhibit one or both of two phenomena: ongoing star formation and an active galactic nucleus indicating current black hole accretion. These two processes are important mechanisms through which galaxies evolve and grow, but their effects are difficult to disentangle. Both will use up some available gas, and both are capable of producing winds strong enough to eject remaining gas from the galaxy. One must look at high spatial resolutions in order to separate the dynamical effects of star formation going on near the nucleus of a galaxy from the black hole growth going on in the nucleus. We present high spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of fifteen nearby luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. These systems are extremely bright in the infrared exactly because they host powerful starbursts and active nuclei, which in turn heat the surrounding dust. Our data provide resolved stellar and gaseous kinematics of the central kiloparsec of each of these systems by removing atmospheric blurring with adaptive optics, an observing technique that measures the turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere and then uses a deformable mirror to correct the resulting distortions. Our kinematic maps reveal nuclear disks of gas and stars with radii ˜ a few hundred parsecs surrounding the central black holes. Because the stellar and gas kinematics match well, we conclude that the stars are forming in situ from the gas in the disks. These disks may be the progenitors of kinematically decoupled cores seen in many isolated elliptical galaxies, and may have a significant effect on the merger rate of binary black holes. Additionally, these disks may be used to measure black hole masses which, when combined with host galaxy properties and placed on scaling relations, indicate that black holes grow as or more quickly than their host galaxies during a merger. This suggests that a sudden burst of black hole growth at in the final stages of the merger

  17. FAR-INFRARED LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA REMNANT Kes 17

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik; Koo, Bon-Chul; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Shinn, Jong-Ho E-mail: moon@astro.utoronto.ca E-mail: onaka@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jeongws@kasi.re.kr

    2011-10-10

    We present the results of infrared (IR; 2.5-160 {mu}m) observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 17 based on the data obtained with the AKARI and Spitzer satellites. We first detect bright continuum emission of its western shell in the mid- and far-IR wavebands together with its near-IR molecular line emission. We also detect hidden mid-IR emission of its southern shell after subtraction of the background emission in this region. The far-IR luminosity of the western shell is {approx}8100 L{sub sun}, which makes Kes 17 one of the few SNRs of significant far-IR emission. The fittings of the spectral energy distribution indicate the existence of two dust components: {approx}79 K (hot) and {approx}27 K (cold) corresponding to the dust masses of {approx}6.2 x 10{sup -4} M{sub sun} and {approx}6.7 M{sub sun}, respectively. We suggest that the hot component represents the dust emission of the material swept up by the SNR to its western and southern boundaries, compatible with the distribution of radio continuum emission overlapping the mid-IR emission in the western and southern shells. The existence of hot ({approx}2000 K), shocked dense molecular gas revealed by the near-IR molecular line emission in the western shell, on the other hand, suggests that the cold dust component represents the dust emission related to the interaction between the SNR and nearby molecular gas. The excitation conditions of the molecular gas appear to be consistent with those from shocked, clumpy admixture gas of different temperatures. We discuss three possibilities for the origin of the bright far-IR emission of the cold dust in the western shell: the emission of dust in the inter-clump medium of shocked molecular clouds, the emission of dust in evaporating flows of molecular clouds engulfed by hot gas, and the emission of dust of nearby molecular clouds illuminated by radiative shocks.

  18. Infrared imaging of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging of comets provides fundamental information about the distribution of dust in their comae and tails. The imaging program at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a unique 20-pixel bolometer array that was developed to image comets at 8 to 30 micrometer. These images provide the basis for: (1) characterizing the composition and size distribution of particles, (2) determining the mass-loss rates from cometary nuclei, and (3) describing the dynamics of the interaction between the dust and the solar radiation. Since the array became operational in 1985, researchers have produced a unique series of IR images of comets Giacobini-Zinner (GZ), Halley, and Wilson. That of GZ was the first groundbased thermal image ever made of a comet and was used to construct, with visible observations, an albedo map. Those data and dynamical analyses showed that GZ contained a population of large (approximately 300 micrometer), fluffy dust grains that formed a distinict inner tail. The accumulating body of images of various comets has also provided a basis for fruitfully intercomparing comet properties. Researchers also took advantage of the unique capabilities of the camera to resolve the inner, possible protoplanetary, disk of the star Beta Pictoris, while not a comet research program, that study is a fruitful additional application of the array to solar system astronomy.

  19. Ultrabroadband infrared nanospectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Muller, Eric A.; Olmon, Robert L.; Martin, Michael C.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing and ultimately controlling the heterogeneity underlying biomolecular functions, quantum behavior of complex matter, photonic materials, or catalysis requires large-scale spectroscopic imaging with simultaneous specificity to structure, phase, and chemical composition at nanometer spatial resolution. However, as with any ultrahigh spatial resolution microscopy technique, the associated demand for an increase in both spatial and spectral bandwidth often leads to a decrease in desired sensitivity. We overcome this limitation in infrared vibrational scattering-scanning probe near-field optical microscopy using synchrotron midinfrared radiation. Tip-enhanced localized light–matter interaction is induced by low-noise, broadband, and spatially coherent synchrotron light of high spectral irradiance, and the near-field signal is sensitively detected using heterodyne interferometric amplification. We achieve sub-40-nm spatially resolved, molecular, and phonon vibrational spectroscopic imaging, with rapid spectral acquisition, spanning the full midinfrared (700–5,000 cm−1) with few cm−1 spectral resolution. We demonstrate the performance of synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy on semiconductor, biomineral, and protein nanostructures, providing vibrational chemical imaging with subzeptomole sensitivity. PMID:24803431

  20. Foveating infrared image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Massie, Mark A.; Curzan, Jon P.

    2007-09-01

    Nova Sensors, under sponsorship of the Munitions Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, has developed a readout integrated circuit (ROIC) technology for focal plane arrays (FPAs) that permits an intelligent use of the available image data; this is especially effective for dealing with the large volume of data produced by today's large format FPAs. The "Variable Acuity Superpixel Imaging" (VASI TM) ROIC architecture allows for coverage of the entire field of view at high frame rates by permitting larger "superpixels" to be dynamically formed on the FPA in regions of relative unimportance, thus reducing the total number of pixel values required to be multiplexed off the FPA. In addition, multiple high-resolution "foveal" regions may be "flown" around the imager's field of view at a frame rate such that high-value targets may be sampled at the highest possible spatial resolution that the imager can produce. Nova Sensors has built numerous camera systems using 320 x 256 and 1K x 1K pixel versions of visible and infrared VASI TM FPAs. This paper reviews the technology and discusses numerous applications for this new class of imaging sensors.

  1. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Psychogyios, A.; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Bridge, C.; Inami, H.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M{sub 20} parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M{sub 20} (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M{sub 20} parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M{sub 20} at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M{sub 20} for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M{sub 20} is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  2. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Kim, D. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Veilleux, S.; Evans, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Appleton, P.; Bothun, G.; Bridge, C. R.; and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  4. Imaging in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Many common pigments are partially transparent to near infrared (IR) light, making it possible to use IR-sensitive imaging sensors to capture information from surfaces covered by several tens of micrometers of such pigments. Because of this, ``IR reflectograms'' have been made of paintings since the late 1960s, revealing important aspects of many works of art that are not observable in the visible. However, although a number of paintings have been studied this way, the high cost and specialized nature of available IR cameras have limited such work to a small fraction of the two- and three-dimensional works of art that could be usefully studied in the IR. After a brief introduction to IR reflectography, I will describe the characteristics of a high resolution imaging system based on a modified Canon EOS digital camera that operates over the wavelength range 830--1100 nm [1]. This camera and autofocus Canon 20 mm f/2.8 lens make it possible to obtain IR reflectograms of works of art ``in situ'' with standard museum lighting, resolving features finer than 0.35 mm on a 1.0x0.67 m painting. After describing its relevant imaging properties of sensitivity, resolution, noise and contrast, I will illustrate its capabilities with IR and visible images of various types of art in museums on three continents. IR reflectograms of one painting, in particular, have revealed important new information about the working practices of the 16th century artist Lorenzo Lotto who our previous work has shown used projected images as aids for producing some of the features in this painting [2]. [4pt] [1] Charles M. Falco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 071301 (2009). [0pt] [2] see, for example, David Hockney and Charles M. Falco, Proc. of the SPIE 5666, 326 (2005).

  5. Spitzer Spectroscopy to Distinguish z>5 Sources of Reionization from z~2 Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, Ranga-Ram; Dickinson, Mark; Lawrence, Charles; Teplitz, Harry

    2008-03-01

    Optical/near-infrared photometric redshifts of 13 red galaxies in GOODS favor z>5 redshift solutions which indicate that they are extremely massive galaxies with stellar masses exceeding 1E11 Msun. If true, these galaxies contribute the bulk of the stellar mass density at z~6 and the past star-formation in these galaxies is responsible for reionizing the intergalactic medium at z>>6. The majority of these galaxies have however found to be faint 24 micron sources which would instead suggest that they are luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with L(IR)~3E11 Lsun at z~2. We propose ultradeep Spitzer/IRS LL spectroscopy which will measure the redshifts of two representative, optically invisible (i>27 mag) sources in this class and distinguish between these two widely disparate hypotheses. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the spectra of these sources would imply that photometric redshifts of dusty infrared luminous galaxies are unreliable - a fundamental obstacle in estimating the comoving luminosity density of the Universe as a function of redshift. It would allow the shape of the dust extinction curve to be constrained and rule out the Balmer-'break' color selection as a reliable tracer of redshift. By virtue of being the deepest IRS/LL observations, it would yield the first measures of PAH line strengths in high redshift LIRGs. This will help refine the mid-infrared PAH templates that are used to estimate bolometric luminosities of galaxies detected in various mid-infrared surveys, including those which will be undertaken by WISE. The absence of PAH in the proposed spectra would imply the presence of Compton-thick AGN and/or confirm that we have identified the galaxies responsible for reionization without the need for changing the stellar initial mass function at high redshift. Spitzer offers the only opportunity to resolve this important conundrum until the James Webb Space Telescope.

  6. INFRARED CLASSIFICATION AND LUMINOSITIES FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE MOST LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine; Houck, James; Barry, Donald; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2012-12-20

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on Spitzer are given for 125 hard X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample and for 32 AGNs with black hole masses (BHMs) from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGNs are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGNs are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosity is shown to be an excellent indicator of intrinsic AGN luminosity, scaling closely with the hard X-ray luminosity, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m)/L(X) = -0.31 {+-} 0.35, and independent of classification determined from silicate emission or absorption. Dust luminosity scales closely with BHM, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) = (37.2 {+-} 0.5) + 0.87 log BHM for luminosity in erg s{sup -1} and BHM in M{sub Sun }. The 100 most luminous type 1 quasars as measured in {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) are found by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optically discovered quasars with photometry at 22 {mu}m from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scaled to rest frame 7.8 {mu}m using an empirical template determined from IRS spectra. The most luminous SDSS/WISE quasars have the same maximum infrared luminosities for all 1.5 < z < 5, reaching total infrared luminosity L{sub IR} = 10{sup 14.4} L{sub Sun }. Comparing with dust-obscured galaxies from Spitzer and WISE surveys, we find no evidence of hyperluminous obscured quasars whose maximum infrared luminosities exceed the maximum infrared luminosities of optically discovered quasars. Bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} estimated from rest-frame optical or ultraviolet luminosities are compared to L{sub IR}. For the local AGN, the median log L{sub IR}/L{sub bol} = -0.35, consistent with a covering factor of 45% for the absorbing dust clouds. For the SDSS/WISE quasars, the median log L

  7. Retinex enhancement of infrared images.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; He, Renjie; Xu, Guizhi; Hou, Changzhi; Sun, Yunyan; Guo, Lei; Rao, Liyun; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    With the ability of imaging the temperature distribution of body, infrared imaging is promising in diagnostication and prognostication of diseases. However the poor quality of the raw original infrared images prevented applications and one of the essential problems is the low contrast appearance of the imagined object. In this paper, the image enhancement technique based on the Retinex theory is studied, which is a process that automatically retrieve the visual realism to images. The algorithms, including Frackle-McCann algorithm, McCann99 algorithm, single-scale Retinex algorithm, multi-scale Retinex algorithm and multi-scale Retinex algorithm with color restoration, are experienced to the enhancement of infrared images. The entropy measurements along with the visual inspection were compared and results shown the algorithms based on Retinex theory have the ability in enhancing the infrared image. Out of the algorithms compared, MSRCR demonstrated the best performance. PMID:19163132

  8. Nebular Line Emission in z 1 Spitzer Infrared-Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, John; Papovich, C.; Finkelstein, S.; Willmer, C.; Egami, E.; Conselice, C.; Huang, J.; Koo, D.; Laird, E.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lotz, J.; Maia, M.; Marcillac, D.; Nandra, K.; Webb, T.; Weiner, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present near-infrared (IR) spectroscopic observations from the Multi-Object IR Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru telescope of a sample of 21 IR-luminous galaxies in the approximate range 1 < z < 1.5. These galaxies were selected based on their Spitzer 24-micron flux densities (S(24 micron) > 0.1 mJy) and known spectroscopic redshifts from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). We measure rest-frame optical emission line fluxes for H-alpha and [NII], and also [OIII] and H-beta, where available. We use emission-line diagnostics to constrain the origin of the ionization in these objects: processes associated with star formation or AGN (including Seyferts and LINERs). The high-redshift galaxies in our sample have similar [NII] / H-alpha flux ratios compared to low-redshift (z 0.1) IR-luminous galaxies (Kim et al., 1995; Veilleux et al., 1995) for galaxies with implied IR luminosities of 11 < Log L(8-1000 micron) / L sol < 12. However, we find evidence that the IR-luminous galaxies in our sample with implied Log L(8-1000 micron) / L sol > 12 have lower [NII] / H-alpha ratios than low-redshift galaxies with comparable IR luminosity, implying the higher redshift IR-luminous galaxies may have a higher fraction of systems dominated by star formation. We also study the relation of our rest-frame optical emission-line diagnostics to other indicators of AGN activity, including the mid-IR colors and X-ray luminosities. In addition, we compare star-formation-rate indicators from our dust-corrected H-alpha emission line luminosities to those from the mid-to-far IR and compare these as a function of IR luminosity against the low-redshift sample.

  9. ULTRA-DEEP MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z{approx} 1 AND z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fadda, Dario; Yan Lin; Frayer, David T.; Helou, George; Lagache, Guilaine; Marcillac, Delphine; Sajina, Anna; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caputi, Karina; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Blain, Andrew E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.ed

    2010-08-10

    We present ultra-deep mid-infrared spectra of 48 infrared-luminous galaxies in the GOODS-south field obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These galaxies are selected among faint infrared sources (0.14-0.5 mJy at 24 {mu}m) in two redshift bins (0.76-1.05 and 1.75-2.4) to sample the major contributors to the cosmic infrared background at the most active epochs. We estimate redshifts for 92% of the sample using polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and Si absorption features obtaining, in particular, eight new redshifts difficult to measure from ground-based observations. Only a few of these galaxies (5% at z {approx} 1 and 12% at z {approx} 2) have their total infrared luminosity dominated by emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The averaged mid-IR spectrum of the z {approx} 1 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) is a very good match to the averaged spectrum of local starbursts. The averaged spectrum of the z {approx} 2 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), because of a deeper Si absorption, is better fitted by the averaged spectrum of H II-like local ULIRGs. Combining this sample with other published data, we find that 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EW) reach a plateau of {approx} 1 {mu}m for L {sub 24{mu}m} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}. At higher luminosities, EW{sub 6.2{mu}m} anti-correlates with L{sub 24{mu}m}. Intriguingly, high-z ULIRGs and sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) lie above the local EW{sub 6.2{mu}m}-L{sub 24{mu}m} relationship suggesting that, at a given luminosity, high-z ULIRGs have AGN contributions to their dust emission lower than those of local counterparts. A quantitative analysis of their morphology shows that most of the luminous IR galaxies have morphologies similar to those of IR-quiet galaxies at the same redshift. All z {approx} 2 ULIRGs of our sample are IR-excess BzK galaxies and most of them have L{sub FIR}/L{sub 1600A} ratios higher than those of starburst galaxies at a given UV slope. The 'IR

  10. Ultra-deep Mid-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies at z ~ 1 and z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, Dario; Yan, Lin; Lagache, Guilaine; Sajina, Anna; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Frayer, David T.; Marcillac, Delphine; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caputi, Karina; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Blain, Andrew; Helou, George

    2010-08-01

    We present ultra-deep mid-infrared spectra of 48 infrared-luminous galaxies in the GOODS-south field obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These galaxies are selected among faint infrared sources (0.14-0.5 mJy at 24 μm) in two redshift bins (0.76-1.05 and 1.75-2.4) to sample the major contributors to the cosmic infrared background at the most active epochs. We estimate redshifts for 92% of the sample using polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and Si absorption features obtaining, in particular, eight new redshifts difficult to measure from ground-based observations. Only a few of these galaxies (5% at z ~ 1 and 12% at z ~ 2) have their total infrared luminosity dominated by emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The averaged mid-IR spectrum of the z ~ 1 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) is a very good match to the averaged spectrum of local starbursts. The averaged spectrum of the z ~ 2 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), because of a deeper Si absorption, is better fitted by the averaged spectrum of H II-like local ULIRGs. Combining this sample with other published data, we find that 6.2 μm PAH equivalent widths (EW) reach a plateau of ~ 1 μm for L 24 μm <~ 1011 L sun. At higher luminosities, EW6.2 μm anti-correlates with L 24 μm. Intriguingly, high-z ULIRGs and sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) lie above the local EW6.2 μm-L 24 μm relationship suggesting that, at a given luminosity, high-z ULIRGs have AGN contributions to their dust emission lower than those of local counterparts. A quantitative analysis of their morphology shows that most of the luminous IR galaxies have morphologies similar to those of IR-quiet galaxies at the same redshift. All z ~ 2 ULIRGs of our sample are IR-excess BzK galaxies and most of them have L FIR/L 1600 Å ratios higher than those of starburst galaxies at a given UV slope. The "IR excess" is mostly due to strong 7.7 μm PAH emission and underestimation of UV dust extinction. On the basis of

  11. Luminous Infrared Sources in the Local Group: Identifying the Missing Links in Massive Star Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Mehner, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic survey of dusty massive stars (RSGs, LBVs, sgB[e]) in nearby galaxies, with the goal of understanding their importance in massive star evolution. Using the fact that these stars are bright in mid-infrared colors due to dust, we provide a technique for selecting and identifying dusty evolved stars based on the results of Bonanos et al. (2009, 2010), Britavskiy et al. (2014), and archival Spitzer/IRAC photometry. We present the results of our spectroscopic follow-up of luminous infrared sources in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies: Pegasus, Phoenix, Sextans A and WLM. The survey aims to complete the census of dusty massive stars in the Local Group.

  12. Circumstellar Environments of Luminous Infrared Stellar Objects in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azari, Abigail; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2011-01-01

    Young stars are formed out of the interstellar medium (ISM) which is replenished by mass loss rates from evolved stars. Circumstellar matter around young and evolved stellar objects usually emits energy in the infrared (IR) wavelength range as the matter is heated by the central star. Surveys of the Magellanic Clouds with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the 3.6-160 micron range have previously been completed. These surveys have led to catalogs of infrared sources: which include HII regions, young stars, super giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars, and planetary nebulae. The utility of such surveys can be improved upon by using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data. HST provides higher angular resolution than Spitzer and has allowed for more detailed investigation of these luminous IR objects. This project used previously obtained HST archival data to examine luminous IR objects at optical wavelengths. This allows for the reclassification of stellar objects previously thought as one type of object or in a particular stage of their stellar evolution. An overall objective of this project included looking for extended nebulosity around evolved stars to better understand the life cycle of such objects and classify these nebulae by shape.

  13. AKARI IRC INFRARED 2.5-5 {mu}m SPECTROSCOPY OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Ohyama, Yoichi; Onaka, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    We present the results of our systematic infrared 2.5-5 {mu}m spectroscopy of 60 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun} and 54 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) with L{sub IR} {>=} 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, using the AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC). AKARI IRC slit-less spectroscopy allows us to probe the full range of emission from these galaxies, including spatially extended components. The 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, hydrogen recombination emission lines, and various absorption features are detected and used to investigate the properties of these galaxies. Because of the relatively small effect of dust extinction in the infrared range, quantitative discussion of these dusty galaxy populations is possible. For sources with clearly detectable Br{beta} (2.63 {mu}m) and Br{alpha} (4.05 {mu}m) emission lines, the flux ratios are found to be similar to those predicted by case B theory. Starburst luminosities are estimated from both 3.3 {mu}m PAH and Br{alpha} emission, which roughly agree with each other. In addition to the detected starburst activity, a significant fraction of the observed sources display signatures of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), such as low PAH equivalent widths, large optical depths of dust absorption features, and red continuum emission. The energetic importance of optically elusive buried AGNs in optically non-Seyfert galaxies tends to increase with increasing galaxy infrared luminosity, from LIRGs to ULIRGs.

  14. Can wavefront coding infrared imaging system achieve decoded images approximating to in-focus infrared images?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Chengshuo; Xu, Baoshu; Shi, Zelin

    2015-11-01

    Artefacts and noise degrade the decoded image of a wavefront coding infrared imaging system, which usually results in the decoded image being inferior to the in-focus infrared image of a conventional infrared imaging system. The previous letter showed that the decoded image fell behind the in-focus infrared image. For comparison, a bar target experiment at temperature of 20°C and two groups of outdoor experiments at temperatures of 28°C and 70°C are respectively conducted. Experimental results prove that a wavefront coding infrared imaging system can achieve the decoded image being approximating to its corresponding in-focus infrared image.

  15. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies at z > 1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven "SDSS-invisible," very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  16. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  17. IR Fine-Structure Line Signatures of Central Dust-Bounded Nebulae in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Allen, R.; Dudley, C. C.; Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M.; Wolfire, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    To date, the only far-infrared spectroscopic observations of ultraluminous infrared galaxies have been obtained with the European Space Agency s Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer. The spectra of these galaxies are characterized by molecular absorption lines and weak emission lines from photodissociation regions (PDRs), but no far-infrared (greater than 40 microns) lines from ionized regions have been detected. ESA s Herschel Space Observatory, slated for launch in 2007, will likely be able to detect these lines in samples of local and moderate redshift ultra luminous galaxies and to enable measurement of the ionization parameters, the slope of the ionizing continuum, and densities present in the ionized regions of these galaxies. The higher spatial resolution of proposed observatories discussed in this workshop will enable isolation of the central regions of local galaxies and detection of these lines in high-redshift galaxies for study of the evolution of galaxies. Here we discuss evidence for the e.ects of absorption by dust within ionized regions and present the spectroscopic signatures predicted by photoionization modeling of dust-bounded regions.

  18. Detection of CO(1 to 0) emission from infrared quasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Zensus, A.; Soifer, B. T.; Wilson, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    CO(1 to 0) emission has been detected from the infrared quasar IRAS 07598+6508 and the luminous Seyfert galaxies IRAS 08572+3915 and Markarian 463 with the IRAM 30-m telescope. These objects were selected from a complete list of warm ultraluminous IRAS sources. The maximum redshift observed was 0.149 (cz = 44.621 km/s , IRAS 07598+6508). Assuming the same empirical relationship between CO brightness and H2 surface mass density as has been found for giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way, the mass of H2 gas in these objects is in the range 0.7 - 6 x 10 to the 10th solar masses, more than 2 - 20 times the H2 content of the Galaxy. The infrared and molecular gas properties of these galaxies are similar to other 'warm' ultraluminous infrared galaxies such as Mrk 231, and the UV-excess quasar Mrk 1014. It is suggested that objects such as these represent an important link in the evolution of ultraluminous infrared galaxies into UV-excess quasars.

  19. Infrared imaging of varicose veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

  20. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  1. EXTENDED [C II] EMISSION IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Stacey, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Haan, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Evans, A. S.; Malhotra, S.; Appleton, P.; Inami, H.; Magdis, G. E.; Elbaz, D.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Meijerink, R.; and others

    2014-06-10

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [C II] 157.7 μm line emission detected on ∼1-10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [C II]/FIR ratios ≥4 × 10{sup –3}, larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The [C II] ''deficits'' found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [C II]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [C II]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, Σ{sub IR}, for the extended emission in the spatially resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ∼6% relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [C II]/FIR and Σ{sub IR} with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies.

  2. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  3. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Infrared Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; GOALS FTS Team

    2013-03-01

    We describe an on-going 194-671 μm spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The survey targets primarily the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), from J = 4-3 up to J = 13-12, to probe dense and warm molecular gas that should play an intimate role in star formation and/or active galactic nuclear activities in these galaxies. The program is about 75% finished. At S/N > 5, besides the CO lines, we also detected [N ii] 205 μm and [C i] 370 μm (3 P 2 - 3P1) lines in every target observed. In about half of the observed targets, we also detected [C i] 609 μm (3 P 1 - 3P0).

  4. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Issak, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Petric, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.; Van der Werf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an on-going Herschel 194-671 micron spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), targeting primarily at the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO rotational line emission (from J=4-3 up to J=13-12) from warm and dense molecular gas, the [NII] 205 micron line from ionized gas, and the [CI] 370 and 609 micron lines arising mainly from less dense and colder molecular gas where the CO (J=1-0) line is also strong. We present observational results for the first set of 65 sample galaxies that are more or less point sources with respect to the Herschel beams, and show statistical correlations among the shape of the CO SLED, CO line luminosities, IR dust luminosity, and whether a target is known to harbor AGN or not.

  5. Morphological Properties and AGN Content of High Redshift Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  6. Visualizing Chemistry with Infrared Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Almost all chemical processes release or absorb heat. The heat flow in a chemical system reflects the process it is undergoing. By showing the temperature distribution dynamically, infrared (IR) imaging provides a salient visualization of the process. This paper presents a set of simple experiments based on IR imaging to demonstrate its enormous…

  7. Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Thomas Tam, Pak-Hin E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-10-10

    Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ∼5.5σ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a 'proton calorimeter'. It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

  8. Binarization of color document images via luminance and saturation color features.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Ming; Lee, Hsi-Jian

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel binarization algorithm for color document images. Conventional thresholding methods do not produce satisfactory binarization results for documents with close or mixed foreground colors and background colors. Initially, statistical image features are extracted from the luminance distribution. Then, a decision-tree based binarization method is proposed, which selects various color features to binarize color document images. First, if the document image colors are concentrated within a limited range, saturation is employed. Second, if the image foreground colors are significant, luminance is adopted. Third, if the image background colors are concentrated within a limited range, luminance is also applied. Fourth, if the total number of pixels with low luminance (less than 60) is limited, saturation is applied; else both luminance and saturation are employed. Our experiments include 519 color images, most of which are uniform invoice and name-card document images. The proposed binarization method generates better results than other available methods in shape and connected-component measurements. Also, the binarization method obtains higher recognition accuracy in a commercial OCR system than other comparable methods. PMID:18244645

  9. OT1_nlu_1: Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to survey CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), from J=4-3 up to J=13-12, on 93 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L_{IR} > 1.0E11 L_{sun}) with Herschel SPIRE FTS spectrometer. These galaxies, plus 32 additional LIRGs that will have similar data from existing Herschel programs (mainly the HerCULES project), form a flux-limited subset of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. Our proposal is built on the legacy of GOALS and extends beyond the existing Herschel HerCULES program, which emphasizes more on ULIRGs, to a much needed sample coverage of the more numerous and diverse population of less luminous LIRGs. The data from the proposed observations will not only provide much needed local LIRG templates for future ALMA studies of high-redshift counterparts, but also lend us a powerful diagnostic tool to probe the warm and dense molecular gas that are more closely related to the starburst or AGN activity in the nuclei of LIRGs. The data from this proposal will provide important statistical clues to the interplay between the cold and warm molecular gas, IR luminosity, star formation rate and efficiency, and the diverse properties of LIRGs. Specifically, using the homogeneous CO SLED data from this proposal, together with ground-base, low-order CO line data (mainly J=1-0) and other data that have been compiled for the GOALS sample, we will address the following questions: (1) What is the dominant nuclear power source in individual sample galaxy: starburst or AGN? (2) What are the typical physical properties of warm molecular gas in the nuclei of LIRGs? (3) How do the nuclear warm gas components correlate to the cold gas component, star formation rate and efficiency, dust temperature, etc? and (4) How does molecular gas excitation change along a merger sequence?

  10. Easy rectification for infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, R.

    2016-05-01

    Most applications using infrared thermography only take advantage of one feature in the images: the intensity of the objects in the infrared images, which is mainly a function of its temperature. Many different applications use this feature as an indicator of health, early signs of malfunction or signs of hidden conditions. However, infrared images also contain relevant geometric information that can be used to measure objects or to locate areas of thermal contrast in the scene. The problem is that the extraction of geometric information requires a complex camera calibration procedure that depends upon calibration plates which are difficult to build. In this work, an easy rectification procedure for infrared images is proposed without using calibration plates. The proposed method uses a camera projection model not considering distortions, which greatly simplifies the estimation of the projection parameters while producing very good accuracy. The method estimates the projection parameters iteratively based on features from objects in the image and the knowledge about its geometric properties. The result is a method that provides reliable geometric information about the objects in the scene with a single image. A series of experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. Results show excellent performance, with sub-pixel accuracy.

  11. Evolutionary Paths along the BPT Diagram for Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (1011 < L IR < 1013 L ⊙) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 <~ z <~ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving {[N\\,{\\scriptsize{II}}]/H\\alpha } that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  12. A Luminous Blue Variable Star Interacting with a Nearby Infrared Dark Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, Aina; Rizzo, J. Ricardo; Girart, Josep M.; Henkel, Christian

    2014-04-01

    G79.29+0.46 is a nebula created by a luminous blue variable (LBV) star candidate characterized by two almost circular concentric shells. In order to investigate whether the shells are interacting with the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G79.3+0.3 located at the southwestern border of the inner shell, we conducted Jansky Very Large Array observations of NH3(1, 1), (2, 2) and c-C3H2, and combined them with previous Effelsberg data. The overall NH3 emission consists of one main clump, named G79A, elongated following the shape of the IRDC, plus two fainter and smaller cores to the north, which spatially match the inner infrared shell. We analyzed the NH3 spectra at each position with detected emission and inferred linewidth, rotational temperature, column density, and abundance maps, and find that: (1) the linewidth of NH3(1, 1) in the northern cores is 0.5 km s-1, slightly larger than in their surroundings; (2) the NH3 abundance is enhanced by almost one order of magnitude toward the northwestern side of G79A; (3) there is one "hot slab" at the interface between the inner infrared shell and the NH3 peak of G79A; and (4) the western and southern edges of G79A present chemical differentiation, with c-C3H2 tracing more external layers than NH3, similar to what is found in photon-dominated regions. Overall, the kinematics and physical conditions of G79A are consistent with both shock-induced and UV radiation-induced chemistry driven by the LBV star. Therefore, the IRDC is not likely associated with the star-forming region DR15, but located farther away, near G79.29+0.46 at 1.4 kpc.

  13. Evolutionary paths along the BPT diagram for luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (10{sup 11} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 ≲ z ≲ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Hα that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  14. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M. E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.n E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}> 10{sup 11} L {sub sun}), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L {sub IR}>10{sup 12} L {sub sun}), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C{sup +} line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these

  15. Outflows in infrared-luminous galaxies: Absorption-line spectroscopy of starbursts and AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupke, David S.

    Large-scale galactic outflows, better known as superwinds, are driven by the powerful energy reservoirs in star forming and active galaxies. They play a significant role in galaxy formation, galaxy evolution, and the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We have performed a survey of over 100 infrared-luminous galaxies in order to address the exact frequency with which they occur in different galaxy types, the dependence of their properties on those of their host galaxies, and their properties in the most luminous starburst and active galaxies. Most of our sample consists of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), and we use moderate- resolution spectroscopy of the Na I D interstellar absorption feature (which directly probes the neutral gas phase). We find superwinds in the majority of these galaxies at typical maximum, deprojected velocities of 500 700 km s-1. The detection rate increases with star formation rate (SFR) in starbursts, while the mass outflow rate appears constant with SFR, contrary to theoretical expectations. The resulting mass entrainment efficiencies in ULIRGs are quite low, of order a few percent of the star formation rate. There is some dependence of outflow velocity on host galaxy properties; the outflow velocities in LINERs are higher than those in H II galaxies, and the highest column density gas in each galaxy may have an upper envelope in velocity that increases with SFR. Outflows in most galaxies hosting a dominant AGN have very similar properties to those in starbursts, so discerning their power source is difficult. The velocities in Seyfert 2 outflows may be slightly higher than those in starbursts, and the fraction of neutral gas escaping Seyfert 2s is higher than that in starbursts (˜50% vs. ≲ 20%). The outflows in our Seyfert 1 galaxies have extreme velocities of up to ˜104 km s-1, and two of three Seyfert is with outflows possess broad absorption lines. Finally, we find that spectroscopy of a few galaxies at very high

  16. NUSTAR Unveils a Heavily Obscured Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Treister, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Arevalo, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Imanishi, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 6286 identified in a 17.5 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation. The source is in an early merging stage and was targeted as part of our ongoing NuSTAR campaign observing local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages. NGC 6286 is clearly detected above 10 keV and by including the quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we find that the source is heavily obscured (NH ≃(0.95-1.32) × 1024 cm-2) with a column density consistent with being Compton-thick (CT, {log}({N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2)≥slant 24). The AGN in NGC 6286 has a low absorption-corrected luminosity (L2-10 keV ˜ 3-20 × 1041 erg s-1) and contributes ≲1% to the energetics of the system. Because of its low luminosity, previous observations carried out in the soft X-ray band (<10 keV) and in the infrared did not notice the presence of a buried AGN. NGC 6286 has multiwavelength characteristics typical of objects with the same infrared luminosity and in the same merger stage, which might imply that there is a significant population of obscured low-luminosity AGNs in LIRGs that can only be detected by sensitive hard X-ray observations.

  17. Undetectable Changes in Image Resolution of Luminance-Contrast Gradients Affect Depth Perception

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Morita, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A great number of studies have suggested a variety of ways to get depth information from two dimensional images such as binocular disparity, shape-from-shading, size gradient/foreshortening, aerial perspective, and so on. Are there any other new factors affecting depth perception? A recent psychophysical study has investigated the correlation between image resolution and depth sensation of Cylinder images (A rectangle contains gradual luminance-contrast changes.). It was reported that higher resolution images facilitate depth perception. However, it is still not clear whether or not the finding generalizes to other kinds of visual stimuli, because there are more appropriate visual stimuli for exploration of depth perception of luminance-contrast changes, such as Gabor patch. Here, we further examined the relationship between image resolution and depth perception by conducting a series of psychophysical experiments with not only Cylinders but also Gabor patches having smoother luminance-contrast gradients. As a result, higher resolution images produced stronger depth sensation with both images. This finding suggests that image resolution affects depth perception of simple luminance-contrast differences (Gabor patch) as well as shape-from-shading (Cylinder). In addition, this phenomenon was found even when the resolution difference was undetectable. This indicates the existence of consciously available and unavailable information in our visual system. These findings further support the view that image resolution is a cue for depth perception that was previously ignored. It partially explains the unparalleled viewing experience of novel high resolution displays. PMID:26941693

  18. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  19. The [NII] 205 μm Emission in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Lord, Steven D.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Evans, Aaron; Howell, Justin; Petric, Andreea O.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Sanders, David B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the measurements of the [N ii] 205 μm line for a flux-limited sample of 122 (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] and 20 additional normal galaxies, obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel). We explore the far-infrared (FIR) color dependence of the [N ii] 205 μm (L[N ii]205 μm) to the total infrared (LIR) luminosity ratio, and find that L[N ii]205 μm/LIR only depends modestly on the 70-160 μm flux density ratio ({f}70/{f}160) when {f}70/{f}160≲ 0.6, whereas such dependence becomes much steeper for {f}70/{f}160\\gt 0.6. We also investigate the relation between L[N ii]205 μm and star formation rate (SFR), and show that L[N ii]205 μm has a nearly linear correlation with SFR, albeit the intercept of such a relation varies somewhat with {f}60/{f}100, consistent with our previous conclusion that [N ii] 205 μm emission can serve as an SFR indicator with an accuracy of ˜0.4 dex, or ˜0.2 dex if {f}60/{f}100 is known independently. Furthermore, together with the Infrared Space Observatory measurements of [N ii], we use a total of ˜200 galaxies to derive the local [N ii] 205 μm luminosity function (LF) by tying it to the known IR LF with a bivariate method. As a practical application, we also compute the local SFR volume density ({\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}) using the newly derived SFR calibrator and LF. The resulting {log} {\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}=-1.96+/- 0.11 {M}⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 agrees well with previous studies. Finally, we determine the electron densities (ne) of the ionized medium for a subsample of 12 (U)LIRGs with both [N ii] 205 μm and [N ii] 122 μm data, and find that ne is in the range of ˜1-100 cm-3, with a median value of 22 cm-3. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. AN INTEGRAL FIELD STUDY OF ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS IN NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, J. A.; Kewley, L. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Torrey, P.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2012-07-01

    We present for the first time metallicity maps generated using data from the Wide Field Spectrograph on the ANU 2.3 m of 10 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and discuss the abundance gradients and distribution of metals in these systems. We have carried out optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) of several LIRGs in various merger phases to investigate the merger process. In a major merger of two spiral galaxies with preexisting disk abundance gradients, the changing distribution of metals can be used as a tracer of gas flows in the merging system as low-metallicity gas is transported from the outskirts of each galaxy to their nuclei. We employ this fact to probe merger properties by using the emission lines in our IFS data to calculate the gas-phase metallicity in each system. We create abundance maps and subsequently derive a metallicity gradient from each map. We compare our measured gradients to merger stage as well as several possible tracers of merger progress and observed nuclear abundances. We discuss our work in the context of previous abundance gradient observations and compare our results to new galaxy merger models that trace metallicity gradient. Our results agree with the observed flattening of metallicity gradients as a merger progresses. We compare our results with new theoretical predictions that include chemical enrichment. Our data show remarkable agreement with these simulations.

  1. An ALMA Spectral Scan of the Obscured Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 4418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Martín, S.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, the study of the molecular interstellar medium of galaxies has been mostly focused on a few, relatively abundant, molecular species. Recent attempts at modeling the molecular emission of active galaxies have shown that standard high-density tracers do not provide univocal results and are not able to discriminate between different relevant environments (e.g., star-formation vs AGN). Spectral lines surveys allow us to explore the richness of the molecular spectrum of galaxies, provide tighter constrains to astrochemical models, and find new more sensitive tracers of specific gas properties. What started as a time-consuming pioneering work has become now routinely accessible with the advent of ALMA. Here we report the results of the first ALMA spectral scan of an obscured luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG), NGC 4418. The galaxy has a very compact IR core and narrow emission lines that make it the perfect target for the study of vibrationally excited molecules. More than 300 emission lines from 45 molecular species were identified and modeled via an LTE and NLTE analysis. The molecular excitation and abundances derived offer a unique insight into the chemistry of obscured LIRGs.

  2. Integrated infrared and visible image sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor imaging devices integrating an array of visible detectors and another array of infrared detectors into a single module to simultaneously detect both the visible and infrared radiation of an input image. The visible detectors and the infrared detectors may be formed either on two separate substrates or on the same substrate by interleaving visible and infrared detectors.

  3. Mid-infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Probing the Dust and Gas Physics of the GOALS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Evans, A. S.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D. C.; Murphy, E. J.; Rich, J. A.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; U, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ9.7 μm, τice, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW6.2 μm decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L IR/L 8 μm) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ~6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s 9.7 μm < -1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ~11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H2)/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H2)/L(PAH) ratio with increasing L(H2). While star formation appears to be the

  4. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D. C.; Rich, J. A.; Spoon, H. W. W.; U, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L

  5. The molecular gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: a new emergent picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Gao, Yu; Xilouris, Manolis; Greve, Thomas R.

    2013-03-01

    Results from a large, multi-J CO, 13CO, and HCN line survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: LIR≥ 1010 L⊙) in the local Universe (z≤0.1), complemented by CO J=4-3 up to J=13-12 observations from the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), paints a new picture for the average conditions of the molecular gas of the most luminous of these galaxies with turbulence and/or large cosmic ray (CR) energy densities UCR rather than far-UV/optical photons from star-forming sites as the dominant heating sources. Especially in ULIRGs (LIR>1012 L⊙) the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) can encompass at most a few % of their molecular gas mass while the large UCR˜ 103 UCR, Galaxy, and the strong turbulence in these merger/starbursts, can volumetrically heat much of their molecular gas to Tkin˜ (100-200) K, unhindered by the high dust extinctions. Moreover the strong supersonic turbulence in ULIRGs relocates much of their molecular gas at much higher average densities (≥104 cm-3) than in isolated spirals (˜ 102-103 cm-3). This renders low-J CO lines incapable of constraining the properties of the bulk of the molecular gas in ULIRGs, with substantial and systematic underestimates of its mass possible when only such lines are used. Finally a comparative study of multi-J HCN lines and CO SLEDs from J=1-0 up to J=13-12 of NGC 6240 and Arp 193 offers a clear example of two merger/starbursts whose similar low-J CO SLEDs, and LIR/LCO,1-0 and LHCN, 1-0/LCO,1-0 ratios (proxies of the so-called SF efficiency and dense gas mass fraction), yield no indications about their strongly diverging CO SLEDs beyond J=4-3, and ultimately the different physical conditions in their molecular ISM. The much larger sensitivity of ALMA and its excellent site in the Atacama desert now allows the observations necessary to assess the dominant energy sources of the molecular gas and its mass in LIRGs without depending on the low-J CO lines.

  6. Triggered or Self-Regulated Star Formation within Intermediate Redshift Luminous Infrared Galaxies. I. Morphologies and Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, J.; Ammons, M.; Wright, S. A.; Metevier, A.; Steinbring, E.; Max, C.; Koo, D. C.; Larkin, J. E.; Barczys, M.

    2008-04-01

    As part of the Center for Adaptive Optics (AO) Treasury Survey (CATS) we imaged a set of 15 intermediate redshift (z ~ 0.8) luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) with the Keck Laser Guide Star (LGS) AO facility. These galaxies were selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) southern field, allowing us to combine the high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope optical (B, V, i, and z-bands) images with our near-infrared (K'-band) images to study the LIRG morphologies and spatially resolved spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Two thirds of the LIRGs are disk galaxies, with only one third showing some evidence for interactions, minor, or major mergers. In contrast with local LIRG disks (which are primarily barred systems), only 10% of the LIRG disks in our sample contain a prominent bar. While the optical bands tend to show a significant point-like substructure, indicating distributed star formation, the AO K-band images tend to be smooth. They lack point-like structures to a K ~ 23.5 limit. This places an upper bound on the number of red super giants per blue knot at less than 4000. The SEDs of the LIRGs are consistent with distributed dusty star formation, as exhibited by optical to IR colors redder than allowed by old stellar populations alone. This effect is most pronounced in the galaxy cores, possibly indicating central star formation. We also observed a set of 11 intermediate redshift comparison galaxies, selected to be non-ellipticals with apparent K-band magnitudes comparable to the LIRGs. The "normal" (non-LIRG) systems tended to have lower optical luminosity, lower stellar mass, and more irregular morphology than the LIRGs. Half of the "normal" galaxies have SEDs consistent with intermediate aged stellar populations and minimal dust. The other half show evidence for some dusty star formation, usually concentrated in their cores. Our work suggests that the LIRG disk galaxies are similar to large disk systems today, undergoing

  7. Trends in infrared imaging detecting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jianyu

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the current status of infrared imaging detecting technology was introduced briefly. The impact of changes of target, environment and mission on the development of infrared imaging detecting technology was analyzed. The main innovation strategies of infrared imaging detecting technology-modifying information acquisition mode, enhancing realization ability and increasing resources utilization were discussed. The promoting effects of the advancement of basic theories and the revolution of relevant technologies on the development of infrared imaging detecting technology were analyzed. The fundamental law of the development of infrared imaging detecting technology was summarized as stepwise evolution from low into high dimension detection. And the developing trends and main characteristics of future infrared imaging detecting technology were deduced based on this fundamental law. Furthermore, technology directions that should be concerned were introduced according to the development of new concept and technologies for infrared imaging detecting, especially, meeting the new requirements through new concept imaging mechanism such as novel optical technology and computing imaging.

  8. The Luminous Infrared Host Galaxy of Short-duration GRB 100206A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, D. A.; Modjaz, M.; Morgan, A. N.; Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Butler, N. R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Miller, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    The known host galaxies of short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to date are characterized by low to moderate star formation rates (SFRs) and a broad range of stellar masses, in general agreement with models associating the phenomenon with an old progenitor, such as merging neutron stars. In this paper, we positionally associate the recent unambiguously short-hard Swift GRB 100206A with a disk galaxy at redshift z = 0.4068 that is rapidly forming stars at a rate of ~30 M ⊙ yr-1, almost an order of magnitude higher than any previously identified short-GRB host. The galaxy is very red (g - K = 4.3 AB mag), heavily obscured (AV ≈ 2 mag), and has the highest metallicity of any GRB host to date (12 + log[O/H]KD02 = 9.2): it is a classical luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG), with L IR ≈ 4 × 1011 L ⊙. While these properties could be interpreted to support an association of this GRB with recent star formation, modeling of the broadband spectral energy distribution also indicates that a substantial stellar mass of mostly older stars is also present. The specific SFR is modest (sSFR ≈ 0.5 Gyr-1), the current SFR is not substantially elevated above its long-term average, and the host morphology shows no sign of recent merger activity. Our observations are therefore equally consistent with an older progenitor. Given the precedent established by previous short-GRB hosts and the significant fraction of the universe's stellar mass in LIRG-like systems at z >~ 0.3, an older progenitor represents the most likely origin of this event.

  9. THE LUMINOUS INFRARED HOST GALAXY OF SHORT-DURATION GRB 100206A

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Modjaz, M.; Morgan, A. N.; Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Miller, A. A.; Butler, N. R.

    2012-10-20

    The known host galaxies of short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to date are characterized by low to moderate star formation rates (SFRs) and a broad range of stellar masses, in general agreement with models associating the phenomenon with an old progenitor, such as merging neutron stars. In this paper, we positionally associate the recent unambiguously short-hard Swift GRB 100206A with a disk galaxy at redshift z = 0.4068 that is rapidly forming stars at a rate of {approx}30 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, almost an order of magnitude higher than any previously identified short-GRB host. The galaxy is very red (g - K = 4.3 AB mag), heavily obscured (A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 2 mag), and has the highest metallicity of any GRB host to date (12 + log[O/H]{sub KD02} = 9.2): it is a classical luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG), with L {sub IR} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L {sub Sun }. While these properties could be interpreted to support an association of this GRB with recent star formation, modeling of the broadband spectral energy distribution also indicates that a substantial stellar mass of mostly older stars is also present. The specific SFR is modest (sSFR Almost-Equal-To 0.5 Gyr{sup -1}), the current SFR is not substantially elevated above its long-term average, and the host morphology shows no sign of recent merger activity. Our observations are therefore equally consistent with an older progenitor. Given the precedent established by previous short-GRB hosts and the significant fraction of the universe's stellar mass in LIRG-like systems at z {approx}> 0.3, an older progenitor represents the most likely origin of this event.

  10. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 × 107 M ⊙ using [Ne III] 15.56 μm and optical [O III] λ5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  11. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  12. Longwave infrared snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumiller, Riley

    The goal of this dissertation research is to develop and demonstrate a functioning snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter for the long wavelength infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (wavelengths from 8-12 microns). Such an optical system will be able to simultaneously measure both the spectral and polarimetric signatures of all the spatial locations/targets in a scene with just a single integration period of a camera. This will be accomplished by combining the use of computed tomographic imaging spectrometry (CTIS) and channeled spectropolarimetry. The proposed system will be the first instrument of this type specifically designed to operate in the long wavelength infrared region, as well as being the first demonstration of such a system using an uncooled infrared focal plane array. In addition to the design and construction of the proof-of-concept snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter LWIR system, the dissertation research will also focus on a variety of methods on improving CTIS system performance. These enhancements will include some newly proposed methods of system design, calibration, and reconstruction aimed at improving the speed of reconstructions allowing for the first demonstration of a CTIS system capable of computing reconstructions in real time.

  13. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  14. Status of uncooled infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannery, Robert E.; Miller, James E.

    1992-09-01

    Brassboard infrared imagers containing focal plane arrays of more than 80,000 uncooled detectors sensitive to radiation in the 8- to 14-micrometer wavelength region have been fabricated and tested. These imagers, which have demonstrated noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) values of 0.10 degree(s)C, do not require cryogenic cooling or mechanical scanning. Two different types of detector, one ferroelectric and the other bolometric, are used for the focal plane arrays. Measurements of NETD, minimum resolvable temperature (MRT) and modulation transfer function (MTF) are reported. Uncooled sensor technology is being incorporated into prototype security sensors and weapon sights that can also be used as handheld surveillance devices.

  15. The molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies - I. CO lines, extreme physical conditions and their drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Xilouris, E. M.; Isaak, K. G.; Gao, Yu; Mühle, S.

    2012-11-01

    We report results from a large molecular line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR ≳1011 L) in the local Universe (z ≤ 0.1), conducted during the last decade with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the IRAM 30-m telescope. This work presents the CO and 13CO line data for 36 galaxies, further augmented by multi-J total CO line luminosities available for other infrared (IR) bright galaxies from the literature. This yields a combined sample of N = 70 galaxies with the star formation (SF) powered fraction of their IR luminosities spanning L IR (*)˜(1010-2×1012) L and a wide range of morphologies. Simple comparisons of their available CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) with local ones, as well as radiative transfer models, discern a surprisingly wide range of average interstellar medium (ISM) conditions, with most of the surprises found in the high-excitation regime. These take the form of global CO SLEDs dominated by a very warm (Tkin ≳100 K) and dense (n ≥ 104 cm-3) gas phase, involving galaxy-sized (˜(few) × 109 M⊙) gas mass reservoirs under conditions that are typically found only for ˜(1-3) per cent of mass per typical SF molecular cloud in the Galaxy. Furthermore, some of the highest excitation CO SLEDs are found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; LIR ≥ 1012 L⊙) and surpass even those found solely in compact SF-powered hot spots in Galactic molecular clouds. Strong supersonic turbulence and high cosmic ray energy densities rather than far-ultraviolet/optical photons or supernova remnant induced shocks from individual SF sites can globally warm the large amounts of dense gas found in these merger-driven starbursts and easily power their extraordinary CO line excitation. This exciting possibility can now be systematically investigated with Herschel and the Atacama Large Milimeter Array (ALMA). As expected for an IR-selected (and thus SF rate selected) galaxy sample, only few 'cold' CO SLEDs are found, and for

  16. Sub-kpc star formation law in the local luminous infrared galaxy IC 4687 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Colina, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Planesas, P.; Usero, A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Cazzoli, S.; Emonts, B.; Piqueras López, J.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the spatially resolved (250 pc scales) and integrated star formation (SF) law in the local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC 4687. This is one of the first studies of the SF law on a starburst LIRG at these small spatial scales. We combined new interferometric ALMA CO(2-1) data with existing HST/NICMOS Paα narrowband imaging and VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy to obtain accurate extinction-corrected SF rate (SFR) and cold molecular gas surface densities (Σgas and ΣSFR). We find that IC 4687 forms stars very efficiently with an average depletion time (tdep) of 160 Myr for the individual 250 pc regions. This is approximately one order of magnitude shorter than the tdep of local normal spirals and also shorter than that of main-sequence high-z objects, even when we use a Galactic αCO conversion factor. This result suggests a bimodal SF law in the ΣSFR∝ΣgasN representation. A universal SF law is recovered if we normalize the Σgas by the global dynamical time. However, at the spatial scales studied here, we find that the SF efficiency (or tdep) does not depend on the local dynamical time for this object. Therefore, an alternative normalization (e.g., free-fall time) should be found if a universal SF law exists at these scales. A FITS file for the reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A44

  17. Infrared imaging spectroradiometer program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Ronald J.; Register, Henry I.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Defense, through the US Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Armament Directorate is sponsoring the development of two types of IR imaging spectroradiometers (project name: IRIS) to measure the spatial/spectral characteristics of various military targets. Design and analysis of several technical approaches were conducted during an initial phase of the program. The technical approaches investigated included: a dispersive imaging spectrometer design utilizing a fiber-optic reformatter (contractor: ERIM); an imaging acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) design (contractor: Westinghouse); a spatial/spectral Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (contractor: Bomem Inc./Canada); a spatially modulated imaging fourier transform spectrometer (contractor: Daedalus Enterprises); an imaging Fabry-Perot design (contractor: Physical Sciences Inc.). Two of these designs were selected for brass board prototype fabrication. An FTIR prototype being built by Bomem Inc., offers an instrument with high sensitivity and high spectral resolution with modest spatial performance. An imaging Fabry-Perot prototype being built by Physical Sciences Inc., offers high spatial resolution with moderate sensitivity and spectral resolution.

  18. LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY. III. THE DENSE KILOPARSEC MOLECULAR CONCENTRATIONS OF Arp 299

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Armus, Lee; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Yun, Min S. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: satoki@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw E-mail: myun@astro.umass.edu

    2012-07-01

    We have used high-resolution ({approx}2.''3) observations of the local (D{sub L} = 46 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299 to map out the physical properties of the molecular gas that provides the fuel for its extreme star formation activity. The {sup 12}CO J = 3-2, {sup 12}CO J = 2-1, and {sup 13}CO J = 2-1 lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array, and the short spacings of the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations have been recovered using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope single dish observations. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX to estimate the physical properties (density, column density, and temperature) of the different regions in this system. The RADEX solutions of the two galaxy nuclei, IC 694 and NGC 3690, are consistent with a wide range of gas components, from warm moderately dense gas with T{sub kin} > 30 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} to cold dense gas with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-30 K and n(H{sub 2}) > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. The overlap region is shown to have a better constrained solution with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-50 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 1-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. We estimate the gas masses and star formation rates of each region in order to derive molecular gas depletion times. The depletion times of all regions (20-50 Myr) are found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than those of normal spiral galaxies. This rapid depletion time can probably be explained by a high fraction of dense gas on kiloparsec scales in Arp 299. We estimate the CO-to-H{sub 2} factor, {alpha}{sub co} to be 0.4 {+-} 0.3(3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}/x{sub CO}) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} for the overlap region. This value agrees well with values determined previously for more advanced merger systems.

  19. Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, Christophe; Lobel, Alex; Baade, Dietrich; Mehner, Andrea; Rivinius, Thomas; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Girard, Julien; Mawet, Dimitri; Montagnier, Guillaume; Blomme, Ronny; Kervella, Pierre; Sana, Hugues; Štefl, Stanislav; Zorec, Juan; Lacour, Sylvestre; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Martins, Fabrice; Mérand, Antoine; Patru, Fabien; Selman, Fernando; Frémat, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Context. Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are rare massive stars with very high luminosity. They are characterized by strong photometric and spectroscopic variability related to transient eruptions. The mechanisms at the origin of these eruptions is not well known. In addition, their formation is still problematic and the presence of a companion could help to explain how they form. Aims: This article presents a study of seven LBVs (about 20% of the known Galactic population), some Wolf-Rayet stars, and massive binaries. We probe the environments that surround these massive stars with near-, mid-, and far-infrared images, investigating potential nebula/shells and the companion stars. Methods: To investigate large spatial scales, we used seeing-limited and near diffraction-limited adaptive optics images to obtain a differential diagnostic on the presence of circumstellar matter and to determine their extent. From those images, we also looked for the presence of binary companions on a wide orbit. Once a companion was detected, its gravitational binding to the central star was tested. Tests include the chance projection probability, the proper motion estimates with multi-epoch observations, flux ratio, and star separations. Results: We find that two out of seven of LBVs may have a wide orbit companion. Most of the LBVs display a large circumstellar envelope or several shells. In particular, HD 168625, known for its rings, possesses several shells with possibly a large cold shell at the edge of which the rings are formed. For the first time, we have directly imaged the companion of LBV stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under projects number 085.D-0625(C), 087.D-0426(C, D), and archival data 383.D-0323(A).The reduced NACO images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  20. Infrared imaging of extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Gaiser, Steven L.; Korechoff, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    An optical system for direct detection, in the infrared, of planets orbiting other stars is described. The proposed system consists of a large aperture (about 16 m) space-based telescope to which is attached a specialized imaging instrument containing a set of optical signal processing elements to suppress diffracted light from the central star. Starlight suppression is accomplished using coronagraphic apodization combined with rotational shearing interferometry. The possibility of designing the large telescope aperture to be of a deployable, multiarm configuration is examined, and it is shown that there is some sacrifice in performance relative to a filled, circular aperture.

  1. Method for improving visualization of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbalista, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Thermography has an extremely important difference from the other visual image converting electronic systems, like XRays or ultrasound: the infrared camera operator usually spend hour after hour with his/her eyes looking only at infrared images, sometimes several intermittent hours a day if not six or more continuous hours. This operational characteristic has a very important impact on yield, precision, errors and misinterpretation of the infrared images contents. Despite a great hardware development over the last fifty years, quality infrared thermography still lacks for a solution for these problems. The human eye physiology has not evolved to see infrared radiation neither the mind-brain has the capability to understand and decode infrared information. Chemical processes inside the human eye and functional cells distributions as well as cognitive-perceptual impact of images plays a crucial role in the perception, detection, and other steps of dealing with infrared images. The system presented here, called ThermoScala and patented in USA solves this problem using a coding process applicable to an original infrared image, generated from any value matrix, from any kind of infrared camera to make it much more suitable for human usage, causing a substantial difference in the way the retina and the brain processes the resultant images. The result obtained is a much less exhaustive way to see, identify and interpret infrared images generated by any infrared camera that uses this conversion process.

  2. The Modes of Star Formation in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Candels Team

    2015-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, LIR>1012 Lsun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z~2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers?

  3. The Origin and Evolution of (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR>10^12 L_sun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  4. Longwave infrared compressive hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Julia R.; Kirby, Michael; Cosofret, Bogdan R.

    2015-06-01

    Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) is developing a longwave infrared (LWIR) compressive sensing hyperspectral imager (CS HSI) based on a single pixel architecture for standoff vapor phase plume detection. The sensor employs novel use of a high throughput stationary interferometer and a digital micromirror device (DMD) converted for LWIR operation in place of the traditional cooled LWIR focal plane array. The CS HSI represents a substantial cost reduction over the state of the art in LWIR HSI instruments. Radiometric improvements for using the DMD in the LWIR spectral range have been identified and implemented. In addition, CS measurement and sparsity bases specifically tailored to the CS HSI instrument and chemical plume imaging have been developed and validated using LWIR hyperspectral image streams of chemical plumes. These bases enable comparable statistics to detection based on uncompressed data. In this paper, we present a system model predicting the overall performance of the CS HSI system. Results from a breadboard build and test validating the system model are reported. In addition, the measurement and sparsity basis work demonstrating the plume detection on compressed hyperspectral images is presented.

  5. Simulation of the infrared signature of transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere for a limb line of sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romand, Frédéric; Croizé, Laurence; Payan, Sébastien; Huret, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Transient Luminous Events (TLE) are electrical and optical events which occurs above thunderstorms. Visual signatures are reported since the beginning of the 20th century but the first picture is accidentally recorded from a television camera in 1989. Their occurrence is closely linked with the lightning activity below thunderstorms. TLEs are observed from the base of the stratosphere to the thermosphere (15 - 110 km). They are a very brief phenomenon which lasts from 1 to 300 milliseconds. At a worldwide scale, four TLEs occur each minute. The energy deposition, about some tenth of megajoules, is able to ionize, dissociate and excite the molecules of the atmosphere. Atmospheric discharges in the troposphere are important sources of NO and NO2. TLEs might have the same effects at higher altitudes, in the stratosphere. NOx then can affect the concentration of O3 and OH. Consequently, TLEs could be locally important contributors to the chemical budget of the middle atmosphere. The perturbation of the atmospheric chemistry induced by TLEs has the consequence to locally modify the radiations in the infrared during the minutes following the event. The interest of studying the infrared signature of a TLE is twofold. For the atmospheric sciences it allows to link the perturbed composition to the resulting infrared spectrum. Then, some Defense systems like detection and guiding devices are equipped with airborne infrared sensors so that the TLE infrared signature might disturb them. We want to obtain a quantitative and kinetic evaluation of the infrared signature of the atmosphere locally perturbed by a TLE. In order to do so we must model three phenomena. 1) The plasma/chemistry coupling, which describes how the different energetic levels of atmospheric molecules are populated by the energetic deposition of the TLE. This step lasts the time of the lightning itself. 2) The chemical kinetics which describes how these populations will evolve in the following minutes. 3) The

  6. A Luminous Infrared Companion in the Young Triple System WL 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressler, Michael E.; Barsony, Mary

    2001-02-01

    We present spatially resolved near- and mid-infrared (1-25 μm) imaging of the WL 20 triple system in the nearby (d=125 pc) ρ Ophiuchi star-forming cloud core. We find WL 20 to be a new addition to the rare class of ``infrared companion systems,'' with WL 20 E and WL 20 W displaying Class II (T Tauri star) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and total luminosities of 0.61 and 0.39 Lsolar, respectively, and WL 20 S, the infrared companion, having a Class I (embedded protostellar) SED and a luminosity of 1.0-1.8 Lsolar. WL 20 S is found to be highly variable over timescales of years, to be extended (40 AU diameter) at mid-IR wavelengths, and to be the source of the centimeter emission in the system. The photospheric luminosities of 0.53 Lsolar for WL 20 E and 0.35 Lsolar for WL 20 W estimated from our data, combined with existing, spatially resolved near-IR spectroscopy, allow us to compare and test current pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. The most plausible, nonaccreting tracks describing this system are those of D'Antona & Mazzitelli published in 1998. These tracks give an age of (2-2.5)×106 yr and masses of 0.62-0.68 Msolar for WL 20 E and 0.51-0.55 Msolar for WL 20 W. The age and mass of WL 20 S cannot be well determined from the currently available data. WL 20 E and W fall into the region of the H-R diagram in which sources may appear up to twice as old as they actually are using nonaccreting tracks, a fact that may reconcile the coexistence of two T Tauri stars with an embedded protostar in a triple system. The derived masses and observed projected separations of the components of the WL 20 triple system indicate that it is in an unstable dynamical configuration, and it may therefore provide an example of dynamical evolution during the pre-main-sequence phase.

  7. Using multimodal femtosecond CARS imaging to determine plaque burden in luminal atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Alex C.-T.; Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Smith, Michael S. D.; Slepkov, Aaron; Hewko, Mark D.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Stolow, Albert; Sowa, Michael G.

    2011-03-01

    Luminal atherosclerosis imaging was demonstrated by multimodal femtosecond CARS microscopy (MM-CARS). Using a myocardial infarction-prone rabbit model of atherosclerosis, this study demonstrated the utility of multimodal CARS imaging in determining atherosclerotic plaque burden through two types of image analysis procedures. Firstly, multimodal CARS images were evaluated using a signal-intensity parameter based on intensity changes derived from the multi-channel data (e.g. TPEF, SHG and CARS) to classify plaque burden within the vessel. Secondly, the SHG images that mainly correspond to collagen fibrils were evaluated using a texture analysis model based on the first-order statistical (FOS) parameters of the image histogram. Correlation between FOS parameters of collagen images with atherosclerosis plaque burden was established. A preliminary study of using spectroscopic CARS in identifying the different lipid components within the plaque was also discussed.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging in the infrared using LIFTIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In this article, recent characterization measurements made with LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, are presented. A discussion is also presented of the relative merits of the various alternative designs for imaging spectrometers.

  9. Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

  10. A COSMIC-RAY-DOMINATED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: NEW INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.

    2010-09-01

    The high-density star formation typical of the merger/starburst events that power the large IR luminosities of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L{sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}>10{sup 12} L{sub sun}) throughout the universe results in extraordinarily high cosmic-ray (CR) energy densities of U{sub CR} {approx} few x(10{sup 3}-10{sup 4}) U{sub CR,Gal} permeating their interstellar medium, a direct consequence of the large supernova remnant number densities in such systems. Unlike far-UV photons emanating from numerous star-forming (SF) sites, these large CR energy densities in ULIRGs will volumetrically heat and raise the ionization fraction of dense (n > 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) UV-shielded gas cores throughout their compact SF volumes. Such conditions can turn most of the large molecular gas masses found in such systems and their high redshift counterparts ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} M {sub sun}) into giant CR-dominated regions (CRDRs) rather than ensembles of photon-dominated regions (PDRs) which dominate in less IR-luminous systems where star formation and molecular gas distributions are much more extended. The molecular gas in CRDRs will have a minimum temperature of T{sub kin} {approx} (80-160) K, and very high ionization fractions of x(e) > 10{sup -6} throughout its UV-shielded dense core, which in turn will fundamentally alter the initial conditions for star formation in such systems. Observational tests of CRDRs can be provided by high-J CO and {sup 13}CO lines or multi-J transitions of any heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) and their isotopologs. Chemical signatures of very high ionization fractions in dense UV-shielded gas such as low [DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] and high [HCO{sup +}]/[CO] abundance ratios would be good probes of CRDRs in extreme starbursts. These tests, along with direct measurements of the high CO line brightness temperatures expected over the areas of compact dense gas disks found in ULIRGs, will soon be feasible as sub

  11. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  12. Characteristics of luminous structures in the stratosphere above thunderstorms as imaged by low-light video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in which an image-intensified, low-light video camera systematically monitored the stratosphere above distant (100-800 km) mesoscale convective systems over the high plains of the central U.S. for 21 nights between 6 July and 27 August 1993. Complex, luminous structures were observed above large thunderstorm clusters on eleven nights, with one storm system (7 July 1993) yielding 248 events in 410 minutes. Their duration ranged from 33 to 283 ms, with an average of 98 ms. The luminous structures, generally not visible to the naked, dark-adapted eye, exhibited on video a wide variety of brightness levels and shapes including streaks, aurora-like curtains, smudges, fountains and jets. The structures were often more than 10 km wide and their upper portions extended to above 50 km msl.

  13. Optical clearing for luminal organ imaging with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanmei; Yuan, Wu; Mavadia-Shukla, Jessica; Li, Xingde

    2016-08-01

    The imaging depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in highly scattering biological tissues (such as luminal organs) is limited, particularly for OCT operating at shorter wavelength regions (such as around 800 nm). For the first time, the optical clearing effect of the mixture of liquid paraffin and glycerol on luminal organs was explored with ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain OCT at 800 nm. Ex vivo studies were performed on pig esophagus and bronchus, and guinea pig esophagus with different volume ratios of the mixture. We found that the mixture of 40% liquid paraffin had the best optical clearing effect on esophageal tissues with a short effective time of ∼ 10 min, which means the clearing effect occurs about 10 min after the application of the clearing agent. In contrast, no obvious optical clearing effect was identified on bronchus tissues. PMID:27335154

  14. Characteristics of luminous structures in the stratosphere above thunderstorms as imaged by low-light video

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A. , Inc., Ft. Collins, CO )

    1994-05-15

    An experiment was conducted in which an image-intensified, low-light video camera systematically monitored the stratosphere above distant (100-800 km) mesoscale convective systems over the high plains of the central US for 21 nights between 6 July and 27 August 1993. Complex, luminous structures were observed above large thunderstorm clusters on eleven nights, with one storm system (7 July 1993) yielding 248 events in 410 minutes. Their duration ranged from 33 to 283 ms, with an average of 98 ms. The luminous structures, generally not visible to the naked, dark-adapted eye, exhibited on video a wide variety of brightness levels and shapes including streaks, aurora-like curtains, smudges, fountains and jets. The structures were often more than 10 km wide and their upper portions extended to above 50 km msl. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  15. An adaptive algorithm for low contrast infrared image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-dong; Peng, Cheng-yuan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Jia-qi

    2013-08-01

    An adaptive infrared image enhancement algorithm for low contrast is proposed in this paper, to deal with the problem that conventional image enhancement algorithm is not able to effective identify the interesting region when dynamic range is large in image. This algorithm begin with the human visual perception characteristics, take account of the global adaptive image enhancement and local feature boost, not only the contrast of image is raised, but also the texture of picture is more distinct. Firstly, the global image dynamic range is adjusted from the overall, the dynamic range of original image and display grayscale form corresponding relationship, the gray scale of bright object is raised and the the gray scale of dark target is reduced at the same time, to improve the overall image contrast. Secondly, the corresponding filtering algorithm is used on the current point and its neighborhood pixels to extract image texture information, to adjust the brightness of the current point in order to enhance the local contrast of the image. The algorithm overcomes the default that the outline is easy to vague in traditional edge detection algorithm, and ensure the distinctness of texture detail in image enhancement. Lastly, we normalize the global luminance adjustment image and the local brightness adjustment image, to ensure a smooth transition of image details. A lot of experiments is made to compare the algorithm proposed in this paper with other convention image enhancement algorithm, and two groups of vague IR image are taken in experiment. Experiments show that: the contrast ratio of the picture is boosted after handled by histogram equalization algorithm, but the detail of the picture is not clear, the detail of the picture can be distinguished after handled by the Retinex algorithm. The image after deal with by self-adaptive enhancement algorithm proposed in this paper becomes clear in details, and the image contrast is markedly improved in compared with Retinex

  16. High-throughput imaging of self-luminous objects through a single optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barankov, Roman; Mertz, Jerome

    2014-11-01

    Imaging through a single optical fibre offers attractive possibilities in many applications such as micro-endoscopy or remote sensing. However, the direct transmission of an image through an optical fibre is difficult because spatial information is scrambled upon propagation. We demonstrate an image transmission strategy where spatial information is first converted to spectral information. Our strategy is based on a principle of spread-spectrum encoding, borrowed from wireless communications, wherein object pixels are converted into distinct spectral codes that span the full bandwidth of the object spectrum. Image recovery is performed by numerical inversion of the detected spectrum at the fibre output. We provide a simple demonstration of spread-spectrum encoding using Fabry-Perot etalons. Our technique enables the two-dimensional imaging of self-luminous (that is, incoherent) objects with high throughput in principle independent of pixel number. Moreover, it is insensitive to fibre bending, contains no moving parts and opens the possibility of extreme miniaturization.

  17. The application of ghost imaging in infrared imaging detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongtao; Yang, Zhaohua; Li, Dapeng; Wu, Ling-an

    2015-11-01

    Traditional imaging are mostly based on the principle of lens imaging which is simple but the imaging result is heavily dependent on the quality of detector. It is usual to increase the detector array density or reduce the size of pixels to improve the imaging resolution, especially for infrared imaging. It will decrease the light flux causing the noise enhance relatively and add the cost on the contrary. Besides, there is a novel imaging technology called ghost imaging. We present a new infrared imaging method named computational ghost imaging only using a bucket detector without spatial resolution, which avoiding the allocation of flux on the pixel dimension as well as reducing the cost.

  18. Infrared imaging system using nanocarbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, King Wai Chiu; Xi, Ning; Chen, Hongzhi; Chen, Liangliang; Song, Bo

    2012-06-01

    Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, can potentially overcome the short comes in traditional infrared detector materials because of their excellent electrical and optical properties such as adjustable electrical band gap, low dark current, fast optical response time etc. This paper will present the development of an infrared imaging system that is capable of infrared imaging without cooling. The sensing elements of the system are carbon nanotubes and graphene. When they are illumined by an infrared light, the nano devices generate photocurrents, respectively. As a result, infrared images can be presented based on using compressive sensing after the collection of photocurrent from the nano devices. The development of this imaging system overcomes two major difficulties. First, the system uses singlepixel nano photodetector, so the pixel crosstalk phenomena of conventional sensor arrays can be eliminated. Second, the requirement of single-pixel unit reduces the manufacturing difficulties and costs. Under this compressive sensing camera configuration, 50 × 50 pixel infrared images can be reconstructed efficiently. The results demonstrated a possible solution to overcome the limitation of current infrared imaging.

  19. Infrared thermal imaging figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available types of infrared thermal imaging instruments, both viewers (qualitative) and imagers (quantitative) are discussed. The various scanning methods by which thermal images (thermograms) are generated will be reviewed. The performance parameters (figures of merit) that define the quality of performance of infrared radiation thermometers will be introduced. A discussion of how these parameters are extended and adapted to define the performance of thermal imaging instruments will be provided. Finally, the significance of each of the key performance parameters of thermal imaging instruments will be reviewed and procedures currently used for testing to verify performance will be outlined.

  20. Infrared image quality evaluation method without reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Song; Ren, Tingting; Wang, Chengsheng; Lei, Bo; Zhang, Zhijie

    2013-09-01

    Since infrared image quality depends on many factors such as optical performance and electrical noise of thermal imager, image quality evaluation becomes an important issue which can conduce to both image processing afterward and capability improving of thermal imager. There are two ways of infrared image quality evaluation, with or without reference image. For real-time thermal image, the method without reference image is preferred because it is difficult to get a standard image. Although there are various kinds of methods for evaluation, there is no general metric for image quality evaluation. This paper introduces a novel method to evaluate infrared image without reference image from five aspects: noise, clarity, information volume and levels, information in frequency domain and the capability of automatic target recognition. Generally, the basic image quality is obtained from the first four aspects, and the quality of target is acquired from the last aspect. The proposed method is tested on several infrared images captured by different thermal imagers. Calculate the indicators and compare with human vision results. The evaluation shows that this method successfully describes the characteristics of infrared image and the result is consistent with human vision system.

  1. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  2. A High Resolution, Unobscured View of the Active Regions in (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from a VLA 33 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Leroy, A.; Evans, A.; et al.

    2016-06-01

    I will present a new survey of 33 GHz radio continuum emission from local U/LIRGs carried out using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). This is the first such survey and it combines high resolution, good sensitivity, and multi-configuration observations that should have sensitivity to emission on all spatial scales. (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies host some of the most extreme star-forming environments in the local universe, with large reservoirs of molecular gas and dust concentrated in the central few kpc. Our VLA observations allow us to see through the dust in these systems to resolve the sizes of their active regions, which is essential to understand the surface and volume densities of star formation and gas in these extreme systems. I will present the best size measurements to date of the active regions for our 22 targets. I will show what these sizes imply about gas volume and surface density and infrared luminosity surface densities. I will also lay out the physical implications of these values for the strength of star formation and feedback (especially radiative feedback) in extreme environments.

  3. Infrared spectroscopic imaging of kidney tumor tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.; Koch, E.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Strazdaite, S.; Urboniene, V.; Jankevicius, F.

    2011-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopic imaging of cancerous kidney tissue was performed by means of FTIR microscopy. The spectra of thin tissue cryosections were collected with 64x64 MCT FPA detector and imaging area was increased up to 5.4×5.4 mm by mapping by means of PC controlled x,y stage. Chemical images of the samples were constructed using statistical treatment of the raw spectra. Several unsupervised and supervised statistical methods were used. The imaging results are compared with results of the standard histopathological analysis. It was concluded that application of method of cluster analysis ensures the best contrast of the images. It was found that border between cancerous and normal tissues visible in the infrared spectroscopic image corresponds with the border visible in histopathological image. Closer examination of the infrared spectroscopic image reveals that small domains of cancerous cells are found beyond the border in areas distant from the border up to 3 mm. Such domains are not visible in the histopathological images. The smallest domains found in the infrared images are approx. 60 μm.

  4. Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.

  5. Simulation of infrared imaging seeking missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Andre

    2001-08-01

    This paper will describe a digital simulation model to assess the effectiveness of infrared imaging seeking missiles in presence of background and countermeasures. The model reproduces the infrared (IR) scene observed by the imaging seeker and generates the images at the detector output. The model replicates the image processing for automatic detection of potential targets in the seeker's field of view (FOV), and the target selection by the tracking algorithm. A model of a two-degree-of-freedom gyro stabilized seeker platform is also presented. The seeker platform is driven by the tracking algorithm to reduce the error between the seeker axis and the line of sight. The simulation also includes models for the missile aerodynamics in six degrees of freedom, the missile guidance and control system and the target and missile trajectories. As an illustration of the model, some results of simulation are shown for a target engaged by an infrared seeking missile using an imaging sensor.

  6. IR CMOS: infrared enhanced silicon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, M. U.; Carey, J. E.; Haddad, Homayoon; Vineis, C.; Sickler, J.; Li, X.; Jiang, J.; Sahebi, F.; Palsule, C.; McKee, J.

    2013-06-01

    SiOnyx has developed visible and infrared CMOS image sensors leveraging a proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor process technology. This technology demonstrates 10 fold improvements in infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Furthermore, these sensitivity enhancements are achieved on a focal plane with state of the art noise performance of 2 electrons/pixel. By capturing light in the visible regime as well as infrared light from the night glow, this sensor technology provides imaging in daytime through twilight and into nighttime conditions. The measured 10x quantum efficiency at the critical 1064 nm laser node enables see spot imaging capabilities in a variety of ambient conditions. The spectral sensitivity is from 400 to 1200 nm.

  7. Analysis of abdominal wounds made by surgical trocars using functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) technology.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Barry P; O'Donovan, Deidre; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo; Schiretz, Rich; Heninrich, Russell; Gregersen, Hans

    2008-09-01

    The aim was to use a novel functional luminal imaging probe for evaluation of wound defects and tissue damage resulting from the use of trocars. Following general anesthesia of 4 adult pigs, 6 different trocars were randomly inserted at preselected locations in the porcine abdominal wall. The functional luminal imaging probe was used to profile the trocar holes during bag distension from 8 axial cross-sectional area measurements. The cross-sectional areas and pressure in the bag were recorded and exported to Matlab for analysis and data display. Geometric profiles were generated, and the minimum cross-sectional area and hole length (abdominal wall thickness) were used as endpoints. Successful distensions were made in all cases. The slope of the contours increased away from the narrowest point of the hole. The slope increased more rapidly toward the inner abdominal wall than toward the outer wall. The slope of the linear trend lines for the cross-sectional area-pressure relation represents the compliance at the narrowest point in the wall. The hole length (abdominal wall thickness) could be obtained at different cross-sectional area cutoff points. A cutoff point of 300 mm(2) gave good results when compared to the length of the hole measured after the tissue was excised. This technique represents a new and straightforward way to evaluate the effects of trocars on the abdominal wall. It may also prove useful in comparing techniques and technology from different manufacturers. PMID:18757380

  8. Spatially resolved radio-to-far-infrared SED of the luminous merger remnant NGC 1614 with ALMA and VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Toshiki; Iono, Daisuke; Xu, Cong K.; Ueda, Junko; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Yun, Min S.; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Takuji; Lee, Minju; Espada, Daniel; Motohara, Kentaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 108-, 233-, 352-, and 691-GHz continuum observations and Very Large Array (VLA) 4.81- and 8.36-GHz observations of the nearby luminous merger remnant NGC 1614. By analyzing the beam (1{^''.}0 × 1{^''.}0) and uv (≥45 kλ) matched ALMA and VLA maps, we find that the deconvolved source size of lower-frequency emission (≤108 GHz) is more compact (420 pc × 380 pc) compared to the higher-frequency emission (≥233 GHz) (560 pc × 390 pc), suggesting different physical origins for the continuum emission. Based on a spectral energy distribution (SED) model for a dusty starburst galaxy, it is found that the SED can be explained by three components: (1) non-thermal synchrotron emission (traced in the 4.81- and 8.36-GHz continua), (2) thermal free-free emission (traced in the 108-GHz continuum), and (3) thermal dust emission (traced in the 352- and 691-GHz continua). We also present the spatially resolved (sub-kpc scale) Kennicutt-Schmidt relation of NGC 1614. The result suggests a systematically shorter molecular gas depletion time in NGC 1614 (average τgas of 49-77 Myr and 70-226 Myr at the starburst ring and the outer region, respectively) than that of normal disk galaxies (˜2 Gyr) and a mid-stage merger VV 114 (= 0.1-1 Gyr). This implies that the star formation activities in (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies are efficiently enhanced as the merger stage proceeds, which is consistent with the results from high-resolution numerical merger simulations.

  9. Role of active galactic nuclei in the luminous infrared galaxy phase at z ≤ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    To understand the interactions between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation during the evolution of galaxies, we investigate 142 galaxies detected in both X-ray and 70 μm observations in the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) field. All of our data are obtained from the archive X-ray point-source catalogues from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, and the far-infrared 70 μm point-source catalogue from Spitzer-MIPS observations. Although the IRAC [3.6 μm]-[4.5 μm] versus [5.8 μm]-[8.0 μm] colours of our sample indicate that only ˜63 per cent of our sources would be classified as AGNs, the ratio of the rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity to the total infrared luminosity (8-1000 μm) shows that the entire sample has comparatively higher X-ray luminosity than that expected from pure star-forming galaxies, suggesting the presence of an AGN in all of our sources. From an analysis of the X-ray hardness ratio, we find that sources with both 70 μm and X-ray detection tend to have a higher hardness ratio relative to the whole X-ray-selected source population, suggesting the presence of more X-ray absorption in the 70 μm detected sources. In addition, we find that the observed far-infrared colours of 70 μm detected sources with and without X-ray emission are similar, suggesting the far-infrared emission could be mainly powered by star formation.

  10. The method of infrared polariametric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiang; Feng, Hua-jun; Xu, Zhi-hai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yue-ting

    2013-09-01

    Due to the low contrast ,lack of details and difficulties to distinguish target from background in traditional infrared(IR) imaging systems, the detection and recognition probability of camouflage infrared target is relatively low. Compared with the traditional IR imaging systems, the method of polarimetric imaging uses polarization information, which can help detect and isolate manmade objects from the natural environment in complex. The method of infrared polarimetric imaging is proposed in this paper. The experiment builds the IR polarimetric imaging system. An IR polarizer made of BaF2 is assembled before the IR camera. By rotating the IR polarizer, twelve polarization images are obtained at every thirty degree. The gray levels of the images are calculated by program. Stokes polarization vector representation is introduced to calculate I of stokes vector and degree of linear polarization (DoLP) with polarization images. According to the character of parameter I of stokes vector and DoLP, we propose an IR polarization fusion method based on Shearlets using regional saliency analysis. This method can highlight the target area and have good performance in the fusion of IR radiation information and IR polarization characteristics. To test the effectiveness of this method, we use mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera and long-wave infrared(LWIR) camera to get real images. Compared with original image, both the subjective and objective evaluation results indicate that the enhanced images obtained by our method have much more image details and polarization information, which is useful for target detection and recognition.

  11. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  12. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

  13. Infrared Imaging Sharpens View in Critical Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Innovative Engineering and Consulting (IEC) Infrared Systems, a leading developer of thermal imaging systems and night vision equipment, received a Glenn Alliance for Technology Exchange (GATE) award, half of which was in the form of additional NASA assistance for new product development. IEC Infrared Systems worked with electrical and optical engineers from Glenn's Diagnostics and Data Systems Branch to develop a commercial infrared imaging system that could differentiate the intensity of heat sources better than other commercial systems. The research resulted in two major thermal imaging solutions: NightStalkIR and IntrudIR Alert. These systems are being used in the United States and abroad to help locate personnel stranded in emergency situations, defend soldiers on the battlefield abroad, and protect high-value facilities and operations. The company is also applying its advanced thermal imaging techniques to medical and pharmaceutical product development with a Cleveland-based pharmaceutical company.

  14. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of Spitzer-selected ultra-luminous starbursts at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolet, N.; Omont, A.; Lagache, G.; Bertincourt, B.; Fadda, D.; Baker, A. J.; Beelen, A.; Berta, S.; Boulanger, F.; Farrah, D.; Kovács, A.; Lonsdale, C.; Owen, F.; Polletta, M.; Shupe, D.; Yan, L.

    2010-12-01

    Context. Spitzer's wide-field surveys and followup capabilities have allowed a new breakthrough in mid-IR spectroscopy up to redshifts ≥ 2, especially for 24 μm detected sources. Aims: We want to study the mid-infrared properties and the starburst and AGN contributions, of 24 μm sources at z ~ 2, through analysis of mid-infrared spectra combined with millimeter, radio, and infrared photometry. Mid-infrared spectroscopy allows us to recover accurate redshifts. Methods: A complete sample of 16 Spitzer-selected sources (ULIRGs) believed to be starbursts at z ~ 2 (“5.8 μm-peakers”) was selected in the (0.5 deg2) J1064+56 SWIRE Lockman Hole field (“Lockman-North”). These sources have S24µ > 0.5 mJy, a stellar emission peak redshifted to 5.8 μm, and r'Vega > 23. The entire sample was observed with the low resolution units of the Spitzer/IRS infrared spectrograph. These sources have 1.2 mm observations with IRAM 30 m/MAMBO and very deep 20 cm observations from the VLA. Nine of our sources also benefit from 350 μm observation and detection from CSO/SHARC-II. All these data were jointly analyzed. Results: The entire sample shows good quality IRS spectra dominated by strong PAH features. The main PAH features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm have high S/N average luminosities of 2.90±0.31, 10.38±1.09, 3.62±0.27, and 2.29±0.26×1010 L⊙, respectively. Thanks to their PAH spectra, we derived accurate redshifts spanning from 1.750 to 2.284. The average of these redshifts is 2.017±0.038. This result confirms that the selection criteria of “5.8 μm-peakers” associated with a strong detection at 24 μm are reliable to select sources at z ~ 2. We have analyzed the different correlations between PAH emission and infrared, millimeter, and radio emissions. Practically all our sources are strongly dominated by starburst emission, with only one source showing an important AGN contribution. We have also defined two subsamples based on the equivalent width at 7.7

  15. Stellar mass - Metallicity Relation for AKARI-FMOS Infrared Luminous Galaxies at z~0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Goto, Tomo; Pearson, Chris; Buat, Véronique; Malkan, Matthew A.

    2015-08-01

    Heavy elements are synthesized in stars and returned into the interstellar medium reflecting the result of the past star formation activity in a galaxy. Thus, the gas phase metallicity is a key parameter in understanding the processes of the formation and the evolution of a galaxy. Many investigations of stellar mass (M*) and gas phase metallicity (Z) relation (MZ relation), which is more massive galaxies tend to be more metal-rich, and a fundamental relation (FMR), whereby galaxies define a tight surface in the three-dimensional space of M*, Z, and Star Formation Rate (SFR) have done up to z~3.3. However, this relation only holds to ultraviolet, optical, or near-infrared selected star forming galaxies. Since most of star formation activities in galaxies at high-z universe are hidden by dust, to fully understand the MZ relation and its evolution, it is critical to study dusty galaxies.Here, we investigate the MZ relation and FMR for infrared bright galaxies at z~0.9 discovered by AKARI NEP-Deep survey.We estimated the M* and Z from SED fitting using the AKARI NEP-Deep data with its follow-up multi-wavelength photometric data (from X-ray to FIR) and from Halpha-[NII] emission line ratio taken by Subaru/FMOS, respectively. We found that (1) the infrared bright galaxies at z~0.9 is already chemically evolved to the level of star-forming galaxies in the local universe, and (2) the metallicity of our sample is systematically larger than that of the FMR. The results suggest a possibility that metal was actively created in dusty galaxies up to z~1, then outflow blows out dust and gas, suddenly stopping the chemical evolution and star formation activity, and the galaxies end up being what they are today.

  16. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only two LIRGs have been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic-ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi-LAT data for 82 of the brightest Infrared Astronomical Satellite LIRGs and ULIRGs. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (˜4.6σ). We observe a gamma-ray flux (0.8–100 GeV) of 2.4 × 10‑10 phot cm‑2 s‑1 with a photon index of 2.23 (8.2 × 1041 erg s‑1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits (ULs) for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked ULs agree with calorimetric predictions for dense star-forming galaxies. With the detection of Arp 220, we extend the gamma-ray–IR luminosity correlation to the high-luminosity regime with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.25× {log}{L}8-1000μ {{m}}+26.7 as well as the gamma-ray–radio continuum luminosity correlation with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.22× {log}{L}1.4{GHz}+13.3. The current survey of Fermi-LAT is on the verge of detecting more LIRGs/ULIRGs in the local universe, and we expect even more detections with deeper Fermi-LAT observations or the next generation of gamma-ray detectors.

  17. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only two LIRGs have been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic-ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi-LAT data for 82 of the brightest Infrared Astronomical Satellite LIRGs and ULIRGs. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (∼4.6σ). We observe a gamma-ray flux (0.8–100 GeV) of 2.4 × 10‑10 phot cm‑2 s‑1 with a photon index of 2.23 (8.2 × 1041 erg s‑1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits (ULs) for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked ULs agree with calorimetric predictions for dense star-forming galaxies. With the detection of Arp 220, we extend the gamma-ray–IR luminosity correlation to the high-luminosity regime with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.25× {log}{L}8-1000μ {{m}}+26.7 as well as the gamma-ray–radio continuum luminosity correlation with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.22× {log}{L}1.4{GHz}+13.3. The current survey of Fermi-LAT is on the verge of detecting more LIRGs/ULIRGs in the local universe, and we expect even more detections with deeper Fermi-LAT observations or the next generation of gamma-ray detectors.

  18. Herschel imaging and spectroscopy of the nebula around the luminous blue variable star WRAY 15-751

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamvatira-Nakou, C.; Hutsemékers, D.; Royer, P.; Nazé, Y.; Magain, P.; Exter, K.; Waelkens, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2013-09-01

    We have obtained far-infrared Herschel-PACS imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebular environment of the luminous blue variable (LBV) WRAY 15-751. The far-infrared images clearly show that the main, dusty nebula is a shell of radius 0.5 pc and width 0.35 pc extending outside the Hα nebula. Furthermore, these images reveal a second, bigger and fainter dust nebula that is observed for the first time. Both nebulae lie in an empty cavity, very likely the remnant of the O-star wind bubble formed when the star was on the main sequence. The kinematic ages of the nebulae are calculated to be about 2 × 104 and 8 × 104 years, and we estimated that each nebula contains ~0.05 M⊙ of dust. Modeling of the inner nebula indicates a Fe-rich dust. The far-infrared spectrum of the main nebula revealed forbidden emission lines coming from ionized and neutral gas. Our study shows that the main nebula consists of a shell of ionized gas surrounded by a thin photodissociation region illuminated by an "average" early-B star. We derive the abundance ratios N/O = 1.0 ± 0.4 and C/O = 0.4 ± 0.2, which indicate a mild N/O enrichment. From both the ionized and neutral gas components we estimate that the inner shell contains 1.7 ± 0.6 M⊙ of gas. Assuming a similar dust-to-gas ratio for the outer nebula, the total mass ejected by WRAY 15-751 amounts to 4 ± 2 M⊙. The measured abundances, masses and kinematic ages of the nebulae were used to constrain the evolution of the star and the epoch at which the nebulae were ejected. Our results point to an ejection of the nebulae during the red super-giant (RSG) evolutionary phase of an ~40 M⊙ star. The multiple shells around the star suggest that the mass-loss was not a continuous ejection but rather a series of episodes of extreme mass-loss. Our measurements are compatible with the recent evolutionary tracks computed for an ~40 M⊙ star with little rotation. They support the O-BSG-RSG-YSG-LBV filiation and the idea that high

  19. Coherent infrared imaging camera (CIRIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Richards, R.K.; Emery, M.S.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Wachter, E.A.; Huston, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    New developments in 2-D, wide-bandwidth HgCdTe (MCT) and GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) coupled with Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology are now making focal plane array coherent infrared (IR) cameras viable. Unlike conventional IR cameras which provide only thermal data about a scene or target, a coherent camera based on optical heterodyne interferometry will also provide spectral and range information. Each pixel of the camera, consisting of a single photo-sensitive heterodyne mixer followed by an intermediate frequency amplifier and illuminated by a separate local oscillator beam, constitutes a complete optical heterodyne receiver. Applications of coherent IR cameras are numerous and include target surveillance, range detection, chemical plume evolution, monitoring stack plume emissions, and wind shear detection.

  20. High-throughput imaging of self-luminous objects through a single optical fibre.

    PubMed

    Barankov, Roman; Mertz, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Imaging through a single optical fibre offers attractive possibilities in many applications such as micro-endoscopy or remote sensing. However, the direct transmission of an image through an optical fibre is difficult because spatial information is scrambled upon propagation. We demonstrate an image transmission strategy where spatial information is first converted to spectral information. Our strategy is based on a principle of spread-spectrum encoding, borrowed from wireless communications, wherein object pixels are converted into distinct spectral codes that span the full bandwidth of the object spectrum. Image recovery is performed by numerical inversion of the detected spectrum at the fibre output. We provide a simple demonstration of spread-spectrum encoding using Fabry-Perot etalons. Our technique enables the two-dimensional imaging of self-luminous (that is, incoherent) objects with high throughput in principle independent of pixel number. Moreover, it is insensitive to fibre bending, contains no moving parts and opens the possibility of extreme miniaturization. PMID:25410902

  1. Detection of latent fingerprints by near-infrared spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Dai, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Spectral imaging technology research is becoming more extensive in the field of examination of material evidence. Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology is an important part of the full spectrum of imaging technology. This paper finished the experiment contents of the Near-Infrared spectrum imaging method and image acquisition system Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology. The experiment of Near-Infrared spectral imaging method obtains the image set of the Near-Infrared spectrum, and formats a pseudo-color images to show the potential traces successfully by processing the set of spectral images; Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology explores the technology method of obtaining the image set of Near-Infrared spectrometer and image acquisition system, and extensive access to the Near-Infrared spectrum information of latent blood, stamp and smear fingerprints on common objects, and study the characteristics of the Near-Infrared spectrum. Near-Infrared spectroscopic imaging experiments explores a wide variety of Near-Infrared reflectance spectra of the object material curve and its Near-Infrared spectrum of imaging modalities, can not only gives a reference for choosing Near-Infrared wavelength to show the object surface potential traces of substances, but also gives important data for the Near-Infrared spectrum of imaging technology development.

  2. Supernova 2013fc in a circumnuclear ring of a luminous infrared galaxy: the big brother of SN 1998S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, T.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Lundqvist, P.; Väisänen, P.; Childress, M.; Pignata, G.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.; Vinkó, J.; Pastorello, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Kotak, R.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Smartt, S. J.; Galbany, L.; Harmanen, J.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Marion, G. H.; Quimby, R. M.; Silverman, J. M.; Szalai, T.; Wheeler, J. C.; Ashall, C.; Benetti, S.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Smith, K. W.; Sullivan, M.; Takáts, K.; Young, D. R.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2013fc, a bright type II supernova (SN) in a circumnuclear star-forming ring in the luminous infrared galaxy ESO 154-G010, observed as part of the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. SN 2013fc is both photometrically and spectroscopically similar to the well-studied type IIn SN 1998S and to the bright type II-L SN 1979C. It exhibits an initial linear decline, followed by a short plateau phase and a tail phase with a decline too fast for 56Co decay with full γ-ray trapping. Initially, the spectrum was blue and featureless. Later on, a strong broad (˜8000 km s-1) H α emission profile became prominent. We apply a STARLIGHT stellar population model fit to the SN location (observed when the SN had faded) to estimate a high extinction of AV = 2.9 ± 0.2 mag and an age of 10_{-2}^{+3} Myr for the underlying cluster. We compare the SN to SNe 1998S and 1979C and discuss its possible progenitor star considering the similarities to these events. With a peak brightness of B = -20.46 ± 0.21 mag, SN 2013fc is 0.9 mag brighter than SN 1998S and of comparable brightness to SN 1979C. We suggest that SN 2013fc was consistent with a massive red supergiant (RSG) progenitor. Recent mass loss probably due to a strong RSG wind created the circumstellar matter illuminated through its interaction with the SN ejecta. We also observe a near-infrared excess, possibly due to newly condensed dust.

  3. HECTOSPEC AND HYDRA SPECTRA OF INFRARED LUMINOUS SOURCES IN THE AKARI NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Seong Jin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ko, Jongwan; Karouzos, Marios; Papovich, Casey; Willmer, Christopher; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2013-08-15

    We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 {mu}m and 15 {mu}m, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.

  4. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2015-08-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR > 10^12 L⊙) are all interacting and merging systems. We explore the evolution of the morphological and nuclear properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Her- schel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z ˜ 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We also use rest-frame optical emission line diagnostics, X-ray luminosity, and MIR colors to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy’s position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers? We investigate how AGN identified with different methods correspond to different morphologies and merger stages as well as position on the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  5. AN INFRARED-LUMINOUS MERGER WITH TWO BIPOLAR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS: ALMA AND SMA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 3256

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Combes, Francoise; Evans, Aaron; Peck, Alison

    2014-12-20

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array and Submillimeter Array observations of the infrared-luminous merger NGC 3256, the most luminous galaxy within z = 0.01. Both of the two merger nuclei separated by 5'' (0.8 kpc) have a molecular gas concentration, a nuclear disk, with Σ{sub mol} > 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. The northern nucleus is more massive and is surrounded by molecular spiral arms. Its nuclear disk is face-on, while the southern nuclear disk is almost edge-on. The high-velocity molecular gas in the system can be resolved into two molecular outflows from the two nuclei. The one from the northern nucleus is part of a starburst-driven superwind seen nearly pole-on. Its maximum velocity is >750 km s{sup –1} and its mass outflow rate is >60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for a conversion factor X{sub CO}=N{sub H{sub 2}}/I{sub CO(1−0)} of 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} (K km s{sup –1}){sup –1}. The molecular outflow from the southern nucleus is a highly collimated bipolar jet seen nearly edge-on. Its line-of-sight velocity increases with distance, out to 300 pc from the nucleus, to the maximum de-projected velocity of ∼2000 km s{sup –1} for the estimated inclination and ≳1000 km s{sup –1} taking into account the uncertainty. Its mass outflow rate is estimated to be >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the same X {sub CO}. This southern outflow has indications of being driven by a bipolar radio jet from an active galactic nucleus that recently weakened. The sum of these outflow rates, although subject to the uncertainty in the molecular mass estimate, either exceeds or compares to the total star formation rate. The feedback from nuclear activity through molecular outflows is therefore significant in the gas consumption, and hence evolution, of this system.

  6. Research on infrared imaging illumination model based on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-he; Feng, Chao-yin; Guo, Chang-geng; Zheng, Hai-jing; Han, Qiang; Hu, Hai-yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to effectively simulate infrared features of the scene and infrared high light phenomenon, Based on the visual light illumination model, according to the optical property of all material types in the scene, the infrared imaging illumination models are proposed to fulfill different materials: to the smooth material with specular characteristic, adopting the infrared imaging illumination model based on Blinn-Phone reflection model and introducing the self emission; to the ordinary material which is similar to black body without highlight feature, ignoring the computation of its high light reflection feature, calculating simply the material's self emission and its reflection to the surrounding as its infrared imaging illumination model, the radiation energy under zero range of visibility can be obtained according to the above two models. The OpenGl rendering technology is used to construct infrared scene simulation system which can also simulate infrared electro-optical imaging system, then gets the synthetic infrared images from any angle of view of the 3D scenes. To validate the infrared imaging illumination model, two typical 3D scenes are made, and their infrared images are calculated to compare and contrast with the real collected infrared images obtained by a long wave infrared band imaging camera. There are two major points in the paper according to the experiment results: firstly, the infrared imaging illumination models are capable of producing infrared images which are very similar to those received by thermal infrared camera; secondly, the infrared imaging illumination models can simulate the infrared specular feature of relative materials and common infrared features of general materials, which shows the validation of the infrared imaging illumination models. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulation images are similar to the collected images in the aspects of main features, but their histogram distribution does not match very well, the

  7. Tasking on Natural Statistics of Infrared Images.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Todd Richard; Bovik, Alan Conrad; Paulter, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Natural scene statistics (NSSs) provide powerful, perceptually relevant tools that have been successfully used for image quality analysis of visible light images. Since NSS capture statistical regularities that arise from the physical world, they are relevant to long wave infrared (LWIR) images, which differ from visible light images mainly by the wavelengths captured at the imaging sensors. We show that NSS models of bandpass LWIR images are similar to those of visible light images, but with different parameterizations. Using this difference, we exploit the power of NSS to successfully distinguish between LWIR images and visible light images. In addition, we study distortions unique to LWIR and find directional models useful for detecting the halo effect, simple bandpass models useful for detecting hotspots, and combinations of these models useful for measuring the degree of non-uniformity present in many LWIR images. For local distortion identification and measurement, we also describe a method for generating distortion maps using NSS features. To facilitate our evaluation, we analyze the NSS of LWIR images under pristine and distorted conditions, using four databases, each captured with a different IR camera. Predicting human performance for assessing distortion and quality in LWIR images is critical for task efficacy. We find that NSS features improve human targeting task performance prediction. Furthermore, we conducted a human study on the perceptual quality of noise-and blur-distorted LWIR images and create a new blind image quality predictor for IR images. PMID:26540687

  8. TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; D'Costa, S. L. A.; Naik, M. B.; Sandimani, P. R.; Poojary, S. S.; Bhagat, S. B.; Jadhav, R. B.; Meshram, G. S.; Bakalkar, C. B.

    TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC) which is based on 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe focal plane array (Rockwell HAWAII-1 PACE detector with imaging capabilities in 1 - 2.5 μm waveband range) at the focal plane of the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) will be a major workhorse for a variety of challenging astrophysical problems. This will be extremely sensitive to low temperature stellar photospheres (T ≤ 2500 K) and objects surrounded by warm dust envelopes or embedded in dust/molecular clouds. It is therefore particularly suited to the search for low and very low mass stellar populations (M/L dwarfs, brown dwarfs), strong mass-losing stars on the asymptotic giant branch, young stellar objects still in their protostellar envelopes and active galactic nuclei. TIRSPEC is being developed by Mauna Kea Infrared, LLC, Hawaii, USA (MKIR) in collaboration with the infrared astronomy group of TIFR.

  9. Infrared scanning images: An archeological application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Gumerman, G.J.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots.

  10. Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

    1994-09-28

    This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

  11. Characterization and analysis of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raglin, Adrienne; Wetmore, Alan; Ligon, David

    2006-05-01

    Stokes images in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) and methods for processing polarimetric data continue to be areas of interest. Stokes images which are sensitive to geometry and material differences are acquired by measuring the polarization state of the received electromagnetic radiation. The polarimetric data from Stokes images may provide enhancements to conventional IR imagery data. It is generally agreed that polarimetric images can reveal information about objects or features within a scene that are not available through other imaging techniques. This additional information may generate different approaches to segmentation, detection, and recognition of objects or features. Previous research where horizontal and vertical polarization data is used supports the use of this type of data for image processing tasks. In this work we analyze a sample polarimetric image to show both improved segmentation of objects and derivation of their inherent 3-D geometry.

  12. Infrared Imaging Data Reduction Software and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbey, C. N.; McMahon, R. G.; Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.

    Developed to satisfy certain design requirements not met in existing packages (e.g., full weight map handling) and to optimize the software for large data sets (non-interactive tasks that are CPU and disk efficient), the InfraRed Data Reduction software package is a small ANSI C library of fast image processing routines for automated pipeline reduction of infrared (dithered) observations. The software includes stand-alone C programs for tasks such as running sky frame subtraction with object masking, image registration and co-addition with weight maps, dither offset measurement using cross-correlation, and object mask dilation. Although currently used for near-IR mosaic images, the modular software is concise and readily adaptable for reuse in other work. IRDR, available via anonymous ftp at ftp.ast.cam.ac.uk in pub/sabbey

  13. Infrared image processing and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; González, D.; Klein, M.; Pilla, M.; Vallerand, S.; Maldague, X.

    2004-12-01

    Infrared thermography in nondestructive testing provides images (thermograms) in which zones of interest (defects) appear sometimes as subtle signatures. In this context, raw images are not often appropriate since most will be missed. In some other cases, what is needed is a quantitative analysis such as for defect detection and characterization. In this paper, presentation is made of various methods of data analysis required either at preprocessing and/or processing images. References from literature are provided for briefly discussed known methods while novelties are elaborated in more details within the text which include also experimental results.

  14. Infrared image denoising by nonlocal means filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dee-Noor, Barak; Stern, Adrian; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan

    2012-05-01

    The recently introduced non-local means (NLM) image denoising technique broke the traditional paradigm according to which image pixels are processed by their surroundings. Non-local means technique was demonstrated to outperform state-of-the art denoising techniques when applied to images in the visible. This technique is even more powerful when applied to low contrast images, which makes it tractable for denoising infrared (IR) images. In this work we investigate the performance of NLM applied to infrared images. We also present a new technique designed to speed-up the NLM filtering process. The main drawback of the NLM is the large computational time required by the process of searching similar patches. Several techniques were developed during the last years to reduce the computational burden. Here we present a new techniques designed to reduce computational cost and sustain optimal filtering results of NLM technique. We show that the new technique, which we call Multi-Resolution Search NLM (MRS-NLM), reduces significantly the computational cost of the filtering process and we present a study of its performance on IR images.

  15. THE ROLE OF STARBURST-ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS COMPOSITES IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY MERGERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW OPTICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, T.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Sanders, D. B. E-mail: kewley@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the fraction of starbursts, starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) composites, Seyferts, and low-ionization narrow emission-line region galaxies (LINERs) as a function of infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}) and merger progress for approx500 infrared (IR)-selected galaxies. Using the new optical classifications afforded by the extremely large data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the fraction of LINERs in IR-selected samples is rare (<5%) compared with other spectral types. The lack of strong IR emission in LINERs is consistent with recent optical studies suggesting that LINERs contain AGN with lower accretion rates than in Seyfert galaxies. Most previously classified IR-luminous LINERs are classified as starburst-AGN composite galaxies in the new scheme. Starburst-AGN composites appear to 'bridge' the spectral evolution from starburst to AGN in ULIRGs. The relative strength of the AGN versus starburst activity shows a significant increase at high IR luminosity. In ULIRGs (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}), starburst-AGN composite galaxies dominate at early-intermediate stages of the merger, and AGN galaxies dominate during the final merger stages. Our results are consistent with models for IR-luminous galaxies where mergers of gas-rich spirals fuel both starburst and AGN, and where the AGN becomes increasingly dominant during the final merger stages of the most luminous IR objects.

  16. Aural stealth of portable HOT infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Further reduction of size, weight and power consumption of the High Operating Temperature (HOT) infrared (IR) Integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assemblies (IDDCA) eventually calls for development of high-speed cryocoolers. In case of integral rotary design, the immediate penalty is the more intensive slapping of compression and expansion pistons along with intensification of micro collisions inherent for the operation of crank-slide linkages featuring ball bearings. Resulting from this is the generation of impulsive vibration export, the spectrum of which features the driving frequency along with numerous multiples covering the entire range of audible frequencies. In a typical design of an infrared imager, the metal light-weight enclosure accommodates a directly mounted IDDCA and an optical train, thus serving as an optical bench and heat sink. This usually results in excitation of structural resonances in the said enclosure and, therefore, in excessive noise generation compromising the aural stealth. The author presents the complex approach to a design of aural undetectable infrared imagers in which the IDDCA is mounted upon the imager enclosure through a silent pad. Special attention is paid to resolving the line of sight stability and heat sinking issues. The demonstration imager relying on Ricor K562S based IDDCA meets the most stringent requirement to 10 meters aural non-detectability distance (per MIL-STD 1474D, Level II) even during boost cooldown phase of operation.

  17. The Molecular Gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Extreme Physical Conditions and Their Effects on the X co Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; van der Werf, Paul; Xilouris, E.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Yu

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we conclude the analysis of our CO line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: L IR >~ 1011 L ⊙) in the local universe (Paper I) by focusing on the influence of their average interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the total molecular gas mass estimates via the so-called X co = M(H2)/L co, 1-0 factor. One-phase radiative transfer models of the global CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) yield an X co distribution with langX corang ~ (0.6 ± 0.2) M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 over a significant range of average gas densities, temperatures, and dynamic states. The latter emerges as the most important parameter in determining X co, with unbound states yielding low values and self-gravitating states yielding the highest ones. Nevertheless, in many (U)LIRGs where available higher-J CO lines (J = 3-2, 4-3, and/or J = 6-5) or HCN line data from the literature allow a separate assessment of the gas mass at high densities (>=104 cm-3) rather than a simple one-phase analysis, we find that near-Galactic X co ~ (3-6) M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 values become possible. We further show that in the highly turbulent molecular gas in ULIRGs, a high-density component will be common and can be massive enough for its high X co to dominate the average value for the entire galaxy. Using solely low-J CO lines to constrain X co in such environments (as has been the practice up until now) may have thus resulted in systematic underestimates of molecular gas mass in ULIRGs, as such lines are dominated by a warm, diffuse, and unbound gas phase with low X co but very little mass. Only well-sampled high-J CO SLEDs (J = 3-2 and higher) and/or multi-J observations of heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) can circumvent such a bias, and the latter type of observations may have actually provided early evidence of it in local ULIRGs. The only way that the global X co of such systems could be significantly lower than Galactic is if the average dynamic state of the dense gas is strongly

  18. Application status and development trend of infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Shi, Yanli; Hu, Rui; Zeng, Yi; Yan, Min

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid development of infrared imaging technology, it plays a more and more important role in modern wars. In this paper, the impact of changes of target, environment and mission on the development of infrared detecting technology was analyzed. Infrared imaging systems applied in army, navy and air force military weapons abroad were introduced. Meanwhile, the equipment status with infrared imaging technology in domestic situation was present and compared. In the end, a brief discussion about the development trend on modern infrared system was given. It is useful for the development and research on the domestic infrared imaging system.

  19. Far-infrared imaging antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neikirk, D. P.; Rutledge, D. B.; Muha, M. S.; Park, H.; Yu, C.-X.

    1982-01-01

    A far-infrared monolithic imaging antenna array with diffraction-limited resolution has been demonstrated. The optical system is similar to an oil-immersion microscope, except that the position of the object and the image are interchanged. The array is a series of evaporated silver bow-tie antennas of 75 nm thick, spaced at 310 microns, on a fused-quartz substrate; the bow angle of 60 deg gives an impedance of 150 ohm to match to bismuth microbolometers. The measured responsivity of the array elements is 1-2 V/W at the relatively low bias of 1 mA. Previous measurements have shown that the bolometers are 1/f noise limited up to 100 kHz and that they have a frequency response of 5 MHz. The antenna array should be adequate for far-infrared plasma interferometer measurements.

  20. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  1. Uncooled long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A long-wave infrared hyperspectral sensor device employs a combination of an interferometer with an uncooled microbolometer array camera to produce hyperspectral images without the use of bulky, power-hungry motorized components, making it suitable for UAV vehicles, small mobile platforms, or in extraterrestrial environments. The sensor device can provide signal-to-noise ratios near 200 for ambient temperature scenes with 33 wavenumber resolution at a frame rate of 50 Hz, with higher results indicated by ongoing component improvements.

  2. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  3. Jansky VLA Imaging of Heavily Obscured, Luminous Quasars at Redshifts ~2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, Adam; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Patil, Palavi; Whittle, Mark; Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    We present JVLA A and B array observations in X-band (8-12 GHz) of a sample of radio powerful, bolometrically luminous, but optically obscured quasars. The quasars were selected using a cross-match between WISE mid-IR sources brighter than 7 mJ at 22 mu and NVSS and/or FIRST radio surveys, with a further constraint that the sources were optically faint. The survey aims to select young quasars with young radio sources at redshifts z ~ 1-3. Ultimately, we wish to study the role that radio jets play in quasar driven feedback. Our VLA observations provide fundamental information on radio source size, structure, power and spectral index, all of which shed light on the properties of the young radio source. We will present images and data on 155 objects from our primary sample WISE-NVSS sample of 156.The majority of sources are found to be compact, steep-spectrum, and sub-galactic in scale, with a significant minority of resolved doubles, triples, and core-jets. Using radio data at other wavelengths taken from the literature, we use SED fits to identify or constrain the turn-over frequencies. Combining size and turn-over frequency, the majority of the sources are found to be CSS, GPS or HFPs, consistent with young radio source ages.

  4. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  5. Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

  6. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    SciTech Connect

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

    2011-01-11

    The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

  7. Uncooled Micro-Cantilever Infrared Imager Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotis, Datskos G.

    2008-02-05

    We report on the development, fabrication and characterization of microcantilever based uncooled focal plane array (FPA) for infrared imaging. By combining a streamlined design of microcantilever thermal transducers with a highly efficient optical readout, we minimized the fabrication complexity while achieving a competitive level of imaging performance. The microcantilever FPAs were fabricated using a straightforward fabrication process that involved only three photolithographic steps (i.e. three masks). A designed and constructed prototype of an IR imager employed a simple optical readout based on a noncoherent low-power light source. The main figures of merit of the IR imager were found to be comparable to those of uncooled MEMS infrared detectors with substantially higher degree of fabrication complexity. In particular, the NETD and the response time of the implemented MEMS IR detector were measured to be as low as 0.5K and 6 ms, respectively. The potential of the implemented designs can also be concluded from the fact that the constructed prototype enabled IR imaging of close to room temperature objects without the use of any advanced data processing. The most unique and practically valuable feature of the implemented FPAs, however, is their scalability to high resolution formats, such as 2000 x 2000, without progressively growing device complexity and cost. The overall technical objective of the proposed work was to develop uncooled infrared arrays based on micromechanical sensors. Currently used miniature sensors use a number of different readout techniques to accomplish the sensing. The use of optical readout techniques sensing require the deposition of thin coatings on the surface of micromechanical thermal detectors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is uniquely qualified to perform the required research and development (R&D) services that will assist our ongoing activities. Over the past decade ORNL has developed a number of unique methods and

  8. Sulfur copolymers for infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namnabat, S.; Gabriel, J. J.; Pyun, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Dereniak, E. L.; van der Laan, J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of organic polymers with low infrared absorption has been investigated as a possible alternative to inorganic metal oxide, semiconductor, or chalcogenide-based materials for a variety of optical devices and components, such as lenses, goggles, thermal imaging cameras and optical fibers. In principle, organic-based polymers are attractive for these applications because of their low weight, ease of processing, mechanical toughness, and facile chemical variation using commercially available precursors. Herein we report on the optical characterization of a new class of sulfur copolymers that are readily moldable, transparent above 500 nm, possess high refractive index (n > 1.8) and take advantage of the low infrared absorption of S-S bonds for potential use in the mid-infrared at 3-5 microns. These materials are largely made from elemental sulfur by an inverse vulcanization process; in the current study we focus on the properties of a chemically stable, branched copolymer of poly(sulfur-random-1,3-diisopropenylbenzene) (poly(S-r- DIB). Copolymers with elemental sulfur content ranging from 50% to 80% by weight were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, and prism coupling for refractive index measurement. Clear correlation between material composition and the optical properties was established, confirming that the high polarizability of the sulfur atom leads to high refractive index while also maintaining low optical loss in the infrared.

  9. Luminous presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula

    2008-02-01

    The Luminous Presence project examines the use of standard film language in the framing, angle and of points of view of holographic subjects though eight digital holographic stereograms; seven 25 x 25 cm, Hail, Water, Rain, Snow, Sun, Text, Imprint and 1.5 x 1 m, Luminous Presences i. However, before embarking on a discussion of how filmic language can be used in digital holograms it is first important to explain why this line of investigation could be fruitful. Undoubtedly several of the compositional practices which sprung up and evolved throughout the development of the diverse forms of the holographic medium have contributed to a unique hologram pictorial language, however it is well known that the reading of visual imagery of any type relies a great deal on the viewer's knowledge of and experience of other images .The lens-recorded imagery of film is a far more familiar language than that of holograms and the correlation between certain filmic pictorial conventions and emotional responses are well documented and understood. ii . In short the language of film contains a highly nuanced vocabulary of shot types and lens types (which may be criticised as being formulaic) yet are effective in lending emotion to figures.

  10. Adaptive enhancement for infrared image using shearlet frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zunlin; Bi, Duyan; Gao, Shan; He, Linyuan; Ding, Wenshan

    2016-08-01

    An infrared imaging sensor is sensitive to the variation of imaging environment, which may affect the image quality and blur the edges in an infrared image. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the infrared image. To improve the image contrast and adaptively enhance image structures, such as edges and details, this paper proposes a novel infrared image enhancement algorithm in the shearlet transform domain. To avoid over-enhancing strong edges and amplifying noise in plateau regions, we linearly enhance the details on the high frequency components based on their structure information, and improve the global image contrast by non-uniform illumination correction on the low frequency component. Then we convert the processed low and high components into the spatial domain to obtain the final enhanced image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could enhance the infrared image details well and produce few noise regions, which is very helpful for target detection and recognition.

  11. Ultraviolet through infrared imager performance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetta, Jason A.; Scopatz, Stephen D.

    2009-09-01

    The objective of any imaging system is to optimize the amount of pertinent information collected from a scene. Whether it is used for artistic reproduction, scientific research, or camouflage detection, a camera has the same ultimate requirement. In the era of broadband, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, and fused sensor systems, both spectral and spatial data continue to play battling roles in determining which is dominant in how well an imaging system meets its definitive objective. Typically sensor testing requires hardware and software exclusively designed for the spectral region of interest. Thus an imaging system with ultraviolet through infrared imaging capabilities could require three or more separate test benches for sensor characterization. Obviously this not only increases the complexity, and subsequently the cost of testing, but also more importantly tends to produce discontinuous results. This paper will outline the hardware and software developed by the authors that employ identical test methods and shared optics to complete infrared, visible, and ultraviolet sensor performance analysis. Challenges encompassing multiple emitting source switching, splitting, and combining will be addressed along with new single fused type source designs. Decisions related to specifying optics and targets of sufficient quality and construction to provide coverage of the full spectral region will be discussed along with sample performance specifications and data. Test methodology controlled by a single automated software suite will be summarized including modulation transfer function, signal to noise ratio, uniformity, focus, distortion, intrascene dynamic range, and sensitivity. Selected examples of results obtained by this test set will be presented.

  12. Design of spatio-temporally modulated static infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, WenCong; Liang, JingQiu; Liang, ZhongZhu; Lü, JinGuang; Qin, YuXin; Tian, Chao; Wang, WeiBiao

    2014-08-15

    A novel static medium wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is conceptually proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, the moving mirror in traditional temporally modulated IFTS is replaced by multi-step micro-mirrors to realize the static design. Compared with the traditional spatially modulated IFTS, they have no slit system and are superior with larger luminous flux and higher energy efficiency. The use of the multi-step micro-mirrors can also make the system compact and light. PMID:25121906

  13. Analysis of katabatic flow using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzielanek, M.; Cermak, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel high-resolution IR method which is developed, tested and used for the analysis of katabatic flow. Modern thermal imaging systems allow for the recording of infrared picture sequences and thus the monitoring and analysis of dynamic processes. In order to identify, visualize and analyze dynamic air flow using infrared imaging, a highly reactive 'projection' surface is needed along the air flow. Here, a design for these types of analysis is proposed and evaluated. Air flow situations with strong air temperature gradients and fluctuations, such as katabatic flow, are particularly suitable for this new method. The method is applied here to analyze nocturnal cold air flows on gentle slopes. In combination with traditional methods the vertical and temporal dynamics of cold air flow are analyzed. Several assumptions on cold air flow dynamics can be confirmed explicitly for the first time. By observing the cold air flow in terms of frequency, size and period of the cold air fluctuations, drops are identified and organized in a newly derived classification system of cold air flow phases. In addition, new flow characteristics are detected, like sharp cold air caps and turbulence inside the drops. Vertical temperature gradients inside cold air drops and their temporal evolution are presented in high resolution Hovmöller-type diagrams and sequenced time lapse infrared videos.

  14. Normalized methodology for medical infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J. V. C.; Brioschi, M. L.; Dias, F. G.; Parolin, M. B.; Mulinari-Brenner, F. A.; Ordonez, J. C.; Colman, D.

    2009-01-01

    A normalized procedure for medical infrared imaging is suggested, and illustrated by a leprosy and hepatitis C treatment follow-up, in order to investigate the effect of concurrent treatment which has not been reported before. A 50-year-old man with indeterminate leprosy and a 20-year history of hepatitis C was monitored for 587 days, starting from the day the patient received treatment for leprosy. Standard therapy for hepatitis C started 30 days later. Both visual observations and normalized infrared imaging were conducted periodically to assess the response to leprosy treatment. The primary end points were effectiveness of the method under different boundary conditions over the period, and rapid assessment of the response to leprosy treatment. The patient achieved sustained hepatitis C virological response 6 months after the end of the treatment. The normalized infrared results demonstrate the leprosy treatment success in spite of the concurrent hepatitis C treatment, since day 87, whereas repigmentation was visually assessed only after day 182, and corroborated with a skin biopsy on day 390. The method detected the effectiveness of the leprosy treatment in 87 days, whereas repigmentation started only in 182 days. Hepatitis C and leprosy treatment did not affect each other.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  17. The Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope III.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartschi, B. Y.; Morse, D. E.; Woolston, T. L.

    1996-06-01

    The Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope III (SPIRIT III) is a mid- through long-wave infrared instrumentation package built and managed by the Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University for the Midcourse Space Experiment. SPIRIT III contains a radiometer and an auto-aligning interferometer-spectrometer that share a telescope designed for high off-axis rejection. A solid-hydrogen cryostat, the first of its kind to be used in a space/satellite application, cools the entire sensor system to cryogenic operating temperatures. This hardware will measure the spectral, spatial, temporal, and intensity characteristics of Earth-limb backgrounds, celestial objects, and other upper atmospheric phenomena. Collected data will provide answers to fundamental questions about Department of Defense surveillance systems and supply invaluable information for system planners and designers of future threat detection systems.

  18. Infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter using microbolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2009-08-01

    A long wave infrared (LWIR) division of amplitude imaging Stokes polarimeter is presented. For the first time, to our knowledge, application of microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) technology to polarimetry is demonstrated. The sensor utilizes a wire-grid beamsplitter with imaging systems positioned at each output to analyze two orthogonal linear polarization states simultaneously. Combined with a form birefringent wave plate, the system is capable of snapshot imaging polarimetry in any one Stokes parameter (S1, S2 or S3). Radiometric and polarimetric calibration procedures for the instrument are provided and data from the instrument are presented, demonstrating the ability to measure intensity variations corresponding to polarized emission in natural environments. As such, emission polarimetry can be exploited at significantly reduced cost, sensor size and power consumption over instruments based on more costly Mercury-Cadmium Telluride (MCT) FPA's.

  19. Infrared and visible images fusion based on RPCA and NSCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhizhong; Wang, Xue; Xu, Jin; Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Yufei

    2016-07-01

    Current infrared and visible images fusion algorithms cannot efficiently extract the object information in the infrared image while retaining the background information in visible image. To address this issue, we propose a new infrared and visible image fusion algorithm by taking advantage of robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and non-subsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT). Firstly, RPCA decomposition is performed on the infrared and visible images respectively to obtain their corresponding sparse matrixes, which can well represent the sparse feature of images. Secondly, the infrared and visible images are decomposed into low frequency sub-band and high-frequency sub-band coefficients by using NSCT. Subsequently, the sparse matrixes are used to guide the fusion rule of low frequency sub-band coefficients and high frequency sub-band coefficients. Experimental results demonstrate that our fusion algorithm can highlight the infrared objects as well as retain the background information in visible image.

  20. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  1. Advanced MEMS-based infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming

    2003-04-01

    Infrared radiation imager is of important for a wide range of applications. IR infrared imagers have not been widely available due to cost and complexity issues. A major cost of IR imager is associated with the requirements of cooling and pixel-level integration with electronic amplifier and read-out circuitry that are often incompatible with the detector materials. Recent research activities have lead to a new class of IR imager based on thermally isolated MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) arrays whose bending can be directly detected by optical means. This approach eliminates the need for cooling and complex electronic multiplexers, holding the potential to drastically reduce IR imager cost. However, MEMS based IR imaging devices demonstrated to date are less sensitive than the commercially available ones. We have established a comprehensive finite element model (FEM) using Ansys tool. An accurate computer model for the proposed MEME IR detector is critical for the device development and fabrication. The model greatly enhanced our capability to cost effectively optimize the design from concept to fabrication layout. Our model predicts the deformation of this pixel structure under a surface stress for both thermal and photo-induced effects under various conditions. This simulation model provided a design base for new generation of optical MEMS IR sensors that has higher sensitivity and the potential of incorporating passive thermal amplification. Our simple MEMS design incorporates optical read-out, which eliminates the drawback of electronic means that inevitably introduce additional signal loss due to thermal contact made to the detector element. When packaged under vacuum environment, significant sensitivity improvement is anticipated. The deflection of a cantilever as a function of a rise in its temperature is determined by the classical thermomechanical governing equation for a bimaterial cantilever beam. Our finite element model is established using

  2. Regional Variation of Distal Esophagus Distensibility Assessed Using the Functional Luminal Imaging Probe (FLIP)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyue; Nicodème, Frédéric; Boris, Lubomyr; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variation of esophageal distensibility in normal subjects using a novel multichannel functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP). Methods Ten healthy subjects (4 male, age 21–49 years) were evaluated during endoscopy with a high-resolution impedance planimetry probe (FLIP) positioned through the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and distal 10cm of the esophageal body. Stepwise bag distensions using 5 ml increments from 0 to 60 mL were conducted and simultaneous measurements of cross-sectional area (CSA) and the associated intrabag pressure from each subject were analyzed using a customized MATLAB™ program. The distensibility along the esophagus was determined and compared between the EGJ and interval locations at 2–5 cm and 6–10 cm above the EGJ. Results The pressure-CSA relationship was nearly linear among sites at lower pressures (0 to 7.5 mmHg) and reached a distension plateau at pressures ranging from 8 to 24 mmHg. The location of greatest distensibility was 4 cm above the EGJ. Although the CSAs of individual recording loci were not significantly different, there was a significant difference between the mean CSAs when comparing the region 2 to 5 cm proximal to EGJ to that 6 to 10 cm proximal to the EGJ. Conclusions There were significant regional differences in distensibility along the distal esophagus with lower values in the proximal part compared to more distal part. The greatest distensibility was noted to occur at about 4 cm above the EGJ in close proximity to the location of the contractile deceleration point and phrenic ampulla. PMID:23965159

  3. Functional luminal imaging probe topography: an improved method for characterizing esophageal distensibility in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J.; Xiao, Yinglian; Nicodème, Frédéric; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Hirano, Ikuo; Pandolfino, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to develop a new method for analysis and presentation of esophageal distensibility data using high-resolution impedance planimetry recordings during a volume-controlled distention. Methods: Two control subjects and six patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with stricture, narrow caliber or normal endoscopy according to EndoFLIP studies were included for analysis. Median filtering and pulse detection techniques were applied to the pressure signal and a wavelet decomposition technique was applied to the 16 channels of raw esophageal diameter data to reduce vascular artifact, respiratory effect and remove esophageal contraction interference. These data were used to generate a functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) topography plot that describes regional variation of cross-sectional area (CSA). A previously developed computer program was used to calculate and model the CSA-pressure data to derive the slope of line fitting and distension plateau for each individual subject. The results were compared among the four endoscopic phenotypes. Results: Patients with EoE and normal endoscopy had similar esophageal distensibility parameters to those of normal controls whereas patients with EoE and stricture or narrow caliber had much lower distensibility than patients with EoE and normal endoscopy. The FLIP topography plots provided a global assessment of the esophageal distensibility along the axial plane of measurement that differentiated patients with varying degrees of endoscopic abnormality. Conclusions: New techniques can be leveraged to improve data analysis and presentation using EndoFLIP assessment of the esophageal body in EoE. These techniques may be helpful in defining clinically relevant phenotypes and guiding treatment strategies and should be helpful in structuring future outcome trials. PMID:23503784

  4. QCL-assisted infrared chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weida, Miles J.; Buerki, Peter R.; Pushkarsky, Michael; Day, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    Micro- and nano-technologies (MNT) have opened up the mid-infrared (IR) spectral region to room temperature techniques that are enabling new applications in chemical imaging. The mid-IR is rich in wavelength specific absorptions that can be used to identify different chemicals and materials. It is only in the last decade, however, that mid- IR cameras and tunable, intense mid-IR laser sources have become available that are compact and operate at room temperature. MNT has allowed these developments; micro-bolometer arrays are now routinely fabricated with 25 μm resolution and the ability to sense mid-IR radiation from 7 to 14 um. Quantum cascade (QC) lasers fabricated with exquisite control of semiconductor layers and waveguides serve as the gain media for tunable mid-IR lasers, some even tuned with MEMS feedback elements. The current state of mid-IR imaging and illumination is discussed, and specific examples of its use in chemical imaging are presented. First, passive mid-IR imaging is considered, along with its ability to be used for chemical identification. The use of tunable mid-IR lasers as an illumination source is then considered. Technical aspects of illumination and detection paradigms are presented, with a consideration of how spectroscopic information gathered in both stimulated thermal emission and reflectance modes can be analyzed to determine chemical composition in an image. Finally, specific examples of QC laser assisted chemical imaging are presented.

  5. Intraoperative infrared imaging of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Heiss, John D.; Kopylev, Leonid; Oldfield, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Object Although clinical imaging defines the anatomical relationship between a brain tumor and the surrounding brain and neurological deficits indicate the neurophysiological consequences of the tumor, the effect of a brain tumor on vascular physiology is less clear. Methods An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of the cortical surface before, during, and after removal of a mass in 34 patients (primary brain tumor in 21 patients, brain metastases in 10 and falx meningioma, cavernous angioma, and radiation necrosis–astrocytosis in one patient each). To establish the magnitude of the effect on blood flow induced by the tumor, the images were compared with those from a group of six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. In four cases a cerebral artery was temporarily occluded during the course of the surgery and infrared emissions from the cortex before and after occlusion were compared to establish the relationship of local temperature to regional blood flow. Discrete temperature gradients were associated with surgically verified lesions in all cases. Depending on the type of tumor, the cortex overlying the tumor was either colder or warmer than the surrounding cortex. Spatial reorganization of thermal gradients was observed after tumor resection. Temperature gradients of the cortex in patients with tumors exceeded those measured in the cortex of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Conclusions Brain tumors induce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex, which can be made visible by performing infrared imaging during cranial surgery. A reduction in CBF beyond the tumor margin improves after removal of the lesion. PMID:15599965

  6. Infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2000-11-01

    A small light weight man portable imaging spectrometer has many applications; gas leak detection, flare analysis, threat warning, chemical agent detection, just to name a few. With support from the US Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small man portable hyperspectral imaging sensor with an embedded DSP processor for real time processing that is capable of remotely imaging various targets such as gas plums, flames and camouflaged targets. Based upon their spectral signature the species and concentration of gases can be determined. This system has been field tested at numerous places including White Mountain, CA, Edwards AFB, and Vandenberg AFB. Recently evaluation of the system for gas detection has been performed. This paper presents these results. The system uses a conventional infrared camera fitted with a diffractive optic that images as well as disperses the incident radiation to form spectral images that are collected in band sequential mode. Because the diffractive optic performs both imaging and spectral filtering, the lens system consists of only a single element that is small, light weight and robust, thus allowing man portability. The number of spectral bands are programmable such that only those bands of interest need to be collected. The system is entirely passive, therefore, easily used in a covert operation. Currently Pacific Advanced Technology is working on the next generation of this camera system that will have both an embedded processor as well as an embedded digital signal processor in a small hand held camera configuration. This will allow the implementation of signal and image processing algorithms for gas detection and identification in real time. This paper presents field test data on gas detection and identification as well as discuss the signal and image processing used to enhance the gas visibility. Flow rates as low as 0.01 cubic feet per minute have been imaged with this system.

  7. Physical Conditions in the Central Parsec Derived from Mid-Infrared Imaging Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Dan; Dwek, Eli; Varosi, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Array camera images of the central 1 parsec of the Galactic Center at eight mid-infrared wavelengths between 4.8 and 20.0 microns with approximately 1 arcsec resolution are used to model the temperature, opacity and bolometric luminosity distributions of the emitting dust in the central parsec, and the extinction in the line of sight. We use the results to discriminate between two mechanisms for heating the dust: heating by radiation from a "central engine" (possibly a massive black hole associated with Sgr A*), or internal heating by luminous stars embedded in or among the dust clouds. The temperature and opacity distributions are consistent with the presence of self-luminous objects imbedded at prominent the IRS source positions. However, temperatures on the northern ann and east-west bar are highest along the inner flank of those structures surrounding the central cavity, while the dust opacity peaks further out from the central cavity. The warm inner ridge suggests heating by centrally located concentrated luminous sources, including IRS3 and IRS7. The of the model results are compared with the distributions of the various stellar populations in the central parsec. There is evidence for physical interaction between the warm emitting dust and luminous stars, including dozens of hot He1 emission line stars and B[] stars. The combined contributions of embedded stars at the IRS source positions and the luminous stars distributed throughout Sgr A West can account for the temperature enhancements and the luminosity distribution in the central parsec computed by the model.

  8. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  9. Development of shutter subsystems for infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Frank; Durfee, David; Stephenson, Stanley; Wagner, Gary

    2010-04-01

    Requirements for shutters used in Infrared Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems, Driver Vision Enhancement (DVE) and other thermal imaging systems are becoming increasingly more demanding. These performance requirements have been achieved using a unique, modular, reconfigurable rotary drive actuator with bi-stability and direct connection to the blade. A "Smart Shutter" acts as a complete sub-system that can be tested as an integral module. A multi-blade variant has been developed that retains the reliability of the rotary drive system and decreases the physical size of largeraperture shutters. Predictions of next-generation application-specific shutter designs will be offered in the paper.

  10. Infrared imaging with fiber optic bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Albert R., Sr.; McCord, James; Thompson, W. S.; LeBlanc, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    Efforts have resumed to improve the image quality of infrared imaging bundles formed at AMI using the ribbon stacking method. The C4 glass has been used to reduce core size, increase packing density and improve flexibility. Ribbons are formed from unclad fiber wound on a drum with pitch, ribbon count and spacing between ribbons computer controlled. A small portion of each ribbon is compressed and fused using thin, dilute Epoxy. Unfortunately, the Epoxy, serving as a clad, absorbs most all the LWIR energy making the bundles unsuited for 8-12 μm cameras. The ribbons are removed from the drum and stacked, one on top of the other observing proper orientation to form the bundle. A typical 1 meter bundle is formed from 50-70 count ribbons for a total of 2500-4900 fibers, made from 2.5-4.9 Km of C4 fiber. Typical core diameters are 60-80 μm. Active surface area ranges from 60-70%. Infrared resolution images formed using a NIR tube camera equipped with a special relay lens demonstrates the resolution limit for the bundle. Currently, the limit is about 10 lp/mm. The bundle end is imaged in the 3-5 μm Agema 210 camera using an Amtir 1 F/1 meniscus, coated 3-5 μm. Video images taken in natural light of an individual, easily recognizable at 50 feet, will be shown. Results of careful evaluation carried out at Lockheed Martin in Orlando using a high performance Raytheon Galileo camera will be presented.

  11. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  12. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  13. High dynamic range infrared images detail enhancement based on local edge preserving filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiong; Wang, Yuehuan; Bai, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In the field of infrared (IR) image processing, displaying a high dynamic range (HDR) image on a low dynamic range display equipment with a natural visual effect, clear details on local areas and less artifacts is an important issue. In this paper, we present a new approach to display HDR IR images with contrast enhancement. First, the local edge-preserving filter (LEPF) is utilized to separate the image into a base layer and detail layer(s). After the filtering procedure, we use an adaptive Gamma transformation to adjust the gray distribution of the base layer, and stretch the detail layer based on a human visual effect principle. Then, we recombine the detail layer and base layer to obtain the enhance output. Finally, we adjust the luminance of output by applying multiple exposure fusion method. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can provide a significant performance in terms of enhancing details and less artifacts than the state of the arts.

  14. Processing Infrared Images For Fire Management Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, John R.; Pratt, William K.

    1981-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service has used airborne infrared systems for forest fire detection and mapping for many years. The transfer of the images from plane to ground and the transposition of fire spots and perimeters to maps has been performed manually. A new system has been developed which uses digital image processing, transmission, and storage. Interactive graphics, high resolution color display, calculations, and computer model compatibility are featured in the system. Images are acquired by an IR line scanner and converted to 1024 x 1024 x 8 bit frames for transmission to the ground at a 1.544 M bit rate over a 14.7 GHZ carrier. Individual frames are received and stored, then transferred to a solid state memory to refresh the display at a conventional 30 frames per second rate. Line length and area calculations, false color assignment, X-Y scaling, and image enhancement are available. Fire spread can be calculated for display and fire perimeters plotted on maps. The performance requirements, basic system, and image processing will be described.

  15. Short wave infrared imager cockpit interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Peter L.

    2007-04-01

    With the introduction of the night-vision goggle (NVG) into vehicle cockpits, the transfer of visual information to the observer became more complex. This problem stems primarily from the fact that the image intensifier tube photocathode was sensitive to much of the visible spectrum. NVGs were capable of sensing and amplifying visible cockpit light, making the observation of the scene outside of the cockpit, the primary use for NVGs, difficult if not impossible. One solution was to establish mutually exclusive spectral bands; a band of shorter wavelengths reserved for transmission of visible information from the cockpit instrumentation to the observer and a longer wavelength region left to the night vision goggle for imaging the night environment. Several documents have been published outlining the night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting performance enabling this approach, seen as necessary for military and civilian aviation. Recent advances in short wave infrared (SWIR) sensor technology make it a possible alternative to the image intensifiers for night imaging application. However, application-specific integration issues surrounding the new sensor type must still be thoroughly investigated. This paper examines the impact of the SWIR spectral sensitivity on several categories of lighting found in vehicle cockpits and explores cockpit integration issues that may arise from the SWIR spectral sensitivity.

  16. Infrared hyperspectral imaging for chemical vapour detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruxton, K.; Robertson, G.; Miller, W.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Maker, G. T.; Howle, C. R.

    2012-10-01

    Active hyperspectral imaging is a valuable tool in a wide range of applications. One such area is the detection and identification of chemicals, especially toxic chemical warfare agents, through analysis of the resulting absorption spectrum. This work presents a selection of results from a prototype midwave infrared (MWIR) hyperspectral imaging instrument that has successfully been used for compound detection at a range of standoff distances. Active hyperspectral imaging utilises a broadly tunable laser source to illuminate the scene with light at a range of wavelengths. While there are a number of illumination methods, the chosen configuration illuminates the scene by raster scanning the laser beam using a pair of galvanometric mirrors. The resulting backscattered light from the scene is collected by the same mirrors and focussed onto a suitable single-point detector, where the image is constructed pixel by pixel. The imaging instrument that was developed in this work is based around an IR optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source with broad tunability, operating in the 2.6 to 3.7 μm (MWIR) and 1.5 to 1.8 μm (shortwave IR, SWIR) spectral regions. The MWIR beam was primarily used as it addressed the fundamental absorption features of the target compounds compared to the overtone and combination bands in the SWIR region, which can be less intense by more than an order of magnitude. We show that a prototype NCI instrument was able to locate hydrocarbon materials at distances up to 15 metres.

  17. High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Carney, P. Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments. PMID:23317676

  18. Nested object watermarking: comparison of block-luminance and blue channel LSB wet paper code image watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Dittmann, Jana

    2007-02-01

    Annotation watermarking (sometimes also called caption or illustration watermarking) denotes a specific application of watermarks, which embeds supplementary information directly in the media, so that additional information is intrinsically linked to media content and does not get separated from the media by non-malicious processing steps such as image cropping or compression. Recently, nested object annotation watermarking (NOAWM) has been introduced as a specialized annotation watermarking domain, whereby hierarchical object information is embedded in photographic images. In earlier work, the Hierarchical Graph Concept (HGC) has been suggested as a first approach to model object relations, which are defined by users during editing processes, into a hierarchical tree structure. The original HGC method uses a code-book decomposition of the annotation tree and a block-luminance algorithm for embedding. In this article, two new approaches for embedding nested object annotations are presented and experimentally compared to the original HGC approach. The first one adopts the code-book scheme of HGC using an alternative embedding based on Wet Paper Codes in blue-channel LSB domain, whereas the second suggests a new method based on the concept of intrinsic signal inheritance by sub-band energy and phase modulation of image luminance blocks. A comparative experimental evaluation based on more than 100 test images is presented in the paper, whereby aspects of transparency and robustness with respect to the most relevant image modifications to annotations, cropping and JPEG compression, are discussed comparatively for the two code-book schemes and the novel inheritance approach.

  19. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  20. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda J; Hoveling, Richelle J M; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-09-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of infrared imaging indicate its suitability for many forensic applications, ranging from the estimation of time of death to the detection of blood stains on dark backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of the principles and instrumentation involved in infrared imaging. Difficulties concerning the image interpretation due to different radiation sources and different emissivity values within a scene are addressed. Finally, reported forensic applications are reviewed and supported by practical illustrations. When introduced in forensic casework, infrared imaging can help investigators to detect, to visualize, and to identify useful evidence nondestructively. PMID:23919285

  1. Image Quality Indicator for Infrared Inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The quality of images generated during an infrared thermal inspection depends on many system variables, settings, and parameters to include the focal length setting of the IR camera lens. If any relevant parameter is incorrect or sub-optimal, the resulting IR images will usually exhibit inherent unsharpness and lack of resolution. Traditional reference standards and image quality indicators (IQIs) are made of representative hardware samples and contain representative flaws of concern. These standards are used to verify that representative flaws can be detected with the current IR system settings. However, these traditional standards do not enable the operator to quantify the quality limitations of the resulting images, i.e. determine the inherent maximum image sensitivity and image resolution. As a result, the operator does not have the ability to optimize the IR inspection system prior to data acquisition. The innovative IQI described here eliminates this limitation and enables the operator to objectively quantify and optimize the relevant variables of the IR inspection system, resulting in enhanced image quality with consistency and repeatability in the inspection application. The IR IQI consists of various copper foil features of known sizes that are printed on a dielectric non-conductive board. The significant difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials ensures that each appears with a distinct grayscale or brightness in the resulting IR image. Therefore, the IR image of the IQI exhibits high contrast between the copper features and the underlying dielectric board, which is required to detect the edges of the various copper features. The copper features consist of individual elements of various shapes and sizes, or of element-pairs of known shapes and sizes and with known spacing between the elements creating the pair. For example, filled copper circles with various diameters can be used as individual elements to quantify the image sensitivity

  2. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-09-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first discussed by Vollmer et al. in 2001.1-3 IR cameras were then too expensive for most schools. Thanks to the growing need of home energy inspection using IR thermography, the price of IR cameras has plummeted and they have become easy to use. As of 2011, the price of an entry-level handheld IR camera such as the FLIR I3 has fallen below 900 for educators. A slightly better version, FLIR I5, was used to take the IR images in this paper. As easy to use as a digital camera, the I5 camera automatically generates IR images of satisfactory quality with a temperature sensitivity of 0.1°C. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how these affordable IR cameras can be used as a visualization, inquiry, and discovery tool. As the prices of IR cameras continue to drop, it is time to give teachers an update about the educational power of this fascinating tool, especially in supporting inquiry-based learning.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging in the infrared using LIFTIRS. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    In this article the ideal performance for various possible designs for imaging spectrometers is discussed. Recent characterization measurements made with LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer are also presented. Hyperspectral imagers, characterized by having a large number of spectral channels, enable definitive identification and quantitative measurement of the composition of objects in the field of view. Infrared hyperspectral imagers are particularly useful for remote chemical analysis, since almost all molecules have characteristic rotation-vibration spectra in the infrared, and a broad portion of the so-called fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum lies where the atmosphere is relatively transparent, between 8 and 13 {micro}m.

  4. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  5. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}ȯ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}ȯ yr‑1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm‑3, ionization parameter 10‑1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10‑0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm‑2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ∼48–65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044–1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ∼30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking

  6. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}ȯ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}ȯ yr‑1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm‑3, ionization parameter 10‑1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10‑0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm‑2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48–65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044–1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy

  7. Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Gainer, Christian F.; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Skoch, Jesse; Lemole, G. Michael, Jr.; Anton, Rein; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative applications of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent contrast agents can be aided by instrumentation capable of merging the view of surgical field with that of NIR fluorescence. We demonstrate augmented microscopy, an intraoperative imaging technique in which bright-field (real) and electronically processed NIR fluorescence (synthetic) images are merged within the optical path of a stereomicroscope. Under luminance of 100,000 lx, representing typical illumination of the surgical field, the augmented microscope detects 189 nM concentration of indocyanine green and produces a composite of the real and synthetic images within the eyepiece of the microscope at 20 fps. Augmentation described here can be implemented as an add-on module to visualize NIR contrast agents, laser beams, or various types of electronic data within the surgical microscopes commonly used in neurosurgical, cerebrovascular, otolaryngological, and ophthalmic procedures.

  8. Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeffrey R; Gainer, Christian F; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Skoch, Jesse; Lemole, G Michael; Anton, Rein; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative applications of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent contrast agents can be aided by instrumentation capable of merging the view of surgical field with that of NIR fluorescence. We demonstrate augmented microscopy, an intraoperative imaging technique in which bright-field (real) and electronically processed NIR fluorescence (synthetic) images are merged within the optical path of a stereomicroscope. Under luminance of 100,000 lx, representing typical illumination of the surgical field, the augmented microscope detects 189 nM concentration of indocyanine green and produces a composite of the real and synthetic images within the eyepiece of the microscope at 20 fps. Augmentation described here can be implemented as an add-on module to visualize NIR contrast agents, laser beams, or various types of electronic data within the surgical microscopes commonly used in neurosurgical, cerebrovascular, otolaryngological, and ophthalmic procedures. PMID:26440760

  9. Near Infrared Spectroscopy and the Search for CO Emission in Three Extremely Luminous IRAS Sources; F 09104+4109, F 15307+3252, and PG 1634+706

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Rest-frame 0.48--1.1 mu m emission line strengths and molecular gas mass (H_2) upper limits for three luminous infrared sources -- the hyperluminous infrared galaxies (HyLIGs: L_ir >= 10(13) L_sun where L_ir ~ L(8-1000microns )) IRAS F09104+4109 (z=0.4417), IRAS F15307+3252 (z=0.926), and the optically-selected QSO PG 1634+706 (z=1.338) -- are presented. Diagnostic emission-line ratios ([O III] lambda 5007/Hβ , [S II] lambda 6724/Hα , [N II] lambda 6583/Hα , and [S III] lambda lambda 9069+9532/Hα ) indicate a Seyfert 2-like spectrum for both infrared galaxies, consistent with previously published work. Upper limits on the molecular gas mass for all three sources are M(H_2) < 1-3 x 10(10) h(-2) \\ M_sun (q_0=0.5, H_0 = 100h km s(-1) Mpc(-1) ), less than the H_2 mass of the most gas-rich infrared galaxies in the local Universe. All three sources have L_IR/L'_CO ~ 1300-2000, the most extreme values for extragalactic sources measured to date. Given the relatively warm far-infrared colors for all three objects, much of their infrared luminosity may emanate from a relatively small quantity of hot dust near the AGN. For IRAS F09104+4109 and IRAS F15307+3252, the implied circumnuclear covering factor of this dust is ~ 90%, while for PG 1634+706 the covering factor is only ~ 15%.

  10. TIRSPEC: TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; D'Costa, S. L. A.; Naik, M. B.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Meshram, G. S.; Jadhav, R. B.; Bhagat, S. B.; Gharat, S. M.; Bakalkar, C. B.; Prabhu, T. P.; Anupama, G. C.; Toomey, D. W.

    We describe the TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC) designed and built in collaboration with M/s. Mauna Kea Infrared LLC, Hawaii, USA, now in operation on the side port of the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT), Hanle (Ladakh), India at an altitude of 4500 meters above mean sea level (amsl). The TIRSPEC provides for various modes of operation which include photometry with broad and narrow band filters, spectrometry in single order mode with long slits of 300″ length and different widths, with order sorter filters in the Y, J, H and K bands and a grism as the dispersing element as well as a cross dispersed mode to give a coverage of 1.0 to 2.5 μm at a resolving power R of 1200. The TIRSPEC uses a Teledyne 1024 × 1024 pixel Hawaii-1 PACE array detector with a cutoff wavelength of 2.5 μm and on HCT, provides a field of view of 307″ × 307″ with a plate scale of 0.3″/pixel. The TIRSPEC was successfully commissioned in June 2013 and the subsequent characterization and astronomical observations are presented here. The TIRSPEC has been made available to the worldwide astronomical community for science observations from May 2014.

  11. High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, B.; Covelli, J.; Davinic, N.; Hailey, J.; Jones, E.; Ortiz, V.; Racine, J.; Satterwhite, D.; Spriesterbach, T.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A low earth orbiting platform for an infrared (IR) sensor payload is examined based on the requirements of a Naval Research Laboratory statement of work. The experiment payload is a 1.5-meter square by 0.5-meter high cubic structure equipped with the imaging system, radiators, and spacecraft mounting interface. The orbit is circular at 509 km (275 nmi) altitude and 70 deg. inclination. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized with pointing accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 deg. in each axis. The experiment payload requires two 15-minute sensing periods over two contiguous orbit periods for 30 minutes of sensing time per day. The spacecraft design is presented for launch via a Delta 2 rocket. Subsystem designs include attitude control, propulsion, electric power, telemetry, tracking and command, thermal design, structure, and cost analysis.

  12. Direct infrared imaging of VB 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrutskie, M. F.; Forret, W. J.; Shure, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Near-infrared images of VB 8 taken at K (2.2 microns) and L-prime (3.75 microns) during a period of good seeing at the IRTF show no evidence of the brown dwarf companion reported by McCarthy et al. (1985). Any companion 1.0 arcsec away from the primary must be at least 4 mag fainter than the primary at K and 3 mag fainter at L-prime in order to escape detection. A faint nebula centered on the star with scattering properties similar to a nebula detected near another main-sequence M star, Lalande 21185 (reported by McCarthy in 1986), may account for the extended emission detected by speckle observations.

  13. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  14. Localisation of luminal epithelium edge in digital histopathology images of IHC stained slides of endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Sanchez, Victor; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Quenby, Siobhan; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to abnormally high number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells has recently been made possible by a protocol devised by Quenby et al. Hum Reprod 2009;24(1):45-54. The diagnosis involves detection and counting of stromal and uNK cell nuclei in endometrial biopsy slides immunohistochemically stained with haematoxylin for staining cell nuclei and CD56 as a marker for the uNK cells. However, manual diagnosis is a laborious process, fraught with subjective errors. In this paper, we present a novel method for detection of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the human female uterus lining and localisation of the luminal epithelium edge in endometrial biopsies. Specifically, we employ a local phase symmetry based method to detect stromal cell nuclei and propose an adaptive background removal method that significantly eases the segmentation of uNK cell nuclei regions. We also propose a novel method using alpha shapes for the identification of epithelial cell nuclei and B-Spline curve fitting on identified cell nuclei to localise the luminal epithelium edge. The objective of edge localisation is to avoid cell nuclei near the luminal epithelium edge being counted in the diagnosis process due to their non-relevance to the calculation of stromal to uNK cell ratio that determines the diagnosis of recurrent miscarriages in the end. The resulting algorithm offers a promising potential for computer-assisted diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to its high accuracy. PMID:25529641

  15. Research of infrared image optimization algorithm in optical read-out IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianxiong; Cheng, Teng; Zhang, Qingchuan; Gao, Jie; Wu, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    Different from traditional electrical readout infrared imaging, optical readout infrared imaging system readout the thermo-mechanical response of focal plane array via visible light. Due to the different parameters of the optical system, usually,the infrared thermal image pixel corresponding to the thermal element of focal plane array is not consistent. And the substrate-free focal plane array brings thermal crosstalk, the image blur. This manuscript analyzes the optical readout infrared imaging principle, proposes an one to one correspondence method between the infrared thermal image pixel and the thermal element of focal plane array, optimizes the digital infrared image by the thermal crosstalk on substrate-free focal plane array. Simulation and experiments show that the algorithm can effectively enhance the contours of the infrared image detail, enhancing image quality.

  16. ESO imaging survey: infrared deep public survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, L. F.; Miralles, J.-M.; da Costa, L.; Madejsky, R.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Mignano, A.; Arnouts, S.; Benoist, C.; Dietrich, J. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Zaggia, S.

    2006-09-01

    This paper is part of the series presenting the final results obtained by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. It presents new J and Ks data obtained from observations conducted at the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) using the SOFI camera. These data were taken as part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS) carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey program, significantly extending the earlier optical/infrared EIS-DEEP survey presented in a previous paper of this series. The DPS-IR survey comprises two observing strategies: shallow Ks observations providing nearly full coverage of pointings with complementary multi-band (in general {UBVRI}) optical data obtained using ESO's wide-field imager (WFI) and deeper J and Ks observations of the central parts of these fields. Currently, the DPS-IR survey provides a coverage of roughly 2.1 square degrees ( 300 SOFI pointings) in Ks with 0.63 square degrees to fainter magnitudes and also covered in J, over three independent regions of the sky. The goal of the present paper is to briefly describe the observations, the data reduction procedures, and to present the final survey products which include fully calibrated pixel-maps and catalogs extracted from them. The astrometric solution with an estimated accuracy of ⪉0.15 arcsec is based on the USNO catalog and limited only by the accuracy of the reference catalog. The final stacked images presented here number 89 and 272, in J and K_s, respectively, the latter reflecting the larger surveyed area. The J and Ks images were taken with a median seeing of 0.77 arcsec and 0.8 arcsec. The images reach a median 5σ limiting magnitude of JAB˜23.06 as measured within an aperture of 2´´, while the corresponding limiting magnitude in KsAB is 21.41 and 22.16 mag for the shallow and deep strategies. Although some spatial variation due to varying observing conditions is observed, overall the observed limiting magnitudes are consistent with those originally proposed. The quality of the data

  17. A real-time infrared imaging simulation method with physical effects modeling of infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Huai, Wenqing; Wang, Shaodan; Ren, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Infrared imaging simulation technology can provide infrared data sources for the development, improvement and evaluation of infrared imaging systems under different environment, status and weather conditions, which is reusable and more economic than physical experiments. A real-time infrared imaging simulation process is established to reproduce a complete physical imaging process. Our emphasis is put on the modeling of infrared sensors, involving physical effects of both spatial domain and frequency domain. An improved image convolution method is proposed based on GPU parallel processing to enhance the real-time simulation ability with ensuring its simulation accuracy at the same time. Finally the effectiveness of the above methods is validated by simulation analysis and result comparison.

  18. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  19. Photothermal imaging through coherent infrared bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, Yonat; Tepper, Michal; Harrington, James A.; Ben David, Moshe; Gannot, Israel

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to develop a photothermal imaging system through a coherent infrared bundle. This system will be used to determine the oxygenation level of various tissues, suspected malignant tissues in particular. The oxygenation estimation is preformed using a computerized algorithm. In order to evaluate the system, different bundle configurations were used for the determination of the optimal one. Bundle transmittance and the algorithm's estimation ability were measured, measurements were performed using agar phantoms consisting of varying ratios of Methylene Blue and ICG. A bundle consisting of 19 Teflon waveguides with a of 1.1mm was found to be the optimal configuration with an RMS of the error of 9.38%. At a second stage the system was validated on blood samples with varying oxygenation levels and there oxygenation levels were estimated. This stage had an RMS of the error of 10.16% for the oxygenation level estimation for samples with a 50% oxygenation level and higher. Once the basic system was validated successfully on agar phantoms and blood samples a portable system was designed and built in order to fit the system for portable use. The portable system consists of a white light illuminating source followed by filters transmitting certain wavelengths, a transmitting fiber, a thermal imaging bundle and a portable thermal camera. This portable system will be evaluated in order to have an adequate portable system for implementing the method out of the lab.

  20. Visible-Infrared Hyperspectral Image Projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The VisIR HIP generates spatially-spectrally complex scenes. The generated scenes simulate real-world targets viewed by various remote sensing instruments. The VisIR HIP consists of two subsystems: a spectral engine and a spatial engine. The spectral engine generates spectrally complex uniform illumination that spans the wavelength range between 380 nm and 1,600 nm. The spatial engine generates two-dimensional gray-scale scenes. When combined, the two engines are capable of producing two-dimensional scenes with a unique spectrum at each pixel. The VisIR HIP can be used to calibrate any spectrally sensitive remote-sensing instrument. Tests were conducted on the Wide-field Imaging Interferometer Testbed at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. The device is a variation of the calibrated hyperspectral image projector developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD. It uses Gooch & Housego Visible and Infrared OL490 Agile Light Sources to generate arbitrary spectra. The two light sources are coupled to a digital light processing (DLP(TradeMark)) digital mirror device (DMD) that serves as the spatial engine. Scenes are displayed on the DMD synchronously with desired spectrum. Scene/spectrum combinations are displayed in rapid succession, over time intervals that are short compared to the integration time of the system under test.

  1. Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendziora, C. A.; Jones, Robert M.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, R. Andrew

    2012-06-01

    We are developing a technique for the stand-off detection of trace analytes and residues (explosives, hazardous chemicals, drugs, etc.) using photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). Herein, we refer to this technique as "RED" for "Remote Explosives Detection" or "Resonance Enhanced Detection". This approach leverages recent developments in critical enabling micro and nano-technology components. The first component, a compact IR quantum cascade laser (QCL), is tuned to fundamental absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate a surface of interest. The second component, an IR focal plane array (FPA), is used to image the surface and detect any small increase in the thermal emission upon laser illumination. We have demonstrated the technique at up to 30 meters of stand-off distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). In this manuscript we detail several recent improvements to the method and system, as well as some recent results for explosives on complex substrates such as car panels and fabrics. We also introduce a computational framework for modeling and simulating the optical and thermal phenomena associated with the photothermal process.

  2. Controllable infrared continuum source for multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mauro, C.; Alfieri, D.; Arrigoni, M.; Armstrong, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2010-02-01

    We report on multiphoton imaging of biological samples performed with continuum infrared source generated in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). We studied the spectra generated in PCFs with dispersion profiles designed to maximize the power density in the 700-1000 nm region, where the two-photon absorption cross sections of the most common dyes lie. Pumping in normal dispersion region, with <140 femtosecond pulses delivered by a tunable Ti:Sa laser (Chameleon Ultra II by Coherent Inc.), results in a limitation of nonlinear broadening up to a mean power density above 2 mW/nm. Axial and lateral resolution obtained with a scanning multiphoton system has been measureed to be near the theoretical limit. The possibility of simultaneous two-photon excitation of different dyes in the same sample and high image resolution are demonstrated at tens of microns in depth. Signal-to-noise ratio and general performances are found to be comparable with those of a single wavelength system, used for comparison.

  3. GRIN optics for multispectral infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Daniel; Bayya, Shyam; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jas; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon

    2015-06-01

    Graded index (GRIN) optics offer potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 μm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional wideband materials. Traditional multiband IR imagers require many elements for correction of chromatic aberrations, making them large and heavy and not well-suited for weight sensitive platforms. IR-GRIN optical elements designed with simultaneous optical power and chromatic correction can reduce the number of elements in wideband systems, making multi-band IR imaging practical for platforms including small UAVs and soldier handheld, helmet or weapon mounted cameras. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations are presented in this paper.

  4. Reproducing kernel hilbert space based single infrared image super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangliang; Deng, Liangjian; Shen, Wei; Xi, Ning; Zhou, Zhanxin; Song, Bo; Yang, Yongliang; Cheng, Yu; Dong, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of Infrared (IR) images is limited by lens optical diffraction, sensor array pitch size and pixel dimension. In this work, a robust model is proposed to reconstruct high resolution infrared image via a single low resolution sampling, where the image features are discussed and classified as reflective, cooled emissive and uncooled emissive based on infrared irradiation source. A spline based reproducing kernel hilbert space and approximative heaviside function are deployed to model smooth part and edge component of image respectively. By adjusting the parameters of heaviside function, the proposed model can enhance distinct part of images. The experimental results show that the model is applicable on both reflective and emissive low resolution infrared images to improve thermal contrast. The overall outcome produces a high resolution IR image, which makes IR camera better measurement accuracy and observes more details at long distance.

  5. A comparison of the morphological properties between local and z ∼ 1 infrared luminous galaxies: Are local and high-z (U)LIRGs different?

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Yanxia; Lockhart, Kelly; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Barnes, Joshua E.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Koss, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Smith, Howard A.

    2014-08-10

    Ultraluminous and luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs and LIRGs) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe and dominate the total star formation rate density at z > 1. In the local universe (z < 0.3), the majority of ULIRGs and a significant portion of LIRGs are triggered by interactions between gas-rich spiral galaxies, yet it is unclear if this is still the case at high z. To investigate the relative importance of galaxy interactions in infrared luminous galaxies, we carry out a comparison of optical morphological properties between local (U)LIRGs and (U)LIRGs at z = 0.5-1.5 based on the same sample selection, morphology classification scheme, and optical morphology at similar rest-frame wavelengths. In addition, we quantify the systematics in comparing local and high-z data sets by constructing a redshifted data set from local (U)LIRGs, in which its data quality mimics the high-z data set. Based on the Gini-M{sub 20} classification scheme, we find that the fraction of interacting systems decreases by ∼8% from local to z ≲ 1, and it is consistent with the reduction between local and redshifted data sets (6{sub −6}{sup +14}%). Based on visual classifications, the merger fraction of local ULIRGs is found to be ∼20% lower compared to published results, and the reduction due to redshifting is 15{sub −8}{sup +10}%. Consequently, the differences of merger fractions between local and z ≲ 1 (U)LIRGs is only ∼17%. These results demonstrate that there is no strong evolution in the fraction of (U)LIRGs classified as mergers at least out to z ∼ 1. At z > 1, the morphology types of ∼30% of (U)LIRGs cannot be determined due to their faintness in the F814W band; thus, the merger fraction measured at z > 1 suffers from large uncertainties.

  6. LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA-LIKE UV/OPTICAL/INFRARED TRANSIENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM METAL-POOR BLUE SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Yajima, Hidenobu; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Suwa, Yudai

    2013-06-10

    Metal-poor massive stars typically end their lives as blue supergiants (BSGs). Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from such progenitors could have an ultra-long duration of relativistic jets. For example, Population III (Pop III) GRBs at z {approx} 10-20 might be observable as X-ray-rich events with a typical duration of T{sub 90} {approx} 10{sup 4}(1 + z) s. The recent GRB111209A at z = 0.677 has an ultra-long duration of T{sub 90} {approx} 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} s and it has been suggested that its progenitor might have been a metal-poor BSG in the local universe. Here, we suggest that luminous UV/optical/infrared emission is associated with this new class of GRBs from metal-poor BSGs. Before the jet head breaks out of the progenitor envelope, the energy injected by the jet is stored in a hot plasma cocoon, which finally emerges and expands as a baryon-loaded fireball. We show that the photospheric emissions from the cocoon fireball could be intrinsically very bright (L{sub peak} {approx} 10{sup 42}-10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) in UV/optical bands ({epsilon}{sub peak} {approx} 10 eV) with a typical duration of {approx}100 days in the rest frame. Such cocoon emissions from Pop III GRBs might be detectable in infrared bands at {approx}years after Pop III GRBs at up to z {approx} 15 by upcoming facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. We also suggest that GRB111209A might have been rebrightening in UV/optical bands up to an AB magnitude of {approx}< 26. The cocoon emission from local metal-poor BSGs might have been observed previously as luminous supernovae without GRBs since they can be seen from the off-axis direction of the jet.

  7. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  8. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Nearby Luminous Quasars. 2; Results for Eight Quasars and Tests of the Detection Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Observations with the Wide-Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented for eight intrinsically luminous quasars with redshifts between 0.16 and 0.29. These observations, when combined with a similar HST study of the quasar PKS 2349-014, show that luminous nearby quasars exist in a variety of environments. Seven companion galaxies brighter than M(V) = 16.5 (H(sub 0) = 100 km s(sup -1) Mpc(sup -1), Omega(sub 0) = 1.0) lie within a projected distance of 25 kpc of the quasars; three of the companions are located closer than 3'' (6 kpc projected distance) from the quasars, well within the volume that would be enclosed by a typical L* host galaxy. The observed association of quasars and companion galaxies is statistically significant and may he an important element in the luminous-quasar phenomenon. Apparent host galaxies are detected for three of the quasars: PG 1116+215, 3C 273, and PG 1444+407; the hosts have an average absolute magnitude of about 0.6 mag brighter than L*. The agreement between the previously published major-axis directions in ground-based images and in the present HST images of 3C 273 and PG 1444+407 constitutes important evidence supporting the reality of these candidate host galaxies. Upper limits are placed on the visual-band brightnesses of representative galactic hosts for all the quasars. These limits are established by placing galaxy images obtained with HST underneath the quasars and measuring at what faintness level the known galaxies are detected. On average, the HST spirals would have been detected if they were as faint as 1 mag below L*, and the early-type galaxies could have been detected down to a brightness level of about L*, where L* is the Schechter characteristic luminosity of field galaxies. Smooth, featureless galaxy models (exponential disks or de Vaucouleurs profiles) are fitted to the residual light after a best-fitting point source is subtracted from the quasar images. The results show that smooth spiral

  10. Infrared hyperspectral upconversion imaging using spatial object translation.

    PubMed

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-12-28

    In this paper hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared wavelength region is realised using nonlinear frequency upconversion. The infrared light is converted to the near-infrared region for detection with a Si-based CCD camera. The object is translated in a predefined grid by motorized actuators and an image is recorded for each position. A sequence of such images is post-processed into a series of monochromatic images in a wavelength range defined by the phasematch condition and numerical aperture of the upconversion system. A standard USAF resolution target and a polystyrene film are used to impart spatial and spectral information unto the source. PMID:26832059

  11. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds. PMID:19498585

  12. Colored three-dimensional reconstruction of vehicular thermal infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Leung, Henry; Shen, Zhenyi

    2015-06-01

    Enhancement of vehicular night vision thermal infrared images is an important problem in intelligent vehicles. We propose to create a colorful three-dimensional (3-D) display of infrared images for the vehicular night vision assistant driving system. We combine the plane parameter Markov random field (PP-MRF) model-based depth estimation with classification-based infrared image colorization to perform colored 3-D reconstruction of vehicular thermal infrared images. We first train the PP-MRF model to learn the relationship between superpixel features and plane parameters. The infrared images are then colorized and we perform superpixel segmentation and feature extraction on the colorized images. The PP-MRF model is used to estimate the superpixel plane parameter and to analyze the structure of the superpixels according to the characteristics of vehicular thermal infrared images. Finally, we estimate the depth of each pixel to perform 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can give a visually pleasing and daytime-like colorful 3-D display from a monochromatic vehicular thermal infrared image, which can help drivers to have a better understanding of the environment.

  13. Infrared image enhancement based on human visual properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyu; Hui, Bin

    2015-10-01

    With the development of modern military, infrared imaging technology is widely used in this field. However, limited by the mechanism of infrared imaging and the detector, infrared images have the disadvantages of low contrast and blurry edge by comparison with the visible image. These shortcomings lead infrared image unsuitable to be observed by both human and computer. Thus image enhancement is required. Traditional image enhancement methods on the application of infrared image, without taking into account the human visual properties, is not convenient for the human observation. This article purposes a new method that combines the layering idea with the human visual properties to enhance the infrared image. The proposed method relies on bilateral filtering to separate a base component, which contains the large amplitude signal and must be compressed, from a detail component, which must be expanded because it contains the small signal variations related to fine texture. The base component is mapped into the proper range which is 8-bit using the human visual properties, and the detail component is applied the method of adaptive gain control. Finally, the two parts are recombined and quantized to 8-bit domain. Experimental results show that this algorithm exceeds most current image enhancement methods in solving the problems of low contrast and blurry detail.

  14. Dynamic infrared imaging for the detection of malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Terry M.; Li, Haifang; Fisher, Paul; Rosenblatt, Ruth; Dulaimy, Khaldoon; Li, Song; O'Hea, Brian; Salvitti, Mathew; Geronimo, Veronica; Geronimo, Christine; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Carvelli, Paola; Weiss, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The potential for malignancy detection using dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) has been investigated in an animal model of human malignancy. Malignancy was apparent in images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of tumour bearing mice. The observation of malignancy was removed by the administration of an agent that blocks vasodilation caused by nitric oxide (NO). Image patterns similar to those that characterize malignancy could be mimicked in normal mice using an NO producing agent. Apparently DIRI allows for cancer detection in this model through vasodilation caused by malignancy generated NO. Dynamic infrared detection of vasomotor and cardiogenic surface perfusion was validated in human subjects by a comparison with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Dynamic infrared imaging technology was then applied to breast cancer detection. It is shown that dynamic infrared images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of the normal and malignant breast have image pattern differences, which may allow for breast cancer detection.

  15. The method of infrared image simulation based on the measured image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shuli; Liu, Liang; Ren, Jiancun

    2015-10-01

    The development of infrared imaging guidance technology has promoted the research of infrared imaging simulation technology and the key of infrared imaging simulation is the generation of IR image. The generation of IR image is worthful in military and economy. In order to solve the problem of credibility and economy of infrared scene generation, a method of infrared scene generation based on the measured image is proposed. Through researching on optical properties of ship-target and sea background, ship-target images with various gestures are extracted from recorded images based on digital image processing technology. The ship-target image is zoomed in and out to simulate the relative motion between the viewpoint and the target according to field of view and the distance between the target and the sensor. The gray scale of ship-target image is adjusted to simulate the radiation change of the ship-target according to the distance between the viewpoint and the target and the atmospheric transmission. Frames of recorded infrared images without target are interpolated to simulate high frame rate of missile. Processed ship-target images and sea-background infrared images are synthetized to obtain infrared scenes according to different viewpoints. Experiments proved that this method is flexible and applicable, and the fidelity and the reliability of synthesis infrared images can be guaranteed.

  16. Far-infrared observations of a luminous dust-shrouded source in the nucleus of NGC 4945

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, David; Joy, Marshall; Lester, Daniel F.; Harvey, Paul M.; Ellis, H. Benton, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution far-infrared observations of the galaxy NGC 4945 have been obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Using new observational techniques and nonlinear deconvolution routines, it is found that virtually all of the far-infrared luminosity originates from a nuclear source no larger than 12 arcsec x 9 arcsec (225 pc x 170 pc) in extent. This size constraint, coupled with the far-infrared dust temperature, indicates that the source is deeply embedded in dust: the lower limit for the 100 micron optical depth is 0.35, which is by far the largest yet measured in an external galaxy. Published optical spectra of NGC 4945 reveal a heavily obscured nonthermal source which exhibits broad line profiles typical of a Seyfert 2 active nucleus; it is concluded that the far-infrared emission is probably due to thermal radiation from dust grains surrounding the nonthermal nuclear source. A compact cluster of massive young stars may also contribute to the infrared luminosity, but the evidence for such star-forming activity is weak.

  17. Infrared imaging diagnostics for INTF ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Pandey, R.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Bhuyan, M.; Bansal, G.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-01

    In India, testing facility named INTF [1] (Indian test facility) is being built in Institute for Plasma Research to characterize ITER-Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB). INTF is expected to deliver 60A negative hydrogen ion beam current of energy 100keV. The beam will be operated with 5Hz modulation having 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle. To characterize the beam parameters several diagnostics are at different stages of design and development. One of them will be a beam dump, made of carbon fiber composite (CFC) plates placed perpendicular to the beam direction at a distance lm approximately. The beam dump needs to handle ˜ 6MW of beam power with peak power density ˜ 38.5MW/m2. The diagnostic is based on thermal (infra-red - IR) imaging of the footprint of the 1280 beamlets falling on the beam dump using four IR cameras from the rear side of the dump. The beam dump will be able to measure beam uniformity, beamlet divergence. It may give information on relative variation of negative ion stripping losses for different beam pulses. The design of this CFC based beam dump needs to address several physics and engineering issues, including some specific inputs from manufacturers. The manuscript will describe an overview of the diagnostic system and its design methodology highlighting those issues and the present status of its development.

  18. Infrared and Raman Imaging of Heterogeneous Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    E Stavistki; B Weckhuysen

    2011-12-31

    The miniaturization of in situ spectroscopic tools has been recognized as a forefront instrumental development for the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts. With the multitude of micro-spectroscopic methods available fundamental insight into the structure-function relationships of catalytic processes can be obtained. Among these techniques vibrational spectroscopy is one of the most versatile methods and capable to shed insight into the molecular structure of reaction intermediates and products, the chemical state of catalyst materials during reaction as well as the nature of interactions between reactants/intermediates/products and the catalyst surface. In this tutorial review we discuss the recent developments in the field of infrared (IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy and illustrate their potential. Showcase examples include (1) chemical imaging of spatial heterogeneities during catalyst preparation, (2) high-throughput catalyst screening, (3) transport and adsorption phenomena within catalytic solids and (4) reactivity studies of porous oxides, such as zeolites. Finally, new in situ spectroscopy tools based on vibrational spectroscopy and their potential in the catalysis domain are discussed.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging seemingly matured as a technology in the mid-2000s, with commercially successful instrumentation and reports in numerous applications. Recent developments, however, have transformed our understanding of the recorded data, provided capability for new instrumentation, and greatly enhanced the ability to extract more useful information in less time. These developments are summarized here in three broad areas— data recording, interpretation of recorded data, and information extraction—and their critical review is employed to project emerging trends. Overall, the convergence of selected components from hardware, theory, algorithms, and applications is one trend. Instead of similar, general-purpose instrumentation, another trend is likely to be diverse and application-targeted designs of instrumentation driven by emerging component technologies. The recent renaissance in both fundamental science and instrumentation will likely spur investigations at the confluence of conventional spectroscopic analyses and optical physics for improved data interpretation. While chemometrics has dominated data processing, a trend will likely lie in the development of signal processing algorithms to optimally extract spectral and spatial information prior to conventional chemometric analyses. Finally, the sum of these recent advances is likely to provide unprecedented capability in measurement and scientific insight, which will present new opportunities for the applied spectroscopist. PMID:23031693

  20. Infrared super-resolution imaging based on compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiubao; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Shen, Xuewei

    2014-03-01

    The theoretical basis of traditional infrared super-resolution imaging method is Nyquist sampling theorem. The reconstruction premise is that the relative positions of the infrared objects in the low-resolution image sequences should keep fixed and the image restoration means is the inverse operation of ill-posed issues without fixed rules. The super-resolution reconstruction ability of the infrared image, algorithm's application area and stability of reconstruction algorithm are limited. To this end, we proposed super-resolution reconstruction method based on compressed sensing in this paper. In the method, we selected Toeplitz matrix as the measurement matrix and realized it by phase mask method. We researched complementary matching pursuit algorithm and selected it as the recovery algorithm. In order to adapt to the moving target and decrease imaging time, we take use of area infrared focal plane array to acquire multiple measurements at one time. Theoretically, the method breaks though Nyquist sampling theorem and can greatly improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image. The last image contrast and experiment data indicate that our method is effective in improving resolution of infrared images and is superior than some traditional super-resolution imaging method. The compressed sensing super-resolution method is expected to have a wide application prospect.

  1. A background suppression algorithm for infrared image based on shearlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ruibin; Shi, Caicheng; Qin, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relative far distance between infrared imaging system and target or the wide field infrared optical, the imaging area of infrared target is only a few pixels, which is isolated or spots to be showed in the field of view. The only available is the intensity information (gray value) for the target detection. Simultaneously, there are many shortcomings of the infrared image, such as large noise, interference and so on, therefore the small target is always buried in the background and noises. The small target is relatively difficult to detect, so generally, it is impossible to make reliable detection to this target in a single frame image. Summarily, the core of the infrared small target detection algorithm is the background and noise suppression based on a single frame image. Aiming at the infrared small target detection and the above problems, a shearlets-based background suppression algorithm for infrared image is proposed. The algorithm demonstrates the performance of advantage based on shearlets, which is especially designed to address anisotropic and directional information at various scales. This transform provides an optimally efficient representation of images, which is greatly reduced the amount of the information and the available information representation. In the paper, introducing the principle of shearlets first, and then proposing the theory of the algorithm and explaining the implementation step. Finally, giving the simulation results. In Matlab simulations with this method for several sets of infrared images, simulation results conformed to the theory on background suppression based on shearlets. The result showed that this method can effectively suppress background, and improve the SCR and achieve a satisfactory effect in the sky background. The method is very effectively for target detection, identification, track in infrared image system for the future.

  2. The remnant of the luminous red nova PSN J14021678+5426205/M 101 in infrared and optical ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goranskij, V. P.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Shatsky, N. I.; Nadjip, A. E.; Barsukova, E. A.; Valeev, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    We report a detection of the infrared source at the position of this red nova in the galaxy M 101 (ATel #7069, #7070, #7072, #7079, #7082, #7206). The object was discovered on 2015 February 10 by C. D. Vintdevara (Barlad Observatory, Romania) in the course of the repeated outburst, the first outburst was happened in 2014 November.

  3. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    understanding of the formation of solar-type stars and planetary systems from the interstellar medium. However, in most cases the large difference of brightness between the young star and its surrounding material makes it impossible to image directly the circumstellar disk. But when the disk is seen nearly edge-on, the light from the central star will be blocked out by the dust grains in the disk. Other grains below and above the disk midplane scatter the stellar light, producing a typical pattern of a dark lane between two reflection nebulae. The first young stellar object (YSO) found to display this typical pattern, HH 30 IRS in the Taurus dark cloud at a distance of about 500 light-years (140 pc), was imaged by the Hubble Space telescope (HST) in 1996. Edge-on disks have since also been observed with ground-based telescopes in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, sometimes by means of adaptive optics techniques or speckle imaging, or under very good sky image quality, cf. ESO PR Photo 03d/01 with a VLT image of such an object in the Orion Nebula. A surprise discovery ESO PR Photo 12a/02 ESO PR Photo 12a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 459 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 918 pix - 352k] Caption : PR Photo 12a/02 shows a three-colour reproduction of the discovery image of strange-looking object (nicknamed the "Flying Saucer" by the astronomers), obtained with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory. Compared to the unresolved stars in the field, the image of this object appears extended. Two characteristic reflection nebulae are barely visible, together with a marginally resolved dark dust lane in front of the star and oriented East-West. Technical information about the photo is available below. Last year, a group of astronomers [1] carried out follow-up observations of new X-ray sources found by the ESA XMM-Newton and NASA Chandra X-ray satellites. They were looking at the periphery of the so-called Rho

  4. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  5. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen

    2014-11-01

    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  6. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korsah, Kofi [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  7. A HERSCHEL SURVEY OF THE [N II] 205 {mu}m LINE IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: THE [N II] 205 {mu}m EMISSION AS A STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yinghe; Gao Yu; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Lord, S.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Mazzarella, J.; Schulz, B.; Isaak, K. G.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Evans, A.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Petric, A. O.; Sanders, D. B.; Van der Werf, P. P.

    2013-03-01

    We present, for the first time, a statistical study of [N II] 205 {mu}m line emission for a large sample of local luminous infrared galaxies using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE FTS) data. For our sample of galaxies, we investigate the correlation between the [N II] luminosity (L{sub [N{sub II]}}) and the total infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}), as well as the dependence of L{sub [N{sub II]}}/L{sub IR} ratio on L{sub IR}, far-infrared colors (IRAS f{sub 60}/f{sub 100}), and the [O III] 88 {mu}m to [N II] luminosity ratio. We find that L{sub [N{sub II]}} correlates almost linearly with L{sub IR} for non-active galactic nucleus galaxies (all having L{sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) in our sample, which implies that L{sub [N{sub II]}} can serve as a star formation rate tracer which is particularly useful for high-redshift galaxies that will be observed with forthcoming submillimeter spectroscopic facilities such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Our analysis shows that the deviation from the mean L{sub [N{sub II]}}-L{sub IR} relation correlates with tracers of the ionization parameter, which suggests that the scatter in this relation is mainly due to the variations in the hardness, and/or ionization parameter, of the ambient galactic UV field among the sources in our sample.

  8. Translation of infrared chemical imaging for cardiovascular evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Saumya; Raman, Jai; Reddy, Vijaya; Dawson, Miranda; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-03-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging has been applied to study histology of cardiovascular tissue, primarily using Fourier transform IR (FTIR) Imaging. Here we describe results for histologic imaging of cardiac biopsies using a fast, discrete frequency IR (DFIR) imaging system. Histologic classification of tissue is understood in terms of the constituent frequencies and speeded up by careful optimization of the data acquired. Results are compared to FTIR imaging in terms of the signal to noise ratio and information content.

  9. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  10. Calibration of infrared satellite images using high altitude aircraft measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Philip D.; Gore, Warren J. Y.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1989-01-01

    The use of infrared radiance measurements made from high altitude aircraft for satellite image validation is discussed. Selected examples are presented to illustrate the techniques and the potentials of such validation studies.

  11. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  12. Phenomenological aspects of infrared imaging in aeronautical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The various factors leading to obtaining a thermography of an aerodynamic body of interest using an infrared imaging camera are scrutinized. Included is a description of how the various heat transfer mechanisms determine the final surface temperature that may be time dependent even for steady state flows. Some constraining factors of the camera are also discussed. Finally, a method is outlined showing how the infrared imaging of aerodynamic configurations may ultimately evolve as a computational fluid dynamics code validation tool.

  13. Infrared imaging simulation and detection of ship wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Chang, Shizheng; Xu, Enchi; Wang, Xingyu; Wang, Ye; Zhao, Xiaolong; Du, Yongchen; Kou, Wei; Fan, Chunli

    2015-10-01

    The thermal wake would be formed owing to the cooling water or exhaust heat discharged by ship, and the cold wake could be formed by the cool water in the lower part of sea stirred up by the ship propeller or vortexes. Owing to the difference of surface temperature and emissivity between the ship wake and the surrounding ocean the ship wake will be easily detected by the infrared detecting system. The wave of wake also could be detected by the difference of reflected radiance between the background and the Kelvin wake of ship. In this paper the simulating models of infrared imaging of ship wake are developed based on the selfradiation of wake, the reflected radiance of the sky and sun and the transmitted radiance of atmosphere, and the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are investigated. The results show that the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake can be really simulated by the models proposed in this paper. The effects of the detecting height, the angle of view, the NETD of detector and the temperature of wake on the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are studied. The temperature difference between the ship wake and surrounding ocean is a main fact which effects on the detecting distance. The infrared imaging signatures of ship wake in 8-14μm wave band is stronger than that in 2-5μm wave band whenever the temperature of ship wake is warmer or cooler than the surrounding ocean. Further, the infrared imaging of thermal wake is investigated in the homogenous water and temperature stratified water at different speed of a ship and different flow rate and depth of the discharged water in a water tank. The spreading and decaying laws of infrared signature of ship wake are obtained experimentally. The results obtained in this paper have an important application in the infrared remote sensing of ship wake.

  14. Comparison of image deconvolution algorithms on simulated and laboratory infrared images

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, D.

    1994-11-15

    We compare Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Entropy, Accelerated Lucy-Richardson, Weighted Goodness of Fit, and Pixon reconstructions of simple scenes as a function of signal-to-noise ratio for simulated images with randomly generated noise. Reconstruction results of infrared images taken with the TAISIR (Temperature and Imaging System InfraRed) are also discussed.

  15. Near-infrared imaging of Markarian 231: Evidence for a double nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J. R.; Larkin, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Near-infrared (1.2-2.4 micrometers) images are presented for the central 10 arcsec of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 231. We find a faint, but intrinsically luminous (M(sub k) approximately -20.7) secondary peak in the near-infrared light distribution approximately 3.5 arcsec (2.7 kpc) south of the primary Seyfert 1 nucleus. Since there is no optical or infrared evidence for ongoing star formation at the location of this secondary peak, and its near-infrared luminosity and color are comparable to slightly reddened spiral bulges or elliptical nuclei, we identify this peak with the stripped nucleus of the companion galaxy involved in the Mrk 231 merger event. Depending upon the exact ratio of the masses of the primary and secondary nucleus in the Mrk 231 system we estimate a merger time scale of less than or equal to 10(exp 9) yr. The morphology of the southern nucleus suggests that it may have recently survived a close passage (r less than 200 pc) with the Seyfert 1 nucleus on a highly elliptical orbit, in which case the merger time scale may be significantly shorter (approximately 10(exp 7) yr. We re-calculate the average merger time scale for the seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies with double nuclei in the Bright Galaxy Sample (the BGS) of Soifer et al. (AJ, 98, 766 (1989)) and derive a value of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. Since seven of ten of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the BGS are now known to be double, we estimate the ultraluminous 'phase' may be close to this value. Along with Arp 220 and Mrk 273, Mrk 231 is the third member of the class to possess a high brightness temperature non-thermal radio core and a double nucleus, suggesting the time scale for the generation or fueling of the active nucleus can be much less than the dynamical time scale for the merger of the progenitor nuclei.

  16. Infrared hollow optical fiber probes for reflectance spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhui; Kino, Saiko; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-05-10

    Systems for infrared reflectance imaging are built with an FT-IR spectrometer, hollow optical fibers, and a high-speed infrared camera. To obtain reflectance images of biological samples, an optical fiber probe equipped with a light source at the distal end and a hybrid fiber probe composed of fibers for beam radiation and ones for image detection have been developed. By using these systems, reflectance spectral images of lipid painted on biomedical hard tissue, which provides reflectance of around 4%, are successfully acquired. PMID:25967522

  17. Stream Temperature Estimation From Thermal Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, R. N.; Kay, J. E.; Gillespie, A.; Naveh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Burges, S. J.; Booth, D. B.

    2001-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important water quality indicator in the Pacific Northwest where endangered fish populations are sensitive to elevated water temperature. Cold water refugia are essential for the survival of threatened salmon when events such as the removal of riparian vegetation result in elevated stream temperatures. Regional assessment of stream temperatures is limited by sparse sampling of temperatures in both space and time. If critical watersheds are to be properly managed it is necessary to have spatially extensive temperature measurements of known accuracy. Remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) imagery can be used to derive spatially distributed estimates of the skin temperature (top 100 nm) of streams. TIR imagery has long been used to estimate skin temperatures of the ocean, where split-window techniques have been used to compensate for atmospheric affects. Streams are a more complex environment because 1) most are unresolved in typical TIR images, and 2) the near-bank environment of stream corridors may consist of tall trees or hot rocks and soils that irradiate the stream surface. As well as compensating for atmospheric effects, key problems to solve in estimating stream temperatures include both subpixel unmixing and multiple scattering. Additionally, fine resolution characteristics of the stream surface such as evaporative cooling due to wind, and water surface roughness, will effect measurements of radiant skin temperatures with TIR devices. We apply these corrections across the Green River and Yakima River watersheds in Washington State to assess the accuracy of remotely sensed stream surface temperature estimates made using fine resolution TIR imagery from a ground-based sensor (FLIR), medium resolution data from the airborne MASTER sensor, and coarse-resolution data from the Terra-ASTER satellite. We use linear spectral mixture analysis to isolate the fraction of land-leaving radiance originating from unresolved streams. To compensate the

  18. Segmented infrared image analysis for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lixiang; Yao, Mingchao; Wang, Jinjiang; Bai, Tangbo; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-07-01

    As a noncontact and non-intrusive technique, infrared image analysis becomes promising for machinery defect diagnosis. However, the insignificant information and strong noise in infrared image limit its performance. To address this issue, this paper presents an image segmentation approach to enhance the feature extraction in infrared image analysis. A region selection criterion named dispersion degree is also formulated to discriminate fault representative regions from unrelated background information. Feature extraction and fusion methods are then applied to obtain features from selected regions for further diagnosis. Experimental studies on a rotor fault simulator demonstrate that the presented segmented feature enhancement approach outperforms the one from the original image using both Naïve Bayes classifier and support vector machine.

  19. Criterion to Evaluate the Quality of Infrared Small Target Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Diao, Wei-He

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new criterion to estimate the quality of infrared small target images. To describe the criterion quantitatively, two indicators are defined. One is the “degree of target being confused” that represents the ability of infrared small target image to provide fake targets. The other one is the “degree of target being shielded”, which reflects the contribution of the image to shield the target. Experimental results reveal that this criterion is more robust than the traditional method (Signal-to-Noise Ratio). It is not only valid to infrared small target images which Signal-to-Noise Ratio could correctly describe, but also to the images that the traditional criterion could not accurately estimate. In addition, the results of this criterion can provide information about the cause of background interfering with target detection.

  20. Homogeneity study of ointment dosage forms by infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2012-01-25

    Ointment dosage forms are semi-solid preparations intended for local or transdermal delivery of active substances usually for application to the skin and it is important that they present a homogeneous appearance. In this work, a study of the homogeneity of a tacrolimus ointment dosage form was performed using infrared imaging spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to interpret the imaging data. Optical visible microscopy images indicated possible phase separation in the ointment and, based on the results presented by distribution concentration maps from infrared imaging, it was possible to conclude that, in fact, there was phase separation incorporated in the ointment. Thus, infrared imaging spectroscopy associated to PCA and MCR-ALS is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the development process of ointment dosage forms. PMID:22018891

  1. The technology of forest fire detection based on infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Guo-juan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wang, Suo-jian

    2013-09-01

    According to infrared imaging features of forest fire, we use image processing technology which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. We use image processing technology based on infrared imaging features of forest fire which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. In order to the timeliness and accuracy of fire detection, this paper proposes a forest fire detection method based on infrared image technology. We take gray histogram analysis to collected Cruising image. The image which will be detected is segmented by the adaptive dynamic threshold. Then the suspected ignitions are extracted in the image after segmentation. The ignition of forest fire which form image in the infrared image is almost circular. We use the circular degree of suspected ignition as the decision basis of the fire in the infrared image. Through the analysis of position correlation which is the same suspected ignition between adjacent frames, we judge whether there is a fire in the image. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method, we adopt image sequences of forest fire to do experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm under the conditions of different light conditions and complex backgrounds, which can effectively eliminate distractions and extract the fire target. The accuracy fire detection rate is above 95 percent. All fire can be detected. The method can quickly identify fire flame and high-risk points of early fire. The structure of method is clear and efficient which processing speed is less than 25 frames per second. So it meets the application requirement of real-time processing.

  2. Infrared imagery acquisition process supporting simulation and real image training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John

    2012-05-01

    The increasing use of infrared sensors requires development of advanced infrared training and simulation tools to meet current Warfighter needs. In order to prepare the force, a challenge exists for training and simulation images to be both realistic and consistent with each other to be effective and avoid negative training. The US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate has corrected this deficiency by developing and implementing infrared image collection methods that meet the needs of both real image trainers and real-time simulations. The author presents innovative methods for collection of high-fidelity digital infrared images and the associated equipment and environmental standards. The collected images are the foundation for US Army, and USMC Recognition of Combat Vehicles (ROC-V) real image combat ID training and also support simulations including the Night Vision Image Generator and Synthetic Environment Core. The characteristics, consistency, and quality of these images have contributed to the success of these and other programs. To date, this method has been employed to generate signature sets for over 350 vehicles. The needs of future physics-based simulations will also be met by this data. NVESD's ROC-V image database will support the development of training and simulation capabilities as Warfighter needs evolve.

  3. Detecting and tracking small moving target in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong-lei; Huang, Geng-hua; Wang, Hai-wei; Shu, Rong

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, infrared imaging systems play important roles in the field of civil and military. Especially small infrared target detecting and recognizing is one of the most widely use. The capability of target-detection algorithm is an important index of the system. This paper presents a novel algorithm for detecting a small moving target in infrared (IR) image sequences and finding its mass center, and recording the target moving track. In the target searching and recognizing algorithm of infrared image sequences, infrared image sequence is broken into frames, filtered by spatial filter algorithm, which helped to reduce granular noise. We use the Canny algorithm factor to find the edge of the target, and the result of detecting target edge is process by ecological open-loop filter method, including erosion and dilation algorithm with a same scale. Then, the candidate targets are recognized and saved temporarily. In order to get the mass centers of the candidate targets, the valid area of the candidate targets is defined by different weight valves, and then the mass centers are calculated by weighted average algorithm, and record per frame. After got several frames mass centers of the candidate targets, we get rid of the non-target mass centers by frame difference algorithm, and get the real mass center of the small moving infrared target. If the background is observed for enough time, the effect of frame difference algorithm is more efficiency. Finally, the moving track of the target is found out. The infrared (IR) image sequences used here are obtained through an IR camera in the laboratory, which uses a 288*384 silicon infrared image sensor produced by ULIS company. The methods referred above are realized and simulated on compute with Matlab. Theory analysis and experiments prove the method is reasonable and efficient.

  4. Direct Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Sub-10 nm “Luminous Pearls” with Enhanced in Vivo Renewable Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Wu, Xiang; Huang, Ling; Li, Dongsheng; Fan, Wei; Han, Gang

    2015-04-02

    Near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs), possessing unique NIR PL properties, have recently emerged as important materials for a wide variety of applications in chemistry and biology, for which they must endure high-temperature solid-state annealing reactions and subsequent complicated physical post-treatments. Herein, we report on a first direct aqueous-phase chemical synthesis route to NIR PLNPs and present their enhanced in vivo renewable NIR PL. Our method leads to monodisperse PLNPs as small as ca. 8 nm. Such sub-10 nm nanocrystals are readily dispersed and functionalized, and can form stable colloidal solutions in aqueous solution and cell culture medium for biologicalmore » applications. Under biotissue-penetrable red-light excitation, we found that such nanocrystals possess superior renewable PL photoluminescence in vitro and in vivo compared to their larger counterparts currently made by existing methods. In conclusion, we believe that this solid-state-reaction-free chemical approach overcomes the current key roadblock in regard to PLNP development, and thus will pave the way to broad use of these advanced miniature “luminous pearls” in photonics and biophotonics.« less

  5. Direct Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Sub-10 nm “Luminous Pearls” with Enhanced in Vivo Renewable Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs), possessing unique NIR PL properties, have recently emerged as important materials for a wide variety of applications in chemistry and biology, for which they must endure high-temperature solid-state annealing reactions and subsequent complicated physical post-treatments. Herein, we report on a first direct aqueous-phase chemical synthesis route to NIR PLNPs and present their enhanced in vivo renewable NIR PL. Our method leads to monodisperse PLNPs as small as ca. 8 nm. Such sub-10 nm nanocrystals are readily dispersed and functionalized, and can form stable colloidal solutions in aqueous solution and cell culture medium for biological applications. Under biotissue-penetrable red-light excitation, we found that such nanocrystals possess superior renewable PL photoluminescence in vitro and in vivo compared to their larger counterparts currently made by existing methods. We believe that this solid-state-reaction-free chemical approach overcomes the current key roadblock in regard to PLNP development, and thus will pave the way to broad use of these advanced miniature “luminous pearls” in photonics and biophotonics. PMID:25836338

  6. Direct Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Sub-10 nm “Luminous Pearls” with Enhanced in Vivo Renewable Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Wu, Xiang; Huang, Ling; Li, Dongsheng; Fan, Wei; Han, Gang

    2015-04-02

    Near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs), possessing unique NIR PL properties, have recently emerged as important materials for a wide variety of applications in chemistry and biology, for which they must endure high-temperature solid-state annealing reactions and subsequent complicated physical post-treatments. Herein, we report on a first direct aqueous-phase chemical synthesis route to NIR PLNPs and present their enhanced in vivo renewable NIR PL. Our method leads to monodisperse PLNPs as small as ca. 8 nm. Such sub-10 nm nanocrystals are readily dispersed and functionalized, and can form stable colloidal solutions in aqueous solution and cell culture medium for biological applications. Under biotissue-penetrable red-light excitation, we found that such nanocrystals possess superior renewable PL photoluminescence in vitro and in vivo compared to their larger counterparts currently made by existing methods. In conclusion, we believe that this solid-state-reaction-free chemical approach overcomes the current key roadblock in regard to PLNP development, and thus will pave the way to broad use of these advanced miniature “luminous pearls” in photonics and biophotonics.

  7. Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors.

    PubMed

    Gatley, I; Depoy, D L; Fowler, A M

    1988-12-01

    History shows that progress in astronomy often stems directly from technological innovation and that each portion of the electromagnetic spectrum offers unique insights into the nature of the universe. Most recently, the widespread availability of infrared-sensitive two-dimensional array detectors has led to dramatic improvements in the capabilities of conventional ground-based observatories. The impact of this new technology on our understanding of a wide variety of phenomena is illustrated here by infrared pictures of star-forming regions, of nebulae produced by the late stages of stellar evolution, of the nucleus of our own galaxy(the Milky Way), and of activity in other galaxies. PMID:17817072

  8. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  9. New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eui Chul; Jung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeoul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new finger biometric method. Infrared finger images are first captured, and then feature extraction is performed using a modified Gaussian high-pass filter through binarization, local binary pattern (LBP), and local derivative pattern (LDP) methods. Infrared finger images include the multimodal features of finger veins and finger geometries. Instead of extracting each feature using different methods, the modified Gaussian high-pass filter is fully convolved. Therefore, the extracted binary patterns of finger images include the multimodal features of veins and finger geometries. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an error rate of 0.13%. PMID:22163741

  10. Infrared medical image visualization and anomalies analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Jing; Yan, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Infrared medical examination finds the diseases through scanning the overall human body temperature and obtaining the temperature anomalies of the corresponding parts with the infrared thermal equipment. In order to obtain the temperature anomalies and disease parts, Infrared Medical Image Visualization and Anomalies Analysis Method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, visualize the original data into a single channel gray image: secondly, turn the normalized gray image into a pseudo color image; thirdly, a method of background segmentation is taken to filter out background noise; fourthly, cluster those special pixels with the breadth-first search algorithm; lastly, mark the regions of the temperature anomalies or disease parts. The test is shown that it's an efficient and accurate way to intuitively analyze and diagnose body disease parts through the temperature anomalies.

  11. Unique scene description from radar and infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanquart, Jacques G.; Orgiazzi, Philippe; Grenier, Gilles; Cothenet, A.

    1990-10-01

    Two different visual descriptions provided by two image sensors (radar and infrared camera) contain information of the same scene. We want to associate them, using different methods of fusion, in order to improve our knowledge of the scene. Two approaches are described in this paper: navigation and recognition. In the first approach, the radar is the predominant sensor and we use cartographic information of the area to guide the fusion process. In the second approach, we find regions of interest in the radar image that are used to extract features in the infrared image. To experiment our algorithm, we are using a PtSi infrared camera (3-5jtm) with a 512*5 12 matrix and a millimeterwave radar, that are looking at the same area from an airplane, to detect objects like buildings, roads, fields ... . It is the basis of further developments within an expert system including more complex notions of image processing objects.

  12. Optically addressed multiband photodetector for infrared imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellek, O. O.; Zhang, Y.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiband infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) with small pixel pitch have increased device processing complexity since they often need more than two terminals per pixel for readouts. Simpler FPAs are enabled by our newly demonstrated optically-addressed two-terminal multiband photodetector architecture. For long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and midwavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging applications, the use of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) has been investigated. The results show that the utilization of unipolar QWIPs with bipolar near infrared (NIR) devices is feasible with this new optical-addressing scheme. Potential device performance is analyzed with an equivalent AC circuit model. Proposed design maximizes fill factor and enables small pixel-pitch FPA with single indium-bump per pixel for NIR/MWIR/LWIR multiband detection capability.

  13. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  14. Aural stealth of portable cryogenically cooled infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Vilenchick, Herman; Broyde, Ramon; Pundak, Nachman

    2006-05-01

    Novel tactics for carrying out military and antiterrorist operations calls for the development of a new generation of portable infrared imagers, the focal plane arrays of which are maintained at a cryogenic temperature. The rotary Stirling cryogenic engines providing for this cooling are usually mounted directly upon the light thin-walled imager frame, which is used for optical alignment, mechanical stability and heat sinking. The known disadvantage of this design approach is that the wideband vibration export produced by the cooler results in structural resonances and therefore in excessive noise radiation from the above imagers. The "noisy" thermal imager may be detected from quite a long distance using acoustic equipment relying upon a high-sensitive unidirectional microphone or aurally spotted when used in a close proximity to the opponent force. As a result, aural stealth along with enhanced imagery, compact design, low power consumption and long life-times become a crucial figure of merit characterising the modern infrared imager. Achieving the desired inaudibility level is a challenging task. As a matter of fact, even the best examples of modern "should-be silent" infrared imagers are quite audible from as far as 50 meters away even when operating in a steady-state mode. The authors report on the successful effort of designing the inaudible at greater then 10 meters cryogenically cooled infrared imager complying with the stringent MIL-STD-1774D (Level II) requirements.

  15. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  16. Infrared imaging: A versatile NDT method for manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    The non-contact, non-invasive, highly adaptable nature of infrared technology offers many advantages over traditional non-destructive testing methods such as x-ray and ultrasound. Recent performance improvements accompanied by cost reductions are enabling broader implementation across a wide variety of industries. Most promising for future growth are application specific configurations packaged as integrated modules. Among the many industries that benefit from infrared technology, manufacturing has experienced the greatest gain. Environments including both continuous and batch manufacturing involve many critical thermal processes. Through the use of infrared imaging equipment, these processes can be easily monitored and optimized to ensure product quality and process efficiency.

  17. Arrays of Nano Tunnel Junctions as Infrared Image Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah; Moon, Jeong S.; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Infrared image sensors based on high density rectangular planar arrays of nano tunnel junctions have been proposed. These sensors would differ fundamentally from prior infrared sensors based, variously, on bolometry or conventional semiconductor photodetection. Infrared image sensors based on conventional semiconductor photodetection must typically be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to reduce noise to acceptably low levels. Some bolometer-type infrared sensors can be operated at room temperature, but they exhibit low detectivities and long response times, which limit their utility. The proposed infrared image sensors could be operated at room temperature without incurring excessive noise, and would exhibit high detectivities and short response times. Other advantages would include low power demand, high resolution, and tailorability of spectral response. Neither bolometers nor conventional semiconductor photodetectors, the basic detector units as proposed would partly resemble rectennas. Nanometer-scale tunnel junctions would be created by crossing of nanowires with quantum-mechanical-barrier layers in the form of thin layers of electrically insulating material between them (see figure). A microscopic dipole antenna sized and shaped to respond maximally in the infrared wavelength range that one seeks to detect would be formed integrally with the nanowires at each junction. An incident signal in that wavelength range would become coupled into the antenna and, through the antenna, to the junction. At the junction, the flow of electrons between the crossing wires would be dominated by quantum-mechanical tunneling rather than thermionic emission. Relative to thermionic emission, quantum mechanical tunneling is a fast process.

  18. Color contrast enhancement method of infrared polarization fused image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Xie, Chen

    2015-10-01

    As the traditional color fusion method based on color transfer algorithm has an issue that the color of target and background is similar. A kind of infrared polarization image color fusion method based on color contrast enhancement was proposed. Firstly the infrared radiation intensity image and the polarization image were color fused, and then color transfer technology was used between color reference image and initial fused image in the YCbCr color space. Secondly Otsu segmentation method was used to extract the target area image from infrared polarization image. Lastly the H,S,I component of the color fusion image which obtained by color transfer was adjusted to obtain the final fused image by using target area in the HSI space. Experimental results show that, the fused result which obtained by the proposed method is rich in detail and makes the contrast of target and background more outstanding. And then the ability of target detection and identification can be improved by the method.

  19. Infrared thermal facial image sequence registration analysis and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Jian, Bo-Lin

    2015-03-01

    To study the emotional responses of subjects to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), infrared thermal facial image sequence is preprocessed for registration before further analysis such that the variance caused by minor and irregular subject movements is reduced. Without affecting the comfort level and inducing minimal harm, this study proposes an infrared thermal facial image sequence registration process that will reduce the deviations caused by the unconscious head shaking of the subjects. A fixed image for registration is produced through the localization of the centroid of the eye region as well as image translation and rotation processes. Thermal image sequencing will then be automatically registered using the two-stage genetic algorithm proposed. The deviation before and after image registration will be demonstrated by image quality indices. The results show that the infrared thermal image sequence registration process proposed in this study is effective in localizing facial images accurately, which will be beneficial to the correlation analysis of psychological information related to the facial area.

  20. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  1. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity. PMID:26339284

  2. Fundamental developments in infrared spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Gardner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Infrared chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field with new advances in instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis. These developments have had significant impact in biomedical applications and numerous studies have now shown that this technology offers great promise for the improved diagnosis of the diseased state. Relying on purely biochemical signatures rather than contrast from exogenous dyes and stains, infrared chemical imaging has the potential to revolutionise histopathology for improved disease diagnosis. In this review we discuss the recent advances in infrared spectroscopic imaging specifically related to spectral histopathology (SHP) and consider the current state of the field. Finally we consider the practical application of SHP for disease diagnosis and consider potential barriers to clinical translation highlighting current directions and the future outlook. PMID:26996636

  3. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity. PMID:26339284

  4. Airfoil transition and separation studies using an infrared imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An infrared imaging system was used to detect the thermal signature of boundary-layer flow regimes on a NACA 0012 airfoil from zero angle of attack up to separation. The boundary-layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the onset of separation could be seen on the airfoil thermograms. The findings were compared against the behavior of aluminum foil tufts observable both visually and with the infrared imaging system. This arrangement offers the option of using the infrared imaging system both for flow regime detection through surface thermography and flow visualization by the aluminum foil tufts. Ultimately the surface temperature changes due to variation in the angle of attack of a lifting surface provide a means for interpretation of the boundary-layer flow regimes.

  5. Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chen, Chih Yen; Cheng, Hung You; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chang, David O.

    2006-08-01

    This study aims at the development of non-contact dry eye diagnosis based on an infrared thermal imager system, which was used to measure the cooling of the ocular surface temperature of normal and dry eye patients. A total of 108 subjects were measured, including 26 normal and 82 dry eye patients. We have observed that the dry eye patients have a fast cooling of the ocular surface temperature than the normal control group. We have developed a simplified algorithm for calculating the temperature decay constant of the ocular surface for discriminating between normal and dry eye. This study shows the diagnostic of dry eye syndrome by the infrared thermal imager system has reached a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 75%, and the area under the ROC curve 0.841. The infrared thermal imager system has a great potential to be developed for dry eye screening with the advantages of non-contact, fast, and convenient implementation.

  6. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  7. Near infrared imaging of Uranus and Neptune

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.A.

    1984-10-01

    Imaging of Uranus and Neptune in the deep methane absorption band at 890nm is used to detect high altitude atmospheric hazes and to search for possible undiscovered close in satellites. The appearances of Uranus and Neptune are very different from one another and Uranus seems to be changing with time. The Neptune images show rotation in the direct sense.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  9. Testing of infrared image enhancing algorithm in different spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Sosnowski, T.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents results of testing the infrared image quality enhancing algorithm based on histogram processing. Testing were performed on real images registered in NIR, MWIR, and LWIR spectral bands. Infrared images are a very specific type of information. The perception and interpretation of such image depends not only on radiative properties of observed objects and surrounding scenery. Probably still most important are skills and experience of an observer itself. In practice, the optimal settings of the camera as well as automatic temperature range or contrast control do not guarantee the displayed images are optimal from observer's point of view. The solution to this are algorithms of image quality enhancing based on digital image processing methods. Such algorithms can be implemented inside the camera or applied later, after image registration. They must improve the visibility of low-contrast objects. They should also provide effective dynamic contrast control not only across entire image but also selectively to specific areas in order to maintain optimal visualization of observed scenery. In the paper one histogram equalization algorithm was tested. Adaptive nature of the algorithm should assure significant improvement of the image quality and the same effectiveness of object detection. Another requirement and difficulty is that it should also be effective for any given thermal image and it should not cause a visible image degradation in unpredictable situations. The application of tested algorithm is a promising alternative to a very effective but complex algorithms due to its low complexity and real time operation.

  10. Violent cookoff reactions in HMX-based explosives in DDT tubes: Tracking luminous waves with streak imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Gary; Dickson, Peter; Asay, Blaine W.; Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan; McAfee, John

    2012-03-01

    Recent implementation of modern high-speed video cameras has permitted the experimental flexibility needed to revisit classic deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) tube experiments and capture novel and valuable results displaying the progression of luminous reaction from a cookoff event. The authors present select data from a series of experiments where the HMX-based high explosives PBX 9501 and LX-07 were heated above 180°C for various durations to impose damage (i.e. phase transitions and void generation) before being driven to cook off. These two explosives have different polymeric binders, HMX mass fractions and cook off responses and a comparison between the two offers mechanistic insights on how thermal explosions evolve. From this series, results will be displayed indicating a wide range of violence from somewhat mild pressure bursts, to intermediate power compressive burns, to high-violence DDT. Image data from high temperature DDT tube experiments, where the explosive was ignited on one end, were also collected and will be included for comparison.

  11. Design of infrared diffractive telescope imaging optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ZhouFeng; Hu, BingLiang; Yin, QinYe; Xie, YongJun; Kang, FuZeng; Wang, YanJun

    2015-10-01

    Diffractive telescope is an updated imaging technology, it differs from conventional refractive and reflective imaging system, which is based on the principle of diffraction image. It has great potential for developing the larger aperture and lightweight telescope. However, one of the great challenges of design this optical system is that the diffractive optical element focuses on different wavelengths of light at different point in space, thereby distorting the color characteristics of image. In this paper, we designs a long-wavelength infrared diffractive telescope imaging system with flat surface Fresnel lens and cancels the infrared optical system chromatic aberration by another flat surface Fresnel lens, achieving broadband light(from 8μm-12μm) to a common focus with 4.6° field of view. At last, the diffuse spot size and MTF function provide diffractive-limited performance.

  12. Reduction and analysis techniques for infrared imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Infrared detector arrays are becoming increasingly available to the astronomy community, with a number of array cameras already in use at national observatories, and others under development at many institutions. As the detector technology and imaging instruments grow more sophisticated, more attention is focussed on the business of turning raw data into scientifically significant information. Turning pictures into papers, or equivalently, astronomy into astrophysics, both accurately and efficiently, is discussed. Also discussed are some of the factors that can be considered at each of three major stages; acquisition, reduction, and analysis, concentrating in particular on several of the questions most relevant to the techniques currently applied to near infrared imaging.

  13. Facility for testing infrared imaging seekers in a countermeasures environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidery, Colin J.; Pyle, Andrew

    2001-08-01

    A new Imaging Infrared Countermeasure Hardware-in-the-Loop facility has been designed and built by Matra BAe Dynamics to test imaging sensors in a complex infrared environment. Drawing upon currently available leading edge technologies and UK expertise, the test bed has ben completed in a twelve-month program. The facility comprises a Thermal Picture Synthesizer with up to four further independent channels, each capable of representing a countermeasure (jammer, flare or laser) within the scene. A six stage broadband reflective collimator relays the complex scene to the sensor.

  14. The Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Guzmán, R.; Gruel, N.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Glenn, P.; Hull-Allen, G.; Myrick, B.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.

    2007-06-01

    We report on the design, manufacture, and scientific performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology (FISICA), a fully cryogenic all-reflective image slicing integral field unit (IFU) for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph (Elston et al.003). We find that FISICA is capable of delivering excellent scientific results. It now operates as a turnkey instrument at the KPNO 4-m telescope via collaboration with the instrument team, who can assist with the proposal preparation and observations, as well as provide the data reduction tools for integral field spectroscopy.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation technique using infrared thermography and terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Shiozawa, Daiki; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Iwama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques using pulse heating infrared thermography and terahertz (THz) imaging were developed for detecting deterioration of oil tank floor, such as blister and delamination of corrosion protection coating, or corrosion of the bottom steel plate under coating. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the practicability of developed techniques. It was found that the pulse heating infrared thermography was utilized for effective screening inspection and THz-TDS imaging technique performed well for the detailed inspection of coating deterioration and steel corrosion.

  16. Infrared Image Simulation Based On Statistical Learning Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaochao, Huang; Xiaodi, Wu; Wuqin, Tong

    2007-12-01

    A real-time simulation algorithm of infrared image based on statistical learning theory is presented. The method includes three contents to achieve real-time simulation of infrared image, such as acquiring the training sample, forecasting the scene temperature field value by statistical learning machine, data processing and data analysis of temperature field. The simulation result shows this algorithm based on ν - support vector regression have better maneuverability and generalization than the other method, and the simulation precision and real-time quality are satisfying.

  17. Spectral mixture analysis of multispectral thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote spectral measurements of light reflected or emitted from terrestrial scenes is commonly integrated over areas sufficiently large that the surface comprises more than one component. Techniques have been developed to analyze multispectral or imaging spectrometer data in terms of a wide range of mixtures of a limited number of components. Spectral mixture analysis has been used primarily for visible and near-infrared images, but it may also be applied to thermal infrared data. Two approaches are reviewed: binary mixing and a more general treatment for isothermal mixtures of a greater number of components.

  18. Measurement and analysis of perceivable signal-to-noise ratio for infrared imaging system with human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Jing; Chang, Honghua; Ma, Lin

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between correct discrimination probability of the human eye and perceivable signal-to-noise (SNR) threshold is studied for different equilateral triangle sizes with specified luminance through combining theoretical calculation with practical experiment based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) performance evaluation method. Specifically, the simulation images of triangle patterns are generated by an infrared imaging system (IRIS) simulation model. And the perceivable SNRs for these images are calculated by establishing the system theoretical model and the human vision system model. Meanwhile, the Four-Alternative Forced-Choice experiment is performed. Experiment results of several observers are averaged statistically and the curves of perceivable SNR threshold which change with the correct discrimination probability are obtained. Finally, the analyses of these results show that these changes are in accordance with the psychometric function and that the fitting curves become steep with the increase of triangle sizes. These data and conclusions are helpful to modify the existing TOD performance model of an IRIS.

  19. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  20. New color images of transient luminous events from dedicated observations on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Mezuman, Keren; Elhalel, Gal; Pariente, Meidad; Glickman-Pariente, Maya; Ziv, Baruch; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the “Cosmic Shore” program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Cupola module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of <2 h of video. Sprites tend to appear in a single frame simultaneously with maximum lightning brightness. Unique images (a) from nadir of a sprite horizontally displaced form the lightning light and (b) from the oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly enhance the value of observation time.

  1. Type II superlattice infrared focal plane arrays: Optical, electrical, and mid-wave infrared imaging characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, John; Svensson, Stefan; Goldberg, Arnie; Kennerly, Steve; Olver, Kim; Hongsmatip, Trirat; Winn, Michael; Uppal, Parvez

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the infrared optical and temperature dependent electrical properties of 320 x 256 arrays of GaSb/InAs type II superlattice infrared photodiodes. Good agreement between single-pixel and focal plane array measurements of the photon-to- electron/hole conversion efficiency was obtained, and the infrared absorption coefficient extracted from these measurements was found to be comparable to that of HgCdTe with the same bandgap as the type II superlattice. Temperature and voltage dependent dark current measurements and the voltage dependent photocurrent generated by a 300 K background scene were described well using a semi-empirical model of the photodiode. We will show high-quality images obtained from the mid-infrared focal plane array operating at 78 K.

  2. MIRIADS: miniature infrared imaging applications development system description and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.; Couture, Michael E.

    2001-10-01

    A cooperative effort between the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Nova Research, Inc., the Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO) and Optics 1, Inc. has successfully produced a miniature infrared camera system that offers significant real-time signal and image processing capabilities by virtue of its modular design. This paper will present an operational overview of the system as well as results from initial testing of the 'Modular Infrared Imaging Applications Development System' (MIRIADS) configured as a missile early-warning detection system. The MIRIADS device can operate virtually any infrared focal plane array (FPA) that currently exists. Programmable on-board logic applies user-defined processing functions to the real-time digital image data for a variety of functions. Daughterboards may be plugged onto the system to expand the digital and analog processing capabilities of the system. A unique full hemispherical infrared fisheye optical system designed and produced by Optics 1, Inc. is utilized by the MIRIADS in a missile warning application to demonstrate the flexibility of the overall system to be applied to a variety of current and future AFRL missions.

  3. High dynamic range infrared radiometry and imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Darryl D.; Karunasiri, R. P. G.; Bandara, K. M. S. V.

    1988-01-01

    The use is described of cryogenically cooled, extrinsic silicon infrared detectors in an unconventional mode of operation which offers an unusually large dynamic range. The system performs intensity-to-frequency conversion at the focal plane via simple circuits with very low power consumption. The incident IR intensity controls the repetition rate of short duration output pulses over a pulse rate dynamic range of about 10(6). Theory indicates the possibility of monotonic and approx. linear response over the full dynamic range. A comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results shows that the model provides a reasonably good description of experimental data. Some measurements of survivability with a very intense IR source were made on these devices and found to be very encouraging. Evidence continues to indicate that some variations in interpulse time intervals are deterministic rather than probabilistic.

  4. Assessing Drought Responses Using Thermal Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Prashar, Ankush; Jones, Hamlyn G

    2016-01-01

    Canopy temperature, a surrogate for stomatal conductance, is shown to be a good indicator of plant water status and a potential tool for phenotyping and irrigation scheduling. Measurement of stomatal conductance and leaf temperature has traditionally been done by using porometers or gas exchange analyzers and fine-wire thermocouples attached to the leaves, which are labor intensive and point measurements. The advent of remote or proximal thermal sensing technologies has provided the potential for scaling up to leaves, plants, and canopies. Thermal cameras with a temperature resolution of <0.1 K now allow one to study the temperature variation within and between plants. This chapter discusses some applications of infrared thermography for assessing drought and other abiotic and biotic stress and outlines some of the main factors that need to be considered when applying this to the study of leaf or canopy temperature whether in controlled environments or in the field. PMID:26867626

  5. Morphological analysis of infrared images for waterjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuxin; Long, Aifang

    2013-03-01

    High-speed waterjet has been widely used in industries and been investigated as a model of free shearing turbulence. This paper presents an investigation involving the flow visualization of high speed water jet, the noise reduction of the raw thermogram using a high-pass morphological filter ? and a median filter; the image enhancement using white top-hat filter; and the image segmentation using the multiple thresholding method. The image processing results by the designed morphological filters, ? - top-hat, were proved being ideal for further quantitative and in-depth analysis and can be used as a new morphological filter bank that may be of general implications for the analogous work

  6. Standoff midwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of ship plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Gagnon, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of ship plumes is very challenging due to the great variety of ships, fuel, and fuel grades, as well as the extent of a gas plume. In this work, imaging of ship plumes from an operating ferry boat was carried out using standoff midwave (3-5 μm) infrared hyperspectral imaging. Quantitative chemical imaging of combustion gases was achieved by fitting a radiative transfer model. Combustion efficiency maps and mass flow rates are presented for carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results illustrate how valuable information about the combustion process of a ship engine can be successfully obtained using passive hyperspectral remote sensing imaging.

  7. Near infrared spectroscopic imaging assessment of cartilage composition: Validation with mid infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palukuru, Uday P; Hanifi, Arash; McGoverin, Cushla M; Devlin, Sean; Lelkes, Peter I; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-07-01

    Disease or injury to articular cartilage results in loss of extracellular matrix components which can lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). To better understand the process of disease development, there is a need for evaluation of changes in cartilage composition without the requirement of extensive sample preparation. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a chemical investigative technique based on molecular vibrations that is increasingly used as an assessment tool for studying cartilage composition. However, the assignment of specific molecular vibrations to absorbance bands in the NIR spectrum of cartilage, which arise from overtones and combinations of primary absorbances in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region, has been challenging. In contrast, MIR spectroscopic assessment of cartilage is well-established, with many studies validating the assignment of specific bands present in MIR spectra to specific molecular vibrations. In the current study, NIR imaging spectroscopic data were obtained for compositional analysis of tissues that served as an in vitro model of OA. MIR spectroscopic data obtained from the identical tissue regions were used as the gold-standard for collagen and proteoglycan (PG) content. MIR spectroscopy in transmittance mode typically requires a much shorter pathlength through the sample (≤10 microns thick) compared to NIR spectroscopy (millimeters). Thus, this study first addressed the linearity of small absorbance bands in the MIR region with increasing tissue thickness, suitable for obtaining a signal in both the MIR and NIR regions. It was found that the linearity of specific, small MIR absorbance bands attributable to the collagen and PG components of cartilage (at 1336 and 856 cm(-1), respectively) are maintained through a thickness of 60 μm, which was also suitable for NIR data collection. MIR and NIR spectral data were then collected from 60 μm thick samples of cartilage degraded with chondroitinase ABC as a model

  8. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    1992-01-01

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  9. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  10. TIRCAM2: The TIFR near infrared imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, M. B.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Poojary, S. S.; Jadhav, R. B.; Meshram, G. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Bhagat, S. B.; D'Costa, S. L. A.; Gharat, S. M.; Bakalkar, C. B.; Ninan, J. P.; Joshi, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    TIRCAM2 (TIFR near infrared imaging camera - II) is a closed cycle cooled imager that has been developed by the Infrared Astronomy Group at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research for observations in the near infrared band of 1 to 3.7 μm with existing Indian telescopes. In this paper, we describe some of the technical details of TIRCAM2 and report its observing capabilities, measured performance and limiting magnitudes with the 2-m IUCAA Girawali telescope and the 1.2-m PRL Gurushikhar telescope. The main highlight is the camera's capability of observing in the nbL (3.59 mum) band enabling our primary motivation of mapping of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3 mum.

  11. Differential thermal infrared imaging for environmental inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merla, Arcangelo; Di Donato, Luigi; Di Fazio, Micaela; Greco, Pasquale; Rainone, Mario L.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial differential thermal imaging has been proposed to characterize the ground temperature distribution of two solid waste landfills. The differential approach permitted detection of regions with thermal abnormalities potentially associated with either biogas leakage and migration or improper landfill settlement and management. Methods, results, limits, and potentialities of the proposed approach are discussed.

  12. Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectral imager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which was constructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfully deployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrument design and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system's second generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the data is described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  13. An update of commercial infrared sensing and imaging instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    A classification of infrared sensing instruments by type and application, listing commercially available instruments, from single point thermal probes to on-line control sensors, to high speed, high resolution imaging systems is given. A review of performance specifications follows, along with a discussion of typical thermographic display approaches utilized by various imager manufacturers. An update report on new instruments, new display techniques and newly introduced features of existing instruments is given.

  14. Infrared Thermal Imaging as a Tool in University Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a valuable tool in physics education at the university level. It can help to visualize and thereby enhance understanding of physical phenomena from mechanics, thermal physics, electromagnetism, optics and radiation physics, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. We report on its use as lecture demonstrations, student…

  15. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  16. Infrared imaging using carbon nanotube-based detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongzhi; Xi, Ning; Song, Bo; Chen, Liangliang; Lai, King W. C.; Lou, Jianyong

    2011-06-01

    Using carbon nanotubes (CNT), high performance infrared detectors have been developed. Since the CNTs have extraordinary optoelectronics properties due to its unique one dimensional geometry and structure, the CNT based infrared detectors have extremely low dark current, low noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), short response time, and high dynamic range. Most importantly, it can detect 3-5 um middle-wave infrared (MWIR) at room temperature. This unique feature can significantly reduce the size and weight of a MWIR imaging system by eliminating a cryogenic cooling system. However, there are two major difficulties that impede the application of CNT based IR detectors for imaging systems. First, the small diameter of the CNTs results in low fill factor. Secondly, it is difficult to fabricate large scale of detector array for high resolution focal plane due to the limitations on the efficiency and cost of the manufacturing. In this paper, a new CNT based IR imaging system will be presented. Integrating the CNT detectors with photonic crystal resonant cavity, the fill factor of the CNT based IR sensor can reach as high as 0.91. Furthermore, using the compressive sensing technology, a high resolution imaging can be achieved by CNT based IR detectors. The experimental testing results show that the new imaging system can achieve the superb performance enabled by CNT based IR detectors, and, at the same time, overcame its difficulties to achieve high resolution and efficient imaging.

  17. Research of detecting details and features of infrared polarization imaging experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Xiao-cheng; Wang, Ji-zhong

    2013-09-01

    Along with modern infrared camouflage technique developed, it is hard to distinguish target and background by using traditional infrared intensity imaging in general because infrared feature of target and background are tending to consistent. To address this issue, a thought that utilizes infrared polarization imaging technique to detect target is proposed in this paper based on analyzing of the principle of infrared polarization imaging. The experiments are carried out for detecting of infrared low-contrast target imaging. Comparing with the infrared intensity images, the average gradient of the infrared polarization image has been improved 155% and the contrast of target and background has been improved 120% in infrared polarization images. The effective experimental data and imaging law between infrared polarization images and infrared intensity images are obtained that, the technology of infrared polarization imaging can detect details of infrared target more clearly than the infrared intensity imaging, and it can obviously increase the contrast between target and background. Therefore, it is more helpful to detecting details and features of target.

  18. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  19. THE MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. EXTREME PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE X{sub co} FACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Xilouris, E.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Yu E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we conclude the analysis of our CO line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }) in the local universe (Paper I) by focusing on the influence of their average interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the total molecular gas mass estimates via the so-called X{sub co} = M(H{sub 2})/L{sub co,1-0} factor. One-phase radiative transfer models of the global CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) yield an X{sub co} distribution with (X{sub co}) {approx} (0.6 {+-} 0.2) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} over a significant range of average gas densities, temperatures, and dynamic states. The latter emerges as the most important parameter in determining X{sub co}, with unbound states yielding low values and self-gravitating states yielding the highest ones. Nevertheless, in many (U)LIRGs where available higher-J CO lines (J = 3-2, 4-3, and/or J = 6-5) or HCN line data from the literature allow a separate assessment of the gas mass at high densities ({>=}10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) rather than a simple one-phase analysis, we find that near-Galactic X{sub co} {approx} (3-6) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} values become possible. We further show that in the highly turbulent molecular gas in ULIRGs, a high-density component will be common and can be massive enough for its high X{sub co} to dominate the average value for the entire galaxy. Using solely low-J CO lines to constrain X{sub co} in such environments (as has been the practice up until now) may have thus resulted in systematic underestimates of molecular gas mass in ULIRGs, as such lines are dominated by a warm, diffuse, and unbound gas phase with low X{sub co} but very little mass. Only well-sampled high-J CO SLEDs (J = 3-2 and higher) and/or multi-J observations of heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) can circumvent such a bias, and the latter type of observations may have actually provided early evidence of it in local ULIRGs. The only

  20. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-03-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version of the infrared object field, with a bandwidth corresponding given by the acceptance parameter of the conversion process, and a center frequency given by the phase-match condition. Tuning of the phase-matched wavelengths has previously been demonstrated by changing the temperature [2] or angle [3 Keywords: Infrared imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion, diode lasers, upconversion ] of the nonlinear material. Unfortunately, temperature tuning is slow, and angle tuning typically results in alignment issues. Here we present a novel approach where the wavelength of the mixing field is used as a tuning parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled feedback grating. The output from a tunable laser is used as seed for a fiber amplifier system, boosting the power to approx. 3 W over the tuning range from 1025 to 1085 nm. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, the infrared wavelength that can be phase-matched is tunable over more than 200 nm. Using a crystal with multiple poling periods allows for upconversion within the entire transparency range of the nonlinear material.

  1. Target information enhancement using polarized component of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tiaowen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jicheng; Yang, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    After a deep study of the principle of infrared polarization imaging detection, the infrared polarization information of target and background is modeled. Considering the partial polarized light can be obtained by the superposition of natural light (unpolarized light) and linearly polarized component while ignoring the component of circularly polarized light, and combing with the degree of polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP), the infrared polarization information is expressed by the multiplying of an intensity factor by a polarization factor. What we have modeled not only can be used to analyze the infrared polarization information visually and profoundly, but also make the extraction of polarized features convenient. Then, faced with different application fields and based on the model, a target information enhancement program is proposed, which is achieved by extracting a linear polarization component in a certain polarized direction. This program greatly improves the contrast between target and background, and can be applied in target detection or identification, especially for camouflage or stealth target. At last, we preliminarily tested the proposed enhancement method exploiting infrared polarization images obtained indoor and outdoor, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the enhancement program.

  2. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W; Baines, K H; Encrenaz, T; Taylor, F W; Drossart, P; Kamp, L W; Pollack, J B; Lellouch, E; Collard, A D; Calcutt, S B; Grinspoon, D; Weissman, P R; Smythe, W D; Ocampo, A C; Danielson, G E; Fanale, F P; Johnson, T V; Kieffer, H H; Matson, D L; McCord, T B; Soderblom, L A

    1991-09-27

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infaied Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substanmial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species. PMID:17784099

  3. A compressed sensing approach for enhancing infrared imaging resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Long-long; Liu, Kun; Han, Da-peng; Liu, Ji-ying

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for improving infrared imaging resolution by the use of Compressed Sensing (CS). Instead of sensing raw pixel data, the image sensor measures the compressed samples of the observed image through a coded aperture mask placed on the focal plane of the optical system, and then the image reconstruction can be conducted from these samples using an optimal algorithm. The resolution is determined by the size of the coded aperture mask other than that of the focal plane array (FPA). The attainable quality of the reconstructed image strongly depends on the choice of the coded aperture mode. Based on the framework of CS, we carefully design an optimum mask pattern and use a multiplexing scheme to achieve multiple samples. The gradient projection for sparse reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm is employed to recover the image. The mask radiation effect is discussed by theoretical analyses and numerical simulations. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method enhances infrared imaging resolution significantly and ensures imaging quality.

  4. Evaluation of infrared collimators for testing thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2007-06-01

    Infrared reflective collimators are important components of expensive sophisticated test systems used for testing thermal imagers. Too low quality collimators can become a source of significant measurement errors and collimators of too high quality can unnecessarily increase cost of a test system. In such a situation it is important for test system users to know proper requirements on the collimator and to be able to verify its performance. A method for evaluation of infrared reflective collimators used in test systems for testing thermal imagers is presented in this paper. The method requires only easily available optical equipment and can be used not only by collimator manufactures but also by users of test equipment to verify performance of the collimators used for testing thermal imagers.

  5. An adaptive multi-feature segmentation model for infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa

    2016-04-01

    Active contour models (ACM) have been extensively applied to image segmentation, conventional region-based active contour models only utilize global or local single feature information to minimize the energy functional to drive the contour evolution. Considering the limitations of original ACMs, an adaptive multi-feature segmentation model is proposed to handle infrared images with blurred boundaries and low contrast. In the proposed model, several essential local statistic features are introduced to construct a multi-feature signed pressure function (MFSPF). In addition, we draw upon the adaptive weight coefficient to modify the level set formulation, which is formed by integrating MFSPF with local statistic features and signed pressure function with global information. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can make up for the inadequacy of the original method and get desirable results in segmenting infrared images.

  6. Microminiature linear split Stirling cryogenic cooler for portable infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Vilenchik, H.; Riabzev, S.; Pundak, N.

    2007-04-01

    Novel tactics employed in carrying out military and antiterrorist operations call for the development of a new generation of warfare, among which sophisticated portable infrared (IR) imagers for surveillance, reconnaissance, targeting and navigation play an important role. The superior performance of such imagers relies on novel optronic technologies and maintaining the infrared focal plane arrays at cryogenic temperatures using closed cycle refrigerators. Traditionally, rotary driven Stirling cryogenic engines are used for this purpose. As compared to their military off-theshelf linear rivals, they are lighter, more compact and normally consume less electrical power. Latest technological advances in industrial development of high-temperature (100K) infrared detectors initialized R&D activity towards developing microminiature cryogenic coolers, both of rotary and linear types. On this occasion, split linearly driven cryogenic coolers appear to be more suitable for the above applications. Their known advantages include flexibility in the system design, inherently longer life time, low vibration export and superior aural stealth. Moreover, recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear drives and driving electronics enable further essential reduction of the cooler size, weight and power consumption. The authors report on the development and project status of a novel Ricor model K527 microminiature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler designed especially for the portable infrared imagers.

  7. Onychomycosis diagnosis using fluorescence and infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Ana Paula; Fortunato, Thereza Cury; Stringasci, Mirian D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Inada, Natalia M.

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a common disease of the nail plate, constituting approximately half of all cases of nail infection. Onychomycosis diagnosis is challenging because it is hard to distinguish from other diseases of the nail lamina such as psoriasis, lichen ruber or eczematous nails. The existing methods of diagnostics so far consist of clinical and laboratory analysis, such as: Direct Mycological examination and culture, PCR and histopathology with PAS staining. However, they all share certain disadvantages in terms of sensitivity and specificity, time delay, or cost. This study aimed to evaluate the use of infrared and fluorescence imaging as new non-invasive diagnostic tools in patients with suspected onychomycosis, and compare them with established techniques. For fluorescence analysis, a Clinical Evince (MM Optics®) was used, which consists of an optical assembly with UV LED light source wavelength 400 nm +/- 10 nm and the maximum light intensity: 40 mW/cm2 +/- 20%. For infrared analysis, a Fluke® Camera FKL model Ti400 was used. Patients with onychomycosis and control group were analyzed for comparison. The fluorescence images were processed using MATLAB® routines, and infrared images were analyzed using the SmartView® 3.6 software analysis provided by the company Fluke®. The results demonstrated that both infrared and fluorescence could be complementary to diagnose different types of onychomycosis lesions. The simplicity of operation, quick response and non-invasive assessment of the nail patients in real time, are important factors to be consider for an implementation.

  8. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements.

  9. Infrared hyperspectral imaging results from vapor plume experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1995-04-17

    In this article, recent measurements made with LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, are presented. The experience gained with this instrument has produced a variety of insights into the tradeoffs between signal to noise ratio (SNR), spectral resolution and temporal resolution for time multiplexed Fourier transform imaging spectrometers. This experience has also clarified the practical advantages and disadvantages of Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging spectrometers regarding adaptation to varying measurement requirements on SNR vs. spectral resolution, spatial resolution and temporal resolution.

  10. Astronomical imaging Fourier spectroscopy at far-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David A.; Gom, Brad G.; van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.; Makiwa, Gibion

    2013-11-01

    The principles and practice of astronomical imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) at far-infrared wavelengths are described. The Mach–Zehnder (MZ) interferometer design has been widely adopted for current and future imaging FTS instruments; we compare this design with two other common interferometer formats. Examples of three instruments based on the MZ design are presented. The techniques for retrieving astrophysical parameters from the measured spectra are discussed using calibration data obtained with the Herschel–SPIRE instrument. The paper concludes with an example of imaging spectroscopy obtained with the SPIRE FTS instrument.

  11. EXPLAINING THE [C II]157.7 {mu}m DEFICIT IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES-FIRST RESULTS FROM A HERSCHEL/PACS STUDY OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Murphy, E. J.; Haan, S.; Inami, H.; Malhotra, S.; Meijerink, R.; Stacey, G.; Petric, A. O.; Lu, N.; Veilleux, S.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Lord, S.; Appleton, P.; and others

    2013-09-01

    We present the first results of a survey of the [C II]157.7 {mu}m emission line in 241 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) comprising the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample, obtained with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The [C II] luminosities, L{sub [C{sub II]}}, of the LIRGs in GOALS range from {approx}10{sup 7} to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} L{sub Sun }. We find that LIRGs show a tight correlation of [C II]/FIR with far-IR (FIR) flux density ratios, with a strong negative trend spanning from {approx}10{sup -2} to 10{sup -4}, as the average temperature of dust increases. We find correlations between the [C II]/FIR ratio and the strength of the 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption feature as well as with the luminosity surface density of the mid-IR emitting region ({Sigma}{sub MIR}), suggesting that warmer, more compact starbursts have substantially smaller [C II]/FIR ratios. Pure star-forming LIRGs have a mean [C II]/FIR {approx} 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, while galaxies with low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EWs), indicative of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), span the full range in [C II]/FIR. However, we show that even when only pure star-forming galaxies are considered, the [C II]/FIR ratio still drops by an order of magnitude, from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -3}, with {Sigma}{sub MIR} and {Sigma}{sub IR}, implying that the [C II]157.7 {mu}m luminosity is not a good indicator of the star formation rate (SFR) for most local LIRGs, for it does not scale linearly with the warm dust emission most likely associated to the youngest stars. Moreover, even in LIRGs in which we detect an AGN in the mid-IR, the majority (2/3) of galaxies show [C II]/FIR {>=} 10{sup -3} typical of high 6.2 {mu}m PAH EW sources, suggesting that most AGNs do not contribute significantly to the FIR emission. We provide an empirical relation between the [C II]/FIR and the specific SFR for star

  12. Mid-infrared luminous quasars in the GOODS-Herschel fields: a large population of heavily obscured, Compton-thick quasars at z ≈ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Daddi, E.; Kocevski, D. D.; McIntosh, D. H.; Stanley, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Elbaz, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2016-02-01

    We present the infrared (IR) and X-ray properties of a sample of 33 mid-IR luminous quasars (νL6 μm ≥ 6 × 1044 erg s-1) at redshift z ≈ 1-3, identified through detailed spectral energy distribution analyses of distant star-forming galaxies, using the deepest IR data from Spitzer and Herschel in the GOODS-Herschel fields. The aim is to constrain the fraction of obscured, and Compton-thick (CT, NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) quasars at the peak era of nuclear and star formation activities. Despite being very bright in the mid-IR band, ≈30 per cent of these quasars are not detected in the extremely deep 2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data available in these fields. X-ray spectral analysis of the detected sources reveals that the majority (≈67 per cent) are obscured by column densities NH > 1022 cm-2; this fraction reaches ≈80 per cent when including the X-ray-undetected sources (9 out of 33), which are likely to be the most heavily obscured, CT quasars. We constrain the fraction of CT quasars in our sample to be ≈24-48 per cent, and their space density to be Φ = (6.7 ± 2.2) × 10-6 Mpc-3. From the investigation of the quasar host galaxies in terms of star formation rates (SFRs) and morphological distortions, as a sign of galaxy mergers/interactions, we do not find any direct relation between SFRs and quasar luminosity or X-ray obscuration. On the other hand, there is tentative evidence that the most heavily obscured quasars have, on average, more disturbed morphologies than the unobscured/moderately obscured quasar hosts, which preferentially live in undisturbed systems. However, the fraction of quasars with disturbed morphology amongst the whole sample is ≈40 per cent, suggesting that galaxy mergers are not the main fuelling mechanism of quasars at z ≈ 2.

  13. Infrared Imaging, Spectroscopic, and Photometric Studies of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    We have continued our program of infrared (IR) photometric, imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric temporal observations of comets to study the properties of comet dust and comet nuclei. During the first two years we digitized our IR data base on P/Halley and other recent comets to facilitate further analysis and comparison with other data bases, and found compelling evidence for the emission of a burst of small grains from P/Halley's nucleus at perihelion. We reported imaging and photometric observations of Comets Austin 1990 V and Swift-Tuttle 1992. The Swift-Tuttle 1992t observations included IR photometry, several 7-14 micron long-slit spectra of the coma and a time-sequence of more than 150 10 micron broadband images of the coma. An analysis of near-IR images of the inner coma of P/Halley obtained on three consecutive nights in 1986 March showed sunwardjets. We completed our analysis of IR imaging spectrosco-photometric data on comets. We also obtained observations of Comets Hyakutake 1996 B2 and Hale/Bopp 1995 01. We obtained infrared imaging, photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric temporal observations of bright comets using a network of five telescopes, with emphasis on simultaneous observations of comets at many wavelengths with different instruments. Our program offers several unique advantages: 1) rapid observational response to new comets with dedicated infrared telescopes; 2) observations within a few degrees of the sun when comets are near perihelion and 3) access to advanced infrared array imagers and spectrometers. In particular, reduction, analysis, publication and archiving of our Jupiter/sl-9 and Comet Hyakutake infrared data received special emphasis. Instrumentation development included installation of the latest version of the innovative FORTH telescope control and a data acquisition system that enables us to control three telescopes remotely by telephone from anywhere in the world for comet observations in broad daylight. We have

  14. Detecting Exomoons around Self-luminous Giant Exoplanets through Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sujan; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-06-01

    Many of the directly imaged self-luminous gas-giant exoplanets have been found to have cloudy atmospheres. Scattering of the emergent thermal radiation from these planets by the dust grains in their atmospheres should locally give rise to significant linear polarization of the emitted radiation. However, the observable disk-averaged polarization should be zero if the planet is spherically symmetric. Rotation-induced oblateness may yield a net non-zero disk-averaged polarization if the planets have sufficiently high spin rotation velocity. On the other hand, when a large natural satellite or exomoon transits a planet with a cloudy atmosphere along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit should give rise to a net non-zero, time-resolved linear polarization signal. The peak amplitude of such time-dependent polarization may be detectable even for slowly rotating exoplanets. Therefore, we suggest that large exomoons around directly imaged self-luminous exoplanets may be detectable through time-resolved imaging polarimetry. Adopting detailed atmospheric models for several values of effective temperature and surface gravity that are appropriate for self-luminous exoplanets, we present the polarization profiles of these objects in the infrared during the transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contacts of the transit ingress/egress phase. The peak polarization is predicted to range between 0.1% and 0.3% in the infrared.

  15. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.; Wright, Shelley A.; Bauman, Brian; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Phillips, Andrew C.; Simard, Luc; Suzuki, Ryuji; Zhang, Kai; Aliado, Ted; Brims, George; Canfield, John; Chen, Shaojie; Dekany, Richard; Delacroix, Alex; Do, Tuan; Herriot, Glen; Ikenoue, Bungo; Johnson, Chris; Meyer, Elliot; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vladimir; Riddle, Reed; Saito, Sakae; Smith, Roger; Sohn, Ji Man; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Usuda, Tomonori; Wang, Eric; Wang, Lianqi; Weiss, Jason; Wooff, Robert

    2014-08-01

    We present an overview of the design of IRIS, an infrared (0.84 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph and imaging camera for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). With extremely low wavefront error (<30 nm) and on-board wavefront sensors, IRIS will take advantage of the high angular resolution of the narrow field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) to dissect the sky at the diffraction limit of the 30-meter aperture. With a primary spectral resolution of 4000 and spatial sampling starting at 4 milliarcseconds, the instrument will create an unparalleled ability to explore high redshift galaxies, the Galactic center, star forming regions and virtually any astrophysical object. This paper summarizes the entire design and basic capabilities. Among the design innovations is the combination of lenslet and slicer integral field units, new 4Kx4k detectors, extremely precise atmospheric dispersion correction, infrared wavefront sensors, and a very large vacuum cryogenic system.

  16. The role of dynamic infrared imaging in melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Cila

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma incidence and the lifetime risk are increasing at an alarming rate in the United States and worldwide. In order to improve survival rates, the goal is to detect melanoma at an early stage of the disease. Accurate, sensitive and reliable quantitative diagnostic tools can reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies, the associated morbidity as well as the costs of care in addition to improving survival rates. The recently introduced quantitative dynamic infrared imaging system QUAINT measures differences in the infrared emission between healthy tissue and the lesion during the thermal recovery process after the removal of a cooling stress. Results from a clinical study suggest that the temperature of cancerous lesions is higher during the first 45–60 seconds of thermal recovery than the temperature of benign pigmented lesions. This small temperature difference can be measured by modern infrared cameras and serve as an indicator for melanoma in modern quantitative melanoma detectors. PMID:23745131

  17. Imaging performance of near infrared (NIR) channel in infrared camera (IRC) onboard ASTRO-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woojung; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Negishi, Taketoshi; Takeyama, Norihide

    2003-03-01

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of the focal-plane instruments on board ASTRO-F(Japanese Infrared Astronomical satellite to be launched in 2004). IRC will make imaging and spectroscopy observations in the near- and mid-infrared regions. IRC comprises of three channels; NIR, MIR-S and MIR-L, which cover 2-5, 5-12, and 12-26μm, respectively. In this paper we report the optical performance of the NIR imaging mode at cryogenic temperatures with three filters; N2, N3, and N4, which cover the wavelength regions of 2-2.7, 2.7-3.7, and 3.7-5.05μm, respectively. The NIR channel consists of three Si and one Ge lenses with the infrared array (412 x 512 format of InSb) manufactured by Raytheon IRO. At cryogenic temperatures (- 6K) we found slightly larger chromatic focal shifts than designed probably due to the uncertainty in low-temperature refractive indices of the lens materials. We obtained the modulation transfer function for each band by the knife-edge method and estimated the optical performance of the IRC with the telescope at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Ultraviolet/Optical Spectroscopy of ``Warm'' Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrah, D.; Surace, J. A.; Veilleux, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Vacca, W. D.

    2005-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy, obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, of nuclear structures within four ``warm'' ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We find an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in at least three and probably all four in our sample, hosted in a compact, optically luminous ``knot.'' In three cases these knots were previously identified as a putative AGN from multiband optical imaging. Three objects of the sample also harbor a starburst in one or more knots, suggesting that the optically luminous knots seen in local ULIRGs are the most likely sites of the dust-shrouded starburst and AGN activity that power the infrared emission. The four AGNs have a diverse range of properties: two are classical narrow-line AGNs, one shows both broad and narrow lines and evidence for lines of sight from the narrow- to the broad-line regions, and one is plausibly an FeLoBAL AGN. The probable presence in one object of an FeLoBAL AGN, which are extremely rare in the QSO population, supports the idea that LoBAL AGNs may be youthful systems shrouded in gas and dust rather than AGNs viewed along a certain line of sight. The three starbursts for which detailed constraints are possible show a smaller range in properties; all three bursts are young, with two having ages of ~4 Myr and the third having an age of 20 Myr, suggesting that ULIRGs undergo several bursts of star formation during their lifetimes. None of the starbursts show evidence for initial mass function slopes steeper than about 3.3. The metallicities of the knots for which metallicities can be derived are all at least 1.5 Zsolar. The properties of one further starburst knot are consistent with it being the forming core of an elliptical galaxy. Our results suggest that detailed studies of the knots seen in ULIRGs can give important insights into the most violent starburst and AGN activity at both low and high redshift.

  19. Exploring the molecular chemistry and excitation in obscured luminous infrared galaxies. An ALMA mm-wave spectral scan of NGC 4418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Muller, S.; Martín, S.; Aalto, S.; Harada, N.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Spaans, M.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Extragalactic observations allow the study of molecular chemistry and excitation under physical conditions which may differ greatly from those found in the Milky Way. The compact, obscured nuclei (CON) of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRG) combine large molecular columns with intense infrared (IR), ultra-violet (UV), and X- radiation and represent ideal laboratories for the study of the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) under extreme conditions. Aims: Our aim was to obtain for the first time a multi-band spectral scan of a LIRG, and to derive molecular abundances and excitation to be compared to other Galactic and extragalactic environments. Methods: We obtained an ALMA Cycle 0 spectral scan of the dusty LIRG NGC 4418, spanning a total of 70.7 GHz in bands 3, 6, and 7. We use a combined local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (NLTE) fit of the spectrum in order to identify the molecular species and to derive column densities and excitation temperatures. We derive molecular abundances and compare them with other Galactic and extragalactic sources by means of a principal component analysis. Results: We detect 317 emission lines from a total of 45 molecular species, including 15 isotopic substitutions and 6 vibrationally excited variants. Our LTE/NLTE fit find kinetic temperatures from 20 to 350 K, and densities between 105 and 107 cm-3. The spectrum is dominated by vibrationally excited HC3N, HCN, and HNC, with vibrational temperatures from 300 to 450 K. We find that the chemistry of NCG 4418 is characterized by high abundances of HC3N, SiO, H2S, and c-HCCCH but a low CH3OH abundance. A principal component analysis shows that NGC 4418 and Arp 220 share very similar molecular abundances and excitation, which clearly set them apart from other Galactic and extragalactic environments. Conclusions: Our spectral scan confirms that the chemical complexity in the nucleus of NGC 4418 is one of the highest ever observed outside our Galaxy. The similar

  20. Rapid hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, N.; Egl, A.; Engel, M.; Gretz, N.; Haase, K.; Herpich, I.; Neudecker, S.; Pucci, A.; Schönhals, A.; Petrich, W.

    2014-03-01

    Despite the successes of mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging in a research environment, progress in the migration of technology into the day-to-day clinical application is slow. Clinical acceptance may be improved if the spectroscopy would be faster and the infrared microscopes available at lower cost. Here we present first results of a fast, multi-scale mid-infrared microscopy setup which allows for the investigation of 10.6×11.7 mm2 and 2.8×3.1mm2 fields of view with a resolution of 23.0+/-3.5 μm and 9.4+/-1.8 μm, respectively. Tunable quantum cascade lasers in the wavenumber ranges of 1030-1090 cm-1 and 1160-1320 cm-1 serve as light sources. A vapor cell is used as a frequency reference during the rapid scanning. As far as the imaging is concerned, it is the high spectral power density of the quantum cascade laser which enables the use of a microbolometer array while still obtaining reasonable signal-to-noise ratios on each pixel. Hyperspectral images are taken in times which can be as low as 52s for the overall image acquisition including referencing.

  1. Infrared Thermal Imaging System on a Mobile Phone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time. PMID:25942639

  2. Infrared thermal imaging system on a mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time. PMID:25942639

  3. Automated target recognition of humans in infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankman, Daniel; Neighoff, Todd

    2007-04-01

    The ability to automatically detect humans in infrared images has value in military and civilian applications. Robots and unattended ground stations equipped with real-time human ATR capability can operate as scouts, perform reconnaissance for military units, and serve to locate humans in remote or hazardous sites. With the algorithm proposed in this study, human targets can be detected in infrared images based on the structure and radiance of the human head. The algorithm works in a three step process. First, the infrared image is segmented primarily based on edges and secondarily based on intensity of pixels. Once the regions of interest have been determined, the segments undergo feature extraction, in which they are characterized based on circularity and smoothness. The final step of the algorithm uses a k-Nearest Neighbor classifier to match the segment's features to a database, determining whether the segment is a head or not. This algorithm operates best in environments in which contrast between the human and the background is high, such as nighttime or indoors. Tests show that 82% accuracy in identification of human heads is possible for a single still image. After analyzing two uncorrelated frames viewing the same scene, the likelihood of correctly classifying a human head that appears in both frames is 97%.

  4. Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.

  5. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  6. Differential optical imaging in animal models using infrared transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Sanhita; Le, Theresamai; Amin, Khalid; Faris, Gregory W.

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of diffuse optical imaging via transillumination to detect cancerous tissue in a rat animal model. In this imaging modality infrared radiation is transmitted through whole animal tissue. The radiation is nonionizing and uses endogenous contrast: namely deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO). Differential image analysis is performed to visualize the presence of cancerous tissue. Varying levels of inspired air and carbogen gases ensure a differential response in absorption by blood due to changing levels of Hb and HbO. We believe that this response may be sufficient to provide contrast in differential image analysis. The present method also sheds light on physiological challenges in whole animal imaging especially with respect to significant optical signals from healthy tissue. Specifically, we have seen strong signals from abdominal regions in normal rats indicative of diet related anomalous transmission. We have also been able to track the changes in optical signal during animal death.

  7. Active Shape Model-Based Gait Recognition Using Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehee; Lee, Seungwon; Paik, Joonki

    We present a gait recognition system using infra-red (IR) images. Since an IR camera is not affected by the intensity of illumination, it is able to provide constant recognition performance regardless of the amount of illumination. Model-based object tracking algorithms enable robust tracking with partial occlusions or dynamic illumination. However, this algorithm often fails in tracking objects if strong edge exists near the object. Replacement of the input image by an IR image guarantees robust object region extraction because background edges do not affect the IR image. In conclusion, the proposed gait recognition algorithm improves accuracy in object extraction by using IR images and the improvements finally increase the recognition rate of gaits.

  8. Denoising and deblurring of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tan H.; Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew; Popescu, Gabriel; Do, Minh N.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is a powerful tool to obtain chemical information from images of heterogeneous, chemically diverse samples. Significant advances in instrumentation and data processing in the recent past have led to improved instrument design and relatively widespread use of FT-IR imaging, in a variety of systems ranging from biomedical tissue to polymer composites. Various techniques for improving signal to noise ratio (SNR), data collection time and spatial resolution have been proposed previously. In this paper we present an integrated framework that addresses all these factors comprehensively. We utilize the low-rank nature of the data and model the instrument point spread function to denoise data, and then simultaneously deblurr and estimate unknown information from images, using a Bayesian variational approach. We show that more spatial detail and improved image quality can be obtained using the proposed framework. The proposed technique is validated through experiments on a standard USAF target and on prostate tissue specimens.

  9. Infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on fast wavelet image focusing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2009-08-01

    We studied the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the fast wavelet image focusing and tracking. Here we uses the image of the uncooled infrared imager mounted on the two axis gimbal system and the developed new auto focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform. The developed new focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform processes the result of the high pass filter effect to meet the direct detection of the objects. This new focusing gives us the distance information of the outside world smoothly, and the information of the gimbal system gives us the direction of objects in the outside world to match the sense of the spherical coordinate system. We installed this system on the hand made electric ground vehicle platform powered by 24VDC battery. The electric vehicle equips the rotary encoder units and the inertia rate sensor units to make the correct navigation process. The image tracking also uses the developed newt wavelet focusing within several image processing. The size of the hand made electric ground vehicle platform is about 1m long, 0.75m wide, 1m high, and 50kg weight. We tested the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking using the electric vehicle indoor and outdoor. The test shows the good results by the developed infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking.

  10. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  11. Low-cost infrared glass for IR imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Amy G.; LeBlanc, Richard A.; Hilton, Ray A., Sr.

    2003-09-01

    With the advent of the uncooled detectors, the fraction of infrared (IR) imaging system cost due to lens elements has risen to the point where work was needed in the area of cost. Since these IR imaging systems often have tight packaging requirements which drive the optical elements to have complex surfaces, typical IR optical elements are costly to manufacture. The drive of our current optical material research is to lower the cost of the materials as well as the element fabrication for IR imaging systems. A low cost, moldable amorphous material, Amtir-4, has been developed and characterized. Ray Hilton Sr., Amorphous Materials Inc., Richard A. LeBlanc, Amy Graham and Others at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control Orlando (LMMFC-O) and James Johnson, General Electric Global Research Center (GE-GRC), along with others have been doing research for the past three years characterizing and designing IR imaging systems with this material. These IR imaging systems have been conventionally fabricated via diamond turning and techniques required to mold infrared optical elements have been developed with this new material, greatly reducing manufacturing costs. This paper will outline efforts thus far in incorporating this new material into prototype IR imaging systems.

  12. Discovery of the Near-infrared Counterpart to the Luminous Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binary GX 3+1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maureen; Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Linares, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this Ks = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (LX ≈ 1036-1037 erg s-1) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Linares, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K{sub s} = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (L{sub X} ≈ 10{sup 36}-10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux.

  14. Analyzing near-infrared images for utility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamati, Neda; Sadeghipoor, Zahra; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2011-03-01

    Visual cognition is of significant importance in certain imaging applications, such as security and surveillance. In these applications, an important issue is to determine the cognition threshold, which is the maximum distortion level that can be applied to the images while still ensuring that enough information is conveyed to recognize the scene. The cognition task is usually studied with images that represent the scene in the visible part of the spectrum. In this paper, our goal is to evaluate the usefulness of another scene representation. To this end, we study the performance of near-infrared (NIR) images in cognition. Since surface reflections in the NIR part of the spectrum is material dependent, an object made of a specific material is more probable to have uniform response in the NIR images. Consequently, edges in the NIR images are likely to correspond to the physical boundaries of the objects, which are considered to be the most useful information for cognition. This feature of the NIR images leads to the hypothesis that NIR is better than a visible scene representation to be used in cognition tasks. To test this hypothesis, we compared the cognition thresholds of NIR and visible images performing a subjective study on 11 scenes. The images were compressed with different compression factors using JPEG2000 compression. The results of this subjective test show that recognizing 8 out of the 11 scenes is significantly easier based on the NIR images when compared to their visible counterparts.

  15. ANIR: Atacama near infrared camera for Paschen α imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Mitani, Natsuko; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Toshikawa, Koji; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Handa, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Masuo; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyata, Takashi; Soyano, Takao; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2008-07-01

    We have been developing a near infrared camera called ANIR (Atacama Near InfraRed camera), for the University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0m telescope installed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640m altitude) in Northern Chile. The major aim of this camera is to carry out an imaging survey in Paschen α emission line (1.8751μm) from the ground for the first time. The camera is based on a PACE-HAWAII2 array with an Offner relay optics for re-imaging, and field of view is 5.'3 × 5.'3 with pixel scale of 0."308/pix. It is scheduled to see first light in the end of 2008, and start the Paschen α/β survey of the Galactic plane in 2009.

  16. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  17. A visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCord, Thomas (Principal Investigator); Voelker, Mark; Owensby, Pam; Warren, Cris; Mooradian, Greg

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design effort for the construction of a visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions, funded by NASA under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program. The goal was to design and develop a prototype brassboard pushbroom imaging spectrometer covering the 0.35 gm to 2.5 gm spectral region using a simplified optical layout that would minimize the size, mass and parts count of the instrument by using a single holographic grating to disperse and focus light from a single slit onto both the infrared and visible focal plane arrays. Design approaches are presented and analyzed, along with problems encountered and recommended solutions to those problems. In particular, a new type of grating, incorporating two sets of rulings and a filter in a layered structure, is presented for further development.

  18. FISICA: The Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Raines, S. Nicholas; Julian, J.; Gruel, N.; Boreman, Glenn; Hoffmann, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Greg; Myrick, Bruce; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R ˜ 1300 spectra over a 16 × 33″ field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-m telescope, or a 6 × 12″ field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-m telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication, laboratory test results, and on-telescope performance for FISICA.

  19. Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrone, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Progress in nanotechnology is enabled by and dependent on the availability of measurement methods with spatial resolution commensurate with nanomaterials' length scales. Chemical imaging techniques, such as scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) and photothermal-induced resonance (PTIR), have provided scientists with means of extracting rich chemical and structural information with nanoscale resolution. This review presents some basics of infrared spectroscopy and microscopy, followed by detailed descriptions of s-SNOM and PTIR working principles. Nanoscale spectra are compared with far-field macroscale spectra, which are widely used for chemical identification. Selected examples illustrate either technical aspects of the measurements or applications in materials science. Central to this review is the ability to record nanoscale infrared spectra because, although chemical maps enable immediate visualization, the spectra provide information to interpret the images and characterize the sample. The growing breadth of nanomaterials and biological applications suggest rapid growth for this field.

  20. Imaging radiometer overlay model for infrared scene synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Donald E.; Gover, Robert E.

    2003-08-01

    A dynamic model of infrared missile engagements needs to integrate the output of signature models into a scene of given resolution with a changing viewpoint and moving targets against some background. Some signature prediction models are stand-alone software packages which currently cannot be dynamically interfaced to a running engagement model. They can be used to conveniently provide an image of an infrared target at high resolution at a single viewpoint. Using an imaging radiometer model, high-resolution, high-fidelity signatures can be quickly combined into a scene of desired configuration. This paper presents the derivation of such a model from physical and signal processing considerations, and its practical implementation. The derived methodology provides very high radiometric accuracy with a rigorously controlled error and smooth integration of objects moving through the scene.

  1. In-flight flow visualization using infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, J. M.; Manuel, G. S.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Holmes, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    A flight test investigation was conducted to evaluate infrared (IR) flow imaging techniques for boundary-layer flow visualization. The flight tests used a single-engine turboprop aircraft with a fiberglass-skinned natural laminar flow glove mounted on the left wing and an infrared imaging system to obtain flow visualization data. Data were compared to results obtained from other more conventional boundary-layer flow visualization methods and found to agree well. Test flights were conducted to determine the effect of test surface color on IR flow visualization results. In addition, flights were made during both night and daylight hours to assess the effect of solar radiation on the results. The investigation included an effort to visualize a vortex passing over the wing glove, but the tests provided only limited results.

  2. An Imaging Infrared (IIR) seeker using a microprogrammed processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, K. V.

    1980-01-01

    A recently developed Imaging Infrared Seeker uses a microprogrammed processor to perform gimbal servo control and system interface while performing the seeker functions of automatic target detection, acquisition, and tracking. The automatic detection mode requires up to 80% of the available capability of a high performance microprogrammed processor. Although system complexity was increased significantly, this approach can be cost effective when the basic computation capacity is already available.

  3. Infrared Thermal Imaging for Automated Detection of Diabetic Foot Complications

    PubMed Central

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. Methods The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). Results No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. Conclusions With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. PMID:24124937

  4. Ge/Si Integrated Circuit For Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed integrated circuit consists of focal-plane array of metal/germanium Schottky-barrier photodetectors on same chip with silicon-based circuits that processes signals from photodetectors. Made compatible with underlying silicon-based circuitry by growing germanium epitaxially on silicon circuit wafers. Metal deposited in ultrahigh vacuum immediately after growth of germanium. Combination of described techniques results in high-resolution infrared-imaging circuits of superior performance.

  5. Advanced indium antimonide monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Merilainen, C. A.; Thom, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued process development of SiO2 insulators for use in advanced InSb monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays is described. Specific investigations into the use of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 as a gate insulator for InSb charge coupled devices is discussed, as are investigations of other chemical vapor deposited SiO2 materials.

  6. Dual-band infrared remote sensing system with combined long-wave infrared imaging and mid-wave infrared spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng; Yi, Xinjian; Liu, Xiangyan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tianxu

    2013-08-01

    We present a new optical system for infrared (IR) image-spectrum integration remote sensing. The purpose to develop this instrument is to find the key spectral characteristics of typical hot target and to explore a new intelligence fusion method for the recognition. When mounted on a two-dimensional rotation stage, it can track the suspected target by image processing, and then get its spectrum to do recognition. It is a dual-band system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum. An IR dichroic beamsplitter is used to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MWIR. Compared to traditional infrared combined imaging and spectral-analysis instruments, it yields higher sensitivity for measuring the IR spectrum. The sensors for imaging and spectrum detection are separate, so high spatial resolution, frame rate, and spectrum resolution can all be obtained simultaneously. PMID:24007052

  7. Fast Infrared Chemical Imaging with a Quantum Cascade Laser

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging systems are a powerful tool for visualizing molecular microstructure of a sample without the need for dyes or stains. Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging spectrometers, the current established technology, can record broadband spectral data efficiently but requires scanning the entire spectrum with a low throughput source. The advent of high-intensity, broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has now accelerated IR imaging but results in a fundamentally different type of instrument and approach, namely, discrete frequency IR (DF-IR) spectral imaging. While the higher intensity of the source provides a higher signal per channel, the absence of spectral multiplexing also provides new opportunities and challenges. Here, we couple a rapidly tunable QCL with a high performance microscope equipped with a cooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our optical system is conceptualized to provide optimal performance based on recent theory and design rules for high-definition (HD) IR imaging. Multiple QCL units are multiplexed together to provide spectral coverage across the fingerprint region (776.9 to 1904.4 cm–1) in our DF-IR microscope capable of broad spectral coverage, wide-field detection, and diffraction-limited spectral imaging. We demonstrate that the spectral and spatial fidelity of this system is at least as good as the best FT-IR imaging systems. Our configuration provides a speedup for equivalent spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the best spectral quality from a high-performance linear array system that has 10-fold larger pixels. Compared to the fastest available HD FT-IR imaging system, we demonstrate scanning of large tissue microarrays (TMA) in 3-orders of magnitude smaller time per essential spectral frequency. These advances offer new opportunities for high throughput IR chemical imaging, especially for the measurement of cells and tissues. PMID:25474546

  8. Requirements for a Moderate-Resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Kuai, Le; Gontijo, I.; DeLeon, Berta; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Bajpai, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of imaging and sounding from space warrants exploration of new methods for obtaining the required information, including changing the spectral band sets, employing new technologies and merging instruments. In some cases we must consider relaxation of the current capability. In others, we expect higher performance. In general our goal is to meet the VIIRS and CrIS requirements while providing the enhanced next generation capabilities: 1) Hyperspectral Imaging in the Vis/NIR bands, 2) High Spatial Resolution Sounding in the Infrared bands. The former will improve the accuracy of ocean color products, aerosols and water vapor, surface vegetation and geology. The latter will enable the high-impact achieved by the current suite of hyperspectral infrared sounders to be achieved by the next generation high resolution forecast models. We examine the spectral, spatial and radiometric requirements for a next generation system and technologies that can be applied from the available inventory within government and industry. A two-band grating spectrometer instrument called the Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS) is conceived that, when used with the planned NASA PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) will meet the vast majority of CrIS and VIIRS requirements in the all bands and provide the next generation capabilities desired. MIRIS resource requirements are modest and the Technology Readiness Level is high leading to the expectation that the cost and risk of MIRIS will be reasonable.

  9. Requirements for a Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Kuai, Le; Gontijo, I.; DeLeon, Berta; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Bajpai, Shyam

    2013-09-01

    The high cost of imaging and sounding from space warrants exploration of new methods for obtaining the required information, including changing the spectral band sets, employing new technologies and merging instruments. In some cases we must consider relaxation of the current capability. In others, we expect higher performance. In general our goal is to meet the VIIRS and CrIS requirements while providing the enhanced next generation capabilities: 1) Hyperspectral Imaging in the Vis/NIR bands, 2) High Spatial Resolution Sounding in the Infrared bands. The former will improve the accuracy of ocean color products, aerosols and water vapor, surface vegetation and geology. The latter will enable the high-impact achieved by the current suite of hyperspectral infrared sounders to be achieved by the next generation high resolution forecast models. We examine the spectral, spatial and radiometric requirements for a next generation system and technologies that can be applied from the available inventory within government and industry. A two-band grating spectrometer instrument called the Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS) is conceived that, when used with the planned NASA PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) will meet the vast majority of CrIS and VIIRS requirements in the all bands and provide the next generation capabilities desired. MIRIS resource requirements are modest and the Technology Readiness Level is high leading to the expectation that the cost and risk of MIRIS will be reasonable.

  10. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  11. Imaging bacterial peptidoglycan with near-infrared fluorogenic azide probes

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Peyton; Siegrist, M. Sloan; Cullen, Andrew J.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent probes designed for activation by bioorthogonal chemistry have enabled the visualization of biomolecules in living systems. Such activatable probes with near-infrared (NIR) emission would be ideal for in vivo imaging but have proven difficult to engineer. We present the development of NIR fluorogenic azide probes based on the Si-rhodamine scaffold that undergo a fluorescence enhancement of up to 48-fold upon reaction with terminal or strained alkynes. We used the probes for mammalian cell surface imaging and, in conjunction with a new class of cyclooctyne d-amino acids, for visualization of bacterial peptidoglycan without the need to wash away unreacted probe. PMID:24706769

  12. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  13. Learning-based compressed sensing for infrared image super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yao; Sui, Xiubao; Chen, Qian; Wu, Shaochi

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an infrared image super-resolution method based on compressed sensing (CS). First, the reconstruction model under the CS framework is established and a Toeplitz matrix is selected as the sensing matrix. Compared with traditional learning-based methods, the proposed method uses a set of sub-dictionaries instead of two coupled dictionaries to recover high resolution (HR) images. And Toeplitz sensing matrix allows the proposed method time-efficient. Second, all training samples are divided into several feature spaces by using the proposed adaptive k-means classification method, which is more accurate than the standard k-means method. On the basis of this approach, a complex nonlinear mapping from the HR space to low resolution (LR) space can be converted into several compact linear mappings. Finally, the relationships between HR and LR image patches can be obtained by multi-sub-dictionaries and HR infrared images are reconstructed by the input LR images and multi-sub-dictionaries. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quantitatively and qualitatively more effective than other state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Correction of aeroheating-induced intensity nonuniformity in infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Yan, Luxin; Zhao, Hui; Dai, Xiaobing; Zhang, Tianxu

    2016-05-01

    Aeroheating-induced intensity nonuniformity effects severely influence the effective performance of an infrared (IR) imaging system in high-speed flight. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the correction of intensity nonuniformity in IR images. The basic assumption is that the low-frequency intensity bias is additive and smoothly varying so that it can be modeled as a bivariate polynomial and estimated by using an isotropic total variation (TV) model. A half quadratic penalty method is applied to the isotropic form of TV discretization. And an alternating minimization algorithm is adopted for solving the optimization model. The experimental results of simulated and real aerothermal images show that the proposed correction method can effectively improve IR image quality.

  15. Dual-band infrared imaging for concrete bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.

    1994-02-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging methods and unique image-correction algorithms used successfully for underground and obscured object imaging and detection (of buried mines, archaeological structures, geothermal aquifers and airframe defects) are adapted for inspection of concrete highways and bridge decks to provide early warnings of subsurface defects. To this end, we prepared small concrete test slabs with defects (embedded plastic layers). We used selective DBIR (3--5 {mu}m and 8--12 {mu}m) image ratios to depict the defect sites and remove the effects of surface clutter. We distinguish true temperature-difference signals (at surrogate delamination sites) from emissivity noise (at sites with oil stains, sand, gravel, metal parts and roughness differences) towards improved concrete bridge deck inspections.

  16. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Frangioni, John V

    2013-09-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better and less expensively than current standards. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light (700-900 nm) has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes, minimize the time patients are under anaesthesia and lower health-care costs largely by way of its improved contrast and depth of tissue penetration relative to visible light. Accordingly, the past few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this Review, we introduce the concept of NIR fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, examine the clinical trial literature to date and outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization. Although NIR seems to be superior to many traditional imaging techniques, its incorporation into routine care of patients with cancer depends on rigorous clinical trials and validation studies. PMID:23881033

  17. Microwave Imaging with Infrared 2-D Lock-in Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiyo, Noritaka; Arai, Mizuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Maeno, Takashi

    We have developed a 3-D electromagnetic field measurement system using 2-D lock-in amplifier. This system uses an amplitude modulated electromagnetic wave source to heat a resistive screen. A very small change of temperature on a screen illuminated with the modulated electromagnetic wave is measured using an infrared thermograph camera. In this paper, we attempted to apply our system to microwave imaging. By placing conductor patches in front of the resistive screen and illuminating with microwave, the shape of each conductor was clearly observed as the temperature difference image of the screen. In this way, the conductor pattern inside the non-contact type IC card could be visualized. Moreover, we could observe the temperature difference image reflecting the shape of a Konnyaku (a gelatinous food made from devil's-tonge starch) or a dried fishbone, both as non-conducting material resembling human body. These results proved that our method is applicable to microwave see-through imaging.

  18. Uncooled emissive infrared imagers for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Masini, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Raytheon's fourth generation uncooled microbolometer array technology with digital output, High Definition (HD) 1920 × 1200 format and 12 μm cell size enables uncooled thermal infrared (TIR) multispectral imagers with the sensitivity and spatial sampling needed for a variety of Earth observation missions in LEO, GEO and HEO. A powerful combination of small detector cell size, fast optics and high sensitivity achieved without cryogenic cooling leads to instruments that are much smaller than current TIR systems, while still offering the capability to meet challenging measurement requirements for Earth observation missions. To consider how this technology could be implemented for Earth observation missions, we extend our previous studies with visible wavelength CubeSat imagers for environmental observations from LEO and examine whether small thermal infrared imagers based on fourth generation uncooled technology could be made small enough to fit onboard a 3U CubeSat and still meet challenging requirements for legacy missions. We found that moderate spatial resolution (~200 m) high sensitivity cloud and surface temperature observations meeting legacy MODIS/VIIRS requirements could be collected successfully with CubeSat-sized imagers but that multiple imagers are needed to cover the full swath for these missions. Higher spatial resolution land imagers are more challenging to fit into the CubeSat form factor, but it may be possible to do so for systems that require roughly 100 m spatial resolution. Regardless of whether it can fit into a CubeSat or not, uncooled land imagers meeting candidate TIR requirements can be implemented with a much smaller instrument than previous imagers. Even though this technology appears to be very promising, more work is needed to qualify this newly available uncooled infrared technology for use in space. If these new devices prove to be as space worthy as the first generation arrays that Raytheon qualified and built into the THEMIS imager

  19. Applications of the NPOESS Visible/Infrared and Microwave Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. F.; Hawkins, J. D.; Turk, F. J.; Kuciauskas, A.; Richardson, K.; Miller, S.

    2008-12-01

    Satellites from the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) will contain two key imagers responsible for a large number of operational products. These are the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and the Microwave Imager Sounder (MIS). VIIRS will fly on all NPOESS satellites, initial launch expected in 2013, and the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite to be launched in 2010. Three of the four planned NPOESS satellites will carry MIS, starting in 2016. This presentation will discuss each sensor and show prototype products from existing sensors. The VIIRS instrument will contain 22 channels, ranging from the visible to infrared. It will have a swath of 3000 km. Data from all of the VIIRS channels will be produced using scan geometry which allows only slow pixel expansion toward the edge of scan. This feature enables imagery which is as sharp at the edge of scan as near nadir, enabling many more high-resolution zooms per overpass. We will also discuss in some detail the Day/Night Band (DNB), a channel for low-light imaging at night. The DNB will be considerably improved compared to the nighttime visible channel aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites with many more display levels, decreased noise and artifacts, higher spatial resolution, and full integration into the VIIRS radiometer suite. The MIS design is still being completed. However, with a larger number of channels than predecessor sensors, it will have the capability to improve upon the products from the DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS). It will also create products previewed by WindSat, the first spaceborne polarametric microwave imager built by the Naval Research Laboratory and flown aboard the DoD Space Test Program's Coriolis satellite. Products include sea surface temperature, soil moisture, sea surface wind vectors, total precipitable water, and

  20. Simultaneous live-imaging of peroxisomes and the ER in plant cells suggests contiguity but no luminal continuity between the two organelles

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Kiah; Mathur, Neeta; Mathur, Jaideep

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron micrographs of peroxisomes in diverse organisms, including plants, suggest their close association and even luminal connectivity with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). After several decades of debate de novo peroxisome biogenesis from the ER is strongly favored in yeasts and mammals. Unfortunately many of the proteins whose transit through the ER constitutes a major evidence for peroxisome biogenesis from the ER do not exhibit a similar localization in plants. Consequently, at best the ER acts as a membrane source for peroxisome in plants. However, in addition to their de novo biogenesis from the ER an increase in peroxisome numbers also occurs through fission of existing peroxisomes. In recent years live-imaging has been used to visualize peroxisomes and the ER but the precise spatio-temporal relationship between the two organelles has not been well-explored. Here we present our assessment of the peroxisome-ER relationship through imaging of living Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously expressing different color combinations of fluorescent proteins targeted to both organelles. Our observations on double transgenic wild type and a drp3a/apm1 mutant Arabidopsis plants suggest strong correlations between the dynamic behavior of peroxisomes and the neighboring ER. Although peroxisomes and ER are closely aligned there appears to be no luminal continuity between the two. Similarly, differentially colored elongated peroxisomes of a drp3a mutant expressing a photoconvertible peroxisomal matrix protein are unable to fuse and share luminal protein despite considerable intermingling. Substantiation of our observations is suggested through 3D iso-surface rendering of image stacks, which shows closed ended peroxisomes enmeshed among ER tubules possibly through membrane contact sites (MCS). Our observations support the idea that increase in peroxisome numbers in a plant cell occurs mainly through the fission of existing peroxisomes in an ER aided manner

  1. Infrared imaging spectroscopic system based on a PGP spectrograph and a monochrome infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Anabitarte, Francisco; Conde, Olga M.; Madruga, Francisco J.; Lomer, Mauro; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2008-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy has been widely used in remote sensing. However, its potential for applications in industrial and biological fields is enormous. Observation line spectrographs, based on the reflectance of the material under study in each field, can be obtained by means of an imaging spectrometer. In this way, imaging spectroscopy allows the simultaneous determination of the optical spectrum components and the spatial location of an object in a surface. A simple, small and low-cost spectrometer, such as those ones based on passive Prism-Grating-Prism (PGP) devices, is required for the abovementioned application fields. In this paper a non-intrusive and non-contact near infrared acquisition system based on a PGP spectrometer is presented. An extension to the whole near infrared range of the spectrum of a previously designed system in the Vis-NIR range has been performed. The reason under this investigation is to improve material characterization. To our knowledge, no imaging spectroscopic system based on a PGP device working in this range has been previously reported. The components of the system, its assembling, alignment and calibration procedures will be described in detail. This system can be generalized for a wide variety of applications employing a specific and adequate data processing

  2. The (new) Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Smith, Howard A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Marscher, Alan P.; Tokunaga, Alan; Bergknut, Lars; Bonnet, Morgan; Bus, Schelte J.; Connelly, Michael; Rayner, John; Watanabe, Darryl

    2015-11-01

    The Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) was developed at Boston University and has been in use since 2002 on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), making observations of asteroids, planets, and comets in the 2 - 25 μm wavelength range. Recently the instrument has been unavailable due to electronics issues and the high cost of supplying liquid helium on Maunakea. We have begun a project to upgrade MIRSI to a cryocooler-based system with new array readout electronics and a dichroic and optical camera to simultaneously image the science field for image acquisition and optical photometry. The mechanical cryocooler will enable MIRSI to be continuously mounted on the IRTF multiple instrument mount (MIM) along with the other facility instruments, making it available to the entire community for multi-wavelength imaging and spectral observations. We will propose to use the refurbished MIRSI to measure the 10 μm flux from Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and determine their diameters and albedos through the use of a thermal model. We plan to observe up to 750 NEOs over the course of a three year survey, most of whose diameters will be under 300 meters. Here we present an overview of the MIRSI upgrade and give the current status of the project.This work is funded by the NASA Solar System Observations/NEOO program.

  3. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 < LIR < 1012 L[special character omitted]) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; 1012 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, I first spectroscopically examine U/LIRGs (1011 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]) within the IRAS 2 Jansky Redshift Survey with 0.05 < z < 0.16. Using new spectrophotometric data, I classify the primary source of IR radiation as being a nuclear starburst or a type of AGN by using the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 < z < 0.16. I find evidence that the nuclear starburst forms first in U/LIRGs, and also find that U/LIRGs with relatively similar SFRs show

  4. Cooled Dyson long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer by re-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayin; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yang; Li, Chun; Sun, Qiang; Hu, Xinrong

    2016-05-01

    A cooled long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer with an F-number of 2 was designed based on the Dyson configuration. A three-mirror off-axis aspherical optical system that provided excellent slit-shaped images was selected as the fore telescope objective. The re-imaging method was applied to obtain a cold stop efficiency of 100%, and the corrector lens in traditional Dyson imaging spectrometers was replaced with re-imaging lenses to correct spherical aberrations. The designed imaging spectrometer provided a spectral resolution of 25 nm at a range of 8-12 μm and possessed a relatively small volume.

  5. Closing The Fromm Control Loop On The Infrared Thermal Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1988-11-01

    Substituting infrared thermal sensors for conventional thermocouples to measure the temperature of a product, or a point in a process, often provides the industrial user with distinct advantages such as freedom from contact with the product and better speed of response. The major disadvantage has always been higher sensor cost. Now that costs of ir sensors have come down, the non-contact approach is becoming more of a valid alternative, and the instrument or process control engineer often weighs the relative advantages of the two approaches before making a decision. With the advent of "smart" thermal scanning systems, however, it is becoming possible to rapidly measure and control several, many or all points on a product surface remotely and without contact, a capability without precedent, and not feasible with conventional contact sensors. This paper will trace the evolution of infrared noncontact temperature measurement, its development as a process control tool and the introduction of IR line scanners and imagers as industrial control sensors. Several applications of modern closed-loop control systems based on infrared sensors, scanners and imagers will be reviewed. 1. INTRODUCTION Temperature and thermal behavior of materials and fabricated parts in process are most critical factors in the manufacturing process. For this reason temperature is by far the most measured quantity in industrial process monitoring and control. Conventional methods of temperature measurement using thermometers and thermocouples are commonly used for the majority of monitoring and control applications. Non-contact temperature measurement using infrared sensors has become an increasingly desirable alternative over conventional methods as ir sensors have become less expensive, more reliable and electrically interchangeable with conventional thermistors and thermocouples. Now, with the introduction of innovative computer hardware and software, full image thermal control of products and

  6. Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

  7. Visible and infrared image registration based on visual salient features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feihong; Wang, Bingjian; Yi, Xiang; Li, Min; Hao, Jingya; Qin, Hanlin; Zhou, Huixin

    2015-09-01

    In order to improve the precision of visible and infrared (VIS/IR) image registration, an image registration method based on visual salient (VS) features is presented. First, a VS feature detector based on the modified visual attention model is presented to extract VS points. Because the iterative, within-feature competition method used in visual attention models is time consuming, an alternative fast visual salient (FVS) feature detector is proposed to make VS features more efficient. Then, a descriptor-rearranging (DR) strategy is adopted to describe feature points. This strategy combines information of both IR image and its negative image to overcome the contrast reverse problem between VIS and IR images, making it easier to find the corresponding points on VIS/IR images. Experiments show that both VS and FVS detectors have higher repeatability scores than scale invariant feature transform in the cases of blurring, brightness change, JPEG compression, noise, and viewpoint, except big scale change. The combination of VS detector and DR registration strategy can achieve precise image registration, but it is time-consuming. The combination of FVS detector and DR registration strategy can also reach a good registration of VIS/IR images but in a shorter time.

  8. Research on the evaluation method for modelling and simulation of infrared imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shuli; Ren, Jiancun; Liu, Liang; Li, Zhaolong

    2015-10-01

    The validity of infrared image guidance simulation is determined by the fidelity and the accuracy of modelling and simulation of infrared imaging sensor system, and the research on assessment of modelling and simulation of infrared imaging sensor is important to design and assess the IR system. A method is proposed to evaluate simulation of infrared sensor effect based on full reference quality assessment method, the evaluation index system is established to evaluate simulation fidelity of infrared imaging sensor. The accuracy of irradiance and contrast of infrared simulation image can be assessed with one-dimension histogram analysis, and the spatial correlation of image is assessed with two-dimension histogram analysis, and geometrical and gray distribution characteristics are assessed with fidelity function. With the method, modelling and simulation of infrared imaging sensor can be effectively assessed.

  9. Quality Assessment of Mapping Building Textures from Infrared Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegner, L.; Iwaszczuk, D.; Stilla, U.

    2012-07-01

    Generation and texturing of building models is a fast developing field of research. Several techniques have been developed to extract building geometry and textures from multiple images and image sequences. In this paper, these techniques are discussed and extended to automatically add new textures from infrared (IR) image sequences to existing building models. In contrast to existing work, geometry and textures are not generated together from the same dataset but the textures are extracted from the image sequence and matched to an existing geo-referenced 3D building model. The texture generation is divided in two main parts. The first part deals with the estimation and refinement of the exterior camera orientation. Feature points are extracted in the images and used as tie points in the sequence. A recorded exterior orientation of the camera s added to these homologous points and a bundle adjustment is performed starting on image pairs and combining the hole sequence. A given 3d model of the observed building is additionally added to introduce further constraint as ground control points in the bundle adjustment. The second part includes the extraction of textures from the images and the combination of textures from different images of the sequence. Using the reconstructed exterior camera orientation for every image of the sequence, the visible facades are projected into the image and texture is extracted. These textures normally contain only parts of the facade. The partial textures extracted from all images are combined to one facade texture. This texture is stored with a 3D reference to the corresponding facade. This allows searching for features in textures and localising those features in 3D space. It will be shown, that the proposed strategy allows texture extraction and mapping even for big building complexes with restricted viewing possibilities and for images with low optical resolution.

  10. High-Resolution Infrared Imaging of FSC 10214+4724: Evidence for Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Liu, Michael C.

    1995-08-01

    We present near-infrared observations of the ultraluminous high-redshift (z = 2.286) IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 obtained in 0."4 seeing at the W. M. Keck telescope. These observations show that FSC 10214+4724 consists of a highly symmetric circular arc centered on a second weaker source. The arc has an angular extent of about 140 deg and is probably unresolved in the transverse direction. This morphology constitutes compelling prima facie evidence for a gravitationally lensed system. Our images also contain evidence for the faint counterimage predicted by the lens hypothesis. The morphology of FSC 10214+4724 can be explained in terms of a gravitationally lensed background source if the object at the center of curvature of the arc is an L* galaxy at z ~ 0.7. If FSC 10214+4724 is lensed, then there is significant magnification and its luminosity has been overestimated by a large factor. Our results suggest that FSC 10214+4724 is not a uniquely luminous object but ranks among the most powerful quasars and ultraluminous IRAS galaxies.

  11. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  12. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Adam G; Ahn, J.W.; Maingi, Rajesh; Gray, T. K.; Roquemore, L.

    2012-01-01

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 mu m wavelengths and transmits 7-10 mu m wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation.

  13. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    McLean, A G; Ahn, J-W; Maingi, R; Gray, T K; Roquemore, A L

    2012-05-01

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 μm wavelengths and transmits 7-10 μm wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation. PMID:22667624

  14. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, A. G.; Ahn, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; Gray, T. K.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2012-05-01

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 μm wavelengths and transmits 7-10 μm wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation.

  15. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, A. G.; Ahn, J-W.; Maingi, R.; Gray, T. K.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2012-05-15

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 {mu}m wavelengths and transmits 7-10 {mu}m wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation.

  16. Indeterminacy and Image Improvement in Snake Infrared ``Vision''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2006-03-01

    Many snake species have infrared sense organs located on their head that can detect warm-blooded prey even in total darkness. The physical mechanism underlying this sense is that of a pinhole camera. The infrared image is projected onto a sensory `pit membrane' of small size (of order mm^2). To get a neuronal response the energy flux per unit time has to exceed a minimum threshold; furthermore, the source of this energy, the prey, is moving at a finite speed so the pinhole substituting for a lens has to be rather large (˜1 mm). Accordingly the image is totally blurred. We have therefore done two things. First, we have determined the precise optical resolution that a snake can achieve for a given input. Second, in view of known, though still restricted, precision one may ask whether, and how, a snake can reconstruct the original image. The point is that the information needed to reconstruct the original temperature distribution in space is still available. We present an explicit mathematical model [1] allowing even high-quality reconstruction from the low-quality image on the pit membrane and indicate how a neuronal implementation might be realized. Ref: [1] A.B. Sichert, P. Friedel, and J.L. van Hemmen, TU Munich preprint (2005).

  17. Application of DIRI dynamic infrared imaging in reconstructive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Marek; Wang, Chengpu; Jin, Feng; Salvitti, Matthew; Tenorio, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    We have developed the BioScanIR System based on QWIP (Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector). Data collected by this sensor are processed using the DIRI (Dynamic Infrared Imaging) algorithms. The combination of DIRI data processing methods with the unique characteristics of the QWIP sensor permit the creation of a new imaging modality capable of detecting minute changes in temperature at the surface of the tissue and organs associated with blood perfusion due to certain diseases such as cancer, vascular disease and diabetes. The BioScanIR System has been successfully applied in reconstructive surgery to localize donor flap feeding vessels (perforators) during the pre-surgical planning stage. The device is also used in post-surgical monitoring of skin flap perfusion. Since the BioScanIR is mobile; it can be moved to the bedside for such monitoring. In comparison to other modalities, the BioScanIR can localize perforators in a single, 20 seconds scan with definitive results available in minutes. The algorithms used include (FFT) Fast Fourier Transformation, motion artifact correction, spectral analysis and thermal image scaling. The BioScanIR is completely non-invasive and non-toxic, requires no exogenous contrast agents and is free of ionizing radiation. In addition to reconstructive surgery applications, the BioScanIR has shown promise as a useful functional imaging modality in neurosurgery, drug discovery in pre-clinical animal models, wound healing and peripheral vascular disease management.

  18. Microscopic spectral imaging using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin-.; Wang, Yi; Peng, Chuan; Luo, Guipeng; Le, Han Q.

    2003-07-01

    Infrared micro-spectroscopy is a useful tool for basic research and biomedical applications. Conventional microspectroscopic imaging apparatuses use thermal sources for sample illumination, which have low brightness, low optical spectral intensity, and high noise. This work evaluates the system engineering advantages of using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers that offer orders-of magnitude higher brightness, spectral intensity, and lower noise. A laser-based microscopic spectral imaging system with focal plane array detectors demonstrated a high signal-to-noise ratio (>20 dB) at video frame rate for a large illuminated area. Microscopic spectral imaging with fixed-wavelength and tunable lasers of 4.6, 6, and 9.3-μm wavelength was applied to a number of representative samples that consist of biological tissues (plant and animal) and solid material (a stack of laminated polymers). Transmission spectral images with ~30-dB dynamic range were obtained with clear evidence of spectral features for different samples. The potential of more advanced systems with a wide coverage of spectral bands is discussed.

  19. Infrared Imaging Bolometer for the HL-2A Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinming; Li, Wei; Lu, Jie; Xia, Zhiwei; Yi, Ping; Liu, Yi; Yang, Qingwei; HL-2A Team

    2016-06-01

    An infrared imaging bolometer diagnostic has been upgraded recently to be adapted for the complications of the signal-to-noise ratio arising from the low level of plasma radiation and high reflectivity of low energy photon (<6.2 eV). It utilizes a platinum foil, blackened on both sides with graphite spray, as the bolometer detector. The advantage of the blackened foil is the light absorption extending into the infrared. After a careful calibration of the foil, the incident power density distribution on the foil is determined by solving the heat diffusion equation with a numerical technique. The local plasma radiated power density is reconstructed with a minimum fisher information regularization method by assuming plasma emission toroidal symmetry. Comparisons of the results and the profiles measured by an ordinary bolometric detector demonstrate that this method is good enough to provide the plasma radiated power pattern. The typical plasma radiated power density distribution before and after high mode (H-mode) transition is firstly reconstructed with the infrared imaging bolometer. Moreover, during supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), an enhanced radiation region is observed at the edge of the plasma. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10805016 and 11175061), and the Chinese National Fusion Project for ITER (No. 2014GB109001)

  20. Quantitative computational infrared imaging of buoyant diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newale, Ashish S.

    Studies of infrared radiation from turbulent buoyant diffusion flames impinging on structural elements have applications to the development of fire models. A numerical and experimental study of radiation from buoyant diffusion flames with and without impingement on a flat plate is reported. Quantitative images of the radiation intensity from the flames are acquired using a high speed infrared camera. Large eddy simulations are performed using fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 6). The species concentrations and temperature from the simulations are used in conjunction with a narrow-band radiation model (RADCAL) to solve the radiative transfer equation. The computed infrared radiation intensities rendered in the form of images and compared with the measurements. The measured and computed radiation intensities reveal necking and bulging with a characteristic frequency of 7.1 Hz which is in agreement with previous empirical correlations. The results demonstrate the effects of stagnation point boundary layer on the upstream buoyant shear layer. The coupling between these two shear layers presents a model problem for sub-grid scale modeling necessary for future large eddy simulations.

  1. Calcium imaging of infrared-stimulated activity in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Cayce, Jonathan Matthew; Bouchard, Matthew B; Chernov, Mykyta M; Chen, Brenda R; Grosberg, Lauren E; Jansen, E Duco; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a promising neurostimulation technique that can activate neural tissue with high spatial precision and without the need for exogenous agents. However, little is understood about how infrared light interacts with neural tissue on a cellular level, particularly within the living brain. In this study, we use calcium sensitive dye imaging on macroscopic and microscopic scales to explore the spatiotemporal effects of INS on cortical calcium dynamics. The INS-evoked calcium signal that was observed exhibited a fast and slow component suggesting activation of multiple cellular mechanisms. The slow component of the evoked signal exhibited wave-like properties suggesting network activation, and was verified to originate from astrocytes through pharmacology and 2-photon imaging. We also provide evidence that the fast calcium signal may have been evoked through modulation of glutamate transients. This study demonstrates that pulsed infrared light can induce intracellular calcium modulations in both astrocytes and neurons, providing new insights into the mechanisms of action of INS in the brain. PMID:24674600

  2. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented. PMID:25402784

  3. Towards an Imaging Mid-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, T.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Kostiuk, T.; Villanueva, G.; Roman, P.; Shaw, G. B.; Livengood, T.; Allen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a concept for a compact, low-mass, low-power, mid-infrared (MIR; 5- 12 microns) imaging heterodyne spectrometer that incorporates fiber optic coupling, Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) local oscillator, photomixer array, and Radio Frequency Software Defined Readout (RFSDR) for spectral analysis. Planetary Decadal Surveys have highlighted the need for miniaturized, robust, low-mass, and minimal power remote sensing technologies for flight missions. The drive for miniaturization of remote sensing spectroscopy and radiometry techniques has been a continuing process. The advent of MIR fibers, and MEMS techniques for producing waveguides has proven to be an important recent advancement for miniaturization of infrared spectrometers. In conjunction with well-established photonics techniques, the miniaturization of spectrometers is transitioning from classic free space optical systems to waveguide/fiber-based structures for light transport and producing interference effects. By their very nature, these new devices are compact and lightweight. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) and Quantum Well Infrared Photodiodes (QWIP) arrays for heterodyne applications are also being developed. Bulky electronics is another barrier that precluded the extension of heterodyne systems into imaging applications, and our RFSDR will address this aspect.

  4. Calcium imaging of infrared-stimulated activity in rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    Cayce, Jonathan Matthew; Bouchard, Matthew B.; Chernov, Mykyta M.; Chen, Brenda R.; Grosberg, Lauren E.; Jansen, E. Duco; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Summary Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a promising neurostimulation technique that can activate neural tissue with high spatial precision and without the need for exogenous agents. However, little is understood about how infrared light interacts with neural tissue on a cellular level, particularly within the living brain. In this study, we use calcium sensitive dye imaging on macroscopic and microscopic scales to explore the spatiotemporal effects of INS on cortical calcium dynamics. The INS-evoked calcium signal that was observed exhibited a fast and slow component suggesting activation of multiple cellular mechanisms. The slow component of the evoked signal exhibited wave-like properties suggesting network activation, and was verified to originate from astrocytes through pharmacology and 2-photon imaging. We also provide evidence that the fast calcium signal may have been evoked through modulation of glutamate transients. This study demonstrates that pulsed infrared light can induce intracellular calcium modulations in both astrocytes and neurons, providing new insights into the mechanisms of action of INS in the brain. PMID:24674600

  5. Obstacle detection for helicopter flights by infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yamada, Kimio

    2001-08-01

    Helicopters often strike against obstacles such as a power line. To reduce such collisions, we are developing an obstacle detection and warning system for helicopters. This paper describes the techniques to detect wire-like obstacles by infrared (IR) images. Measurements were conducted to gather IR images and to investigate the sensor performance to detect obstacles in different environments. IR images proved that the use of IR cameras could greatly increase the possibility of detecting obstacles that could never be found by naked eyes. The performance to suppress sunlight noise by the 8-12 mm IR camera was also demonstrated. However, the target-to-background contrast of the original IR images was not enough as the advisory by which a pilot maneuvers his helicopter. There were cases that even IR cameras failed to detect obstacles in adverse weather and background conditions. Image processing techniques were then proposed to enhance the contrast of IR images and to improve the coverage in adverse conditions. An experimental millimeter wave (MMW) radar is now being developed to improve the detection performance and to add distance information on the enhanced images. The configuration of the MMW radar and the results of preliminary measurements by the radar were presented.

  6. Research and experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ling; Min, Chaobo; Sun, Jianning; Gu, Yan; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Bo; Pan, Jingsheng; Guo, Yiliang

    2015-04-01

    The design and imaging characteristic experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are introduced. Through the adoption of InGaAs focal plane array, the real time image process structure of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is researched. The hardware circuit and image process software of the imaging system based on FPGA are researched. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is composed of shortwave infrared lens, InGaAs focal plane array, temperature controller module, power supply module, analog-to-digital converter module, digital-to-analog converter module, FPGA image processing module and optical-mechanical structure. The main lock frequency of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is 30MHz. The output mode of the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is PAL analog signal. The power dissipation of the imaging system is 2.6W. The real time signal process in InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system includes non-uniformly correction algorithm, bad pixel replacement algorithm, and histogram equalization algorithm. Based on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system, the imaging characteristic test of shortwave infrared is carried out for different targets in different conditions. In the foggy weather, the haze and fog penetration are tested. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system could be used for observing humans, boats, architecture, and mountains in the haze and foggy weather. The configuration and performance of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are respectively logical and steady. The research on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is worthwhile for improving the development of night vision technology.

  7. Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue with Synchrotron Infrared Light

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) and imaging (FTIRI) have become valuable techniques for examining the chemical makeup of biological materials by probing their vibrational motions on a microscopic scale. Synchrotron infrared (S-IR) light is an ideal source for FTIRM and FTIRI due to the combination of its high brightness (i.e., flux density), also called brilliance, and broadband nature. Through a 10-{mu}m pinhole, the brightness of a synchrotron source is 100-1000 times higher than a conventional thermal (globar) source. Accordingly, the improvement in spatial resolution and in spectral quality to the diffraction limit has led to a plethora of applications that is just being realized. In this review, we describe the development of synchrotron-based FTIRM, illustrate its advantages in many applications to biological systems, and propose some potential future directions for the technique.

  8. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  9. Infrared Jitter Imaging Data Reduction: Algorithms and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillard, Nicolas

    Jitter imaging (also known as microscanning) is probably one of the most efficient ways to perform astronomical observations in the infrared. It requires very efficient filtering and recentering methods to produce the best possible output from raw data. This paper discusses issues attached to Poisson offset generation, efficient infrared sky filtering, offset recovery between planes through cross-correlation and/or point pattern recognition techniques, plane shifting with subpixel resolution through various kernel-based interpolation schemes, and 3D filtering for plane accumulation. Several algorithms are described for each step, having in mind an automatic data processing in pipeline mode (i.e., without user interaction) as intended for the Very Large Telescope. Implementation of these algorithms in optimized ANSI C (the eclipse library) is also described here.

  10. Mid- and long-waveband infrared imaging system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Cui; Liu, Long; Begum, Feroza; Cao, Guan-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Hui; Yang, Yi; Zou, Nian-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A dual-waveband infrared re-imaging system has been designed with less lens number and short system length. The properties of re-imaging system to correct chromatic aberration have been researched. The main parameters of this system include F number, focal length, diameter, dual waveband, and imaging plane size are 2,000 mm, 200 mm, 3-5 μm /8-12 μm, and 9.3 mm × 12.4 mm, respectively. After design the average modulation value of all fields of view is 0.60 at 10lp/mm, and the difference between limited diffractive system and actual system is less than 0.3. The ray aberration has been corrected at the center wavelength 5 μm. The focal length varies with wavelength around 400 mm, and gets 400 mm exactly at 4 μm and 10 μm.

  11. Infrared-thermography imaging system multiapplications for manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Sharon A.

    1990-03-01

    Imaging systems technology has been utilized traditionally for diagnosing structural envelope or insulation problems in the general thermographic comunity. Industrially, new applications for utilizing thermal imaging technology have been developed i n pred i cti ve/preventi ye mai ntenance and prod uct moni tori ng prociures at Eastman Kodak Company, the largest photographic manufacturering producer in the world. In the manufacturing processes used at Eastman Kodak Company, new applications for thermal imaging include: (1) Fluid transfer line insulation (2) Web coating drying uniformity (3) Web slitter knives (4) Heating/cooling coils (5) Overheated tail bearings, and (6) Electrical phase imbalance. The substantial cost benefits gained from these applications of infrared thermography substantiate the practicality of this approach and indicate the desirability of researching further appl i cati ons.

  12. Salient man-made structure detection in infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-jie; Zhou, Fu-gen; Jin, Ting

    2013-09-01

    Target detection, segmentation and recognition is a hot research topic in the field of image processing and pattern recognition nowadays, among which salient area or object detection is one of core technologies of precision guided weapon. Many theories have been raised in this paper; we detect salient objects in a series of input infrared images by using the classical feature integration theory and Itti's visual attention system. In order to find the salient object in an image accurately, we present a new method to solve the edge blur problem by calculating and using the edge mask. We also greatly improve the computing speed by improving the center-surround differences method. Unlike the traditional algorithm, we calculate the center-surround differences through rows and columns separately. Experimental results show that our method is effective in detecting salient object accurately and rapidly.

  13. Research of infrared laser based pavement imaging and crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hanyu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jing, Genqiang

    2013-08-01

    Road crack detection is seriously affected by many factors in actual applications, such as some shadows, road signs, oil stains, high frequency noise and so on. Due to these factors, the current crack detection methods can not distinguish the cracks in complex scenes. In order to solve this problem, a novel method based on infrared laser pavement imaging is proposed. Firstly, single sensor laser pavement imaging system is adopted to obtain pavement images, high power laser line projector is well used to resist various shadows. Secondly, the crack extraction algorithm which has merged multiple features intelligently is proposed to extract crack information. In this step, the non-negative feature and contrast feature are used to extract the basic crack information, and circular projection based on linearity feature is applied to enhance the crack area and eliminate noise. A series of experiments have been performed to test the proposed method, which shows that the proposed automatic extraction method is effective and advanced.

  14. CHANDRA AND SPITZER IMAGING OF THE INFRARED CLUSTER IN NGC 2071

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Guedel, Manuel; Audard, Marc; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Meyer, Michael R.; Damineli, Augusto

    2009-08-10

    We present results of a sensitive Chandra X-ray observation and Spitzer mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations of the IR cluster lying north of the NGC 2071 reflection nebula in the Orion B molecular cloud. We focus on the dense cluster core known as NGC 2071-IR, which contains at least nine IR sources within a 40'' x 40'' region. This region shows clear signs of active star formation including powerful molecular outflows, Herbig-Haro objects, and both OH and H{sub 2}O masers. We use Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images to aid in X-ray source identification and to determine young stellar object (YSO) classes using mid-IR colors. Spitzer IRAC colors show that the luminous source IRS 1 is a class I protostar. IRS 1 is believed to be driving a powerful bipolar molecular outflow and may be an embedded B-type star or its progenitor. Its X-ray spectrum reveals a fluorescent Fe emission line at 6.4 keV, arising in cold material near the protostar. The line is present even in the absence of large flares, raising questions about the nature of the ionizing mechanism responsible for producing the 6.4 keV fluorescent line. Chandra also detects X-ray sources at or near the positions of IRS 2, IRS 3, IRS 4, and IRS 6 and a variable X-ray source coincident with the radio source VLA 1, located just 2'' north of IRS 1. No IR data are yet available to determine a YSO classification for VLA 1, but its high X-ray absorption shows that it is even more deeply embedded than IRS 1, suggesting that it could be an even younger, less-evolved protostar.

  15. Exoplanet Community Report on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Direct infrared imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets will allow for detailed characterization of the atmospheric constituents of more than 200 nearby Earth-like planets, more than is possible with any other method under consideration. A flagship mission based on larger passively cooled infrared telescopes and formation flying technologies would have the highest angular resolution of any concept under consideration. The 2008 Exoplanet Forum committee on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets recommends: (1) a vigorous technology program including component development, integrated testbeds, and end-to-end modeling in the areas of formation flying and mid-infrared nulling; (2) a probe-scale mission based on a passively cooled structurally connected interferometer to be started within the next two to five years, for exoplanetary system characterization that is not accessible from the ground, and which would provide transformative science and lay the engineering groundwork for the flagship mission with formation flying elements. Such a mission would enable a complete exozodiacal dust survey (<1 solar system zodi) in the habitable zone of all nearby stars. This information will allow for a more efficient strategy of spectral characterization of Earth-sized planets for the flagship missions, and also will allow for optimization of the search strategy of an astrometric mission if such a mission were delayed due to cost or technology reasons. (3) Both the flagship and probe missions should be pursued with international partners if possible. Fruitful collaboration with international partners on mission concepts and relevant technology should be continued. (4) Research and Analysis (R&A) should be supported for the development of preliminary science and mission designs. Ongoing efforts to characterize the the typical level of exozodiacal light around Sun-like stars with ground-based nulling technology should be continued.

  16. Uncooled infrared monolithic imaging sensor using pyroelectric polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutures, Jean-Louis; Lemaitre, Regine; Pourquier, E.; Boucharlat, Gilles C.; Tribolet, Philippe

    1995-09-01

    P(VF2-TrFE) pyroelectric copolymer is chosen for its high level of compatibility with existing microelectronics processes, and convenient electrical properties for infrared (IR) 8 to 14 micrometer imagery in the performance range of NETD 0.1 K to 1 K. Low cost sensors, achievable thanks to the monolithic silicon wafer processing, standard package assembly, and uncooled operations, allow us to address a lot of low-end applications in which conventional IR imaging techniques -- high priced hybrid mercury cadmium telluride or indium antimonide arrays, liquid nitrogen cooling and sophisticated image processing -- are nowadays incompatible with large volume user's needs and market prices. The paper describes pyroelectric device trade-offs, architecture, and process. Based on the interline architecture, the sensor performances of the TH 7441A 128 by 128 area array infrared detector are presented: compatible with 1 inch optics, the square array is made of an 80 by 80 micrometer squared pixel, on a pixel pitch of 85 micrometer. The CCD multiplexer using patented on-site processing is designed to deliver the image information at the maximum rate of 50 image/s. Lower rates are achievable. Imaging performances are the following: a NETD of 1.7 K is achieved with an integration time of 10 ms and the use of a f/1 optics presenting a transmission of 0.8. Recent improvements in the properties of the pyroelectric sandwich include thermal insulation of the pyroelectric layer through mixed air-polyimide material and pixel side to side insulation. Thanks to on-wafer pixel reticulation, an increased modulation transfer function of 51% at Nyquist frequency is achieved.

  17. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas–Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography. PMID:24587692

  18. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

  19. New solutions and technologies for uncooled infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Joël.; Diaz, Frédéric; Fontaine, Christophe; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Lee, Mane-Si Laure; Clienti, Christophe; Lemonnier, Fabrice; Zhang, Xianghua; Calvez, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    The military uncooled infrared market is driven by the continued cost reduction of the focal plane arrays whilst maintaining high standards of sensitivity and steering towards smaller pixel sizes. As a consequence, new optical solutions are called for. Two approaches can come into play: the bottom up option consists in allocating improvements to each contributor and the top down process rather relies on an overall optimization of the complete image channel. The University of Rennes I with Thales Angénieux alongside has been working over the past decade through French MOD funding's, on low cost alternatives of infrared materials based upon chalcogenide glasses. A special care has been laid on the enhancement of their mechanical properties and their ability to be moulded according to complex shapes. New manufacturing means developments capable of better yields for the raw materials will be addressed, too. Beyond the mere lenses budget cuts, a wave front coding process can ease a global optimization. This technic gives a way of relaxing optical constraints or upgrading thermal device performances through an increase of the focus depths and desensitization against temperature drifts: it combines image processing and the use of smart optical components. Thales achievements in such topics will be enlightened and the trade-off between image quality correction levels and low consumption/ real time processing, as might be required in hand-free night vision devices, will be emphasized. It is worth mentioning that both approaches are deeply leaning on each other.

  20. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  1. Jovian auroral ovals inferred from infrared H3(+) images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Sang, J.; Stuewe, J. A.; Caldwell, John; Herbst, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed analyses have been carried out of infrared H3(+) images of Jupiter's polar regions observed with the ProtoCam camera on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on March 3-6, 1992. The images were obtained at 3.5 microns, where H3(+) emission is strong and the jovian disk is dark. By carefully examining the H3(+) emission over the limb of the polar regions, we find that the H3(+) emission extended significantly above Jupiter's limb in the north polar region and to a lesser degree in the south polar region. This could be due to either a highly extended thermosphere or a broad energy spectrum of precipitating particles in the auroral regions. After we applied a new technique to the H3(+) images to remove limb brightening, we found auroral ovals in both polar regions. The northern oval appears to be close to the L = 30 footprint in the magnetospheric spot locations derived from previous analyses. One intrinsically bright area is found in the northern oval approximately at 150 deg longitude (System III) and 70 deg latitude, where the oval is also wider than elsewhere. The intensity of the bright area varies with a time scale as short as 50 min. The southern oval seems to occur at latitudes higer by a few degrees than the L = 30 footprint, although L = 30 is within the uncertainty of latitude determination. One or two localized intensity maxima are found in the southern oval between 0 deg and 70 deg longitude.

  2. CAMAC interface for digitally recording infrared camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, G. R.

    1986-06-01

    An instrument has been built to store the digital signals from a modified imaging infrared scanner directly in a digital memory. This procedure avoids the signal-to-noise degradation and dynamic range limitations associated with successive analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions and the analog recording method normally used to store data from the scanner. This technique also allows digital data processing methods to be applied directly to recorded data and permits processing and image reconstruction to be done using either a mainframe or a microcomputer. If a suitable computer and CAMAC-based data collection system are already available, digital storage of up to 12 scanner images can be implemented for less than 1750 in materials cost. Each image is stored as a frame of 60×80 eight-bit pixels, with an acquisition rate of one frame every 16.7 ms. The number of frames stored is limited only by the available memory. Initially, data processing for this equipment was done on a VAX 11-780, but images may also be displayed on the screen of a microcomputer. Software for setting the displayed gray scale, generating contour plots and false-color displays, and subtracting one image from another (e.g., background suppression) has been developed for IBM-compatible personal computers.

  3. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements. PMID:25036214

  4. Near-infrared imaging spectroscopy for counterfeit drug detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Leitner, Raimund

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a significant issue in the healthcare community as well as for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. The use of counterfeit medicines can result in treatment failure or even death. A rapid screening technique such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could aid in the search for and identification of counterfeit drugs. This work presents a comparison of two laboratory NIR imaging systems and the chemometric analysis of the acquired spectroscopic image data. The first imaging system utilizes a NIR liquid crystal tuneable filter and is designed for the investigation of stationary objects. The second imaging system utilizes a NIR imaging spectrograph and is designed for the fast analysis of moving objects on a conveyor belt. Several drugs in form of tablets and capsules were analyzed. Spectral unmixing techniques were applied to the mixed reflectance spectra to identify constituent parts of the investigated drugs. The results show that NIR spectroscopic imaging can be used for contact-less detection and identification of a variety of counterfeit drugs.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150 μg/mL ICG and 60 g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150 μg/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time.

  6. A short wave infrared hyperspectral imager for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Ivanco, Tyler; Anger, Cliff

    2005-06-01

    DRDC Suffield and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging for landmine detection since 1988. There has been considerable success detecting surface-laid landmines by classification of their visible/near infrared (VNIR - 400 to 1000 nm wavelength) spectral signatures, but it has not been possible to find VNIR spectral characteristics that would generically distinguish anthropogenic objects from natural features such as rocks, vegetation, soil, etc. Preliminary studies in 1998 suggested that it might be possible to develop such a generic classifier in the short wave infrared (SWIR) and that detection performance might improve. Because of a lack of available SWIR hyperspectral imagers with adequate performance for mine detection, a prototype pushbroom SWIR hyperspectral imager was developed and completed in summer 2002. The now commercially available instrument, sasi, has 160 bands over a spectral range of 850 to 2450 nm, signal to noise ratio of 400:1 with f/1.8 fore-optics, and 600 pixels over a 37.7° field of view. A number of mission flights have been carried out and excellent imagery obtained. In October 2003, Itres and DRDC Suffield personnel obtained field SWIR hyperspectral imagery in the DRDC Suffield Mine Pen of numerous surface-laid mines, one buried mine, other surface-laid human-made items, background materials and people from a horizontally scanning personnel-lift at an altitude of roughly 5 m. Preliminary indications are that a simple generic classification decision boundary should be able to distinguish surface-laid landmines from many human-made artifacts and natural materials. The buried mine was not detected, but the mine had been buried for several years and hence there would be no residual surface disturbance. Furthermore, the small sample size and limited observation time make it difficult to generalize about SWIR performance for buried mines. The instrument is described and the preliminary

  7. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  8. Study and design of modularized real-time processor for infrared thermal image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian; Bai, Lianfa; Fang, Ming

    2001-09-01

    The new-type infrared thermal imaging technology should be a combination of infrared detecting and real-time processing. The intelligence ,modularity, miniature and real-time are the developmental subjects in infrared image processing In this paper, on the basis of the researching in the architecture feature of nowadays digital image processing system, the development. ideas and technology approaches of infrared image real-time processing are described .The new types of structure and technique of infrared thermal image real-time processing--adaptive time-space sequence flow network construction and feature weighting adaptive real-time processing method are presented firstly. According to the infrared image characteristics, the histogram of infrared image and the correlation inside frame or interframe are analyzed in detail, and some image enhancement methods are taken. These thermal image processing theory and algorithm are realized by hardware circuit. In PCB design, additional circuit noise and digital pulse interference are discussed deeply. On the basis of many experiments, the PCB design regulations with anti-interference are established. Finally, the Modularized Infrared Image Real-time Processor is finished with noise suppression and image enhancement. The design and circuit construction of the modularized infrared image real-time processor are given.

  9. An infrared imaging study of galaxies in the local universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Albert D.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Mcleod, Kim K.

    1995-01-01

    This poster was a preliminary report on a survey of galaxies in the local universe at J and K using a NICMOS3 256 x 256 infrared photometric camera attached to the 61 inch telescope on Mt. Bigelow. Deep images are being obtained for a representative sample of galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue. Structural and color parameters are determined for a wide variety of galactic types. These data should prove to be valuable in characterizing stellar populations within disks and bulges, determining if IR-active galaxies have unusual global as well as- nuclear properties, and understanding the effects of evolution and redshift dimming in distant galaxies.

  10. Material characterization using a hyperspectral infrared imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aimonetti, W D; Bixler, J V; Roberts, R S

    1998-10-30

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has found application in many areas including chemometrics, biomedical and biochemical studies, and atmospheric chemistry. This paper describes an investigation into the application of the LLNL Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) to the non-destructive evaluation of man-made and natural materials. We begin by describing the HIRIS system and the objects studied in the investigation. Next, we describe the technique used to collect the hyperspec- tral imagery, and discuss the processing required to transform the data into usable form. We then describe a technique to analyze the data, and provide some preliminary results.

  11. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  12. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging Without Harmful Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the detection of transmitted radiation, the spatial organization and composition of materials in the body can be ascertained. In this paper, we describe an original apparatus that teaches these concepts by utilizing near infrared radiation and an up-converting phosphorescent screen to safely probe the contents of an opaque enclosure.

  13. Note: Wearable near-infrared spectroscopy imager for haired region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Atsumori, H.; Fukasaku, I.; Kumagai, Y.; Funane, T.; Maki, A.; Kasai, Y.; Ninomiya, A.

    2012-05-01

    A wearable optical topography system was developed that is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for observing brain activity noninvasively including in regions covered by hair. An avalanche photo diode, high voltage dc-dc converter, and preamplifier were placed in an electrically shielded case to be safely mounted on the head. Rubber teeth and a glass rod were prepared to clear away hair and reach the scalp. These devices realized for the first time a wearable NIRS imager for any region of the cortex. The activity in the motor cortex during finger tapping was successfully observed.

  14. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  15. Infrared imaging - A validation technique for computational fluid dynamics codes used in STOVL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, R. R.; Mahan, J. R.; Smith, M. H.; Gelhausen, P. A.; Van Dalsem, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    The need for a validation technique for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes in STOVL applications has led to research efforts to apply infrared thermal imaging techniques to visualize gaseous flow fields. Specifically, a heated, free-jet test facility was constructed. The gaseous flow field of the jet exhaust was characterized using an infrared imaging technique in the 2 to 5.6 micron wavelength band as well as conventional pitot tube and thermocouple methods. These infrared images are compared to computer-generated images using the equations of radiative exchange based on the temperature distribution in the jet exhaust measured with the thermocouple traverses. Temperature and velocity measurement techniques, infrared imaging, and the computer model of the infrared imaging technique are presented and discussed. From the study, it is concluded that infrared imaging techniques coupled with the radiative exchange equations applied to CFD models are a valid method to qualitatively verify CFD codes used in STOVL applications.

  16. Probabilistic neural networks for infrared imaging target discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayouette, Patrice; Labonte, G.; Morin, A.

    2003-09-01

    The next generation of infrared imaging trackers and seekers will allow for the implementation of more smarter tracking algorithms, able to keep a positive lock on a targeted aircraft in the presence of countermeasures. Pattern recognition algorithms will be able to select targets based on features extracted from all possible targets images. Artificial neural networks provide an important class of such algorithms. In particular, probabilistic neural networks perform almost as optimal Bayesian classifiers, by approximating the probability density functions of the features of the objects. Furthermore, these neural networks generate an output that indicates the confidence it has in its answer. We have evaluated the the possibility of integrating such neural networks in an infrared imaging seeker emulator, devised by the Defense Research and Development establishment at Valcartier. We describe the characteristics extracted from the images and define translation invariant features from these. We give a basis for the selection of which features to use as input for the neural network. We build the network and test it on some real data. Results are shown, which indicate a remarkable efficiency of over 98% correct recognition. For most of the images on which the neural network makes its mistakes, even a human expert would probably have been mistaken. We build a reduced version of this network, with 82% fewer neurons, and only a 0.6% less precision. Such a neural network could well be used in a real time system because its computing time on a normal PC gives a rate of over 5,300 patterns per second.

  17. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-01-21

    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins. PMID:26535413

  18. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  19. Predicted NETD performance of a polarized infrared imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Bradley; Hodgkin, Van A.; Thompson, Roger; Leonard, Kevin; Krapels, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Polarization filters are commonly used as a means of increasing the contrast of a scene thereby increasing sensor range performance. The change in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is a function of the polarization of the target and background, the type and orientation of the polarization filter(s), and the overall transparency of the filter. However, in the mid-wave and longwave infrared bands (MWIR and LWIR), the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), which directly affects the SNR, is a function of the filter's re-emission and its reflected temperature radiance. This paper presents a model, by means of a Stokes vector input, that can be incorporated into the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) in order to predict the change in SNR, NETD, and noise equivalent irradiance (NEI) for infrared polarimeter imaging systems. The model is then used to conduct a SNR trade study, using a modeled Stokes vector input, for a notional system looking at a reference target. Future laboratory and field measurements conducted at Night Vision Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) will be used to update, validate, and mature the model of conventional infrared systems equipped with polarization filters.

  20. The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Griffith, Roger; Yan, Lin; Stern, Daniel; Stanford, Adam; Blain, Andrew; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Donoso, Emilio; Lake, Sean

    2012-08-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous. The objects are prominent in W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2 (W12drops). Followup spectroscopy shows that most of the sources have redshifts z>2. In combination with Herschel photometry, these redshifts lead to typical L_bol > 10^13 L_⊙, with ~10% exceeding 10^14 L_⊙. High resolution adaptive optics imaging shows these objects are typically unlensed. We request NOAO time to obtain redshifts and optical and near IR photometry of the complete all-sky sample of the brightest W12drops, all of which are in our Herschel program. This will fulfill the primary WISE objective of finding the most extreme luminous IR galaxies in the Universe. These superlative objects will be the most fruitful for detailed studies of the physics of star formation, AGN fueling, and feedback in the most active galaxies.

  1. An infrared image based methodology for breast lesions screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, K. C. C.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Reisemberger, G. G.; Freitas, F. N. P.; Oliari, S. H.; Brioschi, M. L.; Louveira, M. H.; Spautz, C.; Dias, F. G.; Gasperin, P.; Budel, V. M.; Cordeiro, R. A. G.; Schittini, A. P. P.; Neto, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of utilizing a structured methodology for breast lesions screening, based on infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges, and of breast cancer patients, previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. An analysis of the systematic error of the infrared camera skin temperature measurements was conducted in several different regions of the body, by direct comparison to high precision thermistor temperature measurements, showing that infrared camera temperatures are consistently around 2 °C above the thermistor temperatures. Therefore, a method of conjugated gradients is proposed to eliminate the infrared camera direct temperature measurement imprecision, by calculating the temperature difference between two points to cancel out the error. The method takes into account the human body approximate bilateral symmetry, and compares measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ bar) between two symmetric regions of the patient's breast, that takes into account the breast region, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures, and doing so, the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and non subjective. The range of normal whole breast average dimensionless temperature differences for 101 healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the breasts temperatures exhibit a unimodal normal distribution, the healthy normal range for each region was considered to be the dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements, Δ θ bar ‾ + 2σ Δ θ bar ‾ , in order to represent 95% of the population. Forty-seven patients with previously diagnosed breast cancer through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting breast abnormalities in 45 cases (96%). Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective

  2. Polarization enhancement of contrast in infrared ship/background imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A. W.; Lentz, W. J.; Walker, P. L.; Chan, P. M.

    1995-02-01

    During the MAPTIP (Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance) experiment series in Dutch coastal waters in October 1993 shore-based polarized infrared images were recorded of air (fixed wing and helicopter) and sea targets in sea and air backgrounds, including a number of vertically and horizontally polarized image pairs of the Dutch oceanographic research vessel Hr Ms Tydeman. Complete characterization of the environmental conditions in the measurement area will be available through other MAPTIP participants. These images show no significant polarization features in ship images (less than 5%) or in sky background, but a considerable degree of vertical ('p') polarization in the sea background radiance at low emission (near grazing) angles, which is ascribed to surface emission polarization. This phenomenon for all observed times of day and sun positions, and more strongly in the LWIR than in the MWIR. A horizontal polarization filter provided 10 to 20% ship-to-sea contrast improvement due to suppression of sea background, and enhances horizon sea/sky contrast by up to 15%. These results are consistent with our previous measurements of polarization in the sun glint channel.

  3. Detail enhancement of blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyuan; Zeng, Deguo; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Ziyang; Wei, Fei; Wang, Tiedan

    2016-05-01

    A novel algorithm for enhancing the details of the blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation has been raised in this paper. Unlike other researchers' work, this algorithm mainly focuses on how to predict the higher frequency information based on the Laplacian pyramid separation of the blurred image. This algorithm uses the first level of the high frequency component of the pyramid of the blurred image to reverse-generate a higher, non-existing frequency component, and adds back to the histogram equalized input blurred image. A simple nonlinear operator is used to analyze the extracted first level high frequency component of the pyramid. Two critical parameters are participated in the calculation known as the clipping parameter C and the scaling parameter S. The detailed analysis of how these two parameters work during the procedure is figure demonstrated in this paper. The blurred image will become clear, and the detail will be enhanced due to the added higher frequency information. This algorithm has the advantages of computational simplicity and great performance, and it can definitely be deployed in the real-time industrial applications. We have done lots of experiments and gave illustrations of the algorithm's performance in this paper to convince its effectiveness.

  4. In vivo imaging with near-infrared fluorescence lifetime contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence imaging is a mainstay of biomedical research, allowing detection of molecular events in both fixed and living cells, tissues and whole animals. Such high resolution fluorescence imaging is hampered by unwanted signal from intrinsic background fluorescence and scattered light. The signal to background ratio can be improved by using extrinsic contrast agents and greatly enhanced by multispectral imaging methods. Unfortunately, these methods are insufficient for deep tissue imaging where high contrast and speedy acquisition are necessary. Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is an inherent characteristic of each fluorescent species that can be independent of intensity and spectral properties. Accordingly, FLT-based detection provides an additional contrast mechanism to optical measurements. This contrast is particularly important in the near-infrared (NIR) due to relative transparency of tissue as well as the broad absorption and emission spectra of dyes that are active in this region. Here we report comparative analysis of signal distribution of several NIR fluorescent polymethine dyes in living mice and their correlations with lifetimes obtained in vitro using solution models. The FLT data obtained from dyes dissolved in serum albumin solution correlated well with FLTs measured in vivo. Thus the albumin solution model could be used as a good predictive model for in vivo FLT behavior of newly developed fluorescent reporters. Subsequent experiments in vivo, including monitoring slow release kinetics and detecting proteinuria, demonstrate the complementary nature of FLT for fluorescence intensity imaging.

  5. Dynamic full-field infrared imaging with multiple synchrotron beams

    PubMed Central

    Stavitski, Eli; Smith, Randy J.; Bourassa, Megan W.; Acerbo, Alvin S.; Carr, G. L.; Miller, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Microspectroscopic imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region allows for the examination of spatially resolved chemical composition on the microscale. More than a decade ago, it was demonstrated that diffraction limited spatial resolution can be achieved when an apertured, single pixel IR microscope is coupled to the high brightness of a synchrotron light source. Nowadays, many IR microscopes are equipped with multi-pixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors, which dramatically improve data acquisition times for imaging large areas. Recently, progress been made toward efficiently coupling synchrotron IR beamlines to multi-pixel detectors, but they utilize expensive and highly customized optical schemes. Here we demonstrate the development and application of a simple optical configuration that can be implemented on most existing synchrotron IR beamlines in order to achieve full-field IR imaging with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Specifically, the synchrotron radiation fan is extracted from the bending magnet and split into four beams that are combined on the sample, allowing it to fill a large section of the FPA. With this optical configuration, we are able to oversample an image by more than a factor of two, even at the shortest wavelengths, making image restoration through deconvolution algorithms possible. High chemical sensitivity, rapid acquisition times, and superior signal-to-noise characteristics of the instrument are demonstrated. The unique characteristics of this setup enabled the real time study of heterogeneous chemical dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution for the first time. PMID:23458231

  6. Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Israel; Goren, Alon; Rave, Eran; Katzir, Abraham; Gopal, Veena; Revezin, Gregory; Harrington, James A.

    2004-06-01

    Trans-endoscopic Infrared Imaging (IRI) relates the possibility to conduct IRI diagnosis of internal body surfaces under minimal invasiveness. It may also be utilized to control and to optimize the thermal interactions and the potential side effects during Minimally Invasive Surgeries (MIS). However, transferring the thermal images transendoscopically requires the usage of IR imaging bundles, which are neither yet mature nor commercially available. In our setup we have used two basic types of recently-developed imaging bundles: Ag/AgI-coated Hollow Glass Waveguide (HGW) bundles and Silver Halide (AgClBr) core-clad fiber bundles. The optical setup system was consisted of IR optics (e.g. ZnSe lenses, reflective objectives) and a thermal IR camera. We have succeeded to image objects through the bundles, such as various shapes of electrically heated wires, ex-vivo biological phantoms (samples of porcine stomach) and in-vivo phantom models (mice) irradiated by CO2 laser. Measurements were conducted for both - static and dynamic object states.

  7. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie

    2008-11-01

    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  8. Infrared thermal imaging for detection of peripheral vascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiappan, S.; Saravanan, T.; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Karunanithi, R.; Panicker, T. M. R.; Korath, M. Paul; Jagadeesan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Body temperature is a very useful parameter for diagnosing diseases. There is a definite correlation between body temperature and diseases. We have used Infrared Thermography to study noninvasive diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases. Temperature gradients are observed in the affected regions of patients with vascular disorders, which indicate abnormal blood flow in the affected region. Thermal imaging results are well correlated with the clinical findings. Certain areas on the affected limbs show increased temperature profiles, probably due to inflammation and underlying venous flow changes. In general the temperature contrast in the affected regions is about 0.7 to 1° C above the normal regions, due to sluggish blood circulation. The results suggest that the thermal imaging technique is an effective technique for detecting small temperature changes in the human body due to vascular disorders. PMID:20126565

  9. Thermal infrared spectral imager for airborne science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Realmuto, Vincent; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-05-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is underdevelopment which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of emissivity for various known standard minerals (quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  10. SAFIRE: Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Moseley, Harvey; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Pajot, Francois; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Stacey, Gorden; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 microns-655microns, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  11. Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SAFIRE on SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 100 micrometers - 655 micrometers, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up barometer array in a 16 x 32 format to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge barometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  12. Biomedical imaging of colorectal cancer by near infrared fluorescent nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tivony, Ran; Larush, Liraz; Sela-Tavor, Osnat; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we describe the preparation of novel Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles for application in medical imaging of colorectal tumors. The nanoparticles are prepared by using only non-covalent binding processes of molecules which are approved for clinical use. The preparation process is based on the precipitation of a polycation, Eudragit-RS, followed by sequential adsorption of a blocking protein, sodium caseinate, NIR fluorescent dye, Indocyanine Green (ICG) and optionally, a targeting molecule, anti-CEA antibody. Fluorescence measurements have shown that these nanoparticles have higher resistance to photobleaching and higher quantum yield relatively to free ICG. Imaging experiments in orthotopic colorectal cancer mice models have shown that these fluorescent nanoparticles are capable of binding to LS174T human colon tumors in vivo with high specificity, even without the targeting molecule. These nanoparticles, composed of all FDA approved materials, open the way to clinical bioimaging and diagnostics of colon cancer. PMID:24749398

  13. Assessment of piano-related injuries using infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Safaa; Frize, Monique; Comeau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Playing the piano is a repetitive task that involves the use of the hands and the arms. Pain related to piano-playing can result in extending the tissues and ligaments of the hands and arms beyond their mechanical tolerance. Infrared imaging records the skin temperature and produces a thermal map of the imaged body part; small variations in the skin temperature could be a sign of inflammation or stress of the tissues. In this paper, we used statistical analysis to examine the difference in hand and arm temperatures of pianists with pain and pianists without pain related to piano-playing. We found that there is a statistically significant difference in hand temperatures between the two populations, but not in the lower arm and upper arm temperatures. PMID:22255437

  14. Correlative infrared nanospectroscopic and nanomechanical imaging of block copolymer microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Intermolecular interactions and nanoscale phase separation govern the properties of many molecular soft-matter systems. Here, we combine infrared vibrational scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) with force–distance spectroscopy for simultaneous characterization of both nanoscale optical and nanomechanical molecular properties through hybrid imaging. The resulting multichannel images and correlative analysis of chemical composition, spectral IR line shape, modulus, adhesion, deformation, and dissipation acquired for a thin film of a nanophase separated block copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) reveal complex structural variations, in particular at domain interfaces, not resolved in any individual signal channel alone. These variations suggest that regions of multicomponent chemical composition, such as the interfacial mixing regions between microdomains, are correlated with high spatial heterogeneity in nanoscale material properties. PMID:27335750

  15. Correlative infrared nanospectroscopic and nanomechanical imaging of block copolymer microdomains.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Benjamin; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions and nanoscale phase separation govern the properties of many molecular soft-matter systems. Here, we combine infrared vibrational scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) with force-distance spectroscopy for simultaneous characterization of both nanoscale optical and nanomechanical molecular properties through hybrid imaging. The resulting multichannel images and correlative analysis of chemical composition, spectral IR line shape, modulus, adhesion, deformation, and dissipation acquired for a thin film of a nanophase separated block copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) reveal complex structural variations, in particular at domain interfaces, not resolved in any individual signal channel alone. These variations suggest that regions of multicomponent chemical composition, such as the interfacial mixing regions between microdomains, are correlated with high spatial heterogeneity in nanoscale material properties. PMID:27335750

  16. Early detection of plant disease using infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    By using imaging techniques, plant physiological parameters can be assessed without contact with the plant and in a non-destructive way. During plant-pathogen infection, the physiological state of the infected tissue is altered, such as changes in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, accumulation of Salicylic acid (SA) and even cell death. In this study, the different temperature distribution between the leaves infected by tobacco mosaic virus strain-TMV-U1 and the noninfected leaves was visualized by digital infrared thermal imaging with the microscopic observations of the different structure within different species tomatoes. Results show a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature about 0.5-1.3 °C lower than the healthy leaves. The temperature difference allowed the discrimination between the infected and healthy leaves before the appearance of visible necrosis on leaves.

  17. Infrared imaging of a solid phase surfactant monolayer.

    PubMed

    Conover, T A; Saylor, J R

    2006-08-01

    A new method for visualizing solid phase surfactant monolayers is presented. This method utilizes infrared (IR) imaging of the surface of a warm subphase covered by the monolayer. When the subphase is deep, natural convection occurs, resulting in a complex surface temperature field that is easily visualized using an IR camera. The presence of a surfactant monolayer changes the hydrodynamic boundary condition at the interface, dramatically altering the surface temperature field, and permitting the differentiation of surfactant-covered and surfactant-free regions. In this work, solid phase monolayers are imaged using this IR method. Fractures in the monolayer are dramatically visualized because of the sudden elimination of surfactant in the region opened up by the crack. The method is demonstrated in a wind/water tunnel, where a stearic acid monolayer is deposited and a crack is created through shear on the surfactant surface, created by suddenly increasing the velocity of the air over the water. PMID:16863234

  18. Antimony-based superlattices for high-performance infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Fleissner, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2008-04-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) for the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) have been optimized in order to increase the spectral response of the imaging systems. The responsivity in monospectral InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices increases with the number of periods in the intrinsic region of the diode and does not show a diffusion limited behavior for detector structures with up to 1000 periods. This allows the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity. Dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels have been realized.

  19. Remote Fourier transform-infrared spectral imaging system with hollow-optical fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhui; Kino, Saiko; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2012-10-10

    A spectral imaging system consisting of a Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer, a high-speed infrared camera, and a bundle of hollow-optical fibers transmitting infrared radiation images was constructed. Infrared transmission spectra were obtained by carefully processing multiple interferograms taken by high-speed photography. Infrared spectral images of a variety of samples captured by the system were measured. We successfully detected existence maps of the oil and fat of biological samples by mapping the transmission of specific wavelengths in the spectrum. PMID:23052066

  20. Novel concepts in infrared imaging at nanoscale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Within the recent years, various novel optical concepts have been invented to improve the diffraction-limited resolution of optical microscopy. The first approach of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) employed a small, subwavelength-sized aperture that is scanned close to the object of interest, capable of a resolution of about 50 nm. More advanced concepts rely on the light scattering of a sharp tip probing the sample, allowing for higher resolution (10-30 nm) and the use of longer wavelengths. Another exciting new imaging device, a planar slab of a material with negative permittivity called a superlens, allows for subwavelength resolved imaging over large areas. I will focus on the latter two systems that operate with infrared light and offer the capability of chemical sensing by directly probing molecular vibrations. Particularly, I will present the latest results on superlensing that became accessible by phase-sensitive infrared near-field microscopy and thus provide new insight into the imaging process of a such a device [1]. I will also explain the basics of scattering-type near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) and present various examples of unambiguous nanoscale material characterization from various areas such as semiconductor analysis, materials science, chemistry, and biology [2-4]. In these examples, the use of infrared spectroscopy allows to sense molecular vibrations as well as collective excitation of lattice vibrations (``phonons'') in polar crystals [5]. Currently, the main limitation of this technique comprises of the low signals that demand tunable laser sources and restrict the spectral range of operation. Consequently, I will introduce new concepts for increasing the sensitivity of infrared near-field spectroscopy to ultimately allow for a broadband operation. [4pt] [1] T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, R. Hillenbrand, Science 313, 1595 (2006). [0pt] [2] T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, Applied Physics Letters

  1. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of

  2. Cell imaging by transient fluorescence detected infrared microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Tsutomu; Sakai, Makoto; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto; Fujii, Masaaki

    2008-02-01

    Transient fluorescence detected infrared (TFD-IR) microscopy was developed to overcome the diffraction limit of infrared (IR) light without a near-field system. This microscopic technique is based on TFD-IR spectroscopy, which converts information on IR absorption to fluorescence intensity by further electronic excitation of vibrationally excited molecules by a probing UV/visible light. Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and living A549 cells with fluorescent dyes were chosen as samples. In the measurements using the TFD-IR microscope, tunable IR picosecond laser pulses were used in the wavelength range from 2700 to 3700 nm, corresponding to CH, NH, and OH stretching modes. Fluorescence images of the root cells of A. thaliana by the TFD-IR scheme were obtained with super-resolution compared with the resolution of conventional IR microscopy. The resolution is estimated to be less than 2.6 μm by fitting of a gaussian function. However, the TFD-IR images were dominated mainly by the fluorescent dyes because they were almost the same as a conventional fluorescence image. To investigate other contributions hidden by that of fluorescent dyes, we plotted the fluorescence intensity in several 5 μm squares at various IR wavelengths, called a TFD-IR spectrum. For root cells of A. thaliana, the TFD-IR spectra show shapes similar to those of a conventional IR absorption spectrum of the fluorescent dye. Therefore, the TFD-IR images are not due to the cellular components. For an A549 cell, the TFD-IR spectra were different from a conventional IR absorption spectrum of fluorescent dyes in the wavelength region shorter than 3100 nm. We speculate that the spectral difference is due to the cellular components, possibly assigned to the combination band related to amino groups of cellular components bonded covalently to the fluorescent dyes.

  3. Automatic solar panel recognition and defect detection using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Munson, Eric; Abousleman, Glen P.; Si, Jennie

    2015-05-01

    Failure-free operation of solar panels is of fundamental importance for modern commercial solar power plants. To achieve higher power generation efficiency and longer panel life, a simple and reliable panel evaluation method is required. By using thermal infrared imaging, anomalies can be detected without having to incorporate expensive electrical detection circuitry. In this paper, we propose a solar panel defect detection system, which automates the inspection process and mitigates the need for manual panel inspection in a large solar farm. Infrared video sequences of each array of solar panels are first collected by an infrared camera mounted to a moving cart, which is driven from array to array in a solar farm. The image processing algorithm segments the solar panels from the background in real time, with only the height of the array (specified as the number of rows of panels in the array) being given as prior information to aid in the segmentation process. In order to "count" the number the panels within any given array, frame-to frame panel association is established using optical flow. Local anomalies in a single panel such as hotspots and cracks will be immediately detected and labeled as soon as the panel is recognized in the field of view. After the data from an entire array is collected, hot panels are detected using DBSCAN clustering. On real-world test data containing over 12,000 solar panels, over 98% of all panels are recognized and correctly counted, with 92% of all types of defects being identified by the system.

  4. Infrared imaging based hyperventilation monitoring through respiration rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna

    2016-07-01

    A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography based approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration rates. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath rate. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact based methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image based approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.

  5. FISICA: the Florida imager slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Gregory; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and on-sky performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. Finally, we present performance results from observations with FISICA at the KPNO 4-m telescope and comparisons of FISICA performance to other available IFUs on 4-m to 8-m-class telescopes.

  6. FISICA: the Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul E.; Hull-Allen, C. Gregory; Hoffman, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. We also discuss plans for first-light observations on the KPNO 4-meter telescope in July 2004.

  7. Raman and Infrared Microspectral Imaging of Mitotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    MATTHÄUS, CHRISTIAN; BOYDSTON-WHITE, SUSIE; MILJKOVIĆ, MILOŠ; ROMEO, MELISSA; DIEM, MAX

    2009-01-01

    We report the first ever Raman and infrared microspectroscopic images of human cells at different stages of mitosis. These spectroscopic methods monitor the distribution of condensed nuclear chromatin, and other biochemical components, utilizing inherent protein and DNA spectral markers, and, therefore, do not require the use of any stains. In conjunction with previously reported data from the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle, the complete cell division cycle has now been mapped by spectroscopic methods. Although the results reported here do not offer new insights into the distribution of biochemical components during mitosis, the recognition of cell division without the use of stains, and the possibility of doing so on living cells, may be useful for an automatic, spectroscopic determination of the proliferation rates of cells and tissues. Spectral images were constructed by plotting spectral intensities of DNA or protein versus the coordinates from which spectra were recorded. We found that both Raman and infrared intensities depend on the overall chromatin density variation among the individual subphases of mitosis. PMID:16454901

  8. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  9. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  10. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  11. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  12. Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging of Star Cluster Mercer 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Julie May; Clemens, D.; Jameson, K.; Pavel, M.; Pinnick, A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercer 17 is a recently discovered and as yet unstudied candidate star cluster located in the inner disk of the Milky Way (Mercer et al. 2005 ApJ 635, 560). Follow up studies are necessary to test the validity of proposed star clusters identified by imaging. The majority of well studied star clusters are outer galaxy clusters because of decreased extinction there. Using infrared enables probing into the inner galaxy to larger distances and to younger environments. Determining the basic properties of these newly discovered star cluster candidates, like Mercer 17, provides new insight into their formation. We obtained medium resolution (R=560-780) H- and K-band spectroscopy for eight of the brightest stars using the Mimir near-infrared instrument on the Perkins 1.83m telescope outside Flagstaff, Arizona. In addition to the spectroscopy observations, deep JHK band photometry was obtained for the cluster. Using these imaging and spectroscopic data, we present classified spectra and derived magnitudes of the stars in Mercer 17. Combining color magnitude diagrams and spectroscopy, we estimate basic cluster properties including age, distance, and total mass. Partially funded by an Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) Award as a Clare Boothe Luce Summer Undergraduate Research Fellow and NSF grants AST 06-07500 and AST 09-07790

  13. Buildings Research using Infrared Imaging Radiometers with Laboratory Thermal Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Brent; Arasteh, Dariush

    1999-01-12

    Infrared thermal imagers are used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study heat transfer through components of building thermal envelopes. Two thermal chambers maintain steady-state heat flow through test specimens under environmental conditions for winter heating design. Infrared thermography is used to map surface temperatures on the specimens' warm side. Features of the quantitative thermography process include use of external reference emitters, complex background corrections, and spatial location markers. Typical uncertainties in the data are {+-} 0.5 C and 3 mm. Temperature controlled and directly measured external reference emitters are used to correct data from each thermal image. Complex background corrections use arrays of values for background thermal radiation in calculating temperatures of self-viewing surfaces. Temperature results are used to validate computer programs that predict heat flow including Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) conduction simulations and conjugate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results are also used to study natural convection surface heat transfer. Example data show the distribution of temperatures down the center line of an insulated window.

  14. The research on the effect of atmospheric transmittance for the measuring accuracy of infrared thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Chen, Yi-ming; Fu, Xian-bin; Luo, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    The effect of atmospheric transmittance on infrared thermal imager temperature measuring accuracy cannot be ignored when the object is far from infrared thermal imager. In this paper, a method of reducing the influence of atmospheric transmittance is proposed for the infrared thermal imager. Firstly, the temperature measuring formula of infrared thermal imager and the effect of atmospheric transmittance on temperature measuring accuracy is analyzed. According to the composition of the atmosphere, the main factors influencing the atmosphere transmittance are determined. Secondly, the temperature measuring model of infrared thermal imager in sea level is established according to the absorption of water vapor and carbon dioxide, the scattering of air molecules and aerosol particulate, and the attenuation effects of weather conditions such as rain and snow. Finally, the correctness and feasibility of the proposed model is verified by the comparison experiments of four different environmental conditions. According to the experiments, the temperature measuring accuracy of the infrared thermal imager is improved.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    Background - Near-infrared (NIR) imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, offering better spatial and temporal resolution than competing imaging modalities. While NIR lymphatic imaging has begun to be reported in the literature, the technology is still in its infancy and its imaging capabilities have yet to be quantitatively characterized. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the parameters of NIR lymphatic imaging to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for evaluating lymphatic disease. Methods - An NIR imaging system was developed using a laser diode for excitation, ICG as a fluorescent agent, and a CCD camera to detect emission. A tissue phantom with mock lymphatic vessels of known depths and diameters was used as an alternative to in vivo lymphatic vessels due to the greater degree of control with the phantom. Results and Conclusions - When dissolved in an albumin physiological salt solution (APSS) to mimic interstitial fluid, ICG experiences shifts in the excitation/emission wavelengths such that it is maximally excited at 805nm and produces peak fluorescence at 840nm. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being: 900μM (60g/L) albumin and 193.5μM (150μg/mL) ICG. ICG fluorescence can be detected as deep as 6mm, but spatial resolution deteriorates severely below 3mm, thus skewing vessel geometry measurements. ICG packet travel, a common measure of lymphatic transport, can be detected as deep as 5mm.

  16. InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device: The 20 element linear imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, R. D.; Koch, T. L.; Parrish, W. J.; Langan, J. D.; Chase, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of the 8585 InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device (CCIRID) chip are reported. The InSb material characteristics are described along with mask and process modifications. Test results for the 2- and 20-element CCIRID's are discussed, including gate oxide characteristics, charge transfer efficiency, optical mode of operation, and development of the surface potential diagram.

  17. NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD: SEARCH FOR LUMINOUS GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx}> 6.5 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, Nimish P.; Mobasher, Bahram; Capak, Peter; Wang, Wei-Hao; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2012-09-20

    We present near-infrared (NIR; J and K{sub s}) survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field. The publicly available imaging data were obtained using the MOIRCS instrument on the 8.2 m Subaru and the WIRCam instrument on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These observations fulfill a serious wavelength gap in the GOODS-N data, i.e., lack of deep NIR observations. We combine the Subaru/MOIRCS and CFHT/WIRCam archival data to generate deep J- and K{sub s}-band images, covering the full GOODS-N field ({approx}169 arcmin{sup 2}) to an AB magnitude limit of {approx}25 mag (3{sigma}). We applied z{sub 850}-band dropout color selection criteria, using the NIR data generated here. We have identified two possible Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx}> 6.5 with J {approx}< 24.5. The first candidate is a likely LBG at z {approx_equal} 6.5 based on a weak spectral feature tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} line in the deep Keck/DEIMOS spectrum, while the second candidate is a possible LBG at z {approx_equal} 7 based on its photometric redshift. These z{sub 850}-dropout objects, if confirmed, are among the brightest such candidates found so far. At z {approx}> 6.5, their star formation rate is estimated as 100-200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. If they continue to form stars at this rate, they assemble a stellar mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} after about 400 million years, becoming the progenitors of massive galaxies observed at z {approx_equal} 5. We study the implication of the z{sub 850}-band dropout candidates discovered here, in constraining the bright end of the luminosity function and understanding the nature of high-redshift galaxies.

  18. Fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengshuo; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Feng, Bin

    2016-05-01

    High-quality image restoration in real time is a challenge for infrared imaging systems. We present a fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration. Rather than directly modeling the prior of sharp images to obtain the shrinkage functions, we calibrate them for restoration directly by using the acquirable sharp and blurred image pairs from the same infrared imaging system. The calibration method is employed to minimize the sum of squared errors between sharp images and restored images from the blurred images. Our restoration algorithm is noniterative and its shrinkage functions are stored in the look-up tables, so an architecture solution of pipeline structure can work in real time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by testing its quantitative performance from simulation experiments and its qualitative performance from a developed wavefront coding infrared imaging system.

  19. Thermal oscillations in rat kidneys: an infrared imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Wang, Hengliang; Elster, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution infrared (IR) camera was used to assess rhythmicity in localized renal blood flow, including the extent of regions containing nephrons with spontaneous oscillations in their individual blood flow. The IR imaging was able to follow changes in rat renal perfusion during baseline conditions, during occlusion of the main renal artery and during the administration of either saline or papaverine. Concurrent recordings were made of tubular pressure in superficial nephrons. Spontaneous vascular oscillations centred around 0.02–0.05 Hz and approximately 0.01 Hz could be detected reproducibly by IR imaging. Their spectral characteristics and their response to papaverine were in line with tubular pressure measurements. The intensity of and synchrony between thermal signals from different local areas of the kidney may allow, after surgical exposure, non-invasive imaging of functional clusters involved in renal cortical blood flow. Through visualization of the spatial extent of thermal oscillations, IR imaging holds promise in assessing kidney autoregulatory mechanisms. PMID:18650199

  20. DIAGNOcam--a Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT) technology.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, clinical manifestation of carious lesions is changing: instead of dentists being confronted with wide-open cavities, more and more hidden caries are seen. For a long time, the focus of the research community was on finding a method for the detection of carious lesions without the need for radiographs. The research on Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination (DIFOTI) has been an active domain. The scope of the present article is to describe a novel technology for caries diagnostics based on Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT), and to give first examples of its clinical indications. In addition, the coupling of NIDIT with a head-mounted retinal image display (RID) to improve clinical workflow is presented. The novel NIDIT technology was shown to be useful as a diagnostic tool in several indications, including mainly the detection of proximal caries and, less importantly, for occlusal caries, fissures, and secondary decay around amalgam and composite restorations. The coupling of this technology with a head-mounted retinal image system allows for its very efficient implementation into daily practice. PMID:25625132

  1. High Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Lymph Node Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, L. Suzanne; Wrobel, Tomasz P.; Mayerich, David; Bindra, Snehal; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field in which molecular information within samples can be used to predict biological function and recognize disease without the use of stains or manual identification. In Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, molecular absorption contrast provides a large signal relative to noise. Due to the long mid-IR wavelengths and sub-optimal instrument design, however, pixel sizes have historically been much larger than cells. This limits both the accuracy of the technique in identifying small regions, as well as the ability to visualize single cells. Here we obtain data with micron-sized sampling using a tabletop FT-IR instrument, and demonstrate that the high-definition (HD) data lead to accurate identification of multiple cells in lymph nodes that was not previously possible. Highly accurate recognition of eight distinct classes - naïve and memory B cells, T cells, erythrocytes, connective tissue, fibrovascular network, smooth muscle, and light and dark zone activated B cells was achieved in healthy, reactive, and malignant lymph node biopsies using a random forest classifier. The results demonstrate that cells currently identifiable only through immunohistochemical stains and cumbersome manual recognition of optical microscopy images can now be distinguished to a similar level through a single IR spectroscopic image from a lymph node biopsy. PMID:26039216

  2. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  3. Micropolarizing device for long wavelength infrared polarization imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Carter, Tony Ray; Samora, Sally; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Alford, Charles Fred; Boye, Robert R.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-11-01

    The goal of this project is to fabricate a four-state pixelated subwavelength optical device that enables mid-wave infrared (MWIR) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) snapshot polarimetric imaging. The polarization information can help to classify imaged materials and identify objects of interest for numerous remote sensing and military applications. While traditional, sequential polarimetric imaging produces scenes with polarization information through a series of assembled images, snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the spatial distribution of all four Stokes parameters simultaneously. In this way any noise due to scene movement from one frame to the next is eliminated. We fabricated several arrays of subwavelength components for MWIR polarization imaging applications. Each pixel unit of the array consists of four elements. These elements are micropolarizers with three or four different polarizing axis orientations. The fourth element sometimes has a micro birefringent waveplate on the top of one of the micropolarizers. The linear micropolarizers were fabricated by patterning nano-scale metallic grids on a transparent substrate. A large area birefringent waveplate was fabricated by deeply etching a subwavelength structure into a dielectric substrate. The principle of making linear micropolarizers for long wavelengths is based upon strong anisotropic absorption of light in the nano-metallic grid structures. The nano-metallic grid structures are patterned with different orientations; therefore, the micropolarizers have different polarization axes. The birefringent waveplate is a deeply etched dielectric one-dimensional subwavelength grating; therefore two orthogonally polarized waves have different phase delays. Finally, in this project, we investigated the near field and diffractive effects of the subwavelength element apertures upon detection. The fabricated pixelated polarizers had a measured extinction ratios larger than 100:1 for pixel sizes in the order of 15

  4. Subaru adaptive-optics high-spatial-resolution infrared K- and L'-band imaging search for deeply buried dual AGNs in merging galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuriko

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 μm) and L'-band (3.8 μm) high-spatial-resolution (<0.''2) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics system on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K – L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (∼14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large-aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally show higher mass accretion rates when normalized to SMBH mass. Our results suggest that non-synchronous mass accretion onto SMBHs in gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies hampers the observational detection of kiloparsec-scale multiple active SMBHs. This could explain the significantly smaller detection fraction of kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs when compared with the number expected from simple theoretical predictions. Our results also indicate that mass accretion onto SMBHs is dominated by local conditions, rather than by global galaxy properties, reinforcing the importance of observations to our understanding of how multiple SMBHs are activated and acquire mass in gas- and dust-rich merging galaxies.

  5. Quantitative Characterization of Super-Resolution Infrared Imaging Based on Time-Varying Focal Plane Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.

    2014-10-01

    High resolution infrared image has been the goal of an infrared imaging system. In this paper, a super-resolution infrared imaging method using time-varying coded mask is proposed based on focal plane coding and compressed sensing theory. The basic idea of this method is to set a coded mask on the focal plane of the optical system, and the same scene could be sampled many times repeatedly by using time-varying control coding strategy, the super-resolution image is further reconstructed by sparse optimization algorithm. The results of simulation are quantitatively evaluated by introducing the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), which illustrate that the effect of compressed measurement coefficient r and coded mask resolution m on the reconstructed image quality. Research results show that the proposed method will promote infrared imaging quality effectively, which will be helpful for the practical design of new type of high resolution ! infrared imaging systems.

  6. Two-scale image fusion of visible and infrared images using saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavirisetti, Durga Prasad; Dhuli, Ravindra

    2016-05-01

    Military, navigation and concealed weapon detection need different imaging modalities such as visible and infrared to monitor a targeted scene. These modalities provide complementary information. For better situation awareness, complementary information of these images has to be integrated into a single image. Image fusion is the process of integrating complementary source information into a composite image. In this paper, we propose a new image fusion method based on saliency detection and two-scale image decomposition. This method is beneficial because the visual saliency extraction process introd